WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural populations observations

  1. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, M.G.; Richardson, W.B.; Reineke, D.M.; Gray, B.R.; Parmelee, J.R.; Weick, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In some agricultural regions, natural wetlands are scarce, and constructed agricultural ponds may represent important alternative breeding habitats for amphibians. Properly managed, these agricultural ponds may effectively increase the total amount of breeding habitat and help to sustain populations. We studied small, constructed agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota to assess their value as amphibian breeding sites. Our study examined habitat factors associated with amphibian reproduction at two spatial scales: the pond and the landscape surrounding the pond. We found that small agricultural ponds in southeastern Minnesota provided breeding habitat for at least 10 species of amphibians. Species richness and multispecies reproductive success were more closely associated with characteristics of the pond (water quality, vegetation, and predators) compared with characteristics of the surrounding landscape, but individual species were associated with both pond and landscape variables. Ponds surrounded by row crops had similar species richness and reproductive success compared with natural wetlands and ponds surrounded by nongrazed pasture. Ponds used for watering livestock had elevated concentrations of phosphorus, higher turbidity, and a trend toward reduced amphibian reproductive success. Species richness was highest in small ponds, ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) present, and lacking fish. Multispecies reproductive success was best in ponds with lower total nitrogen concentrations, less emergent vegetation, and lacking fish. Habitat factors associated with higher reproductive success varied among individual species. We conclude that small, constructed farm ponds, properly managed, may help sustain amphibian populations in landscapes where natural wetland habitat is rare. We recommend management actions such as limiting livestock access to the pond to improve water quality, reducing nitrogen input, and

  2. Quantitative population epigenetics - a catalyst for sustainable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stauß, Reinhold

    2014-01-01

    Ecological intensification of agricultural practices can be a minimum input agriculture with a maximum utilization of the epigenetic potential for a maximum output. The application of Quantitative Population Epigenetics as a catalyst for sustainable agriculture offers earning opportunities (market segments or business cases) for the existing players in the high-input agriculture in terms of win-win. For example, agriculture is a major factor in eutrophication of surface waters. By using...

  3. Agricultural intensification and the collapse of Europe's farmland bird populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donal, P F; Gree, R E; Heath, M F

    2001-01-01

    The populations of farmland birds in Europe declined markedly during the last quarter of the 20th century, representing a severe threat to biodiversity. Here, we assess whether declines in the populations and ranges of farmland birds across Europe reflect differences in agricultural intensity, which arise largely through differences in political history. Population and range changes were modelled in terms of a number of indices of agricultural intensity. Population declines and range contractions were significantly greater in countries with more intensive agriculture, and significantly higher in the European Union (EU) than in former communist countries. Cereal yield alone explained over 30% of the variation in population trends. The results suggest that recent trends in agriculture have had deleterious and measurable effects on bird populations on a continental scale. We predict that the introduction of EU agricultural policies into former communist countries hoping to accede to the EU in the near future will result in significant declines in the important bird populations there. PMID:12123294

  4. Quantitative population epigenetics - a catalyst for sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stauß, Reinhold

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of quantitative population epigenetics and the related importance of stress can lead to a paradigm shift, away from a high-input and high-output agriculture with a maximum utilization of the genetic potential to an ecological intensification, to a low-input and high-output agriculture which is optimization and harmonization of limiting stress factors to achieve maximum results with limited environmental or ecological resources.

  5. Population growth of Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana predates human agricultural activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cox Murray P

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human activities, such as agriculture, hunting, and habitat modification, exert a significant effect on native species. Although many species have suffered population declines, increased population fragmentation, or even extinction in connection with these human impacts, others seem to have benefitted from human modification of their habitat. Here we examine whether population growth in an insectivorous bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana can be attributed to the widespread expansion of agriculture in North America following European settlement. Colonies of T. b. mexicana are extremely large (~106 individuals and, in the modern era, major agricultural insect pests form an important component of their food resource. It is thus hypothesized that the growth of these insectivorous bat populations was coupled to the expansion of agricultural land use in North America over the last few centuries. Results We sequenced one haploid and one autosomal locus to determine the rate and time of onset of population growth in T. b. mexicana. Using an approximate Maximum Likelihood method, we have determined that T. b. mexicana populations began to grow ~220 kya from a relatively small ancestral effective population size before reaching the large effective population size observed today. Conclusions Our analyses reject the hypothesis that T. b. mexicana populations grew in connection with the expansion of human agriculture in North America, and instead suggest that this growth commenced long before the arrival of humans. As T. brasiliensis is a subtropical species, we hypothesize that the observed signals of population growth may instead reflect range expansions of ancestral bat populations from southern glacial refugia during the tail end of the Pleistocene.

  6. Agriculture, population, and economic planning in Ethiopia, 1953-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Yamazaki, F

    1986-04-01

    This paper deals with the economic development of Ethiopia in the 3 decades between 1950 and 1980. In particular, it examines governmental efforts at agricultural planning during this period compared to the actual experience of the country. The dominant forces governing the changes that occurred in this period were accelerated population growth and the declining availability of arable land, which combined to push a fragile, traditional ecosystem to the brink of disaster. Government planning efforts had little impact in the pre-1974 period, since they were too modest and small scale to affect the highly traditional and primitive mode of peasant cultivation. The sweeping structural changes introduced by the new regime since 1974 seem to have mainly adverse effects and to have decreased both productivity and yields. Ethiopia lacks the basic infrastructure and incentive system to create an environment in which technological change is possible. Presumably the declining agricultural growth rate from 1953 to 1974 suggests that the traditional, prerevolution system was failing to create these favorable conditions and hence was losing the race with population growth. The post-1974 revolutionary government's policy has been, in effect, an effort to jump to an advanced phase of agricultural development, and this seems to have been even less successful. These plans have, in all fairness, been hamstrung since 1981 by drought, famine, and civil war, but have probably themselves contributed to the severity of those events. Overall, Ethiopian agricultural planning has not been notably successful. From 1953-1980, total agricultural production is estimated to have grown at a slowly decreasing rate. The collapse of agriculture due to several years of drought obviously cannot be blamed on government planning, but its severity clearly has been at least partly a function of policy failures. PMID:12280692

  7. Developing Earth Observations Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Vermote, E.; Justice, C. O.

    2013-12-01

    Recognizing the dynamic nature of agricultural cultivation both within and between years and across the globe, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is developing an agricultural monitoring (GEO-GLAM) system with the goal of enhancing the availability and use of satellite and in situ Earth observations (EO) for the generation of timely and accurate information on national, regional, and global food supply. One of the key components of the GEO-GLAM system is the coordination of satellite observations so as to ensure sufficient and appropriate data volume and quality for agricultural monitoring. Therefore, it is essential that we develop EO requirements which articulate in a spatially explicit way where, when, how frequently, and at what spatial resolution satellite imagery must be acquired to meet the needs of a variety of agricultural monitoring applications. Accordingly, best-available cropland location information ('where?') in conjunction with ten years of MODIS surface reflectance data have been used to characterize the timing and duration of the agricultural growing season ('when?') in the form of agricultural growing season calendars (GSCs) for all major agricultural areas of the Earth. With respect to temporal resolution, we must first identify the frequency with which we require imagery inputs for monitoring applications such as crop condition, crop type, crop yield estimation, and planted and harvested area estimation. Members of the GEO Agriculture Monitoring Community of Practice - a group of international scientists - have combined their knowledge and expertise to articulate these general requirements. Second, we must determine how cloud cover impacts the ability of optical sensing systems to meet these established temporal resolution requirements. To this end, MODIS Terra (morning; 2000-2011) and Aqua (afternoon; 2002-2011) observations have been analyzed to derive probabilities of a cloud free clear view at different times of day throughout the

  8. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Guancheng Guo; Qiyu Wen; Jingjuan Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despi...

  9. [Population dynamics, the development of agricultural systems, and agricultural production in the densely populated rural areas of Cameroon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelodjoue, S

    1989-06-01

    traditional economy into the cash system. But by 1960 in the Bamileke plateau and Mont Mandaras and after 1970 in the Lekie country population no longer appeared as a consequence but as the main cause of rural structural changes. Containing the demographic pressure on the land and maintaining food self-sufficiency will require combatting poverty in general, through a series of actions aimed at both the agricultural and nonagricultural sectors. PMID:12178536

  10. Structured populations of the oriental fruit moth in an agricultural ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Marco V G; Mazzi, Dominique; Hein, Silke; Dorn, Silvia

    2010-07-01

    Intercontinental trade has led to multiple introductions of invasive pest species at a global scale. Molecular analyses of the structure of populations support the understanding of ecological strategies and evolutionary patterns that promote successful biological invasions. The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita (= Cydia) molesta, is a cosmopolitan and economically destructive pest of stone and pome fruits, expanding its distribution range concomitantly with global climate warming. We used ten newly developed polymorphic microsatellite markers to examine the genetic structure of G. molesta populations in an agricultural ecosystem in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy. Larvae collected in eight sampling sites were assigned to a mosaic of five populations with significant intra-regional structure. Inferred measures of gene flow within populations implicated both active dispersal, and passive dispersal associated with accidental anthropogenic displacements. Small effective population sizes, coupled with high inbreeding levels, highlighted the effect of orchard management practices on the observed patterns of genetic variation within the sampling sites. Isolation by distance did not appear to play a major role at the spatial scale considered. Our results provide new insights into the population genetics and dynamics of an invasive pest species at a regional scale. PMID:20561191

  11. Survey of the distributions of population and agricultural produce, etc. and the application for population dose evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computer model CARIEN to calculate the population doses due to all LWRs in Japan needs the distributions of population and agricultural produce around the nuclear installations. These distributions were presumed to be obtainable from national censuses, and a case-study survey was carried out in 1976 for the area up to 1000 km from the JAERI Tokai Research Establishment. The present report describes the survey and its results, and then discusses applicability of the censuses for population dose evaluation. The national censuses of population and foodstuffs were found to be sufficient for determining these distributions and predicting the future population changes. Results indicated the following: a) the population and agricultural produce around little contribute to the population doses, b) the contributions of leafy vegetables and cow's milk are important compared with inhalation, and c) if such as rice, egg and pork concentrate radionuclides to the same extent as leafy vegetables or milk, these are also important. (auth.)

  12. Habitat connectivity and fragmented nuthatch populations in agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langevelde, van F.

    1999-01-01

    In agricultural landscapes, the habitat of many species is subject to fragmentation. When the habitat of a species is fragmented and the distances between patches of habitat are large relative to the movement distances of the species, it can be expected that the degree of habitat connectivity affect

  13. The Impact of Aging Agricultural Labor Population on Farmland Output: From the Perspective of Farmer Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guancheng Guo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese agriculture is facing an aging workforce which could negatively impact the industry. In this context, research is needed on how work preferences and age of farmers affect agricultural output. This paper attempts to investigate these factors to more fully understand the impact of an aging agricultural labor population on agricultural production. The results show that, in this context of aging, changes in the working-age households have a significant impact on agricultural output. Despite the fact that the impacts of intention to abandon land management were not significant, we can ignore this preference in the workforce. The combination of changes in the composition of the working-age households indicates that 58.53 percent of the agricultural producers will likely quit. This is a potential threat for the future of agricultural development. We also found that elderly farmers who do not intend to abandon farming had higher agricultural output compared to other farmers. This indicates that the adverse effects of changes in the agricultural population age result more from the agricultural output of older farmers who intend to give up farming. This intention adversely affected other elements and reduced investment. Therefore, various forms of training should increase efforts to cultivate modern professional farmers and policies should be simultaneously developed to increase agricultural production levels.

  14. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE AGRICULTURAL POPULATION IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the EU-27 population by means of the following indicators: population structure by origin, age, gender, training level, income in member states, emphasizing Romania’s position among other countries. In the EU-27 there large differences regarding rural and agricultural population.The main trend is the reduction of agricultural population, but there are countries where it is increasing and states where it is declining. Despite at EU level 5 % of its 504 million inhabitants are working in agriculture, there are states with a higher percentage of agricultural workforce and also with a lower labor percentage. Rural population aging and decreasing number, migration to cities, relatively low training level, gender discrepances from a country to another, low income per annual working income mainly in the 12 countries which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007 below the EU average income are the major features of the EU-27 agricultural labor. Romania has the highest agricultural population working in small sized farms and the lowest income per farmer below Euro 2,000. The gap beween the EU and Romania could be diminished by training, high technologies, implementation of associative forms in agriculture destined to grow up productivity and competitiveness.

  15. Technological Progress, Population Growth, Property Rights, and the Transition to Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Baker, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Following the rapidly growing literature on the Neolithic revolution, I develop a model of mankind’s initial transition to agriculture in which population and technological sophistication are both endogenous variables. I assume that total factor productivity in both agriculture and hunting and gathering depend on natural resource endowments and a general purpose technology, but that TFP in agriculture is relatively more dependent on technological sophistication than TFP in hunting and gatheri...

  16. Work related distal airway obstruction in an agricultural population.

    OpenAIRE

    Vergnenegre, A.; D'arco, X; Melloni, B.; Antonini, M T; Courat, C; Dupont-Cuisinier, M; Bonnaud, F.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of distal airway obstruction and its risk factors in agricultural areas. METHODS--A cross sectional study of respiratory symptoms and lung function was performed among French farmers and their spouses (1122 subjects) who came for preventive medicine examinations. They answered a respiratory questionnaire and performed pulmonary function tests on a portable spirometer. Diagnoses of chronic bronchitis were made on the basis of reported chronic respiratory sym...

  17. Impacts of agricultural practices on aquatic oligochaete populations in ricefields

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, I.C.; Roger, Pierre-Armand; Oficial, R.; I. F. Grant

    1993-01-01

    Les impacts des engrais azotés et des pesticides sur les populations d'oligochete aquatiques ont été étudiées dans des rizières expérimentales. Les populations ont été estimées par tamisage du sol sous eau. L'espèce dominante est un Tubificidae : #Limnodrilus hoffmeisterii$. Les densités de populations totales sont comprises entre 0 et 40000 m-2. Les populations d'oligochetes aquatiques sont en corrélation positive avec la quantité d'urée épandue dans les parcelles. Un effet inhibiteur du car...

  18. Non-agricultural Population,Employment and Land:An Econometric Study in an Integrated Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Weiyan; Zhang Anlu; Liu Caixia

    2009-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships among nonagricultural population,employment and land in an integrated framework,taking account of rural-urban land conversion into Carlino-Mills's model on the regional growth.Two-stage-leastsquares and ordinary-least-squares were employed.Recent data for district (grade) cities in China (from 1999 to 2005) were used.Our results showed that:first,urban population influenced non-agricultural employment,and vice versa,but the evidence that non-agricultural employment influenced urban population was stronger than the evidence that urban population influenced non-agricultural employment;second,urban population and non-agricultural employment both influenced ruralurban land conversion,but the evidence that urban population influenced rural urban land conversion was more stronger than the evidence that non-agricultural employment did.We also found that:first,the employment from the secondary industry influenced urban population in a positive way,and vice versa,but the employment from the tertiary industry influenced urban population in a negative way,and vice versa;second,the employment from the secondary industry influenced rural-urban land conversion in a positive way,but the employment from the tertiary industry influenced rural-urban land conversion in a negative way.We can conclude that the key of urbanization is to speed up the process of non-agricultural employment,especially the employment from the tertiary industry,which might promote non-agricultural population,employment and land harmoniously.

  19. Yanomamo ecology, population control, and their relationship to slash and burn agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owl, M Y

    1976-01-01

    Population control among the Yanomamo tribe of the Amazonian tropical rainforest is studied. 25% of male deaths are due to warfare. A male-female balance is achieved by the practice of infantcide, especially among female infants. The male:female ratio among the under-15 age group is 135:100, belying the tribe's contention that neither sex is more likely to be killed than the other. The major population controlffactor, however, is disease with about 54.2% of adult deaths due to malaria, and other communicable disease accounting for 11.7%. Other population controls are abortion and postnatal sex taboos, although the latter is for the most part overruled by the practice of infanticide for any child born while a previous child is still nursing. The intense intervillage warfare is increased by the shortage of women, resulting from female infanticide combined with polygamy and marriage alliances in which even unborn females are promised. Because there is war, male children are preferred and the cycle continues. Other observers, however, feel that the constant warfare is part of the need for new garden sites brought about by reliance on slash and burn agriculture. The author believes the shortage of women is just a side effect of population control occasioned by a protein shortage. PMID:12334855

  20. Adiabatic stabilization: observation of the surviving population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J. van Druten; R.C. Constantinescu; J.M. Schins; H. Nieuwenhuize; H.G. Muller

    1997-01-01

    Photoionization of the circular 5g Rydberg state in neon by an intense subpicosecond light pulse is studied. Both the photoionization yield and the remaining population are measured. We find that the photoionization yield does not increase when the pulse peak intensity is increased above 60 TW/cm2,

  1. Agricultural population of Belgrade city territory: Basic tendencies in the demographic development, problems and possibilities of its revitalization

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Jasmina

    2006-01-01

    The territory of Belgrade city after the Second World War, has been characterized by the intensive processes of qualitative transformation concerning settling and arrangement of population, territorial organization of production and other activities. The facts that mostly influenced these processes are migrations, caused by economic movements and development. There has been a sudden transfer of agricultural population into non-agricultural activities. Participation of agricultural population ...

  2. Spatial Modeling of Indian Agriculture, Economic Activity and Population under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, G. C.

    2010-12-01

    We present a spatial model of economic activity and human population built on physical geography that takes particular account of its effects through agricultural productivity and transport costs for trade. A major component of this work is an agricultural model, driven in part by high-resolution climate data and model output. We put forward India as the initial region for this modeling work; India is a relatively data-rich country, it exhibits significant within-country spatial and temporal variation in agricultural productivity, urbanization rates, and population growth rates, and the climate dynamics of the monsoon are well-studied and expected to change on decadal time scales. Agricultural productivity is modeled as a function of soil, climate, and technology variables. Farmers locate optimally given varying geography and transport costs; in turn, food availability defines urbanization rates and economic activity in non-agricultural sectors. This “social system” integrated assessment model is a step towards a valuable policy tool, but requires a significant mobilization of data and a grid-cell-level system of equations to describe the underlying dynamics of the model. We test against past trends of social-natural system progression in demography, human location, income, food production, etc., and argue that the model could be used to assess future trends under varying climate change scenarios, and eventually serve to model feedbacks through effects on migration, population growth rates, or economic activity.

  3. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts; decoupling agriculture' s N2O and CH4 emissions from population growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, C.L.; Meerburg, B.G.; Schils, R.L.M.; Verhagen, J.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present.

  4. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Population array and agricultural data arrays for the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, K.W.; Duffy, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kowalewsky, K. [Radian International, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1998-07-01

    To quantify or estimate the environmental and radiological impacts from man-made sources of radioactive effluents, certain dose assessment procedures were developed by various government and regulatory agencies. Some of these procedures encourage the use of computer simulations (models) to calculate air dispersion, environmental transport, and subsequent human exposure to radioactivity. Such assessment procedures are frequently used to demonstrate compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Knowledge of the density and distribution of the population surrounding a source is an essential component in assessing the impacts from radioactive effluents. Also, as an aid to calculating the dose to a given population, agricultural data relevant to the dose assessment procedure (or computer model) are often required. This report provides such population and agricultural data for the area surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory.

  6. Population array and agricultural data arrays for the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To quantify or estimate the environmental and radiological impacts from man-made sources of radioactive effluents, certain dose assessment procedures were developed by various government and regulatory agencies. Some of these procedures encourage the use of computer simulations (models) to calculate air dispersion, environmental transport, and subsequent human exposure to radioactivity. Such assessment procedures are frequently used to demonstrate compliance with Department of Energy (DOE) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Knowledge of the density and distribution of the population surrounding a source is an essential component in assessing the impacts from radioactive effluents. Also, as an aid to calculating the dose to a given population, agricultural data relevant to the dose assessment procedure (or computer model) are often required. This report provides such population and agricultural data for the area surrounding Los Alamos National Laboratory

  7. Crop Breeding for Low Input Agriculture: A Sustainable Response to Feed a Growing World Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vagner A. Benedito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available World population is projected to reach its maximum (~10 billion people by the year 2050. This 45% increase of the current world population (approaching seven billion people will boost the demand for food and raw materials. However, we live in a historical moment when supply of phosphate, water, and oil are at their peaks. Modern agriculture is fundamentally based on varieties bred for high performance under high input systems (fertilizers, water, oil, pesticides, which generally do not perform well under low-input situations. We propose a shift of research goals and plant breeding objectives from high-performance agriculture at high-energy input to those with an improved rationalization between yield and energy input. Crop breeding programs that are more focused on nutrient economy and local environmental fitness will help reduce energy demands for crop production while still providing adequate amounts of high quality food as global resources decline and population is projected to increase.

  8. Agricultural production as a source of irradiation of populations in radiation accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive contamination of the agricultural production sphere in case of a radiation accident with radionuclide release is one of the most important sources of additional irradiation for population. As a result, realisation of the measures for mitigating the consequences of the accident in agro-industrial complex assumes the leading role in total system of measures providing radiation safety. The possibility to obtain agricultural production meeting the radiological standards is one of the main indications of effectiveness of liquidation of the accident consequences. First, obtaining of agricultural production meeting the radiological standards provides decreasing of the total radiation dose. The evidence is obtained in the 8-year experience of liquidation of the Chernobyl NPP accident that the 70% decrease of the internal dose for population became possible through a complex of protection measures in agriculture (during the first year after the accident, the contribution of internal dose into the total one amounted to 45%, and that of external irradiation - 52%; for the 70-year period these values are 39% and 60%, respectively). Second, the possibility to obtain 'pure' agricultural production is one of the most important factors of psychological stability for population. Third, obtaining of consumable (as to radionuclide content) agricultural production in private small holdings is one of the guarantees of stability of demographic sector in the accident-affected zone. From the point of view of organization of agricultural production in liquidation of the consequences of accidents with radioactive releases into environment, some periods can be distinguished: (i) the first (early) period takes 10-12 days after the accident. The main measures in the field of agricultural production are in operative assessment of the radiological situation, organization of radiation survey, express classification of agricultural products ready to consumption. If radionuclide content

  9. A NEO population generation and observation simulation software tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sven; Gelhaus, Johannes; Hahn, Gerhard; Franco, Raffaella

    One of the main targets of ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program is to build a wide knowledge base about objects that can potentially harm Earth (Near-Earth Objects, NEOs). An important part of this effort is to create the Small Bodies Data Centre (SBDC) which is going to aggregate measurement data from a fully-integrated NEO observation sensor network. Until this network is developed, artificial NEO measurement data is needed in order to validate SBDC algorithms. Moreover, to establish a functioning NEO observation sensor network, it has to be determined where to place sensors, what technical requirements have to be met in order to be able to detect NEOs and which observation strategies work the best. Because of this, a sensor simulation software was needed. This paper presents a software tool which allows users to create and analyse NEO populations and to simulate and analyse population observations. It is a console program written in Fortran and comes with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) written in Java and C. The tool can be distinguished into the components ``Population Generator'' and ``Observation Simulator''. The Population Generator component is responsible for generating and analysing a NEO population. Users can choose between creating fictitious (random) and synthetic populations. The latter are based on one of two models describing the orbital and size distribution of observed NEOs: The existing socalled ``Bottke Model'' (Bottke et al. 2000, 2002) and the new ``Granvik Model'' (Granvik et al. 2014, in preparation) which has been developed in parallel to the tool. Generated populations can be analysed by defining 2D, 3D and scatter plots using various NEO attributes. As a result, the tool creates the appropiate files for the plotting tool ``gnuplot''. The tool's Observation Simulator component yields the Observation Simulation and Observation Analysis functions. Users can define sensor systems using ground- or space-based locations as well as

  10. CONSEQUENCES OF POPULATION GROWTH ON AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN OBINGWA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE NIGERIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Adindu, Symbol

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Today, millions of people in the world are without food especially in the developing world which has been of great concern as stipulated in the United Nations millennium development goal 1, sub-targets A, B and C to fight hunger, poverty and starvation across the world and ensure environmental sustainability (UNCSD, Aug, 2011) .This study investigated the consequences of population growth on agricultural production in Obingwa local government area in Nigeria. This is a survey type...

  11. A population based case-control study of agricultural injuries in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Stueland, D. T.; Lee, B.C.; Nordstrom, D L; Layde, P M; Wittman, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify preventable risk factors related to agricultural injuries occurring to children on family farms. SETTING: A geographically defined central region of Wisconsin, USA with nearly 1800 family dairy farms. METHODS: A two year, population based incidence study of occupational injuries among farm residents was conducted. For cases, trained staff abstracted information on the nature, severity, and treatment of the injury from the patient's medical record. Staff also administer...

  12. Agriculture, Population, Land and Water Scarcity in a Changing World – The Role of Irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Timm; HAVLIK Petr; Schneider, Uwe A.; Kindermann, Georg E; Obersteiner, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Fertile land and fresh water constitute two of the most fundamental resources for food production. These resources are affected by environmental, political, economic, and technical developments. Regional impacts may transmit to the world through increased trade. With a global forest and agricultural sector model, we quantify the impacts of increased demand for food due to population growth and economic development on potential land and water use. In particular, we investigate producer adaptat...

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Developing Capacity in Earth Observations for Agricultural Monitoring: The GEOGLAM Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcraft, A. K.; Di Bella, C. M.; Becker Reshef, I.; Deshayes, M.; Justice, C. O.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2011, the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) Initiative has been working to strengthen the international community's capacity to use Earth observation (EO) data to derive timely, accurate, and transparent information on agriculture, with the goals of reducing market volatility and promoting food security. GEOGLAM aims to develop capacity for EO-based agricultural monitoring at multiple scales, from national to regional to global. This is accomplished through training workshops, developing and transferring of best-practices, establishing networks of broad and sustainable institutional support, and designing or adapting tools and methodologies to fit localized contexts. Over the past four years, capacity development activities in the context of GEOGLAM have spanned all agriculture-containing continents, with much more work to be done, particularly in the domains of promoting access to large, computationally-costly datasets. This talk will detail GEOGLAM's experiences, challenges, and opportunities surrounding building international collaboration, ensuring institutional buy-in, and developing sustainable programs.

  14. DATA FUSION TECHNOLOGY OF MULTI-PLATFORM EARTH OBSERVATION ON AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    W. Xie; Xue, Y.; Zhai, L; Sang, H.

    2013-01-01

    Earth observation is the gathering of information via remote sensing technologies supplemented by earth surveying techniques, encompassing the collection, analysis and presentation of data. Remote sensing technology is playing a key role on precision agriculture. From the point of view of remote sensing and photogrammetry field, this article first took an overview of its applications on agriculture throughout past 3 decades, analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of different kind...

