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Sample records for agricultural practices affecting

  1. DID THE 2004 CAP REFORM AFFECT PRODUCTION PRACTICES OF CEREALS? INSIGHTS FROM THE AGRICULTURAL INPUT SUPPLIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  2. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among driver

  3. Dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, humic substances and dissolved organic carbon in a temperate river system affected by agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Lauriane; Pernet-Coudrier, Benoît; Waeles, Matthieu; Gabon, Marine; Riso, Ricardo

    2015-12-15

    Although reduced organic sulfur substances (RSS) as well as humic substances (HS) are widely suspected to play a role in, for example, metal speciation or used as a model of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in laboratory studies, reports of their quantification in natural waters are scarce. We have examined the dynamics and sources of reduced sulfur, HS and DOC over an annual cycle in a river system affected by agricultural practices. The new differential pulse cathodic stripping voltammetry was successfully applied to measure glutathione-like compounds (GSHs), thioacetamide-like compounds (TAs) and the liquid chromatography coupled to organic detector to analyze HS and DOC at high frequency in the Penzé River (NW France). The streamflow-concentration patterns, principal components analysis and flux analysis allowed discrimination of the source of each organic compound type. Surprisingly, the two RSS and HS detected in all samples, displayed different behavior. As previously shown, manuring practice is the main source of DOC and HS in this watershed where agricultural activity is predominant. The HS were then transferred to the river systems via runoff, particularly during the spring and autumn floods, which are responsible of >60% of the annual flux. TAs had a clear groundwater source and may be formed underground, whereas GSHs displayed two sources: one aquagenic in spring and summer probably linked to the primary productivity and a second, which may be related to bacterial degradation. High sampling frequency allowed a more accurate assessment of the flux values which were 280 tC y(-1) for DOC representing 20 kg C ha(-1) y(-1). HS, TAs and GSHs fluxes represented 60, 13, and 4% of the total annual DOC export, respectively. PMID:26278374

  4. Institutional Factors Affecting Agricultural Land Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ciaian, Pavel; Kancs, D'Artis; Swinnen, Johan F.M.; Van Herck, Kristine; Vranken, Liesbet

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the main institutional factors affecting the rental and sales markets for agricultural land. Particular attention is paid to the effects of the common agricultural policy on land markets, and more specifically the underlying mechanism through which agricultural subsidies are capitalised into land values and farmland rents. This paper also provides a broad overview of the empirical studies that estimate the impact of agricultural support policies on land rents and land pric...

  5. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Tiraieyari; Azimi Hamzah; Bahaman Abu Samah; Jegak Uli

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about...

  6. Linking good agricultural practices and climate smart agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, A.; Hengsdijk, H.; Bezlepkina, I.; Groenestein, K.; Klooster, van 't, K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) was introduced to position agriculture and food security in relation to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) with the aim to create cleaner and safer production systems and products has been around for a while. Because the goals of CSA and GAP ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is logical to link and integrate CSA goals with Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). This report provides some ins...

  7. Linking good agricultural practices and climate smart agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, A.; Hengsdijk, H.; Bezlepkina, I.; Groenestein, K.; Klooster, van 't K.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) was introduced to position agriculture and food security in relation to climate change adaptation and mitigation. Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) with the aim to create cleaner and safer production systems and products has been around for a

  8. Small agricultural impoundments affect pollutant transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2013-03-01

    Reservoirs created by dams intercept runoff from upslope areas and thus are often sinks for fertilizers and other pollutants that would otherwise flow downstream. Most studies of solute transport through impoundments have focused on large, long-lived systems. However, small impoundments, such as those created for irrigation or livestock watering, are common in agricultural regions, and their total global surface area is comparable to that of large reservoirs. As these small systems mature, the impoundments fill with sediment, creating ecosystems with wetland-like characteristics. Because dams that create these small impoundments are more likely to be degraded, poorly maintained, or removed by their owners, it is important to understand how changes in such systems may affect pollutant transport.

  9. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about Malaysian extension workers’ attitudes towards SAP. Front line extension workers in the DOA were surveyed to identify their attitudes on SAP. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results revealed that extension workers have positive attitudes on SAP concepts. It is recommended to find out to what extent extension workers attitudes has played significant role to transfer information to the farmers.

  10. Good Agricultural Practices of Enicostemma axillare

    OpenAIRE

    Abirami, K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) of Enicostema axillare ( Lam. ) A. Raynal(= Enicostemma littorale   auct. non Blume). Details of the GAP  which includes growing environment, soil type, propagation material, nursery technique, transplanting details, manure application, optimum spacing,  Intercultural operations, harvest and post harvest management are described along with a calendar of operation schedule.  

  11. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2016) Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. Climate change presents real threats to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These ...

  12. [Harmful practices affecting women's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-07-01

    The harmful practices discussed in this article are based on case histories form the Central Maternity in Niamey, yet these practices universally affect women throughout Africa. Nutritional taboos are aimed at certain diseases such as measles, diarrhea, dysentery, malnutrition and anemia and consumption of foods rich in proteins and lipids are forbidden. Children are forbidden from eating eggs; pregnant women are forbidden from eating fruits and vegetables because of the fear of hemorrhaging from the sugar content in the fruit; camel meat is forbidden for fear of extending the pregnancy. Female circumcision, a dangerous practice, especially during childbirth, causes many medical problems that remain permanent. Adolescent pregnancy and marriages are practiced to avoid delinquency among children; yet such practices take place because of arranged marriages for a dowry to young men or to older rich men and these forced marriages to adolescents are the causes of increases in divorce, prostitution and desertion. These young marriages have serious consequences on the health status of the mother and the infant, often leading to maternal and infant death. The high level of fertility in Niger is a response to the social structure of the family. It is a patrilineal system that encourages women to have many children, especially sons. In Niger, pregnancy is surrounded by supernatural and mysterious forces, where a child is the intervention for ancestral spirits. In Islam a child is considered a "Gift of God". A woman is expected to work until the delivery of her baby otherwise she is jeered by her neighbors. During delivery women are not expected to cry or show any pain for fear of dishonoring her family irregardless of any medical compilations she faces. Women in Africa are exploited as free labor, deteriorate and age rapidly, are generally illiterate and are not protected under any laws. PMID:12342832

  13. Good Agricultural Practices of Enicostemma axillare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Abirami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP of Enicostema axillare ( Lam. A. Raynal(= Enicostemma littorale   auct. non Blume. Details of the GAP  which includes growing environment, soil type, propagation material, nursery technique, transplanting details, manure application, optimum spacing,  Intercultural operations, harvest and post harvest management are described along with a calendar of operation schedule.  

  14. Agronomy, sustainability and good agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliman Jean-Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable palm oil production needs to be based on the application of a code of good practices, respecting a certain number of criteria related to economic, environmental and social aspects. We focus here on economic and environmental aspects, attempting to take stock of the current situation regarding the management of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and of oil mill waste (empty fruit bunches, effluent. We also take a look at the main agricultural research required if we are to be able to assess the situation on different scales and see how it is evolving, and also provide assistance for rational management that is compatible with farmers’ production targets.

  15. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel ... mitigation to climate change. These Hubs will deliver science-based knowledge and practical information to farmers, ranchers ...

  16. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 11.3MB, May 2016) Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. Climate change presents real threats ... will be faced with the challenges of adapting. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack gave a speech in June, ...

  17. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Motivation of Agricultural Students at Razi University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nematollah Shiri

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting entrepreneurial motivations of agricultural students at Razi University. Statistical population of this study consisted of all agricultural undergraduate students (senior (N=186, that 164 of them were selected as research sample using proportionate stratified sampling method. The main instrument in this study was questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by the panel of experts and its reliability was established by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Data was analyzed by SPSSWin20 software. Findings revealed that agricultural students at Razi University have the entrepreneurial motivations at moderate to high level. In addition, multiple regression analysis showed that three variables including the attitude toward entrepreneurship, the role model, and the courses of entrepreneurship education can be explaining 35.5 percent of variances of the student's entrepreneurial motivations. Results of this study have applications for planners of higher agricultural education system in order to improving the agricultural student's entrepreneurial motivations.

  18. Codes of Good Agricultural Practices for Crop Production in Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Fotyma; Irena Duer

    1997-01-01

    The economic and social background of Polish agriculture provides the basis for this discussion of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). A primary goal of Polish agricultural policy is securing food self-sufficiency for the nation. Accomplishing this goal will require both an intensification of agricultural production in some areas and a concern for environmental protection. Numerous tables and figures illustrate land utilization, soil composition, farm size, and other features of Polish agricul...

  19. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Progress Report (PDF, 11.3MB, May 2016) Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. Climate change ... by 2050. Preparing for Increased Weather Risks Regional Climate Hubs In an effort to mitigate climate-related ...

  20. Factors Affecting Water Dynamics and Their Assessment in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensification and extension of agriculture have contributed significantly to the global food production in the last five decades. However, intensification without due attention to the ecosystem services and sustainability of soil and water resources contributed to land and water quality degradation such as soil erosion, decreased soil fertility and quality, salinization and nutrient discharge to surface and ground waters. Land use change from forests to crop lands altered the vegetation pattern and hydrology of landscapes with increased nutrient discharge from crop lands to riverine environment. Global climate change will increase the amount of water required for agriculture in addition to water needed for further irrigation development causing water scarcity in many dry, arid and semi-arid regions. The water and nutrient use efficiencies of agricultural production systems are still below 40% in many regions across the globe. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use in agriculture have accelerated the cycling of these nutrients in the landscape and contributed to water quality degradation. Such nutrient pollution has a wide array of consequences including eutrophication of inland waters and marine ecosystems. While intensifying drought conditions, increasing water consumption and environmental pollution in many parts of the world threatens agricultural productivity and livelihood, these also provided opportunities for farmers to use improved land and water management technologies and practices to make agriculture resilient to external shocks

  1. Research and Practice of the Construction Mode of the Practical Training Base for Agriculture and Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying; LIU; Junjie; WANG; Xuebin; LI; Jian; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In response to bottlenecks and dilemmas faced by institutions for agricultural and forestry practical training base construction, and based on Agriculture practical training base of Langfang Polytechnic Institute, this article illustrates the effective exploration and practice of the mode and ways for the construction of the practical training base,which provides some useful experience for the construction of the training base in agricultural and forestry institutions.

  2. Transition to Sustainable Fertilisation in Agriculture, A Practices Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, Suvi; Oosterveer, Peter

    2016-01-01

    It is argued that sustainability transition in agriculture requires a shift from a regime oriented towards increasing agricultural productivity to a regime in which the environmental and social effects of production are regarded as central. Practice theories represent an emerging perspective on a

  3. Cost of areal reduction of gulf hypoxia through agricultural practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    A major share of the area of hypoxic growth in the Northern Gulf of Mexico has been attributed to nutrient run-off from agricultural fields, but no estimate is available for the cost of reducing Gulf hypoxic area using agricultural conservation practices. We apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool ...

  4. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  5. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff

    OpenAIRE

    V. García García; Gómez, R.; Vidal-Abarca, M.R.; Suárez, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of season and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH4+-N), total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N) and chloride (Cl) concen...

  6. Water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed lake: the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley Lake is an oxbow lake located in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain (the Delta), a region of intensive agricultural activity. Due to intensive row-crop agricultural practices, the 915 ha watershed was sediment impaired when monitoring began in 1995 and was a candidate to assess the effect...

  7. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  8. Transformation and sustainability in agriculture : connecting practice with social theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.

    2011-01-01

    Public pressure and societal changes induce interventions and policies, which aim to transform agriculture and food provision. This book shows that for upscaling novel practices and organizational models it is important to include meso-level regime aspects in analysis and practice. The argument pres

  9. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah

    2011-07-01

    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  10. Acceptance of Sustainable Agricultural Practices: The Case of Crop Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. DSilva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Agriculture for numerous years has been a source of income generator that offered wide opportunities for employment and enhancing the socio-economic status of mankind in many countries. Without doubt acceptance of agricultural sustainable practices will bring much benefit to the farming community especially in the long run to overcome the scarcity of resources and continuous income. Aim of this study was to determine contract farming entrepreneurs acceptance of sustainable agricultural practices and the issues involved in their level of acceptance. Approach: This is a qualitative study and the data was collected from a focus group discussion on seven contract farming entrepreneurs in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The researchers played the role as the instrument during the data collection process and an interview guide assisted researchers to obtain objectives of the study. Data obtained from the respondents was recorded and eventually transformed into verbatim transcripts for the process of data analysis. Results: It was identified that contract farming entrepreneurs have a sound knowledge on sustainable agricultural practices and they belief it is vital for mankind. However, their level of acceptance is still not significant as they perceive that they still need much support from the relevant agriculture agencies. Conclusion/Recommendation: It is suggested that all concerned parties should make the necessary sacrifices and put in more effort in ensuring that contract farming entrepreneurs will eventually embrace sustainable agricultural practices that will bring benefit to the present and future generations.

  11. Assessment of the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Implications for Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonge, Adewale Johnson; Martin, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Surveyed farmers (115 of 150) were very positive about the profitability and compatibility of sustainable agriculture, although certain practices elicited negative reactions. They wanted research and development directed toward maximizing profitability and compatibility to facilitate their adoption of these practices. (SK)

  12. Acceptance of Sustainable Agricultural Practices: The Case of Crop Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey L. DSilva; Norsida Man; Hayrol A.M. Shaffril; Bahaman A. Samah

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Agriculture for numerous years has been a source of income generator that offered wide opportunities for employment and enhancing the socio-economic status of mankind in many countries. Without doubt acceptance of agricultural sustainable practices will bring much benefit to the farming community especially in the long run to overcome the scarcity of resources and continuous income. Aim of this study was to determine contract farming entrepreneurs acceptance of sustainable ...

  13. Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members

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    Bagher Arayesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township’s agricultural cooperatives’ members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80. Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township’s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members’ agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and

  14. Agricultural Students’ Perceptions of Farm Practical Year Programme at University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Oloruntoba

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Farm Practical programme addresses the short comings in curricular of agricultural graduates enabling them to acquire knowledge and practical skills needed to become proficient in agriculture. The study contributes in providing insights into perceptions of level 400 agricultural students regarding the Farm Practical Year (FPY programme at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. A total of 261 sample students were selected through stratified sampling procedure from 11 core agricultural departments and administered with pre-tested questionnaire. Results show that the programme provided students with ‘hands-on’ experience and opportunity to apply theory learnt in classroom to a real-life fi eld situation in which students had to adapt and solve problems on daily basis. Students also felt strongly that the farm practical would contribute to their professional career and employability on graduation. However, certain perceived problems were raised by students such as lack of on-campus accommodation, delay in payment of allowances and paucity of resources. It is recommended that greater efforts are needed to mentor students to take active interest in farm practical while human and material resources strengthened to deliver this mandate.

  15. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi

    2015-09-01

    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  16. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    García García, V.; Gómez, R.; Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Suárez, M. L.

    2009-08-01

    Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of season and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO3--N), ammonium-N (NH4+-N), total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N) and chloride (Cl-) concentrations were analyzed to calculate nitrogen retention efficiencies. These wetlands consistently reduced water nitrogen concentration throughout the year with higher values for NO3--N (72.3%), even though the mean values of inflow NO3--N concentrations were above 20 mg l-1. Additionally, they usually acted as sinks for TON-N (45.4%), but as sources for NH4+-N. Over the entire study period, the Taray and Parra wetlands were capable of removing a mean value of 1.6 and 0.8 kg NO3--N a day-1, respectively. Retention efficiencies were not affected by temperature variation and did not follow a seasonal pattern. The temporal variability for NO3--N retention efficiency was positively and negatively explained by the net hydrologic retention and the inflow NO3--N concentration (R2adj=0.832, pstreams may act as a tool to not only improves the surface water quality in agricultural catchments, but to also achieve a good ecological status for surface waters, this being the Water Framework Directive's ultimate purpose.

  17. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities ... Promise Zones StrikeForce for Rural Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and ...

  18. Effects of conservation practices on fishes, amphibians, and reptiles within agricultural streams and wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation practices have been traditionally used to manage soil and water resources to improve agricultural production, and now include methods to reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture on streams and wetlands. These practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watershed...

  19. Identifying Best Practices for Engaging Faculty in International Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa J. Lamm

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Universities are being called upon to internationalize curriculum as the need for a globally competent workforce increases. Without globally-competent faculty, international integration within higher education cannot occur. Literature indicates that participation in short-term international agricultural education experiences is important to increasing agricultural faculty members’ cultural awareness. However, the best way to design and implement such experiences for faculty is uncharted. The purpose of the study was to identify best practices for facilitating a short-term international education experience for faculty in the agricultural and life sciences that encouraged learning, discussion, and reflection leading faculty to further integrate international perspectives in their agricultural courses in the U.S. Through a qualitative research design, reflective observations and statements from a planning team conducting short-term international agricultural education experience in Ecuador were used to provide a thick, rich description of the successes/challenges faced while designing and implementing the experience. The results provided a list of best practices future planning team members can use to emphasize learning before, during, and after a short-term international agricultural education experience for faculty.

  20. ANALYSIS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL VIABILITY OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ADOPTED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Alves de Souto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The agroecology represents a new focus to the study and management of alternative agricultural systems, andhas offered a theoretical framework whose purpose is to analyze the agricultural processes widely, in otherwords, see agriculture from a systemic approach, highlighting the sustainability inherent to the natural cycles andbiological interactions. Alternative practices of agricultural management has been recently adopted by familyfarmers in Lagoa Seca city - PB, aiming to protect the environment from the intense degrading actions of theconventional agriculture, as well as to improve the farmers life quality. This way, this study aims to identify theagroecological practices which have been adopted by the family farmers in different transition stages,highlighting the local experiences which were experienced and its environmental viability to the region,considering the agroecology principles as a steering mechanism and determinant for such analysis. Therefore,this study has been performed through a based questionnaire, observation in loco and the application of a semistructured interview. The obtained data through this research have revealed that the adopted practices byagroecological farmers from Lagoa Seca have provided the soil, water and local biota conservation, ensuring themaintenance in long term of these natural resources to the current and future generations, besides to promote anincrease in the life quality of the farmers and their families.

  1. Middle Management in Agriculture: Roles, Functions, and Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Bitsch, Vera; Yakura, Elaine K.

    2007-01-01

    The role of middle managers in agriculture and agribusiness has been neglected by applied - as well as disciplinary - research, while gaining increasing importance in practice. This study provides an overview of middle management research and analyzes middle managers' authority in human resource decision-making and human resource management practices based on in-depth interviews analyzed through a grounded theory approach. Results show that these middle managers use both traditional and parti...

  2. Identifying critical factors for implementing good agricultural practice

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson Gutiérrez Guzmán; Juan Antonio Serra Belenguer; Gonzalo Clemente Marín

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with identifying the critical factors (CFs) involved in implementing a good agricultural practice (GAP) programme for coffee and fruit farmers in the Huila department of Colombia. An exploratory factor analysis using principal component analy- sis (PCA) factorisation was used. Data matrixes were constructed from the results of applying two defined-structure assessment tools to the populations being studied: Starbucks’ coffee and farmer equity (CAFE) practices for small-scal...

  3. Theme: Trends and Issues Affecting the Future of Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Articles discuss trends and issues in agricultural education, community and technical colleges, career/technical studies, Australian agriculture, agricultural science and technology programs in urban areas, genetic engineering, the impact of changing technologies on agricultural education, volunteers, and performance-based assessment. (JOW)

  4. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Menozzi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA. Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was applied on a sample of durum wheat producers to analyse intentions 1 to maintain 7% of the arable land as an EFA, and 2 to implement the private sustainability scheme. Structural equation modelling was applied to test for the relative importance of intention determinants. The farmers’ attitude and past behaviour positively affect intentions to implement the EFA, while perceived behavioural control and attitudes predict intentions to adopt the private sustainability scheme. These results suggest possible interventions that public authorities and supply chain leaders might implement to stimulate farmers’ sustainable behaviours. 

  5. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  6. Factors Influencing Practical Training Quality in Iranian Agricultural Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarradi, Gholamreza; Karamidehkordi, Esmail

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the factors influencing the practical training quality of agricultural higher education programmes from the senior students' perspective. The study was conducted in two public universities located in the north-west of Iran using a cross-sectional survey and structured interviews with a randomised sample of 254…

  7. Knowledge Gained from Good Agricultural Practices Courses for Iowa Growers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela; Strohbehn, Catherine; Naeve, Linda; Domoto, Paul; Wilson, Lester

    2015-01-01

    Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) educational courses provide produce growers with the fundamental information for producing and processing safe produce. To determine the effectiveness of the current 7-hour GAP course provided in Iowa, growers were surveyed before and 7-14 days after the course to determine changes in knowledge and opinions.…

  8. Deforestation as a result of unsustainable agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Travis, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Deforestation is rampant in this region. The soil is depleted by current farming practices, particularly for cotton and tobacco. This leads to more deforestation as farming plots become useless within just a few years. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  9. Effects of intense agricultural practices on heterotrophic processes in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In developed countries, changes in agriculture practices have greatly accelerated the degradation of the landscape and the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. Such alteration can in turn impair the services provided by aquatic ecosystems, namely the decomposition of organic matter, a key process in most small streams. To study this alteration, we recorded three measures of heterotrophic activity corresponding to microbial hydrolasic activity (FDA hydrolysis) and leaf litter breakdown rates with (kc) and without invertebrates (kf) along a gradient of contrasted agricultural pressures. Hydrolasic activity and kf reflect local/microhabitat conditions (i.e. nutrient concentrations and organic matter content of the sediment) but not land use while kc reflects land-use conditions. kc, which is positively correlated with the biomass of Gammaridae, significantly decreased with increasing agricultural pressure, contrary to the taxonomic richness and biomass of Trichoptera and Plecoptera. Gammaridae may thus be considered a key species for organic matter recycling in agriculture-impacted streams. - This study highlights the consequences of intensive agricultural practices on heterotrophic processes in streams along a strong gradient of perturbation

  10. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Agriculture in the U.S. Climate change presents real threats to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These threats have significant implications not just for farmers, ranchers, ...

  11. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... NUTRITION Child Nutrition Programs Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Food Security National Organic Program SNAP WIC ... People's Garden Promise Zones StrikeForce for Rural Growth EDUCATION AND RESEARCH Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research ...

  12. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... and amplify, producers will be faced with the challenges of adapting. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack gave a ...

  13. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel ... Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA ... Newsline and Features TV Feature Stories Results RSS Feeds Transcripts and ...

  14. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  15. PROBLEMS OF TRANSITION TO IFRS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraskova A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents aspects of the efficiency of the international financial reporting standards (IFRS in the accounting practice of agricultural enterprises by basic organizational components, defines stages of the application of certain IFRS elements in the preparation of reporting of the agricultural sector enterprises. First of all, agricultural enterprises will face problems of the transition to IFRS. This is associated with peculiarities of the agricultural production, which are determined by the natural and social factors and affect the organization of accounting: agricultural production is seasonal, this is why the production cycle doesn’t coincide with the calendar year; the land is the basic means of production, animals and plants act as a specific means of production; timescales of plant ripening and animal breeding determine the obtainment of the end product. Analysis of the difficulties of the agricultural organizations’ transition to IFRS showed different views in the scientific and professional community regarding the valuation of assets and liabilities and biological assets accounting. Choice of experts responsible for the preparation of reporting according to IFRS is an important issue that requires additional expenses for hiring highly qualified specialists or the creation of a special department, which is fully agreeable to international standards. Success of the reporting preparation according to IFRS requires the process optimization with the usage of modern information technologies. Introduction of IFRS to the accounting practices of agricultural enterprises implies changes of the national regulatory framework of accounting, reporting and taxation

  16. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. García García

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetlands affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of season and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO3-N, ammonium-N (NH4+-N, total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N and chloride (Cl concentrations were analyzed to calculate nitrogen retention efficiencies. These wetlands consistently reduced water nitrogen concentration throughout the year with higher values for NO3-N (72.3%, even though the mean values of inflow NO3-N concentrations were above 20 mg l−1. Additionally, they usually acted as sinks for TON-N (45.4%, but as sources for NH4+-N. Over the entire study period, the Taray and Parra wetlands were capable of removing a mean value of 1.6 and 0.8 kg NO3-N a day−1, respectively. Retention efficiencies were not affected by temperature variation and did not follow a seasonal pattern. The temporal variability for NO3-N retention efficiency was positively and negatively explained by the net hydrologic retention and the inflow NO3-N concentration (R2adj=0.832, p<0.001, respectively. TON-N retention efficiency was only positively explained by the net hydrologic retention (R2adj=0.1997, p<0.05. No significant regression model was found for NH4+-N. Finally, the conservation of these Mediterranean wetland-streams may act as a tool to not only improves the surface water quality in agricultural catchments, but to also achieve a good ecological status for surface waters, this being the Water Framework Directive's ultimate purpose.

  17. Knowledge needs, available practices, and future challenges in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Georgina; Whitfield, Mike G.; Cooper, Julia; De Vries, Franciska T.; Collison, Martin; Dedousis, Thanasis; Heathcote, Richard; Roth, Brendan; Mohammed, Shamal; Molyneux, Andrew; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Sutherland, William J.; Bardgett, Richard D.

    2016-10-01

    The goal of this study is to clarify research needs and identify effective practices for enhancing soil health. This was done by a synopsis of soil literature that specifically tests practices designed to maintain or enhance elements of soil health. Using an expert panel of soil scientists and practitioners, we then assessed the evidence in the soil synopsis to highlight practices beneficial to soil health, practices considered detrimental, and practices that need further investigation. A partial Spearman's correlation was used to analyse the panel's responses. We found that increased certainty in scientific evidence led to practices being considered to be more effective due to them being empirically justified. This suggests that for practices to be considered effective and put into practice, a substantial body of research is needed to support the effectiveness of the practice. This is further supported by the high proportion of practices (33 %), such as changing the timing of ploughing or amending the soil with crops grown as green manures, that experts felt had unknown effectiveness, usually due to insufficiently robust evidence. Only 7 of the 27 reviewed practices were considered to be beneficial, or likely to be beneficial in enhancing soil health. These included the use of (1) integrated nutrient management (organic and inorganic amendments); (2) cover crops; (3) crop rotations; (4) intercropping between crop rows or underneath the main crop; (5) formulated chemical compounds (such as nitrification inhibitors); (6) control of traffic and traffic timing; and (7) reducing grazing intensity. Our assessment, which uses the Delphi technique, is increasingly used to improve decision-making in conservation and agricultural policy, identified practices that can be put into practice to benefit soil health. Moreover, it has enabled us to identify practices that need further research and a need for increased communication between researchers, policy-makers, and

  18. Agricultural employers' hiring and safety practices for adolescent workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, B C; Westaby, J D; Chyou, P H; Purschwitz, M A

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the "Safety Training for Employers and Supervisors of Adolescent Farmworkers" initiative is to improve the occupational health and safety knowledge and practices of agricultural employers and supervisors responsible for employees, ages 14 to 17 years. Surveys were sent to members of the National Council of Agricultural Employers and the Washington Growers League to measure attitudes regarding adolescent employees, current hiring and training practices, and future intentions. More than half of the respondents hire adolescents. Two-thirds were male, nearly three-quarters of the respondents had college or post-graduate degrees, and more than half were 50 years or older. The majority of respondents had positive perceptions of adolescents in terms of dependability, helpfulness, and work ethic. Among those who currently hire young workers, the most common reasons were to provide a job for children of friends and family and because they can work part-time to fill a labor demand. Among those not hiring adolescents, the most common reason was concern about child labor regulations and associated tasks (e.g., paperwork, monitoring hours). Respondents use a variety of safety training resources, especially posters and safety meetings. For the future, they expect to need more handout materials and training videos. Study results provide insights into barriers to the employment of young workers and suggest methods by which agricultural safety specialists can best assist those employers and producers who are willing to hire adolescents into agricultural work settings. PMID:17370911

  19. Integrated farming systems in Kinshasa (DRC) Diversity of agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Mafwila Kinkela, Patrick; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    In Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of Congo, integrated farming of livestock and fish farming is little documented while it is an interesting way of ecological intensification systems. After identifying the density of fish ponds in the territory of the city using satellite images, about 200 farms with at least one pond and located in 2 in peri-urban and rural areas were surveyed to characterize the practical integration of the agricultural system. The preliminary results in one of the val...

  20. Risk of Agricultural Practices and Habitat Change to Farmland Birds

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney W. Brook; Kathryn E Lindsay; David Anthony Kirk

    2011-01-01

    Many common bird species have declined as a result of agricultural intensification and this could be mitigated by organic farming. We paired sites for habitat and geographical location on organic and nonorganic farms in Ontario, Canada to test a priori predictions of effects on birds overall, 9 guilds and 22 species in relation to candidate models for farming practices (13 variables), local habitat features (12 variables), or habitat features that influence susceptibility to predation. We fou...

  1. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Menozzi; Martina Fioravanzi; Michele Donati

    2015-01-01

    The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA). Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was applied on a sample o...

  2. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blocks for Climate Smart Agriculture & Forestry USDA Resources Climate Change Program Office Agency Activities Climate Change Blogs Case Studies Through this initiative, USDA will ...

  3. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Blocks for Climate Smart Agriculture & Forestry USDA Resources Climate Change Program Office Agency Activities Climate Change Blogs Case Studies USDA Climate Hubs Through this ...

  4. Estimating the Overall Impact of a Change in Agricultural Practices on Atmospheric CO(sub 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One option for sequestering carbon in the terrestrial biosphere is to increase the carbon (C) stocks in agricultural soils. There is now an extensive literature on the amount of C that has been lost from soils as a consequence of humans disturbing natural ecosystems, and of the amount of C that might be returned to soils with improved management practices. Improvements in management practices could include efficient use of fertilizers and irrigation water, use of crop rotations, and changing from conventional tillage (CT) to conservation tillage (or, more specifically, to no-till (NT)). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has estimated that 55 x 10(sup 9) Mg of soil C have been lost, globally, largely as a result of cultivating former grasslands, forests, and wetlands. The IPCC estimated further that 22-29 x 10(sup 9) Mg of C could be returned to existing, world, agricultural soils under improved management regimes. Historical losses of soil organic C (SOC) in the US, due to cultivation, have been estimated to be 1.3(+-) 0.3 x 10(sup 9) Mg (Kern and Johnson 1993). Kern and Johnson projected that by increasing NT practice in the US from 27% in 1990 to 76%, a total of 0.4(+-) 0.1 x 10(sup 9) Mg C could be sequestered in the soil during the interval 1990-2020. These studies tend to focus on increasing the C stocks in soils rather than on the overall effect that changes in agricultural practice would have on C stocks in the atmosphere. Changing agricultural practice can impact net CO(sub 2) emissions to the atmosphere in three fundamental ways: (1) it can lead to an increase in the C held in agricultural soils, (2) it can lead to a change in emissions of CO(sub 2) from fossil fuel burning, and (3) it can change agricultural productivity, and hence the amount of cultivated land needed to meet the demand for agricultural products. Changing agricultural practice can also affect the net emissions of other greenhouse gases, such as N(sub 2)O emissions

  5. An integrated social and ecological modeling framework—impacts of agricultural conservation practices on water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Irem Daloğlu; Joan Iverson. Nassauer; Rick Riolo; Donald Scavia

    2014-01-01

    We present a modeling framework that synthesizes social, economic, and ecological aspects of landscape change to evaluate how different agricultural policy and land tenure scenarios and land management preferences affect landscape pattern and downstream water quality. We linked a stylized agent-based model (ABM) of farmers’ conservation practice adoption decisions with a water quality model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), to simulate the water quality effects of changing land tenu...

  6. Adoption of Good Agricultural Practices by Durian Farmers in Koh Samui District, Surat Thani Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    MANKEB, Panya; LIMUNGGURA, Tippawan; IN-GO, Anuson; CHULILUNG, Praporn

    2014-01-01

    Durian (Durio zibethinus Murr.) is famous as the “king of fruits” and Thailand’s economicallyimportant fruit for export. As consumer demand for high quality and safe food products increased, GoodAgricultural Practices (GAP) were adopted by durian farmers in Koh Sumui district, Surat Thani province,Thailand to produce safe and wholesome fruits. The purposes of this research were to study the adoption ofGAP and to determine factors affecting GAP adoption of durian farmers. Structure interview w...

  7. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaidong; WANG; Ming; LI; Lazhu; HAO; Maoyue; GE

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating features of leisure agriculture in the park; establishing the brand of leisure-oriented training base in science and technology park; carrying out exploration into operation mode of leisure agriculture in the park.

  8. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ...

  9. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural ...

  10. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... New uniform, science-based guidance on cover crop management helps producers prevent erosion, improve soil properties, supply ...

  11. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and Services ...

  12. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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  13. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... assessments project climate impacts over the coming years: Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptation (PDF, 11.8MB) Effects of Climatic Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Science ...

  14. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... nutrients to crops, suppress weeds, improve soil water content, and break pest cycles. Press Release: Secretary Vilsack ...

  15. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting Goods Importing Goods Newsroom Agency ... USDA Contracts | Visit OIG | Plain Writing | Open | Digital Strategy FOIA | Accessibility Statement | Privacy Policy | Non-Discrimination Statement | ...

  16. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Northeast, heavier, more intense rains threaten to reduce yields. In the Southwest, increased drought poses a challenge ...

  17. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and Services ASSISTING RURAL COMMUNITIES Cooperatives Grants ...

  18. Unravelling institutional determinants affecting change in agriculture in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Hounkonnou, D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper compares lessons learned from nine studies that explored institutional determinants of innovation towards sustainable intensification of West African agriculture. The studies investigated issues relating to crop, animal, and resources management in Benin, Ghana, and Mali. The constraints

  19. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for ...

  20. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural ... Food and Nutrition Education Program Food Security National Organic Program SNAP WIC CONSERVATION Conservation Environmental Markets Wildfire ...

  1. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research ...

  2. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available   Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant ...

  3. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture ... Reports Creative Media & Broadcast Center Email Subscriptions In Case You Missed It... Latest Releases New Media Radio ...

  4. Linking climate smart agriculture and good agriculture practices: case studies on consumption potatoes in South Africa, the Netherlands and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture has been coined in an attempt to overcome existing barriers among food security, adaptation of agriculture to climate change, and mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because the goals of CSA ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is important to link and integrate CSA goals with Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). Although the general scope of GAP is clear, i.e. sustainable agricultural intensification, there is little common g...

