Sample records for agricultural practices affecting


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros MARKOPOULOS


    Full Text Available The Mid-term review of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003/2004 has strengthened the multifunctional role of agriculture by implementing “decoupling”, “modulation” and “cross-compliance” and created a number of significant changes in agricultural production in all EU member states. Specifically, the reform shifted emphasis away from commodity support towards environmental contracts, diversified production practices and rural development. In the case of cereals, a full decoupling was applied in subsidies and integration through rights in the Single Payment Scheme, except rice, which was one of the few crop cases in which part of the subsidy remained coupled, particular in countries with significant production like Greece. Within this context, the present study aims to analyze the impact that the reformed CAP measures had on agricultural production and more specifically variations in production diversification. The novelty of this study is that instead of focusing on the producers, it targeted the agricultural input stores, so as to get better insights of the CAP reform impacts on a larger scale of the regional economy. Accordingly, primary data were collected through personal interviews (structured questionnaire from 209 owners of agricultural input stores in the region of Anatoliki Makedonia and Thraki and were analyzed through multivariate data analysis. The results identify important antecedents for the regional economy and the viability of agricultural input stores, which include factors of the reformed CAP, environmental issues, financial measures and CAP effects on cereal production and marketing.

  2. Cultivar and Year Rather than Agricultural Practices Affect Primary and Secondary Metabolites in Apple Fruit. (United States)

    Le Bourvellec, Carine; Bureau, Sylvie; Renard, Catherine M G C; Plenet, Daniel; Gautier, Hélène; Touloumet, Line; Girard, Thierry; Simon, Sylvaine


    Many biotic and abiotic parameters affect the metabolites involved in the organoleptic and health value of fruits. It is therefore important to understand how the growers' decisions for cultivar and orchard management can affect the fruit composition. Practices, cultivars and/or year all might participate to determine fruit composition. To hierarchize these factors, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids contents, titratable acidity, individual sugars and organics acids, and phenolics were measured in three apple cultivars ('Ariane', 'Melrose' and 'Smoothee') managed under organic, low-input and conventional management. Apples were harvested at commercial maturity in the orchards of the cropping system experiment BioREco at INRA Gotheron (Drôme, 26) over the course of three years (2011, 2012 and 2013). The main factors affecting primary and secondary metabolites, in both apple skin and flesh, were by far the cultivar and the yearly conditions, while the management system had a very limited effect. When considering the three cultivars and the year 2011 to investigate the effect of the management system per se, only few compounds differed significantly between the three systems and in particular the total phenolic content did not differ significantly between systems. Finally, when considering orchards grown in the same pedoclimatic conditions and of the same age, instead of the usual organic vs. conventional comparison, the effect of the management system on the apple fruit quality (Fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, individual sugars, organic acids, and phenolics) was very limited to non-significant. The main factors of variation were the cultivar and the year of cropping rather than the cropping system. More generally, as each management system (e.g. conventional, organic…) encompasses a great variability of practices, this highlights the importance of accurately documenting orchard practices and design beside the generic


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova


    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  4. Weather extremes could affect agriculture (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie


    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  5. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka


    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  6. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. (United States)

    ... 11.3MB, May 2016) Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. Climate change presents real threats ... will be faced with the challenges of adapting. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack gave a speech in June, ...

  7. Agronomy, sustainability and good agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caliman Jean-Pierre


    Full Text Available Sustainable palm oil production needs to be based on the application of a code of good practices, respecting a certain number of criteria related to economic, environmental and social aspects. We focus here on economic and environmental aspects, attempting to take stock of the current situation regarding the management of inputs (fertilizers, pesticides, and of oil mill waste (empty fruit bunches, effluent. We also take a look at the main agricultural research required if we are to be able to assess the situation on different scales and see how it is evolving, and also provide assistance for rational management that is compatible with farmers’ production targets.

  8. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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  9. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Climate Solutions Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. The changing climate presents real threats to U.S. agricultural ... landowners, but for all Americans. Land managers across the country are already feeling the pressures of a ...

  10. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... Feedback Climate Solutions Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. The changing climate presents real threats ... that 2012 was the second most intense year in our history for extreme weather events. Rising average ...

  11. Nematode problems affecting agriculture in the Philippines. (United States)

    Davide, R G


    Nematodes are considered major pests on most economic crops in the Philippines, particularly on banana, pineapple, citrus, tomato, ramie, and sugarcane. Radopholus similis is the most destructive nematode on banana, while Meloidogyne spp. are more serious on various vegetable crops such as tomato, okra, and celery and on fiber crops such as ramie. Tylenchulus semipenetrans is a problem on citrus and Rotylenchulus reniformis on pineapple and some legume crops. Hirschmanniella oryzae and Aphelenchoides besseyi are becoming serious on rice, and Pratylenchus zeae is affecting corn in some areas. Lately, Globodera rostochiensis has been causing serious damage on potato in the highlands. Control measures such as crop rotation, planting resistant varieties, chemical nematicide application, and biological control have been recommended to control these nematodes.

  12. Factors Affecting Information Security Focused on SME and Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Progress in the field of information and communication technology is a source of advantage that improves quality of business services; increases productivity levels and brings competitive advantage to enterprises and organisations related to agricultural production. However, the use of information and communication technology (ICT is connected with information security risks that threaten business continuity and information assets. The ICT in small and medium-sized enterprises (SME and agricultural enterprises is the source of several advantages as well as the risks resulting from information security violation and security incidents. This paper aims at the current situation of information security in SME and agricultural enterprises. Furthermore, the paper provides results of a survey focusing on identification and evaluation of the effects of internal and external factors affecting existence of risks in information security in Slovak SME and agricultural enterprises. Until now, there had not been a similar survey carried out.

  13. Research and Practice of the Construction Mode of the Practical Training Base for Agriculture and Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying; LIU; Junjie; WANG; Xuebin; LI; Jian; ZHANG


    In response to bottlenecks and dilemmas faced by institutions for agricultural and forestry practical training base construction, and based on Agriculture practical training base of Langfang Polytechnic Institute, this article illustrates the effective exploration and practice of the mode and ways for the construction of the practical training base,which provides some useful experience for the construction of the training base in agricultural and forestry institutions.

  14. Transition to Sustainable Fertilisation in Agriculture, A Practices Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huttunen, Suvi; Oosterveer, Peter


    It is argued that sustainability transition in agriculture requires a shift from a regime oriented towards increasing agricultural productivity to a regime in which the environmental and social effects of production are regarded as central. Practice theories represent an emerging perspective on a

  15. Economic Drought Impact on Agriculture: analysis of all agricultural sectors affected (United States)

    Gil, M.; Garrido, A.; Hernández-Mora, N.


    The analysis of drought impacts is essential to define efficient and sustainable management and mitigation. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the impacts of the 2004-2008 drought in the agricultural sector in the Ebro river basin (Spain). An econometric model is applied in order to determine the magnitude of the economic loss attributable to water scarcity. Both the direct impacts of drought on agricultural productivity and the indirect impacts of drought on agricultural employment and agroindustry in the Ebro basin are evaluated. The econometric model measures losses in the economic value of irrigated and rainfed agricultural production, of agricultural employment and of Gross Value Added both from the agricultural sector and the agro-industrial sector. The explanatory variables include an index of water availability (reservoir storage levels for irrigated agriculture and accumulated rainfall for rainfed agriculture), a price index representative of the mix of crops grown in each region, and a time variable. The model allows for differentiating the impacts due to water scarcity from other sources of economic losses. Results show how the impacts diminish as we approach the macro-economic indicators from those directly dependent on water abstractions and precipitation. Sectors directly dependent on water are the most affected with identifiable economic losses resulting from the lack of water. From the management perspective implications of these findings are key to develop mitigation measures to reduce drought risk exposure. These results suggest that more open agricultural markets, and wider and more flexible procurement strategies of the agro-industry reduces the socio-economic exposure to drought cycles. This paper presents the results of research conducted under PREEMPT project (Policy relevant assessment of the socioeconomic effects of droughts and floods, ECHO - grant agreement # 070401/2010/579119/SUB/C4), which constitutes an effort to provide

  16. Identifying factors affecting optimal management of agricultural water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian


    In addition to quantitative methodology such as descriptive statistics and factor analysis a qualitative methodology was employed for dynamic simulation among variables through Vensim software. In this study, the factor analysis technique was used through the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO and Bartlett tests. From the results, four key elements were identified as factors affecting the optimal management of agricultural water in Hamedan area. These factors were institutional and legal factors, technical and knowledge factors, economic factors and social factors.

  17. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  18. Transformation and sustainability in agriculture : connecting practice with social theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellema, S.


    Public pressure and societal changes induce interventions and policies, which aim to transform agriculture and food provision. This book shows that for upscaling novel practices and organizational models it is important to include meso-level regime aspects in analysis and practice. The argument pres

  19. Effects of conservation practices on fishes within agricultural watersheds (United States)

    Conservation practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watersheds in the United States without documentation of their impacts. The goal of the ARS Conservation Effects Assessment Project Watershed Assessment Study is to quantify the effect of conservation practices within 14 agri...

  20. Factors affecting the perceptions of Iranian agricultural researchers towards nanotechnology. (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mahmood; Rezaei, Rohollah


    This descriptive survey research was undertaken to design appropriate programs for the creation of a positive perception of nanotechnology among their intended beneficiaries. In order to do that, the factors affecting positive perceptions were defined. A stratified random sample of 278 science board members was selected out of 984 researchers who were working in 22 National Agricultural Research Institutions (NARIs). Data were collected by using a mailed questionnaire. The descriptive results revealed that more than half of the respondents had "low" or "very low" familiarity with nanotechnology. Regression analysis indicated that the perceptions of Iranian NARI Science Board Members towards nanotechnology were explained by three variables: the level of their familiarity with emerging applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, the level of their familiarity with nanotechnology and their work experiences. The findings of this study can contribute to a better understanding of the present situation of the development of nanotechnology and the planning of appropriate programs for creating a positive perception of nanotechnology.

  1. Assessment of the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture Practices: Implications for Agricultural Education. (United States)

    Alonge, Adewale Johnson; Martin, Robert A.


    Surveyed farmers (115 of 150) were very positive about the profitability and compatibility of sustainable agriculture, although certain practices elicited negative reactions. They wanted research and development directed toward maximizing profitability and compatibility to facilitate their adoption of these practices. (SK)

  2. Agricultural Students’ Perceptions of Farm Practical Year Programme at University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abayomi Oloruntoba


    Full Text Available Farm Practical programme addresses the short comings in curricular of agricultural graduates enabling them to acquire knowledge and practical skills needed to become proficient in agriculture. The study contributes in providing insights into perceptions of level 400 agricultural students regarding the Farm Practical Year (FPY programme at the University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria. A total of 261 sample students were selected through stratified sampling procedure from 11 core agricultural departments and administered with pre-tested questionnaire. Results show that the programme provided students with ‘hands-on’ experience and opportunity to apply theory learnt in classroom to a real-life fi eld situation in which students had to adapt and solve problems on daily basis. Students also felt strongly that the farm practical would contribute to their professional career and employability on graduation. However, certain perceived problems were raised by students such as lack of on-campus accommodation, delay in payment of allowances and paucity of resources. It is recommended that greater efforts are needed to mentor students to take active interest in farm practical while human and material resources strengthened to deliver this mandate.

  3. [Ecological agriculture: future of Good Agriculture Practice of Chinese materia medica]. (United States)

    Guo, Lan-ping; Zhou, Liang-yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Huang, Lu-qi


    Based on the ecological and economic problems in Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) of Chinese material medica, we introduced the origin, concept, features and operative technology of eco-agriculture worldwide, emphasizing its modes on different biological levels of landscape, ecosystem, community, population, individual and gene in China. And on this basis, we analyzed the background and current situation of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica, and proposed its development ideas and key tasks, including: (1) Analysis and planning of the production pattern of Chinese material medica national wide. (2) Typical features extraction of regional agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (3) Investigation of the interaction and its mechanism between typical Chinese materia medica in each region and the micro-ecology of rhizosphere soil. (4) Study on technology of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. (5) Extraction and solidification of eco-agriculture modes of Chinese materia medica. (6) Study on the theory of eco-agriculture of Chinese materia medica. Also we pointed out that GAP and eco-agriculture of Chinese material medica are both different and relative, but they are not contradictory with their own features. It is an irresistible trend to promote eco-agriculture in the GAP of Chinese material medica and coordinate ecological and economic development.

  4. Effects of conservation practices on fishes, amphibians, and reptiles within agricultural streams and wetlands (United States)

    Conservation practices have been traditionally used to manage soil and water resources to improve agricultural production, and now include methods to reduce the environmental impacts of agriculture on streams and wetlands. These practices have been regularly implemented within agricultural watershed...

  5. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams (United States)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosângela Alves de Souto


    Full Text Available The agroecology represents a new focus to the study and management of alternative agricultural systems, andhas offered a theoretical framework whose purpose is to analyze the agricultural processes widely, in otherwords, see agriculture from a systemic approach, highlighting the sustainability inherent to the natural cycles andbiological interactions. Alternative practices of agricultural management has been recently adopted by familyfarmers in Lagoa Seca city - PB, aiming to protect the environment from the intense degrading actions of theconventional agriculture, as well as to improve the farmers life quality. This way, this study aims to identify theagroecological practices which have been adopted by the family farmers in different transition stages,highlighting the local experiences which were experienced and its environmental viability to the region,considering the agroecology principles as a steering mechanism and determinant for such analysis. Therefore,this study has been performed through a based questionnaire, observation in loco and the application of a semistructured interview. The obtained data through this research have revealed that the adopted practices byagroecological farmers from Lagoa Seca have provided the soil, water and local biota conservation, ensuring themaintenance in long term of these natural resources to the current and future generations, besides to promote anincrease in the life quality of the farmers and their families.

  7. Theme: Trends and Issues Affecting the Future of Agricultural Education. (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2000


    Articles discuss trends and issues in agricultural education, community and technical colleges, career/technical studies, Australian agriculture, agricultural science and technology programs in urban areas, genetic engineering, the impact of changing technologies on agricultural education, volunteers, and performance-based assessment. (JOW)

  8. Farmer’s motivation to adopt sustainable agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Menozzi


    Full Text Available The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP reform defines new rules for farmers including maintenance of the ecological focus area (EFA. Sustainability is also a requirement to meet consumer expectations and a competitive advantage for firms. This paper aims to evaluate the farmers’ intention to implement sustainable practices related to the EFA measure and to the private sustainability schemes proposed by the food industry. The Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was applied on a sample of durum wheat producers to analyse intentions 1 to maintain 7% of the arable land as an EFA, and 2 to implement the private sustainability scheme. Structural equation modelling was applied to test for the relative importance of intention determinants. The farmers’ attitude and past behaviour positively affect intentions to implement the EFA, while perceived behavioural control and attitudes predict intentions to adopt the private sustainability scheme. These results suggest possible interventions that public authorities and supply chain leaders might implement to stimulate farmers’ sustainable behaviours. 

  9. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian


    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  10. Does Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Size Affect Agricultural Education Teachers' Job Satisfaction? (United States)

    Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.


    Secondary agricultural education teachers were surveyed to examine if a relationship existed between the physical attributes of agricultural mechanics laboratories and agricultural education teachers' enjoyment of teaching agricultural mechanics. Teachers also indicated their competence to teach courses other than agricultural mechanics within the…

  11. Agricultural Waste Management Systems on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 312 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP312), Agricultural...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kraskova A. A.


    Full Text Available The article presents aspects of the efficiency of the international financial reporting standards (IFRS in the accounting practice of agricultural enterprises by basic organizational components, defines stages of the application of certain IFRS elements in the preparation of reporting of the agricultural sector enterprises. First of all, agricultural enterprises will face problems of the transition to IFRS. This is associated with peculiarities of the agricultural production, which are determined by the natural and social factors and affect the organization of accounting: agricultural production is seasonal, this is why the production cycle doesn’t coincide with the calendar year; the land is the basic means of production, animals and plants act as a specific means of production; timescales of plant ripening and animal breeding determine the obtainment of the end product. Analysis of the difficulties of the agricultural organizations’ transition to IFRS showed different views in the scientific and professional community regarding the valuation of assets and liabilities and biological assets accounting. Choice of experts responsible for the preparation of reporting according to IFRS is an important issue that requires additional expenses for hiring highly qualified specialists or the creation of a special department, which is fully agreeable to international standards. Success of the reporting preparation according to IFRS requires the process optimization with the usage of modern information technologies. Introduction of IFRS to the accounting practices of agricultural enterprises implies changes of the national regulatory framework of accounting, reporting and taxation

  13. 29 CFR 780.104 - How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture. (United States)


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How modern specialization affects the scope of agriculture... EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT General Scope of Agriculture Introductory § 780.104 How modern...

  14. Knowledge needs, available practices, and future challenges in agricultural soils (United States)

    Key, Georgina; Whitfield, Mike G.; Cooper, Julia; De Vries, Franciska T.; Collison, Martin; Dedousis, Thanasis; Heathcote, Richard; Roth, Brendan; Mohammed, Shamal; Molyneux, Andrew; Van der Putten, Wim H.; Dicks, Lynn V.; Sutherland, William J.; Bardgett, Richard D.


    The goal of this study is to clarify research needs and identify effective practices for enhancing soil health. This was done by a synopsis of soil literature that specifically tests practices designed to maintain or enhance elements of soil health. Using an expert panel of soil scientists and practitioners, we then assessed the evidence in the soil synopsis to highlight practices beneficial to soil health, practices considered detrimental, and practices that need further investigation. A partial Spearman's correlation was used to analyse the panel's responses. We found that increased certainty in scientific evidence led to practices being considered to be more effective due to them being empirically justified. This suggests that for practices to be considered effective and put into practice, a substantial body of research is needed to support the effectiveness of the practice. This is further supported by the high proportion of practices (33 %), such as changing the timing of ploughing or amending the soil with crops grown as green manures, that experts felt had unknown effectiveness, usually due to insufficiently robust evidence. Only 7 of the 27 reviewed practices were considered to be beneficial, or likely to be beneficial in enhancing soil health. These included the use of (1) integrated nutrient management (organic and inorganic amendments); (2) cover crops; (3) crop rotations; (4) intercropping between crop rows or underneath the main crop; (5) formulated chemical compounds (such as nitrification inhibitors); (6) control of traffic and traffic timing; and (7) reducing grazing intensity. Our assessment, which uses the Delphi technique, is increasingly used to improve decision-making in conservation and agricultural policy, identified practices that can be put into practice to benefit soil health. Moreover, it has enabled us to identify practices that need further research and a need for increased communication between researchers, policy-makers, and

  15. Accounting in Agriculture: Measurement practices of listed firms


    Rute Gonçalves; Patrícia Lopes


    Based on the International Accounting Standard (IAS) 41 – Agriculture, this paper examines measurement practices of biological assets and their drivers, under accounting choice theory, given data from 2012. Taking into consideration 324 listed firms worldwide that have adopted International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) until 2011, the empirical evidence supports that while a large number of firms measures biological assets at fair value, there are others that refute the presumption of...

  16. Agricultural Marketing. Farmers' Marketing Practices and Programs To Teach Alternative Practices. Briefing Report to Congressional Committees. (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    This report describes a General Accounting Office study of farmers' marketing practices. The report specifically discusses farmers' use of the three advanced marketing techniques--cash forward contracting, hedging in the futures market, and trading in agricultural options--as disclosed in nine studies of farmers' marketing practices made from 1976…

  17. Relating management practices and nutrient export in agricultural watersheds of the United States (United States)

    Sprague, Lori A.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.


    Relations between riverine export (load) of total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P) from 133 large agricultural watersheds in the United States and factors affecting nutrient transport were evaluated using empirical regression models. After controlling for anthropogenic inputs and other landscape factors affecting nutrient transport-such as runoff, precipitation, slope, number of reservoirs, irrigated area, and area with subsurface tile drains-the relations between export and the area in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) (N) and conservation tillage (P) were positive. Additional interaction terms indicated that the relations between export and the area in conservation tillage (N) and the CRP (P) progressed from being clearly positive when soil erodibility was low or moderate, to being close to zero when soil erodibility was higher, to possibly being slightly negative only at the 90th to 95th percentile of soil erodibility values. Possible explanations for the increase in nutrient export with increased area in management practices include greater transport of soluble nutrients from areas in conservation tillage; lagged response of stream quality to implementation of management practices because of nitrogen transport in groundwater, time for vegetative cover to mature, and/or prior accumulation of P in soils; or limitations in the management practice and stream monitoring data sets. If lags are occurring, current nutrient export from agricultural watersheds may still be reflecting the influence of agricultural land-use practices that were in place before the implementation of these management practices.

  18. Does introduction of clover in an agricultural grassland affect the food base and functional diversity of Collembola?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Annibale, Alessandra; Sechi, Valentina; Larsen, Thomas


    Introduction of legumes (i.e. white clover) in agricultural grasslands is a common practice to improve yields, but how this affects soil fauna populations, particularly mesofauna, is still poorly understood. We investigated taxonomical and functional differences of Collembola communities between ...

  19. The global view: issues affecting US production agriculture. (United States)

    Goldsmith, Peter


    This paper discusses small events occurring among developing countries, particularly but not exclusively in Asia, and their subsequent large impacts on net food exporting countries in the world, particularly, but not exclusively, located in the Western hemisphere. A Green Revolution II is underway as a result where the world's agricultural system will produce more (output) with less (inputs). Agriculture will meet the rapidly growing demand for bio-based foods, fuels, feeds, and fiber while reducing input usage, preserving the natural environment, and maintaining native ecosystems. In turn agricultural workers will receive a health dividend as chemical usage falls, automation, metering, and sensing technologies rise, and exposure to harsh environmental, both natural and man-made, conditions is reduced. This paper was prepared for the Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Conference, "Be Safe, Be Profitable: Protecting Workers in Agriculture," January 27-28, 2010, Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas.

  20. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huaidong; WANG; Ming; LI; Lazhu; HAO; Maoyue; GE


    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating features of leisure agriculture in the park; establishing the brand of leisure-oriented training base in science and technology park; carrying out exploration into operation mode of leisure agriculture in the park.

  1. Practice and Exploration of Leisure Agriculture Construction in Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park


    Wang, HuaiDong; Li, Ming; Hao, Lazhu; Ge, Maoyue


    This article introduces the basic information about Inner Mongolia Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Science and Technology Park, and the practice concerning leisure agriculture; summarizes the experience obtained. Finally, some ideas are put forth for further construction and development of leisure agriculture in science and technology park as follows: making unified layout and rational planning; integrating the local tourism resources, to establish the system of leisure agriculture; creating...

  2. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S. (United States)

    ... and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for ...

  3. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... of Agriculture Main navigation Home Topics Topics Animals Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Data Disaster Farming Food and ... Breadcrumb Home Topics Climate Solutions Secondary Navigation Animals Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Data Disaster Farming Food and ...

  4. Unravelling institutional determinants affecting change in agriculture in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struik, P.C.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Hounkonnou, D.


    This paper compares lessons learned from nine studies that explored institutional determinants of innovation towards sustainable intensification of West African agriculture. The studies investigated issues relating to crop, animal, and resources management in Benin, Ghana, and Mali. The constraints

  5. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

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    Full Text Available ... to U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These threats have significant implications not just for ... Methane Emissions, Increase Energy Independence and Grow the Economy (August 1, 2014) Return to top Main navigation - ...

  6. Theme: Innovative Curriculum Ideas and Practices in Agricultural Education. (United States)

    Agricultural Education Magazine, 2002


    Fourteen theme articles discuss the following: curriculum ideas and innovations in agricultural education, agricultural literacy, Supervised Agricultural Experience, active learning, locating agricultural education resources, distance and web-based instruction, principles of forest management, professional development, and service learning. (JOW)

  7. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lubell


    Full Text Available A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari


    Full Text Available Due to the expansion of crop productions there has been an increase in the fertilizers’ use by farmers in Malaysia. Recently Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP is gaining attention within agricultural sector. The Department of Agriculture facilitates regular delivery of SAP knowledge to farmers through extension workers. However extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge on SAP is not known well in Malaysia. A survey of extension workers was conducted in peninsular Malaysia to identify their perceptions and knowledge about SAP and determine the extent to which extension workers communicate SAP to the farmers. A descriptive research design was used to collect data from 400 extension workers. Results suggest extension workers’ perceptions and knowledge of SAP are favorable. Extension workers indicated that they communicate SAP information to the farmers. Further investigation from farmers’ perspectives is required to discover to what extent extension plays significant role in promoting adoption of the program.

  9. Identifying critical factors for implementing good agricultural practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Gutiérrez Guzmán


    Full Text Available This paper deals with identifying the critical factors (CFs involved in implementing a good agricultural practice (GAP programme for coffee and fruit farmers in the Huila department of Colombia. An exploratory factor analysis using principal component analy- sis (PCA factorisation was used. Data matrixes were constructed from the results of applying two defined-structure assessment tools to the populations being studied: Starbucks’ coffee and farmer equity (CAFE practices for small-scale coffee growers and coffee-producers and the EUREPGAP V2.1 Oct.2004 / checklist for fruit and vegetables, as applied to fruit-producers. This inves- tigation led to identifying 6 CFs which must be considered when implementing a GAP programme: infrastructure, established production activities, preparing and maintaining records, environmental awareness, workers’ welfare and safety and quality con- trol.

  10. Will EU Biofuel Policies affect Global Agricultural Markets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banse, M.; Vvan Meijl, H.; Tabeau, A.; Woltjer, G.


    This paper assesses the global and sectoral implications of the European Union Biofuels Directive (BFD) in a multi-region computable general equilibrium framework with endogenous determination of land supply. The results show that, without mandatory blending policies or subsidies to stimulate the use of biofuel crops in the petroleum sector, the targets of the BFD will not be met in 2010 and 2020. With a mandatory blending policy, the enhanced demand for biofuel crops has a strong impact on agriculture at the global and European levels. The additional demand from the energy sector leads to an increase in global land use and, ultimately, a decrease in biodiversity. The development, on the other hand, might slow or reverse the long-term process of declining real agricultural prices. Moreover, assuming a further liberalization of the European agricultural market imports of biofuels are expected to increase to more than 50% of the total biofuel demand in Europe.

  11. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh (United States)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.


    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  12. Influence of some agricultural practices on the soil acidification in acid precipitation areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Both acid precipitation and unreasonable agricultural practices are notorious artificial factors resulting in soil acidification. To sort out reasonable agricultural practices favorable to abating soil acidification, the task of this study was directed to a long-term field trial in Chongqing, during which chemical fertilizer, organic fertilizer were applied to different crop rotations and the soil pH value was measured. The results indicated that all treatments decreased pH value in the 0 to 20 cm soil layer after ten years. Problems were more serious when chlorine-containing fertilizer, excessive chemical fertilizer and mixed fertilizer were applied. It is demonstrated that balance rates of N, P and K fertilizers, application of muck in field are advantageous to abating soil acidification. Oil plants affect soil acidification more than cereal in different crop rotation.

  13. Soil Quality Impacts of Current South American Agricultural Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana B. Wingeyer


    Full Text Available Increasing global demand for oil seeds and cereals during the past 50 years has caused an expansion in the cultivated areas and resulted in major soil management and crop production changes throughout Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina and southern Brazil. Unprecedented adoption of no-tillage as well as improved soil fertility and plant genetics have increased yields, but the use of purchased inputs, monocropping i.e., continuous soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr., and marginal land cultivation have also increased. These changes have significantly altered the global food and feed supply role of these countries, but they have also resulted in various levels of soil degradation through wind and water erosion, soil compaction, soil organic matter (SOM depletion, and nutrient losses. Sustainability is dependent upon local interactions between soil, climate, landscape characteristics, and production systems. This review examines the region’s current soil and crop conditions and summarizes several research studies designed to reduce or prevent soil degradation. Although the region has both environmental and soil resources that can sustain current agricultural production levels, increasing population, greater urbanization, and more available income will continue to increase the pressure on South American croplands. A better understanding of regional soil differences and quantifying potential consequences of current production practices on various soil resources is needed to ensure that scientific, educational, and regulatory programs result in land management recommendations that support intensification of agriculture without additional soil degradation or other unintended environmental consequences.

  14. Theory and Practice of Agricultural Eco-engineering in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Agricultural eco-engineering is not only the important content of eco-agriculture construction, but also the important measure for operating eco-agriculture construction. Applying principle of ecology, and combining the method of systemic engineering with the measure of modem technology, the essential of agriculture ecologic engineering is to build the production mode of using agriculture resource with high effectiveness, and technique system of realizing sustainable development. This article gives an introduction of what the agricultural eco-engineering is and the basic theory and the design principle of agricultural eco-engineering.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Cătălin CREŢU


    Full Text Available In Romania, the establishment of the market economy has required the elaboration and implementation of agricultural, alimentary and nutritional policies, based on scientific criteria, to ensure that the structure of Romanian agriculture would come close to that of the European Union agriculture. Agricultural policy needs to be coherent, flexible and directed towards the economic, social and environmental protection performance. Worldwide practice shows that empiric experience of economic agents does not suffice, but requires plenty of scientific knowledge. The hereby study undertakes to carry out a radiography of the production potential of agricultural operations in Romania and to demonstrate the need for improving practical information systems in agriculture and specialized industry.

  16. Identification of biomes affected by marginal expansion of agricultural land use induced by increased crop consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Jesper Hedal


    In a previous study, the global agricultural expansion caused by wheat consumption in four different countries was modelled with the aim of establishing land use life cycle inventories. The previous study estimated the areas affected by expansion (in terms of square meters) but did not explain how...... to characterise these areas. The present study ascribes so-called biomes (natural potential vegetation) to the areas affected by agricultural expansion in order to provide a basis for assessing the environmental impacts from land use in the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). The methodology builds...... on agricultural statistics and maps of global agricultural areas and the global distribution of biomes. The application of the method is illustrated with four examples. The results indicate that agricultural expansion on land suited for crop cultivation (cultivable land) typically affects forest biomes...

  17. Risk of Agricultural Practices and Habitat Change to Farmland Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Anthony. Kirk


    Full Text Available Many common bird species have declined as a result of agricultural intensification and this could be mitigated by organic farming. We paired sites for habitat and geographical location on organic and nonorganic farms in Ontario, Canada to test a priori predictions of effects on birds overall, 9 guilds and 22 species in relation to candidate models for farming practices (13 variables, local habitat features (12 variables, or habitat features that influence susceptibility to predation. We found that: (1 Overall bird abundance, but not richness, was significantly (p < 0.05 higher on organic sites (mean 43.1 individuals per site than nonorganic sites (35.8 individuals per site. Significantly more species of birds were observed for five guilds, including primary grassland birds, on organic vs. nonorganic sites. No guild had higher richness or abundance on nonorganic farms; (2 Farming practice models were the best (Î"AIC < 4 for abundance of birds overall, primary grassland bird richness, sallier aerial insectivore richness and abundance, and abundance of ground nesters; (3 Habitat models were the best for overall richness, Neotropical migrant abundance, richness and abundance of Ontario-USA-Mexico (short-distance migrants and resident richness; (4 Predation models were the best for richness of secondary grassland birds and ground feeders; (5 A combination of variables from the model types were best for richness or abundance overall, 13 of 18 guilds (richness and abundance and 16 of 22 species analyzed. Five of 10 farming practice variables (including herbicide use, organic farm type and 9 of 13 habitat variables (including hedgerow length, proportion of hay were significant in best models. Risk modeling indicated that herbicide use could decrease primary grassland birds by one species (35% decline from 3.4 to 2.3 species per site. Organic farming could benefit species of conservation concern by 49% (an increase from 7.6 to 11.4 grassland birds. An

  18. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves


    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  19. An assessment of alternative agricultural management practice impacts on soil carbon in the corn belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnwell, T.O. Jr.; Jackson, R.B.; Mulkey, L.A. [Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA (United States)


    This impact of alternative management practices on agricultural soil C is estimated by a soil C mass balance modeling study that incorporates policy considerations in the analysis. A literature review of soil C modeling and impacts of management practices has been completed. The models selected for use and/or modification to meet the needs of representing soil C cycles in agroecosystems and impacts of management practices are CENTURY and DNDC. These models share a common ability to examine the impacts of alternative management practices on soil organic C, and are readily accessible. An important aspect of this effort is the development of the modeling framework and methodology that define the agricultural production systems and scenarios (i.e., crop-soil-climate combinations) to be assessed in terms of national policy, the integration of the model needs with available databases, and the operational mechanics of evaluating C sequestration potential with the integrated model/database system. We are working closely with EPA`s Office of Policy and Program Evaluation to define a reasonable set of policy alternatives for this assessment focusing on policy that might be affected through a revised Farm Bill, such as incentives to selectively promote conservation tillage, crop rotations, and/or good stewardship of the conservation reserve. Policy alternatives are translated into basic data for use in soil C models through economic models. These data, including such elements as agricultural practices, fertilization rates, and production levels are used in the soil C models to produce net carbon changes on a per unit area basis. The unit-area emissions are combined with areal-extent data in a GIS to produce an estimate of total carbon and nitrogen changes and thus estimate greenhouse benefits.

  20. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird. (United States)

    Perlut, Noah G; Freeman-Gallant, Corey R; Strong, Allan M; Donovan, Therese M; Kilpatrick, C William; Zalik, Nathan J


    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes.

  1. Agricultural management affects evolutionary processes in a migratory songbird (United States)

    Perlut, N.G.; Freeman-Gallant, C. R.; Strong, A.M.; Donovan, T.M.; Kilpatrick, C.W.; Zalik, N.J.


    Hay harvests have detrimental ecological effects on breeding songbirds, as harvesting results in nest failure. Importantly, whether harvesting also affects evolutionary processes is not known. We explored how hay harvest affected social and genetic mating patterns, and thus, the overall opportunity for sexual selection and evolutionary processes for a ground-nesting songbird, the Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis). On an unharvested field, 55% of females were in polygynous associations, and social polygyny was associated with greater rates of extra-pair paternity (EPP). In this treatment, synchrony explained variation in EPP rates, as broods by more synchronous females had more EPP than broods by asynchronous females. In contrast, on a harvested field, simultaneous nest failure caused by haying dramatically decreased the overall incidence of EPP by increasing the occurrence of social monogamy and, apparently, the ability of polygynous males to maintain paternity in their own nests. Despite increased social and genetic monogamy, these haying-mediated changes in mating systems resulted in greater than twofold increase in the opportunity for sexual selection. This effect arose, in part, from a 30% increase in the variance associated with within-pair fertilization success, relative to the unharvested field. This effect was caused by a notable increase (+110%) in variance associated with the quality of social mates following simultaneous nest failure. Because up to 40% of regional habitat is harvested by early June, these data may demonstrate a strong population-level effect on mating systems, sexual selection, and consequently, evolutionary processes. ?? 2008 The Authors.

  2. Effect of agricultural practices on mycorrhizal diversity and abundance in winter wheat fields of Khorasan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    alireza koochaki


    Full Text Available As a part of soil biodiversity, mycorrhiza has an important role on soil function. For assessment of agricultural practices on spore density and diversity of mycorrhiza, a study was conducted in winter wheat fields on Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad, three regions of Khorasan. In each region, high and low input fields of winter wheat and a natural system for comparison were selected. Use of agricultural inputs was criteria for selection of low and high input fields in each region. Soil sampling was done on fields and natural systems. Organic matter and spore density of mycorrhiza were measured in soil samples. Percent of soil organic matter in all systems was low, but in agroecosystems was greater than in natural system. Mean spore density of mycorrhiza in the soil of Shirvan, Mashhad and Gonabad was 118, 99 and 76 per gram dry soil, respectively and was affected by region and soil organic matter. Soil spore density in agroecosystems was greater than natural systems and was affected by soil organic matter and plant production. Species richness of mycorrhiza in high input and natural systems of Gonabad was 4 and in other systems were 5. Results showed that agroecosystems improved conditions for mycorrhiza and efficient use of these services. Keywords: Mycorrhiza, soil organic matter, winter wheat, agricultural systems.

  3. Irrigation management in Mediterranean salt affected agriculture: how leaching operates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Libutti


    Full Text Available In the frame of a crop rotation currently applied in a farm of the Apulian Tavoliere (Southern Italy, this paper reports the effect of brackish water irrigation on soil, outlines the corresponding salinity balance, formulates quantitative relations to model salt outflow below the soil root-layer and defines operational criteria to optimize irrigation management at farm level in order to control soil salinity through leaching. The general aim is to contribute to a sustainable use of the available water resources and a proper soil fertility conservation. A three-year trial (2007-2010 was carried out on a farm located close to the coast of the Manfredonia gulf (Mediterranean - Adriatic sea, where irrigation with brackish water is frequently practiced due to seawater intrusion into the groundwater. An especially designed experimental field-unit was set-up: the bottom of three hydraulically insulated plots was covered with a plastic sheet to intercept the percolating water and collect it into tanks by means of drain tubes. Each year a double crop cycle was applied to the soil; a spring-summer crop (tomato, zucchini and pepper, respectively was followed by a fall-winter crop (spinach, broccoli and wheat. Short “fallow” periods (completely bare soil were inserted between two crop cycles. Irrigation or rain completely restored crop water consumptions (with the exception of wheat, considered a rainfed crop and leaching was performed both unintentionally (by rainfalls or intentionally (supplying higher irrigation volumes whenever the soil electrical conductivity exceeded a fixed threshold. The soil electrical conductivity was periodically measured together with volume and electrical conductivity of irrigation and drainage water. All these measures allowed to draw-up the salt-balance of the soil, respectively at the beginning and the end of each crop cycle. Absolute and relative variations in soil salt content were interpreted with respect to absolute

  4. Cloud Computing and Agricultural Development of China: Theory and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxin Zhu


    Full Text Available Cloud computing technology has brought great opportunities to the development of China's agriculture; however it is also facing unprecedented challenges. According to the advantages of cloud computing, based on the status quo of China's agricultural development, the paper first discussed the impacts of cloud computing for China's agricultural development; and analyzed the field and the prospects of its possible applications in agriculture; then presented the application and promotion of cloud computing technology is a long-term system works, not only need to build the data center, integrate resources, enhance service capabilities, and also need to make information security.

  5. Influences of agricultural management practices on Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungal symbioses in Kenyan agro-ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muriithi-Muchane, M.N.


    Conservation agriculture (CA) and integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) practices are receiving increased attention as pathways to sustainable high-production agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known about the effects of these practices on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF).

  6. College Students' View of Biotechnology Products and Practices in Sustainable Agriculture Systems (United States)

    Anderson, William A.


    Sustainable agriculture implies the use of products and practices that sustain production, protect the environment, ensure economic viability, and maintain rural community viability. Disagreement exists as to whether or not the products and practices of modern biotechnological support agricultural sustainability. The purpose of this study was to…

  7. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation. (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo


    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  8. Water and Agricultural-Chemical Transport in a Midwestern, Tile-Drained Watershed: Implications for Conservation Practices (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Wilson, John T.


    The study of agricultural chemicals is one of five national priority topics being addressed by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in its second decade of studies, which began in 2001. Seven watersheds across the Nation were selected for the NAWQA agricultural-chemical topical study. The watersheds selected represent a range of agricultural settings - with varying crop types and agricultural practices related to tillage, irrigation, artificial drainage, and chemical use - as well as a range of landscapes with different geology, soils, topography, climate, and hydrology (Capel and others, 2004). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides. This study design leads to an improved understanding of many factors that can affect the movement of water and chemicals in different agricultural settings. Information from these studies will help with decision making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields (Capel and others, 2004). This Fact Sheet highlights the results of the NAWQA agricultural chemical study in the Leary Weber Ditch Watershed in Hancock County, Indiana. This watershed was selected to represent a tile-drained, corn and soybean, humid area typical in the Midwest.

  9. Factors Affecting Agricultural Sustainability–A Case Study of Hail Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Asiry


    Full Text Available Availability of data on agricultural activities and production are essential for an appropriate socio-economic planning and sustainability. This study was conducted using a questionnaire that was randomly distributed to farmers to identify some features of the agricultural activities in Hail region and to serve as baseline data on agricultural practices. The questionnaire was divided into main topics including socio-economic status of farms, farm area, main crops, production systems, agricultural practices, financial support, and use of wind breaks, water conservation, animal husbandry and marketing. Some of the results showed that date palms and alfalfa fodder were found to be the main grown crops in addition to citrus, grapes, vegetables, wheat and Rye. In most cases, all these crops were cultivated in open fields, compared to only 18% grown in green houses. About half of the farmers adopted the monoculture system and only 44.9% of them applied the crop rotation. More than 70% of farmers raise animals and the most commonly reared animal are sheep (53.6% followed by goats (23%, camels (18% and poultry (4.5%. The study revealed that Hail region is an important agricultural area in KSA and some agricultural practices need to be revised and directed towards sustainability through extension programmes.

  10. Did the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 Affect Farmland Values?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles B. Moss


    Full Text Available Farmland values are affected by numerous factors, including farm policy, shifts in demand for agricultural output both foreign and domestic, monetary policy and urban pressure. In this study we use an information measure to examine whether the shift toward a more market-oriented policy in 1996 changed the relationship between farmland values and government payments. The results indicated that the shift in agricultural policy resulted in significant shift in this relationship.

  11. Organic agriculture and ecological justice: ethics and practice


    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Byrne, John; Glover, Leigh


    Ecological justice is a challenging concept in relation to the current development of agriculture, because it positions social and ecological interests against market liberalism and economic growth. Ecological justice concerns fairness with regard to the common environment based on the idea that environments are fundamen-tally shared. This chapter investigates the role that ecological justice may have in relation to the global challenges of organic agriculture. We perform a philoso-phical ana...

  12. Estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture...

  13. Estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains estimates of agricultural cropping-practices in counties in the conterminous United States as reported in the 1987 Census of Agriculture (U.S....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Dumitrascu


    Full Text Available Sociological investigations regarding urbanization processes show an irreversible tendency: the number of urban residents will double in the next 35 years. Big cities rather than villages and provincial boroughs become our common habitat. Agriculture practiced in the proximity of big urban areas (intra- and peri-urban agriculture is one of the powerful and positive activities that the municipal residents can carry out in their effort to take control of their food security, aberrant social behavior and environment degradation in the urban communities. This paper approaches the central themes of the researches carried out in the field of urban agriculture: magnitude and dynamics of agricultural practices in the proximity of big urban areas, types of agriculture practiced, benefits and hazards associated to these practices, social implications and economical results of agricultural initiatives in urban sites, environmental impact of the mutual influence urban environment – agricultural sites, accessibility, cropping suitability, and ecological conversion of land in the proximity of urban areas. Socio-economical impact is analyzed, referring to the agricultural used land, its legal status, and crop structure in Bucharest municipality, social and economical motivation of agricultural producers, incomes from agricultural activities, identified constraints in the development of agricultural activities and perspectives, information sources, connection degree with the specific institutions and to the demands of ecological agriculture practice. Environment impact assessment was carried out by processing some fertility and contamination/pollution macro-indicators, which refer to the soil and ground water loading and pollution with nitrates, organochlorines, polychlorinated byphenyls (PCB, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH and heavy metals.

  15. Topographic changes detection through Structure-from-Motion in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Pradetto Sordo, Nicoletta; Burguet, Maria; Di Prima, Simone; Terol Esparza, Enric; Tarolli, Paolo; Cerdà, Artemi


    Throughout the world, soil erosion by water is a serious problem, especially in semi-arid and semi-humid areas (Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdan et al., 2010; García-Ruiz, 2010). Although soil erosion by water consists of physical processes that vary significantly in severity and frequency according to when and where they occur, they are also strongly influenced by anthropic factors such as land-use changes on large scales and unsustainable farming practices (Boardman et al., 1990; Cerdà 1994; Montgomery, 2007). Tillage operations, combined with weather conditions, are recognized to primarily influence soil erosion rates. If, on one hand, tillage operations cause uniform changes based on the tool used, on the other, weather conditions, such as rainfalls, produce more random changes, less easily traceable (Snapir et al., 2014). Within this context, remote-sensing technologies can facilitate the detection and quantification of these topographic changes. In particular, a real opportunity and challenge is offered by the low-cost and flexible photogrammetric technique, called 'Structure-from-Motion' (SfM), combined with the use of smartphones (Micheletti et al., 2014; Prosdocimi et al., 2015). This represents a significant advance compared with more expensive technologies and applications (e.g. Terrestrial Laser Scanner - TLS) (Tarolli, 2014). This work wants to test the Structure from Motion to obtain high-resolution topography for the detection of topographic changes in agricultural lands affected by erosion processes. Two case studies were selected: i) a tilled plot characterized by bare soil and affected by rill erosion located in the hilly countryside of Marche region (central Italy), and ii) a Mediterranean vineyard located within the province of Valencia (south eastern Spain) where rainfall simulation experiments were carried out. Extensive photosets were obtained by using one standalone reflex digital camera and one smartphone built-in digital camera. Digital

  16. Cost calculation in agricultural enterprises in theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Ziętara


    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to evolution of the production costs calculation theory in agriculture from the second half of XVIII century till present times. The author emphasized long lasting dispute among the economists about usefulness of the full account of unit costs of production in evaluation of production profitability. Moreover, utility of the part-costs account in evaluation of production competitiveness, as well as their value in evaluation of the production processes and structure (using optimisation methods was analysed. Additionally article describes current problems of cost calculation in agriculture.

  17. Practical Model and Countermeasures for the Development of Ecological Circular Agriculture in Zhejiang Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Development status and five principal practice modes of ecological cycling agriculture are introduced,such as the quantitative reduction mode with the characteristics of fertilizer reduction and clean production,the ecological chain connection and conversion mode including the combination of farming and grazing and the new mode of farming,the agricultural waste recycling mode with biogas as a link and the comprehensive utilization of waste,quality enhancement mode of agricultural products,and eco-cycle mode of agricultural park.Based on the analysis of the socio-economic characteristic environment of these modes,corresponding policy suggestions are put forward in order to promote the development of circular agriculture,such as improving the macro-control mechanism led by the government,promoting the construction of technological innovation system of ecological circular agriculture,and creating the atmosphere for circular agriculture development.

  18. Science cultivating practice. A history of agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.


    The central argument of this thesis is that science and practice, as articulated in agricultural science in the Netherlands and its colonies, gradually broke apart. This process is visible in the organisation of agricultural research and education, as well as in the development of three major fields

  19. Best Practice Benchmarking in Australian Agriculture: Issues and Challenges


    Ronan, Glenn; Cleary, Gordon


    The quest to shape Australian agriculture for improved and sustainable profitability is leading Research and Development Corporations, agri-service consultants and government to devote substantial effort into development of new farm business analysis and benchmarking programs. ‘Biz Check’, ‘Pork Biz’, ‘Wool Enterprise Benchmarking’, ‘Dairy Business Focus’ and ‘Business Skills and Best Practice’ for beef and sheep meat producers are examples of current farm management and training programs whe...

  20. Roles of Extension Agents Towards Agricultural Practice in Malaysia

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    Jasmin Arif Shah


    Full Text Available It is expected that the income generated by paddy industry will increase up to 988 million per year. In order to achieve this, extension agents plays important role in educating farmers by encouraging them to learn, adopt new technologies and spread them to other farmers. To ensure the success of extension program, the agents should recognize their roles as change agents (as a catalyst, solution giver, process helper, and resource linker and have ability to acquire competencies to accomplish these roles. Thus, this study aims to explore the level of roles among extension agents. Using a quantitative survey methodology, self-administered questionnaires measuring the roles of extension agents as change agents. A total of 117 extension agents had participated in this study. The extension agents were the officers from various agricultural departments and agencies who serve paddy farmers in Malaysia region in related to extension, marketing, financing, farmers association, production, and others. The finding showed that the level of roles among extension agents is high. Hence, the competency of extension agents in Malaysia is indeed especially as a change agents and one of the important determinants of success for agriculture industry in Malaysia. This study emphasized that in order to improve the performance of agricultural extension agents, one of the way is by getting to know their competencies, skills and abilities. The extension agents, Farmers, policy makers, researchers, academics and people working in agriculture can learn a great deal about what individuals and institutions need to do to develop farmers, personally and professionally.

  1. Do Smallholder, Mixed Crop-Livestock Livelihoods Encourage Sustainable Agricultural Practices? A Meta-Analysis

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    Thomas K. Rudel


    Full Text Available As calls for bolstering ecosystem services from croplands have grown more insistent during the past two decades, the search for ways to foster these agriculture-sustaining services has become more urgent. In this context we examine by means of a meta-analysis the argument, proposed by Robert McC. Netting, that small-scale, mixed crop-livestock farming, a common livelihood among poor rural peoples, leads to environmentally sustainable agricultural practices. As predicted, mixed crop-livestock farms exhibit more sustainable practices, but, contrary to predictions, a small scale of operation does not predict sustainability. Many smallholders on mixed crop-livestock farms use sustainable practices, but other smallholders practice a degrading, input-scarce agriculture. Some large farm operators use soil-conserving, minimum-tillage techniques while other large operators ignore soil-conserving techniques and practice an industrialized, high chemical input agriculture. The strength and pervasiveness of the link in the data between mixed crop-livestock farming and sustainable agricultural practices argues for agricultural policies that promote mixed crop-livestock livelihoods.

  2. Relevance of integrating agricultural practices in pesticide dietary intake indicator. (United States)

    Menard, Céline; Heraud, Fanny; Nougadere, Alexandre; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles


    The aim of this study is to develop a new indicator of pesticide dietary intake to screen pesticides to include in monitoring programs. This new indicator called the adjusted TMDI (TMDI_Ad), taking account actual pesticide agricultural uses in France, is more precise than the theoretical maximum dietary intake (TMDI), based on maximum residue levels (MRLs) that is usually used. This new modeling of dietary intake is refined according to actual agricultural pesticide uses on 44 raw agricultural commodities (RAC), among the most consumed in France, and the rate of food importation of these RAC. The TMDI_Ad was below the TMDI for 322 pesticides (79%). The TMDI was above the ADI, for 46 substances. Although 43 of them had a TMDI_Ad below the TMDI, still 36 had a TMDI_Ad above the ADI, which corresponded to substances with the lowest ADIs. Overall, these results indicate that the TMDI_Ad is a useful tool to plan monitoring programs and to refine dietary exposure, according to actual pesticide uses. However, for very toxic substances, having a very low ADI, such as unauthorized substances, other studies have to be conducted in order to better estimate consumer dietary intakes.

  3. Research and Practice of Agricultural Vocational Colleges in Serving Entrepreneurial Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li; LIU; Lijun; DING; Zhi; WU


    As the vocational colleges shoulder the responsibilities of personnel training, scientific research and the social services, the agricultural vocational colleges, undertake the responsibilities of supporting "three agriculture" and speeding up the new countryside construction. Therefore, agricultural vocational colleges shall take the responsibility of providing the employment training to returned migrant workers is the obligation of agricultural vocational colleges and they are bound to be the camp for providing entrepreneurship training to returned farmers. Relying on its own characteristics and research strengths, the Jiangsu Animal Husbandry & Veterinary College has conducted rewarding research and practices on carrying out entrepreneurship training for farmers.

  4. New Approach for China’s Agricultural Modernization Practice from the Perspective of Multiplex Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper analyzes the multiplex composite function of agriculture comprehensively as follows.The first is political function:it can ensure the national food security;the second is economic function:it can promote agricultural competitiveness and increase farmers’ income;the third is social function:it can promote the construction of new socialist village;the fourth is ecological function:it can conserve the resources environment and guarantee sustainable development of agriculture.In terms of reference of international theory and the main innovative experience of domestic agricultural modernization practice,this paper points out the new approach for agricultural modernization practice in China,and puts forward institutional guarantee based on agricultural multiplex function as follows:we should gradually promote new land system taking land transfer as major content;we should establish rational transfer system of rural labour forces;we should establish virtuous circular agricultural financial credit system;we should hew to the innovation and promotion system of agricultural technology;we should establish strict the system of resources environment and ecological protection;we should establish the agricultural risk security system.