  15. Characterization of methanotrophic bacterial populations in natural and agricultural aerobic soils of the European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Irina; Sukhacheva, Marina; Kizilova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Atmospheric methane contributes to about 20% of the total radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, and microbial methane oxidation in upland soils is the only biological sink of methane. Microbial methane oxidation in aerated upland soils is estimated as 15 - 45 Tg yr-1 or 3-9% of the annual sink. Therefore there is need of extensive research to characterize methanotrophic activity in various ecosystems for possible application to reduce atmospheric methane fluxes and to minimize global climate change. The vast majority of known aerobic methanotrophs belongs to the Proteobacteria and placed in the families Methylococcaceae in the Gammaproteobacteria, and Methylocystaceae and Beijerinckiaceae in the Alphaproteobacteria. Known exceptions include the phylum Verrucomicrobia and uncultured methanotrophs such as Candidatus 'Methylomirabilis oxyfera' affiliated with the 'NC10' phylum. Plenty of studies of aerobic methane oxidation and key players of the process have been performed on various types of soils, and it was found that Methylocystis spp and uncultivated methanotrophs are abundant in upland soils. Two of the uncultured groups are upland soil cluster alphaproteobacteria (USCa) and gammaproteobacteria (USCg), as revealed by cultivation-independent surveys of pmoA diversity. Russia is extremely rich in soil types due to its vast territories, and most of these soils have never been investigated from the aspect of methanotrophy. This study addresses methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight types of natural aerobic soils, four of which also had been under agricultural use. Methane fluxes have been measured by in situ static chamber method and methane oxidation rates in soil samples - by radioisotope tracer (14CH4) technique. Changes in methanotroph diversity and abundance were assessed by cloning and Sanger sequencing, and quantitative real-time PCR of pmoA genes. Methanotrophic population of unmanaged soils turned

  16. Monitoring Global Croplands with Coarse Resolution Earth Observations: The Global Agriculture Monitoring (GLAM Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inbal Becker-Reshef

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the demand for timely, comprehensive global agricultural intelligence. Timely information on global crop production is indispensable for combating the growing stress on the world’s crop production and for securing both short-term and long-term stable and reliable supply of food. Global agriculture monitoring systems are critical to providing this kind of intelligence and global earth observations are an essential component of an effective global agricultural monitoring system as they offer timely, objective, global information on croplands distribution, crop development and conditions as the growing season progresses. The Global Agriculture Monitoring Project (GLAM, a joint NASA, USDA, UMD and SDSU initiative, has built a global agricultural monitoring system that provides the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS with timely, easily accessible, scientifically-validated remotely-sensed data and derived products as well as data analysis tools, for crop-condition monitoring and production assessment. This system is an integral component of the USDA’s FAS Decision Support System (DSS for agriculture. It has significantly improved the FAS crop analysts’ ability to monitor crop conditions, and to quantitatively forecast crop yields through the provision of timely, high-quality global earth observations data in a format customized for FAS alongside a suite of data analysis tools. FAS crop analysts use these satellite data in a ‘convergence of evidence’ approach with meteorological data, field reports, crop models, attaché reports and local reports. The USDA FAS is currently the only operational provider of timely, objective crop production forecasts at the global scale. These forecasts are routinely used by the other US Federal government agencies as well as by commodity trading companies, farmers, relief agencies and foreign governments. This paper discusses the operational components

  17. Prevalence of asthma in a rural population exposed to wastewater in agriculture, Settat, Morocco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation was undertaken to value the risk of occurrence of asthma in connection with the use of raw wastewater in agriculture and the presence of the intestinal parasitosis. A survey was conducted on 216 persons, aged 28.6±19.4 years, belonging to two rural clusters, using wastewater in agriculture, and 120 persons aged 32.3±19.5 years belonging to a reference rural cluster not using wastewater. Every participant benefited from a complete clinical exam with compilation of anamnestic information. The presence of asthma was based on the ISAAC questionnaire. The participants also profited from anthropometric, parasitological examination of the saddles and a numeration of the eosinophiles. The prevalence of asthma is significantly higher in the population exposed to wastewater. No studied factor influenced the prevalence significantly. But it is higher in the hypereosinophilic ones, thin persons, active smokers and young children less than 10 years old. In accordance with the hygienic hypothesis, it is weaker among the promiscuous subjects and those carrying intestinal parasitosis. The use of raw wastewater in agriculture is responsible for an exacerbation of asthma in the population concerned. This study is in agreement with the hygienic hypothesis. Preventive measures are essential while stressing on medical education and adequate wastewater treatment. (author)

  18. Impacts of Observation Deleting Standards on Profitability Analysis of Precision Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Baohui; Dillon, Carl R.; Mueller, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    This research explores a possible reason for the inconsistent results from previous study on the profitability analysis in precision agriculture - different standards of identifying possible erroneous observations for PA datasets. By comparing the results from the different standards of identifying possible erroneous observations, this research raises concerns about the negative impacts of different standards of identifying possible erroneous observations on the profitability analysis of PA, ...

  19. Using GEO Optical Observations to Infer Orbit Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Mark; Africano, John

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Orbital Debris measurements program has a goal to characterize the small debris environment in the geosynchronous Earth-orbit (GEO) region using optical telescopes ("small" refers to objects too small to catalog and track with current systems). Traditionally, observations of GEO and near-GEO objects involve following the object with the telescope long enough to obtain an orbit. When observing very dim objects with small field-of-view telescopes, though, the observations are generally too short to obtain accurate orbital elements. However, it is possible to use such observations to statistically characterize the small object environment. A telescope pointed at a particular spot could potentially see objects in a number of different orbits. Inevitably, when looking at one region for certain types of orbits, there are objects in other types of orbits that cannot be seen. Observation campaigns are designed with these limitations in mind and are set up to span a number of regions of the sky, making it possible to sample all potential orbits under consideration. Each orbit is not seen with the same probability, however, so there are observation biases intrinsic to any observation campaign. Fortunately, it is possible to remove such biases and reconstruct a meaningful estimate of the statistical orbit populations of small objects in GEO. This information, in turn, can be used to investigate the nature of debris sources and to characterize the risk to GEO spacecraft. This paper describes these statistical tools and presents estimates of small object GEO populations.

  20. Capitalism and population in Latin American agriculture: recent trends and problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miro, C A; Rodriguez, D

    1982-04-01

    "On the basis of a body of empirical research, the authors explore the relationship between agrarian structure and population [in Latin America]. After an introduction in which they present their theoretical and methodological orientation, they describe the current changing trends in agrarian structure, among which are the 'intensification' of the process of the penetration of capitalistic forms into agriculture." They then discuss the relationships between agrarian structure and demographic variables, particularly fertility and migration. In the final section, some guidelines for future research are presented. This paper is a revised version of an evaluation study carried out to assess the contributions of 14 research projects financed by the Programme of Social Research on Population in Latin America (PISPAL). PMID:12312514

  1. Feeding the world's increasing population while limiting climate change impacts: linking N2O and CH4 emissions from agriculture to population growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The global demand for agricultural products, including food, is rapidly increasing due to population growth and shifts in consumption patterns. The required increase in agricultural production is predominantly to be achieved in countries with relatively low agricultural production levels at present. These are mainly developing countries and countries in transition, the so-called non-Annex I countries of the UNFCCC. However, intensification of agricultural production systems is currently closely linked to high emissions of greenhouse gases notably nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). In this paper the relations between population growth, agricultural development and emissions of N2O and CH4 were assessed for 10 non-Annex I countries, viz. China, India, Vietnam, Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Mongolia, Nigeria, Tanzania and South Africa. We combined FAO data on agricultural production levels, CENSUS data on population statistics and EDGAR data on N2O and CH4 emissions. The projected trends in agricultural production indicate that emissions of N2O and CH4 are expected to increase rapidly in the coming years and will level off from 2040 onwards. The results confirm the positive relation between population increase and increased emissions from agricultural activities for most countries. However, for some countries (South Africa, China and Mexico) this relation was weak or absent. Although numerous factors (e.g. changes in international trade) may have scattered the relation and we were unable to explain this decoupling, it suggests that population growth can be possible without additional emissions. The variation between the different countries and farming systems is however large and mitigation measures at farm-level should be tailored to the wide diversity in environmental conditions, regional customs and farming systems.

  2. Weakening density dependence from climate change and agricultural intensification triggers pest outbreaks: a 37-year observation of cotton bollworms

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang, Fang; Hui, Cang; Ge, Saiying; Men, Xin-Yuan; Zhao, Zi-Hua; Shi, Pei-Jian; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Li, Bai-Lian

    2014-01-01

    Understanding drivers of population fluctuation, especially for agricultural pests, is central to the provision of agro-ecosystem services. Here, we examine the role of endogenous density dependence and exogenous factors of climate and human activity in regulating the 37-year population dynamics of an important agricultural insect pest, the cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), in North China from 1975 to 2011. Quantitative time-series analysis provided strong evidence explaining long-term ...

  3. Clinical Epidemiology of Reduced Kidney Function among Elderly Male Fishing and Agricultural Population in Taipei, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chi-Mei; Chien, Wu-Hsiung; Shen, Hsi-Che; Hu, Yi-Chun; Chen, Yu-Fen; Tung, Tao-Hsin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To quantify the prevalence of and associated factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) among male elderly fishing and agricultural population in Taipei, Taiwan. Methods. Subjects (n = 2,766) aged 65 years and over voluntarily admitted to a teaching hospital for a physical checkup were collected in 2010. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Results. Among these subjects, the over prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 13.6% (95% CI: 12.3–14.9%). The age-specific prevalence of CKD in 65–74 years, 75–84 years, and ≥85 years was 8.2%, 19.1%, and 27.0%, respectively. From the multiple logistic regression, age (OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 1.02–1.09), hyperuricemia (OR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.90–3.78), central obesity (OR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.02–1.56), hyperglycemia (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.11–1.67), hypertriglyceridemia (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.08–1.66), and lower HDL-C (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.23–1.92) were statistically significantly related to CKD. The presence of metabolic components (one or two versus none, OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.04–1.25; three or more versus none, OR = 2.12, 95% CI: 1.86–2.78) also appeared to be statistically significantly related to CKD after adjustment for other independent factors. Conclusion. Several clinical factors independently affect the development of CKD in the elderly male fishing and agricultural population. PMID:24324957

  4. A Framework for Defining Spatially Explicit Earth Observation Requirements for a Global Agricultural Monitoring Initiative (GEOGLAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa K. Whitcraft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Global agricultural monitoring utilizes a variety of Earth observations (EO data spanning different spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions in order to gather information on crop area, type, condition, calendar, and yield, among other applications. Categorical requirements for space-based monitoring of major agricultural production areas have been articulated based on best practices established by the Group on Earth Observation’s (GEO Global Agricultural Monitoring Community (GEOGLAM of Practice, in collaboration with the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS. We present a method to transform generalized requirements for agricultural monitoring in the context of GEOGLAM into spatially explicit (0.05° Earth observation (EO requirements for multiple resolutions of data. This is accomplished through the synthesis of the necessary remote sensing-based datasets concerning where (crop mask, when (growing calendar, and how frequently imagery is required (considering cloud cover impact throughout the agricultural growing season. Beyond this provision of the framework and tools necessary to articulate these requirements, investigated in depth is the requirement for reasonably clear moderate spatial resolution (10–100 m optical data within 8 days over global within-season croplands of all sizes, a data type prioritized by GEOGLAM and CEOS. Four definitions of “reasonably clear” are investigated: 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% clear. The revisit frequency required (RFR for a reasonably clear view varies greatly both geographically and throughout the growing season, as well as with the threshold of acceptable clarity. The global average RFR for a 70% clear view within 8 days is 3.9–4.8 days (depending on the month, 3.0–4.1 days for 80% clear, 2.2–3.3 days for 90% clear, and 1.7–2.6 days for 95% clear. While some areas/times of year require only a single revisit (RFR = 8 days to meet their reasonably clear requirement, generally the RFR

  5. EFFECT OF REFINED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS CONTAMINATION ON BACTERIAL POPULATION AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTIVATED AGRICULTURAL SOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adewale Sogo Olalemi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation into the effect of refined petroleum products contamination on bacterial population and physicochemical characteristics of cultivated agricultural soil was carried out. The soil samples obtained from the Teaching and Research Farm, Obakekere, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State were contaminated with varying volumes of petrol, diesel and kerosene. The results revealed higher bacterial populations in uncontaminated soils than contaminated soils. The counts of bacteria ranged from 3.0 × 105 to 5.0 × 105 cfu/g in uncontaminated soils and 1.0 × 105 to 3.0 × 105 cfu/g in contaminated soils. The isolated bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, Corynebacterium variabilis, Pseudomonas fluorescens. The contamination had no significant effect on pH, potassium, sodium, organic carbon and nitrogen content of the soils, while the moisture, calcium, phosphorus and magnesium content of the contaminated soils were significantly different (P < 0.05 compared with the uncontaminated soils. The ability of Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium lutescens, Micrococcus luteus, and Pseudomonas fluorescens to utilize the refined petroleum products suggest that these bacteria had potential to bioremediate petroleum contaminated soils.

  6. Runoff production in a small agricultural catchment in Lao PDR : influence of slope, land-use and observation scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, J.; Ribolzi, O.; Mugler, C.; Valentin, C.; Mouche, E.

    2009-04-01

    We study the surface and sub-surface hydrology of a small agricultural catchment (60ha) located in the Luang Prabang province of Lao PDR. This catchment is representative of the rural mountainous south east Asia. It exhibits steep slopes (up to 100% and more) under a monsoon climate. After years of traditional slash and burn cultures, it is now under high land pressures due to population resettling and environment preservation policies. This evolution leads to rapid land-use changes such as shifting cultivation reduction or growing of teak forest instead of classical crops. This catchment is a benchmark site of the Managing Soil Erosion Consortium since 1998. The international consortium aims to understand the effects of agricultural changes on the catchment hydrology and soil erosion in south east Asia. The Huay Pano catchment is subdivided into small sub-catchments that are gauged and monitored. Differ- ent agricultural practices where tested along the years. At a smaller scale, plot of 1m2 are instrumented to follow runoff and detachment of soil under natural rainfall along the monsoon season. Our modeling work aims to develop a distributed hydrological model integrating experimental data at the different scales. One of the objective is to understand the impact of land-use, soil properties (slope, crust, etc) and rainfall (dry and wet seasons) on surface and subsurface flows. We present here modeling results of the runoff plot experiments (1m2 scale) performed from 2002 to 2007. The plots distribution among the catchment and over the years gives a good representativity of the different runoff responses. The role of crust, slope and land-use on runoff is examined. Finally we discuss how this plot scale will be integrated in a sub-catchment model, with a particular attention on the observed paradox: how to explain that runoff coefficients at the catchment scale are much slower than at the plot scale ?

  7. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJAN POPULATION: TAXONOMY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grav, T. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Nugent, C. R., E-mail: tgrav@psi.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and 4.6 {mu}m, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P-, and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at 3.4 {mu}m is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4 {mu}m can thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10% and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50 km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud (L {sub 4}), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud (L {sub 5}), with a fraction of 71%-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of these large objects, L {sub 4}/L {sub 5} = 1.34. The taxonomic distribution of the Jovian Trojans is found to be different from that of the large Hildas, which is dominated by C- and P-type objects. At smaller sizes, the fraction of D-type Hildas starts increasing, showing more similarities with the Jovian Trojans. If this similarity is confirmed through deeper surveys, it could hold important clues to the formation and evolution of the two populations. The Jovian Trojans does have similar taxonomic distribution to that of the Jovian irregular satellites, but lacks the ultra red surfaces found among the Saturnian irregular satellites and Centaur population.

  8. WISE/NEOWISE OBSERVATIONS OF THE JOVIAN TROJAN POPULATION: TAXONOMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present updated/new thermal model fits for 478 Jovian Trojan asteroids observed with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Using the fact that the two shortest bands used by WISE, centered on 3.4 and 4.6 μm, are dominated by reflected light, we derive albedos of a significant fraction of these objects in these bands. While the visible albedos of both the C-, P-, and D-type asteroids are strikingly similar, the WISE data reveal that the albedo at 3.4 μm is different between C-/P- and D-types. The albedo at 3.4 μm can thus be used to classify the objects, with C-/P-types having values less than 10% and D-types have values larger than 10%. Classifying all objects larger than 50 km shows that the D-type objects dominate both the leading cloud (L 4), with a fraction of 84%, and trailing cloud (L 5), with a fraction of 71%-80%. The two clouds thus have very similar taxonomic distribution for these large objects, but the leading cloud has a larger number of these large objects, L 4/L 5 = 1.34. The taxonomic distribution of the Jovian Trojans is found to be different from that of the large Hildas, which is dominated by C- and P-type objects. At smaller sizes, the fraction of D-type Hildas starts increasing, showing more similarities with the Jovian Trojans. If this similarity is confirmed through deeper surveys, it could hold important clues to the formation and evolution of the two populations. The Jovian Trojans does have similar taxonomic distribution to that of the Jovian irregular satellites, but lacks the ultra red surfaces found among the Saturnian irregular satellites and Centaur population.

  9. Impact of a Growing Population in Agricultural Resource Management: Exploring the Global Situation with a Micro-level Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Zehadul Karim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A decade ago, David Pimentel and his associates (1998 reported to us that at least ten million hectares of arable land were being eroded and also abandoned throughout the world every year and consequently to compensate such a loss, a huge amount of replacement is claimed from forests and other sources for agriculture and human settlement. In the meantime, world population exceeded 6 billion in the year 1999, and the projected data indicate that it is going to be almost 9 billion within the next 40 years. For that reason, the demographers and environmentalists have highlighted that the main challenge for environmental management throughout the world today is to determine our planet’s capacity to sustain such a huge amount of burgeoning human population. The paper thus assesses specifically the impact of growing population on agricultural resources around the world, creating depressing pressure on sustainable environmental management. To exemplify such a trend of agricultural land use, the paper incorporates a detailed example from an ethnographic case study on indigenous land-use practices and the experiences associated with modern cultivation for adapting to adverse situations caused by severe impact of a growing population in the agricultural sector in rural Bangladesh.

  10. Dynamic simulation of connections between population, water resources, agriculture, and energy: Towards a global synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, J. D.; Tidwell, V. C.; Passell, H. D.

    2011-12-01

    During the past decade, scientists at Sandia National Laboratories have been attempting to integrate multi-disciplinary issues associated with human demands for water resources, agriculture, and energy, and the interconnections inherent in these into a common modeling framework. A variety of models have been created, each focusing specifically on certain aspects of the population - water - food - energy question, and each at a different geographic scale. The modeling of these dimensions of human resource use involves quantification of supply of and demand for the resources through time in order to gain some insight into sensitivities of the system to different model parameters. These models have been used to evaluate policy options in real time in an interactive setting. This presentation will summarize the localized efforts that have been made to this point, and propose a framework for a simulation tool to evaluate all four dimensions in a global context. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin company, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Observation of soil moisture variability in agricultural and grassland field soils using a wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesack, Eckart; Schuh, Max

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture dynamics is a key factor of energy and matter exchange between land surface and atmosphere. Therefore long-term observation of temporal and spatial soil moisture variability is important in studying impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems and their possible feedbacks to the atmosphere. Within the framework of the network of terrestrial environmental observatories TERENO we installed at the research farm Scheyern in soils of two fields (of ca. 5 ha size each) the SoilNet wireless sensor network (Biogena et al. 2010). The SoilNet in Scheyern consists of 94 sensor units, 45 for the agricultural field site and 49 for the grassland site. Each sensor unit comprises 6 SPADE sensors, two sensors placed at the depths 10, 30 and 50 cm. The SPADE sensor (sceme.de GmbH, Horn-Bad Meinberg Germany) consists of a TDT sensor to estimate volumetric soil water content from soil electrical permittivity by sending an electromagnetic signal and measuring its propagation time, which depends on the soil dielectric properties and hence on soil water content. Additionally the SPADE sensor contains a temperature sensor (DS18B20). First results obtained from the SoilNet measurements at both fields sites will be presented and discussed. The observed high temporal and spatial variability will be analysed and related to agricultural management and basic soil properties (bulk density, soil texture, organic matter content and soil hydraulic characteristics).

  12. Assessment of pesticide exposure in the agricultural population of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Patricia; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina; Bravo, Viria; Ruepert, Clemens; Burstyn, Igor

    2005-07-01

    We describe a model for the retrospective assessment of parental exposure to 26 pesticides, selected by toxicity-based prioritization, in a population-based case-control study of childhood leukaemia in Costa Rica (301 cases, 582 controls). The model was applied to a subset of 227 parents who had been employed or self-employed in agriculture or livestock breeding. It combines external data on pesticide use for 14 crops, 21 calendar years and 14 regions, and individual interview data on determinants (task and technology, personal protective equipment, field reentry, storing of pesticides, personal hygiene) of exposure. Recall was enhanced by use of checklists of pesticides in the interview. An external database provided information on the application rate (proxy for intensity of potential exposure) for each pesticide. The calendar time was individually converted to five time windows (year before conception, first, second and third trimester, and first year of the child). Time-windowed individual data on determinants of exposure and their expert-based general weights and their category-specific hazard values jointly provided an individual determinant score. This score was multiplied by the application rate to obtain an individual index of exposure intensity during application. Finally, average exposure intensity during entire time windows was estimated by incorporating in the model the individual time fraction of exposure during application. Estimates of exposure intensities were proxies assumed to be proportional to dermal exposure intensity, which represents the major pathway of occupational exposure to pesticides. A simulated sensitivity analysis resulted in a correlation coefficient of 0.91 between two sets of 10 000 values of individual exposure indices, based on two different but realistic sets expert-assigned weights. Lack of measurement data on concurrent exposures in comparable circumstances precluded direct validation of the model. PMID:15650018

  13. Assimilating multi-sensor satellite observations for initializing hydrologic and agricultural forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadis, Konstantinos; Das, Narendra; Granger, Stephanie; Han, Eunjin; Ines, Amor; Stampoulis, Dimitrios

    2015-04-01

    The application of data assimilation techniques in hydrologic studies has been gaining traction in the last 10-15 years. Most of these studies have focused on a single water cycle component, while few studies have examined methods of assimilating multiple observations from different sensors and of different hydrologic variables. The latter is challenging since any potential disparities in the observations could lead to suboptimal estimates after assimilation. The optimal estimates of hydrologic states, such as soil moisture, can be used as initial conditions for hydrologic forecasting systems. A multi-sensor and multivariate data assimilation forecast system has been developed at JPL (RHEAS, Regional Hydrologic Extremes Assessment System) with an initial focus on forecasting drought characteristics. The core of RHEAS is the VIC hydrology model, which has been widely used for many water resources applications. Apart from hydrologic forecasts, RHEAS can produce agricultural forecasts by coupling VIC with the DSSAT crop growth model. The modeling system is supported by a spatial database component, which provides access to multiple in-situ and satellite observations and allows data to be delivered to users through web-GIS or mobile application interfaces. The satellite observations, which include soil moisture, water storage, evapotranspiration, and snow cover, are assimilated into the VIC model to update the initial state of seasonal hydrologic and crop growth forecasts. We demonstrate the value of ingesting satellite observations by performing a series of hindcast experiments over both the United States (California and Upper Colorado basins) and Kenya (Nzoia basin). In-situ measurements along with a simulation with the best available datasets are used as the benchmark to evaluate the hindcasts against. The impact of each observation type or sensor is quantified, allowing for evaluating their relative contribution to improving the forecast skill. Particular case

  14. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management. PMID:22420748

  15. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  16. Down syndrome in tribal population in India: A field observation

    OpenAIRE

    Ram Lakhan; Madhavaram Thomas Kishore

    2016-01-01

    Context: Down syndrome (DS) is a prevalent genetic disorder in intellectual disability (ID) in India. Its prevalence in tribal population is not known. Aims: The study aimed to understand the profile of DS in a tribal population with an objective of finding the prevalence of DS among those with ID. Settings and Design: This is a community-based study with a survey design. Subjects and Methods: A door-to-door survey was conducted by trained, community-based rehabilitation workers under close s...

  17. Observations about a central Brazilian indigenous population: the Bakairi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchi, D

    1994-03-01

    Studies of small, isolated, nonindustrial societies can yield models about the rate of natural increase of indigenous groups, and how changes affect available natural resources, health status, and long-term adaptation. South American Indian populations pose distinct problems. In this study, the aim was to explain population change among the Bakairi of central Brazil in the context of complex historical and social change. Contact with white society has occurred since the 1920s. The fertility rate has been moderate (5.36 children per woman). Information from field research in 1979, 1981, and 1989 was provided on village and household composition marriage patterns, fertility and reproduction, mortality by cause, and recent population trends. Total population was 137 males and 151 females. The estimated crude birth rate was 45.1 births per 1000 people. The crude death rate was 10.4 deaths per 1000 people. Natural rate of increase was 3.47%. The moderate fertility was attributed to the mean birth interval of 4 years, the long breast-feeding period, postpartum sex taboos, and fasting. Other factors may be the nature of forest, which is dry prairie, the limited size of the reservation, and the small percentage of arable land. Other traditional societies have a fertility of 4-8 children; higher fertility is usually associated with colonizing populations that are expanding into new territory. Fertility data was checked several times by first asking individual women for birth and death information, then verifying results with older women in the village, and finally consulting the FUNAI death-birth records, which are considered incomplete. There were 288 Indians living on the Bakairi reservation in 59 households, clustered in a T shape rather than a traditional circle due to FUNAI administrative rules. 80% (47) of households were married couples, and 10% were widows/widowers. Marriage occurred when parents of both families agreed, and took place at an average age of 16

  18. IS THE J-CURVE EFFECT OBSERVABLE IN TURKISH AGRICULTURAL SECTOR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YAZICI

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates whether or not the J-curve hypothesis holds in Turkish agricultural sector. The analysis is conducted using the model the most commonly employed in j-curve literature. Based on the data covering the period from 1986: I to 1998: III, our results indicate that, following devaluation, agricultural trade balance initially improves, then worsens, and then improves again. This pattern shows that J-curve effect does not exist in Turkish agricultural sector. Another important fi nding is that devaluation worsens the trade balance of the sector in the long run, a result contradicting with the earlier fi ndings for the Turkish economy as a whole.

  19. Indigenous populations of three closely related Lysobacter spp. in agricultural soils using real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postma, Joeke; Schilder, Mirjam T; van Hoof, Richard A

    2011-11-01

    Previous research had shown that three closely related species of Lysobacter, i.e., Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, and Lysobacter gummosus, were present in different Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils. However, the population dynamics of these three Lysobacter spp. in different habitats remains unknown. Therefore, a specific primer-probe combination was designed for the combined quantification of these three Lysobacter spp. using TaqMan. Strains of the three target species were efficiently detected with TaqMan, whereas related non-target strains of Lysobacter enzymogenes and Xanthomonas campestris were not or only weakly amplified. Indigenous Lysobacter populations were analyzed in soils of 10 organic farms in the Netherlands during three subsequent years with TaqMan. These soils differed in soil characteristics and crop rotation. Additionally, Lysobacter populations in rhizosphere and bulk soil of different crops on one of these farms were studied. In acid sandy soils low Lysobacter populations were present, whereas pH neutral clay soils contained high populations (respectively, <4.0-5.87 and 6.22-6.95 log gene copy numbers g(-1) soil). Clay content, pH and C/N ratio, but not organic matter content in soil, correlated with higher Lysobacter populations. Unexpectedly, different crops did not significantly influence population size of the three Lysobacter spp. and their populations were barely higher in rhizosphere than in bulk soil. PMID:21448673

  20. Agricultural economics and transition: What was expected, what we observed, the lessons learned. Proceedings (Volume II)

    OpenAIRE

    Csáki, Csaba; Fogács, Csaba

    2008-01-01

    Over fifteen years have elapsed since the transition from the centrally planned economic system started in the early 1990's. During this time agricultural and rural areas of Central and Eastern Europe have undergone profound structural changes with wide variations in the degree of transformation and in the rate of success in creating a competitive market and private ownership based food and agricultural system. By becoming member of the European Union the 'transition' in its traditional inter...

  1. Effective population management practices in diabetes care - an observational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Anne; Bellows, Jim; Nielsen, Bo Friis;

    2010-01-01

    Of fifteen diabetes care management practices, our data indicate that high performance is most associated with provider alerts and more weakly associated with action plans and with guideline distribution and training. Lack of convergence in the literature on effective care management practices...... suggests that factors contributing to high performance may be highly context-dependent or that the factors involved may be too numerous or their implementation too nuanced to be reliably identified in observational studies....

  2. Coping Mechanisms and Level of Occupational Stress Among Agriculture Teachers and Other Teaching Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Kasee L.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that teaching is a highly stressful occupation. Teacher stress has negative impacts on classroom performance, job satisfaction, and teacher attrition. Prior research has been conducted into the causes and impacts of teacher stress; however, little research has been conducted to determine what role coping mechanisms for stress play in teacher stress. This study examined the levels of occupational stress and coping mechanisms utilized by Utah secondary agriculture and non-agr...

  3. Population growth, agricultural intensification, induced innovation and natural resource sustainability: An application of neoclassical growth theory

    OpenAIRE

    Pender, John L.