  5. Validation of good agricultural practices (GAP) on Minnesota vegetable farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Karin E; Umber, Jamie; Hultberg, Annalisa; Tong, Cindy; Schermann, Michele; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco; Bender, Jeff B

    2015-02-01

    The United States Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Agriculture jointly published the "Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables," which is used as a basis for Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) audits. To understand barriers to incorporation of GAP by Minnesota vegetable farmers, a mail survey completed in 2008 was validated with visits to a subset of the farms. This was done to determine the extent to which actual practices matched perceived practices. Two hundred forty-six producers completed the mail survey, and 27 participated in the on-farm survey. Over 75% of the on-farm survey respondents produced vegetables on 10 acres or less and had 10 or fewer employees. Of 14 questions, excellent agreement between on-farm interviews and mail survey responses was observed on two questions, four questions had poor or slight agreement, and eight questions had no agreement. Ninety-two percent of respondents by mail said "they took measures to keep animals and pests out of packing and storage buildings." However, with the on-site visit only 45% met this requirement. Similarly, 81% of respondents by mail said "measures were taken to reduce the risk of wild and/or domestic animals entering into fruit and vegetable growing areas." With direct observation, 70% of farms actually had taken measures to keep animals out of the growing areas. Additional, on-farm assessments were done regarding employee hygiene, training, presence of animals, water sources, and composting practices. This validation study demonstrated the challenge of creating nonleading and concise questions that are not open to broad interpretation from the respondents. If mail surveys are used to assess GAP, they should include open-ended questions and ranking systems to better assess farm practices. To provide the most accurate survey data for educational purposes or GAP audits, on-farm visits are recommended. PMID:25564923

  6. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.

  7. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, M.; Vvan Meijl, H.; Tabeau, A.; Woltjer, G.

    2008-04-15

    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe.

  8. Efforts to reduce stratospheric ozone loss affect agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has shown that the increased ultraviolet radiation reaching the Earth's surface resulting from stratospheric ozone loss poses a danger to everyone. Concern about ozone loss prompted many nations to ratify the Montreal Protocol, the most comprehensive international environmental agreement ever enacted. Several provisions of this protocol will have substantial, long-term effects on the agricultural industry. Agriculture contributes substantially to ozone depletion, primarily through its use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) for refrigeration in processing, storage and transport of meats and produce. This paper is meant to serve as an overview of the scientific basis for ozone depletion concerns, a description of the current international policy agreement, and the possible consequences of that policy for agriculture. (author)

  9. Identifying critical factors for implementing good agricultural practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez Guzmán

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with identifying the critical factors (CFs involved in implementing a good agricultural practice (GAP programme for coffee and fruit farmers in the Huila department of Colombia. An exploratory factor analysis using principal component analy- sis (PCA factorisation was used. Data matrixes were constructed from the results of applying two defined-structure assessment tools to the populations being studied: Starbucks’ coffee and farmer equity (CAFE practices for small-scale coffee growers and coffee-producers and the EUREPGAP V2.1 Oct.2004 / checklist for fruit and vegetables, as applied to fruit-producers. This inves- tigation led to identifying 6 CFs which must be considered when implementing a GAP programme: infrastructure, established production activities, preparing and maintaining records, environmental awareness, workers’ welfare and safety and quality con- trol.

  10. KNOWLEDGE AND PERCEPTIONS OF EXTENSION WORKERS ON SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizers’ use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to identify their perceptions and knowledge about SAP and determine the extent to which extension workers communicate SAP to the farmers. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results suggest extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge of SAP are favorable. Extension workers indicated that they communicate SAP information to the farmers. Further investigation from farmers’ perspectives is required to discover to what extent extension plays significant role in promoting adoption of the program.

  11. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  12. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  13. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural ... Programs FOOD AND NUTRITION Child Nutrition Programs Expanded Food and ...

  14. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... assessments project climate impacts over the coming years: Climate Change and Agriculture in the United States: Effects and Adaptation (PDF, 11.8MB) Effects of Climatic Variability and Change on Forest Ecosystems: A Comprehensive Science Synthesis for the U.S. Forest ...

  15. Influence of some agricultural practices on the soil acidification in acid precipitation areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Both acid precipitation and unreasonable agricultural practices are notorious artificial factors resulting in soil acidification. To sort out reasonable agricultural practices favorable to abating soil acidification, the task of this study was directed to a long-term field trial in Chongqing, during which chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer were applied to different crop rotations and the soil pH value was measured. The results indicated that all treatments decreased pH value in the 0 to 20 cm soil layer after ten years. Problems were more serious when chlorine-containing fertilizer, excessive chemical fertilizer and mixed fertilizer were applied. It is demonstrated that balance rates of N, P and K fertilizers, application of muck in field are advantageous to abating soil acidification. Oil plants affect soil acidification more than cereal in different crop rotation.

  16. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hubs will deliver science-based knowledge and practical information to farmers, ranchers and forest landowners on a ... mitigate risks and thrive despite change. For more information on the Hubs, visit the USDA Climate Hubs ...

  17. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program Food Security National Organic Program SNAP WIC CONSERVATION Conservation Environmental ... Hubs will deliver science-based knowledge and practical information to farmers, ranchers and forest landowners on a ...

  18. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... climate change. These Hubs will deliver science-based knowledge and practical information to farmers, ranchers and forest ... New uniform, science-based guidance on cover crop management helps producers prevent erosion, improve soil properties, supply ...

  19. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  20. Agricultural Waste Management Systems on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 312

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP312),...

  1. Theory and Practice of Agricultural Eco-engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BianYoushen

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural eco-engineering is not only the important content of eco-agriculture construction, but also the important measure for operating eco-agriculture construction. Applying principle of ecology, and combining the method of systemic engineering with the measure of modem technology, the essential of agriculture ecologic engineering is to build the production mode of using agriculture resource with high effectiveness, and technique system of realizing sustainable development. This article gives an introduction of what the agricultural eco-engineering is and the basic theory and the design principle of agricultural eco-engineering.

  2. Conservation Agriculture Practices and Adoption by Smallholder Farmers in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mazvimavi, Kizito; Ndlovu, Patrick V.; Nyathi, Putso; Minde, Isaac J.

    2010-01-01

    This study is based on a panel survey interviewing 416 farmers practising conservation agriculture for at least five cropping seasons. Farmers obtained higher yields on conservation agriculture plots than on nonconservation agriculture ones. The mean maize yield on conservation agriculture was 1546 kg/ha compared to 970 kg/ha for non-conventional draft tillage plots across all 15 districts. However, the contribution of conservation agriculture to total household food security requirements was...

  3. Risk of Agricultural Practices and Habitat Change to Farmland Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney W. Brook

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Many common bird species have declined as a result of agricultural intensification and this could be mitigated by organic farming. We paired sites for habitat and geographical location on organic and nonorganic farms in Ontario, Canada to test a priori predictions of effects on birds overall, 9 guilds and 22 species in relation to candidate models for farming practices (13 variables, local habitat features (12 variables, or habitat features that influence susceptibility to predation. We found that: (1 Overall bird abundance, but not richness, was significantly (p < 0.05 higher on organic sites (mean 43.1 individuals per site than nonorganic sites (35.8 individuals per site. Significantly more species of birds were observed for five guilds, including primary grassland birds, on organic vs. nonorganic sites. No guild had higher richness or abundance on nonorganic farms; (2 Farming practice models were the best (ΔAIC < 4 for abundance of birds overall, primary grassland bird richness, sallier aerial insectivore richness and abundance, and abundance of ground nesters; (3 Habitat models were the best for overall richness, Neotropical migrant abundance, richness and abundance of Ontario-USA-Mexico (short-distance migrants and resident richness; (4 Predation models were the best for richness of secondary grassland birds and ground feeders; (5 A combination of variables from the model types were best for richness or abundance overall, 13 of 18 guilds (richness and abundance and 16 of 22 species analyzed. Five of 10 farming practice variables (including herbicide use, organic farm type and 9 of 13 habitat variables (including hedgerow length, proportion of hay were significant in best models. Risk modeling indicated that herbicide use could decrease primary grassland birds by one species (35% decline from 3.4 to 2.3 species per site. Organic farming could benefit species of conservation concern by 49% (an increase from 7.6 to 11.4 grassland birds. An

  4. THE NEED TO IMPROVE PRACTICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM IN AGRICULTURE AND SPECIALIZED INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the establishment of the market economy has required the elaboration and implementation of agricultural, alimentary and nutritional policies, based on scientific criteria, to ensure that the structure of Romanian agriculture would come close to that of the European Union agriculture. Agricultural policy needs to be coherent, flexible and directed towards the economic, social and environmental protection performance. Worldwide practice shows that empiric experience of economic agents does not suffice, but requires plenty of scientific knowledge. The hereby study undertakes to carry out a radiography of the production potential of agricultural operations in Romania and to demonstrate the need for improving practical information systems in agriculture and specialized industry.

  5. Constraints Affecting ICT Utilization by Agricultural Extension Officers in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpabio, I. A.; Okon, D. P.; Inyang, E. B.

    2007-01-01

    The study focused on constraints affecting the utilization of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) for agricultural extension activities by Agricultural Extension Officers in Nigeria's Niger Delta Region. Data were derived from 160 extension officers affiliated to both public and private extension organizations in four states of the…

  6. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  7. Responses of corn physiology and yield to six agricultural practices over three years in middle Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Chih-Li Yu; Dafeng Hui; Qi Deng; Junming Wang; K. Chandra Reddy; Sam Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Different agricultural practices may have substantial impacts on crop physiology and yield. However, it is still not entirely clear how multiple agricultural practices such as tillage, biochar and different nutrient applications could influence corn physiology and yield. We conducted a three-year field experiment to study the responses of corn physiology, yield, and soil respiration to six different agricultural practices. The six treatments included conventional tillage (CT) or no tillage (N...

  8. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  9. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  10. Sustainable agriculture. Practice in progress; Duurzame landbouw. De praktijk onderweg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cino, B.J.

    2004-07-01

    In the booklet 'Een routekaart naar duurzame landbouw: wegen en kruispunten' (A roadmap to sustainable agriculture: roads and crossings) a line of thought is elaborated which could guide the quest for sustainable agriculture. The present study is meant to test this line of thought for its practical use. Starting-point was the idea that practitioners have already started their own quest for sustainable agriculture and that their experiences would offer food for thought. Two cases have been studied, the environmental co-operatives VEL and VANLA and the Innovatieplatform Duurzame Meierij (IDM, platform for a sustainable Meierij). In the aforementioned roadmap five dimensions are identified: why, what, where, how much and how. The present study has focused on the 'how': how do practitioners strive for sustainable agriculture. VEL and VANLA strive for a more environmentally friendly dairy farming that actively integrates nature conservation and landscape management. Ecological and economical sustainability should go hand in hand and the relationship with the other stakeholders in the area is thought to be important. Obstacles in the quest for sustainability, according to VEL and VANLA, are mainly found at the level of policy and its implementation, in the present knowledge system and in the remuneration for sustainable farm management. The IDM strives for a sustainable Meierij (Duurzame Meierij), with a focus on the rural areas. The platform checks projects using a model developed by Telos (Brabants Centre for Sustainability Issues) and in which three forms of capital are central: ecological, social-cultural and economical. Obstacles in the quest for sustainability, according to IDM, are mainly found at the level of policy and its implementation, in the price setting for sustainable products and in the perception and attitude regarding sustainability amongst urbanites, consumers and the different stakeholders of the area. Both cases are challenging

  11. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in... competitive factors in Brazil affecting U.S. and Brazilian agricultural sales in third country markets....

  12. Could Crop Height Affect the Wind Resource at Agriculturally Productive Wind Farm Sites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderwende, Brian; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2016-03-01

    The collocation of cropland and wind turbines in the US Midwest region introduces complex meteorological interactions that could influence both agriculture and wind-power production. Crop management practices may affect the wind resource through alterations of land-surface properties. We use the weather research and forecasting (WRF) model to estimate the impact of crop height variations on the wind resource in the presence of a large turbine array. A hypothetical wind farm consisting of 121 1.8-MW turbines is represented using the WRF model wind-farm parametrization. We represent the impact of selecting soybeans rather than maize by altering the aerodynamic roughness length in a region approximately 65 times larger than that occupied by the turbine array. Roughness lengths of 0.1 and 0.25 m represent the mature soy crop and a mature maize crop, respectively. In all but the most stable atmospheric conditions, statistically significant hub-height wind-speed increases and rotor-layer wind-shear reductions result from switching from maize to soybeans. Based on simulations for the entire month of August 2013, wind-farm energy output increases by 14 %, which would yield a significant monetary gain. Further investigation is required to determine the optimal size, shape, and crop height of the roughness modification to maximize the economic benefit and minimize the cost of such crop-management practices. These considerations must be balanced by other influences on crop choice such as soil requirements and commodity prices.

  13. Cloud Computing and Agricultural Development of China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxin Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing technology has brought great opportunities to the development of China's agriculture; however it is also facing unprecedented challenges. According to the advantages of cloud computing, based on the status quo of China's agricultural development, the paper first discussed the impacts of cloud computing for China's agricultural development; and analyzed the field and the prospects of its possible applications in agriculture; then presented the application and promotion of cloud computing technology is a long-term system works, not only need to build the data center, integrate resources, enhance service capabilities, and also need to make information security.

  14. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  15. From Agricultural Extension to Capacity Development: Exploring the Foundations of an Emergent Form of Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauzon, Al

    2013-01-01

    This essay argues that capacity development is a response to changes in the organization and practice of agricultural extension as these changes have excluded small resource farmers. In this essay I trace the changes in the organization of agricultural extension through to the emergence of the concept and practice of capacity development. The idea…

  16. Influences of agricultural management practices on Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungal symbioses in Kenyan agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muriithi-Muchane, M.N.

    2013-01-01

    Conservation agriculture (CA) and integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) practices are receiving increased attention as pathways to sustainable high-production agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the effects of these practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF).

  17. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  18. Integrating top down policies and bottom up practices in Urban and Periurban Agriculture: an Italian dilemma

    OpenAIRE

    Cinà, Giuseppe; Di Iacovo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The paper deals with some relevant and contradictory aspects of urban and peri-urban agriculture in Italy: the traditional exclusion of agricultural areas from the goals of territorial planning; the separation between top-down policies and bottom-up practices; the lack of agricultural policies at local scale. In the first part the paper summarises the weak relation between urban planning and agriculture, showing how in Italy this gap has been only partially overcome by new laws and plans. Mor...

  19. Science cultivating practice. A history of agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies.

    OpenAIRE

    Maat, H.

    2001-01-01

    The central argument of this thesis is that science and practice, as articulated in agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies, gradually broke apart. This process is visible in the organisation of agricultural research and education, as well as in the development of three major fields of agricultural science. These fields are (1) genetics and plant breeding applied to wheat in the Netherlands, (2) rice breeding in the Dutch East Indies and Surinam, and (3) agricultural statisti...

  20. Factors Affecting Agricultural Sustainability–A Case Study of Hail Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Asiry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of data on agricultural activities and production are essential for an appropriate socio-economic planning and sustainability. This study was conducted using a questionnaire that was randomly distributed to farmers to identify some features of the agricultural activities in Hail region and to serve as baseline data on agricultural practices. The questionnaire was divided into main topics including socio-economic status of farms, farm area, main crops, production systems, agricultural practices, financial support, and use of wind breaks, water conservation, animal husbandry and marketing. Some of the results showed that date palms and alfalfa fodder were found to be the main grown crops in addition to citrus, grapes, vegetables, wheat and Rye. In most cases, all these crops were cultivated in open fields, compared to only 18% grown in green houses. About half of the farmers adopted the monoculture system and only 44.9% of them applied the crop rotation. More than 70% of farmers raise animals and the most commonly reared animal are sheep (53.6% followed by goats (23%, camels (18% and poultry (4.5%. The study revealed that Hail region is an important agricultural area in KSA and some agricultural practices need to be revised and directed towards sustainability through extension programmes.

  1. Water and Agricultural-Chemical Transport in a Midwestern, Tile-Drained Watershed: Implications for Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Wilson, John T.

    2007-01-01

    The study of agricultural chemicals is one of five national priority topics being addressed by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in its second decade of studies, which began in 2001. Seven watersheds across the Nation were selected for the NAWQA agricultural-chemical topical study. The watersheds selected represent a range of agricultural settings - with varying crop types and agricultural practices related to tillage, irrigation, artificial drainage, and chemical use - as well as a range of landscapes with different geology, soils, topography, climate, and hydrology (Capel and others, 2004). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides. This study design leads to an improved understanding of many factors that can affect the movement of water and chemicals in different agricultural settings. Information from these studies will help with decision making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields (Capel and others, 2004). This Fact Sheet highlights the results of the NAWQA agricultural chemical study in the Leary Weber Ditch Watershed in Hancock County, Indiana. This watershed was selected to represent a tile-drained, corn and soybean, humid area typical in the Midwest.

  2. Identification of biomes affected by marginal expansion of agricultural land use induced by increased crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal

    2009-01-01

    to characterise these areas. The present study ascribes so-called biomes (natural potential vegetation) to the areas affected by agricultural expansion in order to provide a basis for assessing the environmental impacts from land use in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The methodology builds...... on agricultural statistics and maps of global agricultural areas and the global distribution of biomes. The application of the method is illustrated with four examples. The results indicate that agricultural expansion on land suited for crop cultivation (cultivable land) typically affects forest biomes...... or potential grassland/steppe, whereas expansion on land suited for grazing but not for crop cultivation (grazable land) typically occurs on potential shrubland or a few other biomes depending on the region. Some uncertainty applies to the results but it is concluded that it is feasible to identify biomes...

  3. Did the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 Affect Farmland Values?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. Moss

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Farmland values are affected by numerous factors, including farm policy, shifts in demand for agricultural output both foreign and domestic, monetary policy and urban pressure. In this study we use an information measure to examine whether the shift toward a more market-oriented policy in 1996 changed the relationship between farmland values and government payments. The results indicated that the shift in agricultural policy resulted in significant shift in this relationship.

  4. Remediation Strategy and Practice on Agricultural Land Contaminated with 137Cs and 90Sr in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended to review existing data on the efficiency and acceptability of agricultural countermeasures for reducing of internal exposures introduced by consumption of foodstuff produced on land contaminated by 137Cs and 90Sr. Currently, there are strongly reduced state budget resources for mitigating the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. No more than 50% of the required agricultural protective measures could be financed in the last years. There is an increased need for an optimal use of available resources. New efforts are needed to identify sustainable ways to make use of the most affected areas that reflect the radiation hazard, but also revive the economic potential for the benefit of the community. For this reason the practical complex assessment and justifying of countermeasure application in the most contaminated rural districts of Belarus are the main directions of rehabilitation activity to ensure the radiation protection of people for long term after Chernobyl accident. Countermeasures have to lead to the profitable or self-sufficient production of harvests with low radionuclide contamination. The complex of the effective countermeasures has been worked out and implemented mostly in public sector of agriculture. However, particular attention must be given to the production of private farms of several hundred settlements, where samples of milk still contain radionuclides of 137Cs and 90Sr in excess relative to the established limits

  5. Organic agriculture and ecological justice: ethics and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Byrne, John; Glover, Leigh

    2006-01-01

    Ecological justice is a challenging concept in relation to the current development of agriculture, because it positions social and ecological interests against market liberalism and economic growth. Ecological justice concerns fairness with regard to the common environment based on the idea that environments are fundamen-tally shared. This chapter investigates the role that ecological justice may have in relation to the global challenges of organic agriculture. We perform a philoso-phical ana...

  6. Exploration and Practice of Personnel Cultivation for Agricultural Mechanization and Automation Specialities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, based on significance of developing agricultural mechanization and automation and current situations of agricultural mechanization and automation specialities in colleges and universities, we put forward objectives of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities. Then, we analyze the exploration and practice of personnel cultivation for agricultural mechanization and automation specialities from four aspects, including course system setting, teaching materials construction, laboratory construction, and construction of practical teaching link. Finally, it is expected to provide references for running schools and cultivating excellent professional personnel.

  7. Best Management Practices for sediment control in a Mediterranean agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelwahab, Ossama M. M.; Bingner, Ronald L.; Milillo, Fabio; Gentile, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion can lead to severe destruction of agricultural sustainability that affects not only productivity, but the entire ecosystem in the neighboring areas. Sediments transported together with the associated nutrients and chemicals can significantly impact downstream water bodies. Various conservation and management practices implemented individually or integrated together as a system can be used to reduce the negative impacts on agricultural watersheds from soil erosion. Hydrological models are useful tools for decision makers when selecting the most effective combination of management practices to reduce pollutant loads within a watershed system. The Annualized Agricultural Non-point Source (AnnAGNPS) pollutant loading management model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of diverse management and conservation practices that can control or reduce the impact of soil erosion processes and subsequent sediment loads in agricultural watersheds. A 506 km2 Mediterranean medium-size watershed (Carapelle) located in Apulia, Southern Italy was used as a case study to evaluate the model and best management practices (BMPs) for sediment load control. A monitoring station located at the Ordona bridge has been instrumented to continuously monitor stream flow and suspended sediment loads. The station has been equipped with an ultrasound stage meter and a stage recorder to monitor stream flow. An infrared optic probe was used to measure suspended sediment concentrations (Gentile et al., 2010 ). The model was calibrated and validated in the Carapelle watershed on an event basis (Bisantino et al., 2013), and the validated model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs on sediment reduction. Various management practices were investigated including evaluating the impact on sediment load of: (1) converting all cropland areas into forest and grass covered conditions; (2) converting the highest eroding cropland areas to forest or grass covered conditions; and (3

  8. SOCIO-ECONOMICAL AND AGRI-ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE URBAN AREAS PROXIMITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  9. Estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture...

  10. Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Ziętara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

  11. How will Climate Change Affect Agriculture over the Next 10-30 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture is dependent upon the climate resources of temperature, sunlight, precipitation, and carbon dioxide. Efficient production depends upon optimum conditions of temperature and water supply and changes in these climatic variables will affect plant and animal systems over the next 10- 30 year...

  12. Practical Model and Countermeasures for the Development of Ecological Circular Agriculture in Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Development status and five principal practice modes of ecological cycling agriculture are introduced,such as the quantitative reduction mode with the characteristics of fertilizer reduction and clean production,the ecological chain connection and conversion mode including the combination of farming and grazing and the new mode of farming,the agricultural waste recycling mode with biogas as a link and the comprehensive utilization of waste,quality enhancement mode of agricultural products,and eco-cycle mode of agricultural park.Based on the analysis of the socio-economic characteristic environment of these modes,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward in order to promote the development of circular agriculture,such as improving the macro-control mechanism led by the government,promoting the construction of technological innovation system of ecological circular agriculture,and creating the atmosphere for circular agriculture development.

  13. Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

    2005-01-01

    Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

  14. Effects of agricultural conservation practices on oxbow lake watersheds in the Mississippi River alluvial plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globally, agricultural lands are considered to major sources of nonpoint source pollutants such as sediment, pesticides and nutrients in the United States. While conservation practices have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing agricultural related pollutants on test plot scales, they typ...

  15. Science cultivating practice. A history of agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2001-01-01

    The central argument of this thesis is that science and practice, as articulated in agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies, gradually broke apart. This process is visible in the organisation of agricultural research and education, as well as in the development of three major fields

  16. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi

    2016-04-01

    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  17. The Usage Of Natural Fertilizers - A Practice That Favors The Ecological Agriculture Development In Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiurca, Ana-Andreea; Lamasanu, Andreea; Mihai, Florin-Constantin

    2012-01-01

    International audience Natural fertilizers were used in agriculture since ancient times and are still the best method of soil fertilization. Traditional agriculture, practiced in rural areas of Romania, contributes to the maintenance of soils fertilization ecological practices. Our research shows the evolution of the quantity of natural fertilizers used in the past 20 years at the national level and at the level of NeamŃ County captures the evolution over the seven years of natural fertili...

  18. Rural innovation: Construction of new development practices. Case of Latvian organic agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Šūmane, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Rural innovation: Construction of new development practices. Case of Latvian organic agriculture The doctoral thesis is devoted to the exploration of rural innovation. It aims at understanding how new development practices are constructed. The theoretical framework of the research is based on social constructivism and particularly on actor network theory that stresses the active role of agents in the construction of social reality. Drawing on the case study of organic agriculture in Latvia...

  19. Roles of Extension Agents Towards Agricultural Practice in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Arif Shah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that the income generated by paddy industry will increase up to 988 million per year. In order to achieve this, extension agents plays important role in educating farmers by encouraging them to learn, adopt new technologies and spread them to other farmers. To ensure the success of extension program, the agents should recognize their roles as change agents (as a catalyst, solution giver, process helper, and resource linker and have ability to acquire competencies to accomplish these roles. Thus, this study aims to explore the level of roles among extension agents. Using a quantitative survey methodology, self-administered questionnaires measuring the roles of extension agents as change agents. A total of 117 extension agents had participated in this study. The extension agents were the officers from various agricultural departments and agencies who serve paddy farmers in Malaysia region in related to extension, marketing, financing, farmers association, production, and others. The finding showed that the level of roles among extension agents is high. Hence, the competency of extension agents in Malaysia is indeed especially as a change agents and one of the important determinants of success for agriculture industry in Malaysia. This study emphasized that in order to improve the performance of agricultural extension agents, one of the way is by getting to know their competencies, skills and abilities. The extension agents, Farmers, policy makers, researchers, academics and people working in agriculture can learn a great deal about what individuals and institutions need to do to develop farmers, personally and professionally.

  20. Relevance of integrating agricultural practices in pesticide dietary intake indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Céline; Heraud, Fanny; Nougadere, Alexandre; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2008-10-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a new indicator of pesticide dietary intake to screen pesticides to include in monitoring programs. This new indicator called the adjusted TMDI (TMDI_Ad), taking account actual pesticide agricultural uses in France, is more precise than the theoretical maximum dietary intake (TMDI), based on maximum residue levels (MRLs) that is usually used. This new modeling of dietary intake is refined according to actual agricultural pesticide uses on 44 raw agricultural commodities (RAC), among the most consumed in France, and the rate of food importation of these RAC. The TMDI_Ad was below the TMDI for 322 pesticides (79%). The TMDI was above the ADI, for 46 substances. Although 43 of them had a TMDI_Ad below the TMDI, still 36 had a TMDI_Ad above the ADI, which corresponded to substances with the lowest ADIs. Overall, these results indicate that the TMDI_Ad is a useful tool to plan monitoring programs and to refine dietary exposure, according to actual pesticide uses. However, for very toxic substances, having a very low ADI, such as unauthorized substances, other studies have to be conducted in order to better estimate consumer dietary intakes.

  1. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K. Rudel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock farms exhibit more sustainable practices, but, contrary to predictions, a small scale of operation does not predict sustainability. Many smallholders on mixed crop-livestock farms use sustainable practices, but other smallholders practice a degrading, input-scarce agriculture. Some large farm operators use soil-conserving, minimum-tillage techniques while other large operators ignore soil-conserving techniques and practice an industrialized, high chemical input agriculture. The strength and pervasiveness of the link in the data between mixed crop-livestock farming and sustainable agricultural practices argues for agricultural policies that promote mixed crop-livestock livelihoods.

  2. Research and Practice of Agricultural Vocational Colleges in Serving Entrepreneurial Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; LIU; Lijun; DING; Zhi; WU

    2013-01-01

    As the vocational colleges shoulder the responsibilities of personnel training, scientific research and the social services, the agricultural vocational colleges, undertake the responsibilities of supporting "three agriculture" and speeding up the new countryside construction. Therefore, agricultural vocational colleges shall take the responsibility of providing the employment training to returned migrant workers is the obligation of agricultural vocational colleges and they are bound to be the camp for providing entrepreneurship training to returned farmers. Relying on its own characteristics and research strengths, the Jiangsu Animal Husbandry & Veterinary College has conducted rewarding research and practices on carrying out entrepreneurship training for farmers.

  3. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  4. New Approach for China’s Agricultural Modernization Practice from the Perspective of Multiplex Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the multiplex composite function of agriculture comprehensively as follows.The first is political function:it can ensure the national food security;the second is economic function:it can promote agricultural competitiveness and increase farmers’ income;the third is social function:it can promote the construction of new socialist village;the fourth is ecological function:it can conserve the resources environment and guarantee sustainable development of agriculture.In terms of reference of international theory and the main innovative experience of domestic agricultural modernization practice,this paper points out the new approach for agricultural modernization practice in China,and puts forward institutional guarantee based on agricultural multiplex function as follows:we should gradually promote new land system taking land transfer as major content;we should establish rational transfer system of rural labour forces;we should establish virtuous circular agricultural financial credit system;we should hew to the innovation and promotion system of agricultural technology;we should establish strict the system of resources environment and ecological protection;we should establish the agricultural risk security system.

  5. Does Faculty Incivility in Nursing Education Affect Emergency Nursing Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Pamela

    Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.

  6. Students' Interest in Surgery Affects Laparoscopic Practicing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao Wu, Sheng; Kuei Chien, Wen; Sheng Huang, Chen; Cheng Lin, Wei; Chun Chang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Earlier exposure to laparoscopic techniques is thought to be beneficial for medical students. Reports have demonstrated that practice improves performance in laparoscopies. In this study, we intended to evaluate whether medical students' interest in surgery is affected by the amount of practice and the performance on a laparoscopic simulator. Methods: A laparoscopic simulation curriculum was introduced at Taipei Medical University, Wan-Fang Medical Center. Study participants included 36 sixth-year and 14 seventh-year students who were divided according to whether they had indicated an interest (group A) or not (group B) in surgery. The students had twice-a-week practice sessions for 2 weeks. They underwent baseline measurement (BM) before training and posttraining measurement (PTM). Self-guided practice on the simulator was allowed. The learning outcomes were assessed comparing the BM and PTM scores by using the interquartile range (IQR) test. We also tested the correlation between total score and number of self-guided practice sessions. Results: All study participants showed improvement. No differences were observed between BM and PTM scores and between 6th- and 7th-year medical students. Significant differences were found in PTM scores between groups A and B (P students in group A than for those in group B (P performance scores were improved with a higher number of self-guided practice sessions. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between the number of self-guided practice sessions and total performance score (P performance correlated highly with trainees' number of self-guided practice sessions. PMID:27493472

  7. The Prospect of Horticultural Organic Farming as Sustainable Agricultural Practice for Reducing Poverty: The Case in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Adiprasetyo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is still an insistent problem which when confronted by humanity requires a systemic, comprehensive and synchronized approach to alleviate it.  The concentration of urban and rural poverty in developing countries underpins the importance of agriculture as a poverty reduction strategy since most of the poor people depend on agriculture.  Thus, improving agricultural productivity, competitiveness and sustainability may reduce poverty.   This study was intended to (1 find out if sustainable agriculture, i.e., horticultural organic farming practices, could contribute to poverty reduction, (2 identify restrictive factors affecting horticulture organic farming development, and (3 formulate alternative policy intervention for poverty alleviation based on development of organic farming.   The respondents were selected using purposive sampling method, comprising of 22 self-claimed horticultural organic farmers and 22 horticultural conventional farmers.  The data were gathered through a structured-questionnaire and in-depth interview.   Descriptive statistics, prospective analyses and analytical hierarchy process were used to analyze the data.  The results showed that organic farming practices have potential to increase income of the horticultural farmers.  Factors that constrained the development of horticultural organic farming were limited knowledge of organic practices, access to market, financial and risk management services or support.  Alternative policy interventions, such as developing a linkage between producers and consumers, strengthening research and development on organic farming, enhancing dissemination knowledge of organic farming practices, and providing access to financial and agriculture management, are proposed.

  8. Ensuring Compliance of Raw Herbal Materials Stemmed from China with European Good Agricultural and Collection Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRE Philippe; SU Hao-bo; GAO Wen-yuan

    2011-01-01

    A"simplified" European procedure now allows the registration of traditional herbal medicines as medicinal products even without the support of clinical data.This procedure entails the requirement that those products comply with European Good Manufacturing Practice for medicinal products,which in turn implies that the raw herbal materials comply with the European Guidelines for Good Agricultural and Collection Practice.On the basis of a comparison between European Good Agricultural and Collection Practice and China Good Agricultural Practice,as well as direct observation made at sites in China,we issue some recommendations to facilitate good communication between the Chinese producer and European pharmaceutical customer,with a view to ensure full compliance with European expectations.

  9. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, S; London, L; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R N; Kromhout, H

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional study conducted in women working in small-scale agriculture in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in 2006 assessed pesticide training and safety practic...

  10. Impact of agricultural practices on onion Banao system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Valdivia Pérez

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article was carried out a descriptive statistical study in which different tools like non structured interviews, revision of files and the use of the SIG are integrated. The investigation was developed in 2010 - 2011. The population of Banao showed a high sense of ownership to the area and 70% is in labour age highlighting the range of 25 - 39 years, out of them 24,1% of the producers have been devoted to the agriculture for 10 and 20 years. 45,8% presents problems with the supply source, 71,8% should drive the water to more than 200 m to water. When analyzing the degradation of the soil it is appreciated that 97% of the soil that is dedicated to the cultivation of the onion is eroded, existing areas where the cultivation should not be fomented, for the excessive exploitation of its soils. Among the interviewed producers 59.7% knows that there is degradation of the soils in its property, however 51.7% doesn't apply any alternative of protection of the soil. The current production of onion compromises the stability of the ecosystem considerably. This study constitutes an indispensable premise to advance toward a sustainable model of the local onion system.

  11. Cost-Effective Allocation of Agricultural Best Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, M.; Govindaraju, R. S.; Engel, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    Implementation of conservation programs is perceived as being crucial for restoring and protecting waters and watersheds from nonpoint source pollution. Success of these programs depends to a great extent on planning tools that can assist the watershed management process. Herein, a novel optimization methodology is presented for deriving watershed-scale sediment and nutrient control plans that incorporate multiple, and often conflicting, objectives. The method combines the use of a watershed model (SWAT), representation of best management practices, an economic component, and a genetic algorithm-based spatial search procedure. For a small watershed in Indiana located in the Midwestern portion of the United States, selection and placement of best management practices by optimization was found to be nearly three times more cost-effective than targeting strategies for the same level of protection specified in terms of maximum monthly sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen loads. Conversely, for the same cost, the optimization plan reduced the maximum monthly loads by a factor of two when compared to the targeting plan. The optimization methodology developed in this paper can facilitate attaining water quality goals at significantly lower costs than commonly used cost-share and targeting strategies.