  5. Impact of agricultural management practices on soil organic carbon: simulation of Australian wheat systems. (United States)

    Zhao, Gang; Bryan, Brett A; King, Darran; Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Song, Xiaodong; Yu, Qiang


    Quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics at a high spatial and temporal resolution in response to different agricultural management practices and environmental conditions can help identify practices that both sequester carbon in the soil and sustain agricultural productivity. Using an agricultural systems model (the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator), we conducted a high spatial resolution and long-term (122 years) simulation study to identify the key management practices and environmental variables influencing SOC dynamics in a continuous wheat cropping system in Australia's 96 million ha cereal-growing regions. Agricultural practices included five nitrogen application rates (0-200 kg N ha(-1) in 50 kg N ha(-1) increments), five residue removal rates (0-100% in 25% increments), and five residue incorporation rates (0-100% in 25% increments). We found that the change in SOC during the 122-year simulation was influenced by the management practices of residue removal (linearly negative) and fertilization (nonlinearly positive) - and the environmental variables of initial SOC content (linearly negative) and temperature (nonlinearly negative). The effects of fertilization were strongest at rates up to 50 kg N ha(-1) , and the effects of temperature were strongest where mean annual temperatures exceeded 19 °C. Reducing residue removal and increasing fertilization increased SOC in most areas except Queensland where high rates of SOC decomposition caused by high temperature and soil moisture negated these benefits. Management practices were particularly effective in increasing SOC in south-west Western Australia - an area with low initial SOC. The results can help target agricultural management practices for increasing SOC in the context of local environmental conditions, enabling farmers to contribute to climate change mitigation and sustaining agricultural production.

  6. How managed care growth affects where physicians locate their practices. (United States)

    Polsky, D; Escarce, J J


    Managed care has had a profound effect on physician practice. It has altered patterns in the use of physician services, and consequently, the practice and employment options available to physicians. But managed care growth has not been uniform across the United States, and has spawned wide geographic disparities in earning opportunities for generalists and specialists. This Issue Brief summarizes new information on how managed care has affected physicians' labor market decisions and the impact of managed care on the number and distribution of physicians across the country.

  7. The Prospect of Horticultural Organic Farming as Sustainable Agricultural Practice for Reducing Poverty: The Case in Bengkulu City, Indonesia

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    Teguh Adiprasetyo


    Full Text Available Poverty is still an insistent problem which when confronted by humanity requires a systemic, comprehensive and synchronized approach to alleviate it.  The concentration of urban and rural poverty in developing countries underpins the importance of agriculture as a poverty reduction strategy since most of the poor people depend on agriculture.  Thus, improving agricultural productivity, competitiveness and sustainability may reduce poverty.   This study was intended to (1 find out if sustainable agriculture, i.e., horticultural organic farming practices, could contribute to poverty reduction, (2 identify restrictive factors affecting horticulture organic farming development, and (3 formulate alternative policy intervention for poverty alleviation based on development of organic farming.   The respondents were selected using purposive sampling method, comprising of 22 self-claimed horticultural organic farmers and 22 horticultural conventional farmers.  The data were gathered through a structured-questionnaire and in-depth interview.   Descriptive statistics, prospective analyses and analytical hierarchy process were used to analyze the data.  The results showed that organic farming practices have potential to increase income of the horticultural farmers.  Factors that constrained the development of horticultural organic farming were limited knowledge of organic practices, access to market, financial and risk management services or support.  Alternative policy interventions, such as developing a linkage between producers and consumers, strengthening research and development on organic farming, enhancing dissemination knowledge of organic farming practices, and providing access to financial and agriculture management, are proposed.

  8. Ensuring Compliance of Raw Herbal Materials Stemmed from China with European Good Agricultural and Collection Practice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDRE Philippe; SU Hao-bo; GAO Wen-yuan


    A"simplified" European procedure now allows the registration of traditional herbal medicines as medicinal products even without the support of clinical data.This procedure entails the requirement that those products comply with European Good Manufacturing Practice for medicinal products,which in turn implies that the raw herbal materials comply with the European Guidelines for Good Agricultural and Collection Practice.On the basis of a comparison between European Good Agricultural and Collection Practice and China Good Agricultural Practice,as well as direct observation made at sites in China,we issue some recommendations to facilitate good communication between the Chinese producer and European pharmaceutical customer,with a view to ensure full compliance with European expectations.

  9. The eco-evolutionary impacts of domestication and agricultural practices on wild species. (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Araki, Hitoshi; Karp, Daniel S; Poveda, Katja; Whitehead, Susan R


    Agriculture is a dominant evolutionary force that drives the evolution of both domesticated and wild species. However, the various mechanisms of agriculture-induced evolution and their socio-ecological consequences are not often synthetically discussed. Here, we explore how agricultural practices and evolutionary changes in domesticated species cause evolution in wild species. We do so by examining three processes by which agriculture drives evolution. First, differences in the traits of domesticated species, compared with their wild ancestors, alter the selective environment and create opportunities for wild species to specialize. Second, selection caused by agricultural practices, including both those meant to maximize productivity and those meant to control pest species, can lead to pest adaptation. Third, agriculture can cause non-selective changes in patterns of gene flow in wild species. We review evidence for these processes and then discuss their ecological and sociological impacts. We finish by identifying important knowledge gaps and future directions related to the eco-evolutionary impacts of agriculture including their extent, how to prevent the detrimental evolution of wild species, and finally, how to use evolution to minimize the ecological impacts of agriculture.This article is part of the themed issue 'Human influences on evolution, and the ecological and societal consequences'.

  10. Does Prior Experience in Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Affect Pre-Service Agricultural Education Teachers' Intentions to Enroll in Post-Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Coursework? (United States)

    Wells, Trent; Perry, Dustin K.; Anderson, Ryan G.; Shultz, Matthew J.; Paulsen, Thomas H.


    Agricultural mechanics coursework has historically been considered an important and necessary construct of the secondary agricultural education curriculum (Burris, Robinson, & Terry, 2005). With expectations of offering secondary agricultural mechanics coursework apparent, it is vital that agricultural education teachers be prepared to address…

  11. Factors Affecting Intercropping and Conservation Tillage Practices in Eeastern Ethiopia

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    S. Bauer


    Full Text Available In order to combat adverse effects of farmland degradation it is necessary for farmers to adopt sustainable land management and conservation strategies like intercropping and conservation tillage. However, efforts to adopt these strategies are very minimal in Ethiopia. In an attempt to address the objectives of examining factors affecting use of intercropping and conservation tillage practices, this study utilized plot- and household-level data collected from 211 farm households and employed a bivariate probit model for its analysis. The study revealed that intercropping and conservation tillage decisions are interdependent, and that they are also significantly affected by various factors. In addition, conservation tillage and intercropping practices as short- term interventions are found to augment the long-term interventions like terraces, diversion ditches, and tree plantations. The paper highlights important policy implications that are required to encourage intercropping and conservation tillage measures.

  12. Does Faculty Incivility in Nursing Education Affect Emergency Nursing Practice? (United States)

    Stokes, Pamela

    Incivility in nursing education is a complicated problem which causes disruptions in the learning process and negatively affects future nursing practice. This mixed method research study described incivility as well as incivility's effects through extensive literature review and application of a modified Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey. The INE included six demographic items, four quantitative sections, and five open-ended questions. The survey examined emergency nurses' perceptions of incivility and how the experience affected their personal nursing practice. The INE was initially tested in a 2004 pilot study by Dr. Cynthia Clark. For this research study, modifications were made to examine specifically emergency nurse's perceptions of incivility and the effects on their practice. The population was a group of nurses who were members of the emergency nurses association in a Midwestern state. In the quantitative component of the Incivility in Nursing Education (INE) survey, the Likert scale questions indicated that the majority of the participants reported witnessing or experiencing the uncivil behaviors. In the qualitative section of the INE survey, the participants reported that although they have not seen incivility within their own academic career, they had observed faculty incivility with nursing students when the participants were assigned as preceptors as part of their emergency nursing practice.

  13. Impact of agricultural practices on onion Banao system.

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    Wilfredo Valdivia Pérez


    Full Text Available In the present article was carried out a descriptive statistical study in which different tools like non structured interviews, revision of files and the use of the SIG are integrated. The investigation was developed in 2010 - 2011. The population of Banao showed a high sense of ownership to the area and 70% is in labour age highlighting the range of 25 - 39 years, out of them 24,1% of the producers have been devoted to the agriculture for 10 and 20 years. 45,8% presents problems with the supply source, 71,8% should drive the water to more than 200 m to water. When analyzing the degradation of the soil it is appreciated that 97% of the soil that is dedicated to the cultivation of the onion is eroded, existing areas where the cultivation should not be fomented, for the excessive exploitation of its soils. Among the interviewed producers 59.7% knows that there is degradation of the soils in its property, however 51.7% doesn't apply any alternative of protection of the soil. The current production of onion compromises the stability of the ecosystem considerably. This study constitutes an indispensable premise to advance toward a sustainable model of the local onion system.

  14. Heavy agricultural workloads and low crop diversity are strong barriers to improving child feeding practices in the Bolivian Andes. (United States)

    Jones, Andrew D; Cruz Agudo, Yesmina; Galway, Lindsay; Bentley, Jeffery; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per


    Most nutrition initiatives to date aimed at improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) have emphasized addressing knowledge gaps through behavior change messaging with less focus on addressing the underlying environmental barriers that may shape these behaviors. This research integrates an analysis of longitudinal dietary data with qualitative data on barriers to improved child feeding to identify the nature and extent of the barriers caregivers face to improving IYCF practices in a farming region of the Bolivian Andes, and to determine the relative influence of these barriers on caregivers' abilities to improve IYCF practices. Sixty-nine caregivers were selected from a sample of 331 households that participated in a longitudinal survey assessing changes in IYCF practices among caregivers with children aged 0-36 months from March 2009 to March 2010. Forty-nine barriers within 12 categories of barriers were identified through semi-structured interviews with the 69 caregivers. The most frequently reported barriers were those related to women's time dedicated to agricultural labor, the limited diversity of household agricultural production, and lack of support for child feeding from spouses and mothers-in-law. In multivariate analyses controlling for several variables that could potentially influence IYCF practices, these barriers were negatively associated with changes to the diversity of child diets, child dietary energy intake, and child meal frequency. While knowledge gaps and individual-level influences affected IYCF practices, physical and social caregiving environments in this region of Bolivia were even more important. Behavior change communication alone will likely not address the social and environmental barriers to improved child feeding that often prevent translation of improved knowledge into action. Particularly in rural regions, agriculture may strongly influence child feeding, not only indirectly through household food security, but also directly


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosey Obet Ruiz-González


    Full Text Available The Mexican countryside is a multifaceted crisis that is mainly due to the rise of a greater economic return-oriented capitalist development possible, regardless of the environmental and human health damage. The research was conducted during 2006 to 2008 in thev region Fraylesca, Chiapas, aiming to understand the nature of change in farming practices of the capitalist model towards alternative practices tending to the conservation of natural resources. We worked with 18 rural families who were beneficiaries of the capitalist model and are currently making changes in their production practices. Ethnography was used to understand the nature of changes in agricultural practices, in addition to the interviews, participant observation semi -structured and tours to family agro-ecosystems. Alternative practices, change cultural patterns of agricultural production adopted by the capitalist model.

  16. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture. (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong


    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment.

  17. An Investigation of Factors Affecting Utilization of Information Technology (IT by Agricultural Students

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    Masoud Rezaei


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the aim of investigating factors affecting utilization of information technology by students of agriculture. A survey approach was used in this study and a questionnaire was developed to gather the data. The study population was postgraduate students (MS and PhD of economic and agricultural development faculty in Tehran University who were selected by applying random sampling technique. Sample size for students was 61 persons. Data was analyzed by using SPSS/WIN software. The results of the research indicated that there was a positive significant relationship between using of information technology by students and their age, average, prior experience, information technology skills, innovativeness, perceived ease of use, attitude and self-efficacy. The relationship between computer anxiety and using of IT was negative. Stepwise Regression Analysis showed that innovativeness and attitude predict 53.2 percent of variations of IT use by students.

  18. Practicing Conservation Agriculture to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change in Jordan. (United States)

    Khresat, Saeb


    Climate change scenarios indicate that Jordan and the Middle East could suffer from reduced agricultural productivity and water availability among other negative impacts. Based on the projection models for the area, average temperature in Jordan is projected to increase between 1.2 and 1.6 °C by 2050. Projections for precipitation trends are projected to decrease by 16% by the year 2050. Evaporation is likely to increase due to higher temperatures. This is likely to increase the incidence of drought potential since precipitation is projected to decrease. The dominant form of agriculture system in Jordan is based on intensive tillage. This form of tillage has resulted in large losses of organic soil carbon, weaker soil structure, and cause compaction. It has negative effects on soil aeration, root development and water infiltration among other factors. There is a need to transform farming practices to conservation agriculture to sequester carbon so that climate change mitigation becomes an inherent property of future farming systems. Conservation Agriculture, a system avoiding or minimizing soil disturbance, combined with soil cover and crop diversification, is considered to be a sustainable production system that can also sequester carbon unlike tillage agriculture. Conservation agriculture promotes minimal disturbance of the soil by tillage (zero tillage), balanced application of chemical inputs and careful management of residues and wastes. This study was conducted to develop a clear understanding of the impacts and benefits of the two most common types of agriculture, traditional tillage agriculture and conservation agriculture with respect to their effects on land productivity and on soil carbon pools. The study results indicated that conservation agriculture contributed to the reduction of the farming systems' greenhouse gas emissions and enhance its role as carbon sinks. Also, it was found that by shifting to conservation agriculture labor cost needed for

  19. Digital atmospheres: affective practices of care in Elefriends. (United States)

    Tucker, Ian M; Goodings, Lewis


    This article develops the concept of digital atmosphere to analyse the affective power of social media to shape practices of care and support for people living with mental distress. Using contemporary accounts of affective atmospheres, the article focuses on feelings of distress, support and care that unfold through digital atmospheres. The power of social media intersects with people's support and care-seeking practices in multiple ways and not in a straightforward model of 'accessing or providing support'. Indeed, we find that the caring relations developed through social media often need to be cared for themselves. The article draws on online and interview data from a larger project investigating how practices of care and support are (re)configured in the mental health-related social media site Elefriends. Users have to negotiate the disruption of moving support online, as well as the possibility of becoming subject to a fragility in care, in which caring for oneself becomes bound up in the ambiguities of caring for others. We argue that understanding how experiences of distress are shaped by social media is essential for understanding the implications of the increased digitisation of mental healthcare.

  20. Pesticide regulations for agriculture: Chemically flawed regulatory practice. (United States)

    Gamble, Donald S; Bruccoleri, Aldo G


    Two categories of pesticide soil models now exist. Government regulatory agencies use pesticide fate and transport hydrology models, including versions of They have good descriptions of pesticide transport by water flow. Their descriptions of chemical mechanisms are unrealistic, having been postulated using the universally accepted but incorrect pesticide soil science. The objective of this work is to report experimental tests of a pesticide soil model in use by regulatory agencies and to suggest possible improvements. Tests with experimentally based data explain why predictions can be wrong by orders of magnitude. Predictive spreadsheet models are the other category. They are experimentally based, with chemical stoichiometry applied to integral kinetic rate laws for sorption, desorption, intra-particle diffusion, and chemical reactions. They do not account for pesticide transport through soils. Each category of models therefore lacks what the other could provide. They need to be either harmonized or replaced. Some preliminary tests indicate that an experimental mismatch between the categories of models will have to be resolved. Reports of pesticides in the environment and the medical problems that overlap geographically indicate that government regulatory practice needs to account for chemical kinetics and mechanisms. Questions about possible cause and effect links could then be investigated.

  1. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study. (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary


    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area.

  2. Modeling the impacts of climate change and agricultural management practices on surface erosion in a dryland agricultural basin (United States)

    Ottenbreit, E.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.


    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of climate change and agricultural management practices on suspended sediment concentrations in the Potlach River basin in northwestern Idaho. Suspended sediment is a pollutant in many water systems and contributes to the impairment of streams. Conventional tillage practices and rain-on-snow events in the Palouse region of northern Idaho and eastern Washington can produce some of the highest sediment losses per acre in the United States. Climate change may lead to further problems as more frequent and intense winter storm events are predicted to occur. Many hydrological models have been developed which examine suspended sediment in river systems. The Potlatch River basin near Julietta, ID was examined using the Distributed Hydrology Soil Vegetation Model (DHSVM), which has a sediment module that includes surface erosion and channel sediment transport. DHSVM was calibrated and evaluated over the historical period of streamflow observations and was used to predict soil erosion rates and suspended sediment concentrations using a range of downscaled Global Climate Models (GCMs) emissions scenarios for the year 2045. Furthermore, the sensitivity of suspended sediment concentrations to conventional versus convservative tillage practices was explored. The results show that as the projected climate-driven intensity of storms increase, more sediment is predicted in the Potlatch River. Suspended sediment and streamflow are predicted to increase during the late fall through the early spring. This increase occurs during times of heightened runoff when suspended sediment concentration in the river is highest. Three tillage scenarios were incorporated into DHSVM for winter wheat: conventional till, reduced till, and no till. Erosion and suspended sediment were higher during storm events under conventional agricultural tillage scenarios. In the long-term, this research can lead to examination of the effects of climate

  3. Nursing organizations call for phase-out of agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance. (United States)

    Clouse, Rebecca


    The use of antibiotics in agriculture is considered a contributing factor to the problem of antibiotic resistance. A majority of antibiotics and related drugs produced in the United States are not used to treat the infirm, but rather are used as feed additives for agricultural animals to promote growth and compensate for stressful and crowded growing conditions. Significant efforts must be made to decrease inappropriate overuse in animals and agriculture. Several leading health and political organizations have begun to address the issue. The American Nurses Association has established policies that call on Congress, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and meat producers to promptly phase out the agricultural practices that promote antibiotic resistance.

  4. Musculoskeletal Disorders among Dental Practitioners: Does It Affect Practice?

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    Dhanya Muralidharan


    Full Text Available Background. Literature reviews world over have shown a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders among dental practitioners. Prevalence of MSD among dental practitioners in India is not well documented. Aim. To determine the prevalence and distribution of MSD among dental practitioners in a city in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, India. Material and Methods. A cross sectional descriptive study in which a self-administered questionnaire (the Standardized Nordic questionnaire was used to assess the musculoskeletal symptoms among dental practitioners. The recorded data was analyzed with SPSS 13. -value 0.05 was considered to statistically significant. Results. Seventy-three dental practitioners participated in the study of which seventy-eight percent had a prevalence of at least one MSD symptom over the past twelve months. Most common areas affected by MSD in order of magnitude were neck (52%, low back (41%, shoulders (29% and wrist (26%. One third of the practitioners (40% required sick leave from their practice during the preceding twelve months. Conclusions. High prevalence of MSD exists among our dental practitioners affecting the daily practice of more than one third. Further studies are needed to identify the specific risk factors for MSD so as to introduce effective remedial measures.

  5. The development and significance of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas as influenced by agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruissen, M.A.


    The development and significance of vesicular- arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM) in wheat and potatoes have been studied in relation to various farming systems and agricultural practices. The effects of farming systems on VAM have been observed on three neighbouring experimental farms in the vicinity of

  6. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.


    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  7. Comparative study of model prediction of diffuse nutrient losses in response to changes in agricultural practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vagstad, N.; French, H.K.; Andersen, H.E.; Groenendijk, P.; Siderius, C.


    This article presents a comparative study of modelled changes in nutrient losses from two European catchments caused by modifications in agricultural practices. The purpose was not to compare the actual models used, but rather to assess the uncertainties a manager may be faced with after receiving d

  8. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Roest, van der J.G.


    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking pro

  9. Adoption and Impacts of Sustainable Agricultural Practices on Maize Yields and Incomes: Evidence from Rural Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manda, J.; Alene, A.D.; Gardebroek, C.; Kassie, M.; Tembo, G.


    This paper uses a multinomial endogenous treatment effects model and data from a sample of over 800 households and 3,000 plots to assess the determinants and impacts of adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (SAPs) on maize yields and household incomes in rural Zambia. Results show that adop

  10. The Influence of Time Management Practices on Job Stress Level among Beginning Secondary Agriculture Teachers (United States)

    Lambert, Misty D.; Torres, Robert M.; Tummons, John D.


    Monitoring the stress of teachers continues to be important--particularly stress levels of beginning agriculture teachers. The study sought to describe the relationship between beginning teachers' perceived ability to manage their time and their level of stress. The Time Management Practices Inventory and the Job Stress Survey were used to measure…

  11. Land-use change affects water recycling in Brazil's last agricultural frontier. (United States)

    Spera, Stephanie A; Galford, Gillian L; Coe, Michael T; Macedo, Marcia N; Mustard, John F


    Historically, conservation-oriented research and policy in Brazil have focused on Amazon deforestation, but a majority of Brazil's deforestation and agricultural expansion has occurred in the neighboring Cerrado biome, a biodiversity hotspot comprised of dry forests, woodland savannas, and grasslands. Resilience of rainfed agriculture in both biomes likely depends on water recycling in undisturbed Cerrado vegetation; yet little is known about how changes in land-use and land-cover affect regional climate feedbacks in the Cerrado. We used remote sensing techniques to map land-use change across the Cerrado from 2003 to 2013. During this period, cropland agriculture more than doubled in area from 1.2 to 2.5 million ha, with 74% of new croplands sourced from previously intact Cerrado vegetation. We find that these changes have decreased the amount of water recycled to the atmosphere via evapotranspiration (ET) each year. In 2013 alone, cropland areas recycled 14 km(3) less (-3%) water than if the land cover had been native Cerrado vegetation. ET from single-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans) is less than from natural vegetation in all years, except in the months of January and February, the height of the growing season. In double-cropping systems (e.g., soybeans followed by corn), ET is similar to or greater than natural vegetation throughout a majority of the wet season (December-May). As intensification and extensification of agricultural production continue in the region, the impacts on the water cycle and opportunities for mitigation warrant consideration. For example, if an environmental goal is to minimize impacts on the water cycle, double cropping (intensification) might be emphasized over extensification to maintain a landscape that behaves more akin to the natural system.

  12. Ecologically asynchronous agricultural practice erodes sustainability of the Loess Plateau of China. (United States)

    Wang, Tianming; Wu, Jianguo; Kou, Xiaojun; Oliver, Chadwick; Mou, Pu; Ge, Jianping


    Sustainability of agricultural landscapes depends largely on land-use practices. As one of the most productive and widespread agricultural soils, loess is often deep and easily eroded, posing grand challenges for environmental sustainability around the world. One prime example is the Loess Plateau of China, which has been cultivated for more than 7500 years. Based on long-term data sets, this study demonstrates that the dominant agricultural practice, winter wheat cropping, continues to be the primary driver for the massive soil erosion and landscape modifications on the Loess Plateau. This traditional farming system is asynchronous with the dynamic rhythm between natural vegetation and climate in the region. In particular, the long summer fallow period for winter wheat fields is concurrent with the heavy-rainstorm season, which greatly accelerates soil erosion. Our finding indicates that common land-use practices that have lasted for thousands of years in China are not environmentally sustainable. Agriculture in this region has relied primarily on the continuous "mining" of the soil for the past several thousand years but does not have a one-thousand-year future because of myriad environmental and socioeconomic factors associated with soil erosion. To contain soil erosion and promote sustainability on the Loess Plateau, therefore, a change in the agricultural regime is needed to make sure that current and future agricultural practices follow the vegetation-climate rhythm. In addition, to achieve environmental, economic, and social sustainability in this region, multifunctional land-use planning is required to increase landscape diversity and functions (e.g., proper arrangement of crop fields, orchards, and protected areas).

  13. Comparison of Organic Matter Composition in Agricultural versus Forest Affected Headwaters with Special Emphasis on Organic Nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik;


    Agricultural management practices promote organic matter (OM) turnover and thus alter both the processing of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in soils and presumably also the export of DOM to headwater streams, which intimately connect the terrestrial with the aquatic environment. Size....... By comparing six agriculturally and six forest-impacted headwater streams, we demonstrated that agriculture promotes increased DOC and DON concentrations, entailing an even more pronounced effect on DON. The major part of DOC and DON in agricultural and forest reference streams is exported in the form of humic....... Altogether, DOM in agricultural headwaters is mainly complex-soil-derived and aromatic material with a low C:N ratio, which is more microbial processed than its counterpart from forest reference catchments. Our results emphasize the importance of agricultural land use on DOM loss from soils and identify...

  14. Competencies Influencing Extension Workers'Job Performance in Relation to the Good Agricultural Practices in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Tiraieyari


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The bottom line in agricultural trade is that manufacturers are demanding agricultural products that are produced in a sustainable way and with assurance that they are truly conforming to the standards of Good Agriculture Practice. Towards this objective, attention has been given on sustainable agricultural productions in Malaysia. This study is an attempt to investigate job performance of extension workers in terms of competency in relation to the Good Agricultural Practices. This research investigates the influence of competencies on extension workers’ job performance at the department of agriculture in Malaysia with the emphasis of having both human development competencies and technical competencies in order to perform extension job. Approach: Stratified random sampling technique employed to select 210 extension workers from the Department of Agriculture in four states of Malaysia. A structured research instrument was utilized to survey extension workers’ competency and job performance. To test the extent research data support the MLR model, Enter regression method was used. Results: Results showed that out of the nine competencies included in the regression model only four competencies contributed significantly in explaining the variation of job performance. The R2 value of 0.544 implies that the nine predictors explain about 54.4% of the variance in the extension workers' job performance. Conclusion/Recommendations: The findings suggest that the data dose not fully support the proposed nine-predictors multiple linear regression model. Finding was contrary to the expectations, since human development areas of competencies did not contribute to the job performance. Hence extension workers are not much involved in human development aspects of their job and they give primary attention to technology transfer rather than human development.

  15. Practice of Developing Low-carbon Leisure Agriculture in Agricultural Sci-tech Experiment and Demonstration Park: A Case Study of Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan; OUYANG; Huasong; WU; Aiqin; LIU; Huan; YU; Hongmei; FU


    The Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park,as a unique tourist scenic spot,is a new model for the development of low-carbon leisure agriculture.In this paper,with Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park as a study case,the practice of developing a model of low-carbon agricultural science and technology tourism in the park is explored.Main measures for developing low-carbon leisure agriculture in Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park are summarized,including development of low carbon attractors,construction of low carbon facilities,strengthening low-carbon management,building low-carbon environment and so on,according to analysis on the models for development of low-carbon agricultural science tourism in this park.

  16. Namibia specific climate smart agricultural land use practices: Challenges and opportunities for enhancing ecosystem services (United States)

    Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Talamondjila Naanda, Martha; Bloemertz, Lena


    Agriculture is a backbone for many African economies, with an estimated 70% of Africans active in agricultural production. The sector often does not only directly contribute to, but sustains food security and poverty reduction efforts. Sustaining this productivity poses many challenges, particularly to small scale subsistence farmers (SSF) in dry land areas and semi-arid countries like Namibia. SSF in northern central Namibia mix crop and livestock production on degraded semi-arid lands and nutrient-poor sandy soils. They are fully dependent on agricultural production with limited alternative sources of income. Mostly, their agricultural harvests and outputs are low, not meeting their livelihood needs. At the same time, the land use is often not sustainable, leading to degradation. The Namibia case reveals that addressing underlying economic, social and environmental challenges requires a combination of farm level-soil management practices with a shift towards integrated landscape management. This forms the basis for SSF to adopt sustainable land management practices while building institutional foundations, like establishing SSF cooperatives. One way in which this has been tested is through the concept of incentive-based motivation, i.e. payment for ecosystem services (PES), in which some of the beneficiaries pay, for instance for farmers or land users, who provide the services. The farmers provide these services by substituting their unsustainable land and soil management and adopting new (climate smart agricultural) land use practices. Climate Smart Agricultural land use practices (CSA-LUP) are one way of providing ecosystem services, which could be fundamental to long-term sustainable soil and land management solutions in Africa. There are few PES cases which have been systematically studied from an institutional development structure perspective. This study presents lessons evolving from the notion that direct participation and involvement of local people

  17. Meta-analysis of Factors Affecting Occupational and Professional Performance of Agricultural Extension Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Bahadori


    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to do a meta-analysis of studies about the results of researches conducted related to the factors affecting the occupational and professionalism performance in the field of agricultural extension agents, in order to integrate the results of research independently carried out to obtain more accurate and more cohesive results. In order to achieve the goal, 177 researches made on the occupational and professional performance (occupational performance, professional performance, professional competence, professional developmentwere collected from sites magiran & sid, and among them, 10 research were selected utilizing tools "check list of technical and methodological research" (including appropriate reliability and validity statistical and sampling correct methodto review and metaanalysis. The results showed that professional features have the greatest impact on the professional and occupational performance of agricultural extension agents. As well, skills and technical competence, the number of field visits, membership of organizations, participation in in-service training courses and access to educational facilities have a high impact on occupational and professional performance. The researchers confirmed these results.

  18. Social Factors Affecting Wetlands Utilization for Agriculture in Nigeria: A case study of sawah rice production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Wetlands have immense poverty-fighting potentials and in Nigeria,more and more people are dependent on wetlands for their livelihoods.To examine the social factors affecting the current status of the wetlands utilization for agriculture in Nigeria,a simple random sampling technique was used to select 200 farmers cultivating wetlands and a structured questionnaire was applied to elicit the information on the social factors.Data collected were described using frequency and percentage and a multiple regression analysis was used to identify significant variables that are determinants of wetland utilization.The results of the analysis showed that significant variables included crop preferences,farming system,culture,taste,land tenure,knowledge of wetland cultivation,perceived suitability,farmers' tribe,location of wetland,and farmers' age.It was concluded with suggestions for the right combination of policies,public awareness,and appropriate farming methods in order to improve wetland utilization in Nigeria.

  19. The Role of Networks of Practice and Webs of Influencers on Farmers' Engagement with and Learning about Agricultural Innovations (United States)

    Oreszczyn, Sue; Lane, Andy; Carr, Susan


    Drawing on the UK research project, "Farmers' understandings of GM crops within local communities", this paper considers the application of the concepts of communities of practice and networks of practice in the agricultural context. A brief review of theories about communities of practice and networks of practice is given and some of…

  20. Impacts of Agricultural Practices on Concentrations and Fluxes of Dissolved Organic Carbon (United States)

    Oh, N.; Pellerin, B. A.; Bachand, P. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Horwath, W. R.


    Organic matter from the breakdown of plant and animal material is a significant concern for drinking water quality in California due to the potential formation of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during water treatment with chlorine. Reducing DOC concentration at the source water is a possible management strategy being explored for the reduction of DBP precursors. We examined a variety of land use/land cover, i.e. natural grasslands and intensive agriculture in the Willow Slough Watershed (415 km2) in Yolo County, California to determine the temporal and spatial DOC dynamics. Surface water DOC concentrations ranged from 1.62 to 11.44 mg L-1 at the mouth of the watershed during the first two years, with about two times higher DOC concentrations measured downstream in an intensive agricultural subwatershed dominated by summer flood irrigation. The mean DOC yield was also the highest from the agricultural subwatershed at 0.74 g m-2 over the six months of active irrigation. Results suggest that there is a positive correlation between cropland area and DOC yield. Among many crop species examined, alfalfa showed the strongest positive linear relationship with R2 = 0.91 between the irrigation season DOC yield and percentage crop area of each subwatershed, indicating that agricultural practices such as flood irrigation have a greater impact on DOC loads than other irrigation systems. The results indicate that agricultural practices may deserve further attention for watershed management of DOC and DBP precursors and that flood irrigation practices should be targeted to reduce DOC loading within the main watershed.

  1. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa


    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  2. On the choice of farm management practices after the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy in 2003. (United States)

    Schmid, Erwin; Sinabell, Franz


    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was fundamentally reformed in 2003. From 2005, farmers will receive decoupled income support payments instead of production premiums if basic standards for environment, food safety, animal health and welfare are met. Farmers are likely to adjust production and management practices to the new policy framework. We describe how this reform fits into the EU strategy of making agricultural production more environmentally friendly by concentrating on the financial aspects of the reforms. Using an agricultural sector model for Austria, we show that the reform will further decrease agricultural outputs, reduce farm inputs, lessen nitrogen surpluses and make environmentally friendly management practices more attractive for farmers.

  3. Testing the Runoff Tool in Sicilian vineyards: adopting best management practices to prevent agricultural surface runoff (United States)

    Singh, Manpriet; Dyson, Jeremy; Capri, Ettore


    Over the last decades rainfall has become more intense in Sicily, making large proportions of steeply sloping agricultural land more vulnerable to soil erosion, mainly orchards and vineyards (Diodato and Bellocchi 2010). The prevention of soil degradation is indirectly addressed in the European Union's Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and Sustainable Use Directive (2009/128/EC). As a consequence, new EU compliance conditions for food producers requires them to have tools and solutions for on-farm implementation of sustainable practices (Singh et al. 2014). The Agricultural Runoff and Best Management Practice Tool has been developed by Syngenta to help farm advisers and managers diagnose the runoff potential from fields with visible signs of soil erosion. The tool consists of 4 steps including the assessment of three key landscape factors (slope, topsoil permeability and depth to restrictive horizon) and 9 mainly soil and crop management factors influencing the runoff potential. Based on the runoff potential score (ranging from 0 to 10), which is linked to a runoff potential class, the Runoff Tool uses in-field and edge-of-the-field Best Management Practices (BMPs) to mitigate runoff (aligned with advice from ECPA's TOPPS-prowadis project). The Runoff tool needs testing in different regions and crops to create a number of use scenarios with regional/crop specific advice on BMPs. For this purpose the Tool has been tested in vineyards of the Tasca d'Almerita and Planeta wineries, which are large family-owned estates with long-standing tradition in viticulture in Sicily. In addition to runoff potential scores, Visual Soil Assessment (VSA) scores have been calculated to allow for a comparison between different diagnostic tools. VSA allows for immediate diagnosis of soil quality (a higher score means a better soil quality) including many indicators of runoff (Shepherd 2008). Runoff potentials were moderate to high in all tested fields. Slopes were classified as

  4. Does the Number of Post-Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Courses Completed Affect Teacher Competence? (United States)

    Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.; Shultz, Matthew J.


    Preparing teachers to teach agricultural mechanics is a difficult task since many topic areas are included in the curriculum. This study examines the effect of the number of college courses taken on a teacher's perceived competence to teach agricultural mechanics. Agricultural education teachers in Iowa ranked themselves according to their…

  5. Effects of different management practices on fungal biodiversity in agricultural soils (United States)

    Borriello, R.; Lumini, E.; Bonfante, P.; Bianciotto, V.


    Symbiotic associations between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots are widespread in natural environments and provide a range of benefits to the host plant. These include improved nutrition, enhanced resistance to soil-borne pests, diseases, and drought, as well as tolerance to heavy metals. In addition, the presence of a well developed AMF hyphal network improve the soil structure. As obligate mutualistic symbionts these fungi colonize the roots of many agricultural crops and it is often claimed that agricultural practices (use of fertilizers and biocides, tillage, dominance of monocultures and the growing of non-mycorrhizal crops) are detrimental to AMF. As a result, agro ecosystems impoverished in AMF may not get the fully expected range of benefits from these fungi. Using molecular markers on DNA extracted directly from soil and roots we studied the effects of different management practices (tillage and nitrogen fertilization) on the AMF populations colonizing an experimental agro ecosystem in Central Italy. Fungi in roots and soil were identified by cloning and sequencing a region of ~550bp of the 18S rDNA and ~600bp of the 28S rDNA. In symbiosis with the maize roots we detected only members of Glomeraceae group A that showed decrement in number under nitrogen fertilization. Instead in soil were mainly present members of two AMF groups, respectively Gigasporaceae and Glomeraceae group A. In addition only the low input management practices preserve also members of Diversisporaceae and Glomeraceae group B. From our study we can conclude that agricultural practices can directly or indirectly influence AMF biodiversity. The result of this study highlight the importance and significant effects of the long term nitrogen fertilization and tillage practices on specific groups of fungi playing a key role in arable soils. The research was founded by Biodiversity Project (IPP-CNR) and by SOILSINK (FISR-MIUR)

  6. Agricultural management and labile carbon additions affect soil microbial community structure and interact with carbon and nitrogen cycling. (United States)

    Berthrong, Sean T; Buckley, Daniel H; Drinkwater, Laurie E


    We investigated how conversion from conventional agriculture to organic management affected the structure and biogeochemical function of soil microbial communities. We hypothesized the following. (1) Changing agricultural management practices will alter soil microbial community structure driven by increasing microbial diversity in organic management. (2) Organically managed soil microbial communities will mineralize more N and will also mineralize more N in response to substrate addition than conventionally managed soil communities. (3) Microbial communities under organic management will be more efficient and respire less added C. Soils from organically and conventionally managed agroecosystems were incubated with and without glucose ((13)C) additions at constant soil moisture. We extracted soil genomic DNA before and after incubation for TRFLP community fingerprinting of soil bacteria and fungi. We measured soil C and N pools before and after incubation, and we tracked total C respired and N mineralized at several points during the incubation. Twenty years of organic management altered soil bacterial and fungal community structure compared to continuous conventional management with the bacterial differences caused primarily by a large increase in diversity. Organically managed soils mineralized twice as much NO3 (-) as conventionally managed ones (44 vs. 23 μg N/g soil, respectively) and increased mineralization when labile C was added. There was no difference in respiration, but organically managed soils had larger pools of C suggesting greater efficiency in terms of respiration per unit soil C. These results indicate that the organic management induced a change in community composition resulting in a more diverse community with enhanced activity towards labile substrates and greater capacity to mineralize N.

  7. Influence of management practices on microbial nitrogen cyclers in agricultural soils (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily


    Agricultural land management has great influences on soil properties, in particular on microbial communities, due to their sensitivity to the perturbations of the soils. This is even more relevant in Mediterranean agricultural areas under semi-arid conditions. The Mediterranean belt is suffering from an intense degradation of its soils due to the millennia of intense land use and due to unsustainable management practices. As a consequence this area is suffering from a depletion of N content. In this work we investigated the effect of several traditional agricultural management practices on specific functional groups related to the nitrogen cycle in the soil. A field experiment was performed with orchard orange trees (citrus sinesis) in Eastern Spain to assess the long-term effects of ploughing with inorganic fertilization (PI) and ecological practices (EP) (chipped pruned branches and weeds as well as manure from sheep and goats) on microbes that can undertake nitrogen fixation and denitrification. Nine samples of soil were taken from every treatment, near the drip irrigation point and in a zone without the influence of drip irrigation (between trees row), and total DNA extracted. DNA samples were stored at minus-20°C to be analysed by qPCR. Microbial populations involved in the N biochemical cycle were analysed by targeted amplification of key functional biomarker genes: the abundance of nifH (nitrogen fixation), nirS, nirK and nosZ (denitrification) detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR) has shown significant differences between treatments with higher abundance of all four genes in soils from ecological agricultural treatments. This may indicate that the ecological treatment created conditions that are more suitable for N cyclers in the soil and a better fertility and quality status of these soils.

  8. Environmentally-friendly agricultural practices and their acceptance by smallholder farmers in China-A case study in Xinxiang County, Henan Province. (United States)

    Luo, Liangguo; Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wang, Qian


    Intensive agriculture with high inputs has resulted in rapid development of crop production in China, accompanied by negative environmental effects such as serious non-point source agricultural pollution. Implementation of environmentally-friendly agricultural practices can effectively prevent such pollution. However, the acceptance and adoption of such practices are related not only to associated risks and potential benefits, but also to farmers' attitudes to and knowledge of scientifically validated practices. In the presented study we surveyed views of a stratified sample of 150 smallholder farmers and 10 extension service experts from Xinxiang, a high grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. Their opinions were explored in personal interviews using a questionnaire with three sections. The first section mainly sought information on surveyed farmers' demographic characteristics like gender, age and education. The second section concerned their awareness of the environmental problems and losses of yields associated with customary over-fertilization practices, and their main concerns about new practices. The third section addressed farmers' attitudes to, and the extension service experts' professional evaluations of, five selected practices in terms of the importance of seven factors (time demands, costs, risks, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability). Acceptance indices were calculated from the responses to rank farmers' willingness to accept the five environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, and thus identify the most appropriate to promote in the study area. The results show that costs, followed by risks and observability, are the more important factors affecting farmers' decisions to adopt a practice. The results also indicate that no or minimum tillage and returning straw to the field are the most appropriate practices to promote initially at large scale in Xinxiang. The others could be popularized gradually after providing


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelensky P. G.


    Full Text Available The article describes historical and economic aspects of the rice industry evolution in the Krasnodar region. The basic means of increasing the economic efficiency of rice production are demonstrated: reduction of production costs and growth of profitability. The role of new agricultural practices aiming at optimization of rice mineral nutrition is highlighted. The data are provided on the economic impact of liquid nitrogen fertilizers and application of new micronutrients in rice crops. It is shown that the use of liquid nitrogen top-dressing in rice crops leads to reduction of costs by 1000 rubles/ha compared to traditional practices. The effectiveness of micronutrients application on rice has been confirmed experimentally by the use of water-soluble fertilizer Poligro Bits. According to the received data the yield increase in the rice varieties Khazar, Rapan and Diamond was 0,53-1,33 t/ha with improved grain quality. Calculations show the economic feasibility of the introduction of this practice. Based on the research results the recommendations have been issued on the improvement of rice production and its economic efficiency. Among them is the use of modern agricultural practices, introduction of new rice varieties, innovative optimization methods of rice mineral nutrition, upgrading of rice farmers’ skills, introduction of marketing structures for rice farms

  10. The 3D elevation program - Precision agriculture and other farm practices (United States)

    Sugarbaker, Larry J.; Carswell, Jr., William J.


    The agriculture industry, including farmers who rely on advanced technologies, increasingly use light detection and ranging (lidar) data for crop management to enhance agricultural productivity. Annually, the combination of greater yields and reduced crop losses is estimated to increase revenue by \\$2 billion for America's farmers when terrain data derived from lidar are available for croplands. Additionally, the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) estimates that the value of improved services for farmers, through its farm assistance program, would be \\$79 million annually if lidar-derived digital elevation models (DEMs) are made available to the public.The 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey provides the programmatic infrastructure to generate and supply superior, lidar-derived terrain data to the agriculture industry, which would allow farms to refine agricultural practices and produce crops more efficiently. By providing data to users, 3DEP reduces users’ costs and risks, allowing them to concentrate on mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards and specifications, and (4) most importantly, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data.

  11. Nectar resource limitation affects butterfly flight performance and metabolism differently in intensive and extensive agricultural landscapes. (United States)

    Lebeau, Julie; Wesselingh, Renate A; Van Dyck, Hans


    Flight is an essential biological ability of many insects, but is energetically costly. Environments under rapid human-induced change are characterized by habitat fragmentation and may impose constraints on the energy income budget of organisms. This may, in turn, affect locomotor performance and willingness to fly. We tested flight performance and metabolic rates in meadow brown butterflies (Maniola jurtina) of two contrasted agricultural landscapes: intensively managed, nectar-poor (IL) versus extensively managed, nectar-rich landscapes (EL). Young female adults were submitted to four nectar treatments (i.e. nectar quality and quantity) in outdoor flight cages. IL individuals had better flight capacities in a flight mill and had lower resting metabolic rates (RMR) than EL individuals, except under the severest treatment. Under this treatment, RMR increased in IL individuals, but decreased in EL individuals; flight performance was maintained by IL individuals, but dropped by a factor 2.5 in EL individuals. IL individuals had more canalized (i.e. less plastic) responses relative to the nectar treatments than EL individuals. Our results show significant intraspecific variation in the locomotor and metabolic response of a butterfly to different energy income regimes relative to the landscape of origin. Ecophysiological studies help to improve our mechanistic understanding of the eco-evolutionary impact of anthropogenic environments on rare and widespread species.

  12. Carbon amendment and soil depth affect the distribution and abundance of denitrifiers in agricultural soils. (United States)

    Barrett, M; Khalil, M I; Jahangir, M M R; Lee, C; Cardenas, L M; Collins, G; Richards, K G; O'Flaherty, V


    The nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase-encoding (nosZ) genes of denitrifying populations present in an agricultural grassland soil were quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Samples from three separate pedological depths at the chosen site were investigated: horizon A (0-10 cm), horizon B (45-55 cm), and horizon C (120-130 cm). The effect of carbon addition (treatment 1, control; treatment 2, glucose-C; treatment 3, dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) on denitrifier gene abundance and N2O and N2 fluxes was determined. In general, denitrifier abundance correlated well with flux measurements; nirS was positively correlated with N2O, and nosZ was positively correlated with N2 (P soil (GCC) varied in response to carbon type amendment (P soil depth directly affected bacterial, archaeal, and denitrifier abundance, possibly due to changes in soil carbon availability with depth.

  13. Factors Affecting Dairy Farmers’ Application of Agricultural Innovations: A Case Study from Muğla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Çukur


    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is to determine the factors affecting the application of innovations for dairy farmers in the Milas district, Muğla province, Turkey. Data from 71 dairy farmers and the Multinominal logit model are used for this study. The dependent variable of the model is divided into three categories; “I don’t apply any agricultural innovations”, “I apply agricultural innovations only after other farmers apply and express their positive opinion” and “I apply agricultural innovations”. In conclusion of the analysis, the comparisons are done with the farmers who “do not apply any agricultural innovations,” and the farmers who “apply agricultural innovations only after other farmers apply and express their positive opinion”; it is determined that a one unit increase in educational level raised the likelihood of applying innovations after receiving positive opinion. When the farmers that “apply agricultural innovation”, and that “apply agricultural innovations only after other farmers apply and express their positive opinion” are compared, it is found that a one unit increase in the number of milking animals had increased the likelihood of applying the innovations.

  14. Linking climate smart agriculture and good agriculture practices: case studies on consumption potatoes in South Africa, the Netherlands and Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.


    Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture has been coined in an attempt to overcome existing barriers among food security, adaptation of agriculture to climate change, and mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because the goals of CSA ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is

  15. Irrigation Water Management Recovery on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 449 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP449), Irrigation...

  16. Irrigation Canals or Laterals on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 320 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP320), Irrigation...

  17. Influence of voluntary coffee certifications on cooperatives’ advisory services and agricultural practices of smallholder farmers in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole;


    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperat...

  18. Surface Drainage, Field Ditches on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 607 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP607), Surface...

  19. Terrace Farming on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 600 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP600), Terrace...

  20. Irrigation Water Conveyance by Pipelines on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 430 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP430), Irrigation...

  1. Conservation Tillage Systems on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 329 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP329 ),...

  2. Subsurface Drains on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 606 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP606), Subsurface...

  3. Contour Farming on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 330 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP330), Contour...

  4. Irrigation System by Tailwater Recovery on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 447 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP447), Irrigation...

  5. Pressure Irrigation on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice IT02 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIT02), Pressure...

  6. Irrigation Land Leveling on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 464 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP464), Irrigation...

  7. Ammonia Emissions from the Agriculture Sector of Argentina in a Context of Changing Technologies and Practices (United States)

    Dawidowski, L. E.


    Agriculture is a key sector of the Argentinean economy, accounting for 6 to 8 5% of the GDP in the last ten years. Argentina switched in the 90´s from an articulated co-evolution between extensive livestock and crop farming, with annual rotation of crops and livestock, to intensive decoupled practices. Under these new production schemes, ecosystems were supplied with more nutrients, generating increasing levels of wastes. Other changes have also occurred, associated with the shift of the agricultural frontier and the consequent reduction in the cattle stock. In addition, changes related to climate through the strong increase in rainfall in the 80s and 90s in the west Pampas, helped to boost agricultural development. The agriculture sector accounts for practically all NH3 emissions in Argentina, however no inventory has been thus far available. To bridge this gap and particularly to have accurate input information to run coupled atmospheric chemistry models for secondary inorganic aerosols, we estimated 2000-2012 NH3 emissions, both at national and spatially disaggregated levels. Of particular interest for us was also temporal disaggregation as crops growing and temperature exhibit strong seasonal variability. As no NH3 inventory was available we also estimated related N2O emissions to verify our estimates with those of national GHG emission inventory (NEI). National NH3 emissions in 2012 amounted to 309.9 Gg, use of fertilizers accounted for 43.6%, manure management 18,9%, manure in pasture 36,0% and agricultural waste burning 1.5%. Our N2O estimates are in good agreement with the GHG-NEI. NH3 estimates in the EDGAR database for 2008 are 84.0% higher than ours for this year, and exhibit more significant differences per category, namely 113,6% higher for use of fertilizers and about 500% higher for agricultural waste burning. Urea dominates national NH3 emissions, accounting for 32,8% of the total and its use for wheat and corn crops dominates the trend.

  8. Working Capital Management Practices In Agricultural/Agro-Allied Quoted Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chuke Nwude


    Full Text Available This study investigated the working capital practices of quoted agricultural/Agro-allied firms listed on the Nigerian Stock Exchange (NSE from 2000-2014. Quantitative approach was used to find the working capital practices of the firms. The study discovered that in days-period the sector as a whole was a net credit receiver in time but some of the individual firm ended up in some years as net extenders of credit in time. On monetary value terms the Livestock feeds was the most receiver of net credit with most conservative credit policy, Presco was the most extender of net credit thereby operating the most liberal credit policy. While FTN could be said to have being operating matching credit policy on the average to smoothen the policy over the years, Okomu operated a moderate policy interspersed with aggressive policy. The agricultural/agro-allied sector firms operated a mixture of net credit extenders and receivers in time and value. In all the firms except in Livestock feeds the aggressive working capital investment practices were followed by aggressive working capital financing policy. That is the lower the investment in working capital the lower the amount of current liabilities.

  9. Factors affecting songbird nest survival in riparian forests in a midwestern agricultural landscape (United States)

    Peak, R.G.; Thompson, F. R.; Shaffer, T.L.


    We investigated factors affecting nest success of songbirds in riparian forest and buffers in northeastern Missouri. We used an information-theoretic approach to determine support for hypotheses concerning effects of nest-site, habitat-patch, edge, and temporal factors on nest success of songbirds in three narrow (55-95 m) and three wide (400-530 m) riparian forests with adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips and in three narrow and three wide riparian forests without adjacent grassland-shrub buffer strips. We predicted that temporal effects would have the most support and that habitat-patch and edge effects would have little support, because nest predation would be great across all sites in the highly fragmented, predominantly agricultural landscape. Interval nest success was 0.404, 0.227, 0.070, and 0.186, respectively, for Gray Catbird (Dumetella carolinensis), Northern Cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis), Indigo Bunting (Passerina cyanea), and forest interior species pooled (Acadian Flycatcher [Empidonax virescens], Wood Thrush [Hylocichla mustelina], Ovenbird [Seiurus aurocapillus], and Kentucky Warbler [Oporornis formosus]). The effect of nest stage on nest success had the most support; daily nest success for Gray Catbird and Indigo Bunting were lowest in the laying stage. We found strong support for greater nest success of Gray Catbird in riparian forests with adjacent buffer strips than in riparian forests without adjacent buffer strips. Patch width also occurred in the most-supported model for Gray Catbird, but with very limited support. The null model received the most support for Northern Cardinal. Riparian forests provided breeding habitat for area-sensitive forest species and grassland-shrub nesting species. Buffer strips provided additional breeding habitat for grassland-shrub nesting species. Interval nest success for Indigo Bunting and area-sensitive forest species pooled, however, fell well below the level that is likely necessary to balance juvenile

  10. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan


    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  11. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability. (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K


    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  12. Modeling Soil Organic Carbon for Agricultural Land Use Under Various Management Practices (United States)

    Kotamarthi, V. R.; Drewniak, B.; Song, J.; Prell, J.; Jacob, R. L.


    Bioenergy is generating tremendous interest as an alternative energy source that is both environmentally friendly and economically competitive. The amount of land designated for agriculture is expected to expand, including changes in the current distribution of crops, as demand for biofuels increases as a carbon neutral alternative fuel source. However, the influence of agriculture on the carbon cycle is complex, and varies depending on land use change and management practices. The purpose of this research is to integrate agriculture in the carbon-nitrogen based Community Land Model (CLM) to evaluate the above and below ground carbon storage for corn, soybean, and wheat crop lands. The new model, CLM-Crop simulates carbon allocation during four growth stages, a soybean nitrogen fixation scheme, fertilizer, and harvest practices. We present results from this model simulation, which includes the impact of a new dynamic roots module to simulate the changing root structure and depth with growing season based on the availability of water and nitrogen in the root zone and a retranslocation scheme to simulate redistribution of nitrogen from leaves, roots, and stems to grain during organ development for crop yields, leaf area index (LAI), carbon allocation, and changes in soil carbon budgets under various practices such as fertilizer and residue management. Simulated crop yields for corn, soybean and wheat are in general agreement with measurements. Initial model results indicate a loss of soil organic carbon over cultivated lands after removal of natural vegetation which continues in the following years. Soil carbon in crop lands is a strong function of the residue management and has the potential to impact crop yields significantly.

  13. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions with agricultural land management changes: What practices hold the best potential? (United States)

    Eagle, A. J.; Olander, L.; Rice, C. W.; Haugen-Kozyra, K.; Henry, L. R.; Baker, J. S.; Jackson, R. B.