    1998-01-01

    Using a simple neoclassical type growth model including both man-made and natural capital as inputs to production, the theoretical basis for aU-shaped relationship between agricultural intensification and farm household investment in renewable resource capital is established. As development of technology, infrastructure, or markets increase the relative return to investment in man-made capital over natural capital, resource depletion occurs as man-made capital is substituted for lower return ...

  4. The soil fertility role in radionuclide accumulation in agricultural production and reduction of irradiation doses of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The soil reaction, humus content, calcium, magnesium and potassium status, as well as water regime are the most important soil properties, which determine Cs-137 and Sr-90 transfer to plants. The optimal ranges of soil fertility parameters for the lowest transferring of radionuclides to the yield of agricultural crops were found. The efficiency of agrochemical protective measures on radioactively contaminated land of Gomel, Mogilev and Brest regions of Belarus is discussed. Balanced rates of fertilizers on the background of liming of acid soils allow the significant reduction of radionuclide concentration in foodstuff of local production and irradiation doses of population and provides the profitable increase of crop yields (author)

  5. Genetic variation and geographic differentiation among populations of the nonmigratory agricultural pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θ(II), and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  6. Crohn's disease in adults: Observations in a multiracial Asian population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ida Hilmi; YM Tan; KL Goh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine the demography and clinical presentation of CD and secondly to determine any differences in the prevalence between the different ethnic groups in a multiracial Asian population.METHODS: Patients with CD who were seen in 2001-2003 in the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)were enrolled in this study. Prevalence of disease was calculated for the group as a whole and by race with hospital admissions per ethnic group as the denominator.RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were diagnosed to have CD. Basic demographic data of patients; male:female 17:17; mean age 29.1 years (±13.5 years); ethnic group: Malays 5 (14.7%), Chinese 12 (35.3%) and Indians 17 (50%). Twenty-six (76.5%) were diagnosed under the age of 40 and 8 (23.5%) were diagnosed over the age of 40. Location of the disease was as follows:ileocolonic 13 (38.2%), terminal ileum only 9 (26.5%),colon only 8 (23.5%), and upper gastrointestinal 4(11.8%). Sixteen (47.1%) had penetrating disease, 9(26.5%) had stricturing disease and 9 (26.5%) had nonpenetrating and non-stricturing disease. The hospital admission prevalence of CD was 26.0 overall, Indians 52.6, Chinese 6.9, and Malays 9.3 per 105 admissions per ethnic group. The difference between Indians and Malays: [OR 5.67 (1.97, 17.53) P< 0.001] was statistically significant but not between the Indians and the Chinese [OR 1.95 (0.89, 4.35) P= 0.700]. The difference between the Chinese and the Malays was also not statistically significant. [OR 2.90 (0.95, 9.42) P= 0.063].CONCLUSION: The clinical presentation of CD is similar to the Western experience. Although the overall prevalence is Iow, there appears to be a clear racial predominance among the Indians.

  7. Intake of 238U and 232Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides 232Th, 238U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of 238U and 232Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6–15.5 and 2.0–5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of 238U and 232Th were 2.0 μg d−1 (25 mBq d−1) and 3.4 μg d−1 (14 mBq d−1) is comparable with reported range 0.5–5.0 μg d−1 and 0.15–3.5 μg d−1 respectively for the Asian population. - Highlights: ► 232Th, 238U were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). ► Study area located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition. ► Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. ► The estimated daily intake of 232Th and 238U in high rainfall area was found to be 3.4 and 2.0 μg respectively.

  8. First Estimate of the Exoplanet Population from Kepler Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D. G.; Batalha, N.; Caldwell, D.; Dunham, E. W.; Gautier, T. N., III; Howell, S. B.; Jenkins, J. M.; Marcy, G. W.; Rowe, J.; Charbonneau, D.; Ciardi, D.; Ford, E. B.; Christiansen, J. L.; Kolodziejczak, J.; Prsa, A.

    2011-05-01

    William J. Borucki, David G. Koch, Natalie Batalha, Derek Buzasi , Doug Caldwell, David Charbonneau, Jessie L. Christiansen, David R. Ciardi, Edward Dunham, Eric B. Ford, Steve Thomas N. Gautier III, Steve Howell, Jon M. Jenkins, Jeffery Kolodziejczak, Geoffrey W. Marcy, Jason Rowe, and Andrej Prsa A model was developed to provide a first estimate of the intrinsic frequency of planetary candidates based on the number of detected planetary candidates and the measured noise for each of the 156,000 observed stars. The estimated distributions for the exoplanet frequency are presented with respect to the semi-major axis and the stellar effective temperature and represent values appropriate only to short-period candidates. Improved estimates are expected after a Monte Carlo study of the sensitivity of the data analysis pipeline to transit signals injected at the pixel level is completed.

  9. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    OpenAIRE

    S. Riffell; McIntyre, N; Hayes, R.

    2008-01-01

    The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes ...

  10. MODELLING LAND DEGRADATION IN LOW-INPUT AGRICULTURE: THE 'POPULATION PRESSURE HYPOTHESIS' REVISED

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Unai; Barbier, Edward B.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a theoretical framework to analyse land quality and labour allocation decisions by poor rural households in the context of increased population densities in slash-and-burn (shifting cultivation) agro-ecosystems. A bio-economic optimal control model is presented and its results calibrated with data from two farming communities from Yucatan (Mexico). The ecological-economic model restates the validity of the neo-Malthusian 'Population Pressure Hypothesis' (PPH) as a major fa...

  11. Assessing the mitigation potential of agricultural systems by optimization of the agricultural management: A modeling study on 8 agricultural observation sites across Europe with the process based model LandscapeDNDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers increase crop yields but cause the biggest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and strongly contribute to surface water eutrophication (e.g. nitrate leaching). The necessity to identify affordable strategies that improve crop production while improving ecosystem services are in continuous debate between policy decision makers and farmers. In this line, a lack commitment from farmers to enforce laws might result in the reduction of benefits. For this reason, farmers should aim to increase crop production and to reduce environmental harm by the adoption of precision climate smart agriculture tools applied to management practices for instance. In this study we present optimized strategies for 8 sites (agricultural and grassland ecosystems) with long term field observation across Europe to show the mitigation potential to reduce reactive nitrogen losses under the constrain of keeping yields at observed levels. LandscapeDNDC simulations of crop yields and associated nitrogen losses (N2O emissions and NO3 leaching) were evaluated against long term field measurements. The sites presented different management regimes including the main commodity crops (maize, wheat, barley, rape seeds, etc) and fertilization amendments (synthetic and organic fertilizers) in Europe. The simulations reproduced the observed yields, captured N2O emissions and NO3 leaching losses with high statistical presicion (r2), acurrency (ME) and agreement (RMSPEn). The mitigation potentials to reduce N losses while keeping yields at observed levels for all 8 sites were assesed by Monte Carlo optimizations of the individual underlying multi year agricultural management options (timings of planting and harvest, fertilization & manure applications and rates, residues management). In this study we present for all 8 agricultural observations sites their individual mitigation potentials to reduce N losses for multi year rotations. The conclusions

  12. Future Water Management in the South Platte River Basin: Impacts of Hydraulic Fracturing, Population, Agriculture, and Climate Change in a Semi-Arid Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, E. L.; Hogue, T. S.; Anderson, A. M.; Read, L.

    2015-12-01

    In semi-arid basins across the world, the gap between water supply and demand is growing due to climate change, population growth, and shifts in agriculture and unconventional energy development. Water conservation efforts among residential and industrial water users, recycling and reuse techniques and innovative regulatory frameworks for water management strive to mitigate this gap, however, the extent of these strategies are often difficult to quantify and not included in modeling water allocations. Decision support systems (DSS) are purposeful for supporting water managers in making informed decisions when competing demands create the need to optimize water allocation between sectors. One region of particular interest is the semi-arid region of the South Platte River basin in northeastern Colorado, where anthropogenic and climatic effects are expected to increase the gap between water supply and demand in the near future. Specifically, water use in the South Platte is impacted by several high-intensity activities, including unconventional energy development, i.e. hydraulic fracturing, and large withdrawals for agriculture; these demands are in addition to a projected population increase of 100% by 2050. The current work describes the development of a DSS for the South Platte River basin, using the Water Evaluation and Planning system software (WEAP) to explore scenarios of how variation in future water use in the energy, agriculture, and municipal sectors will impact water allocation decisions. Detailed data collected on oil and gas water use in the Niobrara shale play will be utilized to predict future sector use. We also employ downscaled climate projections for the region to quantify the potential range of water availability in the basin under each scenario, and observe whether or not, and to what extent, climate may impact management decisions at the basin level.

  13. Measuring and monitoring linear woody features in agricultural landscapes through earth observation data as an indicator of habitat availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasher, J.; McGovern, M.; Putinski, V.

    2016-02-01

    The loss of natural habitats and the loss of biological diversity is a global problem affecting all ecosystems including agricultural landscapes. Indicators of biodiversity can provide standardized measures that make it easier to compare and communicate changes to an ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes the amount and variety of available habitat is directly correlated with biodiversity levels. Linear woody features (LWF), including hedgerows, windbreaks, shelterbelts as well as woody shrubs along fields, roads and watercourses, play a vital role in supporting biodiversity as well as serving a wide variety of other purposes in the ecosystem. Earth observation can be used to quantify and monitor LWF across the landscape. While individual features can be manually mapped, this research focused on the development of methods using line intersect sampling (LIS) for estimating LWF as an indicator of habitat availability in agricultural landscapes. The methods are accurate, efficient, repeatable and provide robust results. Methods were tested over 9.5 Mha of agricultural landscape in the Canadian Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Approximately 97,000 km of LWF were estimated across this landscape with results useable both at a regional reporting scale, as well as mapped across space for use in wildlife habitat modelling or other landscape management research. The LIS approach developed here could be employed at a variety of scales in particular for large regions and could be adapted for use as a national scale indicator of habitat availability in heavily disturbed agricultural landscape.

  14. Meeting Earth Observation Requirements for Global Agricultural Monitoring: An Evaluation of the Revisit Capabilities of Current and Planned Moderate Resolution Optical Earth Observing Missions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa K. Whitcraft

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a highly dynamic process in space and time, with many applications requiring data with both a relatively high temporal resolution (at least every 8 days and fine-to-moderate (FTM < 100 m spatial resolution. The relatively infrequent revisit of FTM optical satellite observatories coupled with the impacts of cloud occultation have translated into a barrier for the derivation of agricultural information at the regional-to-global scale. Drawing upon the Group on Earth Observations Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM Initiative’s general satellite Earth observation (EO requirements for monitoring of major production areas, Whitcraft et al. (this issue have described where, when, and how frequently satellite data acquisitions are required throughout the agricultural growing season at 0.05°, globally. The majority of areas and times of year require multiple revisits to probabilistically yield a view at least 70%, 80%, 90%, or 95% clear within eight days, something that no present single FTM optical observatory is capable of delivering. As such, there is a great potential to meet these moderate spatial resolution optical data requirements through a multi-space agency/multi-mission constellation approach. This research models the combined revisit capabilities of seven hypothetical constellations made from five satellite sensors—Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager and Thermal Infrared Sensor (Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, Resourcesat-2 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (Resourcesat-2 AWiFS, Sentinel-2A Multi-Spectral Instrument (MSI, and Sentinel-2B MSI—and compares these capabilities with the revisit frequency requirements for a reasonably cloud-free clear view within eight days throughout the agricultural growing season. Supplementing Landsat 7 and 8 with missions from different space agencies leads to an improved capacity to meet requirements, with Resourcesat-2 providing the largest

  15. Identifying causes for population decline of the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) in agricultural landscapes in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine-Lee Wincentz

    proportions in game bags have dropped significantly since the 1950ies. Simple matrix population models with variable juvenile recruitment predict the similar population growth rates as actually observed in the annual bag records. The model substantiates the supposition that declines in the Danish hare......In recent decades the brown hare (Lepus europaeus) population in Denmark has undergone a substantial decline, but proximate causes are unknown and little is known about actual densities. In this thesis, hare populations are investigated with respect to age composition and reproductive parameters in...... relation to habitat and phenotype, and point transect counts are evaluated in assessing hare densities. High spatial variation in post-natal survival of offspring is observed. Some variation in the demographic and phenotypic (size, weight) parameters is attributable to habitat composition. The juvenile...

  16. Application of ionizing radiation in agriculture. Sterile-male release method for insect population suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The insect male sterilization method by radiation has been described. The method consists in irradiation of male and release them to complete in reproduction with prolific insects. The results of such method of insects population suppression have been shown on the example of eradication of screwworm in the U.S.A. and Libya. 13 refs, 2 tabs

  17. Understanding the Iron Age Economy: Sustainability of Agricultural Practices under Stable Population Growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danielisová, Alžběta; Olševičová, K.; Cimler, R.; Machálek, T.

    Wien: Springer, 2013 - (Wurzer, G.; Kowarik, K.; Reschreiter, H.), s. 205-241. (Advances in Geographic Information Science). ISBN 978-3-319-00007-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP405/12/0926 Institutional support: RVO:67985912 Keywords : agent model * economy * population dynamics * land use strategies * Iron Age Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  18. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S

    2016-07-01

    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. PMID:27085997

  19. Indigenous Populations of Three Closely Related Lysobacter spp. in Agricultural Soils Using Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Postma, Joeke; Schilder, Mirjam T.; van Hoof, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research had shown that three closely related species of Lysobacter, i.e., Lysobacter antibioticus, Lysobacter capsici, and Lysobacter gummosus, were present in different Rhizoctonia-suppressive soils. However, the population dynamics of these three Lysobacter spp. in different habitats remains unknown. Therefore, a specific primer–probe combination was designed for the combined quantification of these three Lysobacter spp. using TaqMan. Strains of the three target species were effic...

  20. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A.; Randerson, James T.

    2012-01-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1...

  1. Isolation, Characterization and Application of Bacterial Population From Agricultural Soil at Sohag Province, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahig, A. E.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty soil samples of agriculture soil were collected from two different sites in Sohag province, Egypt, during hot and cold seasons. Twenty samples were from soil irrigated with canal water (site A and twenty samples were from soil irrigated with wastewater (site B. This study aimed to compare the incidence of plasmids in bacteria isolated from soil and to investigate the occurrence of metal and antibiotic resistance bacteria, and consequently to select the potential application of these bacteria in bioremediation. The total bacterial count (CFU/gm in site (B was higher than that in site (A. Moreover, the CFU values in summer were higher than those values in winter at both sites. A total of 771 bacterial isolates were characterized as Bacillus, Micrococcus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Eschershia, Shigella, Xanthomonas, Acetobacter, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Moraxella and Methylococcus. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of Pb+2, Cu+2, Zn+2, Hg+2, Co+2, Cd+2, Cr+3, Te+2, As+2 and Ni+2 for plasmid-possessed bacteria were determined and the highest MICs were 1200 µg/mL for lead, 800 µg/mL for both Cobalt and Arsenate, 1200 µg/mL for Nickel, 1000 µg/ml for Copper and less than 600 µg/mL for other metals. Bacterial isolates from both sites A and B showed multiple heavy metal resistance. A total of 337 bacterial isolates contained plasmids and the incidence of plasmids was approximately 25-50% higher in bacteria isolated from site (B than that from site (A. These isolates were resistance to different antibiotics. Approximately, 61% of the bacterial isolates were able to assimilate insecticide, carbaryl, as a sole source of carbon and energy. However, the Citrobacter AA101 showed the best growth on carbaryl.

  2. Remote sensing applications in African agriculture and natural resources: Highlighting and managing the stress of increasing population pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amissah-Arthur, Abigail; Balstad Miller, Roberta

    Given current population trends and projections in sub-Saharan Africa, it is anticipated that substantial intensification of agricultural cropland is certain within the next decades. In the absence of adoption of improved technologies poor rural populations in this region will continue to degrade and mine the natural resources to ensure their survival. All these actions will have far-reaching implications for environmental quality and human health. However, only through the integration of environment and development concerns with greater attention to these link can we achieve the goal of fulfilling the basic needs, improved living standards for all, better protected and managed eco-systems and a safer, more prosperous future. The paper reviews case studies and provides examples of the integration, analysis, and visualization of information from remotely sensed, biophysical and socioeconomic information to assess the present situation hindering agricultural development in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies show the interactions between socio-economic and environmental factors that can help governments and policy-makers assess the scope of the problems, examine alternatives and decide on a course of action. Sound decisions depend on accurate information, yet most African countries face severe competing demands for the financial and human commitments necessary to staff an information system equal to its policy-making requirements. The role of international data centers is reviewed in terms of their abilities to develop and maintain information systems that bring together available accumulated knowledge and data. This permits comparative studies, which make it possible to develop a better understanding of the relationships among demographic dynamics, technology, cultural behavioral norms, and land resources and hence better decision making for sustainable development.

  3. The impact of chemical evolution on the observable properties of stellar populations

    OpenAIRE

    Tosi., M

    2000-01-01

    The major effects of the chemical evolution of galaxies on the characteristics of their stellar populations are reviewed. A few examples of how the observed stellar properties derived from colour--magnitude diagrams can constrain chemical evolution models are given.

  4. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NATIONAL STANDARD «SAFE LIFE OF THE POPULATION ON RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATED TERRITORIES. SAFE USE OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS. THE BASIC FRAMEWORK»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Marchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of the Federal target program «Managing the consequences of radiation accidents for the period till 2015» the National Standard «Safe life of the population on radioactive contaminated territories. Safe use of agricultural lands. The basic framework» has been developed. Its aim is to ensure safe use of agricultural lands in the areas affected by radiation incidents, accidents and disasters.

  6. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. PMID:24814860

  7. Diversity and genetic population structure of fungal pathogens infecting white grub larvae in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Benítez, María G; Guzmán-Franco, Ariel W; Alatorre-Rosas, Raquel; Enríquez-Vara, Jhony N

    2013-02-01

    White grub larvae are important soil-dwelling pests in many regions of Mexico as they attack many important crops such as maize. The use of synthetic chemicals is currently the main control strategy, but they are not always effective; thus, other alternatives are needed. Microbial control using entomopathogenic fungi represents an important alternative strategy, and species within the genera Beauveria and Metarhizium are considered amongst the most promising candidates. Seventeen Beauveria spp. and two Metarhizium spp. isolates were obtained in surveys of white grub larvae from different regions of Guanajuato, Mexico. All isolates were capable of infecting healthy larvae of the white grub Phyllophaga polyphilla in laboratory assays, but mortality never exceeded 50 %. Isolates were identified using morphological and molecular methods. Based on elongation factor1-α and ITS partial gene sequence data, all Beauveria isolates were identified as Beauveria pseudobassiana. Elongation factor1-α and β-tubulin sequence data identified the Metarhizium isolates to be Metarhizium pingshaense. In contrast, three additional Metarhizium isolates obtained the previous year in the same region were identified as M. pingshaense, Metarhizium anisopliae and Metarhizium robertsii. Microsatellite genotyping showed that all B. pseudobassiana isolates were the same haplotype. Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus fingerprinting information confirmed no significant variation amongst the B. pseudobassiana isolates. The ecological role of these isolates and their impact on white grub larvae populations are discussed. PMID:22965804

  8. Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions inventories for agricultural burning using satellite observations of active fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Wen; Jin, Yufang; Giglio, Louis; Foley, Jonathan A; Randerson, James T

    2012-06-01

    Fires in agricultural ecosystems emit greenhouse gases and aerosols that influence climate on multiple spatial and temporal scales. Annex 1 countries of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), many of which ratified the Kyoto Protocol, are required to report emissions of CH4 and N2O from these fires annually. In this study, we evaluated several aspects of this reporting system, including the optimality of the crops targeted by the UNFCCC globally and within Annex 1 countries, and the consistency of emissions inventories among different countries. We also evaluated the success of individual countries in capturing interannual variability and long-term trends in agricultural fire activity. In our approach, we combined global high-resolution maps of crop harvest area and production, derived from satellite maps and ground-based census data, with Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) measurements of active fires. At a global scale, we found that adding ground nuts (e.g., peanuts), cocoa, cotton and oil palm, and removing potato, oats, rye, and pulse other from the list of 14 crops targeted by the UNFCCC increased the percentage of active fires covered by the reporting system by 9%. Optimization led to a different recommended list for Annex 1 countries, requiring the addition of sunflower, cotton, rapeseed, and alfalfa and the removal of beans, sugarcane, pulse others, and tuber-root others. Extending emissions reporting to all Annex 1 countries (from the current set of 19 countries) would increase the efficacy of the reporting system from 6% to 15%, and further including several non-Annex 1 countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Kazakhstan, Mexico, and Nigeria) would capture over 55% of active fires in croplands worldwide. Analyses of interannual trends from the United States and Australia showed the importance of both intensity of fire use and crop production in controlling year

  9. Relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the elderly agricultural and fishing population of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen HC

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsi-Che Shen,1–3 Zi-Hao Zhao,4 Yi-Chun Hu,2,5,6 Yu-Fen Chen,7–9 Tao-Hsin Tung4,10,111Department of Surgery, New Taipei City Hospital, 2School of Health Care Administration, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 3Department of Healthcare Management, Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, 4Faculty of Public Health, School of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, 5Oriental Institute of Technology, 6Department of Nursing, New Taipei City Hospital, 7Business Place Hygiene Management, Department of Health, Taipei City Government, 8Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University, 9Department of Nursing, Kang-Ning Junior College of Medical Care and Management, 10Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng-Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, 11Department of Crime Prevention and Correction, Central Police University, Taoyuan, TaiwanBackground: The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD in the elderly agricultural and fishing population of Taipei, Taiwan.Methods: The study participants comprised 6,511 (3,971 male and 2,540 female healthy elderly subjects voluntarily attending a teaching hospital for a physical check-up in 2010. Blood samples and real-time ultrasound-proven fatty liver sonography results were collected.Results: The prevalence of NAFLD in this elderly population was 27.2%, including mild NAFLD (16.0%, moderate NAFLD (10.3%, and severe NAFLD (0.9%. The prevalence of moderate or severe NAFLD for metabolic syndrome proved to be substantially greater (P<0.0001, Χ2 test for one or two metabolic factors. Using multinomial logistic regression analysis, age, sex, metabolic syndrome, and higher body mass index had a statistically significant association with mild NAFLD. Age, sex, metabolic syndrome, higher body mass index, and higher alanine aminotransferase were significantly related to moderate NAFLD. In addition

  10. Closed loop observer-based parameter estimation of quantum systems with a single population measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Leghtas, Zaki

    2008-01-01

    An observer-based Hamiltonian identification algorithm for quantum systems has been proposed by Bonnabel-et-al [2]. In this paper we propose another observer enabling the identification of the dipole moments of a multi-level case, and having access to the population of the ground state only.

  11. Two-fold increase in White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) population in Lithuania: a consequence of changing agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    VAITKUVIENE, Daiva; DAGYS, Mindaugas

    2015-01-01

    A countrywide White Stork (Ciconia ciconia) nest census was carried out in Lithuania in 2009 and 2010 by over 20 observers using standardised equipment and methods. The census revealed that the White Stork population has doubled since the previous census in 1994, possibly due to favourable changes in farming practices, with birds increasingly settling on the overhead electricity line poles and gradually abandoning nests in trees. In total, 21,192 White Stork nests were recorded, of which 18,7...

  12. Virtual colleagues, virtually colleagues—physicians’ use of Twitter: a population-based observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Brynolf, Anne; Johansson, Stefan; Appelgren, Ester; Lynoe, Niels; Edstedt Bonamy, Anna-Karin

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate potential violations of patient confidentiality or other breaches of medical ethics committed by physicians and medical students active on the social networking site Twitter. Design Population-based cross-sectional observational study. Setting The social networking site Twitter (Swedish-speaking users, n=298819). Population Physicians and medical students (Swedish-speaking users, n=237) active on the social networking site Twitter between July 2007 and March 2012. Mai...

  13. Direct observation of aerosol particles in aged agricultural biomass burning plumes impacting urban atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Y. Li

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from agricultural biomass burning (ABB in northern China have a significant impact on the regional and the global climate. According to the Giovanni's Aerosol optical depth (AOD map, the monthly average AOD at 550 nm in northern China in 2007 shows a maximum value of 0.7 in June, suggesting that episodes of severe aerosol pollution occurred in this region. Aerosol particles were collected in urban Beijing during regional brown hazes from 12 to 30 June, 2007. Transmission electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry characterized the morphology, composition, and mixing state of aerosol particles. Potassium salts (K2SO4 and KNO3, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles predominated in fine particles (diameter <1 μm collected from 12 to 20 June, 2007. In contrast, from 21 to 30 June, 2007, ammonium sulfate, soot, and organic particles were dominant. Potassium-dominant particles as a tracer of biomass burning, together with wildfire maps, show that intensive regional ABB in northern China from 10 to 20 June, 2007 contributed significantly to the regional haze. After long-range transport, ABB particles exhibited marked changes in their morphology, elemental composition, and mixing state. Heterogeneous reactions completely converted KCl particles from ABB into K2SO4 and KNO3. Soot particles were generally mixed with potassium salts, ammonium salts, and organic particles. In addition, the abundant aged organic particles and soluble salts emitted by ABB become more hygroscopic and increase their size during long-range transport, becoming in effect additional cloud condensation nuclei. The high AOD (average value at 2.2 during 12 to 20 June, 2007, in Beijing is partly explained by the hygroscopic growth of aged fine aerosol particles and by the strong absorption of internally mixed soot particles, both coming from regional ABB emissions.

  14. Observation of three distinct ion populations at the Kelvin-Helmholtz-unstable magnetopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. G. T. Taylor

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We report Double Star spacecraft observations of the dusk-flank magnetopause and its boundary layer under predominantly northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF. Under such conditions the flank low-latitude boundary layers (LLBL of the magnetosphere are known to broaden. The primary candidate processes associated with the transport of solar wind plasma into the LLBL are: (1 local diffusive plasma transport associated with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI, (2 local plasma penetration owing to magnetic reconnection in the vicinity of the KHI-driven vortices, and (3 via a pre-existing boundary layer formed through double high-latitude reconnection on the dayside. Previous studies have shown that a cold population of solar wind origin is typically mixed with a hot population of magnetospheric origin in the LLBL. The present observations show the coexistence of three distinct ion populations in the dusk LLBL, during an interval when the magnetopause is unstable to the KHI: (1 a typical hot magnetospheric population, (2 a cold population that shows parallel temperature anisotropy, and (3 a distinct third cold population that shows perpendicular temperature anisotropy. Although no unambiguous conclusion may be drawn from this single event, we discuss the possible mechanisms at work and the origin of each population by envisaging three likely sources: hot magnetospheric plasma sheet, cold magnetosheath of solar wind origin, and cold plasma of ionospheric origin.

  15. Direct Observation of Coherent Population Trapping in a Superconducting Artificial Atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, William R; Ohki, Thomas A; Schlafer, John; Mookerji, Bashkar; Kline, Jeffrey S; Pappas, David P

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) of an atom (or solid state "artificial atom"), and the associated effect of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT), are clear demonstrations of quantum interference due to coherence in multi-level quantum systems. We report observation of CPT in a superconducting phase qubit by simultaneously driving two coherent transitions in a $\\Lambda$-type configuration, utilizing the three lowest lying levels of a local minimum of a phase qubit. We observe 58% suppression of excited state population under conditions of CPT resonance. We present data and matching theoretical simulations showing the development of CPT in time. Finally, we used the observed time dependence of the excited state population to characterize quantum dephasing times of the system.

  16. Food survey. Part A. U. S. agriculture in the U. S. balance of trade. Part B. The world food-population problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulthrop, P.H.

    1976-01-01

    Part A of the paper examines U.S. agriculture with respect to its current and future role in that U.S. trade balance. Part B is a brief look at the world food-population problem. It is appropriate to examine alternatives. One alternative is to simply import oil and pay for it with agricultural exports, security being achieved through diversification of sources of imports. This study examines and identifies the major food issues. An attempt is made to demonstrate that U.S. agricultural exports will probably continue to be a strong positive element in the trade balance for at least the next decade. However, while worldwide demand for food will grow, so will the competition for U.S. agricultural exports. The uncertainties are of significant magnitude that to count on this strategy for the long term seems unwise.