  12. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rudel, Thomas K.; Oh-Jung Kwon; Paul, Birthe K.; Maryline Boval; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Diana Burbano; Megan McGroddy; Amy M. Lerner; Douglas White; Mario Cuchillo; Manuel Luna; Michael Peters

    2016-01-01

    As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock ...

  13. Macro Implications of a Complete Transformation of U.S. Agricultural Production to Organic Farming Practices

    OpenAIRE

    James A. Langley; Heady, Earl O.; Olson, Kent D.

    1982-01-01

    A national interregional linear programming model of U.S. agriculture is used to evaluate and compare two conventional and three organic production alternatives. The objective is to estimate the effects on production, supply prices, land use, farm income, and export potential, of a complete transformation of U.S. agriculture to organic practices. Crop yields and production costs are estimated for 150 producing regions for seven crops under both conventional and organic methods. Results indica...

  14. PRECISION AGRICULTURE, WHOLE FIELD FARMING AND IRRIGATION PRACTICES: A FINANCIAL RISK ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gandonou, Jean-Marc; Dillon, Carl R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the main advantages of precision agriculture (PA) is its potential to increase profitability by optimizing the productivity of each section of the field. Incorporating irrigation practices to the PA technology could further increase profitability. However, investing in a complete set of precision agriculture (PA) and/or irrigation equipment represents for the average Kentuckian grain producer a substantial investment that can have a significant impact on the financial risk the he/she f...

  15. RESPONSE TO THE CRISIS OF THE FIELD: ALTERNATIVES AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF VILLAFLORES, CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosey Obet Ruiz-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican countryside is a multifaceted crisis that is mainly due to the rise of a greater economic return-oriented capitalist development possible, regardless of the environmental and human health damage. The research was conducted during 2006 to 2008 in thev region Fraylesca, Chiapas, aiming to understand the nature of change in farming practices of the capitalist model towards alternative practices tending to the conservation of natural resources. We worked with 18 rural families who were beneficiaries of the capitalist model and are currently making changes in their production practices. Ethnography was used to understand the nature of changes in agricultural practices, in addition to the interviews, participant observation semi -structured and tours to family agro-ecosystems. Alternative practices, change cultural patterns of agricultural production adopted by the capitalist model.

  16. Ergonomic risks and musculoskeletal disorders in production agriculture: recommendations for effective research to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, Steven R; Earle-Richardson, Giulia; Banks, R J

    2010-07-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are increasingly recognized as a significant hazard of agricultural occupation. In agricultural jobs with significant physical labor, MSDs are typically the most frequently reported injury. Although not as lethal as tractor roll-overs, MSDs can result in disability, lost work time, and increased production costs. MSDs increase production costs as a result of worker absence, medical and insurance costs, decreased work capacity, and loss of employees to turnover and competition from other less physically demanding industries. This paper will provide an overview of what is currently known about MSDs in agriculture, including high-risk commodities, tasks and work practices, and the related regulatory factors and workers' compensation costs. As agricultural production practices evolve, the types of MSDs also change, as do ergonomic risk factors. One example is the previous higher rates of knee and hip arthritis identified in farmers in stanchion dairies evolving into upper extremity tendonitis, arthritis, and carpal tunnel syndrome now found in milking technicians in dairy milking parlors. This paper summarizes the presentation, "Musculoskeletal Disorders in Labor-Intensive Operations," at the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas. The primary focus of the paper is to address current research on ergonomic solutions for MSDs in agriculture. These include improved tools, carts or equipment, as well as work practices. One of the key challenges in this area pertains to measurement, due to the fact that musculoskeletal strain is a chronic condition that can come and go, with self-reported pain as its only indicator. Alternative measurement methods will be discussed. Finally, the implementation of research into practice is reviewed, with an emphasis on best

  17. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Utilization of Information Technology (IT by Agricultural Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rezaei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating factors affecting utilization of information technology by students of agriculture. A survey approach was used in this study and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (MS and PhD of economic and agricultural development faculty in Tehran University who were selected by applying random sampling technique. Sample size for students was 61 persons. Data was analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software. The results of the research indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between using of information technology by students and their age, average, prior experience, information technology skills, innovativeness, perceived ease of use, attitude and self-efficacy. The relationship between computer anxiety and using of IT was negative. Stepwise Regression Analysis showed that innovativeness and attitude predict 53.2 percent of variations of IT use by students.

  18. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb

    2016-04-01

    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  19. Pesticide regulations for agriculture: Chemically flawed regulatory practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Donald S; Bruccoleri, Aldo G

    2016-08-01

    Two categories of pesticide soil models now exist. Government regulatory agencies use pesticide fate and transport hydrology models, including versions of PRZM.gw. They have good descriptions of pesticide transport by water flow. Their descriptions of chemical mechanisms are unrealistic, having been postulated using the universally accepted but incorrect pesticide soil science. The objective of this work is to report experimental tests of a pesticide soil model in use by regulatory agencies and to suggest possible improvements. Tests with experimentally based data explain why PRZM.gw predictions can be wrong by orders of magnitude. Predictive spreadsheet models are the other category. They are experimentally based, with chemical stoichiometry applied to integral kinetic rate laws for sorption, desorption, intra-particle diffusion, and chemical reactions. They do not account for pesticide transport through soils. Each category of models therefore lacks what the other could provide. They need to be either harmonized or replaced. Some preliminary tests indicate that an experimental mismatch between the categories of models will have to be resolved. Reports of pesticides in the environment and the medical problems that overlap geographically indicate that government regulatory practice needs to account for chemical kinetics and mechanisms. Questions about possible cause and effect links could then be investigated. PMID:27166991

  20. School Meal Programs: Sharing Information on Best Practices May Improve Programs' Operations. Report to the Secretary of Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Resources, Community, and Economic Development Div.

    At the request of the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, this investigation identified state and local school food authorities' (SFA) management and operating practices recognized as best practice by the United State Department of Agriculture (USDA) or other officials. In addition, the study determined whether some of these practices could be…

  1. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff

    OpenAIRE

    V García-García; Gómez, R.; Vidal-Abarca, M.R.; Suárez, M. L.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of the temporal variability and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO3-N), ammonium-N (NH+4-N), total nitrogen-N (TN-N), total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N) and chlo...

  2. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  3. Changes in Soil Microbial Community Structure Influenced by Agricultural Management Practices in a Mediterranean Agro-Ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most c...

  4. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse he...... samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster....

  5. Investigating Factors Affecting Entrepreneurship in Agricultural Corporations of Shirvan and Chardavol Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatoon Vakili

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study is investigation of factors affecting development of entrepreneurship in agricultural corporations in Shirvan and Chardavol towns. In order to gain this goal, descriptive correlative research method was used. Statistics population consisted of all members of boards and CEOs of agricultural corporations (350 = N. Using Cochran's formula, 167 members were determined as samples. The sample was randomly determined. The research instrument was a questionnaire which its validity was confirmed by group of experts. To determine its reliability Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used (=0.872. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. In this study, entrepreneurship was measured by four factors of renewal, pioneer in change, risk taking and competitiveness. Results showed that mean score of total entrepreneurship in sample was 2.585 and most people (% 62.8 were placed in weak and too weak levels. Also, based on the results of one sample T-test, mean value of entrepreneurship in corporations was 2.585. This means that amount of entrepreneurship development in corporations is less than average level. Also by using multi-variable regression it was found that independent variables of education, stocks, entrepreneurship experience, income, and work experience have a positive impact on the dependent variable of entrepreneurship in agricultural production corporations.

  6. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Hoffman; Vicken Hillis; Mark Lubell

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a part...

  7. Nitrate nitrogen in surface waters as influenced by climatic conditions and agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, G W; Mulla, D J

    2001-01-01

    Subsurface tile drainage from row-crop agricultural production systems has been identified as a major source of nitrate entering surface waters in the Mississippi River basin. Noncontrollable factors such as precipitation and mineralization of soil organic matter have a tremendous effect on drainage losses, nitrate concentrations, and nitrate loadings in subsurface drainage water. Cropping system and nutrient management inputs are controllable factors that have a varying influence on nitrate losses. Row crops leak substantially greater amounts of nitrate compared with perennial crops; however, satisfactory economic return with many perennials is an obstacle at present. Improving N management by applying the correct rate of N at the optimum time and giving proper credits to previous legume crops and animal manure applications will also lead to reduced nitrate losses. Nitrate losses have been shown to be minimally affected by tillage systems compared with N management practices. Scientists and policymakers must understand these factors as they develop educational materials and environmental guidelines for reducing nitrate losses to surface waters. PMID:11285893

  8. Land-use change affects water recycling in Brazil's last agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Stephanie A; Galford, Gillian L; Coe, Michael T; Macedo, Marcia N; Mustard, John F

    2016-10-01

    Historically, conservation-oriented research and policy in Brazil have focused on Amazon deforestation, but a majority of Brazil's deforestation and agricultural expansion has occurred in the neighboring Cerrado biome, a biodiversity hotspot comprised of dry forests, woodland savannas, and grasslands. Resilience of rainfed agriculture in both biomes likely depends on water recycling in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation; yet little is known about how changes in land-use and land-cover affect regional climate feedbacks in the Cerrado. We used remote sensing techniques to map land-use change across the Cerrado from 2003 to 2013. During this period, cropland agriculture more than doubled in area from 1.2 to 2.5 million ha, with 74% of new croplands sourced from previously intact Cerrado vegetation. We find that these changes have decreased the amount of water recycled to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) each year. In 2013 alone, cropland areas recycled 14 km(3) less (-3%) water than if the land cover had been native Cerrado vegetation. ET from single-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans) is less than from natural vegetation in all years, except in the months of January and February, the height of the growing season. In double-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans followed by corn), ET is similar to or greater than natural vegetation throughout a majority of the wet season (December-May). As intensification and extensification of agricultural production continue in the region, the impacts on the water cycle and opportunities for mitigation warrant consideration. For example, if an environmental goal is to minimize impacts on the water cycle, double cropping (intensification) might be emphasized over extensification to maintain a landscape that behaves more akin to the natural system. PMID:27028754

  9. Land-use change affects water recycling in Brazil's last agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Stephanie A; Galford, Gillian L; Coe, Michael T; Macedo, Marcia N; Mustard, John F

    2016-10-01

    Historically, conservation-oriented research and policy in Brazil have focused on Amazon deforestation, but a majority of Brazil's deforestation and agricultural expansion has occurred in the neighboring Cerrado biome, a biodiversity hotspot comprised of dry forests, woodland savannas, and grasslands. Resilience of rainfed agriculture in both biomes likely depends on water recycling in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation; yet little is known about how changes in land-use and land-cover affect regional climate feedbacks in the Cerrado. We used remote sensing techniques to map land-use change across the Cerrado from 2003 to 2013. During this period, cropland agriculture more than doubled in area from 1.2 to 2.5 million ha, with 74% of new croplands sourced from previously intact Cerrado vegetation. We find that these changes have decreased the amount of water recycled to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) each year. In 2013 alone, cropland areas recycled 14 km(3) less (-3%) water than if the land cover had been native Cerrado vegetation. ET from single-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans) is less than from natural vegetation in all years, except in the months of January and February, the height of the growing season. In double-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans followed by corn), ET is similar to or greater than natural vegetation throughout a majority of the wet season (December-May). As intensification and extensification of agricultural production continue in the region, the impacts on the water cycle and opportunities for mitigation warrant consideration. For example, if an environmental goal is to minimize impacts on the water cycle, double cropping (intensification) might be emphasized over extensification to maintain a landscape that behaves more akin to the natural system.

  10. Animating Community Supported Agriculture in North East England: Striving for a "Caring Practice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Liz

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on a case study of a new Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) scheme in the north of England to draw attention to some of the ethical issues encountered when using a participatory action research approach to animating CSA. Both CSA and participatory action research have been associated with the concept of "caring practice" and an…

  11. Comparative study of model prediction of diffuse nutrient losses in response to changes in agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vagstad, N.; French, H.K.; Andersen, H.E.; Groenendijk, P.; Siderius, C.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a comparative study of modelled changes in nutrient losses from two European catchments caused by modifications in agricultural practices. The purpose was not to compare the actual models used, but rather to assess the uncertainties a manager may be faced with after receiving d

  12. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Roest, van der J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking pro

  13. The development and significance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas as influenced by agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruissen, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The development and significance of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) in wheat and potatoes have been studied in relation to various farming systems and agricultural practices. The effects of farming systems on VAM have been observed on three neighbouring experimental farms in the vicinity of

  14. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  15. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  16. Participatory impact assessment of agricultural practices using the land use functions framework: case study from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purushothaman, S.; Patil, S.; Francis, I.; König, H.; Reidsma, P.; Hegde, S.

    2013-01-01

    What do different stakeholders think of the changing trends in agricultural practices and related policies? We answer this and related questions with respect to Karnataka, an Indian state showing signs of agrarian distress. Using the participatory impact assessment (PIA) method involving farmers, re

  17. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry lane to a bunker of World War II, temporarily paved with coarse industrial waste fragments and removed at the end of the war. Thin sections made from undisturbed soil samples from A and B horizons were studied. Optical microscopy revealed the occurrence of yellow micrometer-sized (Ap horizon) and red decamicrometer-sized spherulites (AB, B1g horizons) as well as distinct distribution patterns. The chemical composition of the spherulites was dominated by Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Ca, and P. Comparison of calculated Zn stocks, both in the groundmass and in spherulites, showed a quasi-exclusive Zn accumulation in these neoformed features. Their formation was related to several factors: (i) liberation of metal elements due to weathering of waste products, (ii) Ca and P supply from fertilizing practices, (iii) co-precipitation of metal elements and Ca and P in a porous soil environment, after slow exudation of a supersaturated soil solution in more confined mineral media. - Metal spherulites may act as high metal-trapping mineral phases in polluted agricultural soils

  18. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  19. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  20. Competencies Influencing Extension Workers'Job Performance in Relation to the Good Agricultural Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The bottom line in agricultural trade is that manufacturers are demanding agricultural products that are produced in a sustainable way and with assurance that they are truly conforming to the standards of Good Agriculture Practice. Towards this objective, attention has been given on sustainable agricultural productions in Malaysia. This study is an attempt to investigate job performance of extension workers in terms of competency in relation to the Good Agricultural Practices. This research investigates the influence of competencies on extension workers’ job performance at the department of agriculture in Malaysia with the emphasis of having both human development competencies and technical competencies in order to perform extension job. Approach: Stratified random sampling technique employed to select 210 extension workers from the Department of Agriculture in four states of Malaysia. A structured research instrument was utilized to survey extension workers’ competency and job performance. To test the extent research data support the MLR model, Enter regression method was used. Results: Results showed that out of the nine competencies included in the regression model only four competencies contributed significantly in explaining the variation of job performance. The R2 value of 0.544 implies that the nine predictors explain about 54.4% of the variance in the extension workers' job performance. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings suggest that the data dose not fully support the proposed nine-predictors multiple linear regression model. Finding was contrary to the expectations, since human development areas of competencies did not contribute to the job performance. Hence extension workers are not much involved in human development aspects of their job and they give primary attention to technology transfer rather than human development.

  1. Social Factors Affecting Wetlands Utilization for Agriculture in Nigeria: A case study of sawah rice production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Wetlands have immense poverty-fighting potentials and in Nigeria,more and more people are dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods.To examine the social factors affecting the current status of the wetlands utilization for agriculture in Nigeria,a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 farmers cultivating wetlands and a structured questionnaire was applied to elicit the information on the social factors.Data collected were described using frequency and percentage and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant variables that are determinants of wetland utilization.The results of the analysis showed that significant variables included crop preferences,farming system,culture,taste,land tenure,knowledge of wetland cultivation,perceived suitability,farmers' tribe,location of wetland,and farmers' age.It was concluded with suggestions for the right combination of policies,public awareness,and appropriate farming methods in order to improve wetland utilization in Nigeria.

  2. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  3. Practices to reduce nitrate leaching and increase nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quemada, Miguel; Baranski, Marcin; Nobel de Lange, Majimcha; Vallejo, Antonio; Cooper, Julia

    2013-04-01

    Despite the large body of research in irrigated agriculture, it is still not clear which practices most effectively reduce nitrate leaching (NL) while maintaining crop yield. A meta-analysis (MA) of published experimental results from agricultural irrigated systems was conducted to identify those agricultural practices that have proven effective at reducing NL and to quantify the scale of reduction that can be achieved. Forty-four scientific articles were identified which investigated four main strategies (water and fertilizer management, use of cover crops and fertilizer technology) creating a database with 279 observations on NL and 166 on crop yield. Management practices that adjust water application to crop needs reduced NL by a mean of 80% without a reduction in crop yield. Improved fertilizer management reduced NL by 40%, and the best relationship between yield and NL was obtained when applying the recommended N fertilizer rate. Applications above the recommended rate increased leaching without enhancing yield. Replacing a fallow with a non-legume cover crop (CC) reduced NL by 50% while using a legume CC did not have any effect on NL. Legume CC increased yield and N use efficiency while yields following non-legume CC were not different from the fallow. Improved fertilizer technology also decreased NL but was the least effective of the selected strategies. The risk of nitrate leaching from irrigated systems is high, but optimum management practices may mitigate this risk and maintain crop yields while enhancing environmental sustainability.

  4. Practice of Developing Low-carbon Leisure Agriculture in Agricultural Sci-tech Experiment and Demonstration Park: A Case Study of Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan; OUYANG; Huasong; WU; Aiqin; LIU; Huan; YU; Hongmei; FU

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park,as a unique tourist scenic spot,is a new model for the development of low-carbon leisure agriculture.In this paper,with Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park as a study case,the practice of developing a model of low-carbon agricultural science and technology tourism in the park is explored.Main measures for developing low-carbon leisure agriculture in Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park are summarized,including development of low carbon attractors,construction of low carbon facilities,strengthening low-carbon management,building low-carbon environment and so on,according to analysis on the models for development of low-carbon agricultural science tourism in this park.

  5. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, V.; Gómez, R.; Vidal-Abarca, M. R.; Suárez, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of the temporal variability and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO-3-N), ammonium-N (NH+4-N), total nitrogen-N (TN-N), total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N) and chloride (Cl-) concentrations were analyzed to calculate nitrogen retention efficiencies. These wetland-streams consistently reduced water nitrogen concentration throughout the year with higher values for NO-3-N (72.3%), even though the mean value of inflow NO-3-N concentrations was above 20 mg l-1. Additionally, they usually acted as sinks for TON-N (8.4%), but as sources for NH+4-N. Over the entire study period, the Taray and Parra wetland-streams were capable of removing on average 1.6 and 0.8 kg NO-3-N a day-1, respectively. Retention efficiencies were not affected by temperature variation. NO-3-N retention efficiency followed a seasonal pattern with the highest retention values in summer (June-September). The temporal variability for NO-3-N retention efficiency was positively and negatively explained by the hydrologic retention and the inflow NO-3-N concentration (R2adj=0.815, pstreams may help to not only improve the surface water quality in agricultural catchments, but to also achieve good ecological status for surface waters, this being the Water Framework Directive's ultimate purpose.

  6. The main directions of the social and economic development of agricultural areas affected by the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is spoken about change of state strategic installation on management of agricultural territory: refusal from practically inefficient tactical both operative and transition to the organization system business - planning all agricultural subjects also legal, investment, consulting, control and insurance support realization the developed plans. On the basis of the common circuit of social and economic rehabilitation, ordering of the agricultural enterprises and classifications of areas are offered three scripts of rehabilitation. The area of the first group assumes creation of several agrarian financial and industrial groups with meat, dairy and agricultural specialization. The area of the second group is a zone of the most risky agriculture and the big remoteness of facilities from each other and from the regional center. The area of thirds of group includes the majority of injured areas of the Gomel and Magilew regions

  7. Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Concentrations and Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, N.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Horwath, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Organic matter from the breakdown of plant and animal material is a significant concern for drinking water quality in California due to the potential formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during water treatment with chlorine. Reducing DOC concentration at the source water is a possible management strategy being explored for the reduction of DBP precursors. We examined a variety of land use/land cover, i.e. natural grasslands and intensive agriculture in the Willow Slough Watershed (415 km2) in Yolo County, California to determine the temporal and spatial DOC dynamics. Surface water DOC concentrations ranged from 1.62 to 11.44 mg L-1 at the mouth of the watershed during the first two years, with about two times higher DOC concentrations measured downstream in an intensive agricultural subwatershed dominated by summer flood irrigation. The mean DOC yield was also the highest from the agricultural subwatershed at 0.74 g m-2 over the six months of active irrigation. Results suggest that there is a positive correlation between cropland area and DOC yield. Among many crop species examined, alfalfa showed the strongest positive linear relationship with R2 = 0.91 between the irrigation season DOC yield and percentage crop area of each subwatershed, indicating that agricultural practices such as flood irrigation have a greater impact on DOC loads than other irrigation systems. The results indicate that agricultural practices may deserve further attention for watershed management of DOC and DBP precursors and that flood irrigation practices should be targeted to reduce DOC loading within the main watershed.

  8. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  9. An integrative approach for introducing conservation agricultural practices to tribal societies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Lai, Cynthia; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Idol, Travis; Ray, Chittaranjan; Evensen, Carl; Roul, Pravat K.

    2011-01-01

    Small-holder farms in rural India struggle with reduced maize yields due to traditional farming methods. The introduction of modern conservation agriculture practices can provide higher yields and household income while boosting soil productivity. This poster abstract presents the results of CAPS implementation on experimental plots in tribal villages located in the Indian state of Odessa. LTRA-11 (CAPS among tribal societies in India and Nepal)

  10. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Menozzi, Davide; Fioravanzi, Martina; Donati, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA). Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) was applied on a sample...

  11. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  12. An Investigation of the Practice of Scientific Inquiry in Secondary Science and Agriculture Courses

    OpenAIRE

    Grady, Julie R.

    2007-01-01

    Untitled Document The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate the practice of scientific inquiry in two secondary biology classes and one agriculture class from different schools in different communities. The focus was on teachers' interests and intentions for the students' participation in inquiry, the voices contributing to the inquiry, and students' opportunities to confront their conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The Partnership f...

  13. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Valk, van der, L.J.M.; Roest, De, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking process are the current and future export markets of each country; the ownership of the National GAP Schemes, that is, government or private sector. Government led GAP initiatives are part of strategi...

  14. Extent of Salt Affected Land in Central Asia: Biosaline Agriculture and Utilization of the Salt-affected Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Toderich, Kristina; Tsukatani, Tsuneo; Shoaib, Ismail; Massino, Igor; Wilhelm, Margarita; Yusupov, Surat; Kuliev, Tajiddin; Ruziev, Serdar

    2008-01-01

    The current status and trends of salinization are discussed with waterlogging of marginal land/plant and water resources problems including strategies for development of integrated biosaline crop-livestock agriculture based system on food-feed crops and forage legumes for better livelihood of poor farmers in Central Asian (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan). Transfer of technologies and/or methodology of ICBA (International Centre for Biosaline Agriculture) in planting of bo...

  15. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz

    2007-02-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  16. Effects of different management practices on fungal biodiversity in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borriello, R.; Lumini, E.; Bonfante, P.; Bianciotto, V.

    2009-04-01

    Symbiotic associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are widespread in natural environments and provide a range of benefits to the host plant. These include improved nutrition, enhanced resistance to soil-borne pests, diseases, and drought, as well as tolerance to heavy metals. In addition, the presence of a well developed AMF hyphal network improve the soil structure. As obligate mutualistic symbionts these fungi colonize the roots of many agricultural crops and it is often claimed that agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and biocides, tillage, dominance of monocultures and the growing of non-mycorrhizal crops) are detrimental to AMF. As a result, agro ecosystems impoverished in AMF may not get the fully expected range of benefits from these fungi. Using molecular markers on DNA extracted directly from soil and roots we studied the effects of different management practices (tillage and nitrogen fertilization) on the AMF populations colonizing an experimental agro ecosystem in Central Italy. Fungi in roots and soil were identified by cloning and sequencing a region of ~550bp of the 18S rDNA and ~600bp of the 28S rDNA. In symbiosis with the maize roots we detected only members of Glomeraceae group A that showed decrement in number under nitrogen fertilization. Instead in soil were mainly present members of two AMF groups, respectively Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae group A. In addition only the low input management practices preserve also members of Diversisporaceae and Glomeraceae group B. From our study we can conclude that agricultural practices can directly or indirectly influence AMF biodiversity. The result of this study highlight the importance and significant effects of the long term nitrogen fertilization and tillage practices on specific groups of fungi playing a key role in arable soils. The research was founded by Biodiversity Project (IPP-CNR) and by SOILSINK (FISR-MIUR)

  17. Adoption and extent of conservation agriculture practices among smallholder farmers in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Ngwira, Robert Amos; Johnsen, Fred Håkon; Aune, Jens Bernt; Mekuria, Mulugetta; Thierfelder, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding factors affecting farmers' adoption of improved technologies is critical to success of conservation agriculture (CA) program implementation. This study, which explored the factors that determine adoption and extent of farmers' use of the three principles of CA (i.e., minimum soil disturbance, permanent soil cover with crop residues, and crop rotations), was conducted in 10 target communities in 8 extension planning areas in Malawi. The primary data was collected using structured...

  18. Plant available silicon in South-east Asian rice paddy soils - relevance of agricultural practice and of abiotic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marxen, A.; Klotzbücher, T.; Vetterlein, D.; Jahn, R.

    2012-12-01

    Background Silicon (Si) plays a crucial role in rice production. Si content of rice plants exceeds the content of other major nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorous or potassium. Recent studies showed that in some environments external supply of Si can enhance the growth of rice plants. Rice plants express specific Si transporters to absorb Si from soil solutions in form of silicic acid, which precipitates in tissue cells forming amorphous silica bodies, called phytoliths. The phytoliths are returned to soils with plant residues. They might be a main source of plant available silicic acid in soils. Aims In this study we assess the effects of rice paddy cultivation on the stocks of `reactive` Si fractions in mineral topsoils of rice paddy fields in contrasting landscapes. The `reactive` Si fractions are presumed to determine the release of plant-available silicic acid in soils. We consider the relevance of abiotic factors (mineral assemblage; soil weathering status) and agricultural practice for these fractions. Agricultural practices, which were assumed to affect the stocks of `reactive` Si were (i) the usage of different rice varieties (which might differ in Si demand), (ii) straw residue management (i.e., whether straw residues are returned to the fields or removed and used e.g. as fodder), and (iii) yield level and number of crops per year. Material and methods Soils (top horizon of about 0-20 cm depth) were sampled from rice paddy fields in 2 mountainous and 5 lowland landscapes of contrasting geologic conditions in Vietnam and the Philippines. Ten paddy fields were sampled per landscape. The rice paddy management within landscapes differed when different farmers and/or communities managed the fields. We analysed the following fractions of `reactive` Si in the soils: acetate-extractable Si (dissolved and easily exchangeable Si), phosphate-extractable Si (adsorbed Si), oxalate extractable Si (Si associated with poorly-ordered sesquioxides), NaOH extractable Si

  19. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-15

    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing

  20. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian

    2016-11-15

    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing

  1. Influence of management practices on microbial nitrogen cyclers in agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land management has great influences on soil properties, in particular on microbial communities, due to their sensitivity to the perturbations of the soils. This is even more relevant in Mediterranean agricultural areas under semi-arid conditions. The Mediterranean belt is suffering from an intense degradation of its soils due to the millennia of intense land use and due to unsustainable management practices. As a consequence this area is suffering from a depletion of N content. In this work we investigated the effect of several traditional agricultural management practices on specific functional groups related to the nitrogen cycle in the soil. A field experiment was performed with orchard orange trees (citrus sinesis) in Eastern Spain to assess the long-term effects of ploughing with inorganic fertilization (PI) and ecological practices (EP) (chipped pruned branches and weeds as well as manure from sheep and goats) on microbes that can undertake nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Nine samples of soil were taken from every treatment, near the drip irrigation point and in a zone without the influence of drip irrigation (between trees row), and total DNA extracted. DNA samples were stored at minus-20°C to be analysed by qPCR. Microbial populations involved in the N biochemical cycle were analysed by targeted amplification of key functional biomarker genes: the abundance of nifH (nitrogen fixation), nirS, nirK and nosZ (denitrification) detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has shown significant differences between treatments with higher abundance of all four genes in soils from ecological agricultural treatments. This may indicate that the ecological treatment created conditions that are more suitable for N cyclers in the soil and a better fertility and quality status of these soils.

  2. Nitrogen retention in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. García-García

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen retention efficiency in natural Mediterranean wetland-streams affected by agricultural runoff was quantified and the effect of the temporal variability and hydrological/chemical loading was examined from March 2007 to June 2008 in two wetland-streams located in Southeast Spain. Nitrate-N (NO3-N, ammonium-N (NH+4-N, total nitrogen-N (TN-N, total organic nitrogen-N (TON-N and chloride (Cl concentrations were analyzed to calculate nitrogen retention efficiencies. These wetland-streams consistently reduced water nitrogen concentration throughout the year with higher values for NO3-N (72.3%, even though the mean value of inflow NO3-N concentrations was above 20 mg l−1. Additionally, they usually acted as sinks for TON-N (8.4%, but as sources for NH+4-N. Over the entire study period, the Taray and Parra wetland-streams were capable of removing on average 1.6 and 0.8 kg NO3-N a day−1, respectively. Retention efficiencies were not affected by temperature variation. NO3-N retention efficiency followed a seasonal pattern with the highest retention values in summer (June–September. The temporal variability for NO3-N retention efficiency was positively and negatively explained by the hydrologic retention and the inflow NO3-N concentration (R2adj=0.815, p<0.01, respectively. No significant regression model was found for TON-N and NH+4-N. Finally, the conservation of these Mediterranean wetland-streams may help to not only improve the surface water quality in agricultural catchments, but to also achieve good ecological status for surface waters, this being the Water Framework Directive's ultimate purpose.

  3. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species.

  4. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans

    2016-05-11

    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species. PMID:27147100

  5. Effects of Agricultural Input Assistance on Households Affected by HIV/AIDS: A Case of Chirumanzu Communal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutambara Jackqeline

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to ascertain the effect of humanitarian and developmental aid programmes on vulnerable households affected by HIV/AIDS. The study looked at the effect of NGOs-donated maize seed and fertilizer packs to the HIV/AIDS affected households using wards in Chirumhanzu district of Midlands province in Zimbabwe as a case study. This was done by comparing the land-use and output of maize, household income, farming assets and number of the main livestock types for the affected households before and after they received agricultural input assistance. The results from this study showed that agricultural inputs were a limiting factor to the households that are affected by HIV/AIDS. Provision of input packs enabled the households to increase cropping land by incorporating land that was not longer being utilize. In the process they managed to increase their agricultural maize production which resulted in increase in their welfare. Following the findings of this study, it is recommended that government and donors should support the vulnerable households through the provision of agricultural inputs which is a better way of achieving poverty alleviation in the medium to long term for the vulnerable households. However, for this to be achieved effectively, the support to the households affected by HIV/AIDS should be holistic including other forms of support like medical, palliative and other socio-economic support.

  6. Factors Affecting Adolescent Contraception Practices: Implications for Sex Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembo, Myron H.; Lundell, Beverly

    1979-01-01

    The purposes of this paper are to explore the major reasons for limited contraception practices for improving sex education. Three areas are identified for discussion: lack of information, cognitive-emotional development, and acceptance of sexuality. (Author)

  7. Development of Good Agricultural Practices(GAP) in Thailand : A case study of Thai National GAP selected products

    OpenAIRE

    Pongvinyoo, Pongthong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives Good Agricultural Practices or GAP is a global appropriate cultivation method for the farmers to conduct food safety. It is an appropriate on-farm into farm gate cultivation management included, farm inputs selection, farm management, until post-harvest management. GAP aims to encourage the farmers to produce the safety agricultural products for the consumers. After FAO introduced GAP for a period of time, it become one of the minimum requirements for the agricultur...

  8. Analysis of constraints for compliance to Good Agricultural Practices by the horticultural sector in Indonesia : project report 2011

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koomen, I.; Zulkarnain, I.; Suleaman, A.; Ruting, A.

    2012-01-01

    The horticultural industry in Indonesia is progressively moving to apply Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) with the aim of producing sustainably as well as guaranteeing food safety. While the Ministry of Agriculture has put a lot of effort in assisting farmers to comply to the national IndoGAP and b

  9. Irrigation Land Leveling on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 464

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP464), Irrigation...

  10. Subsurface Drains on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 606

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP606), Subsurface...

  11. Contour Farming on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 330

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP330), Contour...

  12. Terrace Farming on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 600

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP600), Terrace...

  13. Gravity and Pressure Irrigation on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice IT03

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIT03), Gravity...

  14. Pressure Irrigation on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice IT02

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIT02), Pressure...

  15. Irrigation Water Conveyance by Pipelines on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 430

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP430), Irrigation...

  16. Irrigation System by Tailwater Recovery on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 447

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP447), Irrigation...

  17. Conservation Tillage Systems on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 329

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP329 ),...

  18. Irrigation Canals or Laterals on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 320

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP320), Irrigation...

  19. Irrigation Water Management Recovery on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 449

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP449), Irrigation...

  20. Surface Drainage, Field Ditches on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 607

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP607), Surface...

  1. Investigation of the promotion and adoption of sustainable natural resource management agricultural practices in the Chimbo watershed of Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Alwang, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Final report for SANREM summer internship in Ecuador. Describes evaluation of determinants of adoption of soil conservation practices in Chimbo watershed, Ecuador LTRA-3 (Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture)

  2. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawidowski, L. E.