    Agricultural land management practices within the United States have significant potential to mitigate greenhouse gases (GHGs) in voluntary market or regulatory contexts - by sequestering soil carbon or reducing N2O or CH4 emissions. Before these practices can be utilized in active protocols or within a regulatory or farm bill framework, we need confidence in our ability to determine their impact on GHG emissions. We develop a side-by-side comparison of mitigation potential and implementation readiness for agricultural GHG mitigation practices, with an extensive literature review. We also consider scientific certainty, environmental and social co-effects, economic factors, regional specificity, and possible implementation barriers. Biophysical GHG mitigation potential from agricultural land management activities could reach more than 500 Mt CO2e/yr in the U.S. (7.1% of annual emissions). Up to 75% of the total potential comes from soil C sequestration. Economic potential is lower, given necessary resources to incentivize on-farm adaptations, but lower cost activities such as no-till, fertilizer N management, and cover crops show promise for near-term implementation in certain regions. Scientific uncertainty or the need for more research limit no-till and rice water management in some areas; and technical or other barriers need to be addressed before biochar, advanced crop breeding, and agroforestry can be widely embraced for GHG mitigation. Significant gaps in the current research and knowledge base exist with respect to interactions between tillage and N2O emissions, and with fertilizer application timing impacts on N2O emissions.

  14. Agricultural practices that store organic carbon in soils: is it only a matter of inputs ? (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Cardinael, Rémi; Autret, Bénédicte; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Girardin, Cyril; Mary, Bruno


    Increasing the world soils carbon stocks by a factor of 4 per mil annually would compensate the annual net increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This statement is the core of an initiative launched by the French government at the recent COP21, followed by many countries and international bodies, which attracts political attention to the storage potential of C in soils. Compared to forest and pasture soils, agricultural soils have a higher C storage potential, because they are often characterized by low C contents, and increasing their C content is associated with benefits in terms of soil properties and ecosystem services. Here we quantified, under temperate conditions, the additional C storage related to the implementation of two set of practices that are recognized to be in the framework of agroecology: conservation tillage on the one hand and agroforestry on the other hand. These studies were based on long-term experiments, a 16-years comparison on cropping systems on luvisols in the Paris area and a 18-year-old silvoarable agroforestry trial, on fluvisols in southern France, the main crops being cereals in both cases. C stocks were measured on an equivalent soil mass basis. Both systems allowed for a net storage of C in soils, which are, for the equivalent of the 0-30 cm tilled layer, of 0.55 ± 0.16 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for conservation agriculture (i.e. no tillage with permanent soil coverage with an associated plant, fescue or alfalfa) and of 0.25 ± 0.03 t ha-1 yr-1 for the agroforestry system. These results are in line with estimates proposed in a recent French national assessment concerning the potential of agricultural practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to recent literature, they further show that practices that increase C inputs to soil through additional biomass production would be more effective to store C in soil (tree rows, cover crops in conservation agriculture) than practices, such as no-tillage, that are assumed to reduce

  15. Using agricultural practices information for multiscale environmental assessment of phosphorus risk (United States)

    Matos Moreira, Mariana; Lemercier, Blandine; Michot, Didier; Dupas, Rémi; Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal


    Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for plant growth. In intensively farmed areas, excessive applications of animal manure and mineral P fertilizers to soils have raised both economic and ecological concerns. P accumulation in agricultural soils leads to increased P losses to surface waterbodies contributing to eutrophication. Increasing soil P content over time in agricultural soils is often correlated with agricultural practices; in Brittany (NW France), an intensive livestock farming region, soil P content is well correlated with animal density (Lemercier et al.,2008). Thus, a better understanding of the factors controlling P distribution is required to enable environmental assessment of P risk. The aim of this study was to understand spatial distribution of extractable (Olsen method) and total P contents and its controlling factors at the catchment scale in order to predict P contents at regional scale (Brittany). Data on soil morphology, soil tests (including P status, particles size, organic carbon…) for 198 punctual positions, crops succession since 20 years, agricultural systems, field and animal manure management were obtained on a well-characterized catchment (ORE Agrhys, 10 km²). A multivariate analysis with mixed quantitative variables and factors and a digital soil mapping approach were performed to identify variables playing a significant role in soil total and extractable P contents and distribution. Spatial analysis was performed by means of the Cubist model, a decision tree-based algorithm. Different scenarios were assessed, considering various panels of predictive variables: soil data, terrain attributes derived from digital elevation model, gamma-ray spectrometry (from airborne geophysical survey) and agricultural practices information. In the research catchment, mean extractable and total P content were 140.0 ± 63.4 mg/kg and 2862.7 ± 773.0 mg/kg, respectively. Organic and mineral P inputs, P balance, soil pH, and Al contents were

  16. 77 FR 18862 - Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third... (United States)


    ... investigation in the Federal Register on May 24, 2011 (76 FR 30195). In its original notice of investigation... COMMISSION Brazil: Competitive Factors Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected Third... for transmitting its report to the Committee in investigation No. 332-524, Brazil: Competitive...

  17. Morphology, chemistry and distribution of neoformed spherulites in agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leguedois, S.; Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Chevalier, P.


    Metal distribution patterns in superficial soil horizons of agricultural land affected by metallurgical point-source pollution were studied using optical and electron microscopy, synchrotron radiation and spectroscopy analyses. The site is located in northern France, at the center of a former entry

  18. How a Serious Digital Game Affected Students' Animal Science and Mathematical Competence in Agricultural Education (United States)

    Bunch, J. C.; Robinson, J. Shane; Edwards, M. Craig; Antonenko, Pavlo D.


    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the lecture and discussion teaching methods and digital game-based learning on student achievement in agriculture and mathematics regarding a unit on swine diseases in animal science courses offered through secondary agricultural education programs in Oklahoma. Three research questions…

  19. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice. (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa


    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  20. Climate benefits of changes in agricultural practices in the context of heat wave mitigation (United States)

    Davin, E.; Seneviratne, S. I.; Ciais, P.; Olioso, A.; Wang, T.


    About half of the terrestrial biosphere is under direct human influence through land management (i.e., agricultural areas and managed forests). Changing management practices is therefore a promising avenue for climate change mitigation. The mitigation potential arising from changes in land management practices has been mainly evaluated in terms of carbon storage and GHG emissions [2]. On the other hand, these practices can also influence climate by altering the physical properties of the land surface, but these effects have received less attention so far. Here we show that peak temperatures during heat heaves can be attenuated through cropland albedo management [2]. We first present observational evidence that a substantial summer albedo increase can be obtained by switching from conventional to no-till agriculture. Then, using a regional climate model, we investigate the biogeophysical effect of a full conversion to no-till management over Europe. The cooling effect owing to albedo increase under no-till farming appears to be strongly amplified during warm events. This is due to the low cloud cover during these events, thus leading to a more efficient radiative cooling from albedo change. This implies a strong potential of no-till farming to mitigate heat wave impacts. The reduced evaporation associated with the crop residue cover tends to counteract the albedo-induced cooling, but during hot days the albedo effect remains the dominating factor. For heatwave summer days the local cooling effect gained from no-till practice is of the order of 2 degrees. These findings strongly suggest that the biogeophysical effect of management practices should be considered in the design of climate mitigation policies involving land management. References:[1] Smith, P. et al. (2014): Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel

  1. [Good agricultural practice (GAP) of Chinese materia medica (CMM) for ten years: achievements, problems and proposals]. (United States)

    Guo, Lan-Ping; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Shou-Dong; Wang, Gui-Hua; Wang, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Chen, Mei-Lan; He, Ya-Li; Han, Bang-Xing; Chen, Nai-Fu; Huang, Lu-Qi


    This paper aims to summarize the achievements during the implementation process of good agricultural practice (GAP) in Chinese Materia Medica (CMM), and on basis of analyzing the existing problems of GAP, to propose further implementation of GAP in TCM growing. Since the launch of GAP in CMM growing ten years ago, it has acquired great achievements, including: (1) The promulgation of a series of measures for the administration of the GAP approval in the CMM growing; (2) The expanded planting area of CMM; (3) The increased awareness of standardized CMM growing among farmers and enterprises; (4) The establishment of GAP implementation bases for CMM growing; (5) The improvement of theory and methodology for CMM growing; (6) The development of a large group of experts and scholars in GAP approval for CMM production. The problems existing in the production include: (1) A deep understanding of GAP and its certification is still needed; (2) The distribution of the certification base is not reasonable; (3) The geo-economics effect and the backward farming practices are thought to be the bottlenecks in the standardization of CMM growing and the scale production of CMM; (4) Low comparative effectiveness limits the development of the GAP; (5) The base of breeding improved variety is blank; (6) The immature of the cultivation technique lead to the risk of production process; (7) The degradation of soil microbial and the continuous cropping obstacle restrict the sustainable development of the GAP base. To further promote the health and orderly GAP in the CMM growing, the authors propose: (1) To change the mode of production; (2) To establish a sound standard system so as to ensure quality products for fair prices; (3) To fully consider the geo-economic culture and vigorously promote the definite cultivating of traditional Chinese medicinal materials; (4) To strengthen the transformation and generalization of basic researches and achievements, in order to provide technical

  2. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı


    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  3. An investigation of the practice of scientific inquiry in secondary science and agriculture courses (United States)

    Grady, Julie R.

    The purpose of this exploratory qualitative study was to investigate the practice of scientific inquiry in two secondary biology classes and one agriculture class from different schools in different communities. The focus was on teachers' interests and intentions for the students' participation in inquiry, the voices contributing to the inquiry, and students' opportunities to confront their conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) served as the context by providing students with opportunities to design and conduct original experiments to help elucidate the function(s) of a disabled gene in Arabidopsis thaliana . Transcripts of teacher and student semi-structured interviews, field notes of classroom observations and classroom conversations, and documents (e.g., student work, teacher handouts, school websites, PREP materials) were analyzed for evidence of the practice of scientific inquiry. Teachers were interested in implementing inquiry because of potential student learning about scientific research and because PREP supports course content and is connected to a larger scientific project outside of the school. Teachers' intentions regarding the implementation of inquiry reflected the complexity of their courses and the students' previous experiences. All inquiries were student-directed. The biology students' participation more closely mirrored the practice of scientists, while the agriculture students were more involved with the procedural display of scientific inquiry. All experiences could have been enhanced from additional knowledge-centered activities regarding scientific reasoning. No activities brought explicit attention to NOS. Biology activities tended to implicitly support NOS while the agriculture class activities tended to implicitly contradict NOS. Scientists' interactions contributed to implied support of the NOS. There were missed opportunities for explicit attention to NOS in all classes

  4. The garden dying: Commoditization of agriculture and changes in practices of self-consumption among rural families of southern gaucho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Sacco dos Anjos


    Full Text Available The article is based on qualitative research carried out in the southern extreme of the Rio Grande do Sul state and explores the transformations on the practices of self-consumption production in the context of familiar agriculture, essentially, under the impacts of the process of commoditization of agriculture and the rural life. The self-consumption practices present a cultural matrix among rural families, in spite of the symbolic value attributed to products generated within the very rural establishment, as compared to the ones which are acquired externally in usual commerce or from other units of production. The field-work was performed within thirty family agricultural establishments whose main commercial activity lies on the milk, peach and tobacco production. The authors discuss the impacts of the commoditization of agriculture on the practical of self-consumption production.

  5. The effect of changes in agricultural practices on the density of Dermacentor reticulatus ticks. (United States)

    Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Alsarraf, Mohammed; Behnke, Jerzy M; Bajer, Anna


    The impact of agricultural practices/ activities on the environment has been falling in many areas of Europe due to the widespread exodus of inhabitants from rural areas. The associated abandonment of agricultural lands has enabled a wide range of wild animals to prosper in the countryside, including birds, ungulates and large carnivores. One consequence has been the increase in ticks and associated tick-borne diseases which now constitute a greater threat for public health than earlier. The aim of the present study was to compare tick densities in different habitats (pasture, meadow, fallow land, post-fire areas) to assess the impact of different agricultural practices on tick densities in vicinities close to human habitation. Between September 2011 and June 2014, 2985 Dermacentor reticulatus ticks were collected by conventional dragging, in the Mazowieckie (Mazovia) and Warmińsko-Mazurskie (Masuria) regions of Poland. In each region, 3 study sites were selected, each situated near surface water sources (i.e., ponds or canals). At each site, three neighboring habitats of surface area 150-600 m(2) were dragged: one on a cattle/horse pasture; the second on meadow; the third on fallow land (abandoned field or meadow), at least twice during each spring and autumn. Additionally, four post-fire areas (one in 2013 and three in 2014) were identified in the Mazowieckie region, and dragging was conducted there in spring and autumn, including in each case a 'control area' comprising intact unburned fallow land situated in close vicinity to the burned areas. Eight hundred D. reticulatus ticks were collected and the densities were compared by multifactorial ANOVA. The highest tick densities were recorded on the fallow lands, and the lowest - on the grazed pastures. Tick densities were up to 10 × times higher on the control sites compared to neighboring post-fire sites.

  6. The Potential of Genetic Engineering in Agriculture to Affect Global Stability (United States)


    resulted in the global expansion of their interests and opened new markets for genetic engineering.19 In addition, the interests of the newly acquired...corporations controlled more than 75% of the global seed market . Of these eight, six led the market in the production and sale of agricultural of the best examples, as it relates to agriculture, is Given its global use, the impact of pests developing resistance to Bt would have the

  7. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa


    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  8. Farmer's Incentives for Adoption of Recommended Farm Practices in Wheat Crop in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District, India. (United States)

    Vidyarthy, Gopal Saran

    This study was undertaken to identify farmer incentives that led them to adopt wheat crop practices in Aligarh Intensive Agricultural District Program: the association between the farmer's characteristics and adoption groups; the incentives that lead the farmers to adopt recommended wheat crop practices; relationship between identified incentives…

  9. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse...... herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon–Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one...... samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster....

  10. Identification and Prioritization of Management Practices to Reduce Methylmercury Exports from Wetlands and Irrigated Agricultural Lands (United States)

    McCord, Stephen A.; Heim, Wesley A.


    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  11. Identification and prioritization of management practices to reduce methylmercury exports from wetlands and irrigated agricultural lands. (United States)

    McCord, Stephen A; Heim, Wesley A


    The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta's (Delta) beneficial uses for humans and wildlife are impaired by elevated methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in fish. MeHg is a neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in aquatic food webs. The total maximum daily load (TMDL) implementation plan aimed at reducing MeHg in Delta fish obligates dischargers to conduct MeHg control studies. Over 150 stakeholders collaborated to identify 24 management practices (MPs) addressing MeHg nonpoint sources (NPS) in three categories: biogeochemistry (6), hydrology (14), and soil/vegetation (4). Land uses were divided into six categories: permanently and seasonally flooded wetlands, flooded and irrigated agricultural lands, floodplains, and brackish-fresh tidal marshes. Stakeholders scored MPs based on seven criteria: scientific certainty, costs, MeHg reduction potential, spatial applicability, technical capacity to implement, negative impacts to beneficial uses, and conflicting requirements. Semi-quantitative scoring for MPs applicable to each land use (totaling >400 individual scores) led to consensus-based prioritization. This process relied on practical experience from diverse and accomplished NPS stakeholders and synthesis of 17 previous studies. Results provide a comprehensive, stakeholder-driven prioritization of MPs for wetland and irrigated agricultural land managers. Final prioritization highlights the most promising MPs for practical application and control study, and a secondary set of MPs warranting further evaluation. MPs that address hydrology and soil/vegetation were prioritized because experiences were positive and implementation appeared more feasible. MeHg control studies will need to address the TMDL conundrum that MPs effective at reducing MeHg exports could both exacerbate MeHg exposure and contend with other management objectives on site.

  12. Bacterial communities in the rhizosphere of Vitis vinifera L. cultivated under distinct agricultural practices in Argentina. (United States)

    Vega-Avila, A D; Gumiere, T; Andrade, P A M; Lima-Perim, J E; Durrer, A; Baigori, M; Vazquez, F; Andreote, F D


    Plants interact with a myriad of microbial cells in the rhizosphere, an environment that is considered to be important for plant development. However, the differential structuring of rhizosphere microbial communities due to plant cultivation under differential agricultural practices remains to be described for most plant species. Here we describe the rhizosphere microbiome of grapevine cultivated under conventional and organic practices, using a combination of cultivation-independent approaches. The quantification of bacterial 16S rRNA and nifH genes, by quantitative PCR (qPCR), revealed similar amounts of these genes in the rhizosphere in both vineyards. PCR-DGGE was used to detect differences in the structure of bacterial communities, including both the complete whole communities and specific fractions, such as Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and those harboring the nitrogen-fixing related gene nifH. When analyzed by a multivariate approach (redundancy analysis), the shifts observed in the bacterial communities were poorly explained by variations in the physical and chemical characteristics of the rhizosphere. These approaches were complemented by high-throughput sequencing (67,830 sequences) based on the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene, identifying the major bacterial groups present in the rhizosphere of grapevines: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteriodetes, Acidobacteria, Cloroflexi, Verrucomicrobia and Planctomycetes, which occur in distinct proportions in the rhizosphere from each vineyard. The differences might be related to the selection of plant metabolism upon distinct reservoirs of microbial cells found in each vineyard. The results fill a gap in the knowledge of the rhizosphere of grapevines and also show distinctions in these bacterial communities due to agricultural practices.

  13. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices (United States)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.


    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  14. The potential of agricultural practices to increase C storage in cropped soils: an assessment for France (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Angers, Denis; Métay, Aurélie; Colnenne, Caroline; Klumpp, Katja; Bamière, Laure; Pardon, Lenaic; Pellerin, Sylvain


    Though large progress has been achieved in the last decades, net GHG emissions from the agricultural sector are still more poorly quantified than in other sectors. In this study, we examined i) technical mitigation options likely to store carbon in agricultural soils, ii) their potential of additional C storage per unit surface area and iii) applicable areas in mainland France. We considered only agricultural practices being technically feasible by farmers and involving no major change in either production systems or production levels. Moreover, only currently available techniques with validated efficiencies and presenting no major negative environmental impacts were taken into account. Four measures were expected to store additional C in agricultural soils: - Reducing tillage: either a switch to continuous direct seeding, direct seeding with occasional tillage once every five years, or continuous superficial (20yrs) C storage rates (MgC ha-1 y-1,) of cropping systems with and without the proposed practice. Then we analysed the conditions for potential application, in terms of feasibility, acceptance, limitation of yield losses and of other GHG emissions. According to the literature, additional C storage rates were 0.15 (0-0.3) MgC ha-1 y-1 for continuous direct seeding, 0.10 (0-0.2) MgC ha-1 y-1for occasional tillage one year in five, and 0.0 MgC ha-1 y-1 for superficial tillage. Cover crops were estimated to store 0.24 (0.13-0.37) MgC ha-1 y-1 between cash crops and 0.49 (0.23-0.72) MgC ha-1 y-1 when associated with vineyards. Hedges (i.e 60 m ha-1) stored 0.15 (0.05-0.26) Mg C ha-1 y-1. Very few estimates were available for temperate agroforestry system, and we proposed a value of 1.01 (0.11-1.36) Mg C ha-1 y-1for C stored in soil and in the tree biomass for systems comprising 30-50 trees ha-1. Increasing the life time of temporary sown grassland increased C stocls by 0.11 (0.07-0.22) Mg C ha-1 y-1. In general, practices with increased C inputs to soil through

  15. Assessing the impacts of sustainable agricultural practices for water quality improvements in the Vouga catchment (Portugal) using the SWAT model. (United States)

    Rocha, João; Roebeling, Peter; Rial-Rivas, María Ermitas


    The extensive use of fertilizers has become one of the most challenging environmental issues in agricultural catchment areas. In order to reduce the negative impacts from agricultural activities and to accomplish the objectives of the European Water Framework Directive we must consider the implementation of sustainable agricultural practices. In this study, we assess sustainable agricultural practices based on reductions in N-fertilizer application rates (from 100% to 0%) and N-application methods (single, split and slow-release) across key agricultural land use classes in the Vouga catchment, Portugal. The SWAT model was used to relate sustainable agricultural practices, agricultural yields and N-NO3 water pollution deliveries. Results show that crop yields as well as N-NO3 exportation rates decrease with reductions in N-application rates and single N-application methods lead to lower crop yields and higher N-NO3 exportation rates as compared to split and slow-release N-application methods.

  16. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) Initiative: Developing methods and best practices for global agricultural monitoring (United States)

    Champagne, C.; Jarvis, I.; Defourny, P.; Davidson, A.


    Agricultural systems differ significantly throughout the world, making a 'one size fits all' approach to remote sensing and monitoring of agricultural landscapes problematic. The Joint Experiment for Crop Assessment and Monitoring (JECAM) was established in 2009 to bring together the global scientific community to work towards a set of best practices and recommendations for using earth observation data to map, monitor and report on agricultural productivity globally across an array of diverse agricultural systems. These methods form the research and development component of the Group on Earth Observation Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative to harmonize global monitoring efforts and increase market transparency. The JECAM initiative brings together researchers from a large number of globally distributed, well monitored agricultural test sites that cover a range of crop types, cropping systems and climate regimes. Each test site works independently as well as together across multiple sites to test methods, sensors and field data collection techniques to derive key agricultural parameters, including crop type, crop condition, crop yield and soil moisture. The outcome of this project will be a set of best practices that cover the range of remote sensing monitoring and reporting needs, including satellite data acquisition, pre-processing techniques, information retrieval and ground data validation. These outcomes provide the research and development foundation for GEOGLAM and will help to inform the development of the GEOGLAM "system of systems" for global agricultural monitoring. The outcomes of the 2014 JECAM science meeting will be discussed as well as examples of methods being developed by JECAM scientists.

  17. Microbial Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) and herbicide mineralization potential in groundwater affected by agricultural land use (United States)

    Janniche, Gry Sander; Spliid, Henrik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen


    Diffuse groundwater pollution from agricultural land use may impact the microbial groundwater community, which was investigated as Community-Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP) using EcoPlate™. Water was sampled from seven piezometers and a spring in a small agricultural catchment with diffuse herbicide and nitrate pollution. Based on the Shannon-Wiener and Simpson's diversity indices the diversity in the microbial communities was high. The response from the EcoPlates™ showed which substrates support groundwater bacteria, and all 31 carbon sources were utilized by organisms from at least one water sample. However, only nine carbon sources were utilized by all water samples: D-Mannitol, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, putrescine, D-galacturonic acid, itaconic acid, 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, tween 40, tween 80, and L-asparagine. In all water samples the microorganisms preferred D-mannitol, D-galacturonic acid, tween 40, and 4-hydroxy benzoic acid as substrates, whereas none preferred 2-hydroxy benzoic acid, α-D-lactose, D,L-α-glycerol phosphate, α-ketobutyric acid, L-threonine and glycyl-L-glutamic acid. Principal Component Analysis of the CLPP's clustered the most agriculturally affected groundwater samples, indicating that the agricultural land use affects the groundwater microbial communities. Furthermore, the ability to mineralize atrazine and isoproturon, which have been used in the catchment, was also associated with this cluster.

  18. How will the EU climate adaptation strategy affect EU agricultural policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Karali, Eleni; Castellari, Sergio;

    A key objective in the EU Strategy on adaptation to climate change (COM (2013) 216 final) is to ensure mainstreaming, i.e. integration, of adaptation measures into European sectoral policies. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one such sectoral policy which is prioritised in the strategy...... to adaptation in agricultural production and analyses to what extent the reformed CAP as currently proposed will provide the tools to deal with the key vulnerabilities and adaptation needs. Specifically, the paper analyses the policy instruments available in the CAPs 1st and 2nd pillars and assesses......, the paper will also analyze the institutional mechanisms available in the adaptation strategy in order to assess their strength with regards to mainstreaming adaptation into agricultural policy. The paper is based on analysis of key EU policy documents and compares the policy instruments...

  19. Effect of land tenure and stakeholders attitudes on optimization of conservation practices in agricultural watersheds (United States)

    Piemonti, A. D.; Babbar-Sebens, M.; Luzar, E. J.


    Modeled watershed management plans have become valuable tools for evaluating the effectiveness and impacts of conservation practices on hydrologic processes in watersheds. In multi-objective optimization approaches, several studies have focused on maximizing physical, ecological, or economic benefits of practices in a specific location, without considering the relationship between social systems and social attitudes on the overall optimality of the practice at that location. For example, objectives that have been commonly used in spatial optimization of practices are economic costs, sediment loads, nutrient loads and pesticide loads. Though the benefits derived from these objectives are generally oriented towards community preferences, they do not represent attitudes of landowners who might operate their land differently than their neighbors (e.g. farm their own land or rent the land to someone else) and might have different social/personal drivers that motivate them to adopt the practices. In addition, a distribution of such landowners could exist in the watershed, leading to spatially varying preferences to practices. In this study we evaluated the effect of three different land tenure types on the spatial-optimization of conservation practices. To perform the optimization, we used a uniform distribution of land tenure type and a spatially varying distribution of land tenure type. Our results show that for a typical Midwestern agricultural watershed, the most optimal solutions (i.e. highest benefits for minimum economic costs) found were for a uniform distribution of landowners who operate their own land. When a different land-tenure was used for the watershed, the optimized alternatives did not change significantly for nitrates reduction benefits and sediment reduction benefits, but were attained at economic costs much higher than the costs of the landowner who farms her/his own land. For example, landowners who rent to cash-renters would have to spend ~120

  20. Arts-Based Practices in Regions Affected By War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpha M Woodward


    Full Text Available Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, cultural disintegration, political confusion and unresolved inter-ethnic conflict are just some of the hurdles that can face citizens in war affected areas. After the Dayton Accord had been signed in 1995, international government and charity organizations and a variety of NGOs flooded into Bosnia and Herzegovina to help rebuild the infrastructure and to offer transitional economic and political support for the beleaguered, fragmented population. Although arts-based activities, therapies and projects were also part of the international influx, this form of psychosocial intervention was piecemeal, somewhat random, and often unable to sustain a long term or systemic approach to the massive psychosocial needs of the people. There appears to be little peer-reviewed fieldwork research to support claims of effectiveness of arts-based projects in post-conflict regions. Therefore, considering the growing number of projects that use the creative arts as an intervention for trauma, conflict transformation and community building in war affected populations, the purpose of this paper is to search for, and critically examine, empirical arts-based research conducted in war affected areas and/or any population that may have been directly impacted by activities of armed conflict.

  1. An Assessment of Internet Uses, Practices, and Barriers for Professional Development by Agricultural Science Teachers in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatomide Waheed Olowa


    Full Text Available The paper reports a study carried out on the utilisation of the Internet by agricultural science teachers in Lagos state focusing on uses, practices, and barriers. A questionnaire was developed based on literature and was administered to 300 agricultural science teachers in Lagos schools. 275 questionnaires properly completed were analyzed. Data reveal that 130 teachers are using the Internet for teaching agricultural science in classrooms as well as for various activities that enhance their professional development. Nevertheless, it was found that agricultural science teachers in Lagos State have not fully utilised the Internet because of barriers related to time factor, accessibility, and facilities. It is suggested that for the proliferation of Internet practices, there needs to be an increase in funding for technology, an introduction of computer/technology education, a provision of pedagogical training for teachers, and a provision of administrational support.

  2. Teaching Method Practice of Agricultural Machinery Training%农机培训教学方法实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    According to the main problems existing in agricultural machinery training, in the article, it used the teaching practice of a-gricultural machinery training for reference, discussed teaching methods mainly based on practical application from the aspects of tractor driver training and matching agricultural machinery extension training, in order to provide a reference for lifting the teaching effect of a-gricultural machinery training.%根据农机培训中存在的主要问题,借鉴农机培训教学实践,从拖拉机驾驶员培训和配套农具推广培训2个方面,探讨以实践应用为主的教学方法,为提升农机培训的教学效果提供参考。

  3. Practical split-window algorithm for retrieving land surface temperature over agricultural areas from ASTER data (United States)

    Wang, Songhan; He, Longhua


    A practical split-window algorithm which involves two parameters (transmittance and emissivity) utilized to retrieve land-surface temperature over agricultural areas from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer data is presented. First, by calculating the relationship between thermal radiation intensity and temperature, the Planck function is simplified using exponential function which is applied to deduce the split-window algorithm. Second, how to obtain transmittance from water vapor content and the method for estimating emissivity using normalized difference vegetation index are discussed in detail. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that the algorithm is not sensitive to these two parameters. Finally, a standard atmospheric simulation method has been used to validate the proposed algorithm, and comparison between the algorithm and the prior study has been carried out. The results indicate that the average accuracy is 0.32 K for the case without error in both transmittance and emissivity, which is better than the prior algorithm. The accuracy is also 0.32 K when the transmittance is computed from the water content by piecewise cubic polynomial fit. The accuracy is about 0.30 K˜0.33 K corresponding to different Pv (Pv is the proportion of vegetation) values, which indicates that this algorithm is suitable for different land surface types over agricultural areas.

  4. Teaching Reforms and Practices of General Chemistry in Agricultural Universities%Guangzhou Chemical Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁厚群; 胡春燕; 李艳霞; 孙婷婷; 王义华


    General Chemistry is an important public basic course in agriculture, forestry, animal science, bioengineering, food engineering, environment engineering majors, etc, in agricultural universities. The main problems during teaching course were analyzed, and according to the curriculum characteristics and the teaching objectives, the teaching contents, patternsand methods were reformedand implemented. The students were found to be more interested in General Chemistry,and their practical handing capabilities were cultivated. The teaching qualityand teaching effect were obviously improved.%《普通化学》是面向高等农业院校农学、林学、动科、生工、食品、环工等专业的一门重要公共基础课。课程组分析课程存在的主要问题,结合本课程特点和教学目标,在教学内容、教学模式、教学方法等方面进行了教学改革与实践。通过这几年的教学改革与实践,不仅学生的学习兴趣和动手实践能力有了很大的进步,教学质量和教学效果也有了明显的提高。

  5. Soil organic matter distribution and microaggregate characteristics as affected by agricultural management and earthworm activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulleman, M.M.; Six, J.; Breemen, van N.; Jongmans, A.G.


    Stable microaggregates can physically protect occluded soil organic matter (SOM) against decomposition. We studied the effects of agricultural management on the amount and characteristics of microaggregates and on SOM distribution in a marine loam soil in the Netherlands. Three long-term farming sys

  6. Agricultural Best Management Practice Abundance and Location does not Influence Stream Ecosystem Function or Water Quality in the Summer Season



    Best management practices (BMPs) are tools commonly used to mitigate negative impacts of agriculture on water quality; however, the relationship between BMPs and aquatic ecological function is unknown. Our research goal was to determine the association between both stream ecosystem metabolism and water quality, and the abundance and location of four different BMPs in agricultural catchments. Dissolved oxygen was measured over a two-week period in mid-June and used to estimate ecosystem metabo...

  7. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación


    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  8. Effectiveness of conservation agriculture practices on soil erosion processes in semi-arid areas of Zimbabwe (United States)

    Chikwari, Emmanuel; Mhaka, Luke; Gwandu, Tariro; Chipangura, Tafadzwa; Misi Manyanga, Amos; Sabastian Matsenyengwa, Nyasha; Rabesiranana, Naivo; Mabit, Lionel


    - The application of fallout radionuclides (FRNs) in soil erosion and redistribution studies has gained popularity since the late 1980s. In Zimbabwe, soil erosion research was mostly based on conventional methods which included the use of erosion plots for quantitative measurements and erosion models for predicting soil losses. Only limited investigation to explore the possibility of using Caesium-137 (Cs-137) has been reported in the early 1990s for undisturbed and cultivated lands in Zimbabwe. In this study, the Cs-137 technique was applied to assess the impact of soil conservation practices on soil losses and to develop strategies and support effective policies that help farmers in Zimbabwe for sustainable land management. The study was carried out at the Makoholi research station 30 km north of the Masvingo region which is located 260 km south of Harare. The area is semi-arid and the study site comprises coarse loamy sands, gleyic lixisols. The conservation agriculture (CA) practices used within the area since 1988 include (i) direct seeding (DS) with mulch, (ii) CA basins with mulch, and (iii) 18 years direct seeding, left fallow for seven years and turned into conventional tillage since 2012 (DS/F/C). The Cs-137 reference inventory was established at 214 ± 16 Bq/m2. The mean inventories for DS, CA basins and DS/F/C were 195, 190 and 214 Bq/m2 respectively. Using the conversion Mass Balance Model 2 on the Cs-137 data obtained along transects for each of the practices, gross erosion rates were found to be 7.5, 7.3 and 2.6 t/ha/yr for direct seeding, CA basins and the DS/F/C while the net erosion rates were found to be 3.8, 4.6 and 0 t/ha/yr respectively. Sediment delivery ratios were 50%, 63% and 2% in the respective order. These preliminary results showed the effectiveness of DS over CA basins in erosion control. The efficiency of fallowing in controlling excessive soil loss was significant in the plot that started as DS for 18 years but left fallow for 7

  9. Curvature affects Doppler investigation of vessels: implications for clinical practice. (United States)

    Balbis, S; Roatta, S; Guiot, C


    In clinical practice, blood velocity estimations from Doppler examination of curved vascular segments are normally different from those of nearby straight segments. The observed "accelerations," sometimes considered as a sort of stochastic disturbances, can actually be related to very specific physical effects due to vessel curvature (i.e., the development of nonaxial velocity [NAV] components) and the spreading of the axial velocity direction in the Doppler sample volume with respect to the insonation axis. The relevant phenomena and their dependence on the radius of curvature of the vessels and on the insonation angle are investigated with a beam-vessel geometry as close as possible to clinical setting, with the simplifying assumptions of steady flow, mild vessel curvature, uniform ultrasonic beam and complete vessel insonation. The insonation angles that minimize the errors are provided on the basis of the study results.

  10. Modelling the impacts of agricultural management practices on river water quality in Eastern England. (United States)

    Taylor, Sam D; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin M


    Agricultural diffuse water pollution remains a notable global pressure on water quality, posing risks to aquatic ecosystems, human health and water resources and as a result legislation has been introduced in many parts of the world to protect water bodies. Due to their efficiency and cost-effectiveness, water quality models have been increasingly applied to catchments as Decision Support Tools (DSTs) to identify mitigation options that can be introduced to reduce agricultural diffuse water pollution and improve water quality. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the River Wensum catchment in eastern England with the aim of quantifying the long-term impacts of potential changes to agricultural management practices on river water quality. Calibration and validation were successfully performed at a daily time-step against observations of discharge, nitrate and total phosphorus obtained from high-frequency water quality monitoring within the Blackwater sub-catchment, covering an area of 19.6 km(2). A variety of mitigation options were identified and modelled, both singly and in combination, and their long-term effects on nitrate and total phosphorus losses were quantified together with the 95% uncertainty range of model predictions. Results showed that introducing a red clover cover crop to the crop rotation scheme applied within the catchment reduced nitrate losses by 19.6%. Buffer strips of 2 m and 6 m width represented the most effective options to reduce total phosphorus losses, achieving reductions of 12.2% and 16.9%, respectively. This is one of the first studies to quantify the impacts of agricultural mitigation options on long-term water quality for nitrate and total phosphorus at a daily resolution, in addition to providing an estimate of the uncertainties of those impacts. The results highlighted the need to consider multiple pollutants, the degree of uncertainty associated with model predictions and the risk of

  11. Water quality and agricultural practices: the case study of southern Massaciuccoli reclaimed land (Tuscany, Italy) (United States)

    Pistocchi, Chiara; Baneschi, Ilaria; Basile, Paolo; Cannavò, Silvia; Guidi, Massimo; Risaliti, Rosalba; Rossetto, Rudy; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico


    Owing to increasing anthropogenic impacts, lagoons and wetlands are being exposed to environmental degradation. Therefore, the sustainable management of these environmental resources is a fundamental issue to maintain either the ecosystems and the human activity. The Massaciuccoli Lake is a coastal lake of fresh to brackish water surrounded by a marsh, which drains a total catchment of about 114 km2. Large part of the basin has been reclaimed since 1930 by means of pumping stations forcing water from the drained areas into the lake. The system is characterized by: high complexity of the hydrological setting; subsidence of the peaty soils in the reclaimed area (2 to 3 m in 70 years), that left the lake perched; reclaimed land currently devoted mainly to conventional agriculture (e.g.: maize monoculture) along with some industrial sites, two sewage treatment plants and some relevant urban settlements; social conflicts among different land users because of the impact on water quality and quantity. The interaction between such a fragile natural system and human activities leads to an altered ecological status mainly due to eutrophication and water salinisation. Hence, the present work aims at identifying and assessing the sources of nutrients (phosphorous in particular) into the lake, and characterising land use and some socio-economic aspects focusing on agricultural systems, in order to set up suitable mitigation measures. Water quantity and quality in the most intensively cultivated sub-catchment, placed 0.5 to 3 m under m.s.l. were monitored in order to underlain the interaction between water and its nutrient load. Questionnaires and interviews to farmers were conducted to obtain information about agricultural practices, farm management, risks and constraints for farming activities. The available information about the natural system and land use were collected and organised in a GIS system: a conceptual model of surface water hydrodinamics was build up and 14

  12. Wetlands and agriculture - Relevance of good agricultural practice and wetland management guidelines for harmonizing the wise use of wetlands and agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.; Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.


    The Conference of Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention meeting in 2002 in Valencia adopted Resolution VIII calling for guidelines to enhance the interaction between agriculture, wetlands and water resources management. Resolution VIII.34 requests among others to establish a framework for ide

  13. The dominant factors affecting agricultural land use (rice field change in Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sabari Yunus


    The research shows that the period of 1980 - 2000 in Yogyakarta Special Province has indicated very significantly the increase in population, the development of road and the extension of built up area. For the time being, agricultural land mainly in Sleman Regency, Bantul Regency and Yogyakarta Municipality has decreased. Sleman regency performed the largest decrease of rice field and followed after then by Bantul regency and Yogyakarta Municipality. The regency of Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul have experienced reverse phenomenon i.e. the increase of rice field during this period. Individually or simultaneously, three variables used in this research (number of people, road's length and built up area have significantly influenced the agricultural land use.

  14. Asexual Reproduction of Phytophthora capsici as Affected by Extracts from Agricultural and Nonagricultural Soils. (United States)

    Sanogo, S


    ABSTRACT Formation of sporangia and zoospores in species of Phytophthora is known to be influenced by soil microbial and chemical composition. In Phytophthora capsici, the study of the relationship of soil chemical composition to production of sporangia and zoospores has been limited. P. capsici is a soilborne pathogen of a wide array of vegetable crops, including chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) in New Mexico. Production of sporangia and zoospores by P. capsici was evaluated in extracts of soils from three different environments in New Mexico: (i) agricultural environments with a long history of chile pepper cropping and occurrence of P. capsici (CP), (ii) agricultural environments with no history of chile pepper cropping and no occurrence of P. capsici (Non-CP), and (iii) nonagricultural environments consisting of forests and rangelands (Non-Ag). There was a significant difference in production of P. capsici asexual propagules, expressed as natural log (number of sporangia x number of zoospores), among the three environments (P = 0.0298). Production of propagules was 9 to 13% greater in Non-Ag than in CP or Non-CP environments. Stepwise multiple discriminant analysis and canonical discriminant analysis identified the edaphic variables Na, pH, P, organic matter content, and asexual propagule production as contributing the most to the separation of the three environments. Two significant (P < 0.0001) canonical discriminant functions were derived with the first function, accounting for approximately 75% of the explained variance. Based on the two discriminant functions, approximately 93, 86, and 89% of observations in CP, Non-CP, and Non-Ag environments, respectively, were classified correctly. Soils from agricultural and nonagricultural environments differentially influence production of sporangia and zoospores in P. capsici, and soil samples could be effectively classified into agricultural and nonagricultural environments based on soil chemical properties and the

  15. Evaluating Lignite-Derived Products (LDPs) for Agriculture - Does Research Inform Practice? (United States)

    Patti, Antonio; Rose, Michael; Little, Karen; Jackson, Roy; Cavagnaro, Timothy


    . However, these growth benefits subsequently diminished over time. Insignificant growth benefits were observed for lucerne. The analysis of the literature and our own work indicates that it is difficult to account for all the possible variables where research is used to inform land management practices. Assisting farmers to conduct localised research in cooperative ventures is likely to bring about the best outcomes where site-specific research directly informs land management practices. 1. Michael T. Rose, Antonio F. Patti, Karen R. Little, Alicia L. Brown, W. Roy Jackson, Timothy R. Cavagnaro, A Meta-Analysis and Review of Plant-Growth Response to Humic Substances: Practical Implications for Agriculture, Advances in Agronomy, 2013, 124, 37-89

  16. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem.

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    Fuensanta García-Orenes

    Full Text Available Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA. Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain: residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass, suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  17. Changes in soil microbial community structure influenced by agricultural management practices in a mediterranean agro-ecosystem. (United States)

    García-Orenes, Fuensanta; Morugán-Coronado, Alicia; Zornoza, Raul; Cerdà, Artemi; Scow, Kate


    Agricultural practices have proven to be unsuitable in many cases, causing considerable reductions in soil quality. Land management practices can provide solutions to this problem and contribute to get a sustainable agriculture model. The main objective of this work was to assess the effect of different agricultural management practices on soil microbial community structure (evaluated as abundance of phospholipid fatty acids, PLFA). Five different treatments were selected, based on the most common practices used by farmers in the study area (eastern Spain): residual herbicides, tillage, tillage with oats and oats straw mulching; these agricultural practices were evaluated against an abandoned land after farming and an adjacent long term wild forest coverage. The results showed a substantial level of differentiation in the microbial community structure, in terms of management practices, which was highly associated with soil organic matter content. Addition of oats straw led to a microbial community structure closer to wild forest coverage soil, associated with increases in organic carbon, microbial biomass and fungal abundances. The microbial community composition of the abandoned agricultural soil was characterised by increases in both fungal abundances and the metabolic quotient (soil respiration per unit of microbial biomass), suggesting an increase in the stability of organic carbon. The ratio of bacteria:fungi was higher in wild forest coverage and land abandoned systems, as well as in the soil treated with oat straw. The most intensively managed soils showed higher abundances of bacteria and actinobacteria. Thus, the application of organic matter, such as oats straw, appears to be a sustainable management practice that enhances organic carbon, microbial biomass and activity and fungal abundances, thereby changing the microbial community structure to one more similar to those observed in soils under wild forest coverage.

  18. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

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    Kateryna eZhalnina


    Full Text Available Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use.

  19. Interdependence of soil and agricultural practice in a two - year phytoremediation in situ experiment (United States)

    Nwaichi, Eucharia; Onyeike, Eugene; Frac, Magdalena; Iwo, Godknows


    A two - year plant - based soil clean - up was carried out at a crude oil spill agricultural site in a Niger Delta community in Nigeria to access further clean - up potentials of Cymbopogon citratus. Applied diagnostic ratios identified mixed petrogenic and pyrogenic sources as the main contributors of PAHs. Up to 90.8% sequestration was obtained for carcinogenic PAHs especially Benz (a) pyrene in a 2 - phase manner. A community level approach for assessing patterns of sole carbon source utilization by mixed microbial samples was employed to differentiate spatial and temporal changes in the soil microbial communities. In relation to pollution, soil conditioning notably decreased the lag times and showed mixed effects for colour development rates, maximum absorbance and the overall community pattern. For rate and utilization of different carbon substrates in BIOLOG wells, after day 3, in comparison to control soil communities, contamination with hydrocarbons and associated types increased amines and amides consumption. Consumption of carbohydrates in all polluted and unamended regimes decreased markedlyin comparison to those cultivated with C. citratus. We found a direct relationship between cellulose breakdown, measurable with B-glucosidase activity, organic matter content and CO2 realease within all soils in the present study. Organic amendment rendered most studied contaminants unavailable for uptake in preference to inorganic fertilizer in both study years. Generally, phytoremediation improved significantly the microbial community activity and thus would promote ecosystem restoration in relation to most patronised techniques. Supplementation with required nutrients, in a long - term design would present many ecological benefits. Keywords: Agricultural soils; Recovery; Hydrocarbon pollution; Ecology; Management practice.

  20. Strengthening affective organizational commitment: the influence of fairness perceptions of management practices and underlying employee cynicism. (United States)

    English, Brian; Chalon, Christopher


    This study investigates the relationship between cynicism, the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices, and affective organizational commitment. High levels of affective organizational commitment have been shown to reduce voluntary turnover in the nursing workforce. Previous research suggests that "unfair" management practices and employee cynicism lead to lower commitment. It is not clear, however, whether the perceived fairness of particular practices influences affective commitment beyond that accounted for by underlying employee cynicism. Data were obtained from a study involving 1104 registered nurses that formed part of a larger investigation of the general well-being of nurses in Western Australia. Only nurses who were permanent or employed on fixed term or temporary contracts were included. Findings indicated that although higher levels of cynicism among nurses were associated with lower levels of affective commitment, their perception of the fairness of change management and personnel practices influenced their affective commitment over and above their cynicism. The perceived fairness of management practices is an important influence on nurses' affective commitment beyond that accounted for by cynicism. The implication for managers is that the affective organizational commitment of nurses is likely to be strengthened by addressing the perceived fairness of change management and personnel practices notwithstanding their beliefs about the integrity of the organization.

  1. Urban Agriculture Practices and Health Problems among Farmers Operating on a University Campus in Kumasi, Ghana

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    Nana O.B. Ackerson


    Full Text Available Urban agriculture, a world-wide practice, faces both environmental and health challenges. Farmers are susceptible to occupational and other water-related health risks. The research identified health problems related to urban agricultural farming through farmers’ social characteristics and agricultural practices. Thorough interviews, using structured questionnaires, were carried out. Sixty three farmers responded to questions ranging from agricultural practices to health problems encountered. The findings showed that farmers apply both organic and inorganic fertilisers while 97% used pesticides of varying active ingredients at different application rates. Only 10% used personal protective clothing during the application of pesticides. Overhead irrigation was carried out using a watering can. Eighty four percent and 13% of the respondents utilised water from shallow wells and shallow wells mixed with contaminated stream, respectively. Besides schistosomiasis and cholera, other bacterial diseases, nematode infections, malaria, headaches, dermatological, visual, cardiac, and respiratory problems were common health complaints. Headache complaints were the most common (75%.L’agriculture urbaine, une pratique qui a cours dans le monde entier, est confrontée à des défis d’ordre environnemental et sanitaire. Les agriculteurs sont exposés à divers risques professionnels, et notamment à ceux que l'eau peut poser pour leur santé. Cette étude a identifié les problèmes de santé liés à l’agriculture urbaine en fonction des caractéristiques sociales et des pratiques des agriculteurs. Des entretiens approfondis ont été conduits en suivant des questionnaires structurés. Soixante-trois fermiers ont répondu aux questions, qui abordaient leurs pratiques agricoles ainsi que leurs problèmes de santé. Les résultats montrent que les fermiers emploient aussi bien des engrais organiques que non organiques, et que 97 % utilisent des pesticides

  2. Adaptive Targeting: Engaging Farmers to Assess Perceptions and Improve Watershed Modeling, Optimization, and Adoption of Agricultural Conservation Practices



    Targeting agricultural conservation practices to farmland that has the greatest impact on surface water quality has received wide support from scientists and watershed managers. The targeting approach has, however, been politically contentious as many believe farmers will oppose the approach on grounds such as privacy invasion and unfair distribution of government incentives. Targeting conservation practices using complex optimization models has become common in the scientific community, and ...

  3. The Role of Agricultural Education and Extension in Influencing Best Practice for Managing Mastitis in Dairy Cattle (United States)

    Dillon, E. J.; Hennessy, T.; Cullinan, J.


    Purpose: To examine the role of agricultural education and extension in influencing the adoption of best practice with regard to herd-level mastitis management. Design/Methodology/Approach: Somatic cell count (SCC) is an indicator of herd health with regard to mastitis and is negatively related to productivity and profitability. Panel data…

  4. Effects of low-grade weirs on soil microbial communities to advance agricultural best management practices for nitrate remediation (United States)

    Agricultural activities throughout the Mississippi River Basin have been identified as a major source of nutrient pollution, particularly nitrogen from fertilizer application, to downstream waters including the Gulf of Mexico. Utilizing best management practices, such as low-grade weirs have been id...

  5. Influence of Voluntary Coffee Certifications on Cooperatives' Advisory Services and Agricultural Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Costa Rica (United States)

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Faure, Guy


    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative…

  6. Practical implications of increasing 'natural living' through suckling systems in organic dairy calf rearing; Theme: Values in Organic Agriculture

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    Wagenaar, J.P.; Langhout, D.J.


    The introduction of suckling systems in organic dairy calf rearing has the potential to enhance animal welfare in terms of ‘natural living’ and to live up to consumers’ expectations about organic agriculture. This study describes the implications of suckling systems in a practical organic dairy cont

  7. The Comparison of Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (Akis For Adopters and Non-Adopters of Good Agricultural Practices in Bafra District of Samsun, Turkey

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    Mustafe Abdulkadir Abdurahman


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to compare Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems (AKIS for adopters and non-adopters of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs in the Bafra district of Samsun, Turkey. The main materials of this study are the data obtained from a survey and interview with adopters and non-adopters of GAPs in Bafra district. The research data were collected from 77 farmers contained both adopters and non-adopters of GAPs. Statistical analysis, such as Chi-square and t-test was used. The study results presented the socio-economic characteristics of farmers. There was a significant difference between adopters and non-adopters of GAPs, according to household size, organizational membership, farm size, livestock and crop production. Meanwhile, the information sources such as a district agricultural manager/personnel, adviser of the farmers’ union association (GAPs and pesticide/fertilizer dealers were preferred the main sources of agricultural information for adopters of GAPs. However, it recommended that information sources like research institute, university and cooperatives needs to be improved by strengthening their way of information dissemination. In terms of usefulness of AKIS for this study, it seems that this system was insufficient to analyze this study. Even though the functions of this system are essent ial elements, they are insufficient for establishing a network of complex innovation-oriented institutional arrangements. In the future, this study suggests to analyze GAPs it needs to use Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System (AKIS approach, because this system have many interaction networks that can facilitate the researchers to reach the innovation easily to the intended farmers.

  8. Seasonal patterns in tree swallow prey (Diptera) abundance are affected by agricultural intensification. (United States)

    Paquette, Sébastien Rioux; Garant, Dany; Pelletier, Fanie; Bélisle, Marc


    In many parts of the world, farmland bird species are declining at faster rates than other birds. For aerial insectivores, this decline has been related to a parallel reduction in the abundance of their invertebrate prey in agricultural landscapes. While the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on arthropod communities at the landscape level have been substantially studied in recent years, seasonal variation in these impacts has not been investigated. To assess the contention that intensive cultures negatively impact food resources for aerial insectivorous birds, we analyzed the spatiotemporal distribution patterns of Diptera, the main food resource for breeding tree swallows Tachycineta bicolor), across a gradient of AI in southeastern Quebec, Canada. Linear mixed models computed from a data set of 5000 samples comprising >150,000 dipterans collected over three years (2006-2008) suggest that both Diptera abundance and biomass varied greatly during swallow breeding season, following a quadratic curve. Globally, AI had a negative effect on Diptera abundance (but not biomass), but year-by-year analyses showed that in one of three years (2008), dipterans were more abundant in agro-intensive landscapes. Analyses also revealed a significant interaction between the moment in the season and AI: In early June, Diptera abundances were similar regardless of the landscape, but differences increased as the season progressed, with highly intensive landscapes harboring fewer prey, possibly creating an "ecological trap" for aerial insectivores. While global trends in our results are in agreement with expectations (negative impact of Al on insect abundance), strong discrepancies in 2008 highlight the difficulty of predicting the abundance of insect communities. Our study indicates that predicting the effects of AI may prove more challenging than generally assumed, even when large data sets are collected, and that temporal variation within a season is important to take into

  9. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke


    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  10. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

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    Kevin Holvoet


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  11. Perceptions of Constraints Affecting Adoption of Women-in-Agriculture Programme Technologies in the Niger Delta, Nigeria

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    Iniobong A. Akpabio


    Full Text Available The study focused on constraints affecting the adoption ofinnovative agricultural technologies disseminated by theWomen-in-Agriculture (WIA unit of the Akwa Ibom AgriculturalDevelopment Programme (AKADEP to its women clientele.The study also ascertained the awareness and adoption levelsof such introduced technologies. Findings revealed that respondentswere aware of 61.9% of introduced technologies,while only 33.3% were fully adopted. The study also identifiedseven factors responsible for the non-adoption of womenfarmers’ related technologies. The three highest ranking constrainingfactors were revealed as; high cost of inputs, lowincome level of women farmers and lack of regular contactwith WIA extension agents. Reasons have been proffered forthe relatively low technologies’ adoption levels. Recommendationshave also been made to enhance the technologyadoption level. These include the necessity to introduce onlysocio- economically and culturally compatible technologies toWIA clientele, a wholesale focus on follow-up activities afterinitial group based technology introduction activities, and theattachment of a credit scheme to the WIA program.