  17. Modelling the observed properties of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars using binary population synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Abate, C; Stancliffe, R J; Izzard, R G; Karakas, A I; Beers, T C; Lee, Y S

    2015-01-01

    The stellar population in the Galactic halo is characterised by a large fraction of CEMP stars. Most CEMP stars are enriched in $s$-elements (CEMP-$s$ stars), and some of these are also enriched in $r$-elements (CEMP-$s/r$ stars). One formation scenario proposed for CEMP stars invokes wind mass transfer in the past from a TP-AGB primary star to a less massive companion star which is presently observed. We generate low-metallicity populations of binary stars to reproduce the observed CEMP-star fraction. In addition, we aim to constrain our wind mass-transfer model and investigate under which conditions our synthetic populations reproduce observed abundance distributions. We compare the CEMP fractions and the abundance distributions determined from our synthetic populations with observations. Several physical parameters of the binary stellar population of the halo are uncertain, e.g. the initial mass function, the mass-ratio and orbital-period distributions, and the binary fraction. We vary the assumptions in o...

  18. Russian Observations of European Experience in Agricultural Development in 1840s (based on the printed output of the Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.

  19. Analytical method for assessing potential dermal exposure to pesticides of a non-agricultural occupationally exposed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhomme, Olivier; Raeppel, Caroline; Teigné, Delphine; Briand, Olivier; Millet, Maurice

    2011-01-01

    To measure dermal exposure of a non-agricultural occupationally exposed population to pesticides, a new method has been developed for analysis of 13 pesticides from different classes (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides) on dermal patches. The method includes extraction of the patches and analysis of the pesticides by GC-MS and/or HPLC-fluorescence. Water-soluble pesticides (glyphosate and glufosinate) on patches were ultrasonically extracted twice with ultra-pure water for 10 min and analysed by HPLC-fluorescence after derivatisation with FMOC. Organic-soluble pesticides (bifenthrin, cyprodinil, difufenicanil, fludioxonil, oxadiazon, pyriproxyfen, clopyralid, 2,4-D, fluroxypyr, 2,4-MCPA, and triclopyr) were extracted ultrasonically twice for 10 min with 70:30 dichloromethane-acetonitrile and analysed by GC-MS directly or after derivatisation with N-methyl-N-tert-butyldimethylsilyltrifluoroacetamide. Detection limits varied between 3 and 4 μg L(-1) for water-soluble pesticides and between 1 and 10 μg L(-1) for organic-soluble pesticides. PMID:21107816

  20. A prospective observational study of skin to subarachnoid space depth in the Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: A pre-puncture estimate of skin to subarachnoid space depth (SSD may guide spinal needle placement and reduce complications associated with lumbar puncture. Our aim was to determine (1 The SSD in Indian males, females, parturients and the overall population; (2 To derive formulae for predicting SSD and (3 To determine which previously suggested formula best suited our population. Methods: In this prospective, observational study, 800 adult Indian patients undergoing surgery under spinal anaesthesia were divided into three groups: Males (Group M, females (Group F and parturients (Group PF. SSD was measured after lumbar puncture. The relationship between SSD and patient characteristics was studied and statistical models were used to derive formula for predicting SSD. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA with post hoc analysis, forward stepwise multivariate regression analysis and paired t-tests. Results: Mean SSD was 4.71 ± 0.70 cm in the overall population. SSD in adult males (4.81 ± 0.68 cm was significantly longer than that observed in females (4.55 ± 0.66 cm but was comparable with SSD in parturients (4.73 ± 0.73 cm. Formula for predicting SSD in the overall population was 2.71 + 0.09 × Body Mass Index (BMI. Stocker′s formula when applied correlated best with the observed SSD. Formulae were derived for the three groups. Conclusions: We found gender-based differences in SSD, with SSD in males being significantly greater than that observed in the female population. SSD correlated with BMI in the parturient and the overall population. Amongst the previously proposed formulae, Stocker′s formula was most accurate in predicting SSD in our population.

  1. Evaluation of observation-fused regional air quality model results for population air pollution exposure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-07-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were located. Although the raw CMAQ model is capable of producing satisfying results for O3 and PM2.5 based on EPA guidelines, using the observation data fusing technique to correct CMAQ predictions leads to significant improvement of model performance for all gaseous and particulate pollutants. Regional average concentrations were calculated using five different methods: 1) inverse distance weighting of observation data alone, 2) raw CMAQ results, 3) observation-fused CMAQ results, 4) population-averaged raw CMAQ results and 5) population-averaged fused CMAQ results. It shows that while O3 (as well as NOx) monitoring networks in the HRRs are dense enough to provide consistent regional average exposure estimation based on monitoring data alone, PM2.5 observation sites (as well as monitors for CO, SO2, PM10 and PM2.5 components) are usually sparse and the difference between the average concentrations estimated by the inverse distance interpolated observations, raw CMAQ and fused CMAQ results can be significantly different. Population-weighted average should be used to account for spatial variation in pollutant concentration and population density. Using raw CMAQ results or observations alone might lead to significant biases in health outcome analyses. PMID:24747248

  2. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makurira

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, with improved farming practices, it seems possible to significantly increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize. Alternative cultivation techniques such as runoff harvesting and in-field micro-storage structures are compared. These techniques aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field but, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes under different cultivation techniques. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. It appears that about 50% of the diverted water leaves the root zone through deep percolation. Modelling shows that during the field trials the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1–1.4 mm d−1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7–1.0 mm d−1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23–29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33–48% of the available water. Conclusions from the research are that the innovations tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. It is also concluded that there is more scope for efficient utilisation of the diverted runoff water if storage structures could be installed to regulate water flow to the root zone when required.

  3. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Makurira

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, through the introduction of appropriate farming practices, it is possible to substantially increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize. The yields from farming system innovations (SIs, which are basically alternative cultivation techniques, are compared against traditional farming practices. The SIs tested in this research are runoff harvesting used in combination with in-field trenches and soil bunds (fanya juus. These SIs aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field and, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes for the "with" and "without" SI scenarios. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. Simulation results show that, during the field trials, the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1–1.4 mm d−1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7–1.0 mm d−1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23–29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33–48% of the available water. The field system has been successfully modelled using the spreadsheet-based water balance 1-D model. Conclusions from the research are that the SIs that were tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained

  4. Spontaneous morphogenetic juvenilization observed in laboratory populations of vector species of Chagas disease (Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Perlowagora-Szumlewicz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Reported are observations on spontaneous occurring morphogenetic juvenilization in laboratory populations of vector species of Chagas disease. Two general effects have been observed: arrested development and uncoordinated development. These are manifested by supernumerary nymphs (6th stage, intermediate nymphal-adult stages, badly deformed adults developed from 5th instar nymphs, uncoordinated development manifested by grotesque forms of adults, supernumerary adults unable to complete metamorphosis and complete supernumerary adults produced by 6th stage nymphs. The reoccurrence of insects with identical grades of juvenilization in the population is an indication that this is a genetic trait that might be inherited. The factors responsible for morphogenetic juvenilization cannot be transmitted through the juvenilized insects because they are sterile, than they were transmitted through normal insects probably as a recessive or a group recessive factors. The spontaneous morphogenetic juvenilization observed in laboratory populations has a striking similarity to juvenilizing effects induced by application of juvenile hormone analogues, described in the literature and also obtained in our laboratory in a study to be published. Thus it is suggested that both; the altered phenotypes occurring in wild populations and their "phenocopies" induced by the application of juvenile hormone analogues are products of gene controlled identical reactions.

  5. A quantitative explanation of the observed population of Milky Way satellite galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Koposov, Sergey E; Rix, Hans-Walter; Weinberg, David H; Macciò, Andrea V; Miralda-Escudé, Jordi

    2009-01-01

    We revisit the well known discrepancy between the observed number of Milky Way (MW) dwarf satellite companions and the predicted population of cold dark matter (CDM) sub-halos, in light of the dozen new low luminosity satellites found in SDSS imaging data and our recent calibration of the SDSS satellite detection efficiency, which implies a total population far larger than these dozen discoveries. We combine a dynamical model for the CDM sub-halo population with simple, physically motivated prescriptions for assigning stellar content to each sub-halo, then apply observational selection effects and compare to the current observational census. As expected, models in which the stellar mass is a constant fraction F(Omega_b/Omega_m) of the sub-halo mass M_sat at the time it becomes a satellite fail for any choice of F. However, previously advocated models that invoke suppression of gas accretion after reionization in halos with circular velocity v_c <~ 35 km/s can reproduce the observed satellite counts for -15...

  6. Transcriptional profiling induced by pesticides employed in organic agriculture in a wild population of Chironomus riparius under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lencioni, Valeria; Grazioli, Valentina; Rossaro, Bruno; Bernabò, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Copper (Cu) and azadirachtin (AZA-A+B) are pesticides allowed in organic agriculture whose environmental risk and toxicity for aquatic wildlife is only partially known. Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction was used to assess the molecular effect of acute and short-term exposure (3, 24h) of Cu (0.01, 0.05, 1, 10, 25mgl(-1)) and AZA-A+B (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1mgl(-1)) on the expression of five candidate genes (hsp70, hsc70, hsp40, hsp10 and cyP450) in a non-target species, Chironomus riparius. Fourth-instar larvae were collected from a mountain stream polluted by agricultural land run-off. All genes were responsive to both pesticides but each gene had a specific response to the different experimental concentrations and exposure times. A few similarities in transcriptional profiling were observed, such as a linear concentration-dependent response of hsp70 after 24h of exposure (at ≥1mgl(-1) of Cu and ≥0.2mgl(-1) of AZA-A+B) and an up-regulation regardless of the concentration of hsc70 after 24h of exposure (at ≥0mgl(-1) of Cu and ≥0.2mgl(-1) of AZA-A+B and the up-regulation of hsp70 after 3h of exposure at ~LC50 (Cu-LC50=26.1±2.5mgl(-1), AZA-A+B-LC50=1.1±0.2mgl(-1)). According to the results, hsp40, hsp10 and cyP450 may be defined as pesticide-dependent (i.e., hsp40 and hsp10 seemed to responded mainly to AZA-A+B and cyP450 to Cu), while hsc70 as time-dependent regardless of the pesticide (i.e., hsc70 responded only after 24h of treatment with Cu and AZA-A+B). This study gives new insights on the potential role of the C. riparius's hsps and cyP450 genes as sensitive biomarkers for freshwater monitoring. PMID:26994805

  7. Identifying the Real Seed Population for Shock Accelerated Energetic Particles: Recent Observational Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, G. M.; Mazur, J. E.; Desai, M. I.; Dwyer, J. R.

    2002-12-01

    Gradual solar energetic particle events, traveling interplanetary shocks, and corotating interaction regions are examples of shock acceleration of particles in the heliosphere. Although shock acceleration of particles has long been the subject of theoretical investigation, nevertheless key energetic particle properties such as intensity and spectral index are only roughly correlated with predictions of the theories. This may be due to limitations of the theories, but it may also be due to a lack of understanding of properties of the seed population. Recent measurements have shown that trace elements in the thermal plasma (e.g. singly ionized He, and 3He) often show dramatic enhancements in the energetic particle population. Although the observational picture is far from complete, it appears that the injection threshold in these events is about 1.5-2 times the solar wind speed. In this range, multiple particle sources are present, including solar wind suprathermals, pick up ions, and remnant material from prior shocks and impulsive events. Thus, the enhancements are not due to properties of the shock acceleration, but rather are primarily due to the properties of the seed population. This points to new opportunities for theoretical and experimental investigations to quantitatively model shock accelerated particle populations using realistic seed populations.

  8. The near-Earth asteroids population from two decades of observations

    CERN Document Server

    Tricarico, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Determining the near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) population is the focus of intense research, with the most recent models converging to a population of approximately 1,000 km-sized NEAs and up to approximately $10^8$ NEAs with absolute magnitude $H<28$. Here we show that the NEAs population is significantly smaller than previous estimates, with $900 \\pm 10$ NEAs larger than 1 km, approximately 10% lower than most recent estimates. Additionally, we estimate the population of small NEAs at 430,000 $\\pm$ 30,000 for $H<28$, a decrease by two orders of magnitude. These results are enabled by an analysis of the combined observations of nine of the leading asteroid surveys over the past two decades. This reduced population tracks very accurately the orbital distribution of recently discovered large NEAs, and produces an estimated Earth impact rate for small NEAs in good agreement with the bolide data. Data hint at a possible decrease of the average albedo in small NEAs that would reconcile the small difference betw...

  9. AGE AND MASS SEGREGATION OF MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THEIR OBSERVATIONAL SIGNATURES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are known to exist around massive black holes in galactic nuclei. They are thought to have formed through in situ star formation following gas inflow to the nucleus of the galaxy and/or through the infall of multiple stellar clusters. Here we study the latter, and explore the composite structure of the NSC and its relation to the various stellar populations originating from its progenitor infalling clusters. We use N-body simulations of cluster infalls and show that this scenario may produce observational signatures in the form of age segregation: the distribution of the stellar properties (e.g., stellar age and/or metallicity) in the NSCs reflects the infall history of the different clusters. The stellar populations of clusters, infalling at different times (dynamical ages), are differentially segregated in the NSC and are not fully mixed even after a few gigayears of evolution. Moreover, the radial properties of stellar populations in the progenitor cluster are mapped to their radial distribution in the final NSC, potentially leading to efficient mass segregation in NSCs, even those where relaxation times are longer than a Hubble time. Finally, the overall structures of the stellar populations present non-spherical configurations and show significant cluster to cluster population differences

  10. Direct Observation of Coherent Population Trapping in a Superconducting Artificial Atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, William R.; Dutton, Zachary; Schlafer, John; Mookerji, Bhaskar; Ohki, Thomas A.; Kline, Jeffrey S.; Pappas, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) of an atom (or solid state "artificial atom"), and the associated effect of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT), are clear demonstrations of quantum interference due to coherence in multi-level quantum systems. We report observation of CPT in a superconducting phase qubit by simultaneously driving two coherent transitions in a $\\Lambda$-type configuration, utilizing the three lowest lying levels of a local minimum of a phase qubi...

  11. High Prevalence of Nickel Allergy in an Overweight Female Population: A Pilot Observational Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lusi, Elena Angela; Di Ciommo, Vincenzo Maria; Patrissi, Tommaso; Guarascio, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Context In our Allergy Unit, we incidentally observed that a low Nickel diet, prescribed for delayed allergy to Nickel sulfate, reduced body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in overweight patients. Objectives This pilot cross-sectional analysis was undertaken to compare the prevalence of Nickel allergy of overweight individuals versus the general population. We also had the chance to report the efficacy of a low Nickel diet on BMI and waist circumference in Nickel-sensitive overweight...

  12. A population-based observational study of diabetes during pregnancy in Victoria, Australia, 1999–2008

    OpenAIRE

    Abouzeid, Marian; Versace, Vincent L; Janus, Edward D; Davey, Mary-Ann; Philpot, Benjamin; Oats, Jeremy; Dunbar, James A

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This paper reports secular trends in diabetes in pregnancy in Victoria, Australia and examines the effect of including or excluding women with pre-existing diabetes on gestational diabetes (GDM) prevalence estimates. Design Population-based observational study. Setting All births in Victoria, Australia between 1999 and 2008 Participants 634 932 pregnancies resulting in a birth registered with the Victorian Perinatal Data Collection Outcome measures Crude and age-standardised secula...

  13. Lack of global population genetic differentiation in thearbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae suggestsa recent range expansion which may have coincided withthe spread of agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Søren; McGee, Peter; Morton, Joseph B

    2009-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae is commonly found in agricultural fields. The cosmopolitan species is found in Africa, Europe, America, Asia and Australia. Three hypotheses may explain this worldwide distribution: First, speciation occurred before the continents separated 120 Ma;...... happened much later than continental spread and that human activity may have had a major impact on the dispersal and the population structure of the fungus....

  14. Runoff production in a small agricultural catchment in Lao PDR: influence of slope, land-use and observation scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, J.; Ribolzi, O.; Mugler, C.; Valentin, C.; Mouche, E.

    2010-12-01

    After years of traditional slash and burn cultures, the Houay Pano catchment is now under high land pressures due to population resettling and environmental preservation policies. This evolution leads to rapid land-use changes in the uplands, such as fallow time reductions and growing of cash crops as teaks or banana. The catchment is located in the Luang Prabang province, in the north of Lao PDR and was selected in late 1998 as a benchmark site for the Managing Soil Erosion Consortium (MSEC). It is a small (60ha) agricultural catchment representative of the rural mountainous South East Asia : it exhibits steep cultivated slopes (from 2% to more than 110%) under a wet-dry monsoon climate. To understand the partition between runoff and infiltration, data from runoff on 20 plot experiments (1m2) under natural rainfall and with representative slopes and land uses is collected from 2003 to 2009. A simulated rainfall experiment was conducted in 2002 on bare soil plots (1m2) with different antecedent cultures. We investigate the role of crust, slope and land-use on runoff production at different scales. A model accounting for small scale variability is applied to compute the time and space variations of soil infiltrability at the plot scale (1m2) and sub-catchment scale (0.6ha). From the hypothesis of exponentially distributed infiltrabilities at the centimeter scale, we found that infiltration is log-normaly distributed over time for a given land use. The median infiltrability vary from 10mm/h under teak cultures to 150mm/h on plots with fallow. Variations along a year are tribute to many meteorological and human factors.

  15. P-MaNGA: Full spectral fitting and stellar population maps from prototype observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wilkinson, David M; Thomas, Daniel; Coccato, Lodovico; Tojeiro, Rita; Cappellari, Michele; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Blanton, Mike; Bundy, Kevin; Cales, Sabrina; Cherinka, Brian; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Li, Cheng; Maiolino, Roberto; Masters, Karen; Tremonti, Christy; Wake, David; Wang, Enci; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Zhang, Kai; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-year SDSS-IV survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600 $\\AA$ to 10300 $\\AA$ for a representative sample of over 10,000 nearby galaxies. In this paper, we derive spatially resolved stellar population properties and radial gradients by performing full spectral fitting of observed galaxy spectra from P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. These data include spectra for eighteen galaxies, covering a large range of morphological type. We derive age, metallicity, dust and stellar mass maps, and their radial gradients, using high spectral-resolution stellar population models, and assess the impact of varying the stellar library input to the models. We introduce a method to determine dust extinction which is able to give smooth stellar mass maps even in cases of high and spatially non-uniform dust attenuation. With the spectral fitting we produce detailed maps of stellar population properties which allow us to identify galactic fe...

  16. HISTORICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AGRICULTURAL POPULATION OF THE KUBAN REGION IN THE SECOND HALF OF ХIХ CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery V. KASYANOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The process of settlement of the region was hampered by the obstacles of local character, as the Board of the Cossack army sought to preserve the dominant position of the Cossacks in land holdings. Peasants – immigrants from different regions of the country encountered obstacles from the side of the Kuban Cossack army, which hindered the process of economic development of the region. The bulk of the peasants in the Kuban region in the second half of the nineteenth century remained in various kinds depending on the owners of the land from Cossacks and significantly change the character of agricultural production in their own land could not. Kuban region were significantly different in size from all regions and provinces of the Caucasus region, and in many cases several times. The Cossack population, performing tasks of military service, was not able to develop agricultural production in the region. 

  17. Two-step pulse observation for Raman-Ramsey coherent population trapping atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Yano, Yuichiro; Kajita, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a two-step pulse observation method to enhance frequency stability for coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clocks. The proposed method is a Raman-Ramsey scheme with low light intensity at resonance observation, and provides a Ramsey-CPT resonance with both reduced frequency sensitivity to the light intensity and a high signal-to-noise ratio by reducing the repumping into a steady dark state. The resonance characteristics were calculated based on density matrix analysis of a $\\Lambda$-type three level system that was modeled on the $^{133}$Cs-D$_1$ line, and the characteristics were also measured using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and a Cs vapor cell.

  18. Populism

    OpenAIRE

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  19. Unresolved versus resolved: testing the validity of young simple stellar population models with VLT/MUSE observations of NGC 3603

    CERN Document Server

    Kuncarayakti, H; Anderson, J P; Krühler, T; Hamuy, M

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT. Stellar populations are the building blocks of galaxies including the Milky Way. The majority, if not all extragalactic studies are entangled with the use of stellar population models given the unresolved nature of their observation. Extragalactic systems contain multiple stellar populations with complex star formation histories. However, their study is mainly based upon the principles of simple stellar populations (SSP). Hence, it is critical to examine the validity of SSP models. AIMS. This work aims to empirically test the validity of SSP models. This is done by comparing SSP models against observations of spatially resolved young stellar population in the determination of its physical properties, i.e. age and metallicity. METHODS. Integral field spectroscopy of a young stellar cluster in the Milky Way, NGC 3603, is used to study the properties of the cluster both as a resolved and unresolved stellar population. The unresolved stellar population is analysed using the H$\\alpha$ equivalent width as ...

  20. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Observations in Irrigated Agriculture Fields Using the Cosmic-ray Neutron Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T. E.; Avery, W. A.; Finkenbiner, C. E.; Wang, T.; Brocca, L.

    2014-12-01

    Approximately 40% of global food production comes from irrigated agriculture. With the increasing demand for food even greater pressures will be placed on water resources within these systems. In this work we aimed to characterize the spatial and temporal patterns of soil moisture at the field-scale (~500 m) using the newly developed cosmic-ray neutron rover near Waco, NE. Here we mapped soil moisture of 144 quarter section fields (a mix of maize, soybean, and natural areas) each week during the 2014 growing season (May to September). The 11 x11 km study domain also contained 3 stationary cosmic-ray neutron probes for independent validation of the rover surveys. Basic statistical analysis of the domain indicated a strong inverted parabolic relationship between the mean and variance of soil moisture. The relationship between the mean and higher order moments were not as strong. Geostatistical analysis indicated the range of the soil moisture semi-variogram was significantly shorter during periods of heavy irrigation as compared to non-irrigated periods. Scaling analysis indicated strong power law behavior between the variance of soil moisture and averaging area with minimal dependence of mean soil moisture on the slope of the power law function. Statistical relationships derived from the rover dataset offer a novel set of observations that will be useful in: 1) calibrating and validating land surface models, 2) calibrating and validating crop models, 3) soil moisture covariance estimates for statistical downscaling of remote sensing products such as SMOS and SMAP, and 4) provide center-pivot scale mean soil moisture data for optimal irrigation timing and volume amounts.

  1. Spatial analysis of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) male population in a mediterranean agricultural landscape in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciarretta, A; Zinni, A; Mazzocchetti, A; Trematerra, P

    2008-04-01

    The results obtained from the spatial analysis of pheromone-baited trap catch data of Lobesia botrana (Denis and Schiffermüller) males are reported. The research was undertaken in the Abruzzo region of central Italy. In the study area, vineyards (of Vitis vinifera L.) are the predominant cultivation, surrounded by hedgerows and small woodlots, and interspersed with cereal crops and olive groves. The main purpose of the study was to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of L. botrana, inside and outside vineyards, and to evaluate the effect of the landscape elements on pest distribution. A trend orientation over the experimental area was observed along the direction from northwest to southeast. Correlograms fitted using a spherical model showed in all cases an aggregated distribution and an estimated range having a mean of 174 m in 2005 and 116 m in 2006. Contour maps highlighted that spatial distribution of L. botrana was not limited to vineyards, but its presence is high particularly inside olive groves. The adult distribution on the experimental area changed during the season: hot spots of flight I were positioned inside olive groves; during flights II and III, they were concentrated in vineyards. L. botrana males were also captured in uncultivated fields, but never in high densities. Our results showed that a large proportion of the adult population of L. botrana inhabits areas outside those usually targeted by pest management programs. Thus, in Mediterranean agro-ecosystems, it is highly recommended to consider the whole landscape, with particular attention to olive crops. PMID:18419910

  2. AGRICULTURE AND THE SOCIALECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE RURAL POPULATION IN GEORGIA: A CASE STUDY FOCUSING ON THE KAKHETI-REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris FORKEL

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Like in many other transition countries, agriculture in Georgia is usually termed as subsistence farming. Lack of employment opportunities and insufficient household income make rural people dependent on state-funded pensionschemes and agricultural production. Similarly, the income-disparity between rural households is also noticed remarkably, while citizens of smaller towns possess, on average, higher income. The study presented in this report is intended to explore the situation of rural households concerning parcel size, employment opportunities, income sources and income disparities between citizens of villages and small towns, by presenting findings obtained during a field survey conducted during the months of March and May 2008 in the Kakheti region in eastern Georgia.

  3. Family agriculture for bottom-up rural development: a case study of the indigenous Mayan population in the Mexican Peninsula

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamurthy, Laksmi Reddiar; Krishnamurthy, Sumithra

    2016-01-01

    Since pre-colonial times the indigenous communities of Mayan origin in the state of Quintana Roo, Mexico, widely practice home gardens on a sustainable basis as the principal form of family agriculture. This study analyzes the structural complexity, functional diversity and management strategy of these indigenous home gardens in order to attempt to propose recommendations for improved family farming. The Mayan home gardens are structured into three or more vertical layers of multiple plant sp...

  4. Promoting Food Security in Rwanda through Sustainable Agricultural Productivity: Meeting the Challenges of Population Pressure, Land Degradation, and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Daniel C.; Byiringiro, Fidele Usabuwera; Kangasniemi, Jaakko; Reardon, Thomas; Sibomana, Bosco; Uwamariya, Laurence; Tardif-Douglin, David

    1996-01-01

    The horror of genocide and civil war have turned the world's attention to Rwanda over the last year. But before and beyond that conflict, there was hunger and the slow grinding poverty of small holder agriculture meeting with severe land scarcity and degradation. This report is about reversing the spiraling decline of the land and the economy in rural Rwanda. Three things conspire to accelerate this decline: unsustainable land use practices, insufficient non-farm employment, and rapid populat...

  5. Functional profiles of soil microbial populations under various climatic conditions and agricultural practices in Burkina-Faso

    OpenAIRE

    Bourgerie, S.; Motelica-Heino, Mikael; Sajaloli, B; Yengué, E; Morabito, D.

    2014-01-01

    International audience BIOSOL is a multidisciplinary scientific program (soil science, agronomy, geography) which aims at understanding and promoting agro-ecological practices among peasant communities in Burkina-Faso. In this work, the pedological, geochemical and microbiological characteristics of agricultural soils were investigated in order to make an inventory of soil fertility. Two sites (villages of Sampiéri and Bandougou) with contrasted pedo-climatic conditions were selected.

  6. Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). 95th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI values exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04). PMID:20552725

  7. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjær, Lene; Hommen, Udo;

    2014-01-01

    are restricted to plot-scale experiments. Here, we use agent-based modelling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how area of pesticide application and environmental half-life (DT50) affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale....... Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and DT50s. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 x 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. Our results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor...... indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection...