    2015-12-01

    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  3. Linking climate smart agriculture and good agriculture practices: case studies on consumption potatoes in South Africa, the Netherlands and Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture has been coined in an attempt to overcome existing barriers among food security, adaptation of agriculture to climate change, and mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because the goals of CSA ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is

  4. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  5. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  6. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon for Agricultural Land Use Under Various Management Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Jacob, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Bioenergy is generating tremendous interest as an alternative energy source that is both environmentally friendly and economically competitive. The amount of land designated for agriculture is expected to expand, including changes in the current distribution of crops, as demand for biofuels increases as a carbon neutral alternative fuel source. However, the influence of agriculture on the carbon cycle is complex, and varies depending on land use change and management practices. The purpose of this research is to integrate agriculture in the carbon-nitrogen based Community Land Model (CLM) to evaluate the above and below ground carbon storage for corn, soybean, and wheat crop lands. The new model, CLM-Crop simulates carbon allocation during four growth stages, a soybean nitrogen fixation scheme, fertilizer, and harvest practices. We present results from this model simulation, which includes the impact of a new dynamic roots module to simulate the changing root structure and depth with growing season based on the availability of water and nitrogen in the root zone and a retranslocation scheme to simulate redistribution of nitrogen from leaves, roots, and stems to grain during organ development for crop yields, leaf area index (LAI), carbon allocation, and changes in soil carbon budgets under various practices such as fertilizer and residue management. Simulated crop yields for corn, soybean and wheat are in general agreement with measurements. Initial model results indicate a loss of soil organic carbon over cultivated lands after removal of natural vegetation which continues in the following years. Soil carbon in crop lands is a strong function of the residue management and has the potential to impact crop yields significantly.

  7. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  8. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  9. 77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... investigation in the Federal Register on May 24, 2011 (76 FR 30195). In its original notice of investigation... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third... for transmitting its report to the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive...

  10. Constructing community fuzzy cognitive maps to promote adoption of conservation agricultural production practices

    OpenAIRE

    Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Shariq, L.; Gray, S.; Lai, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    FCM was used to identify and map the factors involved in decision-making regarding the adoption of conservation agricultural practices in three villages in Central Nepal. Face-to-face interviews with farmers were conducted to develop an initial list of relevant factors, followed by extensive surveys conducted with both farmers and in-country NGO staff and researchers to develop the “mental models” used by these groups to guide decision-making. Mental models of the groups were quantitatively c...

  11. Agricultural practices that store organic carbon in soils: is it only a matter of inputs ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Cardinael, Rémi; Autret, Bénédicte; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Girardin, Cyril; Mary, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Increasing the world soils carbon stocks by a factor of 4 per mil annually would compensate the annual net increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This statement is the core of an initiative launched by the French government at the recent COP21, followed by many countries and international bodies, which attracts political attention to the storage potential of C in soils. Compared to forest and pasture soils, agricultural soils have a higher C storage potential, because they are often characterized by low C contents, and increasing their C content is associated with benefits in terms of soil properties and ecosystem services. Here we quantified, under temperate conditions, the additional C storage related to the implementation of two set of practices that are recognized to be in the framework of agroecology: conservation tillage on the one hand and agroforestry on the other hand. These studies were based on long-term experiments, a 16-years comparison on cropping systems on luvisols in the Paris area and a 18-year-old silvoarable agroforestry trial, on fluvisols in southern France, the main crops being cereals in both cases. C stocks were measured on an equivalent soil mass basis. Both systems allowed for a net storage of C in soils, which are, for the equivalent of the 0-30 cm tilled layer, of 0.55 ± 0.16 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for conservation agriculture (i.e. no tillage with permanent soil coverage with an associated plant, fescue or alfalfa) and of 0.25 ± 0.03 t ha-1 yr-1 for the agroforestry system. These results are in line with estimates proposed in a recent French national assessment concerning the potential of agricultural practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to recent literature, they further show that practices that increase C inputs to soil through additional biomass production would be more effective to store C in soil (tree rows, cover crops in conservation agriculture) than practices, such as no-tillage, that are assumed to reduce

  12. Using agricultural practices information for multiscale environmental assessment of phosphorus risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos Moreira, Mariana; Lemercier, Blandine; Michot, Didier; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In intensively farmed areas, excessive applications of animal manure and mineral P fertilizers to soils have raised both economic and ecological concerns. P accumulation in agricultural soils leads to increased P losses to surface waterbodies contributing to eutrophication. Increasing soil P content over time in agricultural soils is often correlated with agricultural practices; in Brittany (NW France), an intensive livestock farming region, soil P content is well correlated with animal density (Lemercier et al.,2008). Thus, a better understanding of the factors controlling P distribution is required to enable environmental assessment of P risk. The aim of this study was to understand spatial distribution of extractable (Olsen method) and total P contents and its controlling factors at the catchment scale in order to predict P contents at regional scale (Brittany). Data on soil morphology, soil tests (including P status, particles size, organic carbon…) for 198 punctual positions, crops succession since 20 years, agricultural systems, field and animal manure management were obtained on a well-characterized catchment (ORE Agrhys, 10 km²). A multivariate analysis with mixed quantitative variables and factors and a digital soil mapping approach were performed to identify variables playing a significant role in soil total and extractable P contents and distribution. Spatial analysis was performed by means of the Cubist model, a decision tree-based algorithm. Different scenarios were assessed, considering various panels of predictive variables: soil data, terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model, gamma-ray spectrometry (from airborne geophysical survey) and agricultural practices information. In the research catchment, mean extractable and total P content were 140.0 ± 63.4 mg/kg and 2862.7 ± 773.0 mg/kg, respectively. Organic and mineral P inputs, P balance, soil pH, and Al contents were

  13. Do board characteristics and good governance practices affect charity performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.H.M. Verbeeten; P. Perego

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been a proliferation of 'good governance' initiatives among charitable organizations to encourage increased accountability towards their stakeholders. Despite their diffusion, the efficacy of these best practice guides has not been object of extensive academic research. In

  14. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  15. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  16. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-04-01

    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  17. Irrigation water quality and the benefits of implementing good agricultural practices during tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Acosta, M; Jiménez, M; Chaidez, C; León-Félix, J; Castro-Del Campo, N

    2014-07-01

    The implementation of good agricultural practices (GAP) from irrigation water to the tomato packaging process enhances the safety of fresh produce and its value throughout the food chain. The aim of the present study was to show that fresh produce farms that apply and enforce GAP could reduce the presence of Salmonella in finished produce. Samples were collected biweekly from six packing houses from the central region of Sinaloa, México, for the isolation of Salmonella spp by the ISO 6579:2002 method, and the isolated strains were serotyped and genotyped by the Kauffmman-White scheme and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), respectively. Salmonella strains were detected in 13 (36.1 %) irrigation water samples, while only two tomato samples were positive (5.5 %). Eight different serotypes were identified in irrigation water, and Salmonella Oranienburg (34 %) was the most prevalent; however, only Salmonella Agona and Salmonella Weltevreden were present on tomatoes. Salmonella Oranienburg was the most widely dispersed and variable serotype, with 10 different PFGE profiles. Salmonella Weltevreden was isolated from both types of samples, albeit with distinct genetic profiles, implying that the sources of contamination differ. These results confirm the utility of implementing good agricultural practices to reduce Salmonella contamination in irrigation water and the packaging process. PMID:24682661

  18. The effect of changes in agricultural practices on the density of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna

    2015-07-30

    The impact of agricultural practices/ activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe due to the widespread exodus of inhabitants from rural areas. The associated abandonment of agricultural lands has enabled a wide range of wild animals to prosper in the countryside, including birds, ungulates and large carnivores. One consequence has been the increase in ticks and associated tick-borne diseases which now constitute a greater threat for public health than earlier. The aim of the present study was to compare tick densities in different habitats (pasture, meadow, fallow land, post-fire areas) to assess the impact of different agricultural practices on tick densities in vicinities close to human habitation. Between September 2011 and June 2014, 2985 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by conventional dragging, in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) and Warmińsko-Mazurskie (Masuria) regions of Poland. In each region, 3 study sites were selected, each situated near surface water sources (i.e., ponds or canals). At each site, three neighboring habitats of surface area 150-600 m(2) were dragged: one on a cattle/horse pasture; the second on meadow; the third on fallow land (abandoned field or meadow), at least twice during each spring and autumn. Additionally, four post-fire areas (one in 2013 and three in 2014) were identified in the Mazowieckie region, and dragging was conducted there in spring and autumn, including in each case a 'control area' comprising intact unburned fallow land situated in close vicinity to the burned areas. Eight hundred D. reticulatus ticks were collected and the densities were compared by multifactorial ANOVA. The highest tick densities were recorded on the fallow lands, and the lowest - on the grazed pastures. Tick densities were up to 10 × times higher on the control sites compared to neighboring post-fire sites. PMID:26073110

  19. The garden dying: Commoditization of agriculture and changes in practices of self-consumption among rural families of southern gaucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on qualitative research carried out in the southern extreme of the Rio Grande do Sul state and explores the transformations on the practices of self-consumption production in the context of familiar agriculture, essentially, under the impacts of the process of commoditization of agriculture and the rural life. The self-consumption practices present a cultural matrix among rural families, in spite of the symbolic value attributed to products generated within the very rural establishment, as compared to the ones which are acquired externally in usual commerce or from other units of production. The field-work was performed within thirty family agricultural establishments whose main commercial activity lies on the milk, peach and tobacco production. The authors discuss the impacts of the commoditization of agriculture on the practical of self-consumption production.

  20. How does industrial protection affect the agricultural sector? A quantitative general equilibrium analysis for Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebelt, Manfred

    1989-01-01

    This paper investigates quantitatively the effects of trade policy on agriculture in the empirical context of Peninsular Malaysia using a SAM-based multi-sectoral, general equilibrium model. The focus of the analysis is on the economy-wide implications of changes in tariffs on import-substituting manufacturing activities. In general, the results bear out the expectation that industrial protection distorts incentives favoring manufacturing and nontradable activities over agriculture as a whole...

  1. A New Crop for Salt Affected and Dry Agricultural Areas of Turkey: Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yazar, Attila; KAYA, Çiğdem İNCE

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are two widespread environmental problems induced by climate change and improper applications in agriculture and have important adverse effects on agricultural production. To sustain crop production in such areas for food security, cultivating new crops that can growth under these unfavorable conditions is one of the measures. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is an annual grain plant originated from the Andean region of South America. This plant has potential to be an a...

  2. Information to Action: Providing Management Recommendations to Agricultural Users Affected by Drought

    OpenAIRE

    Erickson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Mitigating drought’s impact on agricultural production is a key part of any food security and economic stabilization plan. While most agricultural producers periodically experience abnormally dry periods that sometimes limit production, extreme or exceptional droughts may occur infrequently enough that management strategies are unfamiliar, outdated, or untested in a particular set of circumstances. While information to spatially delineate and characterize the effects of a drought is important...

  3. The levels and composition of persistent organic pollutants in alluvial agriculture soils affected by flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewska-Kordybach, Barbara; Smreczak, Bozena; Klimkowicz-Pawlas, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    The concentrations and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were determined in alluvial soils subjected to heavy flooding in a rural region of Poland. Soil samples (n = 30) were collected from the upper soil layer from a 70-km(2) area. Chemical determinations included basic physicochemical properties and the contents of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 16 compounds). The median concentrations of Σ7PCB (PCB28 + PCB52 + PCB101 + PCB118 + PCB138 + PCB153 + PCB180), Σ3HCH (α-HCH + β-HCH + γ-HCH) and Σ3pp'(DDT + DDE + DDD) were 1.60 ± 1.03, 0.22 ± 0.13 and 25.18 ± 82.70 μg kg(-1), respectively. The median concentrations of the most abundant PAHs, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene were 50 ± 37, 38 ± 27, 29 ± 30, 45 ± 36 and 24 ± 22 μg kg(-1), respectively. Compared with elsewhere in the world, the overall level of contamination with POPs was low and similar to the levels in agricultural soils from neighbouring countries, except for benzo[a]pyrene and DDT. There was no evidence that flooding affected the levels of POPs in the studied soils. The patterns observed for PAHs and PCBs indicate that atmospheric deposition is the most important long-term source of these contaminants. DDTs were the dominant organochlorine pesticides (up to 99%), and the contribution of the parent pp' isomer was up to 50 % of the ΣDDT, which indicates the advantage of aged contamination. A high pp'DDE/pp'DDD ratio suggests the prevalence of aerobic transformations of parent DDT. Dominance of the γ isomer in the HCHs implies historical use of lindane in the area. The effect of soil properties on the POP concentrations was rather weak, although statistically significant links with the content of the <0.02-mm fraction, Ctotal or Ntotal were observed for some individual compounds in the PCB group. PMID:23877573

  4. Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems: Panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Valdivia, Corinne; Gilles, Jere

    2007-01-01

    A presentation about the results of a panel on collective action, participation and agricultural research within the framework of the SANREM CRSP LTR-4 project "Practices and strategies to address climate and market risks in vulnerable ecosystems". LTRA-4 (Practices and Strategies for Vulnerable Agro-Ecosystems)

  5. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  6. The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2014-05-01

    Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (agroforestry systems; planting of tree lines in cultivated fields and grasslands, and hedges around the field edges. - Increasing the life time of temporary sown grasslands: increase of life time to 5 years. The recent literature was reviewed in order to determine long term (>20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when associated with vineyards. Hedges (i.e 60 m ha-1) stored 0.15 (0.05-0.26) Mg C ha-1 y-1. Very few estimates were available for temperate agroforestry system, and we proposed a value of 1.01 (0

  7. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods. PMID:26196068

  8. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas

    2015-12-01

    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods.

  9. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... to adaptation in agricultural production and analyses to what extent the reformed CAP as currently proposed will provide the tools to deal with the key vulnerabilities and adaptation needs. Specifically, the paper analyses the policy instruments available in the CAPs 1st and 2nd pillars and assesses......, the paper will also analyze the institutional mechanisms available in the adaptation strategy in order to assess their strength with regards to mainstreaming adaptation into agricultural policy. The paper is based on analysis of key EU policy documents and compares the policy instruments...

  10. An Assessment of the Quality of Agricultural Best Management Practices in the James River Basin of Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, Janelle Hope

    2003-01-01

    Assessment tools were developed to address the need for a low cost, rapid method of quantifying the quality of agricultural best management practices (BMPs). Best management practices are either cost-shared, where some or all of the capital costs of the practice were subsidized with federal, state, or local funds, or non cost-shared, where the cost of the practice and its upkeep is paid for by the landowner or farm operator. Cost-share practices are required to comply with state standards, ...

  11. An Assessment of Internet Uses, Practices, and Barriers for Professional Development by Agricultural Science Teachers in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatomide Waheed Olowa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports a study carried out on the utilisation of the Internet by agricultural science teachers in Lagos state focusing on uses, practices, and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature and was administered to 300 agricultural science teachers in Lagos schools. 275 questionnaires properly completed were analyzed. Data reveal that 130 teachers are using the Internet for teaching agricultural science in classrooms as well as for various activities that enhance their professional development. Nevertheless, it was found that agricultural science teachers in Lagos State have not fully utilised the Internet because of barriers related to time factor, accessibility, and facilities. It is suggested that for the proliferation of Internet practices, there needs to be an increase in funding for technology, an introduction of computer/technology education, a provision of pedagogical training for teachers, and a provision of administrational support.

  12. Practical split-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature over agricultural areas from ASTER data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songhan; He, Longhua

    2014-01-01

    A practical split-window algorithm which involves two parameters (transmittance and emissivity) utilized to retrieve land-surface temperature over agricultural areas from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data is presented. First, by calculating the relationship between thermal radiation intensity and temperature, the Planck function is simplified using exponential function which is applied to deduce the split-window algorithm. Second, how to obtain transmittance from water vapor content and the method for estimating emissivity using normalized difference vegetation index are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the algorithm is not sensitive to these two parameters. Finally, a standard atmospheric simulation method has been used to validate the proposed algorithm, and comparison between the algorithm and the prior study has been carried out. The results indicate that the average accuracy is 0.32 K for the case without error in both transmittance and emissivity, which is better than the prior algorithm. The accuracy is also 0.32 K when the transmittance is computed from the water content by piecewise cubic polynomial fit. The accuracy is about 0.30 K˜0.33 K corresponding to different Pv (Pv is the proportion of vegetation) values, which indicates that this algorithm is suitable for different land surface types over agricultural areas.

  13. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwaters and streams affected by agriculture, Locust Grove, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.; Horan, M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of agriculture on the isotope geochemistry of Sr were investigated in two small watersheds in the Atlantic coastal plain of Maryland. Stratified shallow oxic groundwaters in both watersheds contained a retrievable record of increasing recharge rates of chemicals including NO3/-, Cl, Mg, Ca and Sr that were correlated with increasing fertilizer use between about 1940 and 1990. The component of Sr associated with recent agricultural recharge was relatively radiogenic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.715) and it was overwhelming with respect to Sr acquired naturally by water-rock interactions in the oxidized, non-calcareous portion of the saturated zone. Agricultural groundwaters that penetrated relatively unoxidized calcareous glauconitic sediments at depth acquired an additional component of Sr from dissolution of early tertiary marine CaCO3 (87Sr/86Sr=0.708) while undergoing O2 reduction and denitrification. Ground-water discharge contained mixtures of waters of various ages and redox states. Two streams draining the area are considered to have higher 87Sr/86Sr ratios and NO3/- concentrations than they would in the absence of agriculture; however, the streams have consistently different 87Sr/86Sr ratios and NO3/- concentrations because the average depth to calcareous reducing (denitrifying) sediments in the local groundwater flow system was different in the two watersheds. The results of this study indicate that agriculture can alter significantly the isotope geochemistry of Sr in aquifers and streams and that the effects could vary depending on the types, sources and amounts of fertilizers added, the history of fertilizer use and groundwater residence times. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  15. Midwest Climate and Agriculture - Monitoring Tillage Practices with NASA Remote Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makar, N. I.; Archer, S.; Rooks, K.; Sparks, K.; Trigg, C.; Lourie, J.; Wilkins, K.

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about climate change have driven efforts to reduce or offset greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural activity has drawn considerable attention because it accounts for nearly twelve percent of total anthropogenic emissions. Depending on the type of tillage method utilized, farm land can be either a source or a sink of carbon. Conventional tillage disturbs the soil and can release greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Conservational tillage practices have been advocated for their ability to sequester carbon, reduce soil erosion, maintain soil moisture, and increase long-term productivity. If carbon credit trading systems are implemented, a cost-effective, efficient tillage monitoring system is needed to enforce offset standards. Remote sensing technology can expedite the process and has shown promising results in distinguishing crop residue from soil. Agricultural indices such as the CAI, SINDRI, and LCA illuminate the unique reflectance spectra of crop residue and are thus able to classify fields based on percent crop cover. The CAI requires hyperspectral data, as it relies on narrow bands within the shortwave infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Although limited in availability, hyperspectral data has been shown to produce the most accurate results for detecting crop residue on the soil. A new approach to using the CAI was the focus of this study. Previously acquired field data was located in a region covered by a Hyperion swath and is thus the primary study area. In previous studies, ground-based data were needed for each satellite swath to correctly calibrate the linear relationship between the index values and the fraction of residue cover. We hypothesized that there should be a standard method which is able to convert index values into residue classifications without ground data analysis. To do this, end index values for a particular data set were assumed to be associated with end values of residue cover percentages. This method may prove

  16. A SURVEY OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN THE WORLD IN COMPARISON WITH THE EUROPEAN UNION AND TURKEY PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Kılıç Fehmi; Karaca, Ahmet Ali

    2009-01-01

    As public became more aware of the possible hazardous effects of the conventional farming products, organic agriculture practices have been increasingly spreading all over the world. Since the 1980’s, organic agriculture has been an important topic in the research agenda of the scientists active in various fields from science to biology or even economics. Economic Unions have been increasingly important in the last decade, in which one of them is the European Uni...

  17. Using fuzzy cognitive mapping to understand farmers' perception of sustainable agricultural practices for enhanced food security in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Gray, S.; Crow, S.; Shariq, L.; Tamang, Bishal B.

    2012-01-01

    With the world population having reached unprecedented levels, the need for improved food security and sustainable agricultural practices has become all the more pressing. This is especially relevant for subsistence farmers, such as those in the Mid-hill region of Nepal, who typically rely on crop yields for sustenance and have limited access to opportunities for income generation. Although promoting agricultural development in areas like the Mid-hill region has been a priority for NGOs and r...

  18. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  19. Modelling the impacts of agricultural management practices on river water quality in Eastern England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam D; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin M

    2016-09-15

    Agricultural diffuse water pollution remains a notable global pressure on water quality, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and water resources and as a result legislation has been introduced in many parts of the world to protect water bodies. Due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, water quality models have been increasingly applied to catchments as Decision Support Tools (DSTs) to identify mitigation options that can be introduced to reduce agricultural diffuse water pollution and improve water quality. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the River Wensum catchment in eastern England with the aim of quantifying the long-term impacts of potential changes to agricultural management practices on river water quality. Calibration and validation were successfully performed at a daily time-step against observations of discharge, nitrate and total phosphorus obtained from high-frequency water quality monitoring within the Blackwater sub-catchment, covering an area of 19.6 km(2). A variety of mitigation options were identified and modelled, both singly and in combination, and their long-term effects on nitrate and total phosphorus losses were quantified together with the 95% uncertainty range of model predictions. Results showed that introducing a red clover cover crop to the crop rotation scheme applied within the catchment reduced nitrate losses by 19.6%. Buffer strips of 2 m and 6 m width represented the most effective options to reduce total phosphorus losses, achieving reductions of 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. This is one of the first studies to quantify the impacts of agricultural mitigation options on long-term water quality for nitrate and total phosphorus at a daily resolution, in addition to providing an estimate of the uncertainties of those impacts. The results highlighted the need to consider multiple pollutants, the degree of uncertainty associated with model predictions and the risk of

  20. Strengthening affective organizational commitment: the influence of fairness perceptions of management practices and underlying employee cynicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Brian; Chalon, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between cynicism, the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices, and affective organizational commitment. High levels of affective organizational commitment have been shown to reduce voluntary turnover in the nursing workforce. Previous research suggests that "unfair" management practices and employee cynicism lead to lower commitment. It is not clear, however, whether the perceived fairness of particular practices influences affective commitment beyond that accounted for by underlying employee cynicism. Data were obtained from a study involving 1104 registered nurses that formed part of a larger investigation of the general well-being of nurses in Western Australia. Only nurses who were permanent or employed on fixed term or temporary contracts were included. Findings indicated that although higher levels of cynicism among nurses were associated with lower levels of affective commitment, their perception of the fairness of change management and personnel practices influenced their affective commitment over and above their cynicism. The perceived fairness of management practices is an important influence on nurses' affective commitment beyond that accounted for by cynicism. The implication for managers is that the affective organizational commitment of nurses is likely to be strengthened by addressing the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices notwithstanding their beliefs about the integrity of the organization. PMID:21248545

  1. How will conversion to organic cereal production affect carbon stocks in Swedish agricultural soils?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrén, Olof; Kätterer, Thomas; Kirchmann, Holger

    2008-01-01

    Soil carbon changes were modelled over 30 years with the focus on cereal crops, since leys are often managed similarly in organic and conventional agriculture. Other crops were not considered due to difficulties in large-scale cropping of oilseed rape and potatoes organically because of pest problems. Four scenarios were used: 0%, 8% (current), 20% and 100% organic cereal production. Conversion to organic cereal crop production was found to reduce the amount of carbon stored as organic matter...

  2. Dynamic adjustment in agricultural practices to economic incentives aiming to decrease fertilizer application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanxia; Delgado, Michael S; Sesmero, Juan P

    2016-07-15

    Input- and output-based economic policies designed to reduce water pollution from fertilizer runoff by adjusting management practices are theoretically justified and well-understood. Yet, in practice, adjustment in fertilizer application or land allocation may be sluggish. We provide practical guidance for policymakers regarding the relative magnitude and speed of adjustment of input- and output-based policies. Through a dynamic dual model of corn production that takes fertilizer as one of several production inputs, we measure the short- and long-term effects of policies that affect the relative prices of inputs and outputs through the short- and long-term price elasticities of fertilizer application, and also the total time required for different policies to affect fertilizer application through the adjustment rates of capital and land. These estimates allow us to compare input- and output-based policies based on their relative cost-effectiveness. Using data from Indiana and Illinois, we find that input-based policies are more cost-effective than their output-based counterparts in achieving a target reduction in fertilizer application. We show that input- and output-based policies yield adjustment in fertilizer application at the same speed, and that most of the adjustment takes place in the short-term. PMID:27100331

  3. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy

    2014-05-01

    . However, these growth benefits subsequently diminished over time. Insignificant growth benefits were observed for lucerne. The analysis of the literature and our own work indicates that it is difficult to account for all the possible variables where research is used to inform land management practices. Assisting farmers to conduct localised research in cooperative ventures is likely to bring about the best outcomes where site-specific research directly informs land management practices. 1. Michael T. Rose, Antonio F. Patti, Karen R. Little, Alicia L. Brown, W. Roy Jackson, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, A Meta-Analysis and Review of Plant-Growth Response to Humic Substances: Practical Implications for Agriculture, Advances in Agronomy, 2013, 124, 37-89

  4. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuensanta García-Orenes

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA. Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain: residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass, suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  5. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Cerdà, Artemi; Scow, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  6. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna eZhalnina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use.

  7. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows

    2016-04-01

    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  8. Soil organic carbon fractionation for improving agricultural soil quality diagnosis in different management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Chartin, Caroline; Kruger, Inken; Carnol, Monique; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2016-04-01

    Preserving ecosystem functions of soil organic matter (SOM) in soils is a key challenge. The need for an efficient diagnosis of SOM state in agricultural soils is a priority in order to facilitate the detection of changes in soil quality as a result of changes in management practices. The nature of SOM is complex and cannot readily be monitored due to the heterogeneity of its components. Assessment of the SOM level dynamics, typically characterized as the bulk soil organic carbon (SOC), can be refined by taking into account carbon pools with different turnover rates and stability. Fractionating bulk SOC in meaningful soil organic fractions helps to better diagnose SOC status. By separating carbon associated with clay and fine silt particles (stable carbon with slow turnover rate) and carbon non-associated with this fraction (labile and intermediate carbon with higher turnover rates), effects of management can be detected more efficiently at different spatial and temporal scales. Until now, most work on SOC fractionation has focused on small spatial scales along management or time gradients. The present case study focuses on SOC fractionation applied in order to refine the interpretation of organic matter turnover and SOC sequestration for regional units in Wallonia with comparable climate, management and, to a certain extent, soil conditions. In each unit, random samples from specific land uses are analyzed in order to assess the Normal Operative Ranges (NOR) of SOC fraction contents for each unit and land use combination. Thus, SOC levels of the different fractions of a specific field in a given unit can be compared to its corresponding NOR. It will help to better diagnose agricultural soil quality in terms of organic carbon compared to a bulk SOC diagnosis.

  9. Agricultural Land Use and Best Management Practices to Control Nonpoint Water Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripa, Maria Nicoletta; Leone, Antonio; Garnier, Monica; Porto, Antonio Lo

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, improvements in point-source depuration technologies have highlighted the problems regarding agricultural nonpoint (diffuse) sources, and this issue has become highly relevant from the environmental point of view. The considerable extension of the areas responsible for this kind of pollution, together with the scarcity of funds available to local managers, make minimizing the impacts of nonpoint sources on a whole basin a virtually impossible task. This article presents the results of a study intended to pinpoint those agricultural areas, within a basin, that contribute most to water pollution, so that operations aimed at preventing and/or reducing this kind of pollution can be focused on them. With this aim, an innovative approach is presented that integrates a field-scale management model, a simple regression model, and a geographic information system (GIS). The Lake Vico basin, where recent studies highlighted a considerable increase in the trophic state, mainly caused by phosphorus (P) compounds deriving principally from the intensive cultivation of hazelnut trees in the lake basin, was chosen as the study site. Using the management model Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems (GLEAMS), the consequences, in terms of sediment yield and phosphorus export, of hazelnut tree cultivation were estimated on different areas of the basin with and without the application of a best management practice (BMP) that consists of growing meadow under the trees. The GLEAMS results were successively extended to basin scale thanks to the application of a purposely designed regression model and of a GIS. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows: The effectiveness of the above-mentioned BMP is always greater for erosion reduction than for particulate P reduction, whatever the slope value considered; moreover, the effectiveness with reference to both particulate P and sediment yield production decreases as the slope increases. The

  10. Urban Agriculture Practices and Health Problems among Farmers Operating on a University Campus in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana O.B. Ackerson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture, a world-wide practice, faces both environmental and health challenges. Farmers are susceptible to occupational and other water-related health risks. The research identified health problems related to urban agricultural farming through farmers’ social characteristics and agricultural practices. Thorough interviews, using structured questionnaires, were carried out. Sixty three farmers responded to questions ranging from agricultural practices to health problems encountered. The findings showed that farmers apply both organic and inorganic fertilisers while 97% used pesticides of varying active ingredients at different application rates. Only 10% used personal protective clothing during the application of pesticides. Overhead irrigation was carried out using a watering can. Eighty four percent and 13% of the respondents utilised water from shallow wells and shallow wells mixed with contaminated stream, respectively. Besides schistosomiasis and cholera, other bacterial diseases, nematode infections, malaria, headaches, dermatological, visual, cardiac, and respiratory problems were common health complaints. Headache complaints were the most common (75%.L’agriculture urbaine, une pratique qui a cours dans le monde entier, est confrontée à des défis d’ordre environnemental et sanitaire. Les agriculteurs sont exposés à divers risques professionnels, et notamment à ceux que l'eau peut poser pour leur santé. Cette étude a identifié les problèmes de santé liés à l’agriculture urbaine en fonction des caractéristiques sociales et des pratiques des agriculteurs. Des entretiens approfondis ont été conduits en suivant des questionnaires structurés. Soixante-trois fermiers ont répondu aux questions, qui abordaient leurs pratiques agricoles ainsi que leurs problèmes de santé. Les résultats montrent que les fermiers emploient aussi bien des engrais organiques que non organiques, et que 97 % utilisent des pesticides

  11. The impacts of conservation agriculture on crop yield in China depend on specific practices, crops and cropping regions

    OpenAIRE

    Chengyan Zheng; Yu Jiang; Changqing Chen; Yanni Sun; Jinfei Feng; Aixing Deng; Zhenwei Song; Weijian Zhang

    2014-01-01

    For smooth and wide application of conservation agriculture (CA), remaining uncertainties about its impacts on crop yield need to be reduced. Based on previous field experiments in China, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the actual impacts of CA practices (NT: no/reduced-tillage only, CTSR: conventional tillage with straw retention, NTSR: NT with straw retention) on crop yields as compared to conventional tillage without straw retention (CT). Although CA practices increased crop yiel...

  12. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  13. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  14. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, A. David M.; Latham, M. Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate (‘1080’) delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10–15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30–35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93–94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  15. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, A David M; Latham, M Cecilia; Nugent, Graham; Smith, James; Warburton, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate ('1080') delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage). Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10-15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30-35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93-94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula) in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy. PMID:27341209

  16. Refining Operational Practice for Controlling Introduced European Rabbits on Agricultural Lands in New Zealand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A David M Latham

    Full Text Available European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus pose a major threat to agricultural production and conservation values in several countries. In New Zealand, population control via poisoning is a frontline method for limiting rabbit damage, with large areas commonly treated using the metabolic toxin sodium fluoroacetate ('1080' delivered in bait via aerial dispersal. However, this method is expensive and the high application rates of the active ingredient cause public antipathy towards it. To guide reductions in cost and toxin usage, we evaluated the economics and efficacy of rabbit control using an experimental approach of sowing 1080-bait in strips instead of the commonly-used broadcast sowing method (i.e. complete coverage. Over a 4-year period we studied aerial delivery of 0.02% 1080 on diced carrot bait over ~3500 ha of rabbit-prone land in the North and South islands. In each case, experimental sowing via strip patterns using 10-15 kg of bait per hectare was compared with the current best practice of aerial broadcast sowing at 30-35 kg/ha. Operational kill rates exceeded 87% in all but one case and averaged 93-94% across a total of 19 treatment replicates under comparable conditions; there was no statistical difference in overall efficacy observed between the two sowing methods. We project that strip-sowing could reduce by two thirds the amount of active 1080 applied per hectare in aerial control operations against rabbits, both reducing the non-target poisoning risk and promoting cost savings to farming operations. These results indicate that, similarly to the recently-highlighted benefits of adopting strip-sowing for poison control of introduced brushtail possums (Trichosurus vulpecula in New Zealand, aerial strip-sowing of toxic bait could also be considered a best practice method for rabbit control in pest control policy.

  17. Effectiveness of Agricultural Practices in Decreasing Radionuclide Transfer to Plants in Natural Meadows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural practices (discing+ploughing, reseeding, liming and the use of NPK fertilisers) were used to decrease 137Cs (RCs) and 90Sr (RSr) transfer to plants in natural meadows in Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Experiments were carried out in the 1997-1999 period. Results from field experiments showed that RCs transfer in control meadows was in most cases higher than in ploughed plots (up to 3-4 times). Discing+ploughing was the most effective treatment. In addition, there was a significant trend in decreasing RCs transfer when using increasing amounts of NPK fertiliser. A time dependence was noticed, since the overall transfer was lower in the following years after the start of the experiments. Regarding RSr, no significant effect was observed in the first year. However, the effect of ploughing caused a transfer decrease by 2-4 times in the second year. Laboratory experiments showed that changes in RCs soil sorption properties are likely after ploughing, and that NPK fertilisation and liming rates used were not sufficient to ensure K and Ca+Mg concentrations in soil solution high enough to achieve the maximum decrease in radionuclide transfer. (author)

  18. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holvoet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  19. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  20. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner

    2016-01-01

    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  1. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindhu, Jagadamma [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus

    2010-08-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity influenced by different agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mar Alguacil, Maria; Torrecillas, Emma; Garcia-Orenes, Fuensanta; Torres, Maria Pilar; Roldan, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study a field experiment was performed at the El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera Experimental Station (eastern Spain) to assess the influence during a 6-yr period of different agricultural practices on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). The management practices included residual herbicide use, ploughing, ploughing + oats, addition of oat straw mulch and a control (land abandonment). Adjacent soil under natural vegetation was used as a reference for local, high-quality soil and as a control for comparison with the agricultural soils under different management practices. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Thirty-six different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in four families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Ambisporaceae and Claroideoglomeraceae. The first results showed significant differences in the distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between agricultural management practices. Thus, the lowest diversity was observed for the plot that was treated with herbicide. The management practices including ploughing and ploughing + oats had similar AMF diversity. Oat straw mulching yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types and showed the highest diversity index. Thus, this treatment could be more suitable in sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity.