  12. Public Progress, Data Management and the Land Grant Mission: A Survey of Agriculture Researchers' Practices and Attitudes at Two Land-Grant Institutions (United States)

    Fernandez, Peter; Eaker, Christopher; Swauger, Shea; Davis, Miriam L. E. Steiner


    This article reports results from a survey about data management practices and attitudes sent to agriculture researchers and extension personnel at the University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture (UTIA) and the College of Agricultural Sciences and Warner College of Natural Resources at Colorado State University. Results confirm agriculture…

  13. Distribution of organic carbon in physical fractions of soils as affected by agricultural management

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    Sindhu, Jagadamma [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Lal, Dr. Rattan [Ohio State University, The, Columbus


    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is distributed heterogeneously among different-sized primary particles and aggregates. Further, the SOC associated with different physical fractions respond differently to managements. Therefore, this study was conducted with the objective to quantify the SOC associated with all the three structural levels of SOC (particulate organic matter, soil separates and aggregate-size fractions) as influenced by long-term change in management. The study also aims at reevaluating the concept that the SOC sink capacity of individual size-fractions is limited. Long-term tillage and crop rotation effects on distribution of SOC among fractions were compared with soil from adjacent undisturbed area under native vegetation for the mixed, mesic, Typic Fragiudalf of Wooster, OH. Forty five years of no-till (NT) management resulted in more SOC accumulation in soil surface (0 7.5 cm) than in chisel tillage and plow tillage (PT) treatments. However, PT at this site resulted in a redistribution of SOC from surface to deeper soil layers. The soils under continuous corn accumulated significantly more SOC than those under corn soybean rotation at 7.5 45 cm depth. Although soil texture was dominated by the silt-sized particles, most of the SOC pool was associated with the clay fraction. Compared to PT, the NT treatment resulted in (i) significantly higher proportion of large macroaggregates (>2,000 m) and (ii) 1.5 2.8 times higher SOC concentrations in all aggregate-size classes. A comparative evaluation using radar graphs indicated that among the physical fractions, the SOC associated with sand and silt fractions quickly changed with a land use conversion from native vegetation to agricultural crops. A key finding of this study is the assessment of SOC sink capacity of individual fractions, which revealed that the clay fraction of agricultural soils continues to accumulate more SOC, albeit at a slower rate, with progressive increase in total SOC concentration

  14. Comparative study on factors affecting anaerobic digestion of agricultural vegetal residues

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    Cioabla Adrian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, different studies are conducted related to the topic of biomass potential to generate through anaerobic fermentation process alternative fuels supposed to support the existing fossil fuel resources, which are more and more needed, in quantity, but also in quality of so called green energy. The present study focuses on depicting an optional way of capitalizing agricultural biomass residues using anaerobic fermentation in order to obtain biogas with satisfactory characteristics.. The research is based on wheat bran and a mix of damaged ground grains substrates for biogas production. Results The information and conclusions delivered offer results covering the general characteristics of biomass used , the process parameters with direct impact over the biogas production (temperature regime, pH values and the daily biogas production for each batch relative to the used material. Conclusions All conclusions are based on processing of monitoring process results , with accent on temperature and pH influence on the daily biogas production for the two batches. The main conclusion underlines the fact that the mixture batch produces a larger quantity of biogas, using approximately the same process conditions and input, in comparison to alone analyzed probes, indicating thus a higher potential for the biogas production than the wheat bran substrate. Adrian Eugen Cioabla, Ioana Ionel, Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel and Francisc Popescu contributed equally to this work

  15. How does pyrogenic organic matter affect the N dynamic in agricultural soils? An incubation study (United States)

    de La Rosa, José M.; Knicker, Heike


    to a typical Andalusian agricultural soil (calcareous Rhodoxeralf, FAO-UNESCO classification). The bioavailability of the 15N from the biochars was tested by determining its content in grass (lolium perenne) grown on this soil under defined conditions. Following the 15N within the soil fractions gave further information about some mechanisms involved in N-partioning and stabilization. Chemical alteration of the 15N-containing organic structures during mobilization/immobilization were followed by solid-state NMR spectroscopy in order to obtain some more insights into the processes involved in the C and N-sequestration. References: Campbell, C.A., V.O. Biederbeck, G. Wen, R.P. Zentner, J. Schoenau and D. Hahn, Canadian Journal of Soil Science 79 (1999), pp. 73-84. Dick, R.P., Agriculture Ecosystems and Environment 40 (1992), pp. 25-36. González-Pérez, J.A., F.J., González-Vila, G., Almendros and H., Knicker, Environment International 30 (2004), pp. 855-870. Schlesinger, W.H., J.E. Reynolds, G.L. Cunningham, L.F. Huenneke, W.M. Jarrell, R.A. Virginia and W.G. Whitford, Science 247 (1990), pp. 1043-1048.

  16. Trace elements contamination of agricultural soils affected by sulphide exploitation (Iberian Pyrite Belt, Sw Spain) (United States)

    López, María; González, Isabel; Romero, Antonio


    Agricultural soils of the Riotinto mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt) have been studied to assess the degree of pollution by trace elements as a consequence of the extraction and treatment of sulphides. Fifteen soil samples were collected and analysed by ICP-OES and INAA for 51 elements. Chemical analyses showed an As-Cu-Pb-Zn association related with the mineralisation of the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Concentrations were 19-994 mg kg-1 for As, 41-4,890 mg kg-1 for Pb, 95-897 mg kg-1 for Zn and of 27-1,160 mg kg-1 for Cu. Most of the samples displayed concentrations of these elements higher than the 90th percentile of the corresponding geological dominium, which suggests an anthropogenic input besides the bedrock influence. Samples collected from sediments were more contaminated than leptosols because they were polluted by leachates or by mining spills coming from the waste rock piles. The weathering of the bedrock is responsible for high concentrations in Co, Cr and Ni, but an anthropogenic input, such as wind-blown dust, seems to be indicative of the high content of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in leptosols. The metal partitioning patterns show that most trace elements are associated with Fe amorphous oxy-hydroxides, or take part of the residual fraction. According to the results obtained, the following mobility sequence is proposed for major and minor elements: Mn, Pb, Cd, > Zn, Cu > Ni > As > Fe > Cr. The high mobility of Pb, Cu and Zn involve an environmental risk in this area, even in soils where the concentrations are not so high.

  17. Does biochar with organic amendments affect denitrification in an agricultural soil? (United States)

    Maier, Regine; Soja, Gerhard; Friesl Hanl, Wolfgang; Dunst, Gerald; Kitzler, Barbara


    In this laboratory experiment we investigated the influence of biochar (BC) application on dinitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from an agricultural soil in Austria. We produced BC at 550°C from fiber sludge and husk, partly enriched with ammonium sulfate and mixed with garden green compost at a 50/50 ratio (w/w). The gleyic Cambisol originates from an experimental site in Kaindorf, Austria. For the incubation experiment we established three different treatments in 2014: K (control plots); T1 (1 % BC-compost mixture) and T2 (0.5 % BC-compost mixture enriched with 175 kg N ha-1). We used the helium gas flow soil core technique to quantify N2 and N2O fluxes simultaneously. Therefore, we incubated soil cores at ambient air temperature (20 and 24°C) at 20 and 50% water filled pore space (WFPS). Results show that before BC addition N2 and N2O fluxes were similar at all treatments. Measurements of pure nitrogen-enriched BC show very high gaseous losses in form of N2 and N2O. Raising temperature promotes N2 production at all treatments. Application of N-enriched BC led to significantly higher N2 fluxes compared to K. N2O fluxes increased significantly at fertilized BC plots (T2) compared to K and T1 at both water contents. Raising WFPS supports higher N2 production at all treatments but lowers N2 fluxes at BC plots.

  18. ISO 14 001 at the farm level: analysis of five methods for evaluating the environmental impact of agricultural practices. (United States)

    Galan, M B; Peschard, D; Boizard, H


    Faced with society's increasing expectations, the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) review considers environmental management to be an ever more critical criterion in the allocation of farm subsidies. With the goal of evaluating the environmental friendliness of farm practices, France's agricultural research and extension services have built a range of agricultural/environmental diagnostic tools over recent years. The objective of the present paper is to compare the five tools most frequently used in France: IDEA, DIAGE, DIALECTE, DIALOGUE and INDIGO. All the tools have the same purpose: evaluation of the impact of farm practices on the environment via indicators and monitoring of farm management practices. When tested on a sample of large-scale farms in Picardie, the five tools sometimes produced completely different results: for a given farm, the most supposedly significant environmental impacts depend on the tool used. These results lead to differing environmental management plans and raise the question of the methods' pertinence. An analysis grid of diagnostic tools aimed at specifying their field of validity, limits and relevance was drawn up. The resulting comparative analysis enables to define each tool's domain of validity and allows to suggest lines of thought for developing more relevant tools for (i) evaluating a farm's environmental performance and (ii) helping farmers to develop a plan for improving practices within the framework of an environmental management system.

  19. Ecology and behavior of Anopheles arabiensis in relation to agricultural practices in central Kenya. (United States)

    Muturi, Ephantus J; Mwangangi, Joseph M; Beier, John C; Blackshear, Millon; Wauna, James; Sang, Rosemary; Mukabana, Wolfgang R


    Ecological changes associated with anthropogenic ecosystem disturbances can influence human risk of exposure to malaria and other vector-borne infectious diseases. This study in Mwea, Kenya, investigated the pattern of insecticide use in irrigated and nonirrigated agroecosystems and association with the density, survival, and blood-feeding behavior of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis. The parity rates of adult An. arabiensis from randomly selected houses were determined by examining their ovaries for tracheal distension, and polymerase chain reaction was used to identify the host blood meals. In addition, structured questionnaires were used to generate data on insecticide use. Anopheles arabiensis densities were highest in irrigated rice agroecosystems, intermediate in irrigated French beans agroecosystems, and lowest in the nonirrigated agroecosystem. Anopheles arabiensis adult survivorship was significantly lower in irrigated rice agroecosystems than in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. The human blood index (HBI) was significantly higher in the nonirrigated agroecosystem compared to irrigated agroecosystems. Moreover, there was marked variation in HBI among villages in irrigated agroecosystems with significantly lower HBI in Kangichiri and Mathangauta compared to Kiuria, Karima, and Kangai. The proportion of mosquitoes with mixed blood meals varied among villages ranging from 0.25 in Kangichiri to 0.83 in Kiuria. Sumithion, dimethoate, and alpha cypermethrin were the most commonly used insecticides. The 1st was used mostly in irrigated rice agroecosystems, and the last 2 were used mostly in irrigated French beans agroecosystems. These findings indicate that agricultural practices may influence the ecology and behavior of malaria vectors and ultimately the risk of malaria transmission.

  20. Agricultural practices and residual corn during spring crane and waterfowl migration in Nebraska (United States)

    Sherfy, M.H.; Anteau, M.J.; Bishop, A.A.


    Nebraska's Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) is a major spring-staging area for migratory birds. Over 6 million ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) stage there en route to tundra, boreal forest, and prairie breeding habitats, storing nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming primarily corn remaining in fields after harvest (hereafter residual corn). In springs 2005-2007, we measured residual corn density in randomly selected harvested cornfields during early (n=188) and late migration (n=143) periods. We estimated the mean density of residual corn for the CPRV and examined the influence of agricultural practices (post-harvest field management) and migration period on residual corn density. During the early migration period, residual corn density was greater in idle harvested fields than any other treatments of fields (42%, 48%, 53%, and 92% more than grazed, grazed and mulched, mulched, and tilled fields, respectively). Depletion of residual corn from early to late migration did not differ among post-harvest treatments but was greatest during the year when overall corn density was lowest (2006). Geometric mean early-migration residual corn density for the CPRV in 2005-2007 (42.4 kg/ha; 95% CI=35.2-51.5 kg/ha) was markedly lower than previously published estimates, indicating that there has been a decrease in abundance of residual corn available to waterfowl during spring staging. Increases in harvest efficiency have been implicated as a cause for decreasing corn densities since the 1970s. However, our data show that post-harvest management of cornfields also can substantially influence the density of residual corn remaining in fields during spring migration. Thus, managers may be able to influence abundance of high-energy foods for spring-staging migratory birds in the CPRV through programs that influence post-harvest management of cornfields. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  1. Conceptualizations of water security in the agricultural sector: Perceptions, practices, and paradigms (United States)

    Malekian, Atefe; Hayati, Dariush; Aarts, Noelle


    Conceptions of agricultural water security are conditioned by larger understandings of being and reality. It is still unclear what such understandings mean for perspectives on water security in general and on causes and solutions related to perceived water security risks and problems in agricultural sector in particular. Based on a systematic literature review, three conceptualizations of water security, related to different paradigms, are presented. Also the consequences of such conceptualizations for determining research objectives, research activities, and research outcomes on agricultural water security are discussed. The results showed that agricultural water security from a positivist paradigm referred to tangible and measurable water-related hazards and threats, such as floods and droughts, pollution, and so forth. A constructivist approach to agricultural water security, constituted by a process of interaction and negotiation, pointed at perceptions of water security of farmers and other stakeholders involved in agricultural sector. A critical approach to agricultural water security focused on the processes of securing vulnerable farmers and others from wider political, social, and natural impediments to sufficient water supplies. The conclusions of the study suggest that paradigms, underlying approaches should be expressed, clarified, and related to one another in order to find optimal and complementary ways to study water security issues in agricultural sector.

  2. Monitoring the Effect of Wetland Conservation Practices in an Agricultural Watershed (United States)

    Due to the substantial effect of agriculture on the extent and ability of wetlands to function, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) serves a key role in wetland conservation and restoration. The USDA has implemented several different conservation programs (e.g., the Wetland Reserve Program) wi...

  3. Practice and Reflection on Interactive Three-Dimensional Teaching System in Agricultural and Forestry Colleges (United States)

    Lei, Zhimin


    Ever since the new curriculum was implemented, Sichuan Agricultural University that is characterized by agricultural science has conducted ideological and political teaching reform, explored a basic route to integrate scientific outlook on development into theoretical teaching and initially formed a human-oriented interactive three-dimensional…

  4. Analysis of bioavailable Ge in agricultural and mining-affected-soils in Freiberg area (Saxony, Germany) (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Heilmeier, Hermann


    Germanium (Ge) concentrations in different soil fraction were investigated using a sequential selective dissolution analysis and a rhizosphere-based single-step extraction method for the identification of Ge-bearing soil fractions and prediction of bioavailability of Ge in soil to plants. About 50 soil samples were collected from various soil depths (horizons A and B) and study sites with different types of land use (dry and moist grassland, arable land, mine dumps) in Freiberg area (Saxony, Germany). Ge has been extracted in six soil fractions: mobile fraction, organic matter and sulfides, Mn- and Fe-oxides (amorphous and crystalline), and kaolinite and phytoliths, and residual fraction. The rhizosphere-based method included a 7-day-long extraction sequence with various organic acids like citric acid, malic acid and acetic acid. For the residue the aforementioned sequential extraction has been applied. The Ge-content of the samples have been measured with ICP-MS using rhodium internal standard and two different soil standards. Total Ge concentrations were found to be in the range of 1.6 to 5.5 ppm with highest concentrations on the tailing site in the mining area of Altenberg. The mean Ge concentration in agriculturally used soils was 2.6 ± 0.67 ppm, whereas the maximum values reach 2.9 ± 0.64 ppm and 3.2 ± 0.67 ppm in Himmelsfürst and in a grassland by the Mulde river, respectively. With respect to the fractions, the vast majority of Ge is contained in the last three fractions, indicating that the bioavailable Ge is typically low in the samples. On the other hand at the soil horizons A at the aforementioned two sites characterised by high total Ge, together with that of Reiche Zeche mine dump have also the highest concentrations of Ge in the first three fractions, reaching levels of 1.74 and 0.98 ppm which account for approximately 40% of the total Ge content. Ge concentrations of soil samples extracted with 0.01 or 0.1 M citric acid and malic acid were

  5. Ecosystem services and agricultural land-use practices: a case study of the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh

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    Golam Rasul


    Full Text Available Land degradation due to inappropriate agricultural activities, as well as the environmental and social effects associated with these practices, is accelerating in many developing regions of the world. This trend underlines the importance of measuring environmental costs and benefits to improve policy making with respect to land use and agriculture. Using nonmarket valuation techniques, this article estimates the value of environmental services associated with four agricultural land-use systems in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh and compares their relative profitability from private and social perspectives. The financial analysis reveals that annual cash crops are the most profitable short-term land use and agroforestry is the least profitable, with horticulture and farm forestry providing benefits intermediate between these two systems. However, the relatively larger returns from annual cash cropping lead to higher environmental costs such as soil erosion, forfeited carbon sequestration, and biodiversity loss. When the environmental costs are taken into account, annual cash crops appear to be the most costly land-use system, with agroforestry and farm forestry becoming more profitable. The findings demonstrate the tradeoffs and synergies between relatively more environmentally sustainable and harmful land-use practices. Financial incentives to encourage more prudent agricultural activities are needed to transform tradeoffs into synergies. This article examines different financial incentive mechanisms—including payments for environmental services—and makes several policy recommendations.

  6. Agricultural management systems affect the green lacewing community (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in olive orchards in southern Spain. (United States)

    Porcel, M; Ruano, F; Cotes, B; Peña, A; Campos, M


    Green lacewings are generalist predators whose conservation is important for pest control in olive orchards (Olea europaea L.) Sustainable farming practices, as opposed to conventional management techniques, are believed to foster the presence of natural enemies. This study therefore aims to analyze the effect of 1) herbicidal weed cover removal and insecticide applications, and 2) the general management systems used in the olive orchards of southern Spain on chrysopid assemblages and abundance. Green lacewing adults and larvae were collected from olive orchards under conventional, integrated, and organic management systems. In addition, chemical analyses of residues were carried out to determine the presence of insecticidal and herbicidal residues. Eight adult species and three genera of larvae were identified. No rare species were captured from the most intensively farmed orchard, which therefore recorded the most limited chrysopid diversity with a very marked dominance of Chrysoperla carnea s.l.. No effect of dimethoate treatments on Chrysoperla larvae or C. carnea s.l. adults was observed. However, the presence of insecticide residues was associated with the depletion of Dichochrysa larvae. The absence of herbicide treatments favored C. carnea s.l. adult presence on olive trees while larval abundance decreased. Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant when weed cover received no treatment. In relation to the management systems studied, no difference in Chrysoperla larval abundance was observed between conventional and organic orchards. However, Dichochrysa larvae were more abundant in orchards under organic management.

  7. Factors Affecting the Behavior of Engineering Students toward Safety Practices in the Machine Shop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Kristian M. Neria


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the factors that affect the behavior of engineering student toward safety practices in the machine shop. Descriptive type of research was utilized in the study. Results showed that most of the engineering students clearly understand the signage shown in the machine shop. Students are aware that they should not leave the machines unattended. Most of the engineering students handle and use the machine properly. The respondents have an average extent of safety practices in the machine shop which means that they are applying safety practices in their every activity in machine shop. There is strong relationship between the safety practices and the factors affecting behavior in terms of signage, reminder of teacher and rules and regulation.

  8. Effect of Agricultural Practices on Hydrology and Water Chemistry in a Small Irrigated Catchment, Yakima River Basin, Washington (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Henry M.


    The role of irrigation and artificial drainage in the hydrologic cycle and the transport of solutes in a small agricultural catchment in central Washington's Yakima Valley were explored using hydrologic, chemical, isotopic, age-dating, and mineralogical data from several environmental compartments, including stream water, ground water, overland flow, and streambed pore water. A conceptual understanding of catchment hydrology and solute transport was developed and an inverse end-member mixing analysis was used to further explore the effects of agriculture in this small catchment. The median concentrations of major solutes and nitrates were similar for the single field site and for the catchment outflow site, indicating that the net effects of transport processes for these constituents were similar at both scales. However, concentrations of nutrients were different at the two sites, suggesting that field-scale variations in agricultural practices as well as nearstream and instream biochemical processes are important components of agricultural chemical transformation and transport in this catchment. This work indicates that irrigation coupled with artificial drainage networks may exacerbate the ecological effects of agricultural runoff by increasing direct connectivity between fields and streams and minimizing potentially mitigating effects (denitrification and dilution, for example) of longer subsurface pathways.

  9. Agricultural Best Management Practice Abundance and Location does not Influence Stream Ecosystem Function or Water Quality in the Summer Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nolan J. T. Pearce


    Full Text Available Best management practices (BMPs are tools commonly used to mitigate negative impacts of agriculture on water quality; however, the relationship between BMPs and aquatic ecological function is unknown. Our research goal was to determine the association between both stream ecosystem metabolism and water quality, and the abundance and location of four different BMPs in agricultural catchments. Dissolved oxygen was measured over a two-week period in mid-June and used to estimate ecosystem metabolism of 13 headwater streams representing a gradient of BMP implementation in Southern Ontario, Canada. Stepwise regression analyses were used to associate stream metabolism and water quality with metrics describing the abundance and location of BMPs within each catchment. Studied streams exhibited rates of metabolism comparable to catchments from other agricultural regions. However, metrics of BMP implementation were not associated with either stream metabolism or water quality. Our results suggest that BMPs in the studied agricultural catchments are not improving water quality or mitigating water quality impacts on stream metabolism during the summer season. We propose that seasonality of catchment hydrology and time lag effects associated with past agricultural land use may be masking the mitigation benefits of BMPs on stream ecosystem conditions during the summer season.

  10. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIT01), Gravity Irrigation Source (GI) on agricultural land by county (nri_it01) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIT01), Gravity...

  11. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS05), Combination of Irrigation Sources (CIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is05) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS05), Combination...

  12. Identifying pathways and processes affecting nitrate and orthophosphate inputs to streams in agricultural watersheds (United States)

    Tesoriero, A.J.; Duff, J.H.; Wolock, D.M.; Spahr, N.E.; Almendinger, J.E.


    Understanding nutrient pathways to streams will improve nutrient management strategies and estimates of the time lag between when changes in land use practices occur and when water quality effects that result from these changes are observed. Nitrate and orthophosphate (OP) concentrations in several environmental compartments were examined in watersheds having a range of base flow index (BFI) values across the continental United States to determine the dominant pathways for water and nutrient inputs to streams. Estimates of the proportion of stream nitrate that was derived from groundwater increased as BFI increased. Nitrate concentration gradients between groundwater and surface water further supported the groundwater source of nitrate in these high BFI streams. However, nitrate concentrations in stream-bed pore water in all settings were typically lower than stream or upland groundwater concentrations, suggesting that nitrate discharge to streams was not uniform through the bed. Rather, preferential pathways (e.g., springs, seeps) may allow high nitrate groundwater to bypass sites of high biogeochemical transformation. Rapid pathway compartments (e.g., overland flow, tile drains) had OP concentrations that were typically higher than in streams and were important OP conveyers in most of these watersheds. In contrast to nitrate, the proportion of stream OP that is derived from ground water did not systematically increase as BFI increased. While typically not the dominant source of OP, groundwater discharge was an important pathway of OP transport to streams when BFI values were very high and when geochemical conditions favored OP mobility in groundwater. Copyright ?? 2009 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  13. Integrating social identity theory and the theory of planned behaviour to explain decisions to engage in sustainable agricultural practices. (United States)

    Fielding, Kelly S; Terry, Deborah J; Masser, Barbara M; Hogg, Michael A


    The present research integrates core aspects of social identity theory with the theory of planned behaviour to investigate factors influencing engagement in sustainable agricultural practices. Using a two-wave prospective design, two studies were conducted with samples of farmers (N = 609 and N = 259, respectively). At Time 1, a questionnaire survey assessed theory of planned behaviour variables in relation to engaging in riparian zone management (a sustainable agricultural practice). In addition, intergroup perceptions (i.e. relations between rural and urban groups), group norms and group identification were assessed. At Time 2, self-reported behaviour was measured. There was support for the integrated model across both studies. As predicted, past behaviour, attitudes and perceived behavioural control were significant predictors of intentions, and intentions significantly predicted self-reported behaviour. Group norms and intergroup perceptions were also significant predictors of intentions providing support for the inclusion of social identity concepts in the theory of planned behaviour. More supportive group norms were associated with higher intentions, especially for high-group identifiers. In contrast, more negative intergroup perceptions were associated with lower intentions and, unexpectedly, this effect only emerged for low-group identifiers. This suggests that in the context of decisions to engage in riparian zone management, an important sustainable agricultural practice, high identifiers are influenced predominantly by in-group rather than out-group considerations, whereas low identifiers may attend to cues from both the in-group and the out-group when making their decisions.

  14. Financing Agriculture through Islamic Modes And Instruments: Practical Scenarios And Applicability (Research Paper)


    A. Gulaid, Mahmoud


    The paper examines the functional and operational activities done during production and marketing of agricultural commodities and contemporary Islamic modes that Islamic banks use to finance them and assesses the possibility of financing them through Islamic instruments.

  15. The characteristics of agricultural practices in Bang Kachao area, the Bangkok metropolitan fringe


    Khaokhrueamuang, Amnaj


    Bang Kachao area, a conserved green zone in the southern part of Bangkok, has been recently well-known asone of the tourist destinations for rural tourism at a short distance to the city, which are mostly based on thetourism resources generated from agriculture. The present study, therefore, discusses agritourism that shouldbe mainly facilitated in four agricultural systems: traditional mixed orchards, monoculture, integratedfarming, and agroforestry. These systems have applied “sufficiency e...

  16. Trade-off between water pollution prevention, agriculture profit, and farmer practice--an optimization methodology for discussion on land-use adjustment in China. (United States)

    Liu, Jianchang; Zhang, Luoping; Zhang, Yuzhen; Deng, Hongbing


    Agricultural decision-making to control nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution may not be efficiently implemented, if there is no appropriate cost-benefit analysis on agricultural management practices. This paper presents an interval-fuzzy linear programming (IFLP) model to deal with the trade-off between agricultural revenue, NPS pollution control, and alternative practices through land adjustment for Wuchuan catchment, a typical agricultural area in Jiulong River watershed, Fujian Province of China. From the results, the lower combination of practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, and practice 7 with the land area of 12.6, 5.2, 145.2, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively, could reduce NPS pollution load by 10%. The combination yields an income of 98,580 Chinese Yuan/a. If the pollution reduction is 15%, the higher combination need practice 1, practice 2, practice 3, practice 5, and practice 7 with the land area of 54.4, 23.6, 18.0, 6.3, and 85.3 hm(2), respectively. The income of this combination is 915,170 Chinese Yuan/a. The sensitivity analysis of IFLP indicates that the cost-effective practices are ranked as follows: practice 7 > practice 2 > practice 1 > practice 5 > practice 3 > practice 6 > practice 4. In addition, the uncertainties in the agriculture NPS pollution control system could be effectively quantified by the IFLP model. Furthermore, to accomplish a reasonable and applicable project of land-use adjustment, decision-makers could also integrate above solutions with their own experience and other information.

  17. Integrating Federal and State data records to report progress in establishing agricultural conservation practices on Chesapeake Bay farms (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter


    In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the

  18. Location and agricultural practices influence spring use of harvested cornfields by cranes and geese in Nebraska (United States)

    Anteau, Michael J.; Sherfy, Mark H.; Bishop, Andrew A.


    Millions of ducks, geese, and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis; hereafter cranes) stop in the Central Platte River Valley (CPRV) of Nebraska to store nutrients for migration and reproduction by consuming corn remaining in fields after harvest. We examined factors that influence use of cornfields by cranes and geese (all mid-continent species combined; e.g., Anser, Chen, and Branta spp.) because it is a key step to efficient conservation planning aimed at ensuring that adequate food resources are available to migratory birds stopping in the CPRV. Distance to night-time roost site, segment of the CPRV (west to east), and agricultural practices (post-harvest treatment of cornfields: idle, grazed, mulched, mulched and grazed, and tilled) were the most important and influential variables in our models for geese and cranes. Probability of cornfield use by geese and cranes decreased with increasing distance from the closest potential roosting site. The use of cornfields by geese increased with the density of corn present there during the early migration period, but field use by cranes appeared not to be influenced by early migration corn density. However, probability of cornfield use by cranes did increase with the amount of wet grassland habitat within 4.8 km of the field. Geese were most likely to use fields that were tilled and least likely to use fields that were mulched and grazed. Cranes were most likely to use fields that were mulched and least likely to use fields that were tilled, but grazing appeared not to influence the likelihood of field use by cranes. Geese were more likely to use cornfields in western segments of the CPRV, but cranes were more likely to use cornfields in eastern segments. Our data suggest that managers could favor crane use of fields and reduce direct competition with geese by reducing fall and spring tilling and increasing mulching. Moreover, crane conservation efforts would be most beneficial if they were focused in the eastern portions

  19. Vineyard weeds control practices impact on surface water transfers: using numerical tracer experiment coupled to a distributed hydrological model to manage agricultural practices spatial arrangements. (United States)

    Colin, F.; Moussa, R.


    In rural basins, agricultural landscape management highly influences water and pollutants transfers. Landuse, agricultural practices and their spatial arrangements are at issue. Hydrological model are widely used to explore impacts of anthropogenic influences on experimental catchments. But planning all spatial arrangements leads to a possible cases count which cannot be considered. On the basis of the recent « numerical experiment » approach, we propose a « numerical tracer function » which had to be coupled to a distributed rainfall-runoff model. This function simulate the transfer of a virtual tracer successively spread on each distributed unit inside the catchment. It allows to rank hydrological spatial units according to their hydrological contribution to the surface flows, particularly at the catchment outlet. It was used with the distributed model MHYDAS in an agricultural context. The case study concerns the experimental Roujan vine-growing catchment (1km², south of France) studied since 1992. In this Mediterranean context, we focus on the soil hydraulic conductivity distributed parameter because it highly depends on weed control practices (chemical weeding induces a lot more runoff than mechanical weeding). We checked model sensitivity analysis to soil hydraulic conductivity spatial arrangement on runoff coefficient, peak discharge and catchment lag-time. Results show (i) the use of the tracer function is more efficient than a random approach to improve sensitivity to spatial arrangements from point of view of simulated discharge range, (ii) the first factor explaining hydrological simulations variability was practices area ratio, (iii) variability induced by practices spatial arrangements was significant on runoff coefficient and peak discharge for balanced practices area ratio and on lag-time for low area ratio of chemical weeding practices. From the actual situation on the experimental Roujan catchment (40% of tilled and 60% of non tilled vineyard


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankica Sarajlić


    Full Text Available One of the most destructive maize pest in Croatia is European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner (ECB. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of irrigation, nitrogen fertilization, different maize genotypes and nitrogen leaf content on ECB feeding activity. The experiment was set up in Osijek, Croatia under field conditions during 2012-2013 vegetation season. Experiment treatments were as follows: three irrigation levels (A1 - control, A2 from 60% to 80% field water capacity - FWC and A3 from 80% to100% FWC, three nitrogen fertilizer levels (B1 - 0, B2 - 100 and B3 - 200 kg N/ha and four different genotypes (C1 - OSSK 596; C2 - OSSK 617; C3 - OSSK 602 and C4 - OSSK 552. Ear weight, number of larvae in stem and shank, tunnel length and nitrogen leaf content were evaluated. Genotype C1 was the most susceptible for following the tested variables of ECB feeding: tunnel length (TL, larvae in stalk (LS and total number of larvae (TNL at P<0.05 probability level. By raising the level of irrigation, European corn borer feeding activity was reduced while by raising the level of nitrogen fertilization feeding activity was increased. These results suggest that good production practices can significantly affect the susceptibility of maize to European corn borer.

  1. Using the soil and water assessment tool to estimate achievable water quality targets through implementation of beneficial management practices in an agricultural watershed. (United States)

    Yang, Qi; Benoy, Glenn A; Chow, Thien Lien; Daigle, Jean-Louis; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui


    Runoff from crop production in agricultural watersheds can cause widespread soil loss and degradation of surface water quality. Beneficial management practices (BMPs) for soil conservation are often implemented as remedial measures because BMPs can reduce soil erosion and improve water quality. However, the efficacy of BMPs may be unknown because it can be affected by many factors, such as farming practices, land-use, soil type, topography, and climatic conditions. As such, it is difficult to estimate the impacts of BMPs on water quality through field experiments alone. In this research, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool was used to estimate achievable performance targets of water quality indicators (sediment and soluble P loadings) after implementation of combinations of selected BMPs in the Black Brook Watershed in northwestern New Brunswick, Canada. Four commonly used BMPs (flow diversion terraces [FDTs], fertilizer reductions, tillage methods, and crop rotations), were considered individually and in different combinations. At the watershed level, the best achievable sediment loading was 1.9 t ha(-1) yr(-1) (89% reduction compared with default scenario), with a BMP combination of crop rotation, FDT, and no-till. The best achievable soluble P loading was 0.5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) (62% reduction), with a BMP combination of crop rotation and FDT and fertilizer reduction. Targets estimated through nonpoint source water quality modeling can be used to evaluate BMP implementation initiatives and provide milestones for the rehabilitation of streams and rivers in agricultural regions.

  2. The Developmental Dynamics of Children's Academic Performance and Mothers' Homework-Related Affect and Practices (United States)

    Silinskas, Gintautas; Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik


    This study investigated the longitudinal associations between children's academic performance and their mothers' affect, practices, and perceptions of their children in homework situations. The children's (n = 2,261) performance in reading and math was tested in Grade 1 and Grade 4, and the mothers (n = 1,476) filled out questionnaires on their…

  3. Assessing the impacts of Best Management Practices on nitrate pollution in an agricultural dominated lowland catchment considering environmental protection versus economic development. (United States)

    Haas, Marcelo B; Guse, Björn; Fohrer, Nicola


    Water quality is strongly affected by nitrate inputs in agricultural catchments. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are alternative practices aiming to mitigate the impacts derived from agricultural activities and to improve water quality. Management activities are influenced by different governmental policies like the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG). Their distinct goals can be contrasting and hamper an integrated sustainable development. Both need to be addressed in the actual conjuncture in rural areas. Ecohydrological models like the SWAT model are important tools for land cover and land use changes investigation and the assessment of BMPs implementation effects on water quality. Thus, in this study, buffer strip, fertilization reduction and alternative crops were considered as BMPs and were implemented in the SWAT model for the Treene catchment. Their efficiency in terms of nitrate loads reduction related to implementation costs at the catchment scale was investigated. The practices correspond to the catchment conditions and are based on small and mid areal changes. Furthermore, the BMPs were evaluated from the perspective of ecologic and economic policies. The results evidenced different responses of the BMPs. The critical periods in winter were addressed by most of the BMPs. However, some practices like pasture land increase need to be implemented in greater area for better results in comparison to current activities. Furthermore, there is a greater nitrate reduction potential by combining BMPs containing fertilization reduction, buffer strips and soil coverage in winter. The discussion about efficiency showed the complexity of costs stipulation and the relation with arable land and yield losses. Furthermore, as the government policies can be divergent an integrated approach considering all the involved actors is important and seeks a sustainable development.

  4. Exploration and Practice of Customized Agricultural Meteorological Service Based on Short Message Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqiang; CUI; Xuemei; GUO; Jun; TANG; Jing; XU; Min; SHEN


    On the basis of the analysis of main problems existing in current agricultural meteorological service in China,for the purpose of exploring a solution to the "last kilometer" problem in rural meteorological service,this article designed four short message service products with the business brand name "meteorology for agricultural condition",including "weather prediction for farming season","weather forecast for farming","weather alert",and "meteorological hazards of agriculture".By taking advantage of telecom operators’ market,these products have been spread to more than 1 million rural mobile phone users and widely welcomed.They also contributed enormously to disaster prevention and peasants’ income growth,and achieved good social and economic benefits.

  5. 影响湘西农业经营效益的环境因素例举%Examples of Environmental Factors Affecting Agricultural Operation Efficiency in West Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In considering the development of agricultural production , the relevant departments are accustomed to treating economic theories as guidance to make agricultural development decisions , but in recent years , such decisions don't get expected results in practice . The reason is that , when making agricultural development planning , they often ignore the environmental factors on the effects of agricultural operations . The author of this article takes Western Hunan as an example , analyzes environmental factors as a restrictive factor which affects agricultural operations , and hopes to cause the attention of the relevant departments .%在考虑农业生产发展时,相关部门都习惯于以经济学的相关理论为指导作出农业发展决策,但这样的农业发展决策,在近年来的实践运行中,大都不理想。原因在于,作出农业发展规划时,往往忽略了环境因素对农业经营效应的影响。以湘西地区熟知的事例为依据,剖析环境因素对农业经营效应实现的制约作用,以便引起相关部门的注意。

  6. Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cau


    Full Text Available Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield over a long period of time for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central Sardinia, Italy. The physical processes associated with water movement, crop growth, and nutrient cycling are directly modeled by SWAT. The model simulations are used to identify indicators that reflect critical processes related to the integrity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Specifically we focus on stream quality and quantity indicators associated with anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. A multicriteria decision support system is then used to develop the analysis matrix where water quality and quantity indicators for the rivers, lagoons, and soil are combined with socio-economic variables. The DSS is used to assess four options involving alternative watersheds designated for intensive agriculture and dairy farming and the use or not of treated wastewater for irrigation. Our analysis suggests that of the four options, the most widely acceptable consists in the transfer of intensive agricultural practices to the larger watershed, which is less vulnerable, in tandem with wastewater reuse, which rates highly due to water scarcity in this region of the Mediterranean. More generally, the work demonstrates how both qualitative and quantitative methods and information can assist decision making in complex settings.

  7. Assessment of alternative land management practices using hydrological simulation and a decision support tool: Arborea agricultural region, Sardinia (United States)

    Cau, P.; Paniconi, C.


    Quantifying the impact of land use on water supply and quality is a primary focus of environmental management. In this work we apply a semidistributed hydrological model (SWAT) to predict the impact of different land management practices on water and agricultural chemical yield over a long period of time for a study site situated in the Arborea region of central Sardinia, Italy. The physical processes associated with water movement, crop growth, and nutrient cycling are directly modeled by SWAT. The model simulations are used to identify indicators that reflect critical processes related to the integrity and sustainability of the ecosystem. Specifically we focus on stream quality and quantity indicators associated with anthropogenic and natural sources of pollution. A multicriteria decision support system is then used to develop the analysis matrix where water quality and quantity indicators for the rivers, lagoons, and soil are combined with socio-economic variables. The DSS is used to assess four options involving alternative watersheds designated for intensive agriculture and dairy farming and the use or not of treated wastewater for irrigation. Our analysis suggests that of the four options, the most widely acceptable consists in the transfer of intensive agricultural practices to the larger watershed, which is less vulnerable, in tandem with wastewater reuse, which rates highly due to water scarcity in this region of the Mediterranean. More generally, the work demonstrates how both qualitative and quantitative methods and information can assist decision making in complex settings.

  8. Good Agricultural Practice (GAP -Does It Ensure a Perfect Supply of Medicinal Herbs for Research and Drug Development?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P C Leung


    Full Text Available Summary: While users of herbal formulae have been disappointed with the lack of uniformity with the quality of herbs provided by the herb suppliers of different standings, they do not have better means of supply.  The tradition of identifying special geographic regions, as being specific for the best supply of certain herbal items is no longer reliable since the large demand for large quantities of quality supply could not be satisfied by limited plantations in those regions. A comprehensive recommendation of agricultural practice: from seedling, planting, fertilizing, harvesting, storage to distribution, can be offered as a compromise.  There is good prospect of an excellent supply of quality herbal products with uniformity, if Good Agricultural Practice (GAP could be practiced and enforced. Although the need for GAP is urgent, and Japan, China and World Health Organization, have one after the other, written up their recommendation, to put GAP into real practice would need special efforts and takes time. GAP in China is particularly difficult, not only because the herbal items involved are of great numbers but because the current practice of growing medicinal herbs, their marketing and distribution, have been counterproductive to the introduction of the new system of GAP. At this stage, GAP will not be able to satisfy the extensive need for quality and uniformity.  Short of the knowledge of the exact, accurate nature of the active components within a herb, there will be no perfect guarantee on the quality supply.  Henceforth, even when GAP becomes a mature practice, what is required for quality control, viz, different levels of authentication, from chemical finger printing to molecular, DNA identification, will remain necessary as cross-checking mechanisms to make sure that uniformity in scientific experiments and drug development could be maintained

  9. Impact of agricultural practices on runoff and glyphosate peaks in a small vineyard catchment (United States)

    Amiot, Audrey; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Jadas-Hécart, Alain; Landry, David; Sourice, Stéphane; Communal, Pierre-Yves; Ballouche, Aziz


    other presented parameters. Moreover, those coefficients seem not governed by meteorological variability but directly linked with agricultural practices and in particular with tillage, not realised in 2009 as started in 2011 but increased in surface and number in 2012. To conlude, results show that whereas glyphosate concentrations decrease while the percentage of weeded areas increases, erosion increases. In order to confirm those results, the project is now focusing on glyphosate's sorption on unstable soil's particles. Acknowledgments This research has been funded by the BVVITI Regional project of the Contrat Regional Bassin Versant and Contrat Territorial supported by the Region Pays-de-la-Loire and the Water Agency Loire-Bretagne, as by the winegrower profession with FranceAgriMer, InterLoire and by the French Institute of vine and wine. We are grateful to the farmers and we specially acknowledge the municipality of Rochefort-sur-Loire.

  10. Effects of conservation practices on phosphorus loss reduction from an Indiana agricultural watershed (United States)

    Phosphorus losses from agricultural lands have caused serious eutrophication problems, particularly in Lake Erie. However, techniques that can effectively reduce total and soluble phosphorus losses from croplands and drainage channels can be difficult to implement and gauge. This modeling study was ...

  11. Agricultural Management Practices Explain Variation in Global Yield Gaps of Major Crops (United States)

    Mueller, N. D.; Gerber, J. S.; Ray, D. K.; Ramankutty, N.; Foley, J. A.


    The continued expansion and intensification of agriculture are key drivers of global environmental change. Meeting a doubling of food demand in the next half-century will further induce environmental change, requiring either large cropland expansion into carbon- and biodiversity-rich tropical forests or increasing yields on existing croplands. Closing the “yield gaps” between the most and least productive farmers on current agricultural lands is a necessary and major step towards preserving natural ecosystems and meeting future food demand. Here we use global climate, soils, and cropland datasets to quantify yield gaps for major crops using equal-area climate analogs. Consistent with previous studies, we find large yield gaps for many crops in Eastern Europe, tropical Africa, and parts of Mexico. To analyze the drivers of yield gaps, we collected sub-national agricultural management data and built a global dataset of fertilizer application rates for over 160 crops. We constructed empirical crop yield models for each climate analog using the global management information for 17 major crops. We find that our climate-specific models explain a substantial amount of the global variation in yields. These models could be widely applied to identify management changes needed to close yield gaps, analyze the environmental impacts of agricultural intensification, and identify climate change adaptation techniques.

  12. Organic matter composition of soil macropore surfaces under different agricultural management practices (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Leue, Marin; Magid, Jacob; Gerke, Horst H.


    Understanding the heterogeneous nature of soil, i.e. properties and processes occurring specifically at local scales is essential for best managing our soil resources for agricultural production. Examination of intact soil structures in order to obtain an increased understanding of how soil systems operate from small to large scale represents a large gap within soil science research. Dissolved chemicals, nutrients and particles are transported through the disturbed plow layer of agricultural soil, where after flow through the lower soil layers occur by preferential flow via macropores. Rapid movement of water through macropores limit the contact between the preferentially moving water and the surrounding soil matrix, therefore contact and exchange of solutes in the water is largely restricted to the surface area of the macropores. Organomineral complex coated surfaces control sorption and exchange properties of solutes, as well as availability of essential nutrients to plant roots and to the preferentially flowing water. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance infrared Fourier Transform) Mapping has been developed to examine composition of organic matter coated macropores. In this study macropore surfaces structures will be determined for organic matter composition using DRIFT from a long-term field experiment on waste application to agricultural soil (CRUCIAL, close to Copenhagen, Denmark). Parcels with 5 treatments; accelerated household waste, accelerated sewage sludge, accelerated cattle manure, NPK and unfertilized, will be examined in order to study whether agricultural management have an impact on the organic matter composition of intact structures.

  13. Volatility Spillovers Between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Y. Li (Y); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subse

  14. Volatility Spillovers between Energy and Agricultural Markets: A Critical Appraisal of Theory and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Y. Li (Y); M.J. McAleer (Michael)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Energy and agricultural commodities and markets have been examined extensively, albeit separately, for a number of years. In the energy literature, the returns, volatility and volatility spillovers (namely, the delayed effect of a returns shock in one asset on the subse

  15. Erosion of Farmer Field Schools in Ecuador: Politics of Agricultural Science and Development Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sherwood, S.G.; Schut, M.; Leeuwis, C.


    The recognition that innovation occurs in networks of heterogeneous actors and requires broad systemic support beyond knowledge brokering has resulted in a changing landscape of the intermediary domain in an increasingly market-driven agricultural sector in developing countries. This paper presents

  16. Water as an economic good in irrigated agriculture: theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Perry, C.J.


    This report describes the results of the Water Valuation and Pricing project, which aims to provide insight into the relevance of economics to typical problems found in irrigated agriculture. It first considers the theoretical basis for the use of economic instruments, then considers their usefulnes

  17. Development of the Land-use and Agricultural Management Practice web-Service (LAMPS) for generating crop rotations in space and time (United States)

    Agroecosystem models and conservation planning tools require spatially and temporally explicit input data about agricultural management operations. The Land-use and Agricultural Management Practices web-Service (LAMPS) provides crop rotation and management information for user-specified areas within...

  18. Investigation of the photochemical changes of chlorogenic acids induced by ultraviolet light in model systems and in agricultural practice with Stevia rebaudiana cultivation as an example. (United States)

    Karaköse, Hande; Jaiswal, Rakesh; Deshpande, Sagar; Kuhnert, Nikolai


    Mono- and diacyl chlorogenic acids undergo photochemical trans-cis isomerization under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The photochemical equilibrium composition was established for eight selected derivatives. In contrast to all other dicaffeoylquinic acid derivatives, cynarin (1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid) undergoes a [2 + 2] photochemical cycloaddition reaction, constituting a first example of Schmidt's law in a natural product family. The relevance of photochemical isomerization in agricultural practice was investigated using 120 samples of Stevia rebaudiana leave samples grown under defined cultivation conditions. Ratios of cis to trans chlorogenic acids were determined in leaf samples and correlated with climatic and harvesting conditions. The data indicate a clear correlation between the formation of cis-caffeoyl derivatives and sunshine hours prior to harvesting and illustrate the relevance of UV exposure to plant material affecting its phytochemical composition.

  19. Wells as an Irrigation Source on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice IS01 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS01), Wells as an...

  20. Irrigation Water Conveyance by Ditch and Canal on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 428 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP428), Irrigation...

  1. Surface Drainage-Main or Lateral on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 608 (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP608), Surface...

  2. Factors affecting the adoption of green supply chain management practices in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Sousa Jabbour, A.B.L.; Jabbour, C.J.C.; Govindan, Kannan;


    The aim of this study is to identify and analyse the factors that affect the adoption of Green Supply Chain Management practices based on empirical evidence from the Brazilian electronics sector. Data are collected in a survey of 100 electronics companies and analysed using statistical analysis...... of variance and regression methods. The study finds that the size of the company, previous experience with Environmental Management Systems, and the use of hazardous inputs are positively correlated with GSCM practices adoption. Surprisingly, formal pressure from the stronger tier/player in the supply chain...

  3. Pesticide safety training and practices in women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.; London, L.; Rother, H.A.; Burdorf, A.; Naidoo, R.N.; Kromhout, H.


    Objectives Unregulated use of pesticides continues in developing countries in the presence of illiteracy and limited safety training and practices. This paper describes training and safety practices when mixing and spraying pesticides, and acetylcholinesterase levels among women farmers in KwaZulu-N

  4. Precision Agriculture without borders: Practical issues and improvements in farmland coverage with aerial vehicles.


    Pereira Valente, Joao Ricardo; Barrientos Cruz, Antonio; Cerro Giner, Jaime del; Sanz Muñoz, David; Garzón Oviedo, Mario; Rossi, Claudio


    This work presents a solution for the aerial coverage of a field by using a fleet of aerial vehicles. The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles allows to obtain high resolution mosaics to be used in Precision Agriculture techniques. This report is focus on providing a solution for the full simultaneous coverage problem taking into account restrictions as the required spatial resolution and overlap while maintaining similar light conditions and safety operation of the drones. Results obtained from rea...

  5. Key to GHG fluxes from organic soils: site characteristics, agricultural practices or water table management? (United States)

    Tiemeyer, Bärbel


    Drained peatlands are hotspots of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Agriculture is the major land use type for peatlands in Germany and other European countries, but strongly varies in its intensity regarding the groundwater level and the agricultural management. Although the mean annual water table depth is sometimes proposed as an overall predictor for GHG emissions, there is a strong variability of its effects on different peatlands. Furthermore, re-wetting measures generally decrease carbon dioxide emissions, but may strongly increase methane emissions. We synthesized 250 annual GHG budgets for 120 different sites in 13 German peatlands. Carbon dioxide (net ecosystem exchange and ecosystem respiration), nitrous oxide and methane fluxes were measured with transparent and opaque manual chambers. Land management ranged from very intensive use with arable land or grassland with up to five cuts per year to partially or completely re-wetted peatlands. Besides the GHG fluxes, biomass yield, fertilisation, groundwater level, climatic data, vegetation composition and soil properties were measured. Overall, we found a large variability of the total GHG budget ranging from small uptakes to extremely high emissions (> 70 t CO2-equivalents/(ha yr)). At nearly all sites, carbon dioxide was the major component of the GHG budget. Site conditions, especially the nitrogen content of the unsaturated zone and the intra-annual water level distribution, controlled the GHG emissions of the agricultural sites. Although these factors are influenced by natural conditions (peat type, regional hydrology), they could be modified by an improved water management. Agricultural management such as the number of cuts had only a minor influence on the GHG budgets. At the level of individual peatlands, higher water levels always decreased carbon dioxide emissions. In nearly all cases, the trade-off between reduced carbon dioxide and increased methane emissions turned out in favour of the re

  6. How do strategic decisions and operative practices affect operating room productivity? (United States)

    Peltokorpi, Antti


    Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation.

  7. A comparison of policy and direct practice stakeholder perceptions of factors affecting evidence-based practice implementation using concept mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Amy E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The goal of this study was to assess potential differences between administrators/policymakers and those involved in direct practice regarding factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to evidence-based practice (EBP implementation in a large public mental health service system in the United States. Methods Participants included mental health system county officials, agency directors, program managers, clinical staff, administrative staff, and consumers. As part of concept mapping procedures, brainstorming groups were conducted with each target group to identify specific factors believed to be barriers or facilitating factors to EBP implementation in a large public mental health system. Statements were sorted by similarity and rated by each participant in regard to their perceived importance and changeability. Multidimensional scaling, cluster analysis, descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to analyze the data. Results A total of 105 statements were distilled into 14 clusters using concept-mapping procedures. Perceptions of importance of factors affecting EBP implementation varied between the two groups, with those involved in direct practice assigning significantly higher ratings to the importance of Clinical Perceptions and the impact of EBP implementation on clinical practice. Consistent with previous studies, financial concerns (costs, funding were rated among the most important and least likely to change by both groups. Conclusions EBP implementation is a complex process, and different stakeholders may hold different opinions regarding the relative importance of the impact of EBP implementation. Implementation efforts must include input from stakeholders at multiple levels to bring divergent and convergent perspectives to light.