  8. P-MaNGA: full spectral fitting and stellar population maps from prototype observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, David M.; Maraston, Claudia; Thomas, Daniel; Coccato, Lodovico; Tojeiro, Rita; Cappellari, Michele; Belfiore, Francesco; Bershady, Matthew; Blanton, Mike; Bundy, Kevin; Cales, Sabrina; Cherinka, Brian; Drory, Niv; Emsellem, Eric; Fu, Hai; Law, David; Li, Cheng; Maiolino, Roberto; Masters, Karen; Tremonti, Christy; Wake, David; Wang, Enci; Weijmans, Anne-Marie; Xiao, Ting; Yan, Renbin; Zhang, Kai; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brinkmann, Jonathan; Kinemuchi, Karen; Malanushenko, Elena; Malanushenko, Viktor; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2015-05-01

    MaNGA (Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory) is a 6-yr SDSS-IV (Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV) survey that will obtain resolved spectroscopy from 3600 to 10 300 Å for a representative sample of over 10 000 nearby galaxies. In this paper, we derive spatially resolved stellar population properties and radial gradients by performing full spectral fitting of observed galaxy spectra from P-MaNGA, a prototype of the MaNGA instrument. These data include spectra for 18 galaxies, covering a large range of morphological type. We derive age, metallicity, dust, and stellar mass maps, and their radial gradients, using high spectral-resolution stellar population models, and assess the impact of varying the stellar library input to the models. We introduce a method to determine dust extinction which is able to give smooth stellar mass maps even in cases of high and spatially non-uniform dust attenuation. With the spectral fitting, we produce detailed maps of stellar population properties which allow us to identify galactic features among this diverse sample such as spiral structure, smooth radial profiles with little azimuthal structure in spheroidal galaxies, and spatially distinct galaxy sub-components. In agreement with the literature, we find the gradients for galaxies identified as early type to be on average flat in age, and negative (-0.15 dex/Re) in metallicity, whereas the gradients for late-type galaxies are on average negative in age (-0.39 dex/Re) and flat in metallicity. We demonstrate how different levels of data quality change the precision with which radial gradients can be measured. We show how this analysis, extended to the large numbers of MaNGA galaxies, will have the potential to shed light on galaxy structure and evolution.

  9. Afterglow Population Studies from Swift Follow-Up Observations of Fermi LAT GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, Judith L.; Oates, S. R.; McEnery, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Troja, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2010-01-01

    The small population of Fermi LAT detected GRBs discovered over the last year has been providing interesting and unexpected clues into GRB prompt and afterglow emission mechanisms. Over the last 5 years, it has been Swift that has provided the robust data set of UV/optical and X-ray afterglow observations that opened many windows into other components of GRB emission structure. We explore the new ability to utilize both of these observatories to study the same GRBs over 10 orders of magnitude in energy, although not always concurrently. Almost all LAT GRBs that have been followed-up by Swift within 1-day have been clearly detected and carefully observed. We will present the context of the lower-energy afterglows of this special subset of GRBs that has > 100 MeV emission compared to the hundreds in the Swift database that may or may not have been observed by LAT, and theorize upon the relationship between these properties and the origin of the high energy gamma-ray emission.

  10. Evidence for a dual population of neutron star mergers from short Gamma-Ray Burst observations

    CERN Document Server

    Siellez, K; Gendre, B; Regimbau, T

    2016-01-01

    Short duration Gamma-Ray Bursts are thought to originate from the coalescence of neutron stars in binary systems. They are detected as a brief ($<$ 2s), intense flash of gamma-ray radiation followed by a weaker, rapidly decreasing afterglow. They are expected to be detected by Advanced LIGO and Virgo when their sensitivity will be low enough. In a recent study we identified a population of short Gamma-Ray Bursts that are intrinsically faint and nearby. Here we provide evidence in favor of the existence of this new population that can hardly be reproduced with a model of field neutron star binary coalescences. We propose that these systems may be produced dynamically in globular clusters, and may result from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star. The advanced LIGO and Virgo observation of a high rate of NSBH mergers compatible with the dynamical formation in globular clusters would be a confirmation of this hypothesis and would enable for the derivation of the mass function of black holes inside glo...

  11. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yamauchi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6~20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2~6 times the solar wind energy that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the solar wind frame, and are similar to the field-aligned beams and intermediate gyrating component of the foreshock ions in the terrestrial upstream region. Mars Express does not observe similar foreshock ions as does Venus Express, indicating that the Martian foreshock does not possess the intermediate gyrating component in the upstream region on the dayside of the planet. Instead, two types of gyrating protons in the solar wind frame are observed very close to the Martian quasi-perpendicular bow shock within a proton gyroradius distance. The first type is observed only within the region which is about 400 km from the bow shock and flows tailward nearly along the bow shock with a similar velocity as the solar wind. The second type is observed up to about 700 km from the bow shock and has a bundled structure in the energy domain. A traversal on 12 July 2005, in which the energy-bunching came from bundling in the magnetic field direction, is further examined. The observed velocities of the latter population are consistent with multiple specular reflections of the solar wind at the bow shock, and the ions after the second reflection have a field-aligned velocity larger than that of the de Hoffman-Teller velocity frame, i.e., their guiding center has moved toward interplanetary space out from the bow shock. To account for the observed peculiarity of the Martian upstream region, finite gyroradius effects of the solar wind protons compared to the radius of the bow shock curvature and

  12. Use of Framingham risk score and new biomarkers to predict cardiovascular mortality in older people: population based observational cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    de Ruijter, Wouter; Westendorp, Rudi G. J.; Assendelft, Willem J J; Wendy P J den Elzen; Anton J M de Craen; le Cessie, Saskia; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the performance of classic risk factors, and of some new biomarkers, in predicting cardiovascular mortality in very old people from the general population with no history of cardiovascular disease. Design The Leiden 85-plus Study (1997-2004) is an observational prospective cohort study with 5 years of follow-up. Setting General population of the city of Leiden, the Netherlands. Participants Population based sample of participants aged 85 years (215 women and 87 men) ...

  13. Investigation of environmental change pattern in Japan. Observation of present state of agricultural land-use by analysing LANDSAT data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Hayashi, S.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Species and ages of grasses in pastures were identified, and soils were classified into several types using LANDSAT data. This data could be used in a wide area of cultivation, reclamation, or management planning on agricultural land.

  14. CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE X-RAY POINT SOURCE POPULATION IN NGC 4636

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the X-ray point-source population in the nearby Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4636 from three Chandra X-ray observations. These observations, totaling ∼193 ks after time filtering, were taken with the Advanced CCD Imaging Camera (ACIS) over a three-year period. Using a wavelet decomposition detection algorithm, we detect 318 individual point sources. For our analysis, we use a subset of 277 detections with ≥ net 10 counts (a limiting luminosity of approximately 1.2 x 1037 erg s-1 in the 0.5-2 keV band, outside the central 1.'5 bright galaxy core). We present a radial distribution of the point sources. Between 1.'5 and 6' from the center, 25% of our sources are likely to be background sources (active galactic nuclei (AGNs)) and 75% are low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) within the galaxy, while at radial distances greater than 6', background sources (AGN) will dominate the point sources. We explore short and long-term variability (over timescales of 1 day to three years) for X-ray point sources in this elliptical galaxy. 54 sources (24%) in the common ACIS fields of view show significant variability between observations. Of these, 37 are detected with at least 10 net counts in only one observation and thus may be 'transient'. In addition, ∼10% of the sources in each observation show significant short-term variability; we present an example light curve for a variable bright source. The cumulative luminosity function (LF) for the point sources in NGC 4636 can be represented as a power law of slope α = 1.14 ± 0.03. We do not detect, but estimate an upper limit of ∼4.5 x 1037 erg s-1 to the current X-ray luminosity of the historical supernova SN1939A. We find 77 matches between X-ray point sources and globular cluster (GC) candidates found in deep optical images of NGC 4636. In the annulus from 1.'5 to 6' of the galaxy center, 48 of the 129 X-ray point sources (37%) with ≥10 net counts are matched with GC candidates. Since we expect 25% of these

  15. Rodent food quality and its relation to crops and other environmental and population parameters in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eva, Janova; Marta, Heroldova; Ladislav, Cepelka

    2016-08-15

    The diet, its quality and quantity considerably influence population parameters of rodents. In this study, we used NIRS methods for estimation of nitrogen content in stomachs of rodent populations. The study was carried out in diverse arable landscape in South Moravia, Czech Republic. Rodents were sampled in cultural crops (alfalfa, barley, wheat, sunflower, maize and rape) as well as in fallow habitats (herbal set-aside and old orchard). Influence of habitat, date, year, individual parameters (body length, sex, breeding and age), and relative abundance on quality of consumed food was studied. Under conditions of higher population density, dominant species [wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) and common vole (Microtus arvalis)] consumed food richer in nitrogen. Also the strong effect of crop and date (season) was found in both species. There was no significant effect of the other parameters studied on food quality (N-content). PMID:27099997

  16. Spontaneous morphogenetic juvenilization observed in laboratory populations of vector species of Chagas disease (Triatominae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Perlowagora-Szumlewicz

    1973-08-01

    Full Text Available Reported are observations on spontaneous occurring morphogenetic juvenilization in laboratory populations of vector species of Chagas disease. Two general effects have been observed: arrested development and uncoordinated development. These are manifested by supernumerary nymphs (6th stage, intermediate nymphal-adult stages, badly deformed adults developed from 5th instar nymphs, uncoordinated development manifested by grotesque forms of adults, supernumerary adults unable to complete metamorphosis and complete supernumerary adults produced by 6th stage nymphs. The reoccurrence of insects with identical grades of juvenilization in the population is an indication that this is a genetic trait that might be inherited. The factors responsible for morphogenetic juvenilization cannot be transmitted through the juvenilized insects because they are sterile, than they were transmitted through normal insects probably as a recessive or a group recessive factors. The spontaneous morphogenetic juvenilization observed in laboratory populations has a striking similarity to juvenilizing effects induced by application of juvenile hormone analogues, described in the literature and also obtained in our laboratory in a study to be published. Thus it is suggested that both; the altered phenotypes occurring in wild populations and their "phenocopies" induced by the application of juvenile hormone analogues are products of gene controlled identical reactions.São relatadas observações sobre a ocorrência espontâea de juvenilização morfogenética em populações de espécies transmissoras da doença de Chagas, mantidas no laboratório. Dois efeitos gerais foram observados: a interrupção e a descoordenação do desenvolvimento. Tais efeitos são manifestados: 1 por ninfas supernumerárias (6º estádio, 2 por estágios intermediários (ninfa-adulto, 3 por adultos sensivelmente deformados, provenientes de ninfas do 5º estágio, 4 pelo desenvolvimento d

  17. Vulnerability in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  18. Urban Agricultural Event

    OpenAIRE

    Camm, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Many authors and researchers agree that our youth will benefit from learning about agriculture. “Agricultural literacy is an essential factor for continuing success of the nation. It is important to reach the population when it is most vulnerable and susceptible to learning; this consists of the children of today’s world” (Schmidbauer, Pastor, & Elliot, 2004; p. 2). Ryan and Lockaby suggest that if the population possesses an understanding of agriculture, they are more likely to benefit socie...

  19. Development of a Frost Risk Assessment Tool in Agriculture for a Mediterranean ecosystem Utilizing MODIS satellite observations Geomatics and Surface Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louka, Panagiota; Papanikolaou, Ioannis; Petropoulos, George; Migiros, George; Tsiros, Ioannis

    2014-05-01

    Frost risk in Mediterranean countries is a critical factor in agricultural planning and management. Nowadays, the rapid technological developments in Earth Observation (EO) technology have improved dramatically our ability to map the spatiotemporal distribution of frost conditions over a given area and evaluate its impacts on the environment and society. In this study, a frost risk model for agricultural crops cultivated in a Mediterranean environment has been developed, based primarily on Earth Observation (EO) data from MODIS sensor and ancillary spatial and point data. The ability of the model to predict frost conditions has been validated for selected days on which frost conditions had been observed for a region in Northwestern Greece according to ground observations obtained by the Agricultural Insurance Organization (ELGA). An extensive evaluation of the frost risk model predictions has been performed herein to evaluate objectively its ability to predict the spatio-temporal distribution of frost risk in the studied region, including comparisons against physiographical factors of the study area. The topographical characteristics that were taken under consideration were latitude, altitude, slope steepness, topographic convergence and the extend of the areas influenced by water bodies (such as lake and sea) existing in the study area. Additional data were also used concerning land use data and vegetation classification (type and density). Our results showed that the model was able to produce reasonably the spatio-temporal distribution of the frost conditions in our study area, following largely explainable patterns in respect to the study site and local weather conditions characteristics. All in all, the methodology implemented herein proved capable in obtaining rapidly and cost-effectively cartography of the frost risk in a Mediterranean environment, making it potentially a very useful tool for agricultural management and planning. The model presented here has

  20. Neurological, psychiatric, ophthalmological, and endocrine complications in giant male prolactinomas: An observational study in Algerian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida Chentli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prolactinomas are less frequent, but more invasive in males. Giant ones (≥4 cm are extremely rare in literature. Their neurological, psychiatric and endocrine complications are life threatening. Our aim was to report the largest mono center series in order to analyze their frequency, their characteristics, and their complications. Subjects and Methods: All patients had clinical examination, hormonal, ophthalmological, and radiological assessment based on computed tomography scan and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Positive diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, high prolactin ± immunohistochemy study. Mixed adenomas were excluded by hormonal exploration and immunohistochemy. For those who received medical treatment only, a reduction in tumor size was considered a supplementary positive point for the diagnosis. Results: Among 154 male prolactinomas seen between 1987 and 2013, we observed 44 giant tumors (28.5%. Median age = 36 years, and 38.3% were under 30. Median tumor height = 53.95 mm (40-130 and median prolactin = 15,715 ng/ml (n < 20. Solid and cystic aspect ± calcifications was observed in 25%. 42 had cavernous sinuses invasion. Other invasions were: Posterior= 65.9%, anterior= 63.6%, temporal= 15.9% and frontal = 9%. For endocrine complications: Hypogonadism = 98.4%, thyrotroph and corticotroph deficits were seen in respectively 34%, and 32%. Posterior pituitary insufficiency was observed in one case. For ophthalmological complications: Optic atrophy = 46%, Ptosis = 6.8%, diplopia/strabismus = 4.5%. Neurological complications were: Memory loss and/or unconsciousness = 18.2%, epilepsy = 15.9%, frontal syndrome = 9% and obstructive hydrocephalus = 6.8%. Conclusion: Giant prolactinomas account for 28% in our population. Severe neurological complications are frequent. But, obstructive hydrocephalus is rare, which argues for a slow progression.

  1. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, N; Eguchi, S; Fujiwara, H; Hayashi, K; Tsukada, H

    2012-05-15

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 μm, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer. PMID:22455974

  2. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: Field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 μm, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer. - Highlights: ► Agricultural practices transmit soil-derived radionuclides to the atmosphere. ► Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of soil surface. ► Tillage diluted the concentrations of radionuclides in the uppermost soil layer.

  3. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: Field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N., E-mail: nyamag@affrc.go.jp [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-non-dai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8604 (Japan); Eguchi, S.; Fujiwara, H.; Hayashi, K. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-non-dai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8604 (Japan); Tsukada, H. [Institute for Environmental Sciences, 1-7 Ienomae, Obuchi, Rokkasho-mura, Kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of {sup 131}I, {sup 134}Cs and {sup 137}Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 {mu}m, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Agricultural practices transmit soil-derived radionuclides to the atmosphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of soil surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tillage diluted the concentrations of radionuclides in the uppermost soil layer.

  4. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Priyadarshini; Rana, Santanu; Bandopadhyay, Sreejata; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sarkar, Sagartirtha; Basu, Parthiba

    2015-07-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free calcium ions and adverse changes in antennal sensillae in pesticide exposed field honey bee populations compared to morphometrically similar honey bees sampled from low/no pesticide sites. Controlled laboratory experiments corroborated these findings. This study reports for the first time the changes in antennal sensillae, expression of Calpain 1(an important calcium binding protein) and resting state free calcium in brains of honey bees exposed to pesticide stress.

  5. Population trends of grassland birds in North America are linked to the prevalence of an agricultural epizootic in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocera, Joseph J; Koslowsky, Hannah M

    2011-03-22

    Globalization of trade has dramatic socioeconomic effects, and, intuitively, significant ecological effects should follow. However, few quantitative examples exist of the interrelationship of globalization, socioeconomics, and ecological patterns. We present a striking illustration of a cascade in which bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE; "mad cow disease") outbreaks in Europe exerted pressure on global beef markets, subsequently affecting North American hayfields and grassland bird populations. We examined competing models, which linked the prevalence of BSE in five focal countries, volume of beef exports to those countries from North America, and the amount of hayfield harvested and the abundance of grassland birds in North America. We found that (i) imports from North America increased 1 y after BSE outbreaks; (ii) probably because fewer cattle remained, the hay harvest in North America was reduced 2 y after the outbreak; (iii) the reduced hay harvest yielded a positive response in grassland bird populations 3 y after the outbreak. PMID:21383197

  6. OH populations and temperatures from simultaneous spectroscopic observations of 25 bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noll

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OH rotational temperatures are widely used to derive mesopause temperatures and their variations. Since most data sets are only based on a fixed set of lines of a single band, it is important to know possible systematic uncertainties related to the choice of lines. Therefore, a comprehensive study of as many as possible OH bands is desirable. For this purpose, astronomical echelle spectrographs at large telescopes are the most suitable instruments. They offer a wide wavelength coverage, relatively high spectral resolution, and high sensitivity. Moreover, since each ground-based astronomical observation has an imprint of the Earth's atmosphere, the data archives of large astronomical facilities are a treasure for atmospheric studies. For our project, we used archival data of the medium-resolution X-shooter echelle spectrograph operated by the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal in Chile. The instrument can simultaneously observe all OH bands that are accessible from ground. We reduced and analysed a set of 343 high-quality spectra taken between 2009 and 2013 to measure OH line intensities and to derive rotational and vibrational temperatures of 25 bands from OH(8-2 to OH(9-7. We studied the influence of the selected line set, OH band, upper vibrational level v′, and the molecular data on the derived level populations and temperatures. The rotational temperature results indicate differences by several degrees depending on the selection. There is a discrepancy for bands of even and odd v′, which increases with v′. A study of the temporal variations revealed that the v′ from to 2 to 9 show a clear trend in the change of the variability pattern. In particular, the spread of temperatures tends to increase during the night, and the time of the minimum temperature depends on v′. The vibrational temperatures depend on the range of v′ used for their determination, since the higher vibrational levels from 7 to 9 seem to be

  7. OH populations and temperatures from simultaneous spectroscopic observations of 25 bands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noll

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OH rotational temperatures are widely used to derive mesopause temperatures and their variations. Since most data sets are only based on a fixed set of lines of a single band, it is important to know possible systematic uncertainties related to the choice of lines. Therefore, a comprehensive study of as many OH bands as possible is desirable. For this purpose, astronomical echelle spectrographs at large telescopes are the most suitable instruments. They offer a wide wavelength coverage, relatively high spectral resolution, and high sensitivity. Moreover, since each ground-based astronomical observation has an imprint of the Earth's atmosphere, the data archives of large astronomical facilities are a treasure for atmospheric studies. For our project, we used archival data of the medium-resolution X-shooter echelle spectrograph operated by the European Southern Observatory at Cerro Paranal in Chile. The instrument can simultaneously observe all OH bands that are accessible from ground. We reduced and analysed a set of 343 high-quality spectra taken between 2009 and 2013 to measure OH line intensities and to derive rotational and vibrational temperatures of 25 bands between 0.58 and 2.24 μm. We studied the influence of the selected line set, OH band, upper vibrational level v′, and the molecular data on the derived level populations and temperatures. The rotational temperature results indicate differences by several degrees depending on the selection. The temperatures for bands of even and odd v′ show deviations which increase with v′. A study of the temporal variations revealed that the nocturnal variability pattern changes for v′ from 2 to 9. In particular, the spread of temperatures tends to increase during the night, and the time of the minimum temperature depends on v′. The vibrational temperatures depend on the range of v′ used for their determination, since the higher vibrational levels from 7 to 9 seem to be overpopulated

  8. Field populations of native Indian honey bees from pesticide intensive agricultural landscape show signs of impaired olfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Priyadarshini Chakrabarti; Santanu Rana; Sreejata Bandopadhyay; Naik, Dattatraya G.; Sagartirtha Sarkar; Parthiba Basu

    2015-01-01

    Little information is available regarding the adverse effects of pesticides on natural honey bee populations. This study highlights the detrimental effects of pesticides on honey bee olfaction through behavioural studies, scanning electron microscopic imaging of antennal sensillae and confocal microscopic studies of honey bee brains for calcium ions on Apis cerana, a native Indian honey bee species. There was a significant decrease in proboscis extension response and biologically active free ...

  9. Skull and limb morphology differentially track population history and environmental factors in the transition to agriculture in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    von Cramon-Taubadel, N.; Stock, J. T.; Pinhasi, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Neolithic transition in Europe was a complex mosaic spatio-temporal process, involving both demic diffusion from the Near East and the cultural adoption of farming practices by indigenous hunter–gatherers. Previous analyses of Mesolithic hunter–gatherers and Early Neolithic farmers suggest that cranial shape variation preserves the population history signature of the Neolithic transition. However, the extent to which these same demographic processes are discernible in the postcranium is p...

  10. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman; M. SELVARAJ; M. Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally...

  11. Prioritising between direct observation of therapy and case-finding interventions for tuberculosis: use of population impact measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchan Iain

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population impact measures (PIMs have been developed as tools to help policy-makers with locally relevant decisions over health risks and benefits. This involves estimating and prioritising potential benefits of interventions in specific populations. Using tuberculosis (TB in India as an example, we examined the population impact of two interventions: direct observation of therapy and increasing case-finding. Methods PIMs were calculated using published literature and national data for India, and applied to a notional population of 100 000 people. Data included the incidence or prevalence of smear-positive TB and the relative risk reduction from increasing case finding and the use of direct observation of therapy (applied to the baseline risks over the next year, and the incremental proportion of the population eligible for the proposed interventions. Results In a population of 100 000 people in India, the directly observed component of the Directly Observed Treatment, Short-course (DOTS programme may prevent 0.188 deaths from TB in the next year compared with 1.79 deaths by increasing TB case finding. The costs of direct observation are (in international dollars I$5960 and of case finding are I$4839 or I$31702 and I$2703 per life saved respectively. Conclusion Increasing case-finding for TB will save nearly 10 times more lives than will the use of the directly observed component of DOTS in India, at a smaller cost per life saved. The demonstration of the population impact, using simple and explicit numbers, may be of value to policy-makers as they prioritise interventions for their populations.

  12. Intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th through the consumption of foodstuffs by tribal populations practicing slash and burn agriculture in an extremely high rainfall area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S; Iongwai, P S; Kharbuli, B; War, S A; Puranik, V D

    2012-01-01

    The concentration of naturally occurring radionuclides ²³²Th, ²³⁸U was determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) in different food groups namely cereals, vegetables, leafy vegetables, roots and tubers cultivated and consumed by tribal population residing around the proposed uranium mine. The study area is a part of rural area K. P. Mawthabah (Domiasiat) in the west Khasi Hills District of Meghalaya, India located in the tropical region of high rainfall that remains steeped in tribal tradition without much outside influence. Agriculture by Jhum (slash and burn) cultivation and animal husbandry are the main occupation of the tribal populations. A total of 89 samples from locally grown food products were analyzed. The concentration of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th in the soil of the study area was found to vary 1.6-15.5 and 2.0-5.0 times respectively to the average mean value observed in India. The estimated daily dietary intake of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th were 2.0 μg d⁻¹ (25 mBq d⁻¹) and 3.4 μg d⁻¹ (14 mBq d⁻¹) is comparable with reported range 0.5-5.0 μg d⁻¹ and 0.15-3.5 μg d⁻¹ respectively for the Asian population. PMID:22036151

  13. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  14. Earthworm Populations in Savannas of the Orinoco Basin. A Review of Studies in Long-Term Agricultural-Managed and Protected Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo López-Hernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm biomass and production in savannas are limited by seasonal precipitation and the lack of organic and nutrient resources; I hypothesize that after a long-term protection of savanna from fire and agricultural activities drastic changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil occur with a concomitant increase in earthworm abundance and activities. Similar changes might occur after a long-term fertilization of savannas with manure. This review article considers the earthworm communities and other soil quality indices in Trachypogon savannas of the Orinoco Basin in an organic agricultural forestal savanna (OAFS amended with compost over forty years in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and in an Experimental Station long-term protected (PS from fire and cattle raising from more than four decades in Central Llanos, Venezuela, comparison is made with results from similar savannas. Long-term additions of organic manure or a long protection have induced significant changes in the soil physical and chemical properties of the natural savanna (NS soils that induce a significant increase in the density and biomass of earthworm populations. On the other hand, the protection of the savanna promotes an improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which favors an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the NS subjected to recurrent burning and grazing. The results emphasize the importance of appropriate organic matter management and the relevance of earthworms in such agroecosystems.

  15. If you see one, have you seen them all?: Community-wide effects of insecticide cross-resistance in zooplankton populations near and far from agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-08-01

    The worldwide use of pesticides has led to increases in agricultural yields by reducing crop losses. However, increased pesticide use has resulted in pesticide-resistant pest species and recent studies have discovered pesticide-resistance in non-target species living close to farms. Such increased tolerance not only affects the species, but can alter the entire food web. Given that some species can evolve not only resistance to a single pesticide, but also cross-resistance to other pesticides that share the same mode of action, one would predict that cross-resistance to pesticides would also have effects on the entire community and affect community stability. To address this hypothesis, we conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment comprised of 200 identical aquatic communities with phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens) tadpoles. To these communities, we added one of four Daphnia pulex populations that we previously discovered were either resistant or sensitive to the insecticide of chlorpyrifos as a result of living close to or far from agriculture, respectively. We then exposed the communities to either no insecticide or three different concentrations of AChE-inhibiting insecticides (chlorpyrifos, malathion or carbaryl) or sodium channel-inhibiting insecticides (permethrin or cypermethrin). We discovered that communities containing sensitive Daphnia pulex experienced phytoplankton blooms and subsequent cascades through all trophic groups including amphibians at moderate to high concentrations of all five insecticides. However, communities containing resistant D. pulex were buffered from these effects at low to moderate concentrations of all AChE-inhibiting insecticides, but were not buffered against the pyrethroid insecticides. These data suggest that a simple change in the population-level resistance of zooplankton to a single insecticide can have widespread consequences for community stability and that the effects can be extrapolated

  16. Observations of Sympatric Populations of Least Chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and Hopi Chipmunks (Tamias rufus) in Western Colorado, 1995–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Jeffrey B.; Jeffrey Root, J.; Calisher, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    From 1995 through 2006, we studied a rodent community in western Colorado, observing weather conditions and their effects on least chipmunk (Tamias minimus) and Hopi chipmunk (T. rufus) populations. There are few studies that have assessed relative abundances of chipmunks over long durations and none have been conducted on least chipmunks or Hopi chipmunks. This study is unique in that it assesses abundances of sympatric populations of these chipmunks over a 12-year period. We captured 116 le...

  17. Population Dynamic Observation And Mass Trapping Of Fruit Fly Bactrocera Carambolae (Drew and Hancock)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the control of B. carambolae, major pest of mango fruit in Indonesia using sterile insect technique, population monitoring with methyl eugenol attractant baited traps, absolute population measurement with release and recapture techniques, and mass trapping to reduce population of the pest in mango orchards were conducted. Based on the number of the male fly trapped it was know that the fly population was always low when no mature mango fruit found on the orchard, and it strated to increase in October, the middle time, of mango harvest until some time after the end of harvesting time. In August, when the population was low, about 4000 flies/hectare or 600 flies/hectare were found in the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively. Mass trapping with 4 trapps per hectare was able to kill about 620 and 240 male flies per hectare of the extensive and intensive culture orchards respectively

  18. More clinical observations on migraine associated with monocular visual symptoms in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Jogi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Retinal migraine (RM is considered as one of the rare causes of transient monocular visual loss (TMVL and has not been studied in Indian population. Objectives: The study aims to analyze the clinical and investigational profile of patients with RM. Materials and Methods: This is an observational prospective analysis of 12 cases of TMVL fulfilling the International Classification of Headache Disorders-2nd edition (ICHD-II criteria of RM examined in Neurology and Ophthalmology Outpatient Department (OPD of Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER, Chandigarh from July 2011 to October 2012. Results: Most patients presented in 3 rd and 4 th decade with equal sex distribution. Seventy-five percent had antecedent migraine without aura (MoA and 25% had migraine with Aura (MA. Headache was ipsilateral to visual symptoms in 67% and bilateral in 33%. TMVL preceded headache onset in 58% and occurred during headache episode in 42%. Visual symptoms were predominantly negative except in one patient who had positive followed by negative symptoms. Duration of visual symptoms was variable ranging from 30 s to 45 min. None of the patient had permanent monocular vision loss. Three patients had episodes of TMVL without headache in addition to the symptom constellation defining RM. Most of the tests done to rule out alternative causes were normal. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain showed nonspecific white matter changes in one patient. Visual-evoked potential (VEP showed prolonged P100 latencies in two cases. Patent foramen ovale was detected in one patient. Conclusions: RM is a definite subtype of migraine and should remain in the ICHD classification. It should be kept as one of the differential diagnosis of transient monocular vision loss. We propose existence of "acephalgic RM" which may respond to migraine prophylaxis.