  3. Comparative study on factors affecting anaerobic digestion of agricultural vegetal residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cioabla Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, different studies are conducted related to the topic of biomass potential to generate through anaerobic fermentation process alternative fuels supposed to support the existing fossil fuel resources, which are more and more needed, in quantity, but also in quality of so called green energy. The present study focuses on depicting an optional way of capitalizing agricultural biomass residues using anaerobic fermentation in order to obtain biogas with satisfactory characteristics.. The research is based on wheat bran and a mix of damaged ground grains substrates for biogas production. Results The information and conclusions delivered offer results covering the general characteristics of biomass used , the process parameters with direct impact over the biogas production (temperature regime, pH values and the daily biogas production for each batch relative to the used material. Conclusions All conclusions are based on processing of monitoring process results , with accent on temperature and pH influence on the daily biogas production for the two batches. The main conclusion underlines the fact that the mixture batch produces a larger quantity of biogas, using approximately the same process conditions and input, in comparison to alone analyzed probes, indicating thus a higher potential for the biogas production than the wheat bran substrate. Adrian Eugen Cioabla, Ioana Ionel, Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel and Francisc Popescu contributed equally to this work

  4. Wetlands as Best Management Practices to Mitigate Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Karpuzcu, Mahmut Ekrem

    2012-01-01

    Technological advances in modern agriculture and the application of nitrogen-based synthetic fertilizers and manure to agricultural crops have increased crop yields and food production for the world's growing population. However, a significant portion of the applied nitrogen is in excess of crop needs. This results in leaching of nitrate into the groundwater and eutrophication of surface water systems via surface runoff. Agricultural pesticides are also required to maintain high levels of cro...

  5. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  6. How does pyrogenic organic matter affect the N dynamic in agricultural soils? An incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rosa, José M.; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    to a typical Andalusian agricultural soil (calcareous Rhodoxeralf, FAO-UNESCO classification). The bioavailability of the 15N from the biochars was tested by determining its content in grass (lolium perenne) grown on this soil under defined conditions. Following the 15N within the soil fractions gave further information about some mechanisms involved in N-partioning and stabilization. Chemical alteration of the 15N-containing organic structures during mobilization/immobilization were followed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy in order to obtain some more insights into the processes involved in the C and N-sequestration. References: Campbell, C.A., V.O. Biederbeck, G. Wen, R.P. Zentner, J. Schoenau and D. Hahn, Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79 (1999), pp. 73-84. Dick, R.P., Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 40 (1992), pp. 25-36. González-Pérez, J.A., F.J., González-Vila, G., Almendros and H., Knicker, Environment International 30 (2004), pp. 855-870. Schlesinger, W.H., J.E. Reynolds, G.L. Cunningham, L.F. Huenneke, W.M. Jarrell, R.A. Virginia and W.G. Whitford, Science 247 (1990), pp. 1043-1048.

  7. Does biochar with organic amendments affect denitrification in an agricultural soil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Regine; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl Hanl, Wolfgang; Dunst, Gerald; Kitzler, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    In this laboratory experiment we investigated the influence of biochar (BC) application on dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an agricultural soil in Austria. We produced BC at 550°C from fiber sludge and husk, partly enriched with ammonium sulfate and mixed with garden green compost at a 50/50 ratio (w/w). The gleyic Cambisol originates from an experimental site in Kaindorf, Austria. For the incubation experiment we established three different treatments in 2014: K (control plots); T1 (1 % BC-compost mixture) and T2 (0.5 % BC-compost mixture enriched with 175 kg N ha-1). We used the helium gas flow soil core technique to quantify N2 and N2O fluxes simultaneously. Therefore, we incubated soil cores at ambient air temperature (20 and 24°C) at 20 and 50% water filled pore space (WFPS). Results show that before BC addition N2 and N2O fluxes were similar at all treatments. Measurements of pure nitrogen-enriched BC show very high gaseous losses in form of N2 and N2O. Raising temperature promotes N2 production at all treatments. Application of N-enriched BC led to significantly higher N2 fluxes compared to K. N2O fluxes increased significantly at fertilized BC plots (T2) compared to K and T1 at both water contents. Raising WFPS supports higher N2 production at all treatments but lowers N2 fluxes at BC plots.

  8. Conservation agriculture practices to enhance soil organic in Lombardy plain (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Alessia; Giussani, Andrea; Corsi, Stefano; Tosini, Andrea; Acutis, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that conservation agriculture (CA) determines a long-term increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in cropland. The present study aimed to estimate the amount of SOC stored in soil of Lombardy plain (Northern Italy) following the change from tillage agriculture (TA) to CA by using crop ARMOSA crop over 23 years (1989-2011). The territorial analysis was performed at agrarian region scale (AR) after identification of the representative crops rotation and soil types. The land use information were data available at cadastral scale and referred to 5 years (from 2007 to 2011). The meteorological data (i.e. maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation) were measured at 14 monitoring stations. Solar radiation was estimated using the equation of the Bristow and Campbell model (1994). A spatial interpolation method was used to extend the meteorological data throughout the entire plain of the region by employing Thiessen polygon method; the meteorological data of the polygon were assigned to each AR. ARMOSA was parameterized to simulate the two tillage systems. For TA and CA scenario the depth of tillage was limited to 35 and 10 cm, respectively; crop residual incorporation was not simulated under CA. In TA scenario, we used the parameters calibrated and validated by Perego et al.(2013) on a wide dataset collected at six monitoring sites in Lombardy plain. In CA, the rate of C decomposition of humified organic C was assumed to be smaller by 30% in no-tillage than in TA (Oorts et al., 2007). The model results showed a significant improve of SOC (p<0.01) from TA to CA under all the crop rotations with a potential SOC sequestration ranged from 0.1 to 0.48 t C ha-1 y-1. While soil type did not affect significantly the SOC sequestration, crop residue determined relevant increases in SOC. That was particularly evident in grain maize monoculture with or without cover crop. References: Oorts K., Garnier P., Findeling A., Mary B., Richard G., Nicolardot B

  9. Factors Affecting Adoption of Recommended Management Practices in Stocker Cattle Production

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Rachel J.; Damona G. Doye; Lalman, David L.; Peel, Derrell S.; Raper, Kellie Curry; Chung, Chanjin

    2010-01-01

    Binary logit regression models were used to estimate factors affecting adoption of recommended management practices. Variables analyzed include aspects of farm structure, human capital, farm objectives, and production system employed by the producer. Results reveal that operation size and dependency upon income from the stocker operation, in particular, influence the adoption of recommended practices. Older producers and those pursuing a year-round production strategy were found to lag in ado...

  10. How long-term mindfulness meditation practice affects the brain mechanisms of attention?

    OpenAIRE

    Roininen, Minna

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades, the beneficial effects of meditation and mindfulness have been broadly researched. Because attention plays a key role in mindfulness, it has been assumed that long-term practice of mindfulness meditation also has an impact on attention on neurophysiological level.In the current study, we explored how the long-term practice of mindfulness meditation affects the brain mechanisms of attention. We compared two groups, long-term meditation practisers and medita...

  11. Yield response of Bere, a Scottish barley landrace, to cultural practices and agricultural inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J. Martin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is very little documented about the response of cereal landraces to modern agricultural practices. Bere is a Scottish barley (Hordeum vulgare L. landrace which is grown in Orkney to supply meal for baking. A recent research programme has improved yields and the security of the Bere harvest, making it possible to supply a new market for grain to produce specialist whiskies. At the start of this research, a survey of Orkney farmers who had grown Bere since the 1980s showed that most had planted it at the traditional time in mid-May, used few inputs and considered the main constraints of the crop to be low yield (2.8 to 3.8 t/ha and susceptibility to lodging. Three years of trials in Orkney between 2003 and 2005 showed very significant increases in grain yield (17-76% and thousand grain weight from planting Bere earlier, in the second half of April. This also had the advantage of an earlier and more secure harvest. Yields showed smaller, but often significant, increases (5-11% from applying mineral fertiliser, growth regulator or fungicide, while combinations of growth regulator and fungicide increased yields from 10- 22%. In spite of usually increasing grain yield, growth regulator did not always control lodging. Although the use of inputs often increased the gross margins of growing Bere, a trial in 2005 showed that early planting was a more cost effective single intervention than either the use of fungicide or growth regulator. By increasing grower profits and reducing harvesting risks, these results have made it viable for more farmers to grow Bere in its region of origin, providing growers and end-users with additional income and contributing to the in situ conservation of this landrace.

  12. Agricultural practices and residual corn during spring crane and waterfowl migration in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherfy, M.H.; Anteau, M.J.; Bishop, A.A.

    2011-01-01

    Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) is a major spring-staging area for migratory birds. Over 6 million ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) stage there en route to tundra, boreal forest, and prairie breeding habitats, storing nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming primarily corn remaining in fields after harvest (hereafter residual corn). In springs 2005-2007, we measured residual corn density in randomly selected harvested cornfields during early (n=188) and late migration (n=143) periods. We estimated the mean density of residual corn for the CPRV and examined the influence of agricultural practices (post-harvest field management) and migration period on residual corn density. During the early migration period, residual corn density was greater in idle harvested fields than any other treatments of fields (42%, 48%, 53%, and 92% more than grazed, grazed and mulched, mulched, and tilled fields, respectively). Depletion of residual corn from early to late migration did not differ among post-harvest treatments but was greatest during the year when overall corn density was lowest (2006). Geometric mean early-migration residual corn density for the CPRV in 2005-2007 (42.4 kg/ha; 95% CI=35.2-51.5 kg/ha) was markedly lower than previously published estimates, indicating that there has been a decrease in abundance of residual corn available to waterfowl during spring staging. Increases in harvest efficiency have been implicated as a cause for decreasing corn densities since the 1970s. However, our data show that post-harvest management of cornfields also can substantially influence the density of residual corn remaining in fields during spring migration. Thus, managers may be able to influence abundance of high-energy foods for spring-staging migratory birds in the CPRV through programs that influence post-harvest management of cornfields. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  13. ISO 14 001 at the farm level: analysis of five methods for evaluating the environmental impact of agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, M B; Peschard, D; Boizard, H

    2007-02-01

    Faced with society's increasing expectations, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) review considers environmental management to be an ever more critical criterion in the allocation of farm subsidies. With the goal of evaluating the environmental friendliness of farm practices, France's agricultural research and extension services have built a range of agricultural/environmental diagnostic tools over recent years. The objective of the present paper is to compare the five tools most frequently used in France: IDEA, DIAGE, DIALECTE, DIALOGUE and INDIGO. All the tools have the same purpose: evaluation of the impact of farm practices on the environment via indicators and monitoring of farm management practices. When tested on a sample of large-scale farms in Picardie, the five tools sometimes produced completely different results: for a given farm, the most supposedly significant environmental impacts depend on the tool used. These results lead to differing environmental management plans and raise the question of the methods' pertinence. An analysis grid of diagnostic tools aimed at specifying their field of validity, limits and relevance was drawn up. The resulting comparative analysis enables to define each tool's domain of validity and allows to suggest lines of thought for developing more relevant tools for (i) evaluating a farm's environmental performance and (ii) helping farmers to develop a plan for improving practices within the framework of an environmental management system.

  14. Performance measurement of the agricultural marketing cooperatives : The gap between theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soboh, R.A.M.E.; Oude Lansink, A.; Giesen, G.; Dijk, van G.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of agricultural cooperatives depends on their business objectives, which are defined in different ways in the literature. We review the theoretical literature on the performance of agricultural marketing cooperatives. Studies can be divided into two classes, those that assume a singl

  15. Multifunctional Agriculture in Policy and Practice? A Comparative Analysis of Norway and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkhaug, Hilde; Richards, Carol Ann

    2008-01-01

    Ideals of productivist agriculture in the Western world have faded as the unintended consequences of intensive agriculture and pastoralism have contributed to rural decline and environmental problems. In Norway and Australia, there has been an increasing acceptance of the equal importance of social and environmental sustainability as well as…

  16. Farmers Engaged in Deliberative Practice; An Ethnographic Exploration of the Mosaic of Concerns in Livestock Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, C.P.G.

    2012-01-01

    A plethora of ethical issues in livestock agriculture has emerged to public attention in recent decades, of which environmental and animal welfare concerns are but two, albeit prominent, themes. For livestock agriculture to be considered sustainable, somehow these interconnected themes need to be ad

  17. Practice and Reflection on Interactive Three-Dimensional Teaching System in Agricultural and Forestry Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    Ever since the new curriculum was implemented, Sichuan Agricultural University that is characterized by agricultural science has conducted ideological and political teaching reform, explored a basic route to integrate scientific outlook on development into theoretical teaching and initially formed a human-oriented interactive three-dimensional…

  18. Sorption interactions of organic compounds with soils affected by agricultural olive mill wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda

    2015-11-01

    The organic compound-soil interactions may be strongly influenced by changes in soil organic matter (OM) which affects the environmental fate of multiple organic pollutants. The soil OM changes may be caused by land disposal of various OM-containing wastes. One unique type of OM-rich waste is olive mill-related wastewater (OMW) characterized by high levels of OM, the presence of fatty aliphatics and polyphenolic aromatics. The systematic data on effects of the land-applied OMW on organic compound-soil interactions is lacking. Therefore, aqueous sorption of simazine and diuron, two herbicides, was examined in batch experiments onto three soils, including untreated and OMW-affected samples. Typically, the organic compound-soil interactions increased following the prior land application of OMW. This increase is associated with the changes in sorption mechanisms and cannot be attributed solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content. A novel observation is that the OMW application changes the soil-sorbent matrix in such a way that the solute uptake may become cooperative or the existing ability of a soil sorbent to cooperatively sorb organic molecules from water may become characterized by a larger affinity. The remarkable finding of this study was that in some cases a cooperative uptake of organic molecules by soils makes itself evident in distinct sigmoidal sorption isotherms rarely observed in soil sorption of non-ionized organic compounds; the cooperative herbicide-soil interactions may be characterized by the Hill model coefficients. However, no single trend was found for the effect of applied OMW on the mechanisms of organic compound-soil interactions. PMID:26183941

  19. Analysis of bioavailable Ge in agricultural and mining-affected-soils in Freiberg area (Saxony, Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Germanium (Ge) concentrations in different soil fraction were investigated using a sequential selective dissolution analysis and a rhizosphere-based single-step extraction method for the identification of Ge-bearing soil fractions and prediction of bioavailability of Ge in soil to plants. About 50 soil samples were collected from various soil depths (horizons A and B) and study sites with different types of land use (dry and moist grassland, arable land, mine dumps) in Freiberg area (Saxony, Germany). Ge has been extracted in six soil fractions: mobile fraction, organic matter and sulfides, Mn- and Fe-oxides (amorphous and crystalline), and kaolinite and phytoliths, and residual fraction. The rhizosphere-based method included a 7-day-long extraction sequence with various organic acids like citric acid, malic acid and acetic acid. For the residue the aforementioned sequential extraction has been applied. The Ge-content of the samples have been measured with ICP-MS using rhodium internal standard and two different soil standards. Total Ge concentrations were found to be in the range of 1.6 to 5.5 ppm with highest concentrations on the tailing site in the mining area of Altenberg. The mean Ge concentration in agriculturally used soils was 2.6 ± 0.67 ppm, whereas the maximum values reach 2.9 ± 0.64 ppm and 3.2 ± 0.67 ppm in Himmelsfürst and in a grassland by the Mulde river, respectively. With respect to the fractions, the vast majority of Ge is contained in the last three fractions, indicating that the bioavailable Ge is typically low in the samples. On the other hand at the soil horizons A at the aforementioned two sites characterised by high total Ge, together with that of Reiche Zeche mine dump have also the highest concentrations of Ge in the first three fractions, reaching levels of 1.74 and 0.98 ppm which account for approximately 40% of the total Ge content. Ge concentrations of soil samples extracted with 0.01 or 0.1 M citric acid and malic acid were

  20. Evaluating the incorporation of heavy metals to agroecosystem. Role of the productive practices executed by agricultural workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Health risks associated to practical activities in farm and agriculture are increasing all over the world. These risks are depending from technology and chemicals substances abuse. Urban agriculture specifically constitutes a challenge for producers and researchers. Agricultural food production, held inside of the cities, looking for sustainable productions is developed in risky scenarios where it is possible to found environmental pollutants such as heavy metals. Environmental pollutants may to contaminate humans throughout different pathways. The analysis of factors related to agricultural working strategies of urban farm workers, the precedent knowledgement about production places and analytical data related to composition and properties of these sites, are significant criteria for proper management of ecosystems. Qualitative analysis research tool such as expert group criteria is a suitable method for field research in this area. It was determined that the precedent use of soil, the use of fertilizers and phytosanitary products are key elements to be taken into account for successful management of agroecosystems and for health risk prevention related to the possible influence of heavy metals in farm practice

  1. Farmers’ Practices in Developing Agricultural Land in Malaysia: Is there an Islamic Microfinance Solution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Hakimi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This paper attempts to highlight the farmers’ lives in Malaysia and their problems in developing idle agricultural land.Methods - This paper is using descriptive and exploratory method of study which refer to the situation of agricultural sector in Malaysia.Results - The scheme aPLS (agricultural production and loss sharing that proposed cannot stand alone in the traditional fiqh to be implemented now. Therefore, the combinations of aPLS contract with ujrah principle are really needed. This is important to ensure the flexibility of the contract that can offer a fully comprehensive scheme of Islamic agricultural finance.Conclusion – The land together with labour can be considered as a form of capital and therefore has a similarity to the contracts of mudaraba and musharaka. Hence, it can be said that these principles are “agricultural production and loss sharing (aPLS” because land will naturally produce an output or a product. Muzara’a and musaqa therefore can be said to be contracts which are based on sharing output rather than sharing profit.Keywords: Idle Agricultural Land, Islamic agricultural finance, Malaysia

  2. Factors affecting the adoption of green supply chain management practices in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Govindan, Kannan;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the factors that affect the adoption of Green Supply Chain Management practices based on empirical evidence from the Brazilian electronics sector. Data are collected in a survey of 100 electronics companies and analysed using statistical analysis o...

  3. The impact of stormwater treatment areas and agricultural best management practices on water quality in the Everglades Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entry, James A; Gottlieb, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Half of the original Everglades system has been lost to drainage and development. What remains is included within the boundaries of the Everglades Protection Area (EPA), comprised of three Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and Everglades National Park (Park). Inflows to the EPA contain elevated nutrient concentrations. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented and six large wetlands called stormwater treatment areas (STAs) were constructed to improve water quality. We analyzed water quality in the WCAs and Park and performed an economic analysis of the STAs to remove nutrients from EPA inflows. In general, nutrient concentrations in all WCAs were higher during the pre-STA period than after the STAs became operational. In WCA2 and the Park, total phosphorus (TP) trends showed more negative slopes prior, as compared to after, the STAs became operational. These results suggest that BMPs lead to large initial decreases in nutrient export resulting in improved downstream water quality. A preliminary economic analysis shows that operation and management of the STAs are complicated and cost intensive. Comparing the cost of phosphorus (P) removal from water entering the EPA using BMPs and STAs may not currently be viable. BMPs prevent P from being applied to, or leaving from agricultural fields while STAs remove P from stormwater. We expect nutrient concentrations in water flowing into and out of the STAs to decline as both BMPs and STAs become more effective. We suggest an economic analysis of BMPs, STAs, and other potential approaches to determine the most cost-effective methods to reduce nutrient concentrations and related stressors affecting the Everglades. PMID:24081816

  4. The developmental dynamics of children's academic performance and mothers' homework-related affect and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their affect, practices, and perceptions while their children were in Grades 2, 3, and 4. The results showed, first, that the more help in homework the mothers reported, the slower was the development of their children's academic performance from Grade 1 to Grade 4. This negative association was true especially if mothers perceived their children not to be able to work autonomously. Second, children's good academic performance in Grade 1 predicted mothers' perception of child's ability to be autonomous and positive affect in homework situations later on, whereas poor performance predicted mothers' negative affect, help, and monitoring. Finally, mothers' negative affect mediated the association between children's poor performance, maternal practices, and perceptions of their children. PMID:25798959

  5. Functional profiles of soil microbial populations under various climatic conditions and agricultural practices in Burkina-Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgerie, S.; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Sajaloli, B; Yengué, E; Morabito, D.

    2014-01-01

    International audience BIOSOL is a multidisciplinary scientific program (soil science, agronomy, geography) which aims at understanding and promoting agro-ecological practices among peasant communities in Burkina-Faso. In this work, the pedological, geochemical and microbiological characteristics of agricultural soils were investigated in order to make an inventory of soil fertility. Two sites (villages of Sampiéri and Bandougou) with contrasted pedo-climatic conditions were selected.

  6. Potential of conservation agriculture practices (CAPs) in enhancing food security of tribal people in central mid-hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Thapa, K

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of steep sloping lands, resulting lower productivity, degradation of soil health and reduction of livelihood options. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological framework to develop improved conservation practices (CAPs) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of Chepang tribal people in central Nepal. CAPs were identif...

  7. Etude Climat no. 39 'More than 800 agricultural and agri-food sites affected by the EU ETS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    both a source of additional revenue to the agricultural sector and an incentive to implement less polluting practices and technologies. The rules are changing from 2013, with allowance allocation being defined according to a benchmark of carbon intensity - rather than historical emissions - and an end to free allocations for sectors with no risk of carbon leakage. This means that some agricultural and agri-food installations will have to pay for part of their emissions. Installations covered by the EU ETS will therefore have to reduce their emissions - some have already begun - in order to achieve compliance. The main solution is the substitution of fossil fuels with biomass, which is considered to be carbon neutral. Other solutions are beginning to be developed, such as high-temperature catalysis among producers of nitrogen fertilizers, heat recovery in dairies and dryeration in dryers, etc

  8. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIT01), Gravity Irrigation Source (GI) on agricultural land by county (nri_it01)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIT01), Gravity...

  9. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS05), Combination of Irrigation Sources (CIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is05)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS05),...

  10. The characteristics of agricultural practices in Bang Kachao area, the Bangkok metropolitan fringe

    OpenAIRE

    Khaokhrueamuang, Amnaj

    2014-01-01

    Bang Kachao area, a conserved green zone in the southern part of Bangkok, has been recently well-known asone of the tourist destinations for rural tourism at a short distance to the city, which are mostly based on thetourism resources generated from agriculture. The present study, therefore, discusses agritourism that shouldbe mainly facilitated in four agricultural systems: traditional mixed orchards, monoculture, integratedfarming, and agroforestry. These systems have applied “sufficiency e...

  11. Perspectives of students of agricultural branches´ on putting into practice

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Čermáková; Martin Maršík; Ivana Leitmanová

    1999-01-01

    In the article, there are resumed some results of research whose aim was to predict, with use of statistic research of employers with agricultural activity line: what chance of success in getting job have the absolvents of agricultural faculties in their study line; the way of receiving new employees; if there is more important special knowledge or personal characteristic of applicants for employers; what emphasis is placed on knowledge of foreign languages and PC work. The knowledge of real ...

  12. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.

    2009-04-01

    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard

  13. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  14. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.

    2011-01-01

    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  15. Associations between conservation practices and ecology: ecological responses of agricultural streams and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP) Watershed Assessment Study goals are to quantify the environmental benefits of conservation practices at the watershed scale. Currently, a critical knowledge gap exists in linking conservation practices and their ecological effects on aquatic ecosy...

  16. 影响湘西农业经营效益的环境因素例举%Examples of Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Operation Efficiency in West Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢景连

    2014-01-01

    In considering the development of agricultural production , the relevant departments are accustomed to treating economic theories as guidance to make agricultural development decisions , but in recent years , such decisions don't get expected results in practice . The reason is that , when making agricultural development planning , they often ignore the environmental factors on the effects of agricultural operations . The author of this article takes Western Hunan as an example , analyzes environmental factors as a restrictive factor which affects agricultural operations , and hopes to cause the attention of the relevant departments .%在考虑农业生产发展时,相关部门都习惯于以经济学的相关理论为指导作出农业发展决策,但这样的农业发展决策,在近年来的实践运行中,大都不理想。原因在于,作出农业发展规划时,往往忽略了环境因素对农业经营效应的影响。以湘西地区熟知的事例为依据,剖析环境因素对农业经营效应实现的制约作用,以便引起相关部门的注意。

  17. Exploration and Practice of Customized Agricultural Meteorological Service Based on Short Message Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqiang; CUI; Xuemei; GUO; Jun; TANG; Jing; XU; Min; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of main problems existing in current agricultural meteorological service in China,for the purpose of exploring a solution to the "last kilometer" problem in rural meteorological service,this article designed four short message service products with the business brand name "meteorology for agricultural condition",including "weather prediction for farming season","weather forecast for farming","weather alert",and "meteorological hazards of agriculture".By taking advantage of telecom operators’ market,these products have been spread to more than 1 million rural mobile phone users and widely welcomed.They also contributed enormously to disaster prevention and peasants’ income growth,and achieved good social and economic benefits.

  18. Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Stenner, Paul; Greco, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The concept of affectivity has assumed central importance in much recent scholarship, and many in the social sciences and humanities now talk of an ‘affective turn’. The concept of affectivity at play in this ‘turn’ remains, however, somewhat vague and slippery. Starting with Silvan Tomkins’ influential theory of affect, this paper will explore the relevance of the general assumptions (or ‘utmost abstractions’) that inform thinking about affectivity. The technological and instrumentalist char...

  19. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: Field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 μm, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer. - Highlights: ► Agricultural practices transmit soil-derived radionuclides to the atmosphere. ► Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of soil surface. ► Tillage diluted the concentrations of radionuclides in the uppermost soil layer.

  20. Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cau

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield over a long period of time for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central Sardinia, Italy. The physical processes associated with water movement, crop growth, and nutrient cycling are directly modeled by SWAT. The model simulations are used to identify indicators that reflect critical processes related to the integrity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Specifically we focus on stream quality and quantity indicators associated with anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. A multicriteria decision support system is then used to develop the analysis matrix where water quality and quantity indicators for the rivers, lagoons, and soil are combined with socio-economic variables. The DSS is used to assess four options involving alternative watersheds designated for intensive agriculture and dairy farming and the use or not of treated wastewater for irrigation. Our analysis suggests that of the four options, the most widely acceptable consists in the transfer of intensive agricultural practices to the larger watershed, which is less vulnerable, in tandem with wastewater reuse, which rates highly due to water scarcity in this region of the Mediterranean. More generally, the work demonstrates how both qualitative and quantitative methods and information can assist decision making in complex settings.

  1. Good Agricultural Practice (GAP -Does It Ensure a Perfect Supply of Medicinal Herbs for Research and Drug Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P C Leung

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Summary: While users of herbal formulae have been disappointed with the lack of uniformity with the quality of herbs provided by the herb suppliers of different standings, they do not have better means of supply.  The tradition of identifying special geographic regions, as being specific for the best supply of certain herbal items is no longer reliable since the large demand for large quantities of quality supply could not be satisfied by limited plantations in those regions. A comprehensive recommendation of agricultural practice: from seedling, planting, fertilizing, harvesting, storage to distribution, can be offered as a compromise.  There is good prospect of an excellent supply of quality herbal products with uniformity, if Good Agricultural Practice (GAP could be practiced and enforced. Although the need for GAP is urgent, and Japan, China and World Health Organization, have one after the other, written up their recommendation, to put GAP into real practice would need special efforts and takes time. GAP in China is particularly difficult, not only because the herbal items involved are of great numbers but because the current practice of growing medicinal herbs, their marketing and distribution, have been counterproductive to the introduction of the new system of GAP. At this stage, GAP will not be able to satisfy the extensive need for quality and uniformity.  Short of the knowledge of the exact, accurate nature of the active components within a herb, there will be no perfect guarantee on the quality supply.  Henceforth, even when GAP becomes a mature practice, what is required for quality control, viz, different levels of authentication, from chemical finger printing to molecular, DNA identification, will remain necessary as cross-checking mechanisms to make sure that uniformity in scientific experiments and drug development could be maintained

  2. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.

    2015-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings), farmer surveys and diary data; and discuss our key conclusions based on our approach and the analysis of the collected data which was enabled by

  3. Volatility Spillovers between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Y. Li (Y); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subse

  4. Organic matter composition of soil macropore surfaces under different agricultural management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Leue, Marin; Magid, Jacob; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the heterogeneous nature of soil, i.e. properties and processes occurring specifically at local scales is essential for best managing our soil resources for agricultural production. Examination of intact soil structures in order to obtain an increased understanding of how soil systems operate from small to large scale represents a large gap within soil science research. Dissolved chemicals, nutrients and particles are transported through the disturbed plow layer of agricultural soil, where after flow through the lower soil layers occur by preferential flow via macropores. Rapid movement of water through macropores limit the contact between the preferentially moving water and the surrounding soil matrix, therefore contact and exchange of solutes in the water is largely restricted to the surface area of the macropores. Organomineral complex coated surfaces control sorption and exchange properties of solutes, as well as availability of essential nutrients to plant roots and to the preferentially flowing water. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance infrared Fourier Transform) Mapping has been developed to examine composition of organic matter coated macropores. In this study macropore surfaces structures will be determined for organic matter composition using DRIFT from a long-term field experiment on waste application to agricultural soil (CRUCIAL, close to Copenhagen, Denmark). Parcels with 5 treatments; accelerated household waste, accelerated sewage sludge, accelerated cattle manure, NPK and unfertilized, will be examined in order to study whether agricultural management have an impact on the organic matter composition of intact structures.

  5. Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their usefulnes

  6. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Amy E

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Methods Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. Conclusions EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  7. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc

    2012-09-01

    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  8. Investigation of the photochemical changes of chlorogenic acids induced by ultraviolet light in model systems and in agricultural practice with Stevia rebaudiana cultivation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Deshpande, Sagar; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    Mono- and diacyl chlorogenic acids undergo photochemical trans-cis isomerization under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photochemical equilibrium composition was established for eight selected derivatives. In contrast to all other dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid) undergoes a [2 + 2] photochemical cycloaddition reaction, constituting a first example of Schmidt's law in a natural product family. The relevance of photochemical isomerization in agricultural practice was investigated using 120 samples of Stevia rebaudiana leave samples grown under defined cultivation conditions. Ratios of cis to trans chlorogenic acids were determined in leaf samples and correlated with climatic and harvesting conditions. The data indicate a clear correlation between the formation of cis-caffeoyl derivatives and sunshine hours prior to harvesting and illustrate the relevance of UV exposure to plant material affecting its phytochemical composition.

  9. Investigation of the photochemical changes of chlorogenic acids induced by ultraviolet light in model systems and in agricultural practice with Stevia rebaudiana cultivation as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Deshpande, Sagar; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    Mono- and diacyl chlorogenic acids undergo photochemical trans-cis isomerization under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photochemical equilibrium composition was established for eight selected derivatives. In contrast to all other dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid) undergoes a [2 + 2] photochemical cycloaddition reaction, constituting a first example of Schmidt's law in a natural product family. The relevance of photochemical isomerization in agricultural practice was investigated using 120 samples of Stevia rebaudiana leave samples grown under defined cultivation conditions. Ratios of cis to trans chlorogenic acids were determined in leaf samples and correlated with climatic and harvesting conditions. The data indicate a clear correlation between the formation of cis-caffeoyl derivatives and sunshine hours prior to harvesting and illustrate the relevance of UV exposure to plant material affecting its phytochemical composition. PMID:25699645

  10. Development of the Land-use and Agricultural Management Practice web-Service (LAMPS) for generating crop rotations in space and time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The Land-use and Agricultural Management Practices web-Service (LAMPS) provides crop rotation and management information for user-specified areas within...

  11. Surface Drainage-Main or Lateral on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 608

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP608), Surface...

  12. Wells as an Irrigation Source on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice IS01

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS01), Wells as...

  13. Irrigation Water Conveyance by Ditch and Canal on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 428

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP428), Irrigation...

  14. Effect of modifying land cover and long-term agricultural practices on the soil characteristics in native forest-land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gol, Ceyhun; Dengiz, Orhan

    2008-09-01

    Natural forestland soils in the high land mountain ecosystems on the eastern Black sea region of Turkey are being seriously degraded and destructed due to intensive agricultural practices. In this study we examined four soil profiles selected from four sites in each of three adjacent land use types which are native forest, pasture and cultivated fields with corn and hazelnut to compare the soil physical, chemical and morphological properties modified after natural forestland transformation into cultivated land. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected from four sites. The effects of agricultural practices on soil properties taken from each three adjacent land use types were most clearly detected in the past 50 years with the land use change. Land use change and subsequent tillage practices resulted in significant decreases in organic matter, total porosity, total nitrogen and reduced soil aggregates stability. However, contents of available P were improved by application of phosphorous fertilizers in cultivated system. There was also a significant change in bulk density among cultivated, pasture and natural forest soils. Depending upon the increase in bulk density and disruption of pores by cultivation, total porosity decreased accordingly. The data show that long term continuous cultivation of the natural forest soils resulted in changes in physical and chemical characteristics of soils. PMID:19295064

  15. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R.N.; Kromhout, H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-N

  16. Effective Modeling of Nutrient Losses and Nutrient Management Practices in an Agricultural and Urbanizing Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingmei

    2011-01-01

    The Lake Manassas Watershed is a 189 km2 basin located in the Northern Virginia suburbs of Washington, DC. Lake Manassas is a major waterbody in the watershed and serves as a drinking water source for the City of Manassas. Lake Manassas is experiencing eutrophication due to nutrient loads associated with agricultural activities and urban development in its drainage areas. Two watershed model applications using HSPF, and one receiving water quality model application using CE-QUAL-W2, were link...

  17. Precision Agriculture without borders: Practical issues and improvements in farmland coverage with aerial vehicles.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira Valente, Joao Ricardo; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio; Cerro Giner, Jaime del; Sanz Muñoz, David; Garzón Oviedo, Mario; Rossi, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a solution for the aerial coverage of a field by using a fleet of aerial vehicles. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles allows to obtain high resolution mosaics to be used in Precision Agriculture techniques. This report is focus on providing a solution for the full simultaneous coverage problem taking into account restrictions as the required spatial resolution and overlap while maintaining similar light conditions and safety operation of the drones. Results obtained from rea...

  18. Risk aversion and adoption of Conservation Agriculture Practices in Eastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Weixler-Landis, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Many poor farmers, especially in Africa, have not adopted recent farming innovations to improve their yields. One theory is that poor farmers are risk averse and therefore do not invest in high risk high return innovations and that risk averse farmers will only adopt larger innovations if they experience success with small ones. Risk preferences were measured in two districts in Uganda (Tororo and Kapchorwa) where adoption of agricultural innovations has been slow, and where a program is unde...

  19. Indigenous floating cultivation : a sustainable agricultural practice in the wetlands of Bangladesh.

    OpenAIRE

    Isalm, T.; Atkins, P.J.