  8. Cultural differences affecting euthanasia practice in Belgium: one law but different attitudes and practices in Flanders and Wallonia. (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Wesemael, Yanna; Smets, Tinne; Bilsen, Johan; Deliens, Luc


    Since 2002, Belgium has had a national law legalising euthanasia. The law prescribes several substantive due care requirements and two procedural due care requirements, i.e. consultation with an independent physician and reporting of euthanasia to a Federal Control Committee. A large discrepancy in reporting rates between the Dutch-speaking (Flanders) and the French-speaking (Wallonia) parts of Belgium has led to speculation about cultural differences affecting the practice of euthanasia in both regions. Using Belgian data from the European Values Study conducted in 2008 among a representative sample of the general public and data from a large-scale mail questionnaire survey on euthanasia of 480 physicians from Flanders and 305 from Wallonia (conducted in 2009), this study presents empirical evidence of differences between both regions in attitudes towards and practice of euthanasia. Acceptance of euthanasia by the general population was found to be slightly higher in Flanders than in Wallonia. Compared with their Flemish counterparts, Walloon physicians held more negative attitudes towards performing euthanasia and towards the reporting obligation, less often labelled hypothetical cases correctly as euthanasia, and less often defined a case of euthanasia having to be reported. A higher proportion of Flemish physicians had received a euthanasia request since the introduction of the law. In cases of a euthanasia request, Walloon physicians consulted less often with an independent physician. Requests were more often granted in Flanders than in Wallonia (51% vs 38%), and performed euthanasia cases were more often reported (73% vs 58%). The study points out some significant differences between Flanders and Wallonia in practice, knowledge and attitudes regarding euthanasia and its legal requirements which are likely to explain the discrepancy between Wallonia and Flanders in the number of euthanasia cases reported. Cultural factors seem to play an important role in the

  9. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor


    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  10. Short-term soil loss by eolian erosion in response to different rain-fed agricultural practices (United States)

    Tanner, Smadar; Katra, Itzhak; Zaady, Eli


    Eolian (wind) erosion is a widespread process and a major form of soil degradation in arid and semi-arid regions. The present study examined changes in soil properties and eolian soil loss at a field scale in response to different soil treatments in two rain-fed agricultural practices. Field experiments with a boundary-layer wind tunnel and soil analysis were used to obtain the data. Two practices with different soil treatments (after harvest), mechanical tillage and stubble grazing intensities, were applied in the fallow phase of the rotation (dry season). The mechanical tillage and the stubble grazing had an immediate and direct effects on soil aggregation but not on the soil texture, and the contents of soil water, organic matter, and CaCO3. Higher erosion rates, that was measured as fluxes of total eolian sediment and particulate matter control plots. The erosion rates were higher in grazing plots than in tillage plots. The calculated soil fluxes in this study indicate potentially rapid soil degradation due to loss of fine particles by wind. The finding may have implications for long-term management of agricultural soils in semi-arid areas.

  11. Nitrate removal from agricultural drainage ditch sediments with amendments of organic carbon: Potential for an innovative best management practice (United States)

    Faust, Derek R.; Kröger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.; Rush, Scott A.


    Agricultural fertilizer applications have resulted in loading of nutrients to agricultural drainage ditches in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) amendments on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) removal from overlying water, pore water, and sediment of an agricultural drainage ditch. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, control (i.e., no amendment), DOC, and POC treatments were applied in laboratory microcosms for time intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. In experiment 2, control, DOC, and POC treatments were applied in microcosms at C/N ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. There were statistically significant effects of organic carbon amendments in experiment 1 (F2,71 = 27.1, P removal varied from 60 to 100 % in overlying water among all treatments. The lowest NO3−-N removals in experiment 1 were observed in the control at 14 and 28 days, which were significantly less than in DOC and POC 14- and 28-day treatments. In experiment 2, significantly less NO3−-N was removed in overlying water of the control compared to DOC and POC treatments at all C/N ratios. Amendments of DOC and POC made to drainage ditch sediment: (1) increased NO3−-N removal, especially over longer time intervals (14 to 28 days); (2) increased NO3−-N removal, regardless of C/N ratio; and (3) NO3−-N removal was best at a 5:1 C/N ratio. This study provides support for continued investigation on the use of organic carbon amendments as a best management practice for NO3−-N removal in agricultural drainage ditches.

  12. Using social marketing to address barriers and motivators to agricultural safety and health best practices. (United States)

    Yoder, Aaron M; Murphy, Dennis J


    Social marketing is an intervention development strategy that pays considerable attention to barriers to and motivators for behavioral change or adoption of recommended behaviors. Barriers are obstacles that prevent individuals from changing or adopting behaviors and are often referred to as the "cons" or "costs" of doing something. Motivators, on the other hand, are factors that encourage individuals to change or adopt behaviors and are often referred to as the "pros," "benefits," or "influencing factors" of doing something. Importantly, social marketing does not target education or knowledge change as an end point; rather, it targets behavior change. Studies across several types of desired behaviors (e.g., smoking cessation, weight control, more exercise, sunscreen use, radon testing) using the Stages of Change model have found systematic relationships between stages of change and pros and cons of changing behavior. A review of literature identifies numerous research and intervention studies that directly reference social marketing in agricultural safety and health, studies that identify reasons why parents allow their children to be exposed to hazardous situations on the farm, and reasons why youth engage in risky behaviors, but only two studies were found that show evidence of systematically researching specific behavioral change motivating factors. The authors offer several suggestions to help address issues relating to social marketing and agricultural safety and health.

  13. The "Affective Place-Making" Practices of Girls at a High School in Cape Town, South Africa (United States)

    Rinquest, Elzahn; Fataar, Aslam


    This article focuses on the "affective place-making" practices of girls at a private high school on the outskirts of Cape Town. The article responds to the question: How do high school girls' affects and social bodies contribute to their place-making practices and to the type of place they make of their school? Our focus is on…

  14. Agro-forestry practices and sustainable agriculture in yam producing communities of Niger state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamu L.O.


    Full Text Available In recognition of farmland burden in terms of land degradation, bulky nature of and unavailability of inorganic fertilizers as well as time constraint in the formation of organic fertilizers, there is the need to shift to agro-forestry practices. The practice will make room for arable crop production and forest/tree crop production. Four autonomous communities were studied in Niger State Nigeria. The communities are generally known for yam production. One hundred and twenty farmers were randomly selected for the study in Koro, Gwari, Kadara and Kambari communities. Thirty yam farmers were selected in each community using random sampling technique. One hundred and twenty farmers were studied in all. Results were analysed using simple percentages and pie charts. Results show that there is a high level of consciousness of agro-forestry among the farmers. Shrubs such as Gliricidia sepium and Cajanus cajan are common and they make a cumulative percentage of 35.0% of tree species used for agro- forestry practices. Fruit trees such as Citrus species make a cumulative percentage of 31.0% while other tree species used includes but not exclusive to Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea and Terminalia species. It is recommended that youths and young farmers in the communities be more involved in agro-forestry practices of this nature for a sustainable practice to be ensured.

  15. The Impact of Micro-Teaching on the Teaching Practice Performance of Undergraduate Agricultural Education Students in College of Education, Azare (United States)

    Sa'ad, Tata Umar; Sabo, Shehu; Abdullahi, Aliyu Dahuwa


    Micro-teaching and teaching practices are two integral parts of teacher education programme. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of micro-teaching on the teaching practice of the undergraduate Agricultural Education Students admitted in 2012/2013 Academic session in College of Education, Azare, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The 400 level…

  16. Identifying, monitoring and implementing "sustainable" agricultural practices for smallholder farmers over large geographic areas in India and Vietnam (United States)

    Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.; Nair, D.; Esteves, T.; Rudek, J.; Thu Ha, T.


    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small-holder farms (size families, we have worked actively in five states in India and two provinces in Vietnam for the last five years to understand how sustainable and climate smart farming practices can be monitored at small-holder farms. Here, any approach to monitor farming must begin by accounting for the tremendous management variability from farm to farm and also the current inability to ground-truth remote sensing data due to lack of relaible basic parameters (e.g., yields, N use, farm boundaries) which are necessary for calibrating empirical/biogeochemical models. While we continue to learn from new research, we have found that it is crucial to follow some steps if sustainable farming programs are to succeed at small-holder farms Demographic data collection and GPS plot demarcation to establish farm size and ownership Baseline nutrient, water & energy use and crop yield determination via surveys and self-reporting which are verifiable through farmer networks given the importance of peer to peer learning in the dissemination of new techniques in such landscapes "Sustainable" practice determination in consultation with local universities/NGO experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or empirical equations and establish which practices are truly "sustainable" (e.g., GHG emission reduction varies from 0-7 tCO2e/acre for different sustainable practices). Propagation of sustainable practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments after analyzing the replicability of identified farming practices in the light of local financial, cultural or socio-political barriers. We will present results from representative plots (including soil and weather parameters, GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings), farmer surveys and diary data; and discuss our key conclusions based

  17. Factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management practices: Evidence from the Brazilian electro-electronic sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Lopes de Sousa Jabbour


    Full Text Available This study on the factors affecting the adoption of supply chain management (SCM practices develops four hypotheses based on a literature review, and tests them using survey data of Brazilian electro-electronic firms. The results reveal the big picture of the SCM practices in the sector and suggest that contextual factors such as size, position and bargaining power affect the adoption of SCM practices, which are also more customer oriented. Sector characteristics are very important in analysing SCM practices. Contrary to the findings of literature, the relationship between competitive priorities and SCM practices was not supported statistically.

  18. Goose management schemes to resolve conflicts with agriculture: Theory, practice and effects. (United States)

    Eythórsson, Einar; Tombre, Ingunn M; Madsen, Jesper


    In 2012, the four countries hosting the Svalbard population of pink-footed goose Anser brachyrhynchus along its flyway launched an International Species Management Plan for the population. One of the aims was to reduce conflicts between geese and agriculture to an acceptable level. Since 2006, Norway has offered subsidies to farmers that provide refuge areas for geese on their land. We evaluate the mid-Norwegian goose management subsidy scheme, with a view to its adjustment to prevailing ecological and socio-economic parameters. The analysis indicates that the legitimacy of the scheme is highly dependent on transparency of knowledge management and accountability of management scheme to the farming community. Among farmers, as well as front-line officials, outcomes of prioritisation processes within the scheme are judged unfair when there is an evident mismatch between payments and genuine damage. We suggest how the scheme can be made more fair and responsive to ecological changes, within a framework of adaptive management.

  19. The effects of a changing institutional environment on academic research practices: three cases from agricultural science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessels, L.K.; Grin, J.; Smits, R.E.H.M.


    This paper investigates the varying effects of a changing institutional environment on academic research practices in three fields of Dutch animal science. Our analysis shows that the shifts in funding have stimulated interactions with societal stakeholders in fields where this has helped to sustain

  20. Colorado's AgrAbility Project's Effects on KASA and Practice Changes with Agricultural Producers and Professionals (United States)

    Fetsch, Robert J.; Jackman, Danielle M.


    Disability rates resulting from work-related injuries remain steadily high among farmers and ranchers. To address the gap in services within this population, USDA implemented AgrAbility nationally. Using part of Bennett's hierarchical model, the current study evaluated the KASA and practice change levels of 401 farmers and ranchers and compared…

  1. Watershed basin management and agriculture practices: an application case for flooding areas in Piemonte. (United States)

    Bianco, G.; Franzi, L.; Valvassore, U.


    Watershed basin management in Piemonte (Italy) is a challenging issue that forces the local Authorities to a careful land planning in the frame of a sustainable economy. Different and contrasting objectives should be taken into account and balanced in order to find the best or the most "reasonable" choice under many constraints. Frequently the need for flood risk reduction and the demand for economical exploitation of floodplain areas represent the most conflicting aspects that influence watershed management politics. Actually, flood plains have been the preferred places for socio-economical activities, due to the availability of water, fertility of soil and the easiness of agricultural soil exploitation. Sometimes the bed and planform profile adjustments of a river, as a consequence of natural processes, can impede some anthropogenic activities in agriculture, such as the erosion of areas used for crops, the impossibility of water diversion, the deposition of pollutants on the ground, with effects on the economy and on the social life of local communities. In these cases watershed basin management should either balance the opposite demands, as the protection of economic activities (that implies generally canalized rivers and levees construction) and the need of favouring the river morphological stability, allowing the flooding in the inundation areas. In the paper a case study in Piemonte region (Tortona irrigation district) is shown and discussed. The effects of the Scrivia river planform adjustment on water diversion and soil erodibility force the local community and the authority of the irrigation district to ask for flood protection and river bed excavation. A mathematical model is also applied to study the effects of local river channel excavation on flood risk. Some countermeasures are also suggested to properly balance the opposite needs in the frame of a watershed basin management.

  2. Factors affecting the impact of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice, student outcomes & efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ingvarson


    Full Text Available This report examines effects of structural and process features of professional development programs on teachers' knowledge, practice and efficacy. It is based on four recent (2002-2003 studies undertaken through the Australian Government Quality Teacher Programme, designed to enhance teacher quality. The total data set for the survey study includes 3,250 teachers who had participated in eighty individual professional development1 activities within these studies. Teachers were surveyed at least three months after participating in an activity, which provided them with the opportunity to gauge the impact of programs on their practice. To investigate factors affecting impact, a theoretical model was developed based on recent research into the characteristics of effective professional development and tested using blockwise regression analysis. The model included contextual factors (e.g., school support, structural features of programs (e.g. ,length, process features (e.g., emphasis on content; active learning; examination of student work; feedback; follow-up, a mediating variable (level of professional community generated, and four outcome measures (knowledge; practice; student learning and efficacy. Consistent significant direct effects were found across the four studies for the impact of content focus, active learning, and follow-up on knowledge and professional community. Feedback was rarely incorporated into program design. Impact on efficacy was strongly related to the perceived impact of activities on teachers' practice and student learning outcomes.

  3. Conservation agriculture practices to enhance soil organic in Lombardy plain (Northern Italy) (United States)

    Perego, Alessia; Giussani, Andrea; Corsi, Stefano; Tosini, Andrea; Acutis, Marco


    It has been demonstrated that conservation agriculture (CA) determines a long-term increase in soil organic carbon (SOC) stock in cropland. The present study aimed to estimate the amount of SOC stored in soil of Lombardy plain (Northern Italy) following the change from tillage agriculture (TA) to CA by using crop ARMOSA crop over 23 years (1989-2011). The territorial analysis was performed at agrarian region scale (AR) after identification of the representative crops rotation and soil types. The land use information were data available at cadastral scale and referred to 5 years (from 2007 to 2011). The meteorological data (i.e. maximum and minimum temperature, precipitation) were measured at 14 monitoring stations. Solar radiation was estimated using the equation of the Bristow and Campbell model (1994). A spatial interpolation method was used to extend the meteorological data throughout the entire plain of the region by employing Thiessen polygon method; the meteorological data of the polygon were assigned to each AR. ARMOSA was parameterized to simulate the two tillage systems. For TA and CA scenario the depth of tillage was limited to 35 and 10 cm, respectively; crop residual incorporation was not simulated under CA. In TA scenario, we used the parameters calibrated and validated by Perego et al.(2013) on a wide dataset collected at six monitoring sites in Lombardy plain. In CA, the rate of C decomposition of humified organic C was assumed to be smaller by 30% in no-tillage than in TA (Oorts et al., 2007). The model results showed a significant improve of SOC (pmaize monoculture with or without cover crop. References: Oorts K., Garnier P., Findeling A., Mary B., Richard G., Nicolardot B., (2007). Modeling soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics in no-till and conventional tillage using PASTIS model. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 7, pp. 336-346 Perego A., Giussani A., Sanna M., Fumagalli M., Carozzi M., Alfieri L., Brenna S., Acutis M., 2013. The ARMOSA simulation crop model

  4. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale (United States)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin


    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  5. High-Resolution Biogeochemical Simulation Identifies Practical Opportunities for Bioenergy Landscape Intensification Across Diverse US Agricultural Regions (United States)

    Field, J.; Adler, P. R.; Evans, S.; Paustian, K.; Marx, E.; Easter, M.


    The sustainability of biofuel expansion is strongly dependent on the environmental footprint of feedstock production, including both direct impacts within feedstock-producing areas and potential leakage effects due to disruption of existing food, feed, or fiber production. Assessing and minimizing these impacts requires novel methods compared to traditional supply chain lifecycle assessment. When properly validated and applied at appropriate spatial resolutions, biogeochemical process models are useful for simulating how the productivity and soil greenhouse gas fluxes of cultivating both conventional crops and advanced feedstock crops respond across gradients of land quality and management intensity. In this work we use the DayCent model to assess the biogeochemical impacts of agricultural residue collection, establishment of perennial grasses on marginal cropland or conservation easements, and intensification of existing cropping at high spatial resolution across several real-world case study landscapes in diverse US agricultural regions. We integrate the resulting estimates of productivity, soil carbon changes, and nitrous oxide emissions with crop production budgets and lifecycle inventories, and perform a basic optimization to generate landscape cost/GHG frontiers and determine the most practical opportunities for low-impact feedstock provisioning. The optimization is constrained to assess the minimum combined impacts of residue collection, land use change, and intensification of existing agriculture necessary for the landscape to supply a commercial-scale biorefinery while maintaining exiting food, feed, and fiber production levels. These techniques can be used to assess how different feedstock provisioning strategies perform on both economic and environmental criteria, and sensitivity of performance to environmental and land use factors. The included figure shows an example feedstock cost-GHG mitigation tradeoff frontier for a commercial-scale cellulosic

  6. Bee Abundance and Nutritional Status in Relation to Grassland Management Practices in an Agricultural Landscape. (United States)

    Smith, Griffin W; Debinski, Diane M; Scavo, Nicole A; Lange, Corey J; Delaney, John T; Moranz, Raymond A; Miller, James R; Engle, David M; Toth, Amy L


    Grasslands provide important resources for pollinators in agricultural landscapes. Managing grasslands with fire and grazing has the potential to benefit plant and pollinator communities, though there is uncertainty about the ideal approach. We examined the relationships among burning and grazing regimes, plant communities, and Bombus species and Apis mellifera L. abundance and nutritional indicators at the Grand River Grasslands in southern Iowa and northern Missouri. Treatment regimes included burn-only, grazed-and-burned, and patch-burn graze (pastures subdivided into three temporally distinct fire patches with free access by cattle). The premise of the experimental design was that patch-burn grazing would increase habitat heterogeneity, thereby providing more diverse and abundant floral resources for pollinators. We predicted that both bee abundance and individual bee nutritional indicators (bee size and lipid content) would be positively correlated with floral resource abundance. There were no significant differences among treatments with respect to bee abundance. However, some of the specific characteristics of the plant community showed significant relationships with bee response variables. Pastures with greater abundance of floral resources had greater bee abundance but lower bee nutritional indicators. Bee nutritional variables were positively correlated with vegetation height, but, in some cases, negatively correlated with stocking rate. These results suggest grassland site characteristics such as floral resource abundance and stocking rate are of potential importance to bee pollinators and suggest avenues for further research to untangle the complex interactions between grassland management, plant responses, and bee health.

  7. Parasite control in the age of drug resistance and changing agricultural practices. (United States)

    Molento, Marcelo Beltrão


    The benefits of using antiparasitic drugs in farm animals are unquestionable. However, despite anthelmintic use as the predominant control strategy, extreme parasite infection cases are appearing in sheep and goat production; these impact productivity and have show mortality rates reaching pre-drug use levels. This was a predictable situation resulting from the loss of efficacy by all available products, particularly when some products were used as the sole intervention. The concepts of agroecology and holistic agriculture, which advocate the use of integrated management strategies, such as target selected treatment, herbal medicine, and the application of other parasite control alternatives, are not completely new, but are undergoing a resurgence because of their more sustainable appeal. The objective of this review article is to examine the problem of parasite control in the face of parasite drug resistance and to outline some strategies that may be used in parasite control programmes. Before they are accepted and recommended by the WAAVP, agroecological methods such as those listed above and described in detail herein should be validated based on scientific evidence of their efficacy for parasite control and should be tested for both host and environmental safety.

  8. Evaluasi Penerapan Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP pada Usahatani Padi Organik di Kabupaten Bantul

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    Sriyadi Sriyadi


    Full Text Available Food security has meaning not only the availability of adequate food, but also providing security for producers and consumers and ensuring environmental sustainability for sustainable production. Organic farming systems are expected to solve the problem for realizing food security and enhancement of people's welfare. The results of research indicated that, (1 The implementation level of Standard Operating Procedure-Good Agriculture Practice (SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming in Bantul district was quite high, (2 The implementation level of SOP-GAP of Organic Rice Farming related to the availability of capital, the selling price and the purchase price of inputs (seeds and fertilizers, (3 The level of the farmer's decision related to the implementation level of SOP-GAP of organic rice farming, and (4 development of organic rice farming required availability of sufficient capital. In this regard the government, particularly the agriculture authority and food security agency need to disburse or facilitate capital for farmers in revolving as well as low interest loans.

  9. Good agricultural practices in broiler chicken production in the state of Paraná: focus on animal welfare

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    Ana Paula Oliveira Souza


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Broiler chicken welfare regulation at farm level is scarce in Brazil. This research aimed to study good agricultural practices at farm level adopted by broiler chicken companies in the state of Paraná, analyzing them in relation to the promotion of animal welfare. Twenty exporting companies were contacted, 15 answered the questionnaire. The participating companies were responsible for 76.3% of the State broiler production. Indicators related to the availability and the quality of food and water are being adapted by the companies, but still need to be improved. Regarding environmental indicators, companies had concerns about air and litter quality and about the implementation of emergency systems on totally enclosed broiler houses. Natural light has been replaced by low intensity artificial lighting. Footpad dermatitis was the most cited disease used as a sanitary indicator (93.3%, but little information was given about the maximum percentages allowed. Environmental enrichment is not used in poultry houses. This study identified agricultural programs with positive and negative impacts on animal welfare. Investments on research seem to be the only way to conduct changes on broiler chicken chain without reducing the quality of animals' life.

  10. Influence of management practices on C stabilization pathways in agricultural volcanic ash soils (Canary Islands, Spain) (United States)

    Hernandez, Zulimar; María Álvarez, Ana; Carral, Pilar; de Figueiredo, Tomas; Almendros, Gonzalo


    Although C stabilization mechanisms in agricultural soils are still controversial [1], a series of overlapped pathways has been suggested [2] such as: i) insolubilization of low molecular weight precursors of soil organic matter (SOM) with reactive minerals through physical and chemical bonding, ii) selective accumulation of biosynthetic substances which are recalcitrant because of its inherent chemical composition, and iii) preservation and furter diagenetic transformation of particulate SOM entrapped within resistant microaggregates, where diffusion of soil enzymes is largely hampered. In some environments where carbohydrate and N compounds are not readily biodegraded, e.g., with water saturated micropores, an ill-known C stabilization pathway may involve the formation of Maillard's reaction products [3]. In all cases, these pathways converge in the formation of recalcitrant macromolecular substances, sharing several properties with the humic acid (HA) fraction [4]. In template forests, the selective preservation and further microbial reworking of plant biomass has been identified as a prevailing mechanism in the accumulation of recalcitrant SOM forms [5]. However, in volcanic ash soils with intense organomineral interactions, condensation reactions of low molecular weight precursors with short-range minerals may be the main mechanism [6]. In order to shed some light about the effect of agricultural management on soil C stabilization processes on volcanic ash soils, the chemical composition of HA and some structural proxies of SOM informing on its origin and potential resistance to biodegradation, were examined in 30 soils from Canary Islands (Spain) by visible, infrared (IR) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies, elementary analysis and pyrolytic techniques. The results of multivariate treatments, suggested at least three simultaneous C stabilization biogeochemical trends: i) diagenetic alteration of plant biomacromolecules in soils receiving

  11. Regional Effects of Agricultural Conservation Practices on Nutrient Transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin. (United States)

    García, Ana María; Alexander, Richard B; Arnold, Jeffrey G; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J; Robertson, Dale M; Schwarz, Gregory


    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  12. Regional effects of agricultural conservation practices on nutrient transport in the Upper Mississippi River Basin (United States)

    Garcia, Ana Maria.; Alexander, Richard B.; Arnold, Jeffrey G.; Norfleet, Lee; White, Michael J.; Robertson, Dale; Schwarz, Gregory


    Despite progress in the implementation of conservation practices, related improvements in water quality have been challenging to measure in larger river systems. In this paper we quantify these downstream effects by applying the empirical U.S. Geological Survey water-quality model SPARROW to investigate whether spatial differences in conservation intensity were statistically correlated with variations in nutrient loads. In contrast to other forms of water quality data analysis, the application of SPARROW controls for confounding factors such as hydrologic variability, multiple sources and environmental processes. A measure of conservation intensity was derived from the USDA-CEAP regional assessment of the Upper Mississippi River and used as an explanatory variable in a model of the Upper Midwest. The spatial pattern of conservation intensity was negatively correlated (p = 0.003) with the total nitrogen loads in streams in the basin. Total phosphorus loads were weakly negatively correlated with conservation (p = 0.25). Regional nitrogen reductions were estimated to range from 5 to 34% and phosphorus reductions from 1 to 10% in major river basins of the Upper Mississippi region. The statistical associations between conservation and nutrient loads are consistent with hydrological and biogeochemical processes such as denitrification. The results provide empirical evidence at the regional scale that conservation practices have had a larger statistically detectable effect on nitrogen than on phosphorus loadings in streams and rivers of the Upper Mississippi Basin.

  13. When music tempo affects the temporal congruence between physical practice and motor imagery. (United States)

    Debarnot, Ursula; Guillot, Aymeric


    When people listen to music, they hear beat and a metrical structure in the rhythm; these perceived patterns enable coordination with the music. A clear correspondence between the tempo of actual movement (e.g., walking) and that of music has been demonstrated, but whether similar coordination occurs during motor imagery is unknown. Twenty participants walked naturally for 8m, either physically or mentally, while listening to slow and fast music, or not listening to anything at all (control condition). Executed and imagined walking times were recorded to assess the temporal congruence between physical practice (PP) and motor imagery (MI). Results showed a difference when comparing slow and fast time conditions, but each of these durations did not differ from soundless condition times, hence showing that body movement may not necessarily change in order to synchronize with music. However, the main finding revealed that the ability to achieve temporal congruence between PP and MI times was altered when listening to either slow or fast music. These data suggest that when physical movement is modulated with respect to the musical tempo, the MI efficacy of the corresponding movement may be affected by the rhythm of the music. Practical applications in sport are discussed as athletes frequently listen to music before competing while they mentally practice their movements to be performed.

  14. Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils. (United States)

    Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon


    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied.

  15. Assessment of nitrate leakage and N2O emission from five environmental-friendly agricultural practices using fuzzy logic method and empirical formula. (United States)

    Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yongfeng; Wang, Qian; Luo, Liangguo


    Agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China has been the major environmental problem, so environmental-friendly agricultural practices (EAPs) must be promoted to improve environmental quality. However, the most suitable practices for each agricultural region must first be identified. Thus, in the presented study a fuzzy-logic method and a revised empirical formula were used to assess nitrate leakage and N2O emissions, respectively, and to compare five EAPs in Xinxiang, a major grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. The required information was collected in face-to-face interviews with 10 extension service experts from the county, using a questionnaire to explore their opinions of the EAPs currently adopted by smallholder farmers, as well as the amounts, frequencies, varieties and proportions of nitrogen fertilizers applied annually. The results indicate that reduced tillage, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations would be the most appropriate practices to initially promote on a large scale in Xinxiang.

  16. Agricultural practices altered soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, sugars, and minerals in the Midsouth USA. (United States)

    Bellaloui, Nacer; Bruns, H Arnold; Abbas, Hamed K; Mengistu, Alemu; Fisher, Daniel K; Reddy, Krishna N


    Information on the effects of management practices on soybean seed composition is scarce. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate the effects of planting date (PD) and seeding rate (SR) on seed composition (protein, oil, fatty acids, and sugars) and seed minerals (B, P, and Fe) in soybean grown in two row-types (RTs) on the Mississippi Delta region of the Midsouth USA. Two field experiments were conducted in 2009 and 2010 on Sharkey clay and Beulah fine sandy loam soil at Stoneville, MS, USA, under irrigated conditions. Soybean were grown in 102 cm single-rows and 25 cm twin-rows in 102 cm centers at SRs of 20, 30, 40, and 50 seeds m(-2). The results showed that in May and June planting, protein, glucose, P, and B concentrations increased with increased SR, but at the highest SRs (40 and 50 seeds m(-2)), the concentrations remained constant or declined. Palmitic, stearic, and linoleic acid concentrations were the least responsive to SR increases. Early planting resulted in higher oil, oleic acid, sucrose, B, and P on both single and twin-rows. Late planting resulted in higher protein and linolenic acid, but lower oleic acid and oil concentrations. The changes in seed constituents could be due to changes in environmental factors (drought and temperature), and nutrient accumulation in seeds and leaves. The increase of stachyose sugar in 2010 may be due to a drier year and high temperature in 2010 compared to 2009; suggesting the possible role of stachyose as an environmental stress compound. Our research demonstrated that PD, SR, and RT altered some seed constituents, but the level of alteration in each year dependent on environmental factors such as drought and temperature. This information benefits growers and breeders for considering agronomic practices to select for soybean seed nutritional qualities under drought and high heat conditions.

  17. Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice

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    Thomas A. Stewart


    Full Text Available This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998, who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a “poverty of practice” among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative assessment. This qualitative case study examined a series of voluntary workshops offered at one middle school designed to address this poverty of practice. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews. These research questions framed the study: (1 What role did a professional learning community structure play in shaping workshop participants’ perceived effectiveness of a voluntary formative assessment initiative? (2 How did this initiative affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their knowledge of formative assessment and differentiation strategies? (3 How did it affect workshop participants’ perceptions of their abilities to teach others about formative assessment and differentiated instruction? (4 How did it affect school-wide use of classroom-level strategies? Results indicated that teacher workshop participants experienced a growth in their capacity to use and teach others various formative assessment strategies, and even non-participating teachers reported greater use of formative assessment in their own instruction. Workshop participants and non-participating teachers perceived little growth in the area of differentiation of instruction, which contradicted some administrator perceptions.

  18. Assessment of Water and Nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes in soil as affected by irrigation and nutrient management practices (United States)

    Tsehaye, Habte; Ceglie, Francesco; Mimiola, Giancarlo; dragonetti, giovanna; Lamaddalena, Nicola; Coppola, Antonio


    Many farming practices can result in contamination of groundwater, due to the downward migration of fertilizers and pesticides through the soil profile. The detrimental effects of this contamination are not limited to deterioration of chemical and physical properties of soils and waters, but also constitute a real risk to human and ecosystem health. Groundwater contamination may come from a very large array of chemicals. Nevertheless, on a global scale the main cause of pollution is a high nitrate concentration in the aquifer water. Nitrate concentrations of groundwater have constantly increased during the last decades, and the widespread use of commercial N fertilizers has been implicated as the main causative factor. It is often claimed that nutrient management in organic farming is more environmentally sustainable than its conventional counterpart. It is commonly presumed that organic agriculture causes only minimal environmental pollution. There is scientific evidence that organic management may enhance some soil physical and biological properties. In particular, soil fertility management strategies can affect soil properties and the related hydrological processes. It is thus crucial to quantify and predict management effects on soil properties in order to evaluate the effects of soil type, natural processes such as decomposition of organic matter, irrigation applications and preferential flow on the deep percolation fluxes of water and nitrates to the groundwater. In this study, we measured the water fluxes and the quality of water percolating below the root zone, underlying organic agriculture systems in greenhouse. Specifically, the aim was to examine the effects of application time and type of organic matter in the soil on the nitrate-N deep percolation fluxes under the following three organic soil fertility strategies in greenhouse tomato experiment: i. Organic input Substitution (which will be hereafter denoted SUBST) is represented as typical

  19. 76 FR 30195 - Brazil: Competitive Factors in Brazil Affecting U.S. and Brazilian Agricultural Sales in Selected... (United States)


    ... multinational agribusiness firms and their effect on global food supply chains; 5. A description of the... requested, to the extent possible, the report will include-- 1. An overview of agricultural markets in Brazil, including recent trends in production, consumption, and trade; 2. An overview of U.S....

  20. Assessment of alternative management practices and policies affecting soil carbon in agroecosystems of the central United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donigian, A.S.; Barnwell, T.O.; Jackson, R.B.; Patwardhan, A.S.; Weinrich, K.B.


    The goal of the U.S. EPA BIOME Agroecosystems Assessment Project is to evaluate the degree to which agroecosystems can be technically managed, on a sustainable basis, to conserve and sequester carbon, reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and provide reference datasets and methodologies for agricultural assessment. The report provides preliminary estimates of carbon sequestration potential for the central United States including the Corn Belt, the Great Lakes, and portions of the Great Plains. This study region comprises 44% of the land area and 60% to 70% of the agricultural cropland of the conterminous United States. The assessment methodology includes the integration of the RAMS economic model, the Century soil carbon model, meteorologic and soils data bases, and GIS display and analysis capabilities in order to assess the impacts on soil carbon of current agricultural trends and conditions, alternative tillage practices, use of cover crops, and Conservation Reserve Program policy.

  1. Evolution and Phylogenetic Diversity of Yam Species (Dioscorea spp.: Implication for Conservation and Agricultural Practices.

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    Marie Florence Sandrine Ngo Ngwe

    Full Text Available Yams (Dioscorea spp. consist of approximately 600 species. Presently, these species are threatened by genetic erosion due to many factors such as pest attacks and farming practices. In parallel, complex taxonomic boundaries in this genus makes it more challenging to properly address the genetic diversity of yam and manage its germplasm. As a first step toward evaluating and preserving the genetic diversity yam species, we use a phylogenetic diversity (PD approach that has the advantage to investigate phylogenetic relationships and test hypotheses of species monophyly while alleviating to the problem of ploidy variation within and among species. The Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of 62 accessions from 7 species from three regions of Cameroon showed that most Dioscorea sections were monophyletic, but species within sections were generally non-monophyletic. The wild species D. praehensilis and cultivated D. cayenensis were the species with the highest PD. At the opposite, D. esculenta has a low PD and future studies should focus on this species to properly address its conservation status. We also show that wild species show a stronger genetic structure than cultivated species, which potentially reflects the management of the yam germplasm by farmers. These findings show that phylogenetic diversity is a promising approach for an initial investigation of genetic diversity in a crop consisting of closely related species.

  2. Can Quality of Work Life Affect Work Performance among Government Agriculture Extension Officers? A Case from Malaysia

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    O. Jamilah


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The importance of agriculture industry in enhancing the country economy cannot be denied. Recently, a total of USD 1.7 billion has been allocated by the government to boost this industry. Beside of this huge allocation, do the policy implementers which are the agriculture extension officers have adequate work performance to carry out the responsibility given to them? Approach: This study would like to discover whether quality of work life among the agriculture extension employee do have impact their work performance or not. It is necessary to estimate quality of work life function in enhancing work performance, analyze the most important factor and variables on this work performance. The instruments used for collecting data were: A scale on individual and family life, a scale on safety and security on the organization, a scale on interpersonal relationship in the organization, a scale on job satisfaction, a scale on organizational policies and management style, a scale on personnel health and well being, a scale on work environment, a scale on remuneration and a scale on organizational support. The data were analyzed PASW software. Results: Results depict that all of the nine qualities of work life studied have significant and positive relationship with work performance where the highest relationship occurred between individual and family life with work performance. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that five factors which are individual and family life, job satisfaction, organization policy and management style, work environment and remuneration are the main contributors to work performance among government agricultural extension employees. Conclusion/Recommendations: From the results gained, it can be concluded that aspect of individual and family life is the highest contributor to work performance among government agriculture extension officer. It can be noted that more courses on how to manage individual and family

  3. Cognitive-Affective Predictors of the Uptake & Sustained Adherence to Lymphedema Symptom Minimization Practices in Breast Cancer Survivors (United States)


    Uptake of, & Sustained Adherence to Lymphedema Symptom Minimization Practices in Breast Cancer Survivors PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Suzanne M. Miller...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Cognitive-Affective Predictors of the Uptake of, & Sustained Adherence to Lymphedema Symptom Minimization Practices in...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Approximately 20-30% of women develop lymphedema (LE) following breast cancer treatment. Effective symptom management

  4. Water quality impact assessment of agricultural Beneficial Management Practices (BMPs) simulated for a regional catchment in Quebec, Eastern Canada (United States)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Hallema, Dennis W.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Savary, Stéphane; Hould Gosselin, Gabriel


    Water quality has become a matter of increasing concern over the past four decades as a result of the intensification of agriculture, and more particularly so in Canada where agriculture has evolved into the largest non-point source of surface water pollution. The Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of Beneficial Management Practices, BMPs) was initiated in order to determine the efficiency of BMPs in improving the surface water quality of rural catchments, and the economic aspects related to their implementation on the same scale. In this contribution we use the integrated watershed modelling platform GIBSI (Gestion Intégrée des Bassins versants à l'aide d'un Système Informatisé) to evaluate the effects of various BMPs on sediment and nutrient yields and, in close relation to this, the surface water quality for the Beaurivage River catchment (718 km2) in Quebec, eastern Canada. A base scenario of the catchment is developed by calibrating the different models of the GIBSI platform, namely HYDROTEL for hydrology, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) for soil erosion, the Erosion-Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for contaminant transport and fate, and QUAL2E for stream water quality. Four BMPs were analysed: (1) vegetated riparian buffer strips, (2) precision slurry application, (3) transition of all cereal and corn fields to grassland (grassland conversion), and (4) no-tillage on corn fields. Simulations suggest that riparian buffer strips and grassland conversion are more effective in terms of phosphorus, nitrogen and sediment load reduction than precision slurry application and no-tillage on corn fields. The results furthermore indicate the need for a more profound understanding of sediment dynamics in streams and on riparian buffer strips.

  5. Combining Conversation Analysis and Nexus Analysis to analyse sociomaterial and affective practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raudaskoski, Pirkko Liisa


    Within CA, the embodied and material nature of interaction has gained as important a status as the sequential nature of interpretation (e.g. Streeck, Goodwin & LeBaron 2011). In NA, objects and places are important crystallized discourses, i.e. material results of often several cycles of resemiot...... configuration, also as an interdisciplinary offer for an analytic package that might help sociomaterial researchers of practices come even closer to the situation at hand as an assemblage out of which materials, humans and experiences emerge........ The analytical effort is to get to the senses and sensations which are regarded as opposite of sense-making. In my presentation, I go through some of my own analyses from various institutional interactions to show how CA-based multimodal analyses of local interactional (or intra-actional) trajectories combined...... with a nexus analytic understanding of longer socio-historical trajectories help understand the always socio-historical nature of in situ practices – also from an affective and sociomaterial perspective. I’ll renew my earlier (2010) claim on the connections between NA and Goodwin’s (2000) contextual...

  6. Accessible protocol for practice classroom about physical and chemical factors that affect the biomembranes integrity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Barros Galvão


    Full Text Available The aim of the current work is to review a protocol used in practical classes to demonstrate some factors that affect biomembrane integrity. Sugar-beet fragments were utilized as the experimental model as membrane damage could be visualized by leakage of betacyanins, hydrophilic pigments accumulated in the cell vacuoles. The tests were carried out as discrete experiments utilizing physical agents and chemical products present in the student daily routine. To test the effect of temperature, sugar-beet fragments were submitted to heat, cold or both at different times of exposition. When chemical products were tested, sugar-beet fragments were exposed to organic solvents (common alcohol and acetone or polar and amphipathic substances (disinfectant, detergent, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium hypochlorite. The obtained results were discussed in terms of the capacity of the physical and chemical factors to cause membrane damage. The review of this protocol using reagents that are present in the student daily routine were able to demonstrate clearly the effect of the different tested factors, allowing the utilization of this practical class under limited conditions.

  7. Toward re-thinking science education in terms of affective practices: reflections from the field (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Tippins, Deborah


    Rational and operationalized views of science and what it means for teachers and students to know and enact legitimate science practices have dominated science education research for many decades (Fusco and Barton in J Res Sci Teach 38(3):337-354, 2001. doi: 10.1002/1098-2736(200103)38:33.0.CO;2-0). Michalinos Zembylas challenges historically prevalent dichotomies of mind/body, reason/emotion, and emotion/affect, calling researchers and educators to move beyond the Cartesian dualisms, which have perpetuated a myth of scientific objectivity devoid of bias, subjectivity and emotions. Zembylas (Crit Stud Teach Learn 1(1):1-21, 2013. doi: 10.14426/cristal.v1i1.2) contends that the role of emotions and affect are best understood as relational and entangled in epistemological, cultural, and historical contexts of education, which represent contested sites of control and resistance. We argue that Zembylas' work is pivotal since "theoretical frames of reference for doing research in science education…[and] what constitutes knowledge and being within a particular frame" carry material bearings over the enactments of science teaching and learning (Kyle in J Res Sci Teach 31:695-696, 1994, p. 321. doi: 10.1002/tea.3660310703). In this paper, we hold cogen dialogue about how re-thinking notions of emotion and affect affords us, both science educators and researchers, to re-envision science education beyond cognitive and social frames. The framing of our dialogue as cogen builds on Wolff-Michael Roth and Kenneth Tobin's (At the elbows of another: learning to teach through coteaching. Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2002) notion of cogenerative dialogue. Holding cogen is an invitation to an openly dialogic and safe area, which serves as a space for a dialogic inquiry that includes radical listening of situated knowledges and learning from similarities as well as differences of experiences (Tobin in Cult Stud Sci Educ, in review, 2015). From our situated experiences reforms

  8. Agricultural production and sustainable development in a Brazilian region (Southwest, Sao Paulo State): motivations and barriers to adopting sustainable and ecologically friendly practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leite, A. E.; De Castro, R.; Jabbour, C. J. C.;


    closed questionnaires taken by a random sample of farmers in the Southwest, Sao Paulo, Brazil, during the second half of 2013. Overall, sustainable agricultural practices recommended in the literature and analysed in this study are being not fully adopted by farmers of the studied area. The results...

  9. A survey of dairy calf management practices in Canada that affect animal welfare. (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Borderas, F; Cue, R I; Lefebvre, D; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; Wade, K M; de Passillé, A M


    There is growing interest among the public in farm animal welfare and a need for methods to assess animal welfare on farm. A survey on calf rearing practices that might affect dairy calf welfare was performed via a 1-h interview on 115 dairy farms (mean +/- SD: herd size=52.5+/-20.9 cows; milk production=8,697+/-1,153L) distributed throughout the province of Quebec. Despite frequent recommendations, many dairy producers continue to use management practices that increase the health risks of milk-fed calves. Major risk factors for poor calf welfare identified were 1) no use of calving pen in 51.3% of herds and low level of surveillance of calvings, especially at nighttime (once every 12h), 2) no disinfection of newborn's navel in 36.8% of herds, and delayed identification and, hence, calf monitoring (3 d), 3) 15.6% of farms relied on the dam to provide colostrum and none checked colostrum quality or passive transfer of immunity, 4) dehorning and removal of extra teats proceeded at late ages (6.4 wk and 6.7 mo, respectively) and without adequate pain control, 5) use of traditional restrictive milk feeding and waste milk distributed to unweaned calves without precaution in 48.2% of herds, 6) abrupt weaning performed in 16.5% of herds, and 7) calves housed individually in 87.9% of herds, and most inappropriate housing systems (crate=27.0%, tie-stall=13.9%, attached against a wall=5.7%) remained. This risk factor assessment was the first step in an intervention strategy to improve calf welfare on dairy farms.

  10. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture. (United States)

    Pierce, Dick


    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  11. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture. (United States)

    Pierce, Dick


    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  12. A specialist-generalist classification of the arable flora and its response to changes in agricultural practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried Guillaume


    ecological theories developed in stable environments are valid in highly disturbed environments such as agro-ecosystems. The approach developed here to classify arable weeds according to the breadth of their ecological niche is robust and applicable to a wide range of organisms. It is also sensitive to disturbance regime and we show here that recent changes in agricultural practices, i.e. increased levels of disturbance have favoured the most generalist species, hence leading to biotic homogenisation in arable landscapes.

  13. Tailoring conservation agriculture technologies to West Africa semi-arid zones: Building on traditional local practices for soil restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahmar, R.; Bationo, B.A.; Lamso, N.D.; Guéro, Y.; Tittonell, P.A.


    Low inherent fertility of tropical soils and degradation, nutrient deficiency and water stress are the key factors that hamper rainfed agriculture in semi-arid West Africa. Conservation Agriculture (CA) is currently promoted in the region as a technology to reduce soil degradation, mitigate the effe

  14. Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China. (United States)

    Ma, Li; Sun, Jing; Yang, Zhaoguang; Wang, Lin


    Heavy metal contamination attracted a wide spread attention due to their strong toxicity and persistence. The Ganxi River, located in Chenzhou City, Southern China, has been severely polluted by lead/zinc ore mining activities. This work investigated the heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils around the Ganxi River. The total concentrations of heavy metals were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The potential risk associated with the heavy metals in soil was assessed by Nemerow comprehensive index and potential ecological risk index. In both methods, the study area was rated as very high risk. Multivariate statistical methods including Pearson's correlation analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal component analysis were employed to evaluate the relationships between heavy metals, as well as the correlation between heavy metals and pH, to identify the metal sources. Three distinct clusters have been observed by hierarchical cluster analysis. In principal component analysis, a total of two components were extracted to explain over 90% of the total variance, both of which were associated with anthropogenic sources.

  15. A review of factors that affect contact angle and implications for flotation practice. (United States)

    Chau, T T; Bruckard, W J; Koh, P T L; Nguyen, A V


    Contact angle and the wetting behaviour of solid particles are influenced by many physical and chemical factors such as surface roughness and heterogeneity as well as particle shape and size. A significant amount of effort has been invested in order to probe the correlation between these factors and surface wettability. Some of the key investigations reported in the literature are reviewed here. It is clear from the papers reviewed that, depending on many experimental conditions such as the size of the surface heterogeneities and asperities, surface cleanliness, and the resolution of measuring equipment and data interpretation, obtaining meaningful contact angle values is extremely difficult and such values are reliant on careful experimental control. Surface wetting behaviour depends on not only surface texture (roughness and particle shape), and surface chemistry (heterogeneity) but also on hydrodynamic conditions in the preparation route. The inability to distinguish the effects of each factor may be due to the interplay and/or overlap of two or more factors in each system. From this review, it was concluded that: Surface geometry (and surface roughness of different scales) can be used to tune the contact angle; with increasing surface roughness the apparent contact angle decreases for hydrophilic materials and increases for hydrophobic materials. For non-ideal surfaces, such as mineral surfaces in the flotation process, kinetics plays a more important role than thermodynamics in dictating wettability. Particle size encountered in flotation (10-200 microm) showed no significant effect on contact angle but has a strong effect on flotation rate constant. There is a lack of a rigid quantitative correlation between factors affecting wetting, wetting behaviour and contact angle on minerals; and hence their implication for flotation process. Specifically, universal correlation of contact angle to flotation recovery is still difficult to predict from first principles

  16. Spatio-temporal optimization of agricultural practices to achieve a sustainable development at basin level; framework of a case study in Colombia (United States)

    Uribe, Natalia; corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri


    The flood events present during the last years in different basins of the Colombian territory have raised questions on the sensitivity of the regions and if this regions have common features. From previous studies it seems important features in the sensitivity of the flood process were: land cover change, precipitation anomalies and these related to impacts of agriculture management and water management deficiencies, among others. A significant government investment in the outreach activities for adopting and promoting the Colombia National Action Plan on Climate Change (NAPCC) is being carried out in different sectors and regions, having as a priority the agriculture sector. However, more information is still needed in the local environment in order to assess were the regions have this sensitivity. Also the continuous change in one region with seasonal agricultural practices have been pointed out as a critical information for optimal sustainable development. This combined spatio-temporal dynamics of crops cycle in relation to climate change (or variations) has an important impact on flooding events at basin areas. This research will develop on the assessment and optimization of the aggregated impact of flood events due to determinate the spatio-temporal dynamic of changes in agricultural management practices. A number of common best agricultural practices have been identified to explore their effect in a spatial hydrological model that will evaluate overall changes. The optimization process consists on the evaluation of best performance in the agricultural production, without having to change crops activities or move to other regions. To achieve this objectives a deep analysis of different models combined with current and future climate scenarios have been planned. An algorithm have been formulated to cover the parametric updates such that the optimal temporal identification will be evaluated in different region on the case study area. Different hydroinformatics

  17. Optimizing Music Learning: Exploring How Blocked and Interleaved Practice Schedules Affect Advanced Performance (United States)

    Carter, Christine E.; Grahn, Jessica A.


    Repetition is the most commonly used practice strategy by musicians. Although blocks of repetition continue to be suggested in the pedagogical literature, work in the field of cognitive psychology suggests that repeated events receive less processing, thereby reducing the potential for long-term learning. Motor skill learning and sport psychology research offer an alternative. Instead of using a blocked practice schedule, with practice completed on one task before moving on to the next task, an interleaved schedule can be used, in which practice is frequently alternated between tasks. This frequent alternation involves more effortful processing, resulting in increased long-term learning. The finding that practicing in an interleaved schedule leads to better retention than practicing in a blocked schedule has been labeled the “contextual interference effect.” While the effect has been observed across a wide variety of fields, few studies have researched this phenomenon in a music-learning context, despite the broad potential for application to music practice. This study compared the effects of blocked and interleaved practice schedules on advanced clarinet performance in an ecologically valid context. Ten clarinetists were given one concerto exposition and one technical excerpt to practice in a blocked schedule (12 min per piece) and a second concerto exposition and technical excerpt to practice in an interleaved schedule (3 min per piece, alternating until a total of 12 min of practice were completed on each piece). Participants sight-read the four pieces prior to practice and performed them at the end of practice and again one day later. The sight-reading and two performance run-throughs of each piece were recorded and given to three professional clarinetists to rate using a percentage scale. Overall, whenever there was a ratings difference between the conditions, pieces practiced in the interleaved schedule were rated better than those in the blocked schedule

  18. Mining Environmental Data from a Coupled Modelling System to Examine the Impact of Agricultural Management Practices on Groundwater and Air Quality (United States)

    Garcia, V.; Cooter, E. J.; Hayes, B.; Murphy, M. S.; Bash, J. O.


    Excess nitrogen (N) resulting from current agricultural management practices can leach into sources of drinking water as nitrate, increasing human health risks of 'blue baby syndrome', hypertension, and some cancers and birth defects. Nitrogen also enters the atmosphere from land surfaces forming air pollution increasing human health risks of pulmonary and cardio-vascular disease. Characterizing and attributing nitrogen from agricultural management practices is difficult due to the complex and inter-related chemical and biological reactions associated with the nitrogen cascade. Coupled physical process-based models, however, present new opportunities to investigate relationships among environmental variables on new scales; particularly because they link emission sources with meteorology and the pollutant concentration ultimately found in the environment. In this study, we applied a coupled meteorology (NOAA-WRF), agricultural (USDA-EPIC) and air quality modelling system (EPA-CMAQ) to examine the impact of nitrogen inputs from corn production on ecosystem and human health and wellbeing. The coupled system accounts for the nitrogen flux between the land surface and air, and the soil surface and groundwater, providing a unique opportunity to examine the effect of management practices such as type and timing of fertilization, tilling and irrigation on both groundwater and air quality across the conterminous US. In conducting the study, we first determined expected relationships based on literature searches and then identified model variables as direct or surrogate variables. We performed extensive and methodical multi-variate regression modelling and variable selection to examine associations between agricultural management practices and environmental condition. We then applied the regression model to predict and contrast pollution levels between two corn production scenarios (Figure 1). Finally, we applied published health functions (e.g., spina bifida and cardio

  19. A cost-effective and practical polybenzanthrone-based fluorescent sensor for efficient determination of palladium (II) ion and its application in agricultural crops and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ge [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Wen, Yangping [Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation of Double Cropping Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China); Guo, Chaoqun [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Xu, Jingkun, E-mail: [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); Lu, Baoyang; Duan, Xuemin [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China); He, Haohua; Yang, Jun [Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education, and Key Laboratory of Physiology, Ecology and Cultivation of Double Cropping Rice, Ministry of Agriculture, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045 (China)


    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the binary solvent system containing of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. •“On–off” type fluorescent sensor based on this polymer for highly selective, sensitive, and practical detection of Pd{sup 2+} was designed. •The possible mechanism between Pd{sup 2+} and PBA has been discussed and TEM preliminary proved the proposed mechanism. •This fluorescent CP-based sensor has been used to practically detect Pd{sup 2+} in agricultural crops and environment samples with satisfactory results. -- Abstract: A highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor suitable for practical measurement of palladium ion (Pd{sup 2+}) in agricultural crops and environment samples has been successfully fabricated using polybenzanthrone (PBA). PBA was facilely electrosynthesized in the mixed electrolyte of acetonitrile and boron trifluoride diethyl etherate. The fluorescence intensity of PBA showed a linear response to Pd{sup 2+} in the concentration range of 5 nM–0.12 mM with a detection limit of 0.277 nM and quantification limit of 0.925 nM. Different compounds existing in agricultural crops and environment such as common metal ions, anions, natural amino acids, carbohydrates, and organic acids were used to examine the selectivity of the as-fabricated sensor, and no obvious fluorescence change could be observed in these interferents and their mixtures. A possible mechanism was proposed that the coordination of PBA and Pd{sup 2+} enhance the aggregation of polymer chains, which led to a significant quenching of PBA emission, and this was further confirmed by absorption spectra monitoring and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent performance of the proposed sensor and satisfactory results of the Pd{sup 2+} determination in practical samples suggested that the PBA-based fluorescent sensor for the determination of Pd{sup 2+} will be a good candidate for application in

  20. Communicative-Based Curriculum Innovations between Theory and Practice: Implications for EFL Curriculum Development and Student Cognitive and Affective Change (United States)

    Shawer, Saad


    This qualitative study examines the influence of teacher conceptualisations of communicative language teaching on their actual classroom practice and student cognitive and affective change. The qualitative paradigm underpinned this research at the levels of ontology (multiple teacher realities), epistemology (interaction with, rather than…

  1. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolding, J.A.