  19. Quasispecies-like behavior observed in catalytic RNA populations evolving in a test tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman Niles

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the RNA World, molecular populations were probably very small and highly susceptible to the force of strong random drift. In conjunction with Muller's Ratchet, this would have imposed difficulties for the preservation of the genetic information and the survival of the populations. Mechanisms that allowed these nascent populations to overcome this problem must have been advantageous. Results Using continuous in vitro evolution experimentation with an increased mutation rate imposed by MnCl2, it was found that clonal 100-molecule populations of ribozymes clearly exhibit certain characteristics of a quasispecies. This is the first time this has been seen with a catalytic RNA. Extensive genotypic sampling from two replicate lineages was gathered and phylogenetic networks were constructed to elucidate the structure of the evolving RNA populations. A common distribution was found in which a mutant sequence was present at high frequency, surrounded by a cloud of mutant with lower frequencies. This is a typical distribution of quasispecies. Most of the mutants in these clouds were connected by short Hamming distance values, indicating their close relatedness. Conclusions The quasispecies nature of mutant RNA clouds facilitates the recovery of genotypes under pressure of being removed from the population by random drift. The empirical populations therefore evolved a genotypic resiliency despite a high mutation rate by adopting the characteristics of quasispecies, implying that primordial RNA pools could have used this strategy to avoid extinction.

  20. Cesium and strontium radionuclide migration in the agricultural ecosystem and estimation of internal doses to the population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the radioecological effects of the Chernobyl accident in two regions of Russia (the Bryansk and Tula regions) that have different geochemical conditions. A quantitative relationship between Cs and Sr is shown for (1) radionuclide transfer factors to grassy vegetation, and (2) chemical properties of soil. It is shown that during the first 5 years following the accident, the content of Cs radionuclides in farm produce decreased with a half-time of 0.7 to 1.5 yr. No statistically reliable variation in the 90Sr transfer factor from soil to plants was found in this period. The internal dose to the population of the Bryansk region (with predominantly turf-podzol sandy soil) per unit of 137Cs activity exceeded that to the residents of the Tula region (with predominantly black earth soil) by almost an order of magnitude, due to the difference in the migration rate of Cs. In the far zone of the Chernobyl accident, the contribution of 90Sr to the committed effective dose equivalent in children amounted to approximately 2% in the territory with poor soils and 5% in the territory with black earth soil. We propose methods for reconstruction and prediction of internal doses to the residents of the radiocontaminated zone as a function of soil type. 31 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Diversity and structure of landraces of Agave grown for spirits under traditional agriculture: A comparison with wild populations of A. angustifolia (Agavaceae) and commercial plantations of A. tequilana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Ponce, Ofelia; Zizumbo-Villarreal, Daniel; Martínez-Castillo, Jaime; Coello-Coello, Julián; Colunga-Garcíamarín, Patricia

    2009-02-01

    Traditional farming communities frequently maintain high levels of agrobiodiversity, so understanding their agricultural practices is a priority for biodiversity conservation. The cultural origin of agave spirits (mezcals) from west-central Mexico is in the southern part of the state of Jalisco where traditional farmers cultivate more than 20 landraces of Agave angustifolia Haw. in agroecosystems that include in situ management of wild populations. These systems, rooted in a 9000-year-old tradition of using agaves as food in Mesoamerica, are endangered by the expansion of commercial monoculture plantations of the blue agave variety (A. tequilana Weber var. Azul), the only agave certified for sale as tequila, the best-known mezcal. Using intersimple sequence repeats and Bayesian estimators of diversity and structure, we found that A. angustifolia traditional landraces had a genetic diversity (H(BT) = 0.442) similar to its wild populations (H(BT) = 0.428) and a higher genetic structure ((B) = 0.405; (B) =0. 212). In contrast, the genetic diversity in the blue agave commercial system (H(B) = 0.118) was 73% lower. Changes to agave spirits certification laws to allow the conservation of current genetic, ecological and cultural diversity can play a key role in the preservation of the traditional agroecosystems. PMID:21628200

  2. Health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost: observations from the floating population in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinjun Zhao

    Full Text Available China has the world's largest floating (migrant population, which has characteristics largely different from the rest of the population. Our goal is to study health insurance coverage and its impact on medical cost for this population.A telephone survey was conducted in 2012. 644 subjects were surveyed. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted on insurance coverage and medical cost.82.2% of the surveyed subjects were covered by basic insurance at hometowns with hukou or at residences. Subjects' characteristics including age, education, occupation, and presence of chronic diseases were associated with insurance coverage. After controlling for confounders, insurance coverage was not significantly associated with gross or out-of-pocket medical cost.For the floating population, health insurance coverage needs to be improved. Policy interventions are needed so that health insurance can have a more effective protective effect on cost.

  3. Some Important Observations on the Populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Urban Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Gbogbo, Francis; Japheth S. T. Roberts; Awotwe-Pratt, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Despite major declines in the population of vultures around the world, noticeable increases were reported in the populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus over the past decade in Accra—an important vulture habitat in Ghana. In recent times, however, there is a growing concern that the vulture numbers are decreasing even though scientific data to support this is nonexisting. As a vital zoogeographical and conservation tool, it is important to keep an up-to-date knowledge about urban ...

  4. The population problem and policy in Mainland China 1949-1980: a demographic and anthropological observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, C C

    1981-12-01

    This research focuses on Mainland China's population problems and the formation of population policy. It attempts to analyze the relationships between economy and population and between modernization and Communist party decisionmaking. The second hand data used from 4 sources: related newspapers, magazines, official reports and documents from Mainland China; some related Western studies; some Communist China watchers' reports and studies from Hong Kong and the Republic of China; and some related studies of demographic, social, and economic theory. The analysis covers: population growth the Mainland China; sociocultural background of population growth; Communist China's point of view of population problems; Communist China's economy and population problems; and a diachronic approach to population policy. The August 1979 article "For the Realization of the Four Modernizations" suggests that Communist China faces a crisis. First, from the macroeconomic viewpoint Marxian ideology must be reconciled with Malthus' theory. As a result of the increasingly ambitious mainlandwide goals of trimming population growth, the Communit regime set a goal of lowering the natural population growth rate to 0.5% by 1985 and zero population growth at 2000. It also established an incentive/disincentive policy to reach the goal of a 1-child family. In the sphere of economic development, they turn to a nonsocialist model which seems to be a revision back to Liu Shao-chi's line. Finally, it seems at this time that the top officianls realize the need to raise the standard of living for the people. Yet, the question remains as to how long this policy can survive. 30 years after Mainland China became the biggest human laboratory for Communism the Communists have failed to solve most of the salient problems, including educational and scientific development, cultural development, socioeconomic development, and the population problem. They also have created many unprecedented problems, including a

  5. Improving soil moisture simulation to support Agricultural Water Resource Management using Satellite-based water cycle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-04-01

    Efficient and sustainable irrigation systems require optimization of operational parameters such as irrigation amount which are dependent on the soil hydraulic parameters that affect the model's accuracy in simulating soil water content. However, it is a scientific challenge to provide reliable estimates of soil hydraulic parameters and irrigation estimates, given the absence of continuously operating soil moisture and rain gauge network. For agricultural water resource management, the in-situ measurements of soil moisture are currently limited to discrete measurements at specific locations, and such point-based measurements do not represent the spatial distribution at a larger scale accurately, as soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally (Wang and Qu 2009). In the current study, flood irrigation scheme within the land surface model is triggered when the root-zone soil moisture deficit reaches below a threshold of 25%, 50% and 75% with respect to the maximum available water capacity (difference between field capacity and wilting point) and applied until the top layer is saturated. An additional important criterion needed to activate the irrigation scheme is to ensure that it is irrigation season by assuming that the greenness vegetation fraction (GVF) of the pixel exceed 0.40 of the climatological annual range of GVF (Ozdogan et al. 2010). The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface remote sensing soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately inverted, it would provide field capacity and wilting point soil moisture, which may be representative of that basin. Thus, genetic algorithm inverse method is employed to derive the effective parameters and derive the soil moisture deficit for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically based hydrological model. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS

  6. Measuring the Contribution of Agricultural Conservation Practices to Observed Trends and Recent Condition in Water Quality Indicators in Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltner, Robert J

    2015-11-01

    Over the last three decades, significant investments made to upgrade wastewater infrastructure and manage pollution from diffuse sources have resulted in measurably improved water quality and biological conditions in Ohio's rivers and streams. Conservation measures to reduce soil loss appear to have contributed significantly to the improvement witnessed over the last two decades and should therefore be continued. Within the most recent timeframe examined, little difference was found in either total phosphorus or suspended sediment concentration in relation to conservation measures, indicating that the environmental benefits of measures targeting soil loss may be approaching an asymptote. Conservation measures targeting livestock and forage management, however, appear to have reduced nitrogen concentrations within the recent time frame. An examination of the interrelationships between habitat quality, conservation measures, and land use indicated that water quality was generally mediated by interactions with stream habitat quality. However, the positive effect of habitat quality was reduced in catchments draining fine-textured soils. The implication of these latter two findings suggest that proscriptively adding natural function to the large network of ditched and maintained conveyances draining agricultural lands would substantially improve water quality, but management at the field level is necessary to minimize phosphorus losses. PMID:26641334

  7. Biosurfactants in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Dhara P.; Cameotra, Swaranjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and ...

  8. Direct observation of population transfer between the upper laser levels in a copper vapor laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The copper vapor laser (CVL) produces output at two wavelengths, 511 and 578 nm. These lines do not have common upper or lower levels. It would be extremely desirable to be able to extract the population of both upper levels on one transition only. Whether this is feasible depends critically on the extent to which the population can be transferred between them during a laser pulse. There are several mechanisms which might cause such population transfer: copper-copper, copper-buffer gas, and coper-electron collisions. In normal lasing conditions, calculations indicate that copper-buffer gas collisions should dominate over copper-copper collisions. There are insufficient data to predict whether copper-electron collisions are competitive. The authors have performed a series of experiments in a 10-W CVL (25-mm i.d., 700 mm long) to study the population transfer mechanisms in optimum lasing conditions. They conclude that, although population transfer between the upper levels of a CVL occurs, it does not play an important role in CVL kinetics

  9. 1969 TO 2010: MULTICOLOR PHOTOMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF POPULATION II FIELD HORIZONTAL-BRANCH STARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Davis Philip

    2011-01-01

    then observed photometrically. New FHB stars could be identified by their large c indices, caused by their greater (u ¿ b colors. Later four new filters were added (U, V , B, S. With Richard Boyle of the Vatican Observatory we observed on Mt. Graham (Arizona on the Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope. We are making follow-up observations of the new FHB stars found.

  10. Some Important Observations on the Populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus in Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Gbogbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite major declines in the population of vultures around the world, noticeable increases were reported in the populations of Hooded Vultures Necrosyrtes monachus over the past decade in Accra—an important vulture habitat in Ghana. In recent times, however, there is a growing concern that the vulture numbers are decreasing even though scientific data to support this is nonexisting. As a vital zoogeographical and conservation tool, it is important to keep an up-to-date knowledge about urban bird populations amidst rapid urbanization and associated changes. Using a combination of field data, literature review, and stakeholder consultations, it was indicative that severe decline might have indeed occurred in the populations of Hooded Vultures in Accra. Evidence suggests the killing of vultures for consumption, traditional medicine, and black magic in an undercover trade with possible transboundary connections as important underlying factor. Additional factors suspected to underlie the declines include changes in management of urban facilities and destruction of roosting and nesting trees. The implications of interspecific competition with Pied Crows Corvus albus on Hooded Vultures however remain unclear. There is an urgent need for conservation campaign and education to save the Hooded Vulture in Ghana.

  11. An Observation of Bacterial Population Changes in Fields Treated with Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has proven to be effective for pathogen and nematode control as an alternative to fumigation. It has been hypothesized that various bacterial populations could play key roles in the disinfestation process through the production of secondary metabolites. In this st...

  12. Growth of the human lens in the Indian adult population: Preliminary observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashik Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The eye lens grows throughout life by the addition of new cells inside the surrounding capsule. How this growth affects the properties of the lens is essential for understanding disorders such as cataract and presbyopia. Aims: To examine growth of the human lens in the Indian population and compare this with the growth in Western populations by measuring in vitro dimensions together with wet and dry weights. Settings and Design: The study was conducted at the research wing of a tertiary eye care center in South India and the study design was prospective. Materials and Methods: Lenses were removed from eye bank eyes and their dimensions measured with a digital caliper. They were then carefully blotted dry and weighed before being placed in 5% buffered formalin. After 1 week fixation, the lenses were dried at 80 °C until constant weight was achieved. The constant weight was noted as the dry weight of the lens. Statistical Analysis Used: Lens parameters were analyzed as a function of age using linear and logarithmic regression methods. Results: Data were obtained for 251 lenses, aged 16-93 years, within a median postmortem time of 22 h. Both wet and dry weights increased linearly at 1.24 and 0.44 mg/year, respectively, throughout adult life. The dimensions also increased continuously throughout this time. Conclusions: Over the age range examined, lens growth in the Indian population is very similar to that in Western populations.

  13. Reclaimed water as a main resource to enhance the adaptive capacity to climate change in semi-arid Mediterranean agricultural areas using Earth Observation products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavia Rico, Ana; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Matieu, Pierre-Philippe; Hernandez Sancho, Francesc; Loarte, Edwin

    Lack of water is being a big problem in semi-arid areas to make agricultural profits. Most of Mediterranean countries like Spain, Italy, Greece or Cyprus and other countries like Morocco, the Arab United Emirates, South-American countries or China are starting to reuse wastewater as adaptation to climate change water scarcity. Drought areas are nowadays increasing, thus making fertile areas unproductive. For this reason, the European trend is to work on reusing wastewater as a solution to water scarcity in agriculture. Moreover, since population is growing fast, wastewater production is increasing as well as drinkable water demand, thus making reclaimed water as the water guarantee for irrigation and better agricultural management. This work represents a preliminary initiative to check, analyse and monitor the land by using remote sensing techniques to identify and determine the potential lands that used to be productive in the past, are now abandoned, and we want to recuperate to obtain socio-economic benefits. On top of this, this initiative will clearly enhance the adaption capacity of rural/agricultural lands to climate change. Alternatively to reclaimed water, greenhouses, desalination plants or transboarding water do not really eliminate the problem but only offer a temporary solution, make spending plenty of money and always provoking irreversible damages to the environment. The pilot area to first develop this research is the Valencia and Murcia Autonomous Communities located in the Spanish Mediterranean Coastline. An added value of this work will be to develop a methodology transferable to other potential countries with similar climatic characteristics and difficulties for irrigation, by using remote sensing methods and techniques. The remote sensing products obtained provide full information about the current state of the potential lands to grow crops. Potential areas are then being selected to carry out a socio-economic analysis leading to: (i

  14. CANDELS: The Contribution of the Observed Galaxy Population to Cosmic Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    Finkelstein, Steven L; Ryan, Russell E; Pawlik, Andreas H; Ferguson, Henry C; Finlator, Kristian; Koekemoer, Anton M; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cooray, Asantha; Dunlop, James S; Faber, Sandy M; Grogin, Norman A; Kocevski, Dale D; Newman, Jeffrey A

    2012-01-01

    We present measurements of the specific ultraviolet luminosity density from a sample of 483 galaxies at 650%. Combining our observations with constraints on the emission rate of ionizing photons from Ly-alpha forest observations at z=6, we can constrain f_esc7, consistent with a number of complementary reionization probes. If faint galaxies dominate reionization, future JWST observations will probe deep enough to see them, providing an indirect constraint on the ionizing photon escape fraction [abridged].

  15. Nonlinearity in bacterial population dynamics: Proposal for experiments for the observation of abrupt transitions in patches

    OpenAIRE

    Kenkre, V. M.; Kumar, Niraj

    2008-01-01

    An explicit proposal for experiments leading to abrupt transitions in spatially extended bacterial populations in a Petri dish is presented on the basis of an exact formula obtained through an analytic theory. The theory provides accurately the transition expressions in spite of the fact that the actual solutions, which involve strong nonlinearity, are inaccessible to it. The analytic expressions are verified through numerical solutions of the relevant nonlinear equation. The experimental set...

  16. Association between Genetic Variants and Diabetes Mellitus in Iranian Populations: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Diabetes mellitus as the most prevalent metabolic disease is a multifactorial disease which is influenced by environmental and genetic factors. In this systematic review, we assessed the association between genetic variants and diabetes/its complications in studies with Iranian populations. Methods. Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, and Persian web databases were systematically searched up to January 2014. The search terms were “gene,” “polymorphism,” “diabetes,” and “diabetic com...

  17. Observations on Phallocryptus Spinosa (Branchiopoda, Anostraca Populations from the high Plateaus of Northeastern Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounia Amarouayache

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Phallocryptus spinosa (Thamnocephalidae is a small primitive crustacean which lives in temporary saline pools of the Palaearctic region called Chott, Sebkha, Garâa or Daya in North Africa. Data on its biology and life history are very scarce despite its ecological importance in wetlands. Four populations living in the Northeastern High Plateaus of Algeria, Garâas Guellif, El-Tarf, Ank Djemel and Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, have been studied in point of view of their morphmetry (13 parameters and their reproduction. The population of Sebkha Ez-Zemoul, living in higher salinities and in sympatry with Artemia salina was different from the 3 other populations that are close together. Its adults are the largest (21.77 ± 2.34 mm and 23.65 ± 2.36 mm for males and females respectively and produce more cysts 771.47±8.45 cysts/brood of 293.11±10.41 µm diameter. Associated carcinological fauna and some behavioral traits are also approached.

  18. ASTEROSEISMIC CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS AMONG 13,000 RED GIANTS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of the more than 150,000 targets followed by the Kepler Mission, about 10% were selected as red giants. Due to their high scientific value, in particular for Galaxy population studies and stellar structure and evolution, their Kepler light curves were made public in late 2011. More than 13,000 (over 85%) of these stars show intrinsic flux variability caused by solar-like oscillations making them ideal for large-scale asteroseismic investigations. We automatically extracted individual frequencies and measured the period spacings of the dipole modes in nearly every red giant. These measurements naturally classify the stars into various populations, such as the red giant branch, the low-mass (M/M☉ ∼☉ ∼> 1.8) secondary clump. The period spacings also reveal that a large fraction of the stars show rotationally induced frequency splittings. This sample of stars will undoubtedly provide an extremely valuable source for studying the stellar population in the direction of the Kepler field, in particular when combined with complementary spectroscopic surveys.

  19. Observations of Sympatric Populations of Least Chipmunks (Tamias minimus) and Hopi Chipmunks (Tamias rufus) in Western Colorado, 1995-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1995 through 2006, we studied a rodent community in western Colorado, observing weather conditions and their effects on least chipmunk (Tamias minimus) and Hopi chipmunk (T. rufus) populations. There are few studies that have assessed relative abundances of chipmunks over long durations and none have been conducted on least chipmunks or Hopi chipmunks. This study is unique in that it assesses abundances of sympatric populations of these chipmunks over a 12-year period. We captured 116 least chipmunks and 62 Hopi chipmunks during 47,850 trap nights of effort. Results indicated that year-to-year precipitation and temperature fluctuations had little effect on these chipmunk populations. However, the relative abundances of Hopi chipmunks and least chipmunks appear to have an inverse relationship with each other, suggesting the potential for resource competition between these congeners.

  20. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attwood Stephen W

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment. Predictions currently assume that the impacts will be the same as those observed in Africa (i.e., a worsening of the schistosomiasis problem; however, marked ecological differences between the snails involved suggest that region specific models are required. The present study was performed as an initial step in providing data, which could be useful in the planning of water resource development in the Mekong. Snail population density records were analyzed for populations close to, and far downstream of, the Nam Theun 2 (NT2 project in Laos in order to detect any changes that might be attributable to impoundment. Results The population immediately downstream of NT2 and that sampled 400 km downstream in Thailand both showed a long term trend of slow growth from 1992 to 2005; however, both populations showed a marked decline in density between 2005 and 2011. The decline in Thailand was to a value significantly lower than that predicted by a linear mixed model for the data, whilst the population density close to NT2 fell to undetectable levels in 2011 from densities of over 5000 m-2 in 2005. The NT2 dam began operation in 2010. Conclusions The impact of the NT2 dam on N. aperta population density could be more complex than first thought and may reflect the strict ecological requirements of this snail. There was no indication that responses of N. aperta populations to dam construction are similar to those observed with Bulinus and Schistosoma haematobium in

  1. Morphological observation and microbial population dynamics in anaerobic polyurethane foam biofilm degrading gelatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports on a preliminary study of anaerobic degradation of gelatin with emphasis on the development of the proteolytic biofilm in polyurethane foam matrices in differential reactors. The evolution of the biofilm was observed during 22 days by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analyses. Three distinct immobilization patterns could be observed in the polyurethane foam: cell aggregates entrapped in matrix pores, thin biofilms attached to inner polyurethane foam surfaces and individual cells that have adhered to the support. Rods, cocci and vibrios were observed as the predominant morphologies of bacterial cells. Methane was produced mainly by hydrogenothrophic reactions during the operation of the reactors.

  2. Profile of the Older Population Living in Miami-Dade County, Florida: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevallos, Juan C; Wilcox, Meredith L; Jean, Naomie; Acuña, Juan M

    2016-05-01

    Florida has the greatest proportion (19%) of older population (65 years or older) in the United States. The age distribution of its residents, in conjunction with a major shift in the leading cause of death within all age groups from acute illnesses to chronic disease, creates unprecedented health care challenges for the state. The objective of this study is to profile the older population living in Miami-Dade County (MDC) using 3 population-based, household-based surveys conducted over the past 5 years.This study examined cross-sectional data (demographics, health outcomes, risk factors, health assess, and utilization) collected from probability-sampled, household-based surveys conducted in 3 areas of MDC: north Miami-Dade, Little Haiti, and South Miami. The questionnaire was administered face-to-face by trained interviewers in English, Spanish, French, or Creole. Analyses were restricted to households containing at least 1 member aged 65 years or older (n = 935). One consenting adult answered the questionnaire on behalf of household members.The mean age of the respondent (60% females) was 60 years. Overall, respondents were predominantly African-Americans, Hispanics, and blacks of Haitian origin. One-third of all households fell below the US poverty thresholds. One-quarter of all households had at least 1 member who was uninsured within the year before the survey. Twenty percent of households had at least 1 member with an acute myocardial infarction or stroke during the year before the survey. Bone density tests and blood stool tests were strikingly underutilized. The health outcomes most prevalent within household members were cardiovascular diseases followed by cancer, anxiety/depression, obesity, asthma, and bone fractures. Twenty percent of households reported having at least 1 current smoker. Overall, emergency rooms were the most commonly used places of care after doctor's offices.Findings of 3 household-based surveys show a predominantly elderly

  3. Phenological observation and population dynamics of six uncommon medicinal plants in the grasslands of Nilgiris, Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniam Paulsamy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenological observation and a population density study for six uncommon medicinal plant species were made in four grasslands in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, viz. Thiashola, Korakundah, Ebbenadu and Wenlockdown, at monthly intervals from April 2007 to March 2008. The six plant species were Anaphalis elliptica DC. (Compositae, Ceropegia pusilla Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae, Hedyotis articularis R. Br. ex G. Don (Rubiaceae, Heracleum rigens Walli. ex DC. (Umbelliferae, Leucas vestita Benth. (Lamiaceae and Luzula campestris (L. DC. (Juncaceae. Generally, all six species exhibited peak bud formation between February and May and bud break in June. Most of the leaves were produced in a single flush. Leaf expansion continued up to August in L. vestita. Flowering phenophase was observed from July to October, but in A. elliptica it extended to December. The active period of fruit formation occurred during August to December for all species except A. elliptica, which was during January and February. Seed maturation and seed dispersal happened during December - February for all the species except A. elliptica which happened during May-June. The study of population dynamics shows that there was a net decrease in the population of A. elliptica, L. vestita and L. campestris over a period of one year at Korakundah, Ebbenadu and Wenlockdown grasslands. C. pusilla, H. articularis and H. rigens maintained their populations at the same level in the respective grasslands without any major change during the study period.

  4. Evaluation of Observation-Fused Regional Air Quality Model Results for Population Air Pollution Exposure Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Gang; Li, Jingyi; Ying, Qi; Sherman, Seth; Perkins, Neil; Rajeshwari, Sundaram; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    In this study, Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model was applied to predict ambient gaseous and particulate concentrations during 2001 to 2010 in 15 hospital referral regions (HRRs) using a 36-km horizontal resolution domain. An inverse distance weighting based method was applied to produce exposure estimates based on observation-fused regional pollutant concentration fields using the differences between observations and predictions at grid cells where air quality monitors were locate...

  5. Ethiopian Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    @@ Ethiopia is the third populous country in Africa. The 17 years of military government (Derg) period 1974-1991 witnessed a centralized economic system and the post-Derg reform has taken the way of market-oriented system for 10 years. Economic and social achievements are observed in Ethiopia during the reform period.

  6. Phenological observation and population dynamics of six uncommon medicinal plants in the grasslands of Nilgiris, Western Ghats, India

    OpenAIRE

    Subramaniam Paulsamy

    2010-01-01

    Phenological observation and a population density study for six uncommon medicinal plant species were made in four grasslands in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve, Western Ghats, viz. Thiashola, Korakundah, Ebbenadu and Wenlockdown, at monthly intervals from April 2007 to March 2008. The six plant species were Anaphalis elliptica DC. (Compositae), Ceropegia pusilla Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae), Hedyotis articularis R. Br. ex G. Don (Rubiaceae), Heracleum rigens Walli. ex DC. (Umbelliferae), Leucas v...

  7. ULTRAVIOLET OBSERVATIONS OF THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER M10 FROM HST AND GALEX: THE BSS POPULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope and wide-field ground-based and Galaxy Evolution Explorer data of the Galactic globular cluster M10 (NGC 6254). By using this large data set, we determined the center of gravity of the cluster and we built its density profile from star counts over its entire radial extension. We find that the density profile is well reproduced by a single-mass King model with structural parameters c = 1.41 and rc = 41''. We also studied the blue straggler star (BSS) population and its radial distribution. We count a total number of 120 BSS within the tidal radius. Their radial distribution is bimodal: highly peaked in the cluster center, decreasing at intermediate distances, and rising again outward. We discuss these results in the context of the dynamical clock scheme presented by Ferraro et al. and of recent results about the radial distribution of binary systems in this cluster.

  8. Direct Observation of Triplet-State Population Dynamics in the RNA Uracil Derivative 1-Cyclohexyluracil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brister, Matthew M; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E

    2015-11-01

    Investigation of the excited-state dynamics in nucleic acid monomers is an area of active research due to the crucial role these early events play in DNA and RNA photodamage. The dynamics and rate at which the triplet state is populated are key mechanistic pathways yet to be fully elucidated. Direct spectroscopic evidence is presented in this contribution for intersystem crossing dynamics in a uracil derivative, 1-cyclohexyluracil. It is shown that intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold occurs in one picosecond or less in acetonitrile solution-at least an order of magnitude faster than previously estimated experimentally. Broadband transient absorption measurements also reveal the primary electronic relaxation pathways of the uracil chromophore, including the absorption spectra of the (1)ππ*, (1)nπ*, and (3)ππ* states and the rates of vibrational cooling in the ground and (3)ππ* states. The experimental results are supported by density functional calculations. PMID:26538051

  9. Comparison of accelerated ion populations observed upstream of the bow shocks at Venus and Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Yamauchi, M.; Y. Futaana; Fedorov, A.; Frahm, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.; Dubinin, E.; R. Lundin; Barabash, S.; Holmström, M.; Mazelle, C.; Sauvaud, J.-A.; T. L. Zhang; W. Baumjohann; A. J. Coates; Fraenz, M.