    2007-01-01

    Floating-bed cultivation has proved a successful means to produce agricultural crops in various wetland areas of the world. In freshwater lakes and wetlands, vegetables, flowers, and seedlings are grown in Bangladesh using this floating cultivation technique, without any additional irrigation or chemical fertiliser. No detailed study of this indigenous cultivation technique has been published to date, although the laboratory method, hydroponics, is well documented in the professional literatu...

  20. Can Quality of Work Life Affect Work Performance among Government Agriculture Extension Officers? A Case from Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    O. Jamilah; M. S.H. Azril; U. Jegak; M. Asiah; A. N. Azman; A. S.   Bahaman; Thomas, K

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: The importance of agriculture industry in enhancing the country economy cannot be denied. Recently, a total of USD 1.7 billion has been allocated by the government to boost this industry. Beside of this huge allocation, do the policy implementers which are the agriculture extension officers have adequate work performance to carry out the responsibility given to them? Approach: This study would like to discover whether quality of work life among the agriculture extension emp...

  1. The Impact of Biotechnology, in Particular Genetically Modified Crops on International Agricultural Research, Production and Marketing and How this will Affect Agriculture in Western Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Sandy

    2003-01-01

    In 2000 I was awarded a Nuffield Farming Scholarship to study the impact of biotechnology, in particular genetically modified crops, on international agricultural research, production and marketing. I studied this topic in 2001 in Canada, USA and United Kingdom in an attempt to gain an insight into the issues with GM crops and how this may impact on our decision to grow them in Western Australia. I was impressed by the technology available that opened up a range of opportunities for vast impr...

  2. Plant-Lore with Reference to Muslim Folksong in Association with Human Perception of Plants in Agricultural and Horticultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. AHMED

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Muslims in the Manipur valley are a Manipuri speaking community. The study of folksong texts of Muslims in Manipur is a parameter for exploring native plant resources which certainly help to take conservation steps by examining the way of the human perception of plants. Man-plant interaction in agricultural as well as horticultural practices unfolds human dependence on plants in their various functions leading to a comfortable living. Some plants are used directly by men without any process, while some are selectively avoided. Tapping off heritage of ethnobotanical lore has been practiced by Muslims, conserving Pogostemon purpurascens Dalz in many graveyard for its religious significance. It has been proved that some plants are prevalent in the human language (proverbs, folksong, similies etc. to make sense of their expression.

  3. Management Practices and Financial Performance of Agricultural Cooperatives: A Partial Adjustment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Azzam, Azzeddine M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper uses the Nerlovian partial adjustment model to test the hypothesis that the rate of a cooperative's adjustment to a desired financial position is partially determined by its management practices. The results indicate that management practices that are board responsibilities are not contributing to the speed of adjustment in reaching the desired financial performance, which is the responsibility of the board of directors. But management, when independently pursuing management's resp...

  4. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  5. Practicing Precision Agriculture in Dharmapuri District of Tamil Nadu: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ramamoorthy, Dr. R. Ravikumar

    2016-01-01

    The Precision Farming Project was first started in Tamil Nadu in Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri during 2004-05. It was implemented initially on 250 acres, then 500 acres in 2005 – 06 and 250 acres in 2006 -07. The Tamil Nadu Agricultural University was the nodal agency that implemented this project with total budget of 720 lakhs for a period of three years. Most parts of the Dharmapuri and Krishnagiri districts are semi-arid tracts with low rainfall and low productivity. In this context, there is...

  6. Short-term soil loss by eolian erosion in response to different rain-fed agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Zaady, Eli

    2016-04-01

    Eolian (wind) erosion is a widespread process and a major form of soil degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. The present study examined changes in soil properties and eolian soil loss at a field scale in response to different soil treatments in two rain-fed agricultural practices. Field experiments with a boundary-layer wind tunnel and soil analysis were used to obtain the data. Two practices with different soil treatments (after harvest), mechanical tillage and stubble grazing intensities, were applied in the fallow phase of the rotation (dry season). The mechanical tillage and the stubble grazing had an immediate and direct effects on soil aggregation but not on the soil texture, and the contents of soil water, organic matter, and CaCO3. Higher erosion rates, that was measured as fluxes of total eolian sediment and particulate matter control plots. The erosion rates were higher in grazing plots than in tillage plots. The calculated soil fluxes in this study indicate potentially rapid soil degradation due to loss of fine particles by wind. The finding may have implications for long-term management of agricultural soils in semi-arid areas.

  7. Short-term soil loss by eolian erosion in response to different rain-fed agricultural practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Zaady, Eli

    2016-04-01

    Eolian (wind) erosion is a widespread process and a major form of soil degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. The present study examined changes in soil properties and eolian soil loss at a field scale in response to different soil treatments in two rain-fed agricultural practices. Field experiments with a boundary-layer wind tunnel and soil analysis were used to obtain the data. Two practices with different soil treatments (after harvest), mechanical tillage and stubble grazing intensities, were applied in the fallow phase of the rotation (dry season). The mechanical tillage and the stubble grazing had an immediate and direct effects on soil aggregation but not on the soil texture, and the contents of soil water, organic matter, and CaCO3. Higher erosion rates, that was measured as fluxes of total eolian sediment and particulate matter <10 μm (PM10), were recorded under mechanical tillage and grazing intensities compared with the undisturbed topsoil of the control plots. The erosion rates were higher in grazing plots than in tillage plots. The calculated soil fluxes in this study indicate potentially rapid soil degradation due to loss of fine particles by wind. The finding may have implications for long-term management of agricultural soils in semi-arid areas.

  8. A hydro-sedimentary modelling system for flash flood propagation and hazard estimation under different agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Kourgialas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A modelling system for the estimation of flash flood flow characteristics and sediment transport is developed in this study. The system comprises of three components: (a a modelling framework based on the hydrological model HSPF, (b the hydrodynamic module of the hydraulic model MIKE 11 (quasi-2-D, and (c the advection-dispersion module of MIKE 11 as a sediment transport model. An important parameter in hydraulic modelling is the Manning's coefficient, an indicator of the channel resistance which is directly depended on riparian vegetation changes. Riparian vegetation effect on flood propagation parameters such as water depth (inundation, discharge, flow velocity, and sediment transport load is investigated in this study. Based on the obtained results, when the weed cutting percentage is increased, the flood wave depth decreases while flow discharge, velocity and sediment transport load increase. The proposed modelling system is used to evaluate and illustrate the flood hazard for different cutting riparian vegetation scenarios. For the estimation of flood hazard, a combination of the flood propagation characteristics of water depth, flow velocity and sediment load was used. Next, an optimal selection of the most appropriate agricultural cutting practices of riparian vegetation was performed. Ultimately, the model results obtained for different agricultural cutting practice scenarios can be employed to create flood protection measures for flood prone areas. The proposed methodology was applied to the downstream part of a small mediterranean river basin in Crete, Greece.

  9. Nitrate removal from agricultural drainage ditch sediments with amendments of organic carbon: Potential for an innovative best management practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R.; Kröger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.; Rush, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural fertilizer applications have resulted in loading of nutrients to agricultural drainage ditches in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) amendments on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) removal from overlying water, pore water, and sediment of an agricultural drainage ditch. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, control (i.e., no amendment), DOC, and POC treatments were applied in laboratory microcosms for time intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. In experiment 2, control, DOC, and POC treatments were applied in microcosms at C/N ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. There were statistically significant effects of organic carbon amendments in experiment 1 (F2,71 = 27.1, P control at 14 and 28 days, which were significantly less than in DOC and POC 14- and 28-day treatments. In experiment 2, significantly less NO3−-N was removed in overlying water of the control compared to DOC and POC treatments at all C/N ratios. Amendments of DOC and POC made to drainage ditch sediment: (1) increased NO3−-N removal, especially over longer time intervals (14 to 28 days); (2) increased NO3−-N removal, regardless of C/N ratio; and (3) NO3−-N removal was best at a 5:1 C/N ratio. This study provides support for continued investigation on the use of organic carbon amendments as a best management practice for NO3−-N removal in agricultural drainage ditches.

  10. The Impact of Agricultural Practices in China on Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xingkui; Jason K.LEVY

    2011-01-01

    Human-induced land usc changes and the resulting alterations in vegetation features are major but poorly recognized drivers of regional climatic patterns. In order to investigate the impacts of anthropoghnicallyinduced seasonal vegetation cover changes on regional climate in China, harmonic analysis is applied to 1982 2000 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radioneter (AVVHRR)-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time series (ten day interval data). For two climatic divisions of South China, it is shown that the first harmonic term is in phase with air temperature, while the second and third harmonics are in phase with agricultural cultivation.The Penman-Monteith Equation and the Complementary Relationship Areal Evapotranspiration (CRAE)model suggest that monthly mean evapotranspiration is out of phase with temperature and precipitation in regions with significant second or third harnouics. Finally, seasonal vegetation cover changes associated with agricultural cultivation are identified: for cropped areas, the temperature and precipitation time series have a single maximum value, while the monthly evapotranspiration time series has a bimodal distribution.It is hypothesized that multi-cropping causes the land surface albedo to sharply increase during harvesting,thereby altering the energy distributiou ratio and contributing to observed seasonal vegetation cover changes.

  11. Agro-forestry practices and sustainable agriculture in yam producing communities of Niger state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamu L.O.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of farmland burden in terms of land degradation, bulky nature of and unavailability of inorganic fertilizers as well as time constraint in the formation of organic fertilizers, there is the need to shift to agro-forestry practices. The practice will make room for arable crop production and forest/tree crop production. Four autonomous communities were studied in Niger State Nigeria. The communities are generally known for yam production. One hundred and twenty farmers were randomly selected for the study in Koro, Gwari, Kadara and Kambari communities. Thirty yam farmers were selected in each community using random sampling technique. One hundred and twenty farmers were studied in all. Results were analysed using simple percentages and pie charts. Results show that there is a high level of consciousness of agro-forestry among the farmers. Shrubs such as Gliricidia sepium and Cajanus cajan are common and they make a cumulative percentage of 35.0% of tree species used for agro- forestry practices. Fruit trees such as Citrus species make a cumulative percentage of 31.0% while other tree species used includes but not exclusive to Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea and Terminalia species. It is recommended that youths and young farmers in the communities be more involved in agro-forestry practices of this nature for a sustainable practice to be ensured.

  12. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  13. The impacts of conservation agriculture on crop yield in China depend on specific practices, crops and cropping regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyan; Zheng; Yu; Jiang; Changqing; Chen; Yanni; Sun; Jinfei; Feng; Aixing; Deng; Zhenwei; Song; Weijian; Zhang

    2014-01-01

    For smooth and wide application of conservation agriculture(CA), remaining uncertainties about its impacts on crop yield need to be reduced. Based on previous field experiments in China, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the actual impacts of CA practices(NT: no/reduced-tillage only, CTSR: conventional tillage with straw retention, NTSR: NT with straw retention) on crop yields as compared to conventional tillage without straw retention(CT).Although CA practices increased crop yield by 4.6% on average, there were large variations in their impacts. For each CA practice, CTSR and NTSR significantly increased crop yield by 4.9%and 6.3%, respectively, compared to CT. However, no significant effect was found for NT. Among ecological areas, significant positive effects of CA practices were found in areas with an annual precipitation below 600 mm. Similar effects were found in areas with annual mean air temperature above 5 °C. For cropping regions, CA increased crop yield by 6.4% and 5.5%compared to CT in Northwest and South China, respectively, whereas no significant effects were found in the North China and Northeast China regions. Among crops, the positive effects of CA practices were significantly higher in maize(7.5%) and rice(4.1%) than in wheat(2.9%). NT likely decreased wheat yield. Our results indicate that there are great differences in the impacts of CA practices on crop yield, owing to regional variation in climate and crop types. CA will most likely increase maize yield but reduce wheat yield. It is strongly recommended to apply CA with crop straw retention in maize cropping areas and seasons with a warm and dry climate pattern.

  14. The impacts of conservation agriculture on crop yield in China depend on specific practices, crops and cropping regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyan Zheng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For smooth and wide application of conservation agriculture (CA, remaining uncertainties about its impacts on crop yield need to be reduced. Based on previous field experiments in China, a meta-analysis was performed to quantify the actual impacts of CA practices (NT: no/reduced-tillage only, CTSR: conventional tillage with straw retention, NTSR: NT with straw retention on crop yields as compared to conventional tillage without straw retention (CT. Although CA practices increased crop yield by 4.6% on average, there were large variations in their impacts. For each CA practice, CTSR and NTSR significantly increased crop yield by 4.9% and 6.3%, respectively, compared to CT. However, no significant effect was found for NT. Among ecological areas, significant positive effects of CA practices were found in areas with an annual precipitation below 600 mm. Similar effects were found in areas with annual mean air temperature above 5 °C. For cropping regions, CA increased crop yield by 6.4% and 5.5% compared to CT in Northwest and South China, respectively, whereas no significant effects were found in the North China and Northeast China regions. Among crops, the positive effects of CA practices were significantly higher in maize (7.5% and rice (4.1% than in wheat (2.9%. NT likely decreased wheat yield. Our results indicate that there are great differences in the impacts of CA practices on crop yield, owing to regional variation in climate and crop types. CA will most likely increase maize yield but reduce wheat yield. It is strongly recommended to apply CA with crop straw retention in maize cropping areas and seasons with a warm and dry climate pattern.

  15. Acidification processes and soil leaching influenced by agricultural practices revealed by strontium isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson-Wickmann, Anne-Catherine; Aquilina, Luc; Weyer, Christina; Molénat, Jérôme; Lischeid, Gunnar

    2009-08-01

    In natural river systems, the chemical and isotopic composition of stream- and ground waters are mainly controlled by the geology and water-rock interactions. The leaching of major cations from soils has been recognized as a possible consequence of acidic deposition from atmosphere for over 30 years. Moreover, in agricultural areas, the application of physiological acid fertilizers and nitrogen fertilizers in the ammonia form may enhance the cation leaching through the soil profile into ground- and surface waters. This origin of leached cations has been studied on two small and adjacent agricultural catchments in Brittany, western France. The study catchments are drained by two first-order streams, and mainly covered with cambisoils, issued from the alteration and weathering of a granodiorite basement. Precipitations, soil water- and NH 4 acetate-leachates, separated minerals, and stream waters have been investigated. Chemical element ratios, such as Ba/Sr, Na/Sr and Ca/Sr ratios, as well as Sr isotopic ratios are used to constrain the relative contribution from potential sources of stream water elements. Based on Sr isotopic ratio and element concentration, soil water- and NH 4 acetate leaching indicates (1) a dominant manure/slurry contribution in the top soil, representing a cation concentrated pool, with low 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios; (2) in subsoils, mineral dissolution is enhanced by fertilizer application, becoming the unique source of cations in the saprolite. The relatively high weathering rates encountered implies significant sources of cations which are not accessory minerals, but rather plagioclase and biotite dissolution. Stream water has a very different isotopic and chemical composition compared to soil water leaching suggesting that stream water chemistry is dominated by elements issued from mineral and rock weathering. Agriculture, by applications of chemical and organic fertilizers, can influence the export of major base cations, such as Na +. Plagioclase

  16. The Impact of Micro-Teaching on the Teaching Practice Performance of Undergraduate Agricultural Education Students in College of Education, Azare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa'ad, Tata Umar; Sabo, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aliyu Dahuwa

    2015-01-01

    Micro-teaching and teaching practices are two integral parts of teacher education programme. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of micro-teaching on the teaching practice of the undergraduate Agricultural Education Students admitted in 2012/2013 Academic session in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The 400 level…

  17. Comparison of Organic Matter Composition in Agricultural versus Forest Affected Headwaters with Special Emphasis on Organic Nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik;

    2015-01-01

    -like material with high molecular weight, which indicates terrestrial, i.e., allochthonous sources. As an obvious difference in agricultural streams, the contribution of DOC and particularly DON occurring in the form of nonhumic high-molecular-weight, presumably proteinous material is clearly elevated....... Altogether, DOM in agricultural headwaters is mainly complex-soil-derived and aromatic material with a low C:N ratio, which is more microbial processed than its counterpart from forest reference catchments. Our results emphasize the importance of agricultural land use on DOM loss from soils and identify...

  18. Colorado's AgrAbility Project's Effects on KASA and Practice Changes with Agricultural Producers and Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Jackman, Danielle M.

    2015-01-01

    Disability rates resulting from work-related injuries remain steadily high among farmers and ranchers. To address the gap in services within this population, USDA implemented AgrAbility nationally. Using part of Bennett's hierarchical model, the current study evaluated the KASA and practice change levels of 401 farmers and ranchers and compared…

  19. Reducing the Environmental Risk of Pesticides: Implications of Management Practices in Agricultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    A common management practice for the production of fresh-market vegetables uses polyethylene (plastic) mulch to increase soil temperature, maintain soil moisture and reduce weed pressure. However, multiple applications of fungicides and insecticides are required, and rain events afford more runoff ...

  20. Impact of systems modelling on agronomic research and adoption of new practices in smallholder agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D J Connor; H van Rees; P S Carberry

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the impact of simulation model ing in three diverse crop-livestock improvement projects in Agricultural Re-search for Development (AR4D) reveals beneifts across a range of aspects including identiifcation of objectives, design and implementation of experimental programs, effectiveness of participatory research with smal holder farmers, implementation of system change and scaling-out of results. In planning change, farmers must consider complex interactions within both biophysical and socioeconomic aspects of their crop and animal production activities. For this, whole-farm models that include household models of food, workload and ifnancial requirements have the most utility and impact. The analysis also proposes improvements in design and implementation of AR4D projects to improve the utility of simulation model ing for securing positive agronomic and livestock outcomes and lasting legacies.

  1. Conservation agriculture practices to enhance soil organic in Lombardy plain (Northern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Alessia; Giussani, Andrea; Corsi, Stefano; Tosini, Andrea; Acutis, Marco

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that conservation agriculture (CA) determines a long-term increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in cropland. The present study aimed to estimate the amount of SOC stored in soil of Lombardy plain (Northern Italy) following the change from tillage agriculture (TA) to CA by using crop ARMOSA crop over 23 years (1989-2011). The territorial analysis was performed at agrarian region scale (AR) after identification of the representative crops rotation and soil types. The land use information were data available at cadastral scale and referred to 5 years (from 2007 to 2011). The meteorological data (i.e. maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation) were measured at 14 monitoring stations. Solar radiation was estimated using the equation of the Bristow and Campbell model (1994). A spatial interpolation method was used to extend the meteorological data throughout the entire plain of the region by employing Thiessen polygon method; the meteorological data of the polygon were assigned to each AR. ARMOSA was parameterized to simulate the two tillage systems. For TA and CA scenario the depth of tillage was limited to 35 and 10 cm, respectively; crop residual incorporation was not simulated under CA. In TA scenario, we used the parameters calibrated and validated by Perego et al.(2013) on a wide dataset collected at six monitoring sites in Lombardy plain. In CA, the rate of C decomposition of humified organic C was assumed to be smaller by 30% in no-tillage than in TA (Oorts et al., 2007). The model results showed a significant improve of SOC (pJournal of Agrometeorology 3:23-38.

  2. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.

    2009-04-01

    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  3. Retention practices and factors affecting retainer choice among orthodontists in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jewair, Thikriat S.; Hamidaddin, Mohammad A.; Alotaibi, Hamdan M.; Alqahtani, Nasser D.; Albarakati, Sahar F.; Alkofide, Eman A.; Al-Moammar, Khalid A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To identify the retention protocols practiced by orthodontists in Saudi Arabia, and the factors affecting retainer choice. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between February and March of 2015 at the College of Dentistry, University of Dammam, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. A previously tested electronic survey of 34 items was sent to all 1,200 orthodontic members of the Saudi Orthodontic Society. The questionnaire elicited data on the subjects’ demographics, orthodontic treatment practices, retention, and post-retention protocols. Results: One hundred and sixty-seven (13.9%) responses were received during the study period. The results showed predominant use of Hawley in the maxillary arch (61.3%), and fixed lingual in the mandibular arch (58.5%). Approximately 90.3% recommended full-time maxillary removable retainer wear. Overall, orthodontists who performed fewer extractions tended to use fixed retainers, and those who performed more extractions used removable retainers (p=0.018). Interproximal enamel reduction was used by 28% of the respondents as an adjunct procedure to enhance retention. Approximately 64% practiced a post-retention phase of retainer wear. Participants who used removable retainers most commonly prescribed lifetime retention. Conclusion: Hawley in the maxilla, and fixed lingual in the mandible were the most common retention protocols prescribed. Lifetime retention was the most common choice for participants who used removable retainers, especially when extractions were carried out. PMID:27464868

  4. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric

    2014-06-01

    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed. PMID:24681309

  5. State Master Gardeners Knowledge and Behavior Regarding Food Safety and Good Agricultural Practices Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Christy

    2009-01-01

    Master Gardener’s (MG) are volunteers that dedicate their time and resources to complete advanced training on gardening practices. They are a valuable resource to state Cooperative Extension services, like the one in Virginia (VCE), by volunteering to share gardening knowledge with the public. MG’s assist the public in starting and maintaining personal and community fruit and vegetable gardens. Food producing gardens should be treated differently from recreational gardens. Gardening and harve...

  6. Online-measurement systems for agricultural and industrial AD plants – A review and practice test

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Christian; Gaida, Daniel (Dr.-Ing.); Bongards, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Online-measurement systems for AD plants in general are crucial to allow for detailed and comprehensive process monitoring and provide a basis for the development and practical application of process optimisation and control strategies. Nevertheless, the online measurement of key process variables such as Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) and Total Alkalinity (TA) has proven to be difficult due to extreme process conditions. High Total Solids (TS) concentrations and extraneous material often dama...

  7. A practical review on photooxidation of crude oil: laboratory lamp setup and factors affecting it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Ravi; Shim, Won Joon; An, Joon Geon; Yim, Un Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    After an oil spill, crude oil in the marine environment is affected by a variety of processes collectively called weathering. Photooxidation induced by ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun is one of the most significant processes of long-term weathering that changes the chemical nature of oil. Experimental studies on photooxidation in the natural environment are generally not practicable due to the variability of factors that are more readily controlled in a laboratory. The emission spectra and irradiance of artificial lamps are critical factors for simulating sunlight, and the process of acceleration should be differentiated from simulation. We present a comprehensive review of the exposure conditions affecting in vitro photooxidation studies, including the types of lamps, their spectra and irradiance levels and maintenance conditions. The importance of xenon arc, metal halide along with mercury–xenon, high-pressure mercury lamps and other lamps with respect to their spectral characteristics is discussed and the selection guide is provided. A brief discussion on other factors affecting photooxidation rates and outcomes, such as photosensitisers, photodegraders, solvents and the synergistic effects of compounds is also given. PMID:25462738

  8. Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas A. Stewart

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998, who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a “poverty of practice” among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative assessment. This qualitative case study examined a series of voluntary workshops offered at one middle school designed to address this poverty of practice. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. These research questions framed the study: (1 What role did a professional learning community structure play in shaping workshop participants’ perceived effectiveness of a voluntary formative assessment initiative? (2 How did this initiative affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their knowledge of formative assessment and differentiation strategies? (3 How did it affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their abilities to teach others about formative assessment and differentiated instruction? (4 How did it affect school-wide use of classroom-level strategies? Results indicated that teacher workshop participants experienced a growth in their capacity to use and teach others various formative assessment strategies, and even non-participating teachers reported greater use of formative assessment in their own instruction. Workshop participants and non-participating teachers perceived little growth in the area of differentiation of instruction, which contradicted some administrator perceptions.

  9. Studies on the Conservation Agriculture Based Practices under Maize (Zea Mays L. Based System in the Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Bahadur Karki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A farmer’s field trial comparing the conservation tillage, where tillage was avoided and previous crops residues were kept and conventional tillage, where tillage was done and residues were removed from the field along with farmers practice of manual weeding and application of herbicides under maize-rapeseed based cropping system in the mid hills of Nepal was carried in collaboration with farmers during 2012 and 2013. Thus, three factors each having two levels was tested under randomized complete block design with five replications in each districts of Palpa and Gulmi. The effect of tillage methods and residue levels were not significant for yield and its’ contributing traits of maize and test weight along with seed yield of rapeseed. However, it was evident in the second year. The effect of herbicide over farmer’s practice of manual weeding on diameter and length of cob, test weight and grain yield of maize was obvious in both the years. The benefit cost ratio of 1.7 in conventional tillage with residue removed and 2.5 in no tillage with residue kept were recorded in the second year. Since, it reduced significantly the cost of production without severe yield penalties; farmers are interested to scale-up the conservation agricultural practices in the hills of Nepal.

  10. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  11. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L

    2016-04-01

    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  12. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.

    2015-12-01

    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  13. Assessment of Water and Nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes in soil as affected by irrigation and nutrient management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsehaye, Habte; Ceglie, Francesco; Mimiola, Giancarlo; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Many farming practices can result in contamination of groundwater, due to the downward migration of fertilizers and pesticides through the soil profile. The detrimental effects of this contamination are not limited to deterioration of chemical and physical properties of soils and waters, but also constitute a real risk to human and ecosystem health. Groundwater contamination may come from a very large array of chemicals. Nevertheless, on a global scale the main cause of pollution is a high nitrate concentration in the aquifer water. Nitrate concentrations of groundwater have constantly increased during the last decades, and the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers has been implicated as the main causative factor. It is often claimed that nutrient management in organic farming is more environmentally sustainable than its conventional counterpart. It is commonly presumed that organic agriculture causes only minimal environmental pollution. There is scientific evidence that organic management may enhance some soil physical and biological properties. In particular, soil fertility management strategies can affect soil properties and the related hydrological processes. It is thus crucial to quantify and predict management effects on soil properties in order to evaluate the effects of soil type, natural processes such as decomposition of organic matter, irrigation applications and preferential flow on the deep percolation fluxes of water and nitrates to the groundwater. In this study, we measured the water fluxes and the quality of water percolating below the root zone, underlying organic agriculture systems in greenhouse. Specifically, the aim was to examine the effects of application time and type of organic matter in the soil on the nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes under the following three organic soil fertility strategies in greenhouse tomato experiment: i. Organic input Substitution (which will be hereafter denoted SUBST) is represented as typical

  14. Study on Executive Force of Good Agricultural Practice in Agricultural Products Trade in China%良好农业规范在我国农产品贸易中的执行力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕静涛

    2011-01-01

    对我国良好农业规范的执行不力的原因进行了分析,在此基础上研究了欧盟、美国、加拿大、日本等国家的良好农业规范的运行状况,提出我国农产品的监管应该参考加拿大模式的建议.%The reason for inefficient conduction of the good agricultural practice in China was expounded. The operation of fine agricultural practice in Europe, America, Canada and Japan etc. Was studied. The surveillance of the agricultural product in China shall refer to the advice of Canada mode.

  15. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  16. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-07-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin. PMID:27243625

  17. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  18. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo

    2014-05-01

    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  19. Predictability of a Professional Practice Model to Affect Nurse and Patient Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallings-Welden, Lois M; Shirey, Maria R

    2015-01-01

    Thousands of patients experience needless deaths and injuries as a result of errors while hospitalized for an unrelated problem. The lack of an established professional practice model (PPM) of nursing may be a contributing factor to patient care quality and safety breaches. The PPM of nursing was tested for its ability to affect nurse and patient outcomes. Using a retrospective/prospective research design, secondary data were collected from 2395 staff nurses on 15 inpatient-nursing units covering a 6-year timeframe. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Pearson correlation. Nurse and patient outcomes on 2 hospital campuses reached statistical significance. Positive correlations were seen between the initiation of a PPM and subsequent nurses' perception of quality of care, nurse interactions, decision making, autonomy, job enjoyment, and patient satisfaction. This study provides empirical evidence that a uniquely designed PPM in alignment with organizational context can indeed impact nurse and patient outcomes in a community health system. PMID:26049597

  20. Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied.

  1. Patterns and processes of nutrient transfers from land to water: a catchment approach to evaluate Good Agricultural Practice in Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, P.-E.; Melland, A. R.; Shortle, G.; Wall, D.; Mechan, S.; Buckley, C.; Fealy, R.; Jordan, P.

    2009-04-01

    grassland soils; areas where arable production represents a significant landuse; and catchments on productive and unproductive aquifers. The catchments were identified using a GIS-based multicriteria decision analysis with objective criteria that included landuse data (including agricultural and settlement statistics) combined with soils and geology data to evaluate the risk of P and N loss. Shortlisted catchments were then finalised using practical criteria based on the potential for hydrometry and hydrochemistry research. In each catchment, a conceptual model approach is being used to hypothesize the sources, seasonal mobilisation and pathways of nutrients and water through the soil/subsoil system and transfer into surface and ground water systems to stratify each catchment experimental design. Knowledge of the nutrient management of each catchment farm and resulting soil fertility will be used to monitor the sources of agricultural N and P. Environmental soil nutrient tests will provide baselines and checks on the potential for mobilisation. Areas of high soil fertility that are coincident with high surface or sub-surface hydrological connectivity will be monitored for subsequent nutrient transfer. Other potential nutrient source loads within the catchments, such as rural waste-water treatment plants and domestic septic systems, will be factored in as non-agricultural sources. Similarly, the potential for farmyard transfers will also be assessed. The net balance of nutrient transfer at the catchment outlets will be monitored using a high resolution method that is coincident with hydrometric measurements to ensure that there is a full understanding of the inter-dependence between point and diffuse nutrient transfers and hydrodynamics. This source to transfer approach is highly appropriate and a move towards inductive understanding of nutrient use and export in river catchments - the scale at which policies for water resources management will be assessed under the WFD. The

  2. Assessment of nitrate leakage and N2O emission from five environmental-friendly agricultural practices using fuzzy logic method and empirical formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yongfeng; Wang, Qian; Luo, Liangguo

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China has been the major environmental problem, so environmental-friendly agricultural practices (EAPs) must be promoted to improve environmental quality. However, the most suitable practices for each agricultural region must first be identified. Thus, in the presented study a fuzzy-logic method and a revised empirical formula were used to assess nitrate leakage and N2O emissions, respectively, and to compare five EAPs in Xinxiang, a major grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. The required information was collected in face-to-face interviews with 10 extension service experts from the county, using a questionnaire to explore their opinions of the EAPs currently adopted by smallholder farmers, as well as the amounts, frequencies, varieties and proportions of nitrogen fertilizers applied annually. The results indicate that reduced tillage, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations would be the most appropriate practices to initially promote on a large scale in Xinxiang.

  3. Modeled Impacts of Farming Practices and Structural Agricultural Changes on Nitrogen Fluxes in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim de Vries

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Netherlands, nutrient emissions from intensive animal husbandry have contributed to decreased species diversity in (semi natural terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, pollution of groundwater, and possibly global warming due to N2O emissions. This paper presents the results of a modelling study presenting the impacts of both structural measures and improved farming practices on major nitrogen (N fluxes, including NH3 and N2O emission, uptake, leaching, and runoff, in the Netherlands, using input data for the year 2000. Average annual fluxes (Gg N year–1 for the year 2000 were estimated at 132 for NH3 emission (160 Gg NH3 year–1, 28 for N2O emission, 50 for N inflow to groundwater, and 15 for N inflow to surface water at a total N input of 1046. At this input, nitrate (NO3 concentrations in groundwater often exceeded the target of 50 mg NO3 l–1, specifically in well-drained sandy soils. The ammonia (NH3 emissions exceeded emission targets that were set to protect the biodiversity of nonagricultural land. Improved farming practices were calculated to lead to a significant reduction in NH3 emissions to the atmosphere and N leaching and runoff to groundwater and surface water, but these improvements were not enough to reach all the targets set for those fluxes. Only strong structural measures clearly improved the situation. The NH3 emission target of 30 Gg NH3 year–1, suggested for the year 2030, could not be attained, however, unless pig and poultry farming is completely banned in the Netherlands and all cattle stay almost permanently in low emission stables.

  4. Accessible protocol for practice classroom about physical and chemical factors that affect the biomembranes integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barros Galvão

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.

  5. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah

    2016-09-01

    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms

  6. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:3TEA1009>3.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences

  7. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms

  8. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.: Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Florence Sandrine Ngo Ngwe

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  9. Application of analytical hierarchy process for effective selection of agricultural best management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Subhasis; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan

    2014-01-01

    In this study an analytical hierarchy process (AHP) was used for ranking best management practices (BMPs) in the Saginaw River Watershed based on environmental, economic and social factors. Three spatial targeting methods were used for placement of BMPs on critical source areas (CSAs). The environment factors include sediment, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus reductions at the subbasin level and the watershed outlet. Economic factors were based on total BMP cost, including installation, maintenance, and opportunity costs. Social factors were divided into three favorability rankings (most favorable, moderately favorable, and least favorable) based on area allocated to each BMP. Equal weights (1/3) were considered for the three main factors while calculating the BMP rank by AHP. In this study three scenarios were compared. A comprehensive approach in which environmental, economic, and social aspects are simultaneously considered (Scenario 1) versus more traditional approaches in which both environmental and economic aspects were considered (Scenario 2) or only environmental aspects (sediment, TN, and TP) were considered (Scenario 3). In Scenario 1, only stripcropping (moderately favorable) was selected on all CSAs at the subbasin level, whereas stripcropping (49-69% of CSAs) and residue management (most favorable, 31-51% of CSAs) were selected by AHP based on the watershed outlet and three spatial targeting methods. In Scenario 2, native grass was eliminated by moderately preferable BMPs (stripcropping) both at the subbasin and watershed outlet levels due the lower BMP implementations cost compared to native grass. Finally, in Scenario 3, at subbasin level, the least socially preferable BMP (native grass) was selected in 100% of CSAs due to greater pollution reduction capacity compared to other BMPs. At watershed level, nearly 50% the CSAs selected stripcropping, and the remaining 50% of CSAs selected native grass and residue management equally. PMID:24309231

  10. Can Quality of Work Life Affect Work Performance among Government Agriculture Extension Officers? A Case from Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Jamilah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The importance of agriculture industry in enhancing the country economy cannot be denied. Recently, a total of USD 1.7 billion has been allocated by the government to boost this industry. Beside of this huge allocation, do the policy implementers which are the agriculture extension officers have adequate work performance to carry out the responsibility given to them? Approach: This study would like to discover whether quality of work life among the agriculture extension employee do have impact their work performance or not. It is necessary to estimate quality of work life function in enhancing work performance, analyze the most important factor and variables on this work performance. The instruments used for collecting data were: A scale on individual and family life, a scale on safety and security on the organization, a scale on interpersonal relationship in the organization, a scale on job satisfaction, a scale on organizational policies and management style, a scale on personnel health and well being, a scale on work environment, a scale on remuneration and a scale on organizational support. The data were analyzed PASW software. Results: Results depict that all of the nine qualities of work life studied have significant and positive relationship with work performance where the highest relationship occurred between individual and family life with work performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that five factors which are individual and family life, job satisfaction, organization policy and management style, work environment and remuneration are the main contributors to work performance among government agricultural extension employees. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results gained, it can be concluded that aspect of individual and family life is the highest contributor to work performance among government agriculture extension officer. It can be noted that more courses on how to manage individual and family

  11. Investigating Factors Affecting Knowledge of Agricultural Science Students of Bu-Ali Sina University of Iran toward Organic Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Golzardi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate viewpoints of students about organic farming. The undesirable negative consequence of conventional farming has lead to the need and emphasis for new sustainable agricultural production techniques. Agricultural students play an important role in extension and spread of the system. This research was carried out applying a survey method. The respondents were 150 agricultural students from Bu-ali Sina University of Hamedan. Instrument of data gathering was questionnaire. Likert-type scales were used to measure knowledge and attitude toward organic farming. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was higher than 0.7 which was favorable. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by an experts’ panel. Data analysis was accomplished using SPSS. The results indicated that access to environmental information as well as the attitude toward environmental issues has positive and direct effect on knowledge toward organic farming. Based on the results, variables of attitude towards health within the framework of environmental attitude exert indirect effects of knowledge toward organic farming.