    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and irriga

  2. Impact of intensive agricultural practices on drinking water quality in the Evros region (NE Greece) by GIS analysis. (United States)

    Nikolaidis, C; Mandalos, P; Vantarakis, A


    Chemical fertilizers are used extensively in modern agriculture, in order to improve yield and productivity of agricultural products. However, nutrient leaching from agricultural soil into groundwater resources poses a major environmental and public health concern. The Evros region is one of the largest agricultural areas in Northern Greece, extending over 1.5 million acres of cultivated land. Many of its drinking water resources are of groundwater origin and lie within agricultural areas. In order to assess the impact of agricultural fertilizers on drinking water quality in this region, tap-water samples from 64 different locations were collected and analyzed for the presence of nitrates (NO(3)(-)), nitrites (NO(2)(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)), sulfate (SO(4)(-2)) and phosphate (PO(4)(-3)). These chemicals were selected based on the information that ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate and inorganic phosphate were the primary fertilizers used in local crop production. NO(3)(-), SO(4)(-2) and PO(4)(-3) levels exceeding accepted values were recorded in 6.25, 4.70 and 9.38% of all sampling points, respectively. NO(2)(-) and NH(4)(+) concentrations, on the other hand, were inside the permitted range. The data generated were introduced into a geographic information system (GIS) program for computer analysis and projection maps representing afflicted areas were created. Our results indicate a profound geographic correlation in the surface distribution of primary contaminants in areas of intensified agricultural production. Thus, drinking water pollution in these areas can be attributed to excessive fertilizer use from agricultural sources.

  3. 社区互助农业的理论与实践%Theory and Practice of Community Support Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡以涛; 余德贵


    社区互助农业是一种新型的农业多功能性综合开发与城市多元文化传承需求相交融的实践模式,这种非主流的农业模式近年来在国内主要大中城市相继出现并发展迅速. 通过系统分析近年来国内的实践,探索社区互助农业的发展脉络及未来的发展方向,提出促进社区互助农业在国内健康发展的建设性建议. 社区互助农业作为一种非主流农业模式,是城市沟通农村、工业反哺农业、生产者与消费者建立和谐关系的一种有益尝试,符合健康生态理念,适合中国的家庭农场及中小规模农业企业运营,是解决食品安全问题的有效途径之一.%Community support agriculture( CSA) is a new type of agricultural multifunctional integrated devel-opment and urban multi-cultural heritage needs to be integrated into the practice mode.In recent years, this non mainstream agricultural model in major and medium-sized cities in the country have emerged and developed rapid-ly.Through the analysis of the practice in recent years, the paper explores the development trend of community support agriculture and the future development direction.Community support agriculture as a non-mainstream mode of agriculture, is the establishment of harmonious relationship between urban and rural, industry nurturing agricul-ture, producers and consumers, it is a beneficial attempt, in line with the concept of health and ecological, suit-able for family farm in China as well as small and medium scale agricultural enterprises operation.It is one of the effective ways to solve the problem of food safety.

  4. They Raise Them Differently Up North - Different Production Practices in Australian Growing Areas May Affect Mycorrhizae (United States)

    This report briefly summarizes the results from a survey to determine cultural blueberry practices and production differences used in New South Wales (NSW), Victoria, Tasmania, and Queensland. The purpose of the survey was to collect information on a number of production practices that had been s...

  5. How Marketing Practices Affect Education: A Comparative Case Study of Canada, the United States and Australia (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Goddard, J. Tim


    This paper examines the theory and practice of the commercialization of education in Canada, using comparative examples from the United States and Australia. Critical theory provides the framework for the study. From the broad focus of business practice, the examination is narrowed down to marketing, and even further to branding, at all levels,…

  6. Bovine cysticercosis in slaughtered cattle as an indicator of Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) and epidemiological risk factors. (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme Lux; Mathias, Luis Antonio; Martins, Ana Maria Centola Vidal; Mussi, Leila Aparecida; Prata, Luiz Francisco


    This study focused on estimating the economic losses resulting from cysticercosis at beef cattle farms that supply an export slaughterhouse located in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and to identify the epidemiological risks factors involved in the disease to ascertain if these farms adopt Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). To this, we used data recorded in 2012 by Brazil's Federal Inspection Service (SIF) on the daily occurrence of the disease, according to the farm from which the animals originated. In addition, the associated risk factors were determined based on a case-control study at 48 farms. Cysticercosis was detected in 2.26% (95% CI 2.2-2.33) of the 190,903 bovines supplied by 556 farms in the following four states: 2.92% (95% CI 2.83-3.03) in São Paulo, 1.81% (95% CI 1.71-1.93) in Minas Gerais, 0.71% (95% CI 0.6-0.82) in Goiás and 1.11% (95% CI 0.79-1.57) in Mato Grosso do Sul, with significant differences in the epidemiological indices of these states. Cysticercosis was detected at 58.45% (95% CI 54.36-62.55) of the farms of this study, representing estimated economic losses of US$312,194.52 for the farmers. Lower prevalence of this disease were found at the farms qualified for exports to the European Union, indicating a statistically significant difference from those not qualified to export to Europe. The access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, as well as sport fishing activities near the farms, was identified as risk factors. Cysticercosis causes considerable losses in Brazil's beef supply chain, with lower prevalence appearing only at farms qualified to export to the European Union. As for the access of cattle to non-controlled water sources, this is an indication that GAP are not implemented by some farms, demonstrating the violation of international agreements by the industry and the farms.

  7. Carbon Dioxide Emissions as Affected by Alternative Long-Term Irrigation and Tillage Management Practices in the Lower Mississippi River Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Smith


    Full Text Available Ensuring the sustainability of cultivated soils is an ever-increasing priority for producers in the Lower Mississippi River Valley (LMRV. As groundwater sources become depleted and environmental regulations become more strict, producers will look to alternative management practices that will ensure the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of their production systems. This study was conducted to assess the long-term (>7 years effects of irrigation (i.e., irrigated and dryland production and tillage (conventional and no-tillage on estimated carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from soil respiration during two soybean (Glycine max L. growing seasons from a wheat- (Triticum aestivum L.- soybean, double-cropped production system in the LMRV region of eastern Arkansas. Soil surface CO2 fluxes were measured approximately every two weeks during two soybean growing seasons. Estimated season-long CO2 emissions were unaffected by irrigation in 2011 (P>0.05; however, during the unusually dry 2012 growing season, season-long CO2 emissions were 87.6% greater (P=0.044 under irrigated (21.9 Mg CO2 ha−1 than under dryland management (11.7 Mg CO2 ha−1. Contrary to what was expected, there was no interactive effect of irrigation and tillage on estimated season-long CO2 emissions. Understanding how long-term agricultural management practices affect soil respiration can help improve policies for soil and environmental sustainability.

  8. Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in Salt-affected Soils%盐碱地农业高效利用措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉珍; 刘永信


    The main ways of improving salt-affected soils to realize Efficient Developing Agriculture Measures in our country had been summaried. The regional distribution of plants in Yellow River delta was analyzed. By regional planting of four kinds of salt-tolerant plants-Suaeda crassifolia Pall., Tamarix chinensis Lour., Phragmites australis., Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.exDC, the feasibility modes and economic benefits of Regional planting saline plants were explored and the basis for a-gricultural efficient use of saline-alkali land was provided.%概述了目前我国为实现盐碱地农业高效利用而采取的盐碱地治理的基本措施,分析了黄河三角洲滨海地区植物区域化分布情况,通过选择4种耐盐植物翅碱蓬、柽柳、芦苇和甘草,进行区域化种植,探索了盐碱地植物区域化种植的可行性模式及经济效益,为盐碱地农业高效利用提供依据.

  9. The role of some agricultural practices and fertilizer type on both the incidence of stem borers infestation and corn yield in Egypt. (United States)

    Mesbah, H A; Mourad, A K; el-Nimr, Hanyiat M; Massoud, M A; Abd el-Aziz, A A


    comparison to the minerally fertilized corn plants, especially in case of spraying Potasin-F, copper sulphate and scorbic acid followed by Polymex for Ch. agamemnon. Spraying Ascorbic acid alone or in sequence with Polymex; Potasin-F followed by Copper sulphate gave promising results for the control of O. nubilalis. In comparison to insecticide treatment, the used foliar nutrients & fertilizer type in both sowing dates gave positive interaction effects in decreasing levels of stem borers infestation and greatly improved the yield and yield characteristics of corn plants. Such agricultural practices enabled corn plants to tackle the going on infestation; thus crop loss due to the attack of the stem borers could be compensated.

  10. Factors affecting dengue prevention practices: nationwide survey of the Malaysian public.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ping Wong

    Full Text Available Efforts to stamp dengue in many dengue endemic countries has met little success. There is a need to re-examine and understand how the public at large view the dengue prevention efforts. This study aimed to examine the demographic factors, theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model and knowledge about dengue and how these influence the practice of dengue prevention.A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18-60 years.The majority (73% of the Malaysian public had a total dengue prevention score of 51-100 (of a possible score of 1-100. Multivariate analysis suggests significant correlates of higher dengue prevention practices with demographic background, perception of susceptibility to dengue, perceived density of mosquitoes in the neighbourhood and knowledge about dengue. Households of lower income of which the majority (40.7% were from the rural areas, were associated with the highest odds [OR = 1.33; 95%CI = 1.09-1.67; p = 0.004] of dengue prevention. Dengue prevention practices were also less likely to be undertaken in neighbourhoods where the responders perceived there is no and/or low density of mosquitoes. Dengue prevention practices are also less likely to be practiced by skilled workers [OR = 0.78; 95%CI = 0.63-0.95; p = 0.029] compared to those unemployed. Higher perceived susceptibility to dengue was associated with higher dengue prevention practices and participants with higher dengue knowledge were found to have a higher level of involvement in dengue prevention practices.Results from the study suggest that in formulating approaches to contain dengue, strategies should be developed to cultivate dengue prevention practices among urban population and target areas with low density of mosquitoes where public perceived a less likely chance of getting dengue. Dengue prevention campaigns should focus on messages highlighting the risk of contracting dengue and education to increase

  11. Consequences of the affective turn: Exploring music practices from without and within

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanasovski Srđan


    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the challenges of the “affective turn” and map new avenues of music research in this direction. I discuss four paths of enquiry, in deviation from the semiotic models: the discovery of the non-signified materiality and its potentiality to generate affects, the potentiality of affect to de-signify, the ability of sign machines to catalyse the production of intensities and, finally, the power of social machines to overcode the produced affect through non-discursive mechanisms. I argue that the affective turn in musicology can provide a different structuring of a view from without and a view from within, calling both for finely tuned “close reading” and for the ability of the researcher to grasp the performative context. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 177004: Serbian Musical Identities within Local and Global Frameworks: Traditions, Changes, Challenges

  12. Biofuels in agriculture - How the daily work is affected, rules and experiences; Biodrivmedel inom lantbruket - Hur det vardagliga arbetet paaverkas, regler och erfarenheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eksvaerd, Jan


    Approximately 5% of transport fuels for Swedish vehicles 2010 came from renewable biomass. EU wants the share within the EU to reach 10% in 2020. LRF is working towards the goal that 20% of transport fuels in Sweden should be renewable by 2020. The reason is that carbon dioxide emissions need to fall sharply and that a declining and uncertain supply of fossil fuels contributes to higher costs. What biofuel to be used in different vehicles will differ. Today, biogas, ethanol, RME (rapeseed methyl ester) and on some vehicles also DME (dimethyl ether) are used. In agriculture, the RME is the only practical option today, although there are a couple of biogas and rapeseed oil tractors. In this report rules and experiences of diesel is compared with five potential biofuels: RME, biogas (both compressed and liquid), DME, ethanol and methanol. For FT-diesel from biomass (made from methane via Ficher-Tropf method) the same rules apply as for fossil diesel. The report contains: a) brief background information on these biofuels, b) practical experience and views on the use of them, and c) the different rules that apply to storage, transportation and small tractor operation of the various fuels. Examples are also given of the differences between different fuels in their everyday work. Ethanol, methanol, DME and FT-diesel can be produced from both fossil and biomass feedstock. The term biogas is used, however, consistently for methane produced by anaerobic digestion of biomass.

  13. On Engineering Professional Practice Teaching in Agricultural Colleges%浅谈农业院校工科专业实习教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丽元; 蒋恩臣; 李元强


    As an essential part of the personnel training,professional practice is the key to strengthen the students' professional and technical level and practical ability.Based on the current problems in agricultural engineering professional practice sessions were analyzed,and put forward some ideas.%作为人才培养的必备环节,专业实习是强化学生专业技术水平和实践能力的关键。本文基于目前农业大学工科专业实习环节存在的问题进行了分析,并提出了几点解决思路。

  14. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives


    Hakan Adanacıoğlu


    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  15. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior. Interacting sources of influence? (United States)

    Larsen, Junilla K; Hermans, Roel C J; Sleddens, Ester F C; Engels, Rutger C M E; Fisher, Jennifer O; Kremers, Stef P J


    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children's food intake. In this narrative review, we provide a conceptual model that bridges the gap between both literatures and consists of three main hypotheses. First, parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices are important interactive sources of influence on children's dietary behavior and Body Mass Index (BMI). Second, parental influences are importantly mediated by changes in the child's home food environment. Third, parenting context (i.e., parenting styles and differential parental treatment) moderates effects of food parenting practices, whereas child characteristics (i.e., temperament and appetitive traits) mainly moderate effects of the home food environment. Future studies testing (parts of) this conceptual model are needed to inform effective parent-child overweight preventive interventions.

  16. Research and Constructive Practice of Ecological Agricultural System in the Hilly Area of South Ningxia%宁夏南部黄土丘陵沟壑区生态农业建设实践与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The theory and practice of classification, adaptability evaluation and optimizing collocation of land resource in ecological and economical agricultural system in the semi - arid hilly area of Loess Plateau were studied. Following the discipline of interaction of land resource and human and applying principles and methods of system engineering , the agricultural production system was optimized. Moreover, the relationship of ecological agricultural construction and territorial management was discussed.

  17. A short-term assessment of carbon dioxide fluxes under contrasting agricultural and soil management practices in Zimbabwe (United States)

    Two of the biggest problems facing humankind are feeding an exponentially growing human population and preventing the negative effects of climate change from record concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture could address both of these problems. For example, tillage and cover...

  18. The effect of agricultural practices on the development of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. I. Field studies in an Indonesian ultisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddington, C.L.; Dodd, J.C.


    Two pre-established agricultural field trials were assessed for the abundance of arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the soil (density of spores, species richness and lengths of extra-radical mycelium [ERM]) in association with one of three tropical plant species (Gliricidia sepium, Peltophorum das

  19. Agricultural management practices and soil quality : measuring, assessing, and comparing laboratory and field test kit indicators of soil quality atributes


    Evanylo, Gregory K.; McGuinn, Robert


    Describes some indicators of soil that can be measured with a simple test kit developed by the United States Department of Agriculture - Natural Resource Conservation Service, directions for interpreting these measurements, the effects of soil amendments on soil quality attributes, and comparisons of field kit and laboratory results.

  20. Determination of soil erosion and sedimentation affected by buffer zones and biochar amendment as best management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khademalrasoul, Ataalah

    Sustainable management is one of the main challenges in modern agriculture. Soil erosion as one form of soil degradation is a threat against the soil sustainability. The main objective of my PhD study was to investigate the effectiveness of biochar as a non-structural best management practice (BMP......) to improve soil structural properties in order to lowering the erodibility of the soil. A second objective was to parameterize a spatially distributed erosion model (WaTEM, Water and Tillage Erosion Model) for planning of the placement of buffer zones (a structural BMP) to reduce sediment transport to water...... of rainfall-runoff simulations using round flumes in the laboratory indicated the positive effects of biochar amendment to mitigate runoff and soil erosion. Moreover laser scanning technique confirmed the positive effects of biochar lumps to enhance the soil surface roughness thereby reduce the runoff...

  1. Chronic hand eczema: perception and knowledge in non-affected individuals from general and dermatological practice. (United States)

    Letulé, Valerie; Herzinger, Thomas; Schirner, Astrid; Hertrich, Frank; Lange, Dirk; Ruzicka, Thomas; Molin, Sonja


    Misunderstanding and stigmatisation are common problems encountered by patients with hand eczema. Various misconceptions about the disease circulate in the general population. Although hand eczema has gained more attention in dermatology during the past years, information on public perception of the disease is still lacking. The aim of our study was to investigate perception of and level of knowledge on the subject hand eczema. There were 624 patients included from 2 general medicine practices and 2 dermatological practices. A self-administered questionnaire was filled out by the participants, covering issues on history of hand eczema, level of knowledge and attitude towards a clinical photograph of hand eczema. We found that a larger proportion of individuals from dermatological practice were more familiar with hand eczema as a disease than those from general medical practice. Women knew significantly more about and had a more positive perception of the disease than men. Our results imply that the level of knowledge on hand eczema in the general public is rather low and influenced by prejudice.

  2. How Implementation of Bibliometric Practice Affects the Role of Academic Libraries (United States)

    Åström, Fredrik; Hansson, Joacim


    This article discusses potential consequences of implementing bibliometrics as an institutionalized practice in academic libraries. Results are reported from a survey among libraries in Sweden with organized bibliometric activities. Incorporating bibliometric activities is one way of redefining and widening the role of the library. Implementation…

  3. How parental dietary behavior and food parenting practices affect children's dietary behavior: Interacting sources of influence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, J.K.; Hermans, R.C.J.; Sleddens, E.F.C.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Fisher, J.O.; Kremers, S.P.J.


    Until now, the literatures on the effects of food parenting practices and parents' own dietary behavior on children's dietary behavior have largely been independent from one another. Integrating findings across these areas could provide insight on simultaneous and interacting influences on children'

  4. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.


    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  5. Deep Impact: How a Job-Embedded Formative Assessment Professional Development Model Affected Teacher Practice (United States)

    Stewart, Thomas A.; Houchens, Gary W.


    This study supports the work of Black and Wiliam (1998), who demonstrated that when teachers effectively utilize formative assessment strategies, student learning increases significantly. However, the researchers also found a "poverty of practice" among teachers, in that few fully understood how to implement classroom formative…

  6. Do school context, student composition and school leadership affect school practice and outcomes in secondary education?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opdenakker, M.C.; van Damme, J


    This study examined effects of school context, student composition and school leadership on school practice and outcomes in secondary education in Flanders. The study reveals that relations between school characteristics do exist and that it is possible to explain an important part of the difference

  7. A Practice onto Personnel In-Service Training’s Affect to Job Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Köksal


    Full Text Available The kitchen which is qualified as the hearth of hotels is a department includes kitchen staff whose responsibilities, authority and duties are identified related to an organizational structure and in a hierarchy instead of being merely a physical space with equipment and working areas that are built for food production. The aim of kitchen is to realize food production in the limits of cost, quality and hygiene standards of hotel. Beside many factors which affect job satisfaction and organizational loyalty the training which is going to be received is also important. As knowing the job increases the job satisfaction and self confidence and it also affects the organizational loyalty in a positive way. This study aims that grups hotel, how does in-service training affect kitchen personnel. In this study applied filed technique used in and firstly searched the factors affect job satisfaction and thoughts about in-service training then applied an one-week training to the same personnel. A different survey performed order to measure the affect to job satisfaction of personnel who was in training and to determine is the in-service training suitable.

  8. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream, Lagoon or Other Waste Waster (not including tailwater recovery) as an Irrigation Source (LWWIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is04) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS04), Stream,...

  9. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS02), Pond, Lake or Reservoir as an Irrigation Source (PLRIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is02) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS02), Pond, Lake...

  10. This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS03), Stream, Ditch or Canal as an Irrigation Source (SDCIS) on agricultural land by county (nri_is03) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CPIS03), Stream,...

  11. Factors affecting adoption of improved management practices in the pastoral industry in Great Barrier Reef catchments. (United States)

    Rolfe, John; Gregg, Daniel


    Substantial efforts are being made by industry and government in Australia to reduce adverse impacts of pastoral operations on water quality draining to the Great Barrier Reef. A key target is to achieve rapid adoption of better management practices by landholders, but current theoretical frameworks provide limited guidance about priorities for improving adoption. In this study information from direct surveys with landholders in the two largest catchments draining into the Great Barrier Reef has been collected and analysed. Study outcomes have important implications for policy settings, because they confirm that substantial variations in adoption drivers exist across landholders, enterprises and practices. The results confirm that the three broad barriers to adoption of information gaps, financial incentives and risk perceptions are relevant. This implies that different policy mechanisms, including extension and incentive programs, remain important, although financial incentives were only identified as important to meet capital and transformational costs rather than recurrent costs.

  12. Variables Affecting Pharmacy Students' Patient Care Interventions during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. (United States)

    Bio, Laura L; Patterson, Brandon J; Sen, Sanchita; Bingham, Angela L; Bowen, Jane F; Ereshefsky, Benjamin; Siemianowski, Laura A


    Objective. To identify the temporal effect and factors associated with student pharmacist self-initiation of interventions during acute patient care advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPE). Methods. During the APPE, student pharmacists at an academic medical center recorded their therapeutic interventions and who initiated the intervention throughout clinical rotations. At the end of the APPE student pharmacists completed a demographic survey. Results. Sixty-two student pharmacists were included. Factors associated with lower rates of self-initiated interventions were infectious diseases and pediatrics APPEs and an intention to pursue a postgraduate residency. Timing of the APPE, previous specialty elective course completion, and previous hospital experience did not result in any significant difference in self-initiated recommendations. Conclusion. Preceptors should not base practice experience expectations for self-initiated interventions on previous student experience or future intentions. Additionally, factors leading to lower rates of self-initiated interventions on infectious diseases or pediatrics APPEs should be explored.

  13. Affected in the nightclub. A case study of regular clubbers’ conflictual practices in nightclubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demant, Jakob


    of experiences within a club as a way of understanding the complexities of pleasure. The study does so by addressing experiences through the concept of affects, which is situated within a framework of a non-representational theory of space. Anxiety, pride, anger, shame and embarrassment are embodied...

  14. An Investigation of the Factors Affecting Performance of Environmental Impact Assessment Practices (EIA in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Hussain


    Full Text Available Environmental Impact Assessment is used to detect changes that a proposed project may have on environment. The intent of present study is to investigate impact of institutional capacity and legal framework on performance of Environmental Impact Assessment practices in Pakistan such as screening, scoping and mitigation, environmental management plan and reporting. Sample of 200 EIA professionals have been selected by using random sampling approach from all provinces of Pakistan. Data has been collected through structured questionnaire and analysed by using AMOS 19 (Analysis of Moment Structures software. Results of path analysis indicated that institutional capacity and legal framework have significant direct impact on performance of all EIA practices in Pakistan. Model fit statistics such as GFI, RMR, NFI, IFI, TLI, RFI, CFI indicate the fitness of research model in this context. It has been suggested that there must be relevant and sufficient human resources that can uplift institutional capacity and legal framework must be well implemented because it will lead to enhanced performance of EIA practices in Pakistan.

  15. Weed management practices affect the diversity and relative abundance of physic nut mites. (United States)

    Saraiva, Althiéris de Sousa; Sarmento, Renato A; Erasmo, Eduardo A L; Pedro-Neto, Marçal; de Souza, Danival José; Teodoro, Adenir V; Silva, Daniella G


    Crop management practices determine weed community, which in turn may influence patterns of diversity and abundance of associated arthropods. This study aimed to evaluate whether local weed management practices influence the diversity and relative abundance of phytophagous and predatory mites, as well as mites with undefined feeding habits--of the families Oribatidae and Acaridae--in a physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) plantation subjected to (1) within-row herbicide spraying and between-row mowing; (2) within-row herbicide spraying and no between-row mowing; (3) within-row weeding and between-row mowing; (4) within-row weeding and no between-row mowing; and (5) unmanaged (control). The herbicide used was glyphosate. Herbicide treatments resulted in higher diversity and relative abundance of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit on physic nut shrubs. This was probably due to the toxic effects of the herbicide on mites or to removal of weeds. Within-row herbicide spraying combined with between-row mowing was the treatment that most contributed to this effect. Our results show that within-row weeds harbor important species of predatory mites and mites with undefined feeding habit. However, the dynamics of such mites in the system can be changed according to the weed management practice applied. Among the predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae Amblydromalus sp. was the most abundant, whereas Brevipalpus phoenicis was the most frequent phytophagous mite and an unidentified oribatid species was the most frequent mite with undefined feeding habit.

  16. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Nordquist


    Full Text Available A number of mutilating procedures, such as dehorning in cattle and goats and beak trimming in laying hens, are common in farm animal husbandry systems in an attempt to prevent or solve problems, such as injuries from horns or feather pecking. These procedures and other practices, such as early maternal separation, overcrowding, and barren housing conditions, raise concerns about animal welfare. Efforts to ensure or improve animal welfare involve adapting the animal to its environment, i.e., by selective breeding (e.g., by selecting “robust” animals adapting the environment to the animal (e.g., by developing social housing systems in which aggressive encounters are reduced to a minimum, or both. We propose adapting the environment to the animals by improving management practices and housing conditions, and by abandoning mutilating procedures. This approach requires the active involvement of all stakeholders: veterinarians and animal scientists, the industrial farming sector, the food processing and supply chain, and consumers of animal-derived products. Although scientific evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible.

  17. History and legal reality of cooperatives in Cuba. Approaching new non-agricultural cooperatives in Pinar del Río from practical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio José Rivera Gort


    Full Text Available Presently work is valued the historical development of the artificial regulation of the cooperative in Cuba, making emphasis in the juridicalinstitutional platform in that the current process of expansion of the figure is sustained toward other sectors of the national economy besides the agricultural one. In a beginning their artificial regulation is characterized in each one of the stages by those that it has crossed and next the analysis is centered in the practical experience of the Pinar del Río, with those recently orchestrated ones Urban Cooperatives, during the process for its constitution and later operation.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 30.07.2015

  18. Optimum use of water for industry and agriculture dependent on direct abstraction - best practice manual. 



    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.  Background: The Water Resources Act 1991 and its preceding legislation provides the Environment Agency with the means to manage water resources through the licensing of abstractions. Detailed demand forecasting techniques are available to EA staff when assessing the need for Public Water Supply applications, but there is currently little guidance concerning the water needs of industry and agriculture. This report provides information on the optimum water ...

  19. Factors Affecting Dengue Prevention Practices: Nationwide Survey of the Malaysian Public


    Wong, Li Ping; Shakir, Sharina Mahavera Mohamad; Atefi, Narges; AbuBakar, Sazaly


    Background Efforts to stamp dengue in many dengue endemic countries has met little success. There is a need to re-examine and understand how the public at large view the dengue prevention efforts. This study aimed to examine the demographic factors, theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model and knowledge about dengue and how these influence the practice of dengue prevention. Methods A national telephone survey was carried out with 2,512 individuals of the Malaysian public aged 18–60 y...

  20. Integrative planning theory and practice of modern agricultural demonstration zone%现代农业示范区总体规划理论与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱绪荣; 李靖; 付海英


    Planning can guide the construction of the modern agricultural demonstration zone(MASZ) in high level. A scientific guiding theories system may smooth the process of the planning and its appliance. Based on the characters of the modern agriculture, we try to establish such theory system by summing up relevant theories using the hierarchical classification method. This theory system includes theories about site setting, development definition, general arrangement, industry development, location, industry planning, science & technology supporting, profit analysis, innovation of the mechanism, etc. The overall design is an important part of the MASZ planning, which mainly summed and integrated the basic theories about development definition, location, industry planning. In guiding the development definition, there are mainly theories about the basic role of agriculture and about multi-functions of agriculture. In guiding the general arrangement, there are theories about system engineering and recycle agriculture. In guiding the industry development, there are theories about major industry choosing, industry chain, industry construction. In guiding location, there are theories of growth pole, core&axis, agriculture districts division. The practice of this guiding theories system is showed in the case of The Planning of the Agriculture Demonstration Zone of Haikou City. In this planning, we defined the function of Haikou MASZ by considering such factors as strengthening the local industries, efficiently supplying of vegetables, developing low-coal agriculture, leading zone development, improving the international competing advantage, attracting tourists, etc. According to theory of system, we designed a positive cycle system, in which, agriculture products processing is as engine, technology innovation is support factor, social agriculture service is associate factor, all industries react and coordinate well. The major industries were chosen according factors as

  1. Co-Teaching Partnerships: How Culture of Schools and Classrooms Affect Practices in Co-Planning and Co-Implementing Instruction (United States)

    Batalo, Cecilia Gray


    The purpose of this study was to describe how the school and classroom cultures affected practices of inclusion for students with disabilities and how the inclusionary practice of co-teaching was influenced by the school culture. This study sought to investigate school and classroom cultures and their impact on practices of inclusion. It also…

  2. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice? (United States)

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir


    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  3. Rice Yield and Water Use as Affected by Soil Management Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Ying; XIE Hong-Tu; LIANG Wen-Ju; WEN Da-Zhong


    A field experiment was conducted at the Shenyang Experimental Station of Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences,to study the effects of soil management practices on water use and rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield in an aquic brown soil during 2001 and 2002. A completely random experimental design with three replications was employed, having four soil management practices as treatments, namely: an undisturbed plow layer (CK), a thin plastic film (TN), a thick plastic film (TI) and subsoil compacting (CP). Results indicated no significant differences arong all treatments for rice biomass and grain yields. Also, water consumption was about the same for treatments TN and CK, however the treatments TI and CP were much lower with more than 45% and 40% of the irrigation water in the treatments TI and CP, respectively,saved each year compared to CK. Therefore, water use efficiency was higher in the treatments TI and CP. These results will provide a scientific basis for the water-saving rice cultivation.

  4. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide. (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  5. Factors affecting urine specific gravity in apparently healthy cats presenting to first opinion practice for routine evaluation. (United States)

    Rishniw, Mark; Bicalho, Rodrigo


    Evidence suggests that apparently healthy cats presenting for routine evaluation should have a randomly sampled urine specific gravity (USG) >1.035. A USG cats presenting to first opinion practice in an observational study, using either in-clinic refractometers or measurements provided by reference laboratories, and examined factors that might affect USG. In-clinic refractometers were calibrated using distilled water (specific gravity = 1.000). The USG was >1.030 in 91% of cats and >1.035 in 88% of cats; 121 adult cats (⩾6 months old) and five young cats (cats, a pathological cause was identified in 27 adult cats - of these, 26 were >9 years old - but no young cats. No cause was identified in 43 adult cats, and further investigation was not pursued in 51 adult cats. Factors that affected USG included age, diet type, sex, fasting status, drinking avidity, refractometer type, and the interaction between sex and diet - increasing dietary moisture content lowered USG only in female cats. Most factors minimally affected USG. The odds of having a USG cats presenting to first-opinion practice should have a USG >1.035. Dietary management strategies to lower USG might be less effective than anticipated, and warrant monitoring of USG to determine efficacy. Older cats with USG cats for possible pathology. A lack of stringent refractometer calibration could have caused some errors in estimates of USG by some observers, but would be unlikely to alter markedly the findings.

  6. Complex hydrologic changes in frequency-magnitude response due to shifting agricultural practices in the Midwestern U.S. (United States)

    Takbiri, Z.; Czuba, J. A.; Foufoula-Georgiou, E.


    Hydrologic change is occurring in many basins throughout the Midwestern U.S. not only in the mean annual streamflow but across a spectrum of magnitudes and frequencies. Disentangling the causative mechanisms responsible for these changes such as anthropogenic factors, e.g., artificial drainage to increase agricultural productivity, and climatic shifts in precipitation patterns is important for planning effective mitigation strategies. We have begun unraveling these changes in a human impacted agricultural landscape in the Midwestern U.S., specifically two subbasins of the Minnesota River Basin in Minnesota: the Redwood and Whetstone River Basins, where there has been a shift in agriculture from small grains to soybeans. This shift occurred at different times for each basin (1976 and 1991, respectively) and when soy covered about 20% of the basin area an apparent shift in the hydrologic regime also occurred as evidence by visual inspection of the hydrographs. Precisely quantifying the nature of this hydrologic regime shift however is a challenge and this work adds in this direction. Using Copulas and the joint probability distribution of daily precipitation and streamflow, we quantified a significantly higher dependence between precipitation and streamflow increments in the mid-quantiles (0.1-0.6; attributed to the artificial drainage to the stream rather than the slower infiltration and subsurface runoff) and no significant change for high quantiles (because for extreme storms the artificially fast drainage does not differ much hydrologically from the naturally fast overland flow). We further performed a multi-scale analysis of streamflow increments via wavelets to quantify the changes in the magnitude and frequency of the rising and falling limbs of hydrographs, confirming the above findings. Since precipitation changes were confirmed not to be significant, it is suggested that streamflow changes are largely driven by a change in land use and not climate in these

  7. An advisory tool to improve management practices affecting calf and heifer welfare on dairy farms. (United States)

    Vasseur, E; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Lefebvre, D; Pellerin, D


    We developed an advisory tool addressing 10 critical areas of calf and heifer management, including calving management, care to newborn calves and painful procedures, colostrum management, cow-calf separation, calf feeding, weaning, calf housing, heifer feeding, heifer housing, and general monitoring. Targets and indicators for each critical area were validated by a panel of experts and maximum scores were assigned based on experts' opinions and reviews of scientific literature. The tool was tested on 28 Quebec dairy farms for feasibility and repeatability between 2 observers. Farmers were asked to test colostrum quality, measure blood IgG concentrations, and record health events. The on-farm evaluation included an interview on management practices and an evaluation of conditions in the barn. Scorings and recommendations were discussed with producers. The usefulness of our on-farm welfare tool was evaluated by the producers themselves during a final debriefing. We reached the main goals of a successful advisory tool of calf and heifer management to improve welfare on dairy farms. We respected the targeted time limit of a 3-h visit covering all aspects of our tool including data collection on management and environment, scoring, practical demonstration with producers, and debriefing. We had no problems collecting management- and environment-based data and had high repeatability of qualitative environment-based measures (kappa value>0.6). Our tool helped to detect problems and to discuss these problems with the producers; producers scored below 50% for some targets in calving management, care to newborn calves and painful procedures, colostrum management, and calf feeding. The targets were realistic so producers were not discouraged. All producers were convinced of the usefulness of our tool for identifying areas of calf and heifer management in need of improvement. They were also convinced of the usefulness of our tool as an advisory tool for technical advisors and

  8. Development of an Assessment Tool for Agricultural Best Management Practice Iimplementation in the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative Priority Watersheds—Alger Creek, Tributary to Saginaw River, Michigan (United States)

    Merriman, Katherine R.


    The Great Lakes face a number of serious challenges that cause damage to water quality, habitat, ecology, and coastal health. Excess nutrients from point and nonpoint sources have a history of causing harmful algal blooms (HABs); since the late 1990s, a resurgence of HABs have forced beach closures and resulted in water quality impairments across the Great Lakes. Studies increasingly point to phosphorus (P) runoff from agricultural lands as the cause of these HABs. In 2010, the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative (GLRI) was launched to revitalize the Great Lakes. The GLRI aims to address the challenges facing the Great Lakes and provide a framework for restoration and protection. As part of this effort, the Priority Watersheds Work Group (PWWG), cochaired by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service (USDA–NRCS), is targeting Priority Watersheds (PWs) to reduce the amount of P reaching the Great Lakes. Within the PWs, USDA–NRCS identifies small-scale subbasins with high concentrations of agriculture for coordinated nutrient reduction efforts and enhanced monitoring and modeling. The USDA–NRCS supplies financial and/or technical assistance to producers to install or implement best management practices (BMPs) to lessen the negative effects of agriculture to water quality; additional funding is provided by the GLRI through USDA–NRCS to saturate the small-scale subbasins with BMPs. The watershed modeling component, introduced in this fact sheet, assesses the effectiveness of USDA–NRCS funded BMPs, and nutrient reductions because of GLRI or other funding programs are differentiated. Modeling scenarios consider BMPs that have already been applied and those planned to be implemented across the small-scale subbasins.

  9. The new PR of states: How nation branding practices affect the security function of public diplomacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Kjærgaard; Merkelsen, Henrik


    terrorism to national security initially served as a catalyst for new public diplomacy initiatives. But as the initiatives were implemented within a framework of nation branding the focus on risk reduction became subjected to a marketing logic and a new focus on economic objectives took over. The paper......This paper investigates how the role of public relations practice in public diplomacy is undergoing a transformation as a consequence of the influence from nation branding. A case study of the Danish government's response to the so-called Cartoon Crisis illustrates how the threat from international...... points to a possible future status of public diplomacy under the influence of nation branding: Public diplomacy may maintain a function pertinent to national security but as this function is incapable of managing real risks it will only serve as auto-communication that legitimizes security policy towards...

  10. Influence of agricultural practice on mobile bla genes: IncI1-bearing CTX-M, SHV, CMY and TEM in Escherichia coli from intensive farming soils. (United States)

    Jones-Dias, Daniela; Manageiro, Vera; Caniça, Manuela


    Many calls have been made to address antibiotic resistance in an environmental perspective. With this study, we showed the widespread presence of high-level antibiotic resistant isolates on a collection of non-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria (n = 232) recovered from soils. Bacteria were selected using amoxicillin, cefotaxime and imipenem, from sites representing different agricultural practices (extensive, intensive and organic). Striking levels of non-susceptibility were noticed in intensive soils for norfloxacin (74%), streptomycin (50.7%) and tetracycline (46.6%); indeed, the exposure to intensive agricultural practices constituted a risk factor for non-susceptibility to many antibiotics, multidrug resistance and production of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL). Analyses of non-susceptibility highlighted that environmental and clinical bacteria from the same species might not share the same intrinsic resistance patterns, raising concerns for therapy choices in environment-borne infections. The multiple sequence-type IncI1-driven spread of penicillinases (blaTEM-1, blaTEM-135), ESBL (blaSHV-12 and blaCTX-M-1) and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases (blaCMY-2), produced by isolates that share their molecular features with isolates from humans and animals, suggests contamination of agricultural soils. This is also the first appearance of IncI1/ST28-harbouring blaCTX-M-1, which should be monitored to prevent their establishment as successfully dispersed plasmids. This research may help disclose paths of contamination by mobile antibiotic resistance determinants and the risks for their dissemination.

  11. Art,Science and Technology——Computed Aided Design in Practice & How computer technology affect designer’s work

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Introduction:Computing technology has developed significantly in the past few decades.It affects almost everyone in the modern society,creating new ways of communication which affects both our work and leisure activities.Particularly,in today’s world of design and technology,computer aided design is fast becoming a technologically and economically feasible reality.Most designers have accepted the fact that computer aided design plays an important role in the success of their practices,not due to it’s value as an efficient drafting and modeling tool,but also because of clients’perception that it makes sound financial sense to utilize CAD.On the other hand,many people argue that computers are not fully autonomous,they are merely unconscious digital slaves or tools of production.In addition,the abusive use of software technology would turn creative art design into a purely industrial activity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna


    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  13. Do personal beliefs and peers affect the practice of alcohol consumption in university students in Lebanon? (United States)

    Salamé, J; Barbour, B; Salameh, P


    Alcohol consumption is frequent among university students in Lebanon as elsewhere in the world. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Lebanon's public and private universities between October 2009 and September 2010 using a standardized questionnaire to assess personal beliefs about alcohol consumption, peers' behaviours and opinions and history of and current drinking practices. Of 1235 students, 199 (16.1%) had an AUDIT score>or=8. Older age, male sex, Christian religion, attending a private university, studying a non-health specialty and residing in Beirut or Mount Lebanon were associated with a higher risk of harmful drinking. Beliefs concerning alcohol consumption and peers' opinions and behaviours were factors significantly associated with harmful drinking, especially: ignoring the dangers of alcohol consumption; higher frequency of consumption with friends; and a higher proportion of friends who drank regularly. University students' alcohol drinking behaviour was mostly influenced by peers' behaviour, and a peer education programme is recommended to decrease the risk of harmful drinking.

  14. A study of in-hospital midwifery practices that affect breastfeeding outcomes. (United States)

    McAllister, Helen; Bradshaw, Sue; Ross-Adjie, Gail


    Whilst breastfeeding is undoubtedly best for both mother and baby, many factors influence a woman's decision about whether to start and when to cease feeding. This study sought to determine which variables, influenced by midwifery practice, may influence the length of breastfeeding. Mothers who had given birth to a live baby at a Perth private hospital were invited to complete a validated, anonymous questionnaire asking about their breastfeeding experience, both in hospital and following discharge. The response rate was 50% (n=266). Although 94% of women were breastfeeding on discharge from hospital, this rate reduced to 59% at 6 months and 21% at 12 months. The mean duration of breastfeeding was 7.4 months (SD +/- 4.1). Of five variables thought to be associated with an increased length of breastfeeding, only two were found to be statistically significant: whether a mother could independently attach the baby on discharge (p=0.003) and whether or not artificial baby milk was administered in hospital (pbreastfeeding rates, education for both mothers and midwives must be targeted towards ensuring mothers are able to independently attach their baby on discharge from hospital. The findings also support the discouragement of artificial feeding unless there is a medical indication or the mother has made an informed request.

  15. Reassembling the "Environment": Science, Affect, and Multispecies Educative Practice at the Aquarium of the Pacific (United States)

    Lloro-Bidart, Teresa Katrina

    Drawing on 14 months of ethnographic fieldwork at the Aquarium of the Pacific and Michel Foucault's governmentality and biopolitics as an overarching theoretical frame, this dissertation engages in a political ecological analysis to explore how the institution, its staff, and nonhumans work to produce various sorts of knowledge about the environment. I argue that the educative assemblages imagined and formed there, which are intimately linked to institutional fiscal survivability, politically deploy nonhuman animals in the Aquarium's "edutainment" project. Through the use of storytelling as a pedagogical tool to entertain, invoke compassion, and convey science to the public, staff encourage guests to have tactile, auditory, and visual encounters with live ocean creatures in order to construct a natural world worthy of being saved, due to its instrumental and intrinsic value. I show how this public conservation re-education project attempts to highlight the voices of the animals being represented there, but not necessarily the voices of the animals actually residing there. I also draw out the implications of these representative practices and argue that the institution ought to utilize staff-nonhuman relationships, which are grounded in care and empathy, as a framework for developing visitor-nonhuman relationships.

  16. Social Practice and Professional Ideological Education in Colleges of Agriculture and Forestry%农林院校社会实践与大学生专业思想教育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Taking the social practice mode of Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University of Science and Technology as an example,the positive effect of social practice on promoting professional ideological education was discussed,as well as significance on combination of social practice and profession for students in agricultural and forestry universities.%以西北农林科技大学社会实践模式为例,探讨了农林高校社会实践对于大学生专业思想教育的促进作用及社会实践与专业结合的重要意义.

  17. 农业绿色全要素生产率增长及其影响因素%China's Agricultural Green Total Factor Productivity Growth and Its Affecting Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁俊; 龙少波


    通过拓展的非径向非角度的DEA模型和Luenberger生产率指标,在估算了农业污染的前提下,计算了中国农业绿色TFP的增长,并对其影响因素进行了分析。结果表明:中国农业绿色TFP目前增长较慢,且区域差异明显;农业技术效率改善缓慢,技术进步是农业绿色TFP增长的主要源泉;如果忽视环境约束,将导致农业TFP增速的明显高估;农业税的减免促进了农业绿色TFP增速的提高,而农业财政支出的影响并不明显;工业化、城市化的推进和农业贸易条件阻碍了农业绿色TFP增速的提高。%With an extended non-radial and non-oriented DEA model and Luenberger index, this pa-per calculates China's agricultural green TFP growth, and analyzes its affecting factors on the basis of esti-mating agricultural pollutions.The results show, China's agricultural green TFP growth rate is low, and varies greatly among regions;Agricultural technical efficiency improves slowly, and technical progress is the main source of agricultural green TFP growth;If environmental restriction is ignored, the agricultural TFP growth rate will be overestimated significantly; Agricultural tax deduction facilitates agricultural green TFP growth, while fiscal expenditure plays an insignificant role;Industrialization, urbanization and trade terms hinders the growth of agricultural TFP.

  18. Practical improvements in soil redox potential (Eh) measurement for characterisation of soil properties. Application for comparison of conventional and conservation agriculture cropping systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Husson, Olivier, E-mail: [CIRAD/PERSYST/UPR 115 AIDA and AfricaRice Centre, 01 BP 2031 Cotonou (Benin); Husson, Benoit, E-mail: [IDEEAQUACULTURE, Parc Euromédecine 2, 39 Rue Jean Giroux, 34080 Montpellier (France); Brunet, Alexandre, E-mail: [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Babre, Daniel, E-mail: [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Alary, Karine, E-mail: [CIRAD/US 49 Analyse, Avenue Agropolis, TA B-49/01, 34398 Montpellier Cedex (France); Sarthou, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: [ENSAT/INRA/INP UMR AGIR. BP 52627, Chemin de Borde Rouge, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France); Charpentier, Hubert, E-mail: [La Boisfarderie, Brives 36100 (France); Durand, Michel, E-mail: [Le Cazals, Castanet 81 150 (France); Benada, Jaroslav, E-mail: [Agrotest fyto, Kromeriz Institute, Havlíckova 2787, 76701 Kromeriz (Czech Republic); Henry, Marc, E-mail: [UMR CNRS/UdS 7140, Université de Strasbourg, Institut Le Bel, 4, rue Blaise Pascal, CS 90032, Strasbourg 67081 (France)


    The soil redox potential (Eh) can provide essential information to characterise soil conditions. In practice, however, numerous problems may arise regarding: (i) Eh determination in soils, especially aerobic soils, e.g. variations in the instrumentation and methodology for Eh measurement, high spatial and temporal Eh variability in soils, irreversibility of the redox reaction at the surface electrode, chemical disequilibrium; and (ii) measurement interpretation. This study aimed at developing a standardised method for redox potential measurement in soils, in order to use Eh as a soil quality indicator. This paper presents practical improvements in soil Eh measurement, especially regarding the control of electromagnetic perturbations, electrode choice and preparation, soil sample preparation (drying procedure) and soil:water extraction rate. The repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement method developed are highlighted. The use of Eh corrected at pH7, pe+pH or rH{sub 2}, which are equivalent notions, is proposed to facilitate interpretation of the results. The application of this Eh measurement method allows characterisation of soil conditions with sufficient repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy to demonstrate that conservation agriculture systems positively alter the protonic and electronic balance of soil as compared to conventional systems. - Highlights: • Electromagnetic fields can dramatically perturb soil Eh measurement. • Our method overcomes the main difficulties in soil Eh measurement. • Accurate and reproducible measurement of mean soil Eh are achieved. • Eh{sub pH7}, pe+pH and rH{sub 2} are equivalent notions characterising electron activity. • Agricultural practices alter soil protonic and electronic characteristics.

  19. Impacts of Strategic Learning Practices on Employees’ Commitment in Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs Engaged in Agriculture and Protein Food Production Sectors in Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Sedighi Pashaki


    Full Text Available The survival of the firms depends on the adoption of techniques and methods for encouraging learning among people. On other hand, it is necessary to have an attitude for interaction and endeavour in order for the learning to be built and conserved. Therefore, committed people in organizations have always been emphasized as a driving force of the extension and creation of learning. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of strategic learning practices on employees’ commitment in small and medium-sized sized enterprises (SMEs engaged in agriculture and protein food production sectors in Guilan Province. The statistical society was composed of 650 key people of SMEs in agriculture and food sector in Guilan Province. Stratified sampling method was applied. Tseng’s standard questionnaire was used as main tool for data collection. The research is a practical study in terms of objective and a correlation-based descriptive studied in terms of data collection methodology. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis and stepwise regression was used for inferential statistics. In inferential section, Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was used to examine the relationships between strategic learning methods and people’s commitment. Furthermore, stepwise regression was used to examine the impact of various aspects of strategic learning methods on people’s commitment. SPSS Software Package was applied for statistical analyses. It was found that strategic learning practices were significantly correlated with employees commitment. Based on the regression results, create system, strategic leadership and empower people were ranked as the first, second and third strongest factors influencing employees’ commitment, respectively.

  20. Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study. (United States)

    Loy, Bryan A; Shkedy, Clive I; Powell, Adam C; Happe, Laura E; Royalty, Julie A; Miao, Michael T; Smith, Gary L; Long, James W; Gupta, Amit K


    Case rate payments combined with utilization monitoring may have the potential to improve the quality of care by reducing over and under-treatment. Thus, a national managed care organization introduced case rate payments at one multi-site radiation oncology provider while maintaining only fee-for-service payments at others. This study examined whether the introduction of the payment method had an effect on radiation fractions administered when compared to clinical guidelines. The number of fractions of radiation therapy delivered to patients with bone metastases, breast, lung, prostate, and skin cancer was assessed for concordance with clinical guidelines. The proportion of guideline-based care ascertained from the payer's claims database was compared before (2011) and after (2013) the payment method introduction using relative risks (RR). After the introduction of case rates, there were no significant changes in guideline-based care in breast, lung, and skin cancer; however, patients with bone metastases and prostate cancer were significantly more likely to have received guideline-based care (RR = 2.0 and 1.1, respectively, pcase rate payments, while the over-treatment rate remained steady at 9%, with no significant change (p = 0.20). These findings suggest that the introduction of case rate payments did not adversely affect the rate of guideline-based care at the provider examined. Additional research is needed to isolate the effect of the payment model and assess implications in other populations.

  1. Water Availability for Winter Wheat Affected by Summer Fallow Tillage Practices in Slope Dryland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-bin; YANG Bo; Roger Hartmann; Donald Gabriels; CAI Dian-xiong; JIN Ke; WU Hui-jun; BAI Zhan-guo; ZHANG Can-jun; YAO Yu-qing; LU Jun-jie; WANG Yu-hong


    The tillage experiments for winter wheat were conducted on the slope farmland in Luoyang,Henan Province in the semihumid to arid loess plateau areas of North China. Different tillage methods inclu-ding reduced tillage (RT), no-till (NT), 2 crops/year (2C), subsoiling(SS), and conventional tillage (CT)were compared to determine the effects of tillage methods on soil water conservation, water availability, andwheat yields in a search for better farming systems in the areas. The NT and SS showed good effects on waterconservation. The soil water storage increased 12 - 33 mm with NT and 9 - 24 mm with SS at the end of sum-mer fallow periods. The soil evaporation with NT and SS decreased 7 - 8 mm and 34 - 36 mm during the fallowperiods of 1999 and 2001, respectively. Evapotranspiration (ET) with NT and SS increased about 47 mm dur-ing wheat growth periods of 2000 to 2001. Treatment RT and 2C had low water storage and high water lossesduring the fallow periods. The winter wheat yields with conservation tillage practices were improved in the 2ndyear, increased by 3, 5 and 8 % with RT, NT and SS, respectively, compared with CT. The highest wheatyields were obtained with subsoiling, and the maximum economic benefits from no-till. All conservation tillagepractices provided great benefits to saving energy and labors, reducing operation inputs, and increasing eco-nomic returns. No-till and subsoiling have shown promise in increasing water storage, reducing water loss, en-hancing water availability, and saving energy, as well as increasing wheat yield.