    2011-01-01

    Foreshock ions are compared between Venus and Mars at energies of 0.6 similar to 20 keV using the same ion instrument, the Ion Mass Analyser, on board both Venus Express and Mars Express. Venus Express often observes accelerated protons (2 similar to 6 times the solar wind energy) that travel away from the Venus bow shock when the spacecraft location is magnetically connected to the bow shock. The observed ions have a large field-aligned velocity compared to the perpendicular velocity in the ...

  10. AMPTE/CCE CHEM observations of the energetic ion population at geosynchronous altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Sarris, Emmanuel T.; Wilken, Berend

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents results of a statistical study of average characteristics of the energetic ion population at geosynchronous altitudes, using energetic-ion (1-300 keV/e) measurements from the CHEM spectrometer aboard the AMPTE Charge Composition Explorer between January 1985 and June 1987. Data were sorted into four MLT groups and two extreme geomagnetic activity levels ('very quiet' for AE less than 30 nT and 'very active' for AE greater than 700 nT). A clear quiet-time dayside feature found in the measurements was a dip in H(+) and He(2+) spectra, at 6.6 keV/e in the prenoon sector and at 3.5 keV/e in the postnoon sector. During active times, the ion fluxes increased (except for He(+)), and the O(+) contribution to the total energy density increased dramatically. The pitch angle distributions were normal during quiet times and isotropic or field-aligned during active times.

  11. Constraints on the Galactic Population of TEV Pulsar Wind Nebulae Using Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Acero, F; Ajello, M; Allafort, A; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Bastieri, D; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Bottacini, E; Brandt, T J; Bregeon, J; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Buehler, R; Buson, S; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Cecchi, C; Charles, E; Chaves, R C G; Chekhtman, A; Chiang, J; Chiaro, G; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dalton, M; D'Ammando, F; de Palma, F; Dermer, C D; Di Venere, L; Silva, E do Couto e; Drell, P S; Drlica-Wagner, A; Falletti, L; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Ferrara, E C; Focke, W B; Franckowiak, A; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Giglietto, N; Giordano, F; Giroletti, M; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grégoire, T; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M -H; Grove, J E; Guiriec, S; Hadasch, D; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hayashi, K; Hays, E; Hewitt, J; Hill, A B; Horan, D; Hou, X; Hughes, R E; Inoue, Y; Jackson, M S; Jogler, T; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Kamae, T; Kawano, T; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Marelli, M; Massaro, F; Mayer, M; Mazziotta, M N; McEnery, J E; Mehault, J; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nemmen, R; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Orienti, M; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Perkins, J S; Pesce-Rollins, M; Piron, F; Pivato, G; Porter, T A; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Razzano, M; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Roth, M; Rousseau, R; Parkinson, P M Saz; Schulz, A; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Suson, D J; Takahashi, H; Takeuchi, Y; Thayer, J G; Thayer, J B; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Tinivella, M; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Troja, E; Uchiyama, Y; Vandenbroucke, J; Vasileiou, V; Vianello, G; Vitale, V; Werner, M; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Yang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV gamma-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT)identified five high-energy (100MeV

  12. Plasma carotenoids are associated with socioeconomic status in an urban Indigenous population: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maple-Brown Louise

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous Australians experience poorer health than other Australians. Poor diet may contribute to this, and be related to their generally lower socioeconomic status (SES. Even within Indigenous populations, SES may be important. Our aim was to identify factors associated with plasma carotenoids as a marker of fruit and vegetable intake among urban dwelling Indigenous Australians, with a particular focus on SES. Methods Cross sectional study in urban dwelling Indigenous Australians participating in the DRUID (Darwin Region Urban Indigenous Diabetes Study. An SES score, based on education, employment, household size, home ownership and income was computed and plasma carotenoids measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 897 men and women aged 15 - 81 years (mean 36, standard deviation 15. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between SES and plasma carotenoids, adjusting for demographic, health and lifestyle variables, including frequency of intakes of food groups (fruit, vegetables, takeaway foods, snacks and fruit/vegetable juice. Results SES was positively associated with plasma concentrations of lutein/zeaxanthin (p trend Conclusions Even within urban Indigenous Australians, higher SES was associated with higher concentrations of plasma carotenoids. Low plasma carotenoids have been linked with poor health outcomes; increasing accessibility of fruit and vegetables, as well as reducing smoking rates could increase concentrations and otherwise improve health, but our results suggest there may be additional factors contributing to lower carotenoid concentrations in Indigenous Australians.

  13. Agricultura e alimentação em populações ribeirinhas das várzeas do Amazonas: novas perspectivas Agriculture and diet among riverine populations of the Amazonian floodplains: new perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Adams

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo a caracterização e comparação dos consumos alimentares domésticos de duas comunidades caboclas localizadas numa região de várzea sazonal (Ilha do Ituqui, Santarém-PA no Baixo Amazonas (1995-97. Especial ênfase é dada ao papel da agricultura no consumo alimentar destas populações. Os resultados obtidos indicam níveis elevados de consumo protéico em relação ao calórico, pela população local, relativa instabilidade sazonal das fontes de energia e crescente dependência de itens alimentares industrializados. Apesar deste perfil, produtos localmente produzidos e obtidos, como a farinha de mandioca e o peixe, ainda representam grande parte da estrutura dietética destas populações. Somado a isto, um amplo leque de atividades de subsistência e de mercado, bem como a exploração de diferentes zonas ecológicas na obtenção de alimento, foram observados, desmistificando algumas das pressuposições dominantes até recentemente sobre a homogeneidade e simplicidade das estratégias produtivas destas populações.The main objective of this research is to characterize and compare household food intake of two riverine populations located in the Floodplains of the Lower Amazon (Ituqui Island, Santarém-PA (1995-97. A special emphasis is given to the role of agriculture in the food consumption patterns of these populations. The obtained results indicate high levels of protein intake in relation to energy intake, relative seasonal instability of energy sources, and increasing dependency on imported industrialized foodstuffs. In spite of such a pattern, food items locally produced such as manioc flour (farinha and fish remain as the main part of local diet. In addition, a broad array of subsistence and commercial activities as well as the intense exploitation of different ecological zones by the local population were observed. The above scenario tends to undermine some of the major assumptions on the

  14. Implications of a variable IMF for the interpretation of observations of galaxy populations

    CERN Document Server

    Clauwens, Bart; Franx, Marijn

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a metallicity-dependent stellar initial mass function (IMF), as deduced observationally by Mart\\'in-Navarro et al. (2015c), on the inferred stellar masses and star formation rates of a representative sample of 186,886 SDSS galaxies. Compared to a universal Chabrier IMF, this variable IMF implies a large increase in the star formation rates inferred from the observed UV and IR luminosities. This extends the star formation main sequence to higher masses and increases the total low-redshift SFR density by an order of magnitude. Depending on the metallicity, the inferred galaxy masses increase either because of the addition of stellar remnants or dwarf stars relative to a Chabrier IMF, for which the implied mass is minimal. This causes a shift of the galaxy stellar mass function (GSMF) to higher masses by 0.5 dex and a factor 2.3 increase in the stellar mass density above 109 Msun. However, the results depend strongly on the assumed IMF parametrisation, which is not directly constrain...

  15. Thoracic posterior longitudinal ligament ossification in a fixed population; longitudinal radiological observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All lateral chest radiographs of 34 persons with posterior longitudinal ligament ossification (PLLO) in the thoracic spine were reviewed for date of its onset and its progress. These observations spanned as long as 18 years. Upper mid-thoracic PLLO first appeared under the age of 40, then increased in extent in the vertical axis until the age of 50. Lower thoracic PLLO occurred later than upper mid-thoracic PLLO. In the lower thoracic and lumbar regions, degeneration of the vertebrae and discs apparently were focal factors which triggered the development of thoracic PLLO. PLLO apparently developed in a different way in the upper and mid-thoracic regions, where the vertebrae and discs were unremarkable at the time of its initial appearance, and degenerative abnormalities did not predispose to it. (author)

  16. Modeling the Nearly Isotropic Comet Population in Anticipation of LSST Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Silsbee, Kedron

    2016-01-01

    We run simulations to determine the expected distribution of orbital elements of nearly isotropic comets (NICs) in the outer solar system, assuming that these comets originate in the Oort Cloud at thousands of AU and are perturbed into the planetary region by the Galactic tide. We show that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) should detect and characterize the orbits of hundreds to thousands of NICs with perihelion distance outside 5 AU. Observing NICs in the outer solar system is our only way of directly detecting comets from the inner Oort Cloud, as these comets are dynamically excluded from the inner solar system by the giant planets. Thus the distribution of orbital elements constrains the spatial distribution of comets in the Oort cloud and the environment in which the solar system formed. Additionally, comet orbits can be characterized more precisely when they are seen far from the Sun as they have not been affected by non-gravitational forces.

  17. Reasons for low quality of life in south Indian cancer patient population: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Damodar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, quality of life investigations of cancer patients′ have became a critical evaluation parameter in the clinical cancer research and treatment evaluation programs. This study was carried out in a 1200 bed tertiary care teaching hospital, MGM Hospital, located at Warangal, India. Present study assessed the overall quality of life, symptoms of patients affected by breast, head and neck, cervical and stomach cancers by using guidelines and modules of The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The assessment was carried out in two phases, as review I at ≤2 cycles and review II at ≥5 cycles of treatment. Data were analyzed for 104 individuals with the mean age of 46.1΁11.2 years. The evaluation was characterised as functional scale and symptom scale. In the functional scale physical, and role functions were significant (P<0.05 in all the 4 types of cancers studied. Additional, future perspective, social and emotional functions were observed to be significant in breast cancer, head and neck cancer and cervical cancer, respectively. Where as in symptom scale pain was observed to be significant for all cancers studied. Individually, breast cancer patient also showed significant parameters like fatigue, arm symptoms, and upset by hair loss. Head and neck cancer patients had insomnia and diarrhoea as additional significant symptom scale parameters. In cervical cancer patients, fatigue, insomnia, menopausal symptoms, and in stomach cancer patients, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, reflex symptoms and eating restrictions were significantly affected. Most of the findings are similar to past studies in the respective type of cancer patients which shows that, quality of life was mostly influenced by the above mentioned factors and have some interesting implications for management and treatment of cancer.

  18. Influencia de la agricultura de conservación en la temperatura del suelo y su relación con las poblaciones microbianas Influence of conservation agriculture over soil temperature and the relation with microbial populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muñoz

    2009-01-01

    óptimos de temperatura para el crecimiento microbiano en los manejos de agricultura de conservación.The temperature of the soil is a key factor in the growth of the maize, a sensible culture to the temperature variations, with high optimal temperature for germination of the seed, growth of plant and fruition. The conservation agriculture tends to diminish the temperature of the soil, due to the stubbles that are left in surface, in whose decomposition the microorganisms of the soil play a fundamental role, and to the associated increase of humidity this type of management. For a suitable management of soils under conservation agriculture is recommendable the study of the temperature and the microbial populations in the surface horizon. For these reasons, the objective of this study has been to make a comparative study of the oscillations of temperature in different managements from agriculture of conservation as opposed to the obtained with a conventional management, and to determine how affect these variations of temperature to the microbial populations associated to the rhizosphere of the culture. Field experiences have been made in four different managements under a same soil, located in contiguous subparcels; one of direct seeding (DS, two of direct seeding with cover (DSC with different antiquity from implantation and a conventional tillage (CT. It has been made an exhaustive measurement of the temperature of the soil during three years and a monitoring of the evolution of the microbial populations. The analysis of the results allows to conclude that during the period of culture takes place a diminution of the temperature in SD and SDC with respect to LC, with smaller oscillations of temperature for the conservation agriculture. In addition, an increase in the microbial populations associated to SD and SDC with respect to LC is observed, that would indicate the existence of optimal intervals of temperature for the microbial growth in the managements of

  19. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  20. Status Check of the Mining Hub of India: Examining the LandUse Pattern Observed in the Forest –Agricultural Ecosystem of Dhanbad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zareena Begum Irfan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ecosystem based hotspot identification and the pattern of land use change in Forest-agricultural Ecosystem using the land use dynamic degree model. Geological Information on the agricultural ecosystem is obtained by the remote sensing images for the identification of land change. Ecosystem wherein both the agricultural and forest ecosystem coexist is known as forest-agricultural ecosystem. Area is based on the agricultural activities and the forest ecosystem. Hotspot is selected based on the intersection of anthropogenic activities like mining with the forest and agricultural ecosystem. With this hotspot identification it brings a clear picture of how to look into a new definition of hotspots, which identifies a region or specific area and how each area could be identified as a hotspot. Geographic Information System images were used to analyze the changes in land over specific time period.

  1. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  2. PRIMUS: An observationally motivated model to connect the evolution of the AGN and galaxy populations out to z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Aird, James; Moustakas, John; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M; Blanton, Michael R; Cool, Richard J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Wong, Kenneth C; Zhu, Guangtun

    2013-01-01

    We present an observationally motivated model to connect the AGN and galaxy populations at 0.2populate galaxies with AGNs using models for the probability of a galaxy hosting an AGN as a function of specific accretion rate (the rate of supermassive black hole growth scaled relative to the host stellar mass). Our model is based on measurements indicating that the specific accretion rate distribution is a universal function across a wide range of host stellar mass with slope gamma_1=0.65 and an overall normalization that evolves strongly with redshift. We test several simple assumptions to extend this model to high specific accretion rates (beyond the measurements) and compare the predictions for the XLF with the observed data. We find good agreement with a model that allows for a break in the specific accretion rate distribution at a poin...

  3. Earth Observations for Early Detection of Agricultural Drought in Countries at Risk: Contributions of the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdin, J. P.; Rowland, J.; Senay, G. B.; Funk, C. C.; Budde, M. E.; Husak, G. J.; Jayanthi, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations' Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) implementation plan emphasizes the information needs of countries at risk of food insecurity emergencies. Countries in this category are often vulnerable to disruption of agricultural production due to drought, while at the same time they lack well developed networks of in-situ observations to support early drought detection. Consequently, it is vital that Earth observations by satellites supplement those available from surface stations. The USGS, in its role as a FEWS NET implementing partner, has recently developed a number of new applications of satellite observations for this purpose. (1) In partnership with the University of California, Santa Barbara, a 30+ year time series of gridded precipitation estimates (CHIRPS) has been developed by blending NOAA GridSat B1 geostationary thermal infrared imagery with station observations using robust geostatistical methods. The core data set consists of pentadal (5-daily) accumulations from 1981-2013 at 0.05 degree spatial resolution between +/- 50 degrees latitude. Validation has been recently completed, and applications for gridded crop water balance calculations and mapping the Standardized Precipitation Index are in development. (2) Actual evapotranspiration (ETa) estimates using MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) data at 1-km have been successfully demonstrated using the operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance model with 8-day composites from the LPDAAC. A new, next-day latency implementation using daily LST swath data from the NASA LANCE server is in development for all the crop growing regions of the world. This ETa processing chain follows in the footsteps of (3) the expedited production of MODIS 250-meter NDVI images every five days at USGS EROS, likewise using LANCE daily swath data as input since 2010. Coverage includes Africa, Central Asia, the Middle East, Central America, and the Caribbean. (4) A surface water point monitoring

  4. Observations of migrant exchange and mixing in a coral reef fish metapopulation link scales of marine population connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, John B; van Herwerden, Lynne; Abellana, Sheena; McIlwain, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Much progress has been made toward understanding marine metapopulation dynamics, largely because of multilocus microsatellite surveys able to connect related individuals within the metapopulation. However, most studies are focused on small spatial scales, tens of kilometers, while demographic exchange at larger spatial scales remains poorly documented. Additionally, many small-scale demographic studies conflict with broad-scale phylogeographic patterns concerning levels of marine population connectivity, highlighting a need for data on more intermediate scales. Here, we investigated demographic recruitment processes of a commercially important coral reef fish, the bluespine unicornfish (Naso unicornis) using a suite of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers. Sampling for this study ranged across the southern Marianas Islands, a linear distance of 250 km and included 386 newly settled postlarval recruits. In contrast with other studies, we report that cohorts of recruits were genetically homogeneous in space and time, with no evidence of temporally stochastic sweepstakes reproduction. The genetic diversity of recruits was high and commensurate with that of the adult population. In addition, there is substantial evidence that 2 recruits, separated by 250 km, were full siblings. This is the largest direct observation of dispersal to date for a coral reef fish. All indications suggest that subpopulations of N. unicornis experience high levels of demographic migrant exchange and metapopulation mixing on a spatial scale of hundreds of kilometers, consistent with high levels of broad-scale genetic connectivity previously reported in this species. PMID:23580757

  5. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  6. Agriculture and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture came into existence about 15,000 years ago and passed through different stages of food gathering, hunting, hoe culture and sedentary agriculture followed by modem agriculture. It began simultaneously in five world centers concentrating on different crops, most suited to those areas. It was also effected by changes in climate influenced by temperature, drought and magnitude of precipitation, which determined the distribution of populations and occupation of the people. With the increase in population the need for food also progressively increased, necessitating introduction of modern agriculture to enhance production. The indiscriminate and faulty use of advanced technology has added its share in the, destruction of environment. The two approaches that contributed to this were horizontal wand vertical expansion. The former results in deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, land salting and water logging as well as the frequent occurrence of droughts and famines, the latter destroyed soil structure and fertility through decreased microbial populations, fish culture, wildlife and bird sanctuaries, in addition to hazards in human beings and fauna. The real culprit of this global devastation is the high population growth rate, which needs to be contained at safer levels, coupled with sensible use of inputs to produce needed quantities of food and fiber. (author)

  7. Competing-Risks Mortality After Radiotherapy vs. Observation for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Population-based Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Contemporary patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) are more frequently treated with radiotherapy. However, there are limited data on the effect of this treatment on cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Our objective was to test the relationship between radiotherapy and survival in men with localized PCa and compare it with those treated with observation. Methods: A population-based cohort identified 68,797 men with cT1–T2 PCa treated with radiotherapy or observation between the years 1992 and 2005. Propensity-score matching was used to minimize potential bias related to treatment assignment. Competing-risks analyses tested the effect of treatment type (radiotherapy vs. observation) on CSM, after accounting to other-cause mortality. All analyses were carried out within PCa risk, baseline comorbidity status, and age groups. Results: Radiotherapy was associated with more favorable 10-year CSM rates than observation in patients with high-risk PCa (8.8 vs. 14.4%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50–0.68). Conversely, the beneficial effect of radiotherapy on CSM was not evident in patients with low-intermediate risk PCa (3.7 vs. 4.1%, HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.80–1.04). Radiotherapy was beneficial in elderly patients (5.6 vs. 7.3%, HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59–0.80). Moreover, it was associated with improved CSM rates among patients with no comorbidities (5.7 vs. 6.5%, HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67–0.98), one comorbidity (4.6 vs. 6.0%, HR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75–0.99), and more than two comorbidities (4.2 vs. 5.0%, HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65–0.96). Conclusions: Radiotherapy substantially improves CSM in patients with high-risk PCa, with little or no benefit in patients with low-/intermediate-risk PCa relative to observation. These findings must be interpreted within the context of the limitations of observational data.

  8. First survey of Wolf-Rayet star populations over the full extension of nearby galaxies observed with CALIFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Caballero, D.; Díaz, A. I.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Rosales-Ortega, F. F.; Monreal-Ibero, A.; Pérez-Montero, E.; Kehrig, C.; García-Benito, R.; Sánchez, S. F.; Walcher, C. J.; Galbany, L.; Iglesias-Páramo, J.; Vílchez, J. M.; González Delgado, R. M.; van de Ven, G.; Barrera-Ballesteros, J.; Lyubenova, M.; Meidt, S.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; Mast, D.; Mendoza, M. A.; Califa Collaboration

    2016-08-01

    The search of extragalactic regions with conspicuous presence of Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars outside the Local Group is challenging task owing to the difficulty in detecting their faint spectral features. In this exploratory work, we develop a methodology to perform an automated search of WR signatures through a pixel-by-pixel analysis of integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data belonging to the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area survey, CALIFA. This procedure has been applied to a sample of nearby galaxies spanning a wide range of physical, morphological, and environmental properties. This technique allowed us to build the first catalogue of regions rich in WR stars with spatially resolved information, and enabled us to study the properties of these complexes in a two-dimensional (2D) context. The detection technique is based on the identification of the blue WR bump (around He iiλ4686 Å, mainly associated with nitrogen-rich WR stars; WN) and the red WR bump (around C ivλ5808 Å, mainly associated with carbon-rich WR stars; WC) using a pixel-by-pixel analysis that maximizes the number of independent regions within a given galaxy. We identified 44 WR-rich regions with blue bumps distributed in 25 out of a total of 558 galaxies. The red WR bump was identified only in 5 of those regions. Most of the WR regions are located within one effective radius from the galaxy centre, and around one-third are located within ~1 kpc or less from the centre. We found that the majority of the galaxies hosting WR populations in our sample are involved in some kind of interaction process. Half of the host galaxies share some properties with gamma-ray burst (GRB) hosts where WR stars, such as potential candidates to the progenitors of GRBs, are found. We also compared the WR properties derived from the CALIFA data with stellar population synthesis models, and confirm that simple star models are generally not able to reproduce the observations. We conclude that other effects, such as

  9. Global Drivers of Agricultural Demand and Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Sands, Ronald; Jones, Carol; Marshall, Elizabeth P.

    2014-01-01

    Recent volatility in agricultural commodity prices and projections of world population growth raise concerns about the ability of global agricultural production to meet future demand. This report explores the potential for future agricultural production to 2050, using a model-based analysis that incorporates the key drivers of agricultural production, along with the responses of producers and consumers to changes to those drivers. Model results show that for a percentage change in population,...

  10. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of ∼15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  11. THE RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATION IN 50 REGIONS OF M83 FROM HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Cohen, Seth H.; Windhorst, Rogier A. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Whitmore, Bradley C.; Mutchler, Max; Bond, Howard E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Chandar, Rupali [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Saha, Abhijit [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85726-6732 (United States); Kaleida, Catherine C. [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Calzetti, Daniela [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); O' Connell, Robert W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Balick, Bruce [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Carollo, Marcella [Department of Physics, ETH-Zurich, Zurich 8093 (Switzerland); Disney, Michael J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, Michael A. [Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Galaxies Unlimited, 1 Tremblant Court, Lutherville, MD 21093 (United States); Hall, Donald N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, Jon A. [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); Kimble, Randy A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); McCarthy, Patrick J., E-mail: hwihyun.kim@asu.edu [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA 91101-1292 (United States); and others

    2012-07-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of {approx}15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations of Wolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  12. The Resolved Stellar Population in 50 Regions of M83 from HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwihyun; Whitmore, Bradley C.; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C.; Mutchler, Max; Cohen, Seth H.; Calzetti, Daniela; O’Connell, Robert W.; Windhorst, Rogier A.; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E.; Carollo, Marcella; Disney, Michael J.; Dopita, Michael A.; Frogel, Jay A.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Kimble, Randy A.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe I; Trauger, John T.; Walker, Alistair R.; Young, Erick T.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of approximately 15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC 5236, D = 4.61 Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83 and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction toward each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones.We compare the resulting luminosity-weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in concentrated aggregates along spiral arms, while older stars are more dispersed. These results are consistent with the scenario that star formation is associated with the spiral arms, and stars form primarily in star clusters and then disperse on short timescales to form the field population. The locations ofWolf-Rayet stars are found to correlate with the positions of many of the youngest regions, providing additional support for our ability to accurately estimate ages. We address the effects of spatial resolution on the measured colors, magnitudes, and age estimates. While individual stars can occasionally show measurable differences in the colors and magnitudes, the age estimates for entire regions are only slightly affected.

  13. Earthworm Populations in Savannas of the Orinoco Basin. A Review of Studies in Long-Term Agricultural-Managed and Protected Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo López-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Earthworm biomass and production in savannas are limited by seasonal precipitation and the lack of organic and nutrient resources; I hypothesize that after a long-term protection of savanna from fire and agricultural activities drastic changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil occur with a concomitant increase in earthworm abundance and activities. Similar changes might occur after a long-term fertilization of savannas with manure. This review article considers the eart...

  14. AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION IN INDIA: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish K. Makwana

    2013-01-01

    India is an agricultural country. At the time of independence our country faced food shortages. Later on due to green revolution we became self sufficient in food grain production despite population increase. One of the important factors in success of green revolution is the role played by agricultural graduates. After independence, state agricultural universities were established in all the states to impart education in the field of agriculture. Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New D...

  15. Exploring Alternative Solutions Regarding Conservation Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Movahedi; Hadi Fathi; Mousa Aazami; Somaye Latifi

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Studies show that no effective measures have been taken towards conservative agriculture in Iran. Social, economical and technical agricultural factors and conditions need to be provided to meet conservation agriculture at the farm, regional and national level. Accordingly, this research aimed at exploring some solutions to protect and conserve agriculture. Approach: To achieve this, of all 100 populations, included both 80 faculty members of college of agriculture at Bu-Al...

  16. HOMOEOPATHY IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Singhania, Pawan Kumar; SINGHANIA, ARCHANA

    2014-01-01

    Homoeopathy medicines have been found to be effective in human organisms. Research and application of Homoeopathy drugs in agriculture is slowly finding place. The mode of action of Homoeopathy remedies and simillinum of drug pictures for use in agriculture; basic principles of Homoeopathy and drug administration are discussed. Significant results have been observed using Homoeopathy medicines to fight stress conditions during wet conditions; during hot and dry conditions; in improving germin...

  17. Technological change in smallholder agriculture: Bridging the adoption gap by understanding its source

    OpenAIRE

    Diagne, Aliou

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the informational origin of the low adoption rates of modern agricultural technologies frequently observed in smallholder agriculture in Sub-Sahran Africa. The paper argues that a large part of these observed low adoption rates can be explained by a simple fact: The lack of awareness of the existence of the technology by a large proportion of the smallholder farming population. The paper analyzes the structure of the adoption gap resulting from this lack of awareness and p...

  18. Radio detection prospects for a bulge population of millisecond pulsars as suggested by Fermi LAT observations of the inner Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Calore, Francesca; Donato, Fiorenza; Hessels, Jason W T; Weniger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Analogously to globular clusters, the dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis found support in the analysis of gamma rays from the inner Galaxy seen by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed a possible excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center (Fermi GeV excess). The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution that strongly peaks towards the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsation from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and the gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previ...

  19. The Resolved Stellar Population in 50 Regions of M83 from HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Hwihyun; Chandar, Rupali; Saha, Abhijit; Kaleida, Catherine C; Mutchler, Max; Cohen, Seth H; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Connell, Robert W; Windhorst, Rogier A; Balick, Bruce; Bond, Howard E; Carollo, C Marcella; Disney, Michael J; Dopita, Michael A; Frogel, Jay A; Hall, Donald N B; Holtzman, Jon A; Kimble, Randy A; McCarthy, Patrick J; Paresce, Francesco; Silk, Joe I; Trauger, John T; Walker, Alistair R; Young, Erick T

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength photometric study of ~15,000 resolved stars in the nearby spiral galaxy M83 (NGC5236, D=4.61Mpc) based on Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 observations using four filters: F336W, F438W, F555W, and F814W. We select 50 regions (an average size of 260 pc by 280 pc) in the spiral arm and inter-arm areas of M83, and determine the age distribution of the luminous stellar populations in each region. This is accomplished by correcting for extinction towards each individual star by comparing its colors with predictions from stellar isochrones. We compare the resulting luminosity weighted mean ages of the luminous stars in the 50 regions with those determined from several independent methods, including the number ratio of red-to-blue supergiants, morphological appearance of the regions, surface brightness fluctuations, and the ages of clusters in the regions. We find reasonably good agreement between these methods. We also find that young stars are much more likely to be found in...