  12. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Green Amy E; Aarons Gregory A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Methods Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As ...

  13. HIV/AIDS and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa : Impact on farming systems, agricultural practices and rural livelihoods : An overview and annotated bibliography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, T.R.

    2004-01-01

    This publication is the first in a three part series on HIV/AIDS and agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa with the overall objective of providing a resource base on issues of rural development in a broad sense in the times of HIV/AIDS.This first book discusses the impact of the epidemic as it has emerg

  14. Mining Information form a Coupled Air Quality Model to Examine the Impacts of Agricultural Management Practices on Air and Groundwater Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attributing nitrogen (N) in the environment to emissions from agricultural management practices is difficult because of the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with N and its cascading effects across land, air and water. Such analyses are criti...

  15. Agricultural production and sustainable development in a Brazilian region (Southwest, Sao Paulo State): motivations and barriers to adopting sustainable and ecologically friendly practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, A. E.; De Castro, R.; Jabbour, C. J. C.;

    2014-01-01

    closed questionnaires taken by a random sample of farmers in the Southwest, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the second half of 2013. Overall, sustainable agricultural practices recommended in the literature and analysed in this study are being not fully adopted by farmers of the studied area. The results...

  16. The Practice of Responsible Investment Principles in Larger-Scale Agricultural Investments : Implications for Corporate Performance and Impact on Local Communities

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    This report presents findings from a field-based survey on the conduct of agricultural operations at 39 large-scale, mature agribusiness investments in sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia. The objective of the report is to provide first-hand, practical knowledge of the approach, behavior, and experience of these investments, their relationships with surrounding communities and the conseq...

  17. 农业巨灾保险的需求意愿及其影响因素%The Demand for Agricultural Catastrophe Insurance and Affecting Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周振; 沈田华

    2012-01-01

    Based on research statistics of 6 provinces and municipalities, the paper offered a characteristic descrip- tion of farmer's demands for agricultural catastrophe insurance and factors affecting their demands. It also tested the stability of farmer's willingness to purchase agricultural catastrophe insurance and the effects of different factors. The result indicated that government subsidy could effectively release farmer's potential demands for agricultural catas- trophe insurance, and factors such as their participation into agricultural organizations or cooperatives, educational level, gross household income, frequency of agricultural catastrophes, and size of land holdings significantly affected farmer's stability of demands, and could prompt farmer's behavior of purchasing agricultural catastrophe insurance%本文基于六省市的调查数据,对农民的农业巨灾保险需求意愿进行了特征性描述。并采用Logistic回归模型分别对有无政府补贴情况下,农民对农业巨灾保险的需求意愿及其影响因素进行分析,同时还对农民购买农业巨灾保险意愿的稳定性及其影响因素进行检验。结果表明,政府补贴能有效释放农业巨灾保险的潜在需求。是否参加过农业专业或合作组织、农民文化程度、家庭总收入、农业巨灾风险发生频率以及家庭拥有土地规模等因素显著影响农民对农业巨灾保险需求意愿的稳定性,并能促成农民购买农业巨灾保险行为的发生。

  18. Agriculture's share in the emission of trace gases affecting the climate and some cause-oriented proposals for sufficiently reducing this share.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isermann, K

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses agriculture's share in the world-wide emissions of climate-affecting gases and in the global warming potential (GWP). Proposals also are presented to reduce these emissions adequately, using a cause-oriented approach. Largely due to the fertilization and cultivation of agriculture as well as the burning of biomass, agriculture has a very high share in the anthropogenic emissions of NH(3), N(2)O, CH(4) and CO at >95%, 81%, 70% and 52%, respectively, while its share in the NO(x) and CO(2) emissions is relatively small at 35% and 21%. The GWP of agriculture, based on annually 16.1 x 10(9) tons of CO(2), approaches 63% of the GWP of the energy sector or 80% of the GWP of its CO(2) emissions. At 34% and 32%, respectively, the main originators in the GWP of agriculture would seem to be CO(2) (changing land use) and CH(4) (animal husbandry/rice cropping/biomass burning) followed at 15% by NO(2) (technical and biological N fixation/(cultivation and recultivation/biomass burning) and 10% and 9% by CO and NO(x). The GWP of 3 German dairy cows corresponds with 13.2 tonnes CO(2) per year the GWP of two average German automobiles. However, the ozone-destroying effect of N(2)O and the climate-relevant effects of NH(3) are not yet included here. As with the therapy for other 'modern' boundary-crossing environmental damages, such as acidification or eutrophication, global climate change therapy likewise needs a therapy for the respective effects of reactive compounds of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur also emitted by agriculture. Proposals for reducing these emissions within the agricultural sector include need-oriented plant, animal and human nutrition, more efficient external and internal nutrient recycling, the cessation of further clearing by burning, along with intensified afforestation mainly in the tropics, targeted measures to reduce nutrient losses/emissions, and measures for more efficient use of nutrients in plant, animal and human

  19. Policies Affecting Production Practices and Adoption of Integrated Pest Management for Jamaican Farmers in Ebony Park, Clarendon

    OpenAIRE

    Ogrodowczyk, Joseph Daniel

    1998-01-01

    Farmers' decisions to adopt Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technologies depend on the profitability of IPM systems relative to the traditional production methods. Government policies may affect the profitability of the IPM technologies. A linear programming model was developed and used to evaluate the economic incentives for adoption of Integrated Pest Mangement (IPM) practices by Jamaican farmers in Ebony Park, Clarendon. Further analysis was completed to determine the affect of policy ...

  20. A specialist-generalist classification of the arable flora and its response to changes in agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried Guillaume

    2010-09-01

    ecological theories developed in stable environments are valid in highly disturbed environments such as agro-ecosystems. The approach developed here to classify arable weeds according to the breadth of their ecological niche is robust and applicable to a wide range of organisms. It is also sensitive to disturbance regime and we show here that recent changes in agricultural practices, i.e. increased levels of disturbance have favoured the most generalist species, hence leading to biotic homogenisation in arable landscapes.

  1. The Prospect of Horticultural Organic Farming as Sustainable Agricultural Practice for Reducing Poverty: The Case in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Teguh Adiprasetyo; Sukisno Sukisno; Nanik Setyowati; Sempurna Ginting; Merakati Handajaningsih

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is still an insistent problem which when confronted by humanity requires a systemic, comprehensive and synchronized approach to alleviate it.  The concentration of urban and rural poverty in developing countries underpins the importance of agriculture as a poverty reduction strategy since most of the poor people depend on agriculture.  Thus, improving agricultural productivity, competitiveness and sustainability may reduce poverty.   This study was intended to (1) find out if sustaina...

  2. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and irrigation service, in the mid-1990s. Despite a flurry of interventions and agrarian policies directed at the intensification of agricultural production and promotion of commercial agriculture in communa...

  3. Optimizing music learning: Exploring how blocked and interleaved practice schedules affect advanced performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine E Carter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the contextual interference effect. While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (twelve minutes per piece and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (three minutes per piece, alternating until a total of twelve minutes of practice were completed on each piece. Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated

  4. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine E.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the “contextual interference effect.” While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  5. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine E.; Grahn, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the “contextual interference effect.” While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  6. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Christine E; Grahn, Jessica A

    2016-01-01

    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the "contextual interference effect." While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  7. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  8. The role of C:N:P stoichiometry in affecting denitrification in sediments from agricultural surface and tile-water wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebliunas, Brian D; Perry, William L

    2016-01-01

    Nutrient stoichiometry within a wetland is affected by the surrounding land use, and may play a significant role in the removal of nitrate (NO3-N). Tile-drained, agricultural watersheds experience high seasonal inputs of NO3-N, but low phosphorus (PO4-P) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loads relative to surface water dominated systems. This difference may present stoichiometric conditions that limit denitrification within receiving waterways. We investigated how C:N:P ratios affected denitrification rates of sediments from tile-drained mitigation wetlands incubated for: 0, 5, 10, and 20 days. We then tested whether denitrification rates of sediments from surface-water and tile-drained wetlands responded differently to C:N ratios of 2:1 versus 4:1. Ratios of C:N:P (P maintenance of anaerobic conditions, the availability of labile DOC is playing an important limiting role in sediment denitrification within mitigation wetlands. PMID:27064357

  9. Communicative-Based Curriculum Innovations between Theory and Practice: Implications for EFL Curriculum Development and Student Cognitive and Affective Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawer, Saad

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the influence of teacher conceptualisations of communicative language teaching on their actual classroom practice and student cognitive and affective change. The qualitative paradigm underpinned this research at the levels of ontology (multiple teacher realities), epistemology (interaction with, rather than…

  10. Mediating Role of Affective Commitment in HRM Practices and Turnover Intention Relationship: A Study in a Developing Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawsar Ahmmed

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to examine the dimensions of HRM practices that may cause faculty turnover decision among the private university faculty members in Bangladesh. The role of affective commitment as the mediator in the proposed relationship was also investigated. A total of 317 faculty members of the private universities participated, completed and returned the questionnaire which represented 57% response rate of the study. Multiple regression analyses were used to test the hypotheses of the study. The results of the study revealed that out of six HRM practices used in this study three were found highly significant and negatively related to turnover intention. The study also found that affective commitment mediates the proposed relationship between HRM practices and turnover intention. Limitations and suggestions for future research are forwarded.

  11. The Shaping of Traditions: Agriculture and Hmong Society

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Yia Lee

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that throughout Hmong history, Hmong agriculture and the associated economic system have been determining forces affecting and giving rise to many social customs and religiousbeliefs. The paper provides numerous historical and contemporary examples of how Hmong agriculture practices in Asia have shaped important aspects of Hmong culture and religious beliefs.

  12. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  13. Bioaccessibility of trace elements as affected by soil parameters in smelter-contaminated agricultural soils: A statistical modeling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was undertaken to identify the most significant soil parameters that can be used to predict Cd, Pb, and Zn bioaccessibility in smelter-contaminated agricultural soils. A robust model was established from an extended database of soils by using: (i) a training set of 280 samples to select the main soil parameters, to define the best population to be taken into account for the model elaboration, and to construct multivariate regression models, and (ii) a test set of 110 samples to validate the ability of the regression models. Total carbonate, organic matter, sand, P2O5, free Fe–Mn oxide, and pseudototal Al and trace element (TE) contents appeared as the main variables governing TE bioaccessibility. The statistical modeling approach was reasonably successful, indicating that the main soil factors influencing the bioaccessibility of TEs were taken into account and the predictions could be applicable for further risk evaluation in the studied area. - Highlights: ► We model the effects of varying soil parameters on TE bioaccessibility. ► Model calibration and validation were conducted on a test set of 390 soil samples. ► The use of an extended database is needed to elaborate a robust model. ► The bioaccessibility predictions could be applicable for further risk evaluation. - This study supports the hypothesis that the use of an extended database is needed to elaborate a robust model predicting the TE bioaccessibility in the studied soils.

  14. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmar, R.; Bationo, B.A.; Lamso, N.D.; Guéro, Y.; Tittonell, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    Low inherent fertility of tropical soils and degradation, nutrient deficiency and water stress are the key factors that hamper rainfed agriculture in semi-arid West Africa. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is currently promoted in the region as a technology to reduce soil degradation, mitigate the effe

  15. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  16. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2016-04-01

    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  17. 良好农业规范在烟草种植中的应用%Application of Good Agricultural Practices in Tobacco Cultivation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓丽; 杨明; 张如阳; 王学坚; 许文

    2011-01-01

    Good agricultural practices are generally considered as a good agricultural management system.Taking Pu′er tobacco area for example,the GAP implementation of specific practices in tobacco cultivation were described in detail,to improve the management stan%良好农业规范是国际普遍认可的应用于农业生产领域的一套管理体系。以云南省普洱市烟区为例,详细介绍了在烟草种植中推行GAP的具体做法,以期提升我国烟草种植管理水平和烟叶品质及安全性。

  18. Evaluation of agricultural reuse practices and relevant guidelines for the alba rancho WWTP (primary and secondary facultative ponds) in Cochabamba, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalaga, J; Amy, G; von Münch, E

    2007-01-01

    Many cities in developing countries are experiencing high population growth, which is generating chaotic and unplanned development, reducing land areas available for agriculture, and polluting surface and groundwater. Consequently, the reuse of untreated or partially treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation is increasing in arid and semi-arid regions in developing countries. Cochabamba city in Bolivia also has a high population growth. The climatic characteristics and the lack of clean water sources in this city are forcing the agriculture sector to use treated and untreated wastewater for irrigation. We investigated the effluent quality of the Alba Rancho Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) in Cochabamba, Bolivia, and the existing effluent reuse practices for irrigation of fodder crops in the surrounding agricultural land (La Mayca area). The plant uses primary and secondary facultative ponds, and does not achieve the required effluent quality (according to Bolivian environmental law) for effluent BOD, COD, TDS and faecal coliforms. This paper also includes a brief comparison of guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture from several developing and developed countries, comparing the parameters measured as pollution indicators. It appears that for developed countries, the main concern is the health risk that reuse can cause to the farmers and consumers. For developing countries on the other hand, pollution reduction is currently the major aim in their guidelines and standards. PMID:17305172

  19. Consequences of the affective turn: Exploring music practices from without and within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasovski Srđan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the challenges of the “affective turn” and map new avenues of music research in this direction. I discuss four paths of enquiry, in deviation from the semiotic models: the discovery of the non-signified materiality and its potentiality to generate affects, the potentiality of affect to de-signify, the ability of sign machines to catalyse the production of intensities and, finally, the power of social machines to overcode the produced affect through non-discursive mechanisms. I argue that the affective turn in musicology can provide a different structuring of a view from without and a view from within, calling both for finely tuned “close reading” and for the ability of the researcher to grasp the performative context. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  20. Factors affecting dengue prevention practices: nationwide survey of the Malaysian public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    Full Text Available Efforts to stamp dengue in many dengue endemic countries has met little success. There is a need to re-examine and understand how the public at large view the dengue prevention efforts. This study aimed to examine the demographic factors, theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model and knowledge about dengue and how these influence the practice of dengue prevention.A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years.The majority (73% of the Malaysian public had a total dengue prevention score of 51-100 (of a possible score of 1-100. Multivariate analysis suggests significant correlates of higher dengue prevention practices with demographic background, perception of susceptibility to dengue, perceived density of mosquitoes in the neighbourhood and knowledge about dengue. Households of lower income of which the majority (40.7% were from the rural areas, were associated with the highest odds [OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09-1.67; p = 0.004] of dengue prevention. Dengue prevention practices were also less likely to be undertaken in neighbourhoods where the responders perceived there is no and/or low density of mosquitoes. Dengue prevention practices are also less likely to be practiced by skilled workers [OR = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.63-0.95; p = 0.029] compared to those unemployed. Higher perceived susceptibility to dengue was associated with higher dengue prevention practices and participants with higher dengue knowledge were found to have a higher level of involvement in dengue prevention practices.Results from the study suggest that in formulating approaches to contain dengue, strategies should be developed to cultivate dengue prevention practices among urban population and target areas with low density of mosquitoes where public perceived a less likely chance of getting dengue. Dengue prevention campaigns should focus on messages highlighting the risk of contracting dengue and education to increase

  1. Do "Child-Friendly" Practices affect Learning? Evidence from Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Sushmita Nalini Das

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of "child-friendly" practices on learning in rural India. These are a set of pedagogical practices intended to improve education outcomes by increasing children’s inclusion in their learning environment. They are widely promoted in international development circles, and are an increasingly important plank of Indian education policy. This paper offers the first quantitative evidence of their impact. Data is drawn from a survey of 12,576 primary school pupils i...

  2. Study on the Operating Mechanism and Practice concerning Undergraduate Teaching Quality Assurance in the Chinese Agriculture-related Colleges and Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the connotation of the undergraduate teaching quality assurance system in agriculture-related colleges and universities, and takes Southwest University Rongchang Campus for example to probe into the long-term operating mechanism of multidimensional integrated quality assurance system as well as the sound teaching quality monitoring and management system building assurance system and operational practice effect involving personnel training programs, teaching element control...

  3. A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the binary solvent system containing of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. •“On–off” type fluorescent sensor based on this polymer for highly selective, sensitive, and practical detection of Pd2+ was designed. •The possible mechanism between Pd2+ and PBA has been discussed and TEM preliminary proved the proposed mechanism. •This fluorescent CP-based sensor has been used to practically detect Pd2+ in agricultural crops and environment samples with satisfactory results. -- Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd2+) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd2+ in the concentration range of 5 nM–0.12 mM with a detection limit of 0.277 nM and quantification limit of 0.925 nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd2+ enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd2+ determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd2+ will be a good candidate for application in agriculture and environment

  4. A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ge [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Wen, Yangping [Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation of Double Cropping Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China); Guo, Chaoqun [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Xu, Jingkun, E-mail: xujingkun@tsinghua.org.cn [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Lu, Baoyang; Duan, Xuemin [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); He, Haohua; Yang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation of Double Cropping Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China)

    2013-12-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the binary solvent system containing of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. •“On–off” type fluorescent sensor based on this polymer for highly selective, sensitive, and practical detection of Pd{sup 2+} was designed. •The possible mechanism between Pd{sup 2+} and PBA has been discussed and TEM preliminary proved the proposed mechanism. •This fluorescent CP-based sensor has been used to practically detect Pd{sup 2+} in agricultural crops and environment samples with satisfactory results. -- Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd{sup 2+}) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd{sup 2+} in the concentration range of 5 nM–0.12 mM with a detection limit of 0.277 nM and quantification limit of 0.925 nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd{sup 2+} enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd{sup 2+} determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd{sup 2+} will be a good candidate for application in

  5. Assessing the effectiveness of a local agricultural research committee in diffusing sustainable cocoa production practices: the case of capsid control in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Ayenor, G.K.; Röling, N.; Huis, van, A.; Padi, B.; Obeng-Ofori, D.

    2007-01-01

    The conventional method of `delivering¿ technologies recommended by researchers to farmers through extension has proved ineffective, resulting in a persistent low (3.5% over ten years) adoption of research-based cocoa technologies. The present study was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and assessed the impact of the Local Agricultural Research Committee (LARC) approach on the diffusion of capsid management knowledge and practices, developed with the LARC, to others in the community. C...

  6. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  7. Agricultural Production Restrictions and Market Power: An Antitrust Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bolotova, Yuliya

    2015-01-01

    During the recent decade the organizations of agricultural producers in the national dairy, potato, egg and mushroom industries implemented various pre-production and production restriction practices with the primary objective of agricultural output price stabilization. The buyers of the affected agricultural commodities have challenged the legal status of production restrictions in a number of recent and current antitrust lawsuits, arguing that the Capper-Volstead Act, a limited antitrust ex...

  8. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and irriga

  9. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A

    2008-08-01

    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources. PMID:17874309

  10. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco

    2015-03-01

    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms. PMID:25631403

  11. 社区互助农业的理论与实践%Theory and Practice of Community Support Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡以涛; 余德贵

    2015-01-01

    社区互助农业是一种新型的农业多功能性综合开发与城市多元文化传承需求相交融的实践模式,这种非主流的农业模式近年来在国内主要大中城市相继出现并发展迅速. 通过系统分析近年来国内的实践,探索社区互助农业的发展脉络及未来的发展方向,提出促进社区互助农业在国内健康发展的建设性建议. 社区互助农业作为一种非主流农业模式,是城市沟通农村、工业反哺农业、生产者与消费者建立和谐关系的一种有益尝试,符合健康生态理念,适合中国的家庭农场及中小规模农业企业运营,是解决食品安全问题的有效途径之一.%Community support agriculture( CSA) is a new type of agricultural multifunctional integrated devel-opment and urban multi-cultural heritage needs to be integrated into the practice mode.In recent years, this non mainstream agricultural model in major and medium-sized cities in the country have emerged and developed rapid-ly.Through the analysis of the practice in recent years, the paper explores the development trend of community support agriculture and the future development direction.Community support agriculture as a non-mainstream mode of agriculture, is the establishment of harmonious relationship between urban and rural, industry nurturing agricul-ture, producers and consumers, it is a beneficial attempt, in line with the concept of health and ecological, suit-able for family farm in China as well as small and medium scale agricultural enterprises operation.It is one of the effective ways to solve the problem of food safety.

  12. 社区互助农业的理论与实践%Theory and Practice of Community Support Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡以涛; 余德贵

    2015-01-01

    Community support agriculture( CSA) is a new type of agricultural multifunctional integrated devel-opment and urban multi-cultural heritage needs to be integrated into the practice mode.In recent years, this non mainstream agricultural model in major and medium-sized cities in the country have emerged and developed rapid-ly.Through the analysis of the practice in recent years, the paper explores the development trend of community support agriculture and the future development direction.Community support agriculture as a non-mainstream mode of agriculture, is the establishment of harmonious relationship between urban and rural, industry nurturing agricul-ture, producers and consumers, it is a beneficial attempt, in line with the concept of health and ecological, suit-able for family farm in China as well as small and medium scale agricultural enterprises operation.It is one of the effective ways to solve the problem of food safety.%社区互助农业是一种新型的农业多功能性综合开发与城市多元文化传承需求相交融的实践模式,这种非主流的农业模式近年来在国内主要大中城市相继出现并发展迅速. 通过系统分析近年来国内的实践,探索社区互助农业的发展脉络及未来的发展方向,提出促进社区互助农业在国内健康发展的建设性建议. 社区互助农业作为一种非主流农业模式,是城市沟通农村、工业反哺农业、生产者与消费者建立和谐关系的一种有益尝试,符合健康生态理念,适合中国的家庭农场及中小规模农业企业运营,是解决食品安全问题的有效途径之一.

  13. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J

    2015-06-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  14. The difference practice makes: Evidence, articulation, and affect in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Kane

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the difference that a conception of sex as social practice has made to the relations articulated in HIV social research in Australia. In defining sexual practice as "fluid, embedded in specific social formations, and involving the negotiation of meaning" (Kippax & Stephenson, 2005), social researchers put their own research categories and questions at risk by constructing situations in which the objects of research were given occasions to counter researchers' presumptions through the use of their own categories. Taking this risk produced sharp insights about the evolving dynamics of gay sexuality in this context and produced distinctive, interesting findings. It enabled the articulation of the practice of negotiated safety and later strategies of HIV risk reduction emerging from gay men's practice, for example. I draw on Latour's (2004) concept of articulation to make sense of these innovations and cut through some of the key distinctions that organize HIV research: qualitative/quantitative; social/biomedical; subject/ object; human/nonhuman; interpretations/evidence. Rather than rest on the organizing power of these distinctions, keeping HIV prevention effective, engaging and interesting will require specific attention to the embodied articulation of HIV relations in the present.

  15. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  16. Do school context, student composition and school leadership affect school practice and outcomes in secondary education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, M.C.; van Damme, J

    2007-01-01

    This study examined effects of school context, student composition and school leadership on school practice and outcomes in secondary education in Flanders. The study reveals that relations between school characteristics do exist and that it is possible to explain an important part of the difference

  17. How Implementation of Bibliometric Practice Affects the Role of Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansson, Joacim

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses potential consequences of implementing bibliometrics as an institutionalized practice in academic libraries. Results are reported from a survey among libraries in Sweden with organized bibliometric activities. Incorporating bibliometric activities is one way of redefining and widening the role of the library. Implementation…

  18. Does Curriculum Practical Training Affect Engineers' Workplace Outcomes? Evidence from an Engineer Survey in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Yu; Tsang, Mun; Li, Manli

    2015-01-01

    With the increasing attention to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math), hands-on Curriculum Practical Training (CPT) has been expanding rapidly worldwide as a requirement of the undergraduate engineering education. In China, a typical CPT for undergraduate engineering students requires several weeks of hands-on training in the…

  19. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior: Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children'

  20. The difference practice makes: Evidence, articulation, and affect in HIV prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Race, Kane

    2014-06-01

    This paper considers the difference that a conception of sex as social practice has made to the relations articulated in HIV social research in Australia. In defining sexual practice as "fluid, embedded in specific social formations, and involving the negotiation of meaning" (Kippax & Stephenson, 2005), social researchers put their own research categories and questions at risk by constructing situations in which the objects of research were given occasions to counter researchers' presumptions through the use of their own categories. Taking this risk produced sharp insights about the evolving dynamics of gay sexuality in this context and produced distinctive, interesting findings. It enabled the articulation of the practice of negotiated safety and later strategies of HIV risk reduction emerging from gay men's practice, for example. I draw on Latour's (2004) concept of articulation to make sense of these innovations and cut through some of the key distinctions that organize HIV research: qualitative/quantitative; social/biomedical; subject/ object; human/nonhuman; interpretations/evidence. Rather than rest on the organizing power of these distinctions, keeping HIV prevention effective, engaging and interesting will require specific attention to the embodied articulation of HIV relations in the present. PMID:24846488

  1. A Practice onto Personnel In-Service Training’s Affect to Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Köksal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The kitchen which is qualified as the hearth of hotels is a department includes kitchen staff whose responsibilities, authority and duties are identified related to an organizational structure and in a hierarchy instead of being merely a physical space with equipment and working areas that are built for food production. The aim of kitchen is to realize food production in the limits of cost, quality and hygiene standards of hotel. Beside many factors which affect job satisfaction and organizational loyalty the training which is going to be received is also important. As knowing the job increases the job satisfaction and self confidence and it also affects the organizational loyalty in a positive way. This study aims that grups hotel, how does in-service training affect kitchen personnel. In this study applied filed technique used in and firstly searched the factors affect job satisfaction and thoughts about in-service training then applied an one-week training to the same personnel. A different survey performed order to measure the affect to job satisfaction of personnel who was in training and to determine is the in-service training suitable.

  2. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of agricultural practices on NO and N2O emissions from corn fields at Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions. Historically, the most common agricultural practice in these regions has been mono cropping. Tillage (T) and non-tillage (NT) of soils represent approximately 30 and 70% of the planted area, respectively. Comparative studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these agricultural practices are not available for these regions. This study was conducted at the farm "Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9° 23' 33'' N, 66° 38' 30'' W) in two corn fields under tillage and non-tillage agricultural practice during the growing season (June-August 2006). A dry tropical forest, the primary ecosystem of the region, was evaluated for the same period of time. The corn and the forest fields were adjacent; therefore, they were exposed to the same meteorological conditions. The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). Nutrient soil concentrations (as nitrate and ammonium), water soil content and pH soil were measured in the fields for the same period of time. Soils were fertilized and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depths. Tillage soils were fertilized on June 1st 2006 with 65 kgN/ha of NPK (13:18:16/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl), whereas non-tillage soils were fertilized the next day with 56 kgN/ha of NPK (12:25:12/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl). Second fertilization of both fields was done thirty-seven days later by broadcast adding 58 kgN/ha approximately, using nitrophosphate as fertilizer (NP 33-3: 33% N total; 16.7% N- NO3- and 16.6% N- NH4+). In general, NO and N2O soil emissions from both corn fields increased after fertilization events, and depend on water soil content and nutrient soil concentration. N2O soil emissions were 11 and 9 times larger in

  3. Biofuels in agriculture - How the daily work is affected, rules and experiences; Biodrivmedel inom lantbruket - Hur det vardagliga arbetet paaverkas, regler och erfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksvaerd, Jan

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 5% of transport fuels for Swedish vehicles 2010 came from renewable biomass. EU wants the share within the EU to reach 10% in 2020. LRF is working towards the goal that 20% of transport fuels in Sweden should be renewable by 2020. The reason is that carbon dioxide emissions need to fall sharply and that a declining and uncertain supply of fossil fuels contributes to higher costs. What biofuel to be used in different vehicles will differ. Today, biogas, ethanol, RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and on some vehicles also DME (dimethyl ether) are used. In agriculture, the RME is the only practical option today, although there are a couple of biogas and rapeseed oil tractors. In this report rules and experiences of diesel is compared with five potential biofuels: RME, biogas (both compressed and liquid), DME, ethanol and methanol. For FT-diesel from biomass (made from methane via Ficher-Tropf method) the same rules apply as for fossil diesel. The report contains: a) brief background information on these biofuels, b) practical experience and views on the use of them, and c) the different rules that apply to storage, transportation and small tractor operation of the various fuels. Examples are also given of the differences between different fuels in their everyday work. Ethanol, methanol, DME and FT-diesel can be produced from both fossil and biomass feedstock. The term biogas is used, however, consistently for methane produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass.

  4. Factors affecting adoption of improved management practices in the pastoral industry in Great Barrier Reef catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, John; Gregg, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Substantial efforts are being made by industry and government in Australia to reduce adverse impacts of pastoral operations on water quality draining to the Great Barrier Reef. A key target is to achieve rapid adoption of better management practices by landholders, but current theoretical frameworks provide limited guidance about priorities for improving adoption. In this study information from direct surveys with landholders in the two largest catchments draining into the Great Barrier Reef has been collected and analysed. Study outcomes have important implications for policy settings, because they confirm that substantial variations in adoption drivers exist across landholders, enterprises and practices. The results confirm that the three broad barriers to adoption of information gaps, financial incentives and risk perceptions are relevant. This implies that different policy mechanisms, including extension and incentive programs, remain important, although financial incentives were only identified as important to meet capital and transformational costs rather than recurrent costs.

  5. Factors affecting the choice of treatment in occupational therapy practices in hospital-based care.

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G; Zee, J. van der

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this article was twofold: to describe the occurrence of treatment goals, health-care programmes and type of interventions chosen by occupational therapists; and to investigate relationships between treatment goals, health-care programmes and interventions. A survey on occupational therapy practice was carried out in The Netherlands. A registration form based on the International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicapts (ICIDH) was filled out for 944 patients. This...

  6. Management Practices Affect Soil Nutrients and Bacterial Populations in Backgrounding Beef Feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netthisinghe, A M P; Cook, K L; Gilfillen, R A; Sistani, K R; Woosley, P B

    2015-11-01

    Contaminants associated with manure in animal production sites are of significant concern. Unless properly managed, manure-derived soil nutrients in livestock production sites can deteriorate soil and water quality. This 3-yr study evaluated a soil nutrient management strategy with four sequentially imposed management practices: 12-mo backgrounding (BG), manure removal from the feeder area (FD), 12-mo destocking (DS), and 12-mo grass hay harvesting (H) in a small backgrounding feedlot. Resulting soil nutrient levels, total (), and N cycling bacterial ( and ) populations after each management practice in feedlot feeder and grazing (GR) areas and in crop grown at the control location (CT) were measured. Irrespective of management practice, FD contained greater soil nutrient concentrations than the GR and CT. Regardless of management practice, total bacteria cells (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) and nitrate reducers (5.2 × 10 cells g soil) were an order of magnitude higher in the FD than in the GR and CT, whereas nitrifying bacteria concentrations (1.4 × 10 cells g soil) were higher in the GR. Manure removal from the feeder area reduced M3-P (39%), total C (21%), total N (23%), NH-N (47%), and NO-N (93%) levels established in the FD during BG. Destocking lowered total C and N (45%) in the FD and NH-N (47%), NO-N (76%), and Zn (16%) in the GR. Hay harvesting reduced all soil nutrients in the FD and GR marginally. The management strategy has potential to lower soil nutrient concentrations, control soil nutrient buildup, and limit nutrient spread within the feedlot. PMID:26641341

  7. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  8. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations. PMID:24183183

  9. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G

    2015-03-01

    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  10. Principles over principals? How innovation affects the agency relationship in medical and legal practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polaris, Julian J Z

    2014-01-01

    This Note outlines a conceptual framework for defining and analyzing innovation in the professional practice of medicine and law. The two professions have structural and historical similarities, and both are organized around the principal-agent relationship. Some types of professional activity adhere to the traditional agency model of principal-centered practice, but innovative professionals who develop novel tools and techniques often deviate from the agency model in interesting ways. This Note explores how that distinction plays out by identifying examples from academic medicine, public interest "cause lawyering", and corporate law. The field of medicine is governed by a regulatory regime that strictly differentiates routine practice from the experimental activities of clinical research, but the legal profession is governed by a monolithic code of conduct that does not explicitly acknowledge the types of innovation described here. Certain key events in the twentieth century help to explain why the government has chosen to tightly regulate innovation in medicine but not in law, and it turns out that innovators in both fields have found ways to stretch or bend the rules. These observations shed light on each profession's unique culture and can inform current debates over regulatory reform. PMID:25508846

  11. Audit of the change in the on-call practices in neuroradiology and factors affecting it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Dorothy

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On call practices had recently changed at the Newcastle General Hospital to accommodate increasing CT scan requests and reduce the workloads of the radiologists. In the new system, the person responsible for dealing with the out of hours requests for imaging changed from the neuroradiologist to the neuroradiographer. This audit was conducted to assess any change in the departmental workload as a result of this change. Methods The audit was carried out over a period of six months and data was collected from the on-call booklets which the neuroradiographers maintained and the log books maintained in the department of neuroradiology. Details of the imaging requested; the source of the request, the reason for the request and the results of the scans were recorded and analysed using Microsoft Excel™. Results The number of CT scans requested from the A&E went up by 73.4% after the change in practice and majority of these increases were due to increased requests for scans on head injuries which increased by 122%. Although this was not statistically significant due to lack of study power, it is clinically relevant. Conclusion The increase in the number of CT scans for head injuries reflects a general change in practice in management of head injuries in the UK. Changing the gatekeeper from radiologist to radiographer was associated with an increase in CT rate, particularly for head injuries. Other factors such as clinician seniority and a greater awareness of the NICE guidelines may have also contributed.