  2. Mutilating Procedures, Management Practices, and Housing Conditions That May Affect the Welfare of Farm Animals: Implications for Welfare Research (United States)

    Nordquist, Rebecca E.; van der Staay, Franz Josef; van Eerdenburg, Frank J. C. M.; Velkers, Francisca C.; Fijn, Lisa; Arndt, Saskia S.


    evidence about the welfare effects of current practices in farming such as mutilating procedures, management practices, and housing conditions is steadily growing, the gain in knowledge needs a boost through more scientific research. Considering the huge number of animals whose welfare is affected, all possible effort must be made to improve their welfare as quickly as possible in order to ban welfare-compromising procedures and practices as soon as possible. PMID:28230800

  3. Do Case Rates Affect Physicians' Clinical Practice in Radiation Oncology?: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan A Loy

    Full Text Available Case rate payments combined with utilization monitoring may have the potential to improve the quality of care by reducing over and under-treatment. Thus, a national managed care organization introduced case rate payments at one multi-site radiation oncology provider while maintaining only fee-for-service payments at others. This study examined whether the introduction of the payment method had an effect on radiation fractions administered when compared to clinical guidelines. The number of fractions of radiation therapy delivered to patients with bone metastases, breast, lung, prostate, and skin cancer was assessed for concordance with clinical guidelines. The proportion of guideline-based care ascertained from the payer's claims database was compared before (2011 and after (2013 the payment method introduction using relative risks (RR. After the introduction of case rates, there were no significant changes in guideline-based care in breast, lung, and skin cancer; however, patients with bone metastases and prostate cancer were significantly more likely to have received guideline-based care (RR = 2.0 and 1.1, respectively, p<0.05. For the aggregate of all cancers, the under-treatment rate significantly declined (p = 0.008 from 4% to 0% after the introduction of case rate payments, while the over-treatment rate remained steady at 9%, with no significant change (p = 0.20. These findings suggest that the introduction of case rate payments did not adversely affect the rate of guideline-based care at the provider examined. Additional research is needed to isolate the effect of the payment model and assess implications in other populations.

  4. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology


    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza


    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  5. Factors affecting dengue fever knowledge, attitudes and practices among selected urban, semi-urban and rural communities in Malaysia. (United States)

    Al-Dubai, Sami Abdo Radman; Ganasegeran, Kurubaran; Mohanad Rahman, Alwan; Alshagga, Mustafa Ahmed; Saif-Ali, Riyadh


    Dengue fever is a major public health problem in Malaysia. This study aimed to assess factors affecting knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever among a selected population in Malaysia. A descriptive, community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 300 participants from three different geographical settings in urban, semi-urban, and rural areas within the states of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The questionnaire included questions on demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding dengue fever. Mean age of respondents was 34.4 (+/- 5.7) years, and the age ranged from 18 to 65 years. The majority of respondents were married (54.7%), Malays (72.7%) and heard about dengue fever (89.7%). Television was the common source of information about dengue fever (97.0%). Participants answered 4 out of 15 items of knowledge incorrectly. There was no significant association between knowledge score and socio-demographic factors. About one-fifth of the respondents (24%) believed that immediate treatment is not necessary for dengue fever, and the majority of them were not afraid of the disease (96.0%). Attitudes toward dengue fever were significantly associated with the level of education and employment status (p dengue fever (p = 0.030). There is a need to increase health promotion activities through campaigns and social mobilization to increase knowledge regarding dengue fever. This would help to mold positive attitudes and cultivate better preventive practices among the public to eliminate dengue in the country.

  6. Troubled families and individualised solutions: an institutional discourse analysis of alcohol and drug treatment practices involving affected others. (United States)

    Selbekk, Anne Schanche; Sagvaag, Hildegunn


    Research shows that members of the families with patients suffering from alcohol and other drug-related issues (AOD) experience stress and strain. An important question is, what options do AOD treatment have for them when it comes to support? To answer this, we interviewed directors and clinicians from three AOD treatment institutions in Norway. The study revealed that family-oriented practices are gaining ground as a 'going concern'. However, the relative position of family-orientation in the services, is constrained and shaped by three other going concerns related to: (i) discourse on health and illness, emphasising that addiction is an individual medical and psychological phenomenon, rather than a relational one; (ii) discourse on rights and involvement, emphasising the autonomy of the individual patient and their right to define the format of their own treatment; and (iii) discourse on management, emphasising the relationship between cost and benefit, where family-oriented practices are defined as not being cost-effective. All three discourses are connected to underpin the weight placed on individualised practices. Thus, the findings point to a paradox: there is a growing focus on the needs of children and affected family members, while the possibility of performing integrated work on families is limited.

  7. Gender policies and advertising and marketing practices that affect women's health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén C. Saiz


    Full Text Available Background: The three papers of this doctoral thesis are based on the social construction of reality through the analysis of communication relating to health issues. We have analysed the contents of parliamentary, institutional, and mass media to uncover whether their communications create, transmit, and perpetuate gender biases and/or stereotypes, which may have an impact on people's health, with a particular focus on women. Objective: To analyse decision making and the creation of gender awareness policies and actions affecting women's health: (1 political debates about abortion, (2 gender awareness communication campaigns and educational actions, and (3 pharmaceutical advertising strategies. Design: Quantitative and qualitative methods were employed, and the research included observational studies and systematic reviews. To apply a gender perspective, we used the level of gender observation proposed by S. Harding, which states that: (1 gender is the basis of social norms and (2 gender is one of the organisers of the social structure. Results: Sixty percentage of the bills concerning abortion introduced in the Spanish Parliament were initiated and led by pro-choice women's groups. Seventy-nine percent of institutional initiatives aimed at promoting equality awareness and were in the form of educational actions, while unconventional advertising accounted for 6 percent. Both initiatives focused on occupational equality, and very few actions addressed issues such as shared responsibility or public policy. With regard to pharmaceutical advertising, similar traditional male–female gender roles were used between 1975 and 2005. Conclusions: Gender sensitivity continues to be essential in changing the established gender system in Spanish institutions, which has a direct and indirect impact on health. Greater participation of women in public policy and decision-making are critical for womens’ health, such as the issue of abortion. The predominance

  8. Effects of ecological and conventional agricultural intensification practices on maize yields in sub-Saharan Africa under potential climate change (United States)

    Folberth, Christian; Yang, Hong; Gaiser, Thomas; Liu, Junguo; Wang, Xiuying; Williams, Jimmy; Schulin, Rainer


    Much of Africa is among the world’s regions with lowest yields in staple food crops, and climate change is expected to make it more difficult to catch up in crop production in particular in the long run. Various agronomic measures have been proposed for lifting agricultural production in Africa and to adapt it to climate change. Here, we present a projection of potential climate change impacts on maize yields under different intensification options in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using an agronomic model, GIS-based EPIC (GEPIC). Fallow and nutrient management options taken into account are (a) conventional intensification with high mineral N supply and a bare fallow, (b) moderate mineral N supply and cowpea rotation, and (c) moderate mineral N supply and rotation with a fast growing N fixing tree Sesbania sesban. The simulations suggest that until the 2040s rotation with Sesbania will lead to an increase in yields due to increasing N supply besides improving water infiltration and soils’ water holding capacity. Intensive cultivation with a bare fallow or an herbaceous crop like cowpea in the rotation is predicted to result in lower yields and increased soil erosion during the same time span. However, yields are projected to decrease in all management scenarios towards the end of the century, should temperature increase beyond critical thresholds. The results suggest that the effect of eco-intensification as a sole means of adapting agriculture to climate change is limited in Sub-Saharan Africa. Highly adverse temperatures would rather have to be faced by improved heat tolerant cultivars, while strongly adverse decreases in precipitation would have to be faced by expanding irrigation where feasible. While the evaluation of changes in agro-environmental variables like soil organic carbon, erosion, and soil humidity hints that these are major factors influencing climate change resilience of the field crop, no direct relationship between these factors, crop yields, and

  9. The experience of biology, agriculture and health students at the Universidade Católica Dom Bosco regarding the use of animals in class practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Odalia Rímoli


    Full Text Available The controversy arising in connection with the use of animals in practical classes has led to serious ethical discussions at universities in Brazil and around the world. In most cases, the students themselves who feel obliged to perform acts that are against their principles initiate these discussions. The above context motivated this research, which was carried out by means of a questionnaire distributed to one hundred students enrolled in biological, health and agricultural sciences at UCDB in Campo Grande, MS. The main objective was to analyze the students' opinions regarding this problem. It was noted that in general students did not know of any teaching materials that could be used as an alternative to the use of animals. Most of them (X = 85.8 ± 9.7 would prefer not to use animals in practical classes, mainly that are phylogenetically close to humans (mammals, if alternative methods were effective or available. Moreover, it was noted that most students (X = 65.7 ± 24.7 are worried about the controversy provoked by this matter, considering that many believe that this practice is fundamental for their profession and that the university should offer alternatives to those who are against the use of animals.

  10. Prácticas de utilización de plaguicidas en agricultores Pesticide application practices in agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. García


    los estudios epidemiológicos de los efectos de los plaguicidas sobre la salud en trabajadores agrícolas.Objective: We describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers applying pesticides. Methods: The workers selected were included in a case-control study carried out in the Autonomous Community of Valencia in Spain. Contact was made by telephone and individuals who had been involved in agricultural work during the relevant period of exposure were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: crops and periods worked, mixing of products, treatment equipment, participation in the washing of equipment, use of personal protection during the treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Eighty-nine workers, aged between 16 and 46 years old, were included. Most of the interviewees had primary education or less. Pesticide treatments were mostly applied on high crops (82%, with manual equipment (61% and throughout the year (45%. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 60%. Sixty-five percent of the workers used no personal protection or used it defectively. No differences were found in personal protection use according to age, family income or education. Most of the workers (90% reported knowledge of the health risks of pesticide exposure and 21% of them rated the risk as null. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very defectively. There is a clear need to develop specific prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers.

  11. Dynamics of bacterial communities in rice field soils as affected by different long-term fertilization practices. (United States)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Shin Ae; Kim, Jeong Myeong; Kim, Myung-Sook; Song, Jaekyeong; Weon, Hang-Yeon


    Fertilization and the response of the soil microbial community to the process significantly affect crop yield and the environment. In this study, the seasonal variation in the bacterial communities in rice field soil subjected to different fertilization treatments for more than 50 years was investigated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The simultaneous application of inorganic fertilizers and rice straw compost (CAPK) maintained the species richness of the bacterial communities at levels higher than that in the case of non-fertilization (NF) and application of inorganic fertilizers only (APK) in the initial period of rice growth. The seasonal variation in the bacterial community structure in the NF and APK plots showed cyclic behavior, suggesting that the effect of season was important; however, no such trend was observed in the CAPK plot. In the CAPK plot, the relative abundances of putative copiotrophs such as Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were higher and those of putative oligotrophs such as Acidobacteria and Plactomycetes were lower than those in the other plots. The relative abundances of organotrophs with respiratory metabolism, such as Actinobacteria, were lower and those of chemoautotrophs that oxidize reduced iron and sulfur compounds were higher in the CAPK plot, suggesting greater carbon storage in this plot. Increased methane emission and nitrogen deficiency, which were inferred from the higher abundances of Methylocystis and Bradyrhizobium in the CAPK plot, may be a negative effect of rice straw application; thus, a solution for these should be considered to increase the use of renewable resources in agricultural lands.

  12. Reform and Practice of Teaching on Organic Chemistry at Agricultural University%农业院校有机化学教学改革与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴苏琴; 聂旭亮; 陈金珠; 邓昌晞


    有机化学是农业院校中重要的专业基础课。随着科技的发展,有机化学课内容在不断充实,教学课时却减少,针对此现状,笔者根据多年的教学经验,从教学方法,教学内容,教学手段,成绩评价等方面提出了改革措施,实践证明,改革有效的提高了教学效果。%Organic chemistry has been an important basic course for the major of agricultural university.Based on the practices of abundant contents and short credit-hour,some reform about teaching methods,contents,means and evaluation of studying were summerized.It was proved that the effect was improved.

  13. Study on the Operating Mechanism and Practice concerning Undergraduate Teaching Quality Assurance in the Chinese Agriculture-related Colleges and Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhongming; SHEN


    This paper analyzes the connotation of the undergraduate teaching quality assurance system in agriculture-related colleges and universities,and takes Southwest University Rongchang Campus for example to probe into the long-term operating mechanism of multidimensional integrated quality assurance system as well as the sound teaching quality monitoring and management system building assurance system and operational practice effect involving personnel training programs,teaching element control,supervision and control of the teaching process,supervision and control of teaching effectiveness,teaching assurance policy and system,teaching funding system,teaching technical support guarantee,and teaching environment building guarantee,with the purpose of providing a reference for the Chinese universities and colleges to improve the teaching quality.

  14. Effects of hydrology, watershed size, and agricultural practices on sediment yields in two river basins in Iowa and Mississippi (United States)

    Merten, Gustavo Henrique; Welch, Heather L.; Tomer, M.D.


    The specific sediment yield (SSY) from watersheds is the result of the balance between natural, scale-dependent erosion and deposition processes, but can be greatly altered by human activities. In general, the SSY decreases along the course of a river as sediments are trapped in alluvial plains and other sinks. However, this relation between SSY and basin area can actually be an increasing one when there is a predominance of channel erosion relative to hillslope erosion. The US Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study of suspended sediment in the Iowa River basin (IRB), Iowa, and the Yazoo River basin (YRB), Mississippi, from 2006 through 2008. Within each river basin, the SSY from four largely agricultural watersheds of various sizes (2.3 to 35,000 km2 [0.9 to 13,513 mi2]) was investigated. In the smallest watersheds, YRB sites had greater SSY compared to IRB sites due to higher rain erosivity, more erodible soils, more overland flow, and fluvial geomorphological differences. Watersheds in the YRB showed a steady decrease in SSY with increasing drainage basin area, whereas in the IRB, the maximum SSY occurred at the 30 to 500 km2 (11.6 to 193 mi2) scale. Subsurface tile drainage and limits to channel downcutting restrict the upstream migration of sediment sources in the IRB. Nevertheless, by comparing the SSY-basin size scaling relationships with estimated rates of field erosion under conservation and conventional tillage treatments reported in previous literature, we show evidence that the SSY-basin size relationship in both the IRB and YRB remain impacted by historical erosion rates that occurred prior to conservation efforts.

  15. Temporal variability of CO2 and N2O emissions in an agricultural long-term field trial regarding effects of different management practices and extreme weather effects (United States)

    Koal, Philipp; Schilling, Rolf; Gerl, Georg; Pritsch, Karin; Munch, Jean Charles


    In order to achieve a reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, modern agronomic management practices need to be established. Therefore, to assess the effect of different farming practices on greenhouse gas emissions, reliable data are required. The experiment covers and compares main aspects of agricultural management for a better implementation of sustainable land use. The focus lies on the determination and interpretation of greenhouse gas emissions, where the effects of diverse tillage systems and fertilisation practices of an integrated farming system as well as the impacts of extreme weather conditions are observed. In addition, with analysis of the alterable biological, physical and chemical soil properties a link between the impact of different management systems on greenhouse gas emissions and the observed cycle of matter in the soil, especially the nitrogen and carbon cycle, is enabled. Measurements have been carried out on long-term field trials at the Research Farm Scheyern located in a Tertiary hilly landscape approximately 40 km north of Munich (South Germany). The long-term integrated farming system trial was started in 1992. Since then parcels of land (each around 0.2-0.4 ha) with a particular interior plot set-up have been conducted with the same crop rotation, tillage and fertilisation practice referring to integrated farming management. Thus, the management impacts on the soil of more than 20 years have been examined. Fluxes of CH4, N2O and CO2 have been monitored since 2007 for the integrated farming system trial using an automated system which consists of chambers (0.4 m2 area) with a motor-driven lid, an automated gas sampling unit, an on-line gas chromatographic analysis system, and a control and data logging unit. Precipitation and temperature data have been observed for the experimental field to include weather effects. The main outcomes are the analysis of temporal and spatial dynamics of greenhouse gas emissions influenced by management

  16. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson


    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  17. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.


    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  18. Remote sensing and GIS techniques for assessment of the soil water content in order to improve agricultural practice and reduce the negative impact on groundwater: case study, agricultural area Ştefan cel Mare, Călăraşi County. (United States)

    Tevi, Giuliano; Tevi, Anca


    Traditional agricultural practices based on non-customized irrigation and soil fertilization are harmful for the environment, and may pose a risk for human health. By continuing the use of these practices, it is not possible to ensure effective land management, which might be acquired by using advanced satellite technology configured for modern agricultural development. The paper presents a methodology based on the correlation between remote sensing data and field observations, aiming to identify the key features and to establish an interpretation pattern for the inhomogeneity highlighted by the remote sensing data. Instead of using classical methods for the evaluation of land features (field analysis, measurements and mapping), the approach is to use high resolution multispectral and hyperspectral methods, in correlation with data processing and geographic information systems (GIS), in order to improve the agricultural practices and mitigate their environmental impact (soil and shallow aquifer).

  19. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity]. (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo


    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  20. Practical improvements in soil redox potential (Eh) measurement for characterisation of soil properties. Application for comparison of conventional and conservation agriculture cropping systems. (United States)

    Husson, Olivier; Husson, Benoit; Brunet, Alexandre; Babre, Daniel; Alary, Karine; Sarthou, Jean-Pierre; Charpentier, Hubert; Durand, Michel; Benada, Jaroslav; Henry, Marc


    The soil redox potential (Eh) can provide essential information to characterise soil conditions. In practice, however, numerous problems may arise regarding: (i) Eh determination in soils, especially aerobic soils, e.g. variations in the instrumentation and methodology for Eh measurement, high spatial and temporal Eh variability in soils, irreversibility of the redox reaction at the surface electrode, chemical disequilibrium; and (ii) measurement interpretation. This study aimed at developing a standardised method for redox potential measurement in soils, in order to use Eh as a soil quality indicator. This paper presents practical improvements in soil Eh measurement, especially regarding the control of electromagnetic perturbations, electrode choice and preparation, soil sample preparation (drying procedure) and soil:water extraction rate. The repeatability and reproducibility of the measurement method developed are highlighted. The use of Eh corrected at pH7, pe+pH or rH2, which are equivalent notions, is proposed to facilitate interpretation of the results. The application of this Eh measurement method allows characterisation of soil conditions with sufficient repeatability, reproducibility and accuracy to demonstrate that conservation agriculture systems positively alter the protonic and electronic balance of soil as compared to conventional systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available An online community of practice (OCoP is a group of people, who are brought together by a shared interest and with the aim of deepening their understanding of an area of knowledge through regular interactions facilitated by computer mediated communication (CMC tools. An OCoP potentially provides teachers with those elements of effective professional development (PD, cited in the literature, such as; collaboration, opportunities for mentoring, and sustainability over time. In this sense, OCoPs can be considered as a viable alternative for teacher PD. If OCoPs are to become an alternative approach to teacher PD then it is important to understand what factors affect teachers’ participation in such communities. Therefore, through the case of Webheads in Action (WiA OCoP, this study aimed to identify what factors contribute towards creating successful OCoPs. Members’ interactions in WiA’s public group page were collated over a period of nine months and interviews with 24 members of the community (4 core, 9 active, 11 peripheral were used to gather the data. Two major themes emerged in relation to factors affecting members’ participation in this OCoP. The first one was identified as the creation of a sense of belonging to the community which was achieved through various means such as having an initiation process and fostering trust and an inclusive community environment through community norms. The second was dynamism inherent in the community which manifested itself as new topics that kept members interested and participating, and a flow of continuous member recruitment to the community. In conclusion, this study highlighted the importance of the socio-affective dimension for designing and sustaining OCoPs.

  2. Mapping Zn, Cu and Cd contents at the small catchment level after dispersion of contaminants by agricultural practices (United States)

    Vidal Vázquez, E.; Mirás-Avalos, J. M.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.


    Dispersion of trace metals into the rural environment through the use of sewage sludge, fertilizers and manure has been worldwide reported. In El Abelar (Coruña province, Spain), pig slurry was discharged during years intensively into an agricultural field by means of a device which constituted a point source of contamination. The application point was located near the head of an elementary basin, so that slurry was dispersed by runoff into neighboring grassland and maize fields. In addition, diffuse pollution was also present in the study area as a consequence of cattle grazing. Water quality was monitored during and after slurry application at the outlet of a small catchment (about 10.7 ha in surface) draining the study fields. High levels of nutrients, including heavy metals, were found in drainage water. The main objectives of this paper are to determine the spatial variability of Cu, Zn and Cd as extracted by NO3H, EDTA and Ca2Cl and to evaluate the risk of accumulation of these heavy metals at the small catchment level. A set of 55 soil samples were taken from the top soil layer (0-20 cm) of the studied catchment, following a random sampling scheme. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Cd contents were determined i) after digestion by nitric acid in a microwave (USEPA-SW-846 3051) ii) after extraction with EDTA and iii) after extraction with Cl2Ca. Element contents in the extracts were determined by ICP-MS. Summary statistics indicate that variability in Cu, Zn and Cd contents over the study area was very high. For example, after NO3H digestion Zn contents ranged from 29.66 to 141.77 3 mg kg-1 and Cu contents varied from 10.45 to 72.7 3 mg kg-1. High Cu and Zn contents result from accumulation as a consequence of slurry discharge. Also, some hot spots with high levels of Cd (> 3 mg kg-1 after NO3H) with respect to background values were recorded. Geostatistics provides all necessary tools to analyze the spatial variability of soil properties over a landscape. The spatial

  3. Factors that Affect Farmers’ Behaviors on Participating in Policy-Oriented Agricultural Insurance in the Pilot Area——A Case of Insurance on Apple in Luochuan County,Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Taking Luochuan County of Shaanxi Province as an example,the factors that affect farmers’ behaviors on participating in insurance is analyzed and evaluated according to the questionnaires and by selecting the indexes covering household features,agricultural production risks,the attitudes of rural households towards risks and the transaction cost of participating insurance and by using Logistic regression model.The results show that comparing with insurance company,the government has larger influence on farmers’ behaviors on participating insurance;the premium of agricultural insurance does not obstruct farmers’ participation in insurance;the bad-handled relations between the government and insurance company have bad effects on the development of local agricultural insurance.In order to promote farmers to participate in agricultural insurance,the relevant countermeasures are put forward:firstly,increasing the investment on rural education and improving cultural level of farmers;secondly,intensifying the promotion on agricultural insurance;thirdly,reasonably planning the duties and rights of the government and the insurance company;fourthly,vigorously encouraging the farmers to conduct scale production of apple and form the scale economy.

  4. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture. (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn


    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  5. Abundance and Diversity of CO2-Assimilating Bacteria and Algae Within Red Agricultural Soils Are Modulated by Changing Management Practice. (United States)

    Yuan, Hongzhao; Ge, Tida; Chen, Xiangbi; Liu, Shoulong; Zhu, Zhenke; Wu, Xiaohong; Wei, Wenxue; Whiteley, Andrew Steven; Wu, Jinshui


    Elucidating the biodiversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacterial and algal communities in soils is important for obtaining a mechanistic view of terrestrial carbon sinks operating at global scales. "Red" acidic soils (Orthic Acrisols) cover large geographic areas and are subject to a range of management practices, which may alter the balance between carbon dioxide production and assimilation through changes in microbial CO(2)-assimilating populations. Here, we determined the abundance and diversity of CO(2)-assimilating bacteria and algae in acidic soils using quantitative PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) of the cbbL gene, which encodes the key CO(2) assimilation enzyme (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in the Calvin cycle. Within the framework of a long-term experiment (Taoyuan Agro-ecosystem, subtropical China), paddy rice fields were converted in 1995 to four alternative land management regimes: natural forest (NF), paddy rice (PR), maize crops (CL), and tea plantations (TP). In 2012 (17 years after land use transformation), we collected and analyzed the soils from fields under the original and converted land management regimes. Our results indicated that fields under the PR soil management system harbored the greatest abundance of cbbL copies (4.33 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil). More than a decade after converting PR soils to natural, rotation, and perennial management systems, a decline in both the diversity and abundance of cbbL-harboring bacteria and algae was recorded. The lowest abundance of bacteria (0.98 × 10(8) copies g(-1) soil) and algae (0.23 × 10(6) copies g(-1) soil) was observed for TP soils. When converting PR soil management to alternative management systems (i.e., NF, CL, and TP), soil edaphic factors (soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content) were the major determinants of bacterial autotrophic cbbL gene diversity. In contrast, soil phosphorus concentration was the major regulator

  6. Combining Crop Model and Remote Sensing Data at High Resolution for the Assessment of Rice Agricultural Practices in the South-Eastern France (Take 5 Experiment SPOT4-SPOT5) (United States)

    Courault, D.; Ruget, F.; Talab-ou-Ali, H.; Hagolle, O.; Delmotte, S.; Barbier, J. M.; Boschetti, M.; Mouret, J. C.


    Crop systems are constantly changing due to modifications in the agricultural practices to respond to market changes, the constraints of the environment, the climate hazards... Rice cultivation practiced in the Camargue region (SE France) have decreased these last years, however rice plays a crucial role for the hydrological balance of the region and for crop systems desalinizing soils. The aim of this study is to analyze the potentialities of remote sensing data acquired at high spatial and temporal resolution (HRST) to identify the main agricultural practices and estimate their impact on rice production. A large dataset acquired over the Camargue from the Take5 experiment (SPOT4 in 2013 and SPOT5 in 2015), completed by Landsat data has been used. Two assimilation methods of HRST data were evaluated within a crop model. Results showed the impact of the spatial variability of practices on the yields. The sowing dates were retrieved from inverse procedures and gave satisfactory results compared to ground surveys.

  7. Systemic problems affecting co-innovation in the New Zealand Agricultural Innovation System: Identification of blocking mechanisms and underlying institutional logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, J.A.; Klerkx, L.W.A.; Rijswijk, Kelly; Williams, T.; Barnard, T.


    This study identifies systemic problems in the New Zealand Agricultural Innovation System (AIS) in rela-tion to the AIS capacity to enact a co-innovation approach, in which all relevant actors in the agriculturalsector contribute to combined technological, social and institutional change. Systemic p

  8. Communal farmers' perceptions of tick-borne diseases affecting cattle and investigation of tick control methods practiced in Zimbabwe. (United States)

    Sungirai, Marvelous; Moyo, Doreen Zandile; De Clercq, Patrick; Madder, Maxime


    Tick borne diseases (TBDs) are responsible for huge economic losses in cattle production in most African countries where the majority of cattle owners are the resource poor communal farmers. Governments have initiated and co-ordinate tick control programs with farmers required to contribute funds for their sustenance. The success of these programs will hinge upon the involvement of communal farmers in their design, implementation and evaluation. To this end, 313 communal farmers (approximately 8.4% response rate) were interviewed and 3 focus group discussions were carried out in the southern low-veld part of Zimbabwe with the objectives of investigating communal farmers' perceptions on TBDs affecting cattle, level of participation in government initiated tick control programs, other tick control methods practiced, types of acaricides used and their perceived effectiveness. There was a general awareness of TBDs with 67.7% (n=212) farmers being able to describe tick diseases with names or clinical and post-mortem signs. The diseases or problems frequently associated with ticks were cowdriosis (38%, n=119), mastitis (36.7%, n=115), anaplasmosis (36.1%, n=113), body damage (28.4%, n=89), babesiosis (24.6%, n=77) and poor body condition (16.6%, n=52). Cattle mortalities due to TBDs were reported by 23.8% (n=74) of the farmers. The plunge dip was consistently used by farmers (70.3%, n=220) to control ticks. Other tick control methods practiced were the hand spraying (67.4%, n=211), hand dressing (16.6%, n=52), traditional methods (5.4%, n=17), use of pour-ons (4.5%, n=14) and smearing (2.2%, n=7). The formamidines were the most common class of acaricide used (59.4%, n=186), followed by synthetic pyrethroids (29.1%, n=91), macro cyclic lactones (12.8%, n=40) and organophosphates (4.5%, n=14). Most farmers (75.2%, n=231) perceived these acaricides to be effective in controlling ticks. The results of focus group discussions showed that a number of factors influenced the

  9. Conventional and organic soil fertility management practices affect corn plant nutrition and Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) larval performance. (United States)

    Murrell, Ebony G; Cullen, Eileen M


    Few studies compare how different soil fertilization practices affect plant mineral content and insect performance in organic systems. This study examined: 1) The European corn borer, Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner), larval response on corn (Zea mays L.) grown in field soils with different soil management histories; and 2) resilience of these plants to O. nubilalis herbivory. Treatments included: 1) standard organic--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and 2 yr of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) in the rotation; 2) basic cation saturation ratio--organically managed soil fertilized with dairy manure and alfalfa nitrogen credits, plus addition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) according to the soil balance hypothesis; and 3) conventional--conventionally managed soil fertilized with synthetic fertilizers. Corn plants were reared to maturity in a greenhouse, and then infested with 0-40 O. nubilalis larvae for 17 d. O. nubilalis exhibited negative competitive response to increasing larval densities. Mean development time was significantly faster for larvae consuming basic cation saturation ratio plants than those on standard organic plants, with intermediate development time on conventional plants. Neither total yield (number of kernels) nor proportion kernels damaged differed among soil fertility treatments. Soil nutrients differed significantly in S and in Ca:Mg and Ca:K ratios, but principal components analysis of plant tissue samples taken before O. nubilalis infestation showed that S, Fe, and Cu contributed most to differences in plant nutrient profiles among soil fertility treatments. Results demonstrate that different fertilization regimens can significantly affect insect performance within the context of organic systems, but the effects in this study were relatively minor compared with effects of intraspecific competition.

  10. 提高农业中专学校养蚕学实践教学的对策%Strategies of Improving the Practice Teaching of "Sericultural Science" in Secondary Agricultural Vocational School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    To cultivate high-quality entrepreneurial sericulture professional and technical personnel,is the important content in the teaching of agricultural occupational college.Through the analysis of the existing problems in practice teaching of "Sericultural Science" in agricultural secondary school,this paper explores the countermeasures of improving the practice teaching of "Sericultural Science" in secondary agricultural vocational school.%为社会培养高素质的创业型蚕桑专业技术人才,是农业职业院校教学的重要内容。通过分析农业中专学校养蚕学实践教学存在问题,探讨提高农业中专学校养蚕学实践教学的对策。

  11. Ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. (United States)

    Groffman, P M


    In this paper, I address three topics relevant to the ability of precision agriculture to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. First, I describe the fundamental ecological factors that influence the environmental performance of these systems and address how precision agriculture practices can or cannot interact with these factors. Second, I review the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture relative to agricultural inputs to determine whether managing these processes can significantly affect system environmental performance. Finally, I address scale incongruencies between ecological processes and precision agriculture techniques that could limit the ability of these techniques to manage variability in these processes. The analysis suggests that there are significant ecological constraints on the ability of precision agriculture techniques to improve the environmental performance of agricultural production systems. The primary constraint is that these techniques do not address many of the key factors that cause poor environmental performance in these systems. Further, the magnitude of the ecological processes that we hope to manage with precision agriculture are quite small relative to agricultural inputs and, finally, these processes vary on scales that are incongruent with precision management techniques.

  12. Evaluation of the impact of various agricultural practices on nitrate leaching under the root zone of potato and sugar beet using the STICS soil-crop model. (United States)

    Jégo, G; Martínez, M; Antigüedad, I; Launay, M; Sanchez-Pérez, J M; Justes, E


    The quaternary aquifer of Vitoria-Gasteiz (Basque Country, Northern Spain) is characterised by a shallow water table mainly fed by drainage water, and thus constitutes a vulnerable zone in regards to nitrate pollution. Field studies were performed with a potato crop in 1993 and a sugar beet crop in 2002 to evaluate their impact on nitrate leaching. The overall predictive quality of the STICS soil-crop model was first evaluated using field data and then the model was used to analyze dynamically the impacts of different crop management practices on nitrate leaching. The model was evaluated (i) on soil nitrate concentrations at different depths and (ii) on crop yields. The simulated values proved to be in satisfactory agreement with measured values. Nitrate leaching was more pronounced with the potato crop than with the sugar beet experiment due to i) greater precipitation, ii) lower N uptake of the potato crop due to shallow root depth, and iii) a shorter period of growth. The potato experiment showed that excessive irrigation could significantly increase nitrate leaching by increasing both drainage and nitrate concentrations. The different levels of N-fertilization examined in the sugar beet study had no notable effects on nitrate leaching due to its high N uptake capacity. Complementary virtual experiments were carried out using the STICS model. Our study confirmed that in vulnerable zones agricultural practices must be adjusted, that is to say: 1) N-fertilizer should not be applied in autumn before winter crops; 2) crops with low N uptake capacity (e.g. potatoes) should be avoided or should be preceded and followed by nitrogen catch crops or cover crops; 3) the nitrate concentration of irrigation water should be taken into account in calculation of the N-fertilization rate, and 4) N-fertilization must be precisely adjusted in particular for potato crops.

  13. Assessment the Socio-economic Factors Affecting Rural Youth Attitude to Occupation in Agricultural (Case of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer- Ahmad Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Mosaee


    Full Text Available The main objective in this causal-correlation field researchwas to identify effective factors on rural youth's attitudetowards agricultural occupation, in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-AhmadProvince, Iran. Rural youth 15-25 years old in Kohgiluyeh andBoyer- Ahmad province were the population of this study.The technique of sampling was cluster sampling. The techniqueof data collection is questionnaire. The panel of experts wasused to validity of the questionnaire. Corenbach Alpha wasused to gain assurance of the reliability of the questionnaire(α=0.79. The results of multivariate regression indicate thevariables of type of farming system, rate of relation to organizations,participation in extension and education courses, insurance, age and income have the main role in showing the variationsof attitude to agricultural occupation.

  14. A Landscape Perspective on Sustainability of Agricultural Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Kline, Keith L [ORNL; Kaffka, Stephen R [University of California, Davis; Langeveld, J.W.A. [Wageningen University, Netherlands


    Landscape sustainability of agricultural systems considers effects of farm activities on social, economic, and ecosystem services at local and regional scales. Sustainable agriculture entails: defining sustainability, developing easily measured indicators of sustainability, moving toward integrated agricultural systems, and offering incentives or imposing regulations to affect farmer behavior. A landscape perspective is useful because landscape ecology provides theory and methods for dealing with spatial heterogeneity, scaling, integration, and complexity. To implement agricultural sustainability, we propose adopting a systems perspective, recognizing spatial heterogeneity, addressing the influences of context, and integrating landscape-design principles. Topics that need further attention at local and regional scales include (1) protocols for quantifying material and energy flows; (2) effects of management practices; (3) incentives for enhancing social, economic, and ecosystem services; (4) integrated landscape planning and management; (5) monitoring and assessment; (6) effects of societal demand; and (7) consistent and holistic policies for promoting agricultural sustainability.

  15. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; methods of data collection and analysis and description of study areas (United States)

    Chichester, Douglas C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)

  16. Multilevel analysis of the impact of environmental factors and agricultural practices on the concentration in hay of microorganisms responsible for farmer's lung disease. (United States)

    Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Roussel, Sandrine; Reboux, Gabriel; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Piarroux, Renaud


    Farmer's lung disease (FLD) is common in eastern France. It is the main form of occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis, caused by chronic inhalation of microorganisms (antigens) from mouldy hay, straw, or grain. The purpose of this study was to assess, with a panel of data collected between 1997-2003, environmental factors and agricultural practices that independently modify concentrations in hay of microorganisms potentially responsible for FLD. A total of 629 hay samples from 86 farms were included in statistical analyses using linear multilevel regression models allowing to consider the nested structure of the data: individual-level (batch of hay) and group-level (farm). The outcome variable of these models was the concentration in hay (logarithmic value of concentration+1) of microorganisms incriminated in FLD (Absidia corymbifera, Eurotium spp., thermophilic actinomycetes). The simultaneous analysis of batch of hay- and farm-level factors showed that bad climatic conditions of harvest, high-density hay-packing modes, (especially round bales) and altitude (2nd plateau, ]700-900] m) were the main factors associated with high concentrations of these microorganisms in hay. This study allowed clarification of the factors that influence the microbial concentration of hay with etiological agents of FLD.

  17. Complexities of Nitrogen Isotope Biogeochemistry in Plant-Soil Systems: Implications for the Study of Ancient Agricultural and Animal Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSzpak


    Full Text Available Nitrogen isotopic studies have potential to shed light on the structure of ancient ecosystems, agropastoral regimes, and human-environment interactions. Until relatively recently, however, little attention was paid to the complexities of nitrogen transformations in ancient plant-soil systems and their potential impact on plant and animal tissue nitrogen isotopic compositions. This paper discusses the importance of understanding nitrogen dynamics in ancient contexts, and highlights several key areas of archaeology where a more detailed understanding of these processes may enable us to answer some fundamental questions. This paper explores two larger themes that are prominent in archaeological studies using stable nitrogen isotope analysis: (1 agricultural practices (use of animal fertilizers, burning of vegetation or shifting cultivation, and tillage and (2 animal domestication and husbandry (grazing intensity/stocking rate and the foddering of domestic animals with cultigens. The paucity of plant material in ancient deposits necessitates that these issues are addressed primarily through the isotopic analysis of skeletal material rather than the plants themselves, but the interpretation of these data hinges on a thorough understanding of the underlying biogeochemical processes in plant-soil systems. Building on studies conducted in modern ecosystems and under controlled conditions, these processes are reviewed, and their relevance discussed for ancient contexts.

  18. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  19. Rethinking Race and Racism as "Technologies of Affect": Theorizing the Implications for Anti-Racist Politics and Practice in Education (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos


    This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…

  20. 7 CFR 47.5 - Scope and applicability of rules of practice. (United States)



  1. Investigation on Practical Reason of the Concept “Waiting and Caring” of Agricultural Ethics%农业伦理学的“守候与照料”观的实践理性进路考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    “Waiting and caring” concept of ethics in agriculture makes people care for the value of agriculture , while its own logic and practice still exists defect issues . This paper assesses and analyzes the “waiting and caring” concept of agricultural ethics review of practical reason , and then approaches the practical reason of the agricultural ethics of “waiting and caring” concept , in order to have some enlightenment .%“守候与照料”观的农业伦理学在使得人们对于农业的价值关照的同时,其自身仍然存在着逻辑和实践缺陷性问题。通过对“守候与照料”观的农业伦理学的实践理性评析,进而思考“守候与照料”观的农业伦理学的实践理性进路问题,以期有所启示。

  2. Stratification and Storage of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as Affected by Tillage Practices in the North China Plain. (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Xue, Jian-Fu; Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Kong, Fan-Lei; Chen, Fu; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin


    Tillage practices can redistribute the soil profiles, and thus affects soil organic carbon (SOC), and its storage. The stratification ratio (SR) can be an indicator of soil quality. This study was conducted to determine tillage effects on the profile distribution of certain soil properties in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) systems in the North China Plain (NCP). Three tillage treatments, including no till (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and plow tillage (PT), were established in 2001 in Luancheng County, Hebei Province. The concentration, storage, and SR of SOC and soil total nitrogen (TN) were assessed in both the wheat and maize seasons. Compared with RT and PT, the mean SRs for all depth ratios of SOC under NT increased by 7.85% and 30.61% during the maize season, and by 14.67% and 30.91% during the wheat season, respectively. The SR of TN for 0-5:30-50 cm increased by 140%, 161%, and 161% in the maize season, and 266%, 154%, and 122% in the wheat season compared to the SR for 0-5:5-10 cm under NT, RT and PT, respectively. The data indicated that SOC and TN were both concentrated in the surface-soil layers (0-10 cm) under NT but were distributed relatively evenly through the soil profile under PT. Meanwhile, the storage of SOC and TN was higher under NT for the surface soil (0-10 cm) but was higher under PT for the deeper soil (30-50 cm). Furthermore, the storage of SOC and TN was significantly related to SR of SOC and TN along the whole soil profile (P<0.0001). Therefore, SR could be used to explain and indicate the changes in the storage of SOC and TN. Further, NT stratifies SOC and TN, enhances the topsoil SOC storage, and helps to improve SOC sequestration and soil quality.

  3. Stratification and Storage of Soil Organic Carbon and Nitrogen as Affected by Tillage Practices in the North China Plain (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Qian; Kong, Fan-Lei; Chen, Fu; Lal, Rattan; Zhang, Hai-Lin


    Tillage practices can redistribute the soil profiles, and thus affects soil organic carbon (SOC), and its storage. The stratification ratio (SR) can be an indicator of soil quality. This study was conducted to determine tillage effects on the profile distribution of certain soil properties in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and summer maize (Zea mays L.) systems in the North China Plain (NCP). Three tillage treatments, including no till (NT), rotary tillage (RT), and plow tillage (PT), were established in 2001 in Luancheng County, Hebei Province. The concentration, storage, and SR of SOC and soil total nitrogen (TN) were assessed in both the wheat and maize seasons. Compared with RT and PT, the mean SRs for all depth ratios of SOC under NT increased by 7.85% and 30.61% during the maize season, and by 14.67% and 30.91% during the wheat season, respectively. The SR of TN for 0–5:30–50 cm increased by 140%, 161%, and 161% in the maize season, and 266%, 154%, and 122% in the wheat season compared to the SR for 0–5:5–10 cm under NT, RT and PT, respectively. The data indicated that SOC and TN were both concentrated in the surface-soil layers (0–10 cm) under NT but were distributed relatively evenly through the soil profile under PT. Meanwhile, the storage of SOC and TN was higher under NT for the surface soil (0–10 cm) but was higher under PT for the deeper soil (30–50 cm). Furthermore, the storage of SOC and TN was significantly related to SR of SOC and TN along the whole soil profile (P<0.0001). Therefore, SR could be used to explain and indicate the changes in the storage of SOC and TN. Further, NT stratifies SOC and TN, enhances the topsoil SOC storage, and helps to improve SOC sequestration and soil quality. PMID:26075391

  4. Factors affecting the fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA into surface waters of agricultural watersheds in the United States and Europe (United States)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.


    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used extensively in almost all agricultural and urban areas of the United States and Europe. Although, glyphosate is used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, it is predominately used in the United States on soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton that have been genetically modified to be tolerant to glyphosate. From 1992 to 2007, the agricultural use of glyphosate has increased from less than 10,000 Mg to more than 80,000 Mg, respectively. The greatest areal use is in the midwestern United States where glyphosate is applied on transgenic corn and soybeans. Because of the difficulty and expense in analyzing for glyphosate and AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid, a primary glyphosate degradate) in water, there have been only small scale studies on the fate and transport of glyphosate. The characterization of the transport of glyphosate and AMPA on a watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate and AMPA were frequently detected in the surface waters of 4 agricultural watersheds in studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in the United States and at the Laboratory of Hydrology and Geochemistry of Strasbourg. Two of these basins were located in the midwestern United States where the major crops are corn and soybean, the third is located the lower Mississippi River Basin where the major crops are soybean, corn, rice, and cotton, and the fourth was located near Strasbourg, France where the use of glyphosate was on a vineyard. The load as a percent of use ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and could be related to 3 factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use in a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however, those watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  5. 农业高校科技成果转化实践——以福建农林大学为例%Practice Transformation of Scientific and Technological Achievements in Agricultural Colleges and Universities ——Example for Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The article analyzes the current situation of transformation of agricultural sci-tech achievements in agricultural colleges and universities,in cluding the the characteristics of agricultural sci-tech achievements,fund investment,the guide of the policies on college scientific research and extension staff.Basing on these,discusseing the practice of transformation of agricultura sci-tech in Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University:correct scientific research topic selection,good policy guide,intimate University-Industry Cooperation and perfect agricultural technical demonstration bases.These are all keys to to improving the rate of transformation of sci-tech achievements in agricultural Colleges and Universities.%对当前农业高校科技成果自身特性、转化资金投入、科研政策导向和推广队伍存在的问题做了分析,以多个角度探讨了福建农林大学农业科技成果转化实践:正确的科研选题、良好的政策导向、密切的产学研合作以及完善的示范基地建设对提高农业高校科技成果转化率的重要性。

  6. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; hydrology of a small carbonate site near Ephrata, Pennsylvania, prior to implementation of nutrient management (United States)

    Koerkle, E.H.; Hall, D.W.; Risser, D.W.; Lietman, P.L.; Chichester, D.C.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, investigated the effects of agricultural best-management practices on water quality in the Conestoga River headwaters watershed. This report describes environmental factors and the surface-water and ground-water quality of one 47.5-acre field site, Field-Site 2, from October 1984 through September 1986, prior to implementation of nutrient management. The site is partially terraced agricultural cropland underlain by carbonate rock. Twenty-seven acres are terraced, pipe-drained, and are under no-till cultivation. The remaining acreage is under minimum-till cultivation. Corn is the primary crop. The average annual rate of fertilization at the site was 480 pounds per acre of nitrogen and 110 pounds per acre of phosphorus. An unconfined limestone and dolomitic aquifer underlies the site, Depth to bedrock ranges from 5 to 30 feet below land surface. Estimated specific yields range from 0.05 to 0.10, specific capacities of wells range from less than 1 to about 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown, and estimates of transmissivities range from 10 to 10,000 square feet per day. Average ground-water recharge was estimated to be about 23 inches per year. The specific capacity and transmissivity data indicate that two aquifer regimes are present at the site. Wells drilled into dolomites in the eastern part of the site have larger specific capacities (averaging 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown) relative to specific capacities (averaging less than 1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown) of wells drilled into limestones in the western part of the site. Median concentrations of soil-soluble nitrate and soluble phosphorus in the top 4 feet of silt- or silty-clay-loam soil ranged from 177 to 329 and 8.5 to 35 pounds per acre, respectively. Measured runoff from the pipe-drained terraces ranged from 10 to 48,000 cubic feet and was

  7. 发展农业再保险的财政法律与实践研究%On the Law and Finance for Developing Agricultural Reinsurance and Its Practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    农业再保险具有保费补贴无法取代的内在优势,是农业保险真正的"强心剂",当前我国农业再保险的财政地位薄弱是导致政府对农业保险不能实现有效供给的关键原因。因此,健全农业再保险体系的主力是政府,无论从财政立法还是财政实践的角度均应有所作为,如制定专门的农业保险法和调整相关的税收立法,给予农业保险公司和再保险公司以更多的税收优惠,以及考虑国家出资设立专门的农业再保险公司或政府设立农业再保险基金等。%Agricultural reinsurance, a real cardiotonic for agricultural insurance, has its intrinsic advantage which can not be replace by premium subsidies. The reason why agricultural reinsurance can not be effectively supplied in China is just that the financial position of agricultural reinsurance is very weak. The government is the main force in society to establish and improve the agricultural reinsurance system, and it should do something in financial legislation and practice, such as formulating special agricultural insurance law, adjusting the relevant taw legislation in order to give more tax benefits to the agricultural insurance and reinsurance companies as well as setting up special agricultural reinsurance company and related funds.

  8. Not-Invented-Here: How Institutionalized Socialization Practices Affect the Formation of Negative Attitudes Toward External Knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Ana Luiza de Araújo; Fosfuri, Andrea


    Management literature highlights several potential benefits of institutionalized socialization practices that attempt to increase cohesiveness among employees. This article posits that such practices might also contribute to a biased perception of internally generated knowledge and therefore...... to a greater reluctance to adopt external knowledge — enhancing the so-called not-invented-here (NIH) syndrome. Drawing on multi-informant survey data, the authors find that institutionalized socialization practices are associated with the NIH syndrome. This association is however muted in highly...

  9. Practice Mode Reform of Agriculture and Forestry Economic Management Based on The Target of Talent Education%基于人才培养目标的农林经济管理专业实习模式改革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小锋; 镇玲


    In view of the higher forestry college of agriculture and forestry economic management the plight of the professional training,according to the agriculture and forestry economic management professional talent,puts forward the reform the existing economic management professional practice mode of agriculture and forestry,namely refining production internship direction,increase the laboratory simulation practice,time and number flexibility to practice,strengthen the practice teaching staff construction.%针对高等农林院校农林经济管理专业实习面临的困境,依据农林经济管理专业人才培养目标,提出改革现有农林经济管理专业实习模式,即细化生产实习方向,增加实验室模拟实习环节,灵活安排实习时间与人数,加强实践教学队伍建设。

  10. Use of Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season to Assess Effectiveness of Agricultural and Environmental Best Management Practices in California and Nevada, USA (United States)

    Domagalski, J. L.; Schlegel, B.; Hutchins, J.


    Long-term data sets on stream-water quality and discharge can be used to assess whether best management practices (BMPs) are restoring beneficial uses of impaired water as required under the Clean Water Act. In this study, we evaluated a greater than 20-year record of water quality from selected streams in the Central Valley (CV) of California and Lake Tahoe (California and Nevada, USA). The CV contains a mix of agricultural and urbanized land, while the Lake Tahoe area is mostly forested, with seasonal residents and tourism. Because nutrients and fine sediments cause a reduction in water clarity that impair Lake Tahoe, BMPs were implemented in the early 1990's, to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus loads. The CV does not have a current nutrient management plan, but numerous BMPs exist to reduce pesticide loads, and it was hypothesized that these programs could also reduce nutrient levels. In the CV and Lake Tahoe areas, nutrient concentrations, loads, and trends were estimated by using the recently developed Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model. Sufficient data were available to compare trends during a voluntary and enforcement period for seven CV sites within the lower Sacramento and San Joaquin Basins. For six of the seven sites, flow-normalized mean annual concentrations of total phosphorus and nitrate decreased at a faster rate during the enforcement period than during the earlier voluntary period. Concentration changes during similar years and ranges of flow conditions suggest that BMPs designed for pesticides also reduced nutrient loads in the CV. A trend analysis using WRTDS was completed for six streams that enter Lake Tahoe during the late 1980's through 2008. The results of the model confirm that nutrient loading is influenced strongly by season, such as by spring runoff from snowmelt. The highest nutrient concentrations in the late 1980's and early 1990's correlate with high flows, followed by statistically significant decreases

  11. The impact of informal irrigation practices on soil drainage condition, soil pollution and land suitability for agriculture in El Saf area of El Giza Governorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan E.M. El Azab


    Full Text Available The study area was selected in El Saf District of El Giza Governorate in Egypt, covering 21461.4 ha of Nile sediments and their outskirts of alluvial higher and lower terraces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of informal irrigation practices on drainage deterioration, soil pollution and land suitability for agricultural use using the satellite LDCM data 2013. From the lower alluvial terraces (partly cultivated using wastewater, the drainage flows westward via descending slopes resulting in land deterioration in both the alluvial lower terraces and alluvial plain of River Nile. The drainage conditions are excessively drained soils in the alluvial upper terraces within soils of Typic Haplocalcids, sandy skeletal, but in the lower terraces it partly occurred within soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy skeletal. Moderately well drained soils occurred in soils of Typic Torriorthents, sandy in the alluvial lower terraces, while in the alluvial plain of Nile sediments are Sodic Haplotorrerts, fine. Poorly drained soils in the lower alluvial terraces have soils of Typic Epiaquents, sandy associated with Sodic Psammaquents and Aquic Haplocalcids, coarse loamy, while in the alluvial plain of River Nile the soils are Halic Epiaquerts, fine. Very poorly drained soils (submerged areas are scattered spots in both the lower alluvial terraces and the alluvial plain. In the alluvial plain of River Nile, 1967.1 ha become not suitable for the traditional cultivated crops, while in the alluvial terraces 3251.0 ha are not suitable for the proposed cultivation of Jojoba plants. Heavy metals of Cadmium (Cd, Cobalt (Co, Lead (Pb and Nickel (Ni were added to the soil surface and sub-surface in the irrigated areas by wastewater in the lower alluvial terraces (moderately well drained soils, but Cd and Co exceeded the standards of permissible total concentrations in these soils. The same metals were added to soil sub-surface layers in the alluvial plain

  12. Plant Remains from an Archaeological Site as Indicators of Vegetation and Agricultural Practice Between (3320±400) and (2080±80) yr BP in Gangetic West Bengal, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruby Ghosh; Subir Bera; Ashalata D'Rozario; Manju Banerjee; Supriyo Chakraborty


    Diverse plant remains recovered from an archaeological site of Chalcolithic-Early Historic age in the Bhairabdanga area of Pakhanna (latitude 23°25′N, longitude 87°23′E), situated on the west bank of the Damodar river, Bankura district, West Bengal, India, include food grains, wood charcoals, and palynomorphs. Radiocarbon dating of the recovered biological remains reveal the age of the site as (3320±400) to (2080±80) yr BP. The food grains were identified as Oryza sativa L. and Vigna mungo L, and seeds of Brassica cf.campestris L. were also found; these indicate the agricultural practice and food habits of the ancient people living at Pakhanna from the Chalcolithic to the Early Historic period. Sediments including plant remains have been broadly divided into two zones, considering archaeological findings and radiocarbon dating. Analysis of the plant remains (i.e. wood charcoals and palynomorphs) in addition to cultivated food grains has revealed that a rich vegetation cover existed in this area, with a prevailing tropical and humid climate,comprising the timber-yielding plants Shorea sp., Terminalia sp., and Tamarindus sp., with undergrowths of diverse shrubs and herbs during the Chalcolithic period (zone Ⅰ) dated (3320±400) yr BP. Comparatively poorer representation and frequency of plant remains indicate a drier climate during the Early Historic period (zone Ⅱ) dated as (2110±340) to (2080±80) yr BP. Comparisons of the archaeobotanical data recovered from the Chalcolithic and Early Historic period and also a principle components analysis indicate a change in the climate of the area from tropical and humid at (3 320 ± 400) yr BP to tropical and drier conditions at (2110±340) to (2080±80) yr BP. The present-day tropical, dry deciduous vegetation of the area suggests that climate change has occurred in the area since the contemporaneous past. The plant remains database has been utilized to reconstruct the settlement pattern of the community living

  13. The Impacts of Agricultural Machinery Purchase Subsidies on Mechanized Crop Residue Recycling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Crop residue recycling can improve the quality of the cropland,and it has multiple economic and ecological benefits.However,such practice is with low adoption due to different constraints.In this paper,we use the survey data from Baoding,Hebei province,and use the probit model to explore how the agricultural machinery purchase subsidies affect the mechanized crop residue recycling.The results showed that several factors that affect farmers in adopting the practice of mechanized crop residue crop recycling.Among these factors,the cost of adopting such practice is significant.The agricultural machinery purchase subsidies can effectively reduce the cost of such practice,as well as promote mechanized crop residue recycling.The paper also proposed several actions in the future.They include increasing the subsidies on agricultural machinery purchase and increasing farmers’ awareness on crop residue recycling.

  14. New Approach for Chinas Agricultural Modernization Practice from the Perspective of Multiplex Function%多元功能视阈下我国农业现代化实践的新途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This paper analyses the multiplex composite function of agriculture comprehensively as follows. The first is political function: it can ensure the national food security) the second is economic function; it can promote agricultural competitiveness and increase farmers' income) the third is social function I it can promote the construction of new socialist village; the fourth is ecological function; it can conserve the resource* environment and guarantee sustainable development of agriculture. In terms of reference of international theory and the main innovative experience of domestic agricultural modernisation practice, this paper points out the new approach for agricultural modernization practice in China, and puts forward institutional guarantee based on agricultural multiplex function as follows; we should gradually promote new land system taking land transfer as major content) we should establish rational transfer system of rural labour forces) we should establish virtuous circular agricultural financial credit system I we should hew to the innovation and promotion system of agricultural technology; we should establish strict the system of resources environment and ecological protection) we should establish the agricultural risk security system.%全面分析了农业的多无化综合功能,一是政治功能:保障国家粮食安全;二是经济功能:提高农业竞争力、增加农民收入;三是社会功能:促进社会主义新农村建设:四是生态功能:涵养资源环境,保障农业可持续发展.从国际理论借鉴和国内农业现代化实践的主要创新体验2方面指出了我国农业现代化实践的新途径,并提出了基于农业多无化功能的制度保障:避步推广以土地流转为主要内容的新型土地制度;建立合理的农村劳动力持移制度;建立良性循环的农业金融信贷制度;坚持农业科技创新与推广制度;建立严格的资源环境与生态保护制度;建立农业风险保障制度.

  15. 农忙实践对农科大学生的影响调查①--基于扬州大学2010届农科专业学生农忙实践的调查%Investigation of the Influence of busy Farming Practices on the Agricultural College Students--Based on the investigation to 2010 session of agricultural college students busy farming practice of Yangzhou university

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国生; 陈后庆; 华鹤良; 孔佑兵; 吴慧; 田银芳


    通过对扬州大学农科大学生问卷式调查,结果显示:(1)当今农科大学生基本构成超出人们的预期;(2)农忙实践对农科大学生的专业意识、专业思想影响明显;(3)80%以上的学生能够通过农忙实践确立发展方向、明确实践的重要性;(4)70%以上的学生经过农忙实践的锻炼,团结合作精神、情感交流能力显著提高。%By questionnaire survey the agricultural college students of the yangzhou university, the results showed: (1)the basic composition of the current agricultural college students was beyond people’s expectations; (2) the busy farming practices had obvious significance on the agricultural college students’ professional consciousness, professional thought ; (3) the students was more than 80% ,which could establish development direction, the importance of clear practice by the busy farming practices ;(4)the students was more than 70% ,which emotional communication, solidarity and cooperation spirit, would greatly enhance by farming practice exercise.

  16. Application of Multinomial Probit Model in Analyzing Factors Affecting the Occupation of Graduated Students from the University of Agricultural Applied-Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Introduction:Scientificand practicaltrainingwith an emphasis onoperation andapplication of what is taught and having an empiricalapproachto education isa more suitable approach for creating jobs. Preparation of educational needs of the agricultural sector by scientificand practicaltraining and providingemploymentin agreement with education and skills is one of the most important programs in order to achieve the objectives of comprehensive development of the country. An imbalance seems to exist between the processes and materials in university courses and the skills and abilities needed by the labor market and this is the most importantreason for the failureof the university graduatesin finding employment. This studyhas beendone for understandingthe type of jobof agricultural graduatesof training center of Jihad-e-Keshavarzi in Mashhad and the factor saffecting their employment. Materials and Methods: This study is an applied research and the statistical population is 167 and includes all the students who had earned a Bachelor’s degree who had come to receive their graduation certificates in 2011. The dependent variable is type of job which includes five categories of employment in the public sector related to education, employ men unrelated to the government, employment related tothe privatesector andthe unemployed who were seeking workin the private sector. Independent variables includegender,quotainuniversityadmissions, the level of interestin thefield of study,satisfaction withthe discipline, evaluationand trainingof graduatesofvocational skillsacquired incollegegraduates'assessmentof thework culturein the societyand evaluation oflack ofcapitalas a factor preventingemployment in the academicfield. Information was collected through questionnaires and the multiple probit mode lwas used. Results and discussion: The results ofthe survey showthatjobsof graduates are divided intofour categoriesincluding:Related to the field of study and

  17. Heroes of Agricultural Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Keulartz, F.W.J.


    New technology has a prominent place in the theory and practice of innovation, but the association between high tech and innovation is not inevitable. In this paper, we discuss six metaphorical heroes of agricultural innovation, starting with the dominant hero of frontier science and technology. At

  18. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari


    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  19. An Outlook on Agricultural Modernization Path with Chinese Characteristics from Scale Agricultural Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG


    First of all,this paper discusses the scale agricultural operation of China from the aspects of practical exploration and rational thinking. Later,it puts forward the concept of further promoting scale agricultural operation according to the present conditions of China,which includes encouraging large household pattern and scale breeding,developing various forms of socialized agricultural services,promoting agriculture industrialization,accelerating regional distribution of advantageous agricultural products and promoting the progress in agricultural science and technology comprehensively.

  20. Investigation of Barriers and Factors Affecting the Reverse Logistics of Waste Management Practice: A Case Study in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumalee Pumpinyo


    Full Text Available Economic growth in developing countries accelerated waste generation, and Thailand also is experiencing issues related to increased waste generation and improper waste management. The country’s domestic waste utilization is only 20%–26%. Efficient waste management and increased quantity of waste utilization is possible only by overcoming problems and constraints in reverse logistics (RL systems in Thailand. To address these issues and constraints, this study aims to focus the investigation on the current practices in the RL systems. The study was conducted in Bangkok and its vicinity. An integrated approach of qualitative and quantitative methods was employed to investigate the systems’ and stakeholders’ characteristics and to explore the factors influencing and constraining RL practices. Data were gathered through: (1 existing literature and in-depth interviews of key stakeholders involved in RL; and (2 a questionnaire survey of 98 managers of separation centers (SCs probing their practices and studying the factors influencing those practices. The findings showed that RL systems can be separated into three levels, i.e., downstream, middle stream and upstream. SCs are key stakeholders in RL of waste management, and they collect waste from downstream, manage waste in a systematic way and send it upstream. The factors influencing and the barriers in the flow of recyclable waste are related to environmental, economic and social aspects. The analysis shows that waste managed by a cooperative-like franchise of SCs perceived that their practices were more efficient than those of a non-franchise practices. Additionally, these SCs have more bargaining power with waste buyers and sellers to set prices in the RL system. The constraints in RL practice are related to finance, market, labor, management/technology and legal issues.

  1. Factors affecting the movement and persistence of nitrate and pesticides in the surficial and upper Floridan aquifers in two agricultural areas in the southeastern United States (United States)

    Katz, B.G.; Berndt, M.P.; Crandall, C.A.


    Differences in the degree of confinement, redox conditions, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) are the main factors that control the persistence of nitrate and pesticides in the Upper Floridan aquifer (UFA) and overlying surficial aquifer beneath two agricultural areas in the southeastern US. Groundwater samples were collected multiple times from 66 wells during 1993–2007 in a study area in southwestern Georgia (ACFB) and from 48 wells in 1997–98 and 2007–08 in a study area in South Carolina (SANT) as part of the US Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. In the ACFB study area, where karst features are prevalent, elevated nitrate-N concentrations in the oxic unconfined UFA (median 2.5 mg/L) were significantly (p = 0.03) higher than those in the overlying oxic surficial aquifer (median 1.5 mg/L). Concentrations of atrazine and deethylatrazine (DEA; the most frequently detected pesticide and degradate) were higher in more recent groundwater samples from the ACFB study area than in samples collected prior to 2000. Conversely, in the SANT study area, nitrate-N concentrations in the UFA were mostly <0.06 mg/L, resulting from anoxic conditions and elevated DOC concentrations that favored denitrification. Although most parts of the partially confined UFA in the SANT study area were anoxic or had mixed redox conditions, water from 28 % of the sampled wells was oxic and had low DOC concentrations. Based on the groundwater age information, nitrate concentrations reflect historic fertilizer N usage in both the study areas, but with a lag time of about 15–20 years. Simulated responses to future management scenarios of fertilizer N inputs indicated that elevated nitrate-N concentrations would likely persist in oxic parts of the surficial aquifer and UFA for decades even with substantial decreases in fertilizer N inputs over the next 40 years.

  2. Five questiouns dentists should ask about their money. Question 4: how do the communities (family, practice, profession, culture, neighborhood, etc.) in which I live affect my financial decisions? (United States)

    Jones, Troy E


    Communities, and the personal value you place on them, affect all your spending, both business and personal. Once you begin questioning and analyzing how they affect your financial decisions, you will begin making more complete choices - the better-informed, the greater chance of success. Society has attached many financial expectations to dentists - both good and bad. By participating in this part of the Five Questions process, you will be able to separate the business of dentistry from the practice of dentistry and your persona beliefs from the beliefs of your communities'.

  3. Challenges and Issues in the Evaluation of Teaching Quality: How Does it Affect Teachers' Professional Practice? A UK Perspective. (United States)

    Warman, Sheena M


    Evaluation of the quality of higher education is undertaken for the purposes of ensuring accountability, accreditation, and improvement, all of which are highly relevant to veterinary teaching institutions in the current economic climate. If evaluation is to drive change, it needs to be able to influence teaching practice. This article reviews the literature relating to evaluation of teaching quality in higher education with a particular focus on teachers' professional practice. Student evaluation and peer observation of teaching are discussed as examples of widely used evaluation processes. These approaches clearly have the potential to influence teachers' practice. Institutions should strive to ensure the development of a supportive culture that prioritizes teaching quality while being aware of any potential consequences related to cost, faculty time, or negative emotional responses that might result from the use of different evaluation methods.

  4. Translating theory into practice: integrating the affective and cognitive learning dimensions for effective instruction in engineering education (United States)

    Alias, Maizam; Lashari, Tahira Anwar; Abidin Akasah, Zainal; Jahaya Kesot, Mohd.


    Learning in the cognitive domain is highly emphasised and has been widely investigated in engineering education. Lesser emphasis is placed on the affective dimension although the role of affects has been supported by research. The lack of understanding on learning theories and how they may be translated into classroom application of teaching and learning is one factor that contributes to this situation. This paper proposes a working framework for integrating the affective dimension of learning into engineering education that is expected to promote better learning within the cognitive domain. Four major learning theories namely behaviourism, cognitivism, socio-culturalism, and constructivism were analysed and how affects are postulated to influence cognition are identified. The affective domain constructs identified to be important are self-efficacy, attitude and locus of control. Based on the results of the analysis, a framework that integrates methodologies for achieving learning in the cognitive domain with the support of the affective dimension of learning is proposed. It is expected that integrated approach can be used as a guideline to engineering educators in designing effective and sustainable instructional material that would result in the effective engineers for future development.

  5. 热带气旋对浙江省农业影响的风险区划%Risk division of tropical cyclone affecting agricultural production in Zhejiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨忠恩; 金志凤; 胡波; 霍治国; 姚益平; 叶建刚


    依据自然灾害风险系统分析理论、热带气旋和农业经济资料,综合灾害风险指数法,在分析热带气旋对浙江省农业影响的致灾因子的危险性、孕灾环境的暴露性、承灾体的脆弱性和防灾减灾能力的基础上,应用加权综合法得到不同网格的综合风险度指数.基于GIS技术,开展了热带气旋对浙江省农业影响的风险区划.结果表明:致灾因子危险性的最大值分布在浙江东南沿海,孕灾环境暴露性的最大值分布在丽水山区,承灾体脆弱性的最高值分布在杭州、绍兴市区以及兰溪市,防灾减灾能力的最高值主要分布在杭州、宁波、温州市区及其周边地区.综合考虑各因子的综合风险度,热带气旋对浙江省农业影响的风险可分为高风险、次高风险、中等风险、次低风险和低风险5个等级.该研究可为浙江省农业结构调整和防灾减灾提供科学依据.%Based on the natural disasters system risk theory and the disaster risk index method, and combining with tropical cyclone data and agricultural economic data, this paper analyzed the dangers of disaster-causing factors of tropical cyclone to agricultural production, the exposure of hazard-formative environments, the vulnerability of hazard-affected bodies, and the capacity of disasters prevention and mitigation in Zhejiang Province. The comprehensive risk indices of different grids were obtained by using the weighting comprehensive evaluation method. Based on GIS technology, the risk of tropical cyclone affecting the agricultural production in Zhejiang Province was spatially divided. The maximum risk of disaster-causing factors was distributed in the southeast coast of Zhejiang, the maximum exposure of hazard-formative environments and the vulnerability of hazard-affected bodies occurred in the mountainous areas of Lishui City, and in Han-gzhou, Lanxi, and Shaoxing and its surrounding areas, and the maximum disaster prevention and

  6. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture]. (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias


    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  7. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production%流域水市场建设对我国农业生产的现实意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新育; 吴旭贤


    在介绍水市场相关概念并对国内外关于水市场的研究进展进行简述的基础上,分析了水市场的制度设计特点:农业水权的优先分配;市场结构的紧密构筑;取水权和排污权的合理定价;取水总量与排污总量的科学制定.揭示了流域水市场建设对我国农业生产的现实意义:保障农业用水安全;有效缓解农业旱情;节约农业生产用水;提高农产品质量.%On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research both domestic market and foreign market, the system design features of water market is analyzed. The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right, the close construction of market structure, reasonable price making of the water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage. The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural produc tion are revealed, which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water; effectively alleviating agricultural drought; saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  8. 农林经济管理专业新型实践教学模式构建%Construction of New Social Practice Teaching Mode for Agricultural Economics and Management Specialty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕红霞; 薛兴利; 厉昌习


    农经专业现行实践教学存在实践能力内生性强、专业知识转化差,专业知识与服务"三农"缺少有效衔接等不足。根据农林经济管理专业特点、实践阶段和学生需求,构建的三种新型实践教学运行模式,即就近选点的实践基地模式、优化项目的实验室模式和灵活多元的毕业实习模式,可以促使学生将专业知识转化为能力,实现学以致用的目的。%The current practice teaching of agricultural economics and management specialty has many defects such as the strong endogenesis in practical abilities, the poor transformation of professional knowledge, the lacking of effective connection between professional knowledge and serving "three agricultures" and so on. The article designed three new types of practice teaching modes according to the characteristics of agricultural economics and management specialty, practice teaching and needs of students. The new modes are the nearest-selected practice base mode, the optimization project laboratory mode and the flexible and plural graduation practice mode, which can help students to transform professional knowledge into the ability so as to learn to meet the needs in future practical situations.

  9. Foreign political instability and U.S. agricultural exports: evidence from panel data


    Awokuse, Titus O.; Conrado M. Gempesaw II


    The intent of this paper is to examine the impact of political instability in importing nations on U.S. agricultural trade. A panel data set representing eighty-seven importing countries covering the 1990-2000 period was used to investigate how the degree of democratic practices and three types of political instability (violent, social, and elite) affect U.S agricultural exports. The empirical results suggest that political instability do have a statistically significant effect on U.S. agricu...

  10. Comparison of net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity affected by management practices in two dryland cropping sites (United States)

    Little is known about the effect of management practices on net global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) that account for all sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in dryland cropping systems. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of a combinat...

  11. Factors Affecting English as a Foreign Language Teachers' Participation in Online Communities of Practice: The Case of Webheads in Action (United States)

    Bostancioglu, Ali


    An online community of practice (OCoP) is a group of people, who are brought together by a shared interest and with the aim of deepening their understanding of an area of knowledge through regular interactions facilitated by computer mediated communication (CMC) tools. An OCoP can potentially provides teachers with those elements of effective…

  12. Preparing towards Preventing and Containing an Ebola Virus Disease Outbreak: What Socio-cultural Practices May Affect Containment Efforts in Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Baba Adongo


    Full Text Available Ebola Virus Disease (EVD is a condition with high fatality. Though the disease is deadly, taking precautions to reduce contact with infected people and their secretions can prevent cross- infection. In the 2014 EVD outbreak, socio-cultural factors were identified to be responsible for the spread of the disease in the three most affected countries in West Africa. In this light, we undertook this study to identify socio-cultural factors that may influence the prevention and containment of EVD in Ghana and ways to address such practices.We conducted a descriptive qualitative study in five regions in Ghana. Twenty-five focus group discussions (5 in each region with community members (4 in each region and nurses (1 in each region were conducted. In addition, forty (40 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders and opinion leaders; eight in each region. All interviews were recorded using a digital voice recorder and transcribed. With the aid of Nvivo 10 for windows, we analyzed the data using framework analysis.We found that socio-cultural practices, such as care of the body of dead and burial practices, widowhood rites and anointing children with water used to rinse the dead, were common. These practices require individuals coming into direct contact with either the dead or items used to take care of the dead. Social norms also require frequent handshakes in all social gatherings such as funeral, and religious congregations. We also found that self-medication (using herbs and orthodox medications was a common practice. People use both biomedical and non-orthodox health outlets either simultaneously or in sequence in times of ill-health.The study concludes that high risk socio-cultural practices were common among Ghanaians and generally perceived as indispensable. These high risk practices may hinder containment efforts in the event of an outbreak. Community leaders should be engaged in any social mobilization to modify these

  13. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.


    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  14. Agricultural Geophysics (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  15. Hydrological Response to ~30 years of Agricultural Surface Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Sofia


    Full Text Available Amongst human practices, agricultural surface-water management systems represent some of the largest integrated engineering works that shaped floodplains during history, directly or indirectly affecting the landscape. As a result of changes in agricultural practices and land use, many drainage networks have changed producing a greater exposure to flooding with a broad range of impacts on society, also because of climate inputs coupling with the human drivers. This research focuses on three main questions: which kind of land use changes related to the agricultural practices have been observed in the most recent years (~30 years? How does the influence on the watershed response to land use and land cover changes depend on the rainfall event characteristics and soil conditions, and what is their related significance? The investigation presented in this work includes modelling the water infiltration due to the soil properties and analysing the distributed water storage offered by the agricultural drainage system in a study area in Veneto (north-eastern Italy. The results show that economic changes control the development of agro-industrial landscapes, with effects on the hydrological response. Key elements that can enhance or reduce differences are the antecedent soil conditions and the climate characteristics. Criticalities should be expected for intense and irregular rainfall events, and for events that recurrently happen. Agricultural areas might be perceived to be of low priority when it comes to public funding of flood protection, compared to the priority given to urban ones. These outcomes highlight the importance of understanding how agricultural practices can be the driver of or can be used to avoid, or at least mitigate, flooding. The proposed methods can be valuable tools in evaluating the costs and benefits of the management of water in agriculture to inform better policy decision-making.

  16. Environmental aspects in plant protection practices of non-agricultural pesticide users: case study of communes and the ministry of public works and transport (MET) of the Walloon Region (Belgium). (United States)

    Godeaux, D; Schiffers, B; Culot, M


    In order to gain a better understanding of non-agricultural pesticide use and to prepare the legislative and technical dossiers required under the Water Framework Directive, between October 2006 and March 2007, two surveys were conducted of 97 Walloon communes and 65 districts of the Walloon Ministry of Public Works and Transport (MET) (General Directorates for Motorways and Roads and for Waterway Infrastructure). The questionnaire (26 questions on six topics) was sent by e-mail or fax, with a response rate of 60 out of 97 communes and 33 out of 65 districts. This article describes the environmental aspects of the surveys (health-related aspects are the subject of separate article). The surveys have brought to light a number of good practices (including zero pesticides) and a growing awareness of environmental issues among non-agricultural users. However, bad habits, legislation infringements and a failure to follow good plant protection practice are still a problem and pose major environmental risks (in the form of water pollution from pesticides). Information, awareness-raising and training therefore remain a priority for non-agricultural users.

  17. From Zero to Sixty: A Survey of College Writing Teachers' Grading Practices and the Affect of Failed Performance (United States)

    Babb, Jacob; Corbett, Steven J.


    Drawing on results from a survey distributed nationally through the WPA and WCenter listservs, we examine the affective aspect of failure in teachers' responses to student writing, aiming to pinpoint teachers' perceptions of why students fail. Overall, we posit that writing studies needs to pay closer attention to teachers' emotional responses to…

  18. Descriptive and numeric estimation of risk for psychotic disorders among affected individuals and relatives: implications for clinical practice. (United States)

    Austin, Jehannine C; Hippman, Catriona; Honer, William G


    Studies show that individuals with psychotic illnesses and their families want information about psychosis risks for other relatives. However, deriving accurate numeric probabilities for psychosis risk is challenging, and people have difficulty interpreting probabilistic information; thus, some have suggested that clinicians should use risk descriptors, such as "moderate" or "quite high", rather than numbers. Little is known about how individuals with psychosis and their family members use quantitative and qualitative descriptors of risk in the specific context of chance for an individual to develop psychosis. We explored numeric and descriptive estimations of psychosis risk among individuals with psychotic disorders and unaffected first-degree relatives. In an online survey, respondents numerically and descriptively estimated risk for an individual to develop psychosis in scenarios where they had: A) no affected family members; and B) an affected sibling. Participants comprised 219 affected individuals and 211 first-degree relatives participated. Affected individuals estimated significantly higher risks than relatives. Participants attributed all descriptors between "very low" and "very high" to probabilities of 1%, 10%, 25% and 50%+. For a given numeric probability, different risk descriptors were attributed in different scenarios. Clinically, brief interventions around risk (using either probabilities or descriptors alone) are vulnerable to miscommunication and potentially negative consequences-interventions around risk are best suited to in-depth discussion.

  19. Digitalization in a Mandatory Implementation Context : How digitalization is achieved in practice and the elements that affect it


    Velsberg, Ott


    Healthcare around the world is facing strenuous times, whereby there is a need for reduced costs, improved efficiency, and effectiveness. Digitalization is a transformational phenomenon argued to solve the many problems of healthcare. As of such, this thesis studies digitalization in a healthcare setting - considering how digitalization is achieved in practice, and what elements hamper and enable sociotechnical changes required for digitalization. To study these aspects, a qualitative case st...

  20. How Should an Understanding of the Process of Language Development Affect the Practice of Teaching English as a Foreign Language?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This essay firstly has a brief review on three theoretical approaches: behaviourism,innatism and interactionism,and their relationship with language acquisition.Then it points out the significance of understanding the process of language development in the practice of classroom teaching English as a foreign language.Furthermore,some constractive suggestions are put forward in order th at English teachers may achieve more in their English teaching.

  1. Effects of agricultural best-management practices on the Brush Run Creek headwaters, Adams County, Pennsylvania, prior to and during nutrient management (United States)

    Langland, M.J.; Fishel, D.K.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, investigated the effects of agricultural best-management practices on surface-water quality as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Chesapeake Bay Program. This report characterizes a 0.63-square- mile agricultural watershed underlain by shale, mudstone, and red arkosic sandstone in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin. The water quality of the Brush Run Creek site was studied from October 1985 through September 1991, prior to and during the implementation of nutrient management designed to reduce sediment and nutrient discharges into Conewago Creek, a tributary to the Chesapeake Bay. The original study area was 0.38 square mile and included an area immediately upstream from a manure lagoon. The study area was increased to 0.63 square mile in the fall of 1987 after an extensive tile-drain network was discovered upstream and downstream from the established streamflow gage, and the farm owner made plans to spray irrigate manure to the downstream fields. Land use for about 64 percent of the 0.63 square mile watershed is cropland, 14 percent is pasture, 7 percent is forest, and the remaining 15 percent is yards, buildings, water, or gardens. About 73 percent of the cropland was used to produce corn during the study. The average annual animal population consisted of 57,000 chickens, 1,530 hogs, and 15 sheep during the study. About 59,340 pounds of nitrogen and 13,710 pounds of phosphorus were applied as manure and commercial fertilizer to fields within the subbasin during the 3-year period prior to implementation of nutrient management. During nutrient management, about 14 percent less nitrogen and 57 percent less phosphorus were applied as commercial and manure fertilizer. Precipitation totaled 209 inches, or 13 percent less than the long-term normal, during the 6-year study. Concentrations of total ammonia in

  2. Agri-cultural Heritage Research and Conservation Practices in China:Progresses and Perspectives%中国农业文化遗产研究与保护实践的主要进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闵庆文; 张丹; 何露; 孙业红


    performing a variety of agri-cultural practices suitable for different natural conditions and created splendid agri-cultural heritages, including agri-cultural landscapes, knowledge, techniques and so on.The solid foundations for the study of agri-cultural heritage were laid by the research in agri-cultural archeology, agri-cultural history, philosophy of traditional agriculture, and agri-cultural folklore started at the beginning of the 20th century.In 2005, the Qingtian Rice-Fish Culture System in Zhejiang Province was selected as the first Globally Important Agri-cultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) pilot site in China by FAO.It is a milestone of the study in agri-cultural heritage in China, characterized by cooperation among multi-disciplines, combination of theory and practice,and the harmony between conservation and development.This paper introduces research progresses of agri-cultural heritage and its conservation, including documentary-based research,archaeology, concept and connotation, system structure and mechanism, multi-functionality of agriculture, and ecosystem services.It also summarizes the experiences and results achieved on dynamic conservation, law and policy supporting, conservation and development approaches.In addition, there are some issues we need to pay more attention to during the dynamic conservation of agri-cultural heritage: 1) to enrich the research content of agri-cultural heritage, and to pay more attention to the mechanism and quantitative studies of traditional agriculture ecological models, 2) to study the agri-cultural heritage interdisciplinary, 3) to enhance the investigation, acquisition, and excavation of agri-cultural heritage values, 4) to pay more attention to innovation, development and utilization of the agri-cultural heritage, 5) to pay more attention to the agrobiodiversity and agro-cultural diversity to promote the local development and living standards, and to further support the modern agriculture, 6) to avoid the

  3. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.


    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  4. Achieving Long-Term Protection of Water Quality of Grand Lake St. Marys Through Implementation of Conservation Practices and Control of Phosphorus Input from Agricultural Drainage (United States)

    Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM), a 13,000 acre lake in northwestern Ohio, is experiencing toxic levels of algal blooms resulting primarily from phosphorus input from agricultural runoff. The algal blooms are so severe that the Ohio Department of Natural Resources advised against any...

  5. Influence of agricultural practice on trace metals in soils and vegetation in the water conservation area along the East River (Dongjiang River), South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Chunling, E-mail: [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Yang, Renxiu [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan [Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Li, Xiangdong [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon (Hong Kong)


    Dongjiang (East River) is the key resource of potable water for the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Although industrial activities are limited in the water conservation area along this river, agriculture is very intensive. The present study evaluated trace metals in four soils under different cultivation. The total concentrations of trace metals decreased in the order orchard soil > vegetable soil > paddy soil > natural soil, reflecting decreasing inputs of agrochemicals to soils. Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. The {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratio in the above-ground tissues of plant was significantly lower than their corresponding soils. In combination with the low transfer factor of Pb from soil to plant shoots, atmospheric deposition is probably a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves. Regular monitoring on the soil quality in this area is recommended for the safety of water resource and agricultural products. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Soil Cd exceeded the upper limit of Chinese standard for agricultural soils. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relatively high concentrations of Cd were recorded in the 60-cm soil profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural soil had higher concentrations of metals and lower {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb ratios. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb in above-ground tissues of plant was more anthropogenic than soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atmospheric deposition may be a major pathway for Pb to enter plant leaves.

  6. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M


    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  7. On Factors Influencing Practice Teaching of "Art of Floral Arrangement" in Agricultural Universities%高等农业院校“插花艺术”课实践教学影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳敏; 施芬


    Floral arranging teaching in agricultural universities aims to attain multiple objectives of training students' practical skills and upgrading their cultural and artistic accomplishments.With "fishbone diagram",the factors influencing the practice teaching of "art of floral arrangement" in agricultural universities are analyzed from the angles of university,faculty,students and society in order to point out the correct direction of practice teaching reform.%高等农业院校插花艺术教学兼有实践技能培养、艺术教育和素质教育等功能。基于"鱼骨图"分析法,从学校、教师、学生、社会四个维度探讨了高等农业院校"插花艺术"课实践教学的影响因素,明确了实践教学改革的方向。

  8. Updated distribution of Osmoderma eremita in Abruzzo (Italy and agro-pastoral practices affecting its conservation (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Giangregorio


    Full Text Available New records of Osmoderma eremita (Scopoli, 1763 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae are reported for Abruzzo (Italy, together with a review of its distribution in this region. O. eremita is a saproxylic beetle dependent on the presence of hollow deciduous trees with abundant wood mould in their cavities. The major threats for the species are habitat loss and fragmentation. EU Habitats Directive requests to the member States its protection and the monitoring of its conservation status. Detection of its occurrence is the first step to protect the species. The surveys have been carried out in ten sites of Abruzzo by using black cross-windows traps baited with specific pheromone. The species has been recorded for the first time in the Sant’Antonio forest and its presence is confirmed in the Peligna Valley, after a decade. The populations seem to be confined to small patches of suitable habitats. At local level, the abandonment of the pollarding practice (willow and beech forests and the use of pollarded trees as biomass for fuel are the major threats for this species. Indeed some key actions, such as the protection of old hollow trees and the continuation of pollarding practice in rural landscape, could be key factors for the conservation strategies of the species in the study area.

  9. Commentary: a practical guide for translating basic research on affective science to implementing physiology in clinical child and adolescent assessments. (United States)

    Aldao, Amelia; De Los Reyes, Andres


    The National Institute of Mental Health recently launched the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). RDoC is a framework that facilitates the dimensional assessment and classification of processes relevant to mental health (e.g., affect, regulation, cognition, social affiliation), as reflected in measurements across multiple units of analysis (e.g., physiology, circuitry, genes, self-reports). A key focus of RDoC involves opening new lines of research examining patients' responses on biological measures, with the key goal of developing new therapeutic techniques that effectively target mechanisms of mental disorders. Yet applied researchers and practitioners rarely use biological measures within mental health assessments, which may present challenges in translating RDoC-guided research into improvements in patient care. Thus, if RDoC is to result in research that yields clinical tools that reduce the burden of mental illness and improve public health, we ought to develop strategies for effectively implementing biological measures in the context of clinical assessments. In this special issue, we sought to provide an initial step in this direction by assembling a collection of articles from leading research teams carrying out pioneering work on implementing multimodal assessments (biological, subjective, behavioral) of affective processes in applied settings. In this commentary, we expand upon the work presented in this special issue by making a series of suggestions for how to most parsimoniously conduct multimodal assessments of affective processes in applied research and clinical settings. We hope that this approach will facilitate translations of the RDoC framework into applied research and clinic settings.

  10. Review of the molecular profile and modern prognostic markers for gastric lymphoma: how do they affect clinical practice? (United States)

    Alevizos, Leonidas; Gomatos, Ilias P; Smparounis, Spyridon; Konstadoulakis, Manousos M; Zografos, Georgios


    Primary gastric lymphoma is a rare cancer of the stomach with an indeterminate prognosis. Recently, a series of molecular prognostic markers has been introduced to better describe this clinical entity. This review describes the clinical importance of several oncogenes, apoptotic genes and chromosomal mutations in the initiation and progress of primary non-Hodgkin gastric lymphoma and their effect on patient survival. We also outline the prognostic clinical importance of certain cellular adhesion molecules, such as ICAM and PECAM-1, in patients with gastric lymphoma, and we analyze the correlation of these molecules with apoptosis, angiogenesis, tumour growth and metastatic potential. We also focus on the host-immune response and the impact of Helicobacter pylori infection on gastric lymphoma development and progression. Finally, we explore the therapeutic methods currently available for gastric lymphoma, comparing the traditional invasive approach with more recent conservative options, and we stress the importance of the application of novel molecular markers in clinical practice.

  11. Telling stories of war through the screen. Participatory video approaches and practice for peace in conflict-affected contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Baú


    Full Text Available By bringing together literatures of Communication for Development and Conflict Transformation, this paper provides a theoretical illustration of the impact of participatory video as a tool for overcoming hostility among groups, as well as for healing and re-connecting communities that have endured loss and suffering as a consequence of civil war and inter-communal violence. This is accompanied by a number of practical experiences of projects implemented by organizations on the ground. This type of scenario, often characterized by a lack of dialogue among groups, has been recognized to be fertile ground for the setting up of community media, where people are given the means for self-expression. In particular, video productions created through participatory methodology can be effective tools for dealing with the hostility and grief that linger after a civil war, as they provide those channels of communication that are needed for effective development interventions aimed at community healing.

  12. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the health of small-scale farmers in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Thomsen, Jane F; Sekimpi, Deogratias K


    countries, small-scale farmers in Uganda do not use the most hazardous pesticides (WHO class 1a and 1b). However use of WHO class II pesticides and those of lower toxicity is seen in combination with inadequate knowledge and practice among the farmers. This poses a danger of acute intoxications, chronic......BACKGROUND: Over the past years there has been an increase in the use of pesticides in developing countries. This study describes pesticide use among small-scale farmers in Uganda and analyses predictors of pesticide poisoning (intoxication) symptoms. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted...... using a standardized questionnaire. Some 317 small-scale farmers in two districts in Uganda were interviewed about pesticide use, knowledge and attitude, symptoms of intoxication, personal protective equipment (PPE) and hygiene. The risk of reporting symptoms was analysed using logistic regression...

  13. Increasing Knowledge Flows between the Agricultural Research and Advisory System in Italy: Combining Virtual and Non-Virtual Interaction in Communities of Practice (United States)

    Materia, Valentina Cristiana; Giarè, Francesca; Klerkx, Laurens


    Purpose: The aim of the paper is to analyse the use of Communities of Practice and Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to enhance knowledge sharing between researchers and advisors. The associated research question is to what extent ICT supported a virtual Community of Practice and has been effective in counteracting fragmentation…

  14. Identification and characterisation of factors affecting losses in the large-scale, non-ventilated bulk storage of wood chips and development of best storage practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garstang, J.; Weekes, A.; Poulter, R.; Bartlett, D.


    The report describes the findings of a study to determine the factors affecting the commercial storage of wood chips for biomass power generation in the UK. The UK's first such plant in North Yorkshire uses a mixture of forestry residues and short rotation coppice (SRC) willow, where problems with the stored fuel highlighted the need to determine best storage practices. Two wood chip piles were built (one with willow chip and the other with wood chips from board leaf forestry residues) and monitored (moisture, temperature, chemical composition, spore numbers and species, heat and air flows, bulk density, etc). Local weather data was also obtained. Recommendations for future storage practices are made.

  15. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.


    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  16. What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon in boreo-temperate systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddaway, Neal R.; Hedlund, Katarina; Jackson, Louise E.


    Background Soils contain the largest stock of organic carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems and changes in soil C stocks may significantly affect atmospheric CO2. A significant part of soil C is present in cultivated soils that occupy about 35 % of the global land surface. Agricultural...... intensification has led to practices that may decrease soil organic carbon (SOC), and agricultural management has the potential to be a powerful tool for climate change mitigation and increased soil fertility through SOC sequestration. Here, we systematically map evidence relating to the impacts of agricultural...

  17. Differing Levels of Forestry Best Management Practices at Stream Crossing Structures Affect Sediment Delivery and Installation Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Morris


    Full Text Available Forestry best management practices (BMPs are used to reduce sedimentation from forest stream crossings. Three BMP treatments (BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ were applied to three forest road stream crossings (bridge, culvert, and ford. BMP− did not meet existing BMP guidelines, BMP-std met standard recommendations, and BMP+ treatments exceeded recommendations. Following BMP applications, three simulated rainfall intensities (low, medium, and high were applied in order to evaluate sediment delivery from crossing type and BMP level. During rainfall simulation, sediment concentrations (mg/L were collected with automated samplers and discharge (L/s was estimated to calculate total sediment loading. Costs of stream crossings and BMP levels were also quantified. Mean sediment associated with the three stream crossings were 3.38, 1.87, and 0.64 Mg for the BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels, respectively. Ford, culvert, and bridge crossings produced 13.04, 12.95, and 0.17 Mg of sediment during construction, respectively. BMP enhancement was more critical for sediment control at the culvert and ford crossings than at the bridge. Respective costs for BMP−, BMP-std, and BMP+ levels were $5,368, $5,658, and $5,858 for the bridge; $3,568, $4,166 and $4,595 for the culvert; and $180, $420 and $1,903 for the ford. Costs and sediment values suggest that current standard BMP levels effectively reduce stream sediment while minimizing costs.

  18. Research survey of good agriculture practice and Development and utilization of Calyx Seu Fructus Physalis%锦灯笼规范化种植及资源的开发利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程海涛; 孙伟; 李敬; 许永华


    This paper reviewed the standard operating practice of standardized planting technology for Calyx Seu Fructus Physalis,From the nutritional value and medicinal value expound the Development and utilization of it,and it provides a basis for good agriculture practice and resources Development.%本文阐述了锦灯笼规范化种植的关键性技术,并从营养价值和药用价值两方面说明了对其开发利用的情况,为规范锦灯笼的生产技术和资源的开发利用提供参考。

  19. O vozmozhnostjah ispol'zovanija istoricheskogo opyta tehnologij povyshenija plodorodija pochv v Vostochnoj Prussii v sel'skohozjajstvennom predprinimatel'stve Kaliningradskoj oblasti [On the possibility to adopt the historical practice of applying technologies for land fertility increase in Eastern Prussia at agricultural enterprises of the Kaliningrad region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levina Roza


    Full Text Available This article considers the features of East Prussian land use system, whose crucial component was technologies for land fertility increase. A special package of measures in the framework of melioration and irrigation activities accounted for the high productivity of agriculture in this territory despite the fact that the local climate conditions can hardly be called perfect according to the well-known principles of agricultural science. The authors offer an overview of scientific approaches to the reconstruction and practical application of ideas and principles of progressive agriculture consistent with a more general area of organic agriculture. Special attention is paid to the modern agricultural practice in the territory of the Kaliningrad region — former East Prussia — and the possibilities to use the methods for increasing land fertility that were intensively employed by Prussians.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Precision Agriculture, also known as Precision Farming, or Prescription Farming, is a modern agriculture technology system, which brings " precision" into agriculture system. All concepts of Precision Agriculture are established on the collection and management of variable cropland information. As the tool of collecting, managing and analyzing spatial data, GIS is the key technology of integrated Precision Agriculture system. This article puts forward the concept of Farmland GIS and designs Farmland GIS into five modules, and specifies the functions of the each module, which builds the foundation for practical development of the software. The study and development of Farmland GIS will propel the spreading of Precision Agriculture technology in China.

  2. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemperière Guy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past.

  3. 高职农产品质量检测专业校内实训基地功能探析--以辽宁农业职业技术学院农产品质量检测专业为例%Function Analysis on Practical Training Base for Agricultural Product Quality and Security Detecting Major in Vocational Technical College---Take Agricultural Product Quality and Security Detecting Major in Liaoning Agricultural College as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    实训基地建设对高职院校培养高素质创新型人才具有重要意义。以辽宁农业职业技术学院农产品质量检测专业为例,根据实训基地各功能与人才培养任务直接相关的程度,对创新教育视野下高职院校校内实训基地功能进行了探讨。%Practical training base construction is of great significance to cultivation of high quality and creative talent for vocation al technical college. This paper takes agricultural product quality and security detecting major in Liaoning Agricultural College as an ex ample,according to the correlation of training base functions and talent cultivation,makes discussion on practical training base function in creative education view for vocational technical college.

  4. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  5. Assessing the Agricultural Vulnerability for India under Changing Climate (United States)

    Sharma, Tarul; Vardhan Murari, Harsha; Karmakar, Subhankar; Ghosh, Subimal; Singh, Jitendra


    Global climate change has proven to show majorly negative impacts for the far future. These negative impacts adversely affect almost all the fields including agriculture, water resources, tourism, and marine ecosystem. Among these, the effects on agriculture are considered to be of prime importance since its regional impacts can directly affect the global food security. Under such lines, it becomes essential to understand how climate change directs agricultural production for a region along with its vulnerability. In India, rice and wheat are considered as major staple diet and hence understanding its production loss/gain due to regional vulnerability to climate change becomes necessary. Here, an attempt has been made to understand the agricultural vulnerability for rice and wheat, considering yield as a function of temperature and precipitation during growing period. In order to accomplish this objective, the ratio of actual to potential evapo-transpiration has been considered which serves as a reliable indicator; with more this ratio towards unity, less vulnerable will be the region. The current objective needs an integration of climatic, hydrological and agricultural parameters; that can be achieved by simulating a climate data driven hydrologic (Variable Infiltration Capacity, VIC) model and a crop (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer, DSSAT) model. The proposed framework is an attempt to derive a crop vulnerability map that can facilitate in strategizing adaption practices which can reduce the adverse impacts of climate change in future.

  6. Factors affecting compliance with clinical practice guidelines for pap smear screening among healthcare providers in africa: systematic review and meta-summary of 2045 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Asonganyi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. METHODS: And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals. Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%, Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%, Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%, Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%, Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45% and also no reason given (FES = 36%. IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

  7. 全日制农业推广硕士专业实践技能的构成与培养%Constitution and Cultivation of Professional Practice Technique in Master of Agriculture Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This article discusses that the professional practice skills of agricultural extension master was constituted by basic skill professional skills and innovation ability. The basic ability is the premise of the formation of basic skills. The ability could change into basic skills by training continually. The basic skills come into being professional skills by combining professional practice effectually. The professional skills could be promoted to research and innovation ability. The author advises that the postgraduate should further enhance the professional practice skills, strengthen innovation ability, especially the practice innova- tion ability training in the graduate student stage.%农业推广硕士的专业实践技能由基本技能、专业技能与创新能力构成,基本能力是形成基本技巧的前提,能力通过不断训练演变为基本技能。基本技能通过与专业实践的有效结合形成专业技能,专业技能进一步提升为创新能力。提出了在研究生阶段应进一步提升专业实践技能,强化创新能力尤其是实践创新能力的培养。

  8. Research on Cultivation Mode of Engineering Practical Ability Based on Post Simulation – Taking the hydrology and water resources engineering major in Tianjin Agricultural University as the example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lizhen


    Full Text Available This article aims at exploring the cultivation mode of engineering practical abstract based on post simulation to provide scientific and reasonable basis for talent cultivation. According to survey of hydrology and water resources industry, we determine the talent specification and its post group, analyze the relationship of post group and course system, reform the teaching system and relevant condition and integrate the engineering practice of post simulation. Finally, we make an analysis and verification on the cultivation effect in different perspective and find that each ability of students cultivated from this mode has been greatly improved, by which we confirm that the cultivation mode of engineering practical ability based on post simulation has an important meaning for cultivating talents in engineering faculty.

  9. "Agricultural Statecraft" in the Cold War: a case study of Poland and the West from 1945 to 1957. (United States)

    Spaulding, Robert Mark


    This paper examines how the rise and fall of Polish agriculture affected the larger political and economic relationship among Poland and three key members of the western alliance - the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Federal Republic of Germany - in the first decade of the Cold War. This period is revealing precisely because the reversal of fortunes in the Polish agricultural economy required the Polish government and some western counterparts to maneuver through periods of both agricultural advantage and disadvantage. Agricultural strategies as means and ends motivated the Polish, British, West German, and American governments to actions that bent, stretched, and limited some well-established practices in Cold War relations across divided Europe. By explicating the political consequences of changing flows of agricultural exports and imports in one specific context, this essay serves as case study of the role of agriculture in the global context of the Cold War.

  10. Factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice in Vhembe District, Limpopo Province as perceived by professional midwives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thivhulawi Malwela


    Full Text Available Background: Professional midwives have an important role to play in midwifery training to produce a competent midwife. According to the social learning theory, professional midwives act as role models for students. When allocated for clinical learning experiences in the training hospitals, students will have the opportunity to observe the well-trained, skilled, and experienced professional midwives. The whole process will enable students to integrate theory with practice and they will become competent.Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the factors affecting integration of midwifery nursing science theory with clinical practice as perceived by midwives.Setting: The study was conducted at the training hospitals in Vhembe district of the Limpopo Province, South Africa. These hospitals were: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini.Methods: A qualitative explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. A Nonprobability, convenient sampling method was used to select 11 midwives from the following hospitals: Donald Fraser, Siloam, and Tshidzini, in Vhembe district. In-depth individual interviews were conducted. Data were analysed through open coding method.Result: One theme and five sub-themes emerged from the analysed data, namely: shortage of midwives, attitudes towards student midwives, reluctance to perform teaching functions, language barriers, and declining midwifery practice standards.Conclusion: Shortage of midwives in the clinical areas led to fewer numbers of mentors whom the students could observe and imitate to acquire clinical skills. Some of the midwives were reluctant to teach students. Recommendations were made for both training institutions and hospitals to employ preceptors for students in the clinical practical.

  11. 7 CFR 51.2956 - Practically clean. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practically clean. 51.2956 Section 51.2956 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Grades of Walnuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.2956 Practically clean. Practically...

  12. Soil macrofauna functional groups and their effects on soil structure, as related to agricultural management practices across agroecological zones of Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayuke, F.O.


    This study aimed at understanding the effects of crop management practices on soil macrofauna and the links with soil aggregation and soil organic matter dynamics, which is key to the improvement of infertile or degrading soils in Sub-Sahara Africa. Soil macrofauna, especially earthworms and termite

  13. Envisioning Agricultural Sustainability from Field to Plate: Comparing Producer and Consumer Attitudes and Practices toward "Environmentally Friendly" Food and Farming in Washington State, USA (United States)

    Selfa, Theresa; Jussaume, Raymond A., Jr.; Winter, Michael


    A substantial body of sociological research has examined the relationship between farmers' environmental attitudes and their conservation behaviors, but little research has compared the attitudes of producers and consumers toward the environment with their behaviors or practices in support of sustainable agri-food systems. This paper addresses…

  14. Teaching Practice Experience for Undergraduate Student Teachers: A Case Study of the Department of Education at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Tanzania (United States)

    Msangya, Benedicto William; Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Yihuan, Wang


    Education is the key to development; however, it is impossible to think the quality of education without having academically qualified and professional responsible teachers. The main objective of this study was to examine the perspectives of undergraduate student teachers toward teaching practice experience as a tool of learning to teach. A…

  15. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)


    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  16. Natural cycles and agricultural inputs: a farm gate Ecological Footprint analysis (United States)

    Passeri, Nicolo; Blasi, Emanuele; Borucke, Michael; Galli, Alessandro; Franco, Silvio


    Land suitability for different crops depends on soil, water and climate conditions, as well as farmers' cultivation choices. Moreover, the use of agricultural inputs affects the natural cycles of crops and impacts their production. By assessing the ecological performance of farms as influenced by crop types, cultivation choices and land suitability one can therefore evaluate the effectiveness of agricultural practices and governance's options. Ecological Footprint accounts can be used to measure such ecological performance. These accounts track human demand for natural resources and ecological services and compare this demand with nature ability to regenerate these resource and services. This regenerative capacity is called biocapacity. Both demand (Footprint) and supply (biocapacity) are expressed in global hectares. Farming different from most other human activities, not only uses natural resources, but also enhances or erodes ecological supply. It therefore affects all factors that determine both Footprint and biocapacity. Climate, farmers' skills and choices (fertilizers, pesticides, machines) determine crop productivity, and to what extent crops preserve or compromise soils. The aim of this work is to evaluate how farmer's choices affect resources overexploitation. The study analysed how the use of inputs influences natural cycles within farm boundaries. This result from a pilot case study will show how particular farming practices affect both the farm's biocapacity and Ecological Footprint. Such analysis is relevant for informing involved stakeholders, namely the farmers on more sustainable agricultural practices and the policy makers on more suitable agricultural policies.

  17. The relationship between carbon dioxide and agriculture in Ghana: a comparison of VECM and ARDL model. (United States)

    Asumadu-Sarkodie, Samuel; Owusu, Phebe Asantewaa


    In this paper, the relationship between carbon dioxide and agriculture in Ghana was investigated by comparing a Vector Error Correction Model (VECM) and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) Model. Ten study variables spanning from 1961 to 2012 were employed from the Food Agricultural Organization. Results from the study show that carbon dioxide emissions affect the percentage annual change of agricultural area, coarse grain production, cocoa bean production, fruit production, vegetable production, and the total livestock per hectare of the agricultural area. The vector error correction model and the autoregressive distributed lag model show evidence of a causal relationship between carbon dioxide emissions and agriculture; however, the relationship decreases periodically which may die over-time. All the endogenous variables except total primary vegetable production lead to carbon dioxide emissions, which may be due to poor agricultural practices to meet the growing food demand in Ghana. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds test shows evidence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between the percentage annual change of agricultural area, cocoa bean production, total livestock per hectare of agricultural area, total pulses production, total primary vegetable production, and carbon dioxide emissions. It is important to end hunger and ensure people have access to safe and nutritious food, especially the poor, orphans, pregnant women, and children under-5 years in order to reduce maternal and infant mortalities. Nevertheless, it is also important that the Government of Ghana institutes agricultural policies that focus on promoting a sustainable agriculture using environmental friendly agricultural practices. The study recommends an integration of climate change measures into Ghana's national strategies, policies and planning in order to strengthen the country's effort to achieving a sustainable environment.

  18. An Investigation into the Factors Affecting Physical Exercises of Students in Agricultural and Forestry Colleges%农林院校大学生体育锻炼影响因素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    受各种主客观因素的影响,不同院校的大学生体育锻炼的特征也表现出一定的差异性。通过实证调查、研究和分析,发现农林院校大学生的体育锻炼不仅受性别、就业心理压力、体育意识、体育兴趣等内在因素的影响,而且还受所学专业、体育硬件设施、学生经济情况、成长环境等外在因素影响。为此,应当通过体育教学模式改革,加大体育投入,培育大学生快乐体育和健康体育意识,建立大学生体育锻炼激励机制等方法,消除影响农林院校大学生体育锻炼的不利影响因素。%Due to the influence of various subjective and objective factors,the characteristics of physical training in different colleges also display differently.Through surveying,researching and analysis of literature,the study finds that physical exercises of college students in agricultural and forestry colleges are not only affected by internal factors of gender,psychological stress of employment,physical awareness,interest in sports,etc,but also by external factors of profession,hardware of sports facilities,financial situation of students,growth environment,etc.In view of this,we should reform sports teaching,increase investment in sports,foster consciousness of happy sports and fitness in college students,establish incentives of physical exercises,so as to eliminate the adverse factors for physical exercises of students in agricultural and forestry colleges.

  19. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  20. The Identification of Factors Affecting the Development and Practice of School-Based Counseling in Different National Contexts: A Grounded Theory Study Using a Worldwide Sample of Descriptive Journal Articles and Book Chapters (United States)

    Martin, Ian; Lauterbach, Alexandra; Carey, John


    A grounded theory methodology was used to analyze articles and book chapters describing the development and practice of school-based counseling in 25 different countries in order to identify the factors that affect development and practice. An 11-factor analytic framework was developed. Factors include: Cultural Factors, National Needs, Larger…