  20. Exploring a New Population of Compact Objects: X-ray and IR Observations of the Galactic Centre

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, Reba M; Eikenberry, Stephen E; Muno, Michael P; Blundell, Katherine M; Podsiadlowski, Philipp; Mikles, Valerie J; DeWitt, Curtis

    2008-01-01

    I describe the IR and X-ray observational campaign we have undertaken for the purpose of determining the nature of the faint discrete X-ray source population discovered by Chandra in the Galactic Center (GC). Data obtained for this project includes a deep Chandra survey of the Galactic Bulge; deep, high resolution IR imaging from VLT/ISAAC, CTIO/ISPI, and the UKIDSS Galactic Plane Survey (GPS); and IR spectroscopy from VLT/ISAAC and IRTF/SpeX. By cross-correlating the GC X-ray imaging from Chandra with our IR surveys, we identify candidate counterparts to the X-ray sources via astrometry. Using a detailed IR extinction map, we are deriving magnitudes and colors for all the candidates. Having thus established a target list, we will use the multi-object IR spectrograph FLAMINGOS-2 on Gemini-South to carry out a spectroscopic survey of the candidate counterparts, to search for emission line signatures which are a hallmark of accreting binaries. By determining the nature of these X-ray sources, this FLAMINGOS-2 G...

  1. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  2. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  3. Performance of climate envelope models in retrodicting recent changes in bird population size from observed climatic change

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Rhys E.; Collingham, Yvonne C.; Willis, Stephen G; Gregory, Richard D; Smith, Ken W.; Huntley, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five-year population trends of 42 bird species rare as breeders in the UK were examined in relation to changes in climatic suitability simulated using climatic envelope models. The effects of a series of potential ‘nuisance’ variables were also assessed. A statistically significant positive correlation was found across species between population trend and climate suitability trend. The demonstration that climate envelope models are able to retrodict species' population trends provides ...

  4. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops. PMID:26785813

  5. Opportunities and challenges of sustainable agricultural development in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jingzhu; Luo, Qishan; Deng, Hongbing; Yan, Yan

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces the concepts and aims of sustainable agriculture in China. Sustainable agricultural development comprises sustainability of agricultural production, sustainability of the rural economy, ecological and environmental sustainability within agricultural systems and sustainability of rural society. China's prime aim is to ensure current and future food security. Based on projections of China's population, its economy, societal factors and agricultural resources and inputs bet...

  6. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  7. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  8. Landscape Effects of a Non-Native Grass Facilitate Source Populations of a Native Generalist Bug, Stenotus rubrovittatus, in a Heterogeneous Agricultural Landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, A.; Takada, M. B.; Washitani, I.

    2014-01-01

    Non-native plant species can provide native generalist insects, including pests, with novel food and habitats. It is hypothesized that local and landscape-level abundances of non-native plants can affect the population size of generalist insects, although generalists are assumed to be less sensitive to habitat connectivity than specialists. In a heterogeneous landscape in Japan, the relationship between the density of a native pest of rice (Stenotus rubrovittatus (Matsumura) (Heteroptera: Mir...

  9. Observations on a population of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis (Forskal, 1775) in the North Aegean Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chariton Chintiroglou, C. [Thessaloniki, Aristotle Univ. (Greece). Dept. of Zoology

    1996-12-31

    The present paper is concerned with the structural aspects of Anemonia viridis populations found in the North Aegean Sea. It was found that mean wet weight and density of anemone populations increases with depth and distance from shore. Differences in the structure of the Anemonia viridis populations were attributed both to the specific hydrodynamic characteristics of the biotopes and to a number biotic interactions. From our results and t previous investigations the adoption of three different lifestyles by the anemones was assumed.: (1) a colonial form, with population densities around 650 individuals per m{sup 2}, found in substrates exposed to increased hydrodynamism; (2) a colonial form, with lower densities (90 indiv. per m{sup 2}), found in less exposed sites; (3) finally, large individuals in deeper waters chose a solitary lifestyle, as mechanical stresses were much lower.

  10. Population Status of Arctic, Common and Roseate Terns in the Gulf of Maine with Observations of five Downeast colonies

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The populations of Arctic Terns, Common Terns and Roseate Terns have declined between 30-40% over the past decade. This report outlines the findings of a tern...

  11. Development of a population of cancer cells: Observation and modeling by a Mixed Spatial Evolutionary Games approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świerniak, Andrzej; Krześlak, Michał; Student, Sebastian; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna

    2016-09-21

    Living cells, like whole living organisms during evolution, communicate with their neighbors, interact with the environment, divide, change their phenotypes, and eventually die. The development of specific ways of communication (through signaling molecules and receptors) allows some cellular subpopulations to survive better, to coordinate their physiological status, and during embryonal development to create tissues and organs or in some conditions to become tumors. Populations of cells cultured in vitro interact similarly, also competing for space and nutrients and stimulating each other to better survive or to die. The results of these intercellular interactions of different types seem to be good examples of biological evolutionary games, and have been the subjects of simulations by the methods of evolutionary game theory where individual cells are treated as players. Here we present examples of intercellular contacts in a population of living human cancer HeLa cells cultured in vitro and propose an evolutionary game theory approach to model the development of such populations. We propose a new technique termed Mixed Spatial Evolutionary Games (MSEG) which are played on multiple lattices corresponding to the possible cellular phenotypes which gives the possibility of simulating and investigating the effects of heterogeneity at the cellular level in addition to the population level. Analyses performed with MSEG suggested different ways in which cellular populations develop in the case of cells communicating directly and through factors released to the environment. PMID:27216640

  12. ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE EVOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CECILIA IRINA RABONTU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is a sector of the national economy which may represent a significant contribution to the economic growth if it is quantified properly. In Romania agriculture has declined significantly caused by various reasons. In frame of this study, we will attempt to discern their influence using official statistics. We will try to identify the place and the role of agriculture in Romania's actual economy from the perspective of GDP, investment in agriculture, the employment of this sector activity, because romanian agriculture remains an important sector in terms of view of agricultural area used, the contribution to GDP and, in particular, the percentage of the population employed.

  13. Vertical distribution of agriculture crop residue burning aerosol observed by space-borne lidar CALIOP - A case study over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A. K.; Shibata, T.

    2011-12-01

    Agriculture crop residue burning is one of the important sources of trace gas emissions and aerosol loading over the Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB). It is also one of the main causes for dense atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) formation over South Asian region. Present study deals with spatial and vertical variability of aerosol optical and microphysical properties during the crop residue burning season (October and November) over the IGB. MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) fire location data and MODIS AOD data confirms the crop residue burning activities over irrigated cropland of the IGB during October and November, 2009. Large values (> 0.7) of MODIS AOD (aerosol optical depth) and CALIOP (Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization) backscatter (>0.006 km-1 sr-1 below 1.0 km altitude) are suggesting enhanced atmospheric pollution associated with agriculture crop residue burning. The increase in tropospheric columnar NO2 and surface CO concentration during October and November also emphasized the significant contribution of crop residue burning activities in enhanced anthropogenic pollution over the IGB. Vertical distribution of backscatter coefficients showed trapping of biomass (crop residues) burning aerosol within boundary layer. Spatial variation of aerosol backscatter and AOD showed large value above north-west part of IGB, major area of crop residue burning activities. The results of this study will be very useful in quantification of optical properties of atmospheric brown clouds and its effect on climate.

  14. Agricultural Activities – TAS 41: Turkey Example

    OpenAIRE

    Haluk Duman; Rabia Ozpeynirci; M. Yilmaz Icerli

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture sector has become a strategic sector for all the countries in the world in the 21st century, because unhealthy, wrong and inadequate nutrition affects human health and health expenses negatively. On the other hand, arising food expenses collaterally with population growth arises the percentage of agriculture sector in the Gross National Product (GNP). Turkish Agricultural Activities Standard (TAS 41) will be leading for recording and controlling fiscally countries’ agricultural ac...

  15. MAIN NATURAL RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Ion, SCURTU

    2014-01-01

    In the process of agricultural production we are using natural resources, human resources and capital. Responsible management of natural resources will allow the development of sustainable agriculture with the possibility of agricultural products to satisfy both quantitatively and qualitatively food requirements of the population. Natural resources that are irreplaceable in agricultural production are soil and water and now must be taken global measures for slowing and stopping global warming...

  16. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  17. Cardiovascular risk with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: systematic review of population-based controlled observational studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia McGettigan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have highlighted the cardiovascular risks of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in high doses and sometimes atypical settings. Here, we provide estimates of the comparative risks with individual NSAIDs at typical doses in community settings. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a systematic review of community-based controlled observational studies. We conducted comprehensive literature searches, extracted adjusted relative risk (RR estimates, and pooled the estimates for major cardiovascular events associated with use of individual NSAIDs, in different doses, and in populations with low and high background risks of cardiovascular events. We also compared individual drugs in pair-wise (within study analyses, generating ratios of RRs (RRRs. Thirty case-control studies included 184,946 cardiovascular events, and 21 cohort studies described outcomes in >2.7 million exposed individuals. Of the extensively studied drugs (ten or more studies, the highest overall risks were seen with rofecoxib, 1.45 (95% CI 1.33, 1.59, and diclofenac, 1.40 (1.27, 1.55, and the lowest with ibuprofen, 1.18 (1.11, 1.25, and naproxen, 1.09 (1.02, 1.16. In a sub-set of studies, risk was elevated with low doses of rofecoxib, 1.37 (1.20, 1.57, celecoxib, 1.26 (1.09, 1.47, and diclofenac, 1.22 (1.12, 1.33, and rose in each case with higher doses. Ibuprofen risk was seen only with higher doses. Naproxen was risk-neutral at all doses. Of the less studied drugs etoricoxib, 2.05 (1.45, 2.88, etodolac, 1.55 (1.28, 1.87, and indomethacin, 1.30 (1.19, 1.41, had the highest risks. In pair-wise comparisons, etoricoxib had a higher RR than ibuprofen, RRR = 1.68 (99% CI 1.14, 2.49, and naproxen, RRR = 1.75 (1.16, 2.64; etodolac was not significantly different from naproxen and ibuprofen. Naproxen had a significantly lower risk than ibuprofen, RRR = 0.92 (0.87, 0.99. RR estimates were constant with different background risks for

  18. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  19. STUDY ON THE FRAMEWORK SYSTEM OF DIGITAL AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    China is a great agricultural country with large population, limited soil resources and traditional farming mode, so the central government has been attaching great importance to the development of agriculture and put forward a new agricultural technology revolution - the transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture and from extensive farming to intensive farming. Digital agriculture is the core of agricultural informatization. The enforcement of digital agriculture will greatly promote agricultural technology revolution, two agricultural transformations and its rapid development, and enhance China′ s competitive power after the entrance of WTO. To carry out digital agriculture, the frame system of digital agriculture is required to be studied in the first place. In accordance with the theory and technology of digital earth and in combination with the agricultural reality of China, this article outlines the frame system of digital agriculture and its main content and technology support.

  20. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  1. Probing the Cosmic Ray Population of the Giant Elliptical Galaxy M87 with Observed TeV Gamma-Rays

    CERN Document Server

    Pfrommer, C; Pfrommer, Christoph; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2004-01-01

    We examine the cosmic ray proton (CRp) population within the giant elliptical galaxy M87 using the TeV gamma-ray detection of the HEGRA collaboration. In our scenario, the gamma-rays are produced by decaying pions which result from hadronic CRp interactions with thermal gas of the interstellar medium of M87. By comparing the gamma-ray emission to upper limits of EGRET, we constrain the spectral index of the CRp population to alpha(GeV,TeV) < 2.275 within our scenario. Both the expected radial gamma-ray profile and the required amount of CRp support this hadronic scenario. The accompanying radio mini-halo of hadronically originating cosmic ray electrons is outshone by the synchrotron emission of the relativistic jet of M87 by one order of magnitude. According to our predictions, the future GLAST mission should allow us to test this hadronic scenario.

  2. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount

    OpenAIRE

    Pineda, Jesús; Cho, Walter; Starczak, Victoria; Annette F. Govindarajan; Guzman, Héctor M.; Girdhar, Yogesh; Holleman, Rusty C.; Churchill, James; Singh, Hanumant; Ralston, David K.

    2016-01-01

    A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount’s elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid laye...

  3. Circadian-Related Sleep Disorders and Sleep Medication Use in the New Zealand Blind Population: An Observational Prevalence Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Warman, Guy R.; Pawley, Matthew D. M.; Bolton, Catherine; Cheeseman, James F.; Fernando, Antonio T.; Arendt, Josephine; Wirz-Justice, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives To determine the prevalence of self-reported circadian-related sleep disorders, sleep medication and melatonin use in the New Zealand blind population. Design A telephone survey incorporating 62 questions on sleep habits and medication together with validated questionnaires on sleep quality, chronotype and seasonality. Participants Participants were grouped into: (i) 157 with reduced conscious perception of light (RLP); (ii) 156 visually impaired with no reduction in light pe...

  4. Observations on Neotricula aperta (Gastropoda: Pomatiopsidae) population densities in Thailand and central Laos: implications for the spread of Mekong schistosomiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Attwood Stephen W; Upatham E

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The snail Neotricula aperta transmits Mekong schistosomiasis in southern Laos and Cambodia, with about 1.5 million people at risk of infection. Plans are under consideration for at least 12 hydroelectric power dams on the lower Mekong river and much controversy surrounds predictions of their environmental impacts. Unfortunately, there are almost no ecological data (such as long term population trend studies) available for N. aperta which could be used in impact assessment....

  5. Agriculture in Brazil and China : challenges and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Sawaya Jank; Shunli Yao; Carter, Colin A.; Mário Queiroz de Monteiro Jales

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the asymmetries and complementarities between Brazil's and China's agricultural sectors. Brazil and China are key players in world agriculture. Both countries are among the world's top five producers and exporters of agricultural products and have a significant portion of their population working in agriculture. However, four significant facts profoundly differentiate Brazilian and Chinese agriculture. First, while Brazil has one of the world's most liberal agricultural se...

  6. Rural Poverty and Agricultural Development in Tamil Nadu

    OpenAIRE

    Dhas, Albert Christopher

    2012-01-01

    Tamil Nadu is basically an agricultural economy. Agriculture is the backbone of the development of the Tamil Nadu economy. The role of agriculture in shaping the economy could be reflected from the large proportion of population that depends on agriculture for their livelihood and the significant contribution of agriculture to the state income. Due to its predominance, any positive and negative aspects of developments in the state could be linked with the performance of the agricultural sec...

  7. Direct observational evidence for a large transient galaxy population in groups at 0.85

    CERN Document Server

    Balogh, Michael L; Wilman, David J; Finoguenov, Alexis; Parker, Laura C; Connelly, Jennifer L; Mulchaey, John S; Bower, Richard G; Tanaka, Masayuki; Giodini, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    (abridged) We introduce our survey of galaxy groups at 0.8515 members. The dynamical mass estimates are in good agreement with the masses estimated from the X-ray luminosity, with most of the groups having 131E10.1 Msun, and for blue galaxies we sample masses as low as Mstar=1E8.8 Msun. Like lower-redshift groups, these systems are dominated by red galaxies, at all stellar masses Mstar>1E10.1 Msun. Few group galaxies inhabit the ``blue cloud'' that dominates the surrounding field; instead, we find a large and possibly distinct population of galaxies with intermediate colours. The ``green valley'' that exists at low redshift is instead well-populated in these groups, containing ~30 per cent of galaxies. These do not appear to be exceptionally dusty galaxies, and about half show prominent Balmer-absorption lines. Furthermore, their HST morphologies appear to be intermediate between those of red-sequence and blue-cloud galaxies of the same stellar mass. We postulate that these are a transi ent population, migrat...

  8. 城镇化进程中农业转移人口职业教育问题研究%A Study of Vocational Education of Agriculture-Transferred Population in the Process of New-Type Urbanization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏美玲

    2015-01-01

    新型城镇化是以人为核心的城镇化,要把城镇化科学发展、产业转型升级与农业转移人口职业教育有机结合,要充分发挥职业教育在提升农业转移人口素质、新型城镇化质量中的重要作用,通过营造职业教育生态环境、发挥职业院校的比较优势、统筹各类各级培训机构、合理设置职业教育课程体系等实现农业转移人口可持续发展。%The new⁃type urbanization is a type of human⁃centered urbanization, which combines the scientific de⁃velopment of urbanization, the industrial transformation and the vocational education of agriculture⁃transferred popu⁃lation, and full play should be given to the role of vocational education in improving the quality of agriculture⁃trans⁃ferred population and the quality of new⁃type urbanization. The sustainable development of agricultural transferred population can be realized through the construction of the ecological environment of vocational education, the com⁃parative advantage of vocational colleges, the use of training institutions of various levels, and the reasonable setting of the curriculum for vocational education.

  9. Urban Agriculture Programs on the Rise: Agriculture Education Model Can Reach Students Other Classes Leave Behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural education begins with hands-on classroom and laboratory instruction. Because agriculture is such a broad topic, schools typically tailor agriculture class offerings to match the interests of the student population, needs of nearby businesses and industry, or topics relevant to their state's standard assessments. Within most…

  10. Short-range movement of major agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenwyk, R.

    1979-01-01

    Visual observations of population fluctuations which cannot be accounted for by either mortality or natality are presented. Lygus bugs in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley of California are used as an example. The dispersal of most agricultural pests in one of the less known facets of their biology is discussed. Results indicate a better understanding of insect movement is needed to develop a sound pest management program.

  11. Prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy in stable coronary disease: a comparative observational study of benefits and harms in unselected versus trial populations

    OpenAIRE

    Timmis, A.; Rapsomaniki, E.; Chung, SC; Pujades Rodriguez, MDM; Moayyeri, A.; Stogiannis, D.; Shah, AD; Pasea, L; Denaxas, S; Emmas, C; Hemmingway, H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the potential magnitude of benefits and harms of prolonged dual anti-platelet therapy after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in unselected patients. Methods: We defined an observational, population based cohort of 7238 patients surviving ≥1 year after AMI and no other selection criteria using linked primary and secondary care electronic health records (CALIBER (ClinicAl research using LInked Bespoke studies and Electronic health Records)) for comparison with PEGASUS-TI...

  12. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF): study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Menz Hylton B; D'Cruz Deborah; Marshall Michelle; Thomas Martin J; Myers Helen; Roddy Edward; Belcher John; Muller Sara; Peat George

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA) affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational co...

  13. Factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in older people with intellectual disability differ from the general population: a cross-sectional observational nationwide study

    OpenAIRE

    O'Dwyer, Máire; Peklar, Jure; McCallion, Philip; McCarron, Mary; Henman, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy (5–9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ medicines) and (2) to determine associated demographic and clinical characteristics in an ageing population with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Wave One (2009/2010) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA). Participants A nationally representative sample of 753 persons with ID, age...

  14. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting ...

  15. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ackermann, M. [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron DESY, D-15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Ajello, M. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Baldini, L. [Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Ballet, J. [Laboratoire AIM, CEA-IRFU/CNRS/Universite Paris Diderot, Service d' Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Barbiellini, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Bastieri, D.; Buson, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Padova, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Bonamente, E. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Perugia, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brigida, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' M. Merlin' ' dell' Universita e del Politecnico di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Bruel, P., E-mail: funk@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com, E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr, E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  16. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented

  17. THE POTENTIALITIES AND THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ACHIEVEMENT LEVEL IN OLT COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil MARINESCU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at investigating the current situation of rural development perspective based on knowledge of the human factor in Olt County. The first and most important observation is the repercussions on the demographics of rural population structure and balance in Olt County where it appears on one side of its unevenness, with a trend of diminishing the employment, hence the number of employees. The analysis of agricultural density, represented by the area in hectares / capita reveals the existence of a low level of rural population pressure on agricultural space. On the structure of agricultural branches it was surprised on one hand the annual variation in levels of achievement, but on the other hand the share of services which is insignificant. All this contributes to the low attractiveness of agriculture for young people in the rural county of Olt.

  18. Assessing Attitudes of Female Freshman Agricultural Undergraduates towards Entering Agricultural Majors

    OpenAIRE

    Reza Movahedi

    2011-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing attitudes and perceptions of female freshman agricultural undergraduate students toward entering agricultural majors using survey and correlation methodologies. The statistical population consisted of 326 female freshman undergraduate students of agricultural fields in agricultural college at Bu-Ali-Sina University between 2008 and 2009. Among them, a number of 141 samples were selected randomly. Research tool was a questionnaire. Reliability of the questionnaire ...

  19. Galaxy Populations and Evolution in Clusters IV Deep HI Observations of Dwarf Ellipticals in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Conselice, C J; Gallagher, J S; Wyse, R F G; Conselice, Christopher J.; Neil, Karen O'; Gallagher, John S.; Wyse, Rosemary F.G.

    2003-01-01

    We present in this paper the deepest Arecibo HI observations of Virgo cluster dwarf ellipticals (dEs) taken to date. Based on this data we argue that a significant fraction of Virgo cluster dEs recently underwent evolution. Our new observations consist of HI 21-cm line observations for 22 classified dE galaxies with optical radial velocities consistent with membership in the Virgo cluster. Cluster members VCC 390 and VCC 1713 are detected with HI masses M(HI) = 6*10^7 M_solar and 8*10^7 M_solar, respectively, while M(HI) in the remaining 20 dE galaxies have upper limits as low as 5*10^5 M_solar. We combine our results with those for 27 other Virgo cluster dEs with HI observations in the literature, 7 of which have HI detection claims. New optical images from the WIYN telescope of 5 of these HI-detected dEs, along with archival data, suggest that seven of the claimed detections are real, yielding a ~ 15% detection rate. These HI-detected classified dEs are preferentially located near the periphery of the Virgo...

  20. Stature and robusticity during the agricultural transition: evidence from the bioarchaeological record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummert, Amanda; Esche, Emily; Robinson, Joshua; Armelagos, George J

    2011-07-01

    The population explosion that followed the Neolithic revolution was initially explained by improved health experiences for agriculturalists. However, empirical studies of societies shifting subsistence from foraging to primary food production have found evidence for deteriorating health from an increase in infectious and dental disease and a rise in nutritional deficiencies. In Paleopathology at the Origins of Agriculture (Cohen and Armelagos, 1984), this trend towards declining health was observed for 19 of 21 societies undergoing the agricultural transformation. The counterintuitive increase in nutritional diseases resulted from seasonal hunger, reliance on single crops deficient in essential nutrients, crop blights, social inequalities, and trade. In this study, we examined the evidence of stature reduction in studies since 1984 to evaluate if the trend towards decreased health after agricultural transitions remains. The trend towards a decrease in adult height and a general reduction of overall health during times of subsistence change remains valid, with the majority of studies finding stature to decline as the reliance on agriculture increased. The impact of agriculture, accompanied by increasing population density and a rise in infectious disease, was observed to decrease stature in populations from across the entire globe and regardless of the temporal period during which agriculture was adopted, including Europe, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, South America, and North America. PMID:21507735

  1. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubow, Bruce C; Ransom, Jason I

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance for improving survey designs. PMID:27139732

  2. Practical Bias Correction in Aerial Surveys of Large Mammals: Validation of Hybrid Double-Observer with Sightability Method against Known Abundance of Feral Horse (Equus caballus) Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Reliably estimating wildlife abundance is fundamental to effective management. Aerial surveys are one of the only spatially robust tools for estimating large mammal populations, but statistical sampling methods are required to address detection biases that affect accuracy and precision of the estimates. Although various methods for correcting aerial survey bias are employed on large mammal species around the world, these have rarely been rigorously validated. Several populations of feral horses (Equus caballus) in the western United States have been intensively studied, resulting in identification of all unique individuals. This provided a rare opportunity to test aerial survey bias correction on populations of known abundance. We hypothesized that a hybrid method combining simultaneous double-observer and sightability bias correction techniques would accurately estimate abundance. We validated this integrated technique on populations of known size and also on a pair of surveys before and after a known number was removed. Our analysis identified several covariates across the surveys that explained and corrected biases in the estimates. All six tests on known populations produced estimates with deviations from the known value ranging from -8.5% to +13.7% and <0.7 standard errors. Precision varied widely, from 6.1% CV to 25.0% CV. In contrast, the pair of surveys conducted around a known management removal produced an estimated change in population between the surveys that was significantly larger than the known reduction. Although the deviation between was only 9.1%, the precision estimate (CV = 1.6%) may have been artificially low. It was apparent that use of a helicopter in those surveys perturbed the horses, introducing detection error and heterogeneity in a manner that could not be corrected by our statistical models. Our results validate the hybrid method, highlight its potentially broad applicability, identify some limitations, and provide insight and guidance

  3. Health Care Consumption during Pregnancy in relation to Maternal Body Mass Index : A Swedish Population Based Observational Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Elisabeth S.; Daniel Altman; Margareta Norman; Marie Blomberg

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess whether antenatal health care consumption is associated with maternal body mass index (BMI). Design. A register based observational study. Methods. The Swedish Medical Birth Register, the Maternal Health Care Register, and the Inpatient Register were used to determine antenatal health care consumption according to BMI categories for primiparous women with singleton pregnancies, from 2006 to 2008, n = 71,638. Pairwise comparisons among BMI groups are obtained post hoc by T...

  4. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Walter; Starczak, Victoria; Govindarajan, Annette F.; Guzman, Héctor M.; Girdhar, Yogesh; Holleman, Rusty C.; Churchill, James; Singh, Hanumant; Ralston, David K.

    2016-01-01

    A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount’s elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4–10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355–385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m) and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m2, and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects.

  5. A crab swarm at an ecological hotspot: patchiness and population density from AUV observations at a coastal, tropical seamount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jesús; Cho, Walter; Starczak, Victoria; Govindarajan, Annette F; Guzman, Héctor M; Girdhar, Yogesh; Holleman, Rusty C; Churchill, James; Singh, Hanumant; Ralston, David K

    2016-01-01

    A research cruise to Hannibal Bank, a seamount and an ecological hotspot in the coastal eastern tropical Pacific Ocean off Panama, explored the zonation, biodiversity, and the ecological processes that contribute to the seamount's elevated biomass. Here we describe the spatial structure of a benthic anomuran red crab population, using submarine video and autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) photographs. High density aggregations and a swarm of red crabs were associated with a dense turbid layer 4-10 m above the bottom. The high density aggregations were constrained to 355-385 m water depth over the Northwest flank of the seamount, although the crabs also occurred at lower densities in shallower waters (∼280 m) and in another location of the seamount. The crab aggregations occurred in hypoxic water, with oxygen levels of 0.04 ml/l. Barcoding of Hannibal red crabs, and pelagic red crabs sampled in a mass stranding event in 2015 at a beach in San Diego, California, USA, revealed that the Panamanian and the Californian crabs are likely the same species, Pleuroncodes planipes, and these findings represent an extension of the southern endrange of this species. Measurements along a 1.6 km transect revealed three high density aggregations, with the highest density up to 78 crabs/m(2), and that the crabs were patchily distributed. Crab density peaked in the middle of the patch, a density structure similar to that of swarming insects. PMID:27114859

  6. Exploring Alternative Solutions Regarding Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Studies show that no effective measures have been taken towards conservative agriculture in Iran. Social, economical and technical agricultural factors and conditions need to be provided to meet conservation agriculture at the farm, regional and national level. Accordingly, this research aimed at exploring some solutions to protect and conserve agriculture. Approach: To achieve this, of all 100 populations, included both 80 faculty members of college of agriculture at Bu-Ali-Sina University and 20 subject matter specialists in Hamedan's State Agricultural Organization, 35 people were selected based on the criterion type of purposeful sampling. Data were gathered through interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze textual data. Results: Results of this study showed that the building awareness and culture along with factors such as proper conservation agriculture practices, effective planning and management and attention to agro-ecological issues are basic factors to promote conservation agriculture in the surveyed area. Conclusions/Recommendations: Lack of awareness and knowledge of farmers and people towards conservation agriculture