  12. Disadvantaging the disadvantaged: When public health policies and practices negatively affect marginalized populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Diego S; Smith, Maxwell J; Upshur, Ross E G

    2013-01-01

    Public health is intimately related to social justice, which is why practice and research in the field seek to improve the social determinants of health. Despite the best intentions of those working in public health, however, some policies and practices inadvertently further disadvantage pre-existing marginalized populations. In this paper, we provide a diagnosis of possible reasons why this phenomenon might occur. We posit that the challenges associated with further marginalizing certain populations stem from a) not acknowledging the normative aspects of apparently objective data, b) a misunderstanding and an uncritical alignment of public health goals with the ethics theory of utilitarianism, and c) assuming that those working in public health might be able to fully understand the experiences of marginalized populations. It is our view that the trend of public consultation with marginalized persons, the explicit teaching of ethics and philosophy of science in graduate departments of public health, and the increased use of health equity impact assessments might help protect against public health policies and practices that disadvantage marginalized populations.

  13. POLICIES TO REDUCE THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGES ON THE AGRICULTURE AND ENVIRONMENT - FROM SPEECH TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru-Marian CHIPER

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the last 50 years, at global level, the industry, agriculture, transport infrastructure and services have gone through a long process of transformation, both of intensive as well as extensive nature. The mutations occurred due to the demographic duplication and also social structure changing, this fast development was supported by the research and technological progress. Of course, the other side of the picture is the massive pollution, with serious consequences for the environment and in chain negative effects, at planetary level. If at first these phenomena had not a major interest for the scientific community, today they represent an area of major interest for the quantitative research, sometimes being a matter of interdisciplinary dispute, but often a factor of synergy, political, legal, technical and of course scientific. In this article we summarize the main national and international policies to adapt to the effects of climate changes and to reduce their impact on the agriculture and environment, through presenting the main legislative measures and the existing operational plans, formulated according the research results in this area. At the same time, this paper addresses to the agriculture specialists and officials from the administrative sphere, in order to identify and reduce the effects of this phenomenon over the agriculture and environment.

  14. A short-term assessment of carbon dioxide fluxes under contrasting agricultural and soil management practices in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two of the biggest problems facing humankind are feeding an exponentially growing human population and preventing the negative effects of climate change from record concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture could address both of these problems. For example, tillage and cover...

  15. The effect of agricultural practices on the development of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. I. Field studies in an Indonesian ultisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddington, C.L.; Dodd, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Two pre-established agricultural field trials were assessed for the abundance of arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the soil (density of spores, species richness and lengths of extra-radical mycelium [ERM]) in association with one of three tropical plant species (Gliricidia sepium, Peltophorum das

  16. A Practice onto Personnel In-Service Training’s Affect to Job Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Emrah Köksal; Kurban Ünlüönen

    2011-01-01

    The kitchen which is qualified as the hearth of hotels is a department includes kitchen staff whose responsibilities, authority and duties are identified related to an organizational structure and in a hierarchy instead of being merely a physical space with equipment and working areas that are built for food production. The aim of kitchen is to realize food production in the limits of cost, quality and hygiene standards of hotel. Beside many factors which affect job satisfaction and organizat...

  17. Research and Constructive Practice of Ecological Agricultural System in the Hilly Area of South Ningxia%宁夏南部黄土丘陵沟壑区生态农业建设实践与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢应忠

    2000-01-01

    The theory and practice of classification, adaptability evaluation and optimizing collocation of land resource in ecological and economical agricultural system in the semi - arid hilly area of Loess Plateau were studied. Following the discipline of interaction of land resource and human and applying principles and methods of system engineering , the agricultural production system was optimized. Moreover, the relationship of ecological agricultural construction and territorial management was discussed.

  18. Geologic factors and house construction practices affecting indoor radon in Onondaga County, New York

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indoor radon in Onondaga County, New York is largely controlled by bedrock and surficial geology. At more local scales, these alone are insufficient to characterize indoor radon potential. This paper reports on a detailed study of the concentration of indoor radon, soil radium, soil-gas radon, soil and bedrock type, permeability, and home construction practices indicates that above-average indoor radon concentrations are associated with gravelly moraine and glaciofluvial deposits, the radium-bearing Marcellus Shale, and high permeability zones around the substructure of houses built into limestone bedrock

  19. Competency, confidence and conflicting evidence: key issues affecting health visitors' use of research evidence in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calnan Michael

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health visitors play a pivotal position in providing parents with up-to-date evidence-based care on child health. The recent controversy over the safety of the MMR vaccine has drawn attention to the difficulties they face when new research which raises doubts about current guidelines and practices is published. In the aftermath of the MMR controversy, this paper investigates the sources health visitors use to find out about new research evidence on immunisation and examines barriers and facilitators to using evidence in practice. It also assesses health visitors' confidence in using research evidence. Methods Health visitors were recruited from the 2007 UK Community Practitioners' and Health Visitors' Association conference. All delegates were eligible to complete the questionnaire if in their current professional role they advise parents about childhood immunisation or administer vaccines to children. Of 228 who were eligible, 185 completed the survey (81.1%. Results These health visitors used a wide range of resources to find out about new research evidence on childhood immunisation. Popular sources included information leaflets and publications, training days, nursing journals and networking with colleagues. A lack of time was cited as the main barrier to searching for new evidence. The most common reason given for not using research in practice was a perception of conflicting research evidence. Understanding the evidence was a key facilitator. Health visitors expressed less confidence about searching and explaining research on childhood immunisation than evidence on weaning and a baby's sleep position. Conclusion Even motivated health visitors feel they lack the time and, in some cases, the skills to locate and appraise research evidence. This research suggests that of the provision of already-appraised research would help to keep busy health professionals informed, up-to-date and confident in responding to public

  20. Factors Affecting Dengue Prevention Practices: Nationwide Survey of the Malaysian Public

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Li Ping; Shakir, Sharina Mahavera Mohamad; Atefi, Narges; Abubakar, Sazaly

    2015-01-01

    Background Efforts to stamp dengue in many dengue endemic countries has met little success. There is a need to re-examine and understand how the public at large view the dengue prevention efforts. This study aimed to examine the demographic factors, theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model and knowledge about dengue and how these influence the practice of dengue prevention. Methods A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18–60 y...

  1. Rice Yield and Water Use as Affected by Soil Management Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; XIE Hong-Tu; LIANG Wen-Ju; WEN Da-Zhong

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,to study the effects of soil management practices on water use and rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield in an aquic brown soil during 2001 and 2002. A completely random experimental design with three replications was employed, having four soil management practices as treatments, namely: an undisturbed plow layer (CK), a thin plastic film (TN), a thick plastic film (TI) and subsoil compacting (CP). Results indicated no significant differences arong all treatments for rice biomass and grain yields. Also, water consumption was about the same for treatments TN and CK, however the treatments TI and CP were much lower with more than 45% and 40% of the irrigation water in the treatments TI and CP, respectively,saved each year compared to CK. Therefore, water use efficiency was higher in the treatments TI and CP. These results will provide a scientific basis for the water-saving rice cultivation.

  2. Water Management Practices Affect Arsenic and Cadmium Accumulation in Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd and arsenic (As accumulation in rice grains is a great threat to its productivity, grain quality, and thus human health. Pot and field studies were carried out to unravel the effect of different water management practices (aerobic, aerobic-flooded, and flooded on Cd and As accumulation in rice grains of two different varieties. In pot experiment, Cd or As was also added into the soil as treatment. Pots without Cd or As addition were maintained as control. Results indicated that water management practices significantly influenced the Cd and As concentration in rice grains and aerobic cultivation of rice furnished less As concentration in its grains. Nonetheless, Cd concentration in this treatment was higher than the grains of flooded rice. Likewise, in field study, aerobic and flooded rice cultivation recorded higher Cd and As concentration, respectively. However, growing of rice in aerobic-flooded conditions decreased the Cd concentration by 9.38 times on average basis as compared to aerobic rice. Furthermore, this treatment showed 28% less As concentration than that recorded in flooded rice cultivation. The results suggested that aerobic-flooded cultivation may be a promising strategy to reduce the Cd and As accumulations in rice grains simultaneously.

  3. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  4. Factors affecting dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices among selected urban, semi-urban and rural communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p Practice was associated significantly with age, marital status, and geographic area (p practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country.

  5. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS03), Stream, Ditch or Canal as an Irrigation Source (SDCIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is03)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS03), Stream,...

  6. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS02), Pond, Lake or Reservoir as an Irrigation Source (PLRIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is02)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS02), Pond, Lake...

  7. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream, Lagoon or Other Waste Waster (not including tailwater recovery) as an Irrigation Source (LWWIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is04)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream,...

  8. Influence of voluntary coffee certifications on cooperatives’ advisory services and agricultural practices of smallholder farmers in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole;

    2016-01-01

    cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative administrators and members to determine changes in advisory services and farming practices over the past twenty years and factors which influenced those changes. Findings: Certifications induce cooperatives to offer new services to support farmers....... Cooperatives form collaborations with new stakeholders or reconfigure existing collaborations to provide advisory services to their members. These services have helped to shape farmers’ attitudes about sustainable farming practices, though farm-level changes may be small. The main change at the cooperative...... level is adding new topics for group training, and certification issues are directly linked with practices such as maintaining a farm record book or wearing a mask when applying pesticides. Practices which compete with productivity are unlikely to change. Practical Implications: The results are useful...

  9. The landscape on an asset in Southern European fragile agriculture systems contrasts and contradiction in land managers attitudes and practices

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto-Correia, Teresa; Menezes, Helena; Barroso, Filipe

    2013-01-01

    Transition theories suggest that there is a spatial, temporal and structural co-existence of several processes of transition from productivism to post-productivism going on in rural areas in multiple combinations resulting in a more complex, contested, variable mix of production, consumption and protection goals. This is particularly true for South European landscapes dominated by extensive agro-silvo-pastoral systems. The fragile agricultural sector is in some cases just enter...

  10. Optimum use of water for industry and agriculture dependent on direct abstraction - best practice manual. 

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieson, I. K.; Knox, Jerry W.; Weatherhead, E. K.; Morris, Joe; Jones, D. O.; Yates, A. J.

    2002-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.  Background: The Water Resources Act 1991 and its preceding legislation provides the Environment Agency with the means to manage water resources through the licensing of abstractions. Detailed demand forecasting techniques are available to EA staff when assessing the need for Public Water Supply applications, but there is currently little guidance concerning the water needs of industry and agriculture. This report provides information on the optimum water ...

  11. Composition and reactivity of morphologically distinct charred materials left after slash-and-burn practices in agricultural tropical soils

    OpenAIRE

    Rumpel, C.; Gonzalez Perez, J. A.; Bardoux, G.; Largeau, C.; Gonzalez Vila, F. J.; Valentin, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The composition of black carbon (BC) was studied up to now using laboratory experiments, which often fail to reproduce conditions occurring in natural fires. We sampled plant material and two BC fractions produced during slash and burn agriculture from two adjacent sites. A coarse fraction (CF), most probably derived from twigs and stems, was differentiated from lighter, fluffy fine material (FF). The samples were analysed for elemental and isotopic composition and their reactivity using acid...

  12. Evaluating the Impact of Legacy P and Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Loads from the Maumee River Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muenich, Rebecca Logsdon; Kalcic, Margaret; Scavia, Donald

    2016-08-01

    The recent resurgence of hypoxia and harmful algal blooms in Lake Erie, driven substantially by phosphorus loads from agriculture, have led the United States and Canada to begin developing plans to meet new phosphorus load targets. To provide insight into which agricultural management options could help reach these targets, we tested alternative agricultural-land-use and land-management scenarios on phosphorus loads to Lake Erie. These scenarios highlight certain constraints on phosphorus load reductions from changes in the Maumee River Watershed (MRW), which contributes roughly half of the phosphorus load to the lake's western basin. We evaluate the effects on phosphorus loads under nutrient management strategies, reduction of fertilizer applications, employing vegetative buffers, and implementing widespread cover crops and alternative cropping changes. Results indicate that even if fertilizer application ceased, it may take years to see desired decreases in phosphorus loads, especially if we experience greater spring precipitation or snowmelt. Scenarios also indicate that widespread conversions to perennial crops that may be used for biofuel production are capable of substantially reducing phosphorus loads. This work demonstrates that a combination of legacy phosphorus, land management, land use, and climate should all be considered when seeking phosphorus-loading solutions. PMID:27322563

  13. Art,Science and Technology——Computed Aided Design in Practice & How computer technology affect designer’s work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵耀

    2010-01-01

    Introduction:Computing technology has developed significantly in the past few decades.It affects almost everyone in the modern society,creating new ways of communication which affects both our work and leisure activities.Particularly,in today’s world of design and technology,computer aided design is fast becoming a technologically and economically feasible reality.Most designers have accepted the fact that computer aided design plays an important role in the success of their practices,not due to it’s value as an efficient drafting and modeling tool,but also because of clients’perception that it makes sound financial sense to utilize CAD.On the other hand,many people argue that computers are not fully autonomous,they are merely unconscious digital slaves or tools of production.In addition,the abusive use of software technology would turn creative art design into a purely industrial activity.

  14. Reassembling the "Environment": Science, Affect, and Multispecies Educative Practice at the Aquarium of the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa Katrina

    Drawing on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork at the Aquarium of the Pacific and Michel Foucault's governmentality and biopolitics as an overarching theoretical frame, this dissertation engages in a political ecological analysis to explore how the institution, its staff, and nonhumans work to produce various sorts of knowledge about the environment. I argue that the educative assemblages imagined and formed there, which are intimately linked to institutional fiscal survivability, politically deploy nonhuman animals in the Aquarium's "edutainment" project. Through the use of storytelling as a pedagogical tool to entertain, invoke compassion, and convey science to the public, staff encourage guests to have tactile, auditory, and visual encounters with live ocean creatures in order to construct a natural world worthy of being saved, due to its instrumental and intrinsic value. I show how this public conservation re-education project attempts to highlight the voices of the animals being represented there, but not necessarily the voices of the animals actually residing there. I also draw out the implications of these representative practices and argue that the institution ought to utilize staff-nonhuman relationships, which are grounded in care and empathy, as a framework for developing visitor-nonhuman relationships.

  15. Do personal beliefs and peers affect the practice of alcohol consumption in university students in Lebanon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamé, J; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is frequent among university students in Lebanon as elsewhere in the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lebanon's public and private universities between October 2009 and September 2010 using a standardized questionnaire to assess personal beliefs about alcohol consumption, peers' behaviours and opinions and history of and current drinking practices. Of 1235 students, 199 (16.1%) had an AUDIT score>or=8. Older age, male sex, Christian religion, attending a private university, studying a non-health specialty and residing in Beirut or Mount Lebanon were associated with a higher risk of harmful drinking. Beliefs concerning alcohol consumption and peers' opinions and behaviours were factors significantly associated with harmful drinking, especially: ignoring the dangers of alcohol consumption; higher frequency of consumption with friends; and a higher proportion of friends who drank regularly. University students' alcohol drinking behaviour was mostly influenced by peers' behaviour, and a peer education programme is recommended to decrease the risk of harmful drinking.

  16. Do personal beliefs and peers affect the practice of alcohol consumption in university students in Lebanon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamé, J; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol consumption is frequent among university students in Lebanon as elsewhere in the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lebanon's public and private universities between October 2009 and September 2010 using a standardized questionnaire to assess personal beliefs about alcohol consumption, peers' behaviours and opinions and history of and current drinking practices. Of 1235 students, 199 (16.1%) had an AUDIT score>or=8. Older age, male sex, Christian religion, attending a private university, studying a non-health specialty and residing in Beirut or Mount Lebanon were associated with a higher risk of harmful drinking. Beliefs concerning alcohol consumption and peers' opinions and behaviours were factors significantly associated with harmful drinking, especially: ignoring the dangers of alcohol consumption; higher frequency of consumption with friends; and a higher proportion of friends who drank regularly. University students' alcohol drinking behaviour was mostly influenced by peers' behaviour, and a peer education programme is recommended to decrease the risk of harmful drinking. PMID:23882959

  17. Integrative planning theory and practice of modern agricultural demonstration zone%现代农业示范区总体规划理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绪荣; 李靖; 付海英

    2013-01-01

    Planning can guide the construction of the modern agricultural demonstration zone(MASZ) in high level. A scientific guiding theories system may smooth the process of the planning and its appliance. Based on the characters of the modern agriculture, we try to establish such theory system by summing up relevant theories using the hierarchical classification method. This theory system includes theories about site setting, development definition, general arrangement, industry development, location, industry planning, science & technology supporting, profit analysis, innovation of the mechanism, etc. The overall design is an important part of the MASZ planning, which mainly summed and integrated the basic theories about development definition, location, industry planning. In guiding the development definition, there are mainly theories about the basic role of agriculture and about multi-functions of agriculture. In guiding the general arrangement, there are theories about system engineering and recycle agriculture. In guiding the industry development, there are theories about major industry choosing, industry chain, industry construction. In guiding location, there are theories of growth pole, core&axis, agriculture districts division. The practice of this guiding theories system is showed in the case of The Planning of the Agriculture Demonstration Zone of Haikou City. In this planning, we defined the function of Haikou MASZ by considering such factors as strengthening the local industries, efficiently supplying of vegetables, developing low-coal agriculture, leading zone development, improving the international competing advantage, attracting tourists, etc. According to theory of system, we designed a positive cycle system, in which, agriculture products processing is as engine, technology innovation is support factor, social agriculture service is associate factor, all industries react and coordinate well. The major industries were chosen according factors as

  18. Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loy, Bryan A; Shkedy, Clive I; Powell, Adam C; Happe, Laura E; Royalty, Julie A; Miao, Michael T; Smith, Gary L; Long, James W; Gupta, Amit K

    2016-01-01

    Case rate payments combined with utilization monitoring may have the potential to improve the quality of care by reducing over and under-treatment. Thus, a national managed care organization introduced case rate payments at one multi-site radiation oncology provider while maintaining only fee-for-service payments at others. This study examined whether the introduction of the payment method had an effect on radiation fractions administered when compared to clinical guidelines. The number of fractions of radiation therapy delivered to patients with bone metastases, breast, lung, prostate, and skin cancer was assessed for concordance with clinical guidelines. The proportion of guideline-based care ascertained from the payer's claims database was compared before (2011) and after (2013) the payment method introduction using relative risks (RR). After the introduction of case rates, there were no significant changes in guideline-based care in breast, lung, and skin cancer; however, patients with bone metastases and prostate cancer were significantly more likely to have received guideline-based care (RR = 2.0 and 1.1, respectively, pcase rate payments, while the over-treatment rate remained steady at 9%, with no significant change (p = 0.20). These findings suggest that the introduction of case rate payments did not adversely affect the rate of guideline-based care at the provider examined. Additional research is needed to isolate the effect of the payment model and assess implications in other populations.

  19. Factors Affecting Adoption of Agroforestry Farming System as a Mean for Sustainable Agricultural Development and Environment Conservation in Arid Areas of Northern Kordofan State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arid and semi-arid areas represent about 60 percent of Sudan total area. One of the main environmental problems in the arid and semi-arid areas is diffraction's which reduces the natural potential of the already fragile ecosystems and renders rural people vulnerable to food shortages, the vagaries of weather and natural disasters. Deforestation which is considered one of the most critical environmental problems facing the world is one of the main causes of diffraction's. Between the years 1990 and 2005 Sudan lost about 8.8 millions hectares of forests, which represents 11%, of its forests mainly because of subsistence activities such as overgrazing, trees cutting and expansion of traditional agriculture. One of the areas that are very much affected by diffraction's is Northern Kordofan State. To rescue the situation the government of Sudan, with assistance from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and some donors, implemented a project that aimed primarily at restocking Acacia Senegal trees in Northern Kordofan State. This study is intended to explore the factors that caused differential rate of farmers' adoption rate of the Acacia Senegal based agroforestry farming system. The study data was collected from a clustered random sample of 300 farmers, through face to face interviews using a questionnaire that was pre-tested and validated. Frequency distribution and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the data. It has been found that farmers' adoption of agroforestry farming system in Northern Kordofan state was significantly affected by the farmers' level of formal education, contact with extension agents, level of environmental awareness, cosmopoliteness, total area of owned land and extent of social participation. (author)

  20. Water Availability for Winter Wheat Affected by Summer Fallow Tillage Practices in Slope Dryland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; YANG Bo; Roger Hartmann; Donald Gabriels; CAI Dian-xiong; JIN Ke; WU Hui-jun; BAI Zhan-guo; ZHANG Can-jun; YAO Yu-qing; LU Jun-jie; WANG Yu-hong

    2003-01-01

    The tillage experiments for winter wheat were conducted on the slope farmland in Luoyang,Henan Province in the semihumid to arid loess plateau areas of North China. Different tillage methods inclu-ding reduced tillage (RT), no-till (NT), 2 crops/year (2C), subsoiling(SS), and conventional tillage (CT)were compared to determine the effects of tillage methods on soil water conservation, water availability, andwheat yields in a search for better farming systems in the areas. The NT and SS showed good effects on waterconservation. The soil water storage increased 12 - 33 mm with NT and 9 - 24 mm with SS at the end of sum-mer fallow periods. The soil evaporation with NT and SS decreased 7 - 8 mm and 34 - 36 mm during the fallowperiods of 1999 and 2001, respectively. Evapotranspiration (ET) with NT and SS increased about 47 mm dur-ing wheat growth periods of 2000 to 2001. Treatment RT and 2C had low water storage and high water lossesduring the fallow periods. The winter wheat yields with conservation tillage practices were improved in the 2ndyear, increased by 3, 5 and 8 % with RT, NT and SS, respectively, compared with CT. The highest wheatyields were obtained with subsoiling, and the maximum economic benefits from no-till. All conservation tillagepractices provided great benefits to saving energy and labors, reducing operation inputs, and increasing eco-nomic returns. No-till and subsoiling have shown promise in increasing water storage, reducing water loss, en-hancing water availability, and saving energy, as well as increasing wheat yield.

  1. Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A Loy

    Full Text Available Case rate payments combined with utilization monitoring may have the potential to improve the quality of care by reducing over and under-treatment. Thus, a national managed care organization introduced case rate payments at one multi-site radiation oncology provider while maintaining only fee-for-service payments at others. This study examined whether the introduction of the payment method had an effect on radiation fractions administered when compared to clinical guidelines. The number of fractions of radiation therapy delivered to patients with bone metastases, breast, lung, prostate, and skin cancer was assessed for concordance with clinical guidelines. The proportion of guideline-based care ascertained from the payer's claims database was compared before (2011 and after (2013 the payment method introduction using relative risks (RR. After the introduction of case rates, there were no significant changes in guideline-based care in breast, lung, and skin cancer; however, patients with bone metastases and prostate cancer were significantly more likely to have received guideline-based care (RR = 2.0 and 1.1, respectively, p<0.05. For the aggregate of all cancers, the under-treatment rate significantly declined (p = 0.008 from 4% to 0% after the introduction of case rate payments, while the over-treatment rate remained steady at 9%, with no significant change (p = 0.20. These findings suggest that the introduction of case rate payments did not adversely affect the rate of guideline-based care at the provider examined. Additional research is needed to isolate the effect of the payment model and assess implications in other populations.

  2. Role of microbial diversity in mitigating the emissions of the greenhouse gas n2o in relation to agricultural practices

    OpenAIRE

    Domeignoz Horta, Luiz; Spor, Aymé; Bru, David; Breuil, Marie-Christine; Bizouard, Florian; Philippot, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the main source of terrestrial N2O emissions. This gas is the main depleting substance of the ozone layer and contributes to about 6% of total global warming. The unique known biological process able to convert N2O is its reduction to N2 by organisms possessing the nosZ gene, which encodes the nitrous oxide reductase. A recent publication (Jones et al., Nature Climate Change, in press) showed that the abundance and the diversity of a recently discovered clade of nosZ_carrying m...

  3. 黑龙江省农业生产效率影响因素的实证分析%An Empirical Analysis of The Factors Affecting The Effciency of Hei Longjiang Provice Agriculture Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温红梅; 王雪莹

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production efficiency affected by various constraints and the impact. This article uses agricultural production inputs and out-puts data which from Heilongjiang Province, 13 prefecture-level cities in 2001-2010, and uses stochastic frontier production function approach estimates the efficiency of agricultural production in Heilongjiang Province and its influencing factors. To conclusion that:the agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fishery rural labor in Heilongjiang Province have the inhibit effect on the agricultural productivity;It is weakly on agricultural machinery and chemical fertilizers;Fixed asset investment in rural areas of Heilongjiang Province has promoted agricultural productivity;power con-sumption is also the interference factors of agricultural. Reasonably plan on ratio of the rural labor force in agriculture, increase investment in agri-cultural science and technology and promotion, conform to investment plan according to the characteristics of Heilongjiang agriculture, increase in-put in agricultural material and equipment, and improve the agricultural production environment, which produce positive effects on agricultural pro-duction efficiency.%农业生产效率受到多方面的制约和影响。使用2001—2010年黑龙江省13个地市级市农业生产投入和产出数据,运用随机前沿生产函数方法测算黑龙江省农业生产效率及其影响因素。研究表明:黑龙江省农、林、牧、渔、农村劳动力对农业生产效率有抑制作用,农用机械和农用化肥使用存在薄弱环节,农村固定资产投资对农业生产效率有促进作用,农业用电量也是农业生产效率的干扰因素。合理规划农村劳动力在农业方面的配比、加大农业科技投入与推广、制定符合黑龙江特色的农业生产投资计划、加大农业物质装备的投入及改善农业生产环境对农业生产效率的提高具有积极作用。

  4. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Katherine R.

    2015-11-19

    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  5. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination.

  6. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn

    2016-09-01

    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  7. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén C. Saiz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1 political debates about abortion, (2 gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3 pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1 gender is the basis of social norms and (2 gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results: Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions: Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance

  8. Nitrogen Losses as N2O and NO After Non-tillage Agricultural Practice in a Tropical Corn Field at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, T. J.; Gil, J. A.; Marquina, S.; Donoso, L. E.; Trumbore, S. E.; Tyler, S. C.

    2005-12-01

    Historically, the most common agricultural practice in Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions, has been mono cropping, with extensive tillage operations that usually causes rapid soil degradation and nitrogen losses. Alternative production systems, such as non-tillage agricultural practices, have been extensively implemented during the last few years. However, studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these alternative practices are not widely available. This study was conducted at "Fundo Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9°23'33" N, 66° 38'30" W) in a corn field under the non-tillage agricultural practice, during the growing season June-August 2005. The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). The area has two well defined precipitation seasons: wet (May-October) and dry (November-April). The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). Because the irrigation of the crop depends on precipitation, the planting is scheduled during the months of highest precipitation in June-July. We measured nitrogenous gas emissions (N2O and NO), concentrations of total nitrogen (NT), NH4+ and NO3- in soil (0-100 cm) after fertilization to estimate the nitrogen losses. We also measured CO2 emissions to evaluate the relationship of microbial respiration to the emissions of nitrogenous trace gases. Soils were fertilized with 54 kgN/ha (NPK 12:24:12, nitrogen as NH4Cl) and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depth. Thirty days later, soils were fertilized by broadcast addition of 18 kgN/ha (as ammonium nitrate). Nitrous oxide emissions were highly dependant on the water content. Prior to fertilization N2O emissions were very low. Right after fertilization the emissions increased by a factor of 5 compared to pre-fertilization levels and increased to 100 times larger after the first heavy rain. NO emissions did not increase

  9. Factors affecting dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices among selected urban, semi-urban and rural communities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh

    2013-01-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p < 0.05). Practice was associated significantly with age, marital status, and geographic area (p < 0.05) and knowledge on dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country. PMID:23682436

  10. Impacts of Strategic Learning Practices on Employees’ Commitment in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs Engaged in Agriculture and Protein Food Production Sectors in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sedighi Pashaki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The survival of the firms depends on the adoption of techniques and methods for encouraging learning among people. On other hand, it is necessary to have an attitude for interaction and endeavour in order for the learning to be built and conserved. Therefore, committed people in organizations have always been emphasized as a driving force of the extension and creation of learning. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of strategic learning practices on employees’ commitment in small and medium-sized sized enterprises (SMEs engaged in agriculture and protein food production sectors in Guilan Province. The statistical society was composed of 650 key people of SMEs in agriculture and food sector in Guilan Province. Stratified sampling method was applied. Tseng’s standard questionnaire was used as main tool for data collection. The research is a practical study in terms of objective and a correlation-based descriptive studied in terms of data collection methodology. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and stepwise regression was used for inferential statistics. In inferential section, Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to examine the relationships between strategic learning methods and people’s commitment. Furthermore, stepwise regression was used to examine the impact of various aspects of strategic learning methods on people’s commitment. SPSS Software Package was applied for statistical analyses. It was found that strategic learning practices were significantly correlated with employees commitment. Based on the regression results, create system, strategic leadership and empower people were ranked as the first, second and third strongest factors influencing employees’ commitment, respectively.

  11. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  12. [Affection, proximity, frequency and hesitant clinical practice: basis of the "bond" between Down syndrome patients and primary health care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, Bruno José Barcellos; Setoue, Cesar Seiji; Melo, Débora Gusmão

    2013-07-01

    The national policy of comprehensive care in clinical genetics propounds that families and individuals with genetic disorders should receive ongoing assistance at primary health care (PHC) level. In this study, the social representation of professionals working in family health care units (FHCU) is investigated based on their "bond" with Down syndrome patients, bearing in mind that this expression currently contains relevant meanings in the clinical practice and service management routine. Sixteen practitioners were interviewed, and the sample was defined by theoretical saturation. The statements given by the participants expressed knowledge based mainly on affective skills, physical proximity and patients' frequency of attendance at the family health care unit (FHCU). Clinical skills of other kinds, especially cognitive skills, do not appear to justify the notion of "bond." The results indicate the need of continuous professional education and definition of guidelines and approaches in care to the most common syndromes in the context of primary health care (PHC). PMID:23827892

  13. Facilitating innovation: an action-oriented approach and participatory methodology to improve innovative social practice in agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, P.G.H.

    1995-01-01

    This study focuses upon the social organization of innovation. It makes use of insights from knowledge and information systems research, development sociology, management science and applied philosophy and seeks answers to the following questions: What do social actors, individuals and/or organizations, actually do to innovate their practices? How do they organize themselves? Can this be managed or facilitated, and if so, how? The research is exploratory rather than conclusion-oriented and sy...

  14. Effects of agricultural practices on soil and microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus content: a preliminary case study

    OpenAIRE

    F. Amaral; M. Abelho

    2016-01-01

    In this study we assessed the C : N : P ratios in soil and soil microbial biomass subject to conventional farming and three different organic farming practices. The results showed that microbial biomass was P-limited in soils subject to conventional farming and to organic farming with alfalfa green manure. Organic farming with compost amendment showed the best results in terms of microbial biomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (CNP).

  15. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields

  16. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  17. Being a surgeon--the myth and the reality: a meta-synthesis of surgeons' perspectives about factors affecting their practice and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Orri, Massimiliano; Farges, Olivier; Clavien, Pierre-Alain; Barkun, Jeffrey; Revah-Lévy, Anne

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Synthesize the findings from individual qualitative studies about surgeons' account of their practice. BACKGROUND Social and contextual factors of practice influence doctors' well-being and therapeutic relationships. Little is known about surgery, but it is generally assumed that surgeons are not affected by them. METHODS We searched international publications (2000-2012) to identify relevant qualitative research exploring how surgeons talk about their practice. Meta-ethnograp...

  18. 烤烟良好农业规范(GAP)认证探索与实践%Exploration and Practice of Flue-cured Tobacco Good Agricultural Practice(GAP)Certification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵晓丽

    2014-01-01

    GAP认证是提高农产品质量安全管理水平的有效手段和工具。该文以云南省普洱市烟区为例,详细介绍了烤烟GAP认证过程中的具体做法,对提升烤烟认证实施水平,促进烟叶生产标准化管理,提升烟叶原料品质,增强市场竞争力具有重要意义。%Good agricultural practice is an effective means and tool to improve the management level of quality and safety of agricultural products. This paper took Puer flue-cured tobacco area in Yunnan Province as an example ,introduced the detail specific practices of flue-cured tobacco GAP certification process,which had an important influence on promoting the standardization of tobacco production,enhancing the quality of tobacco raw materials and the market competitiveness.

  19. Land Management Practices and Their Effects on Food Crop Yields in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Asuming-Brempong, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural land use and the management of agricultural lands in Ghana as evidenced from farmer practices have been analysed using descriptive and regression analysis. The analysis shows that different land management practices affect crop yields differently in the different ecological zones. Also, the types of land management practices farmers use differ across the different ecological zones. The policy implication is that agricultural interventions should be developed on the basis of agro-...

  20. Prácticas de utilización de plaguicidas en agricultores Pesticide application practices in agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. García

    2002-06-01

    los estudios epidemiológicos de los efectos de los plaguicidas sobre la salud en trabajadores agrícolas.Objective: We describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers applying pesticides. Methods: The workers selected were included in a case-control study carried out in the Autonomous Community of Valencia in Spain. Contact was made by telephone and individuals who had been involved in agricultural work during the relevant period of exposure were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: crops and periods worked, mixing of products, treatment equipment, participation in the washing of equipment, use of personal protection during the treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Eighty-nine workers, aged between 16 and 46 years old, were included. Most of the interviewees had primary education or less. Pesticide treatments were mostly applied on high crops (82%, with manual equipment (61% and throughout the year (45%. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 60%. Sixty-five percent of the workers used no personal protection or used it defectively. No differences were found in personal protection use according to age, family income or education. Most of the workers (90% reported knowledge of the health risks of pesticide exposure and 21% of them rated the risk as null. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very defectively. There is a clear need to develop specific prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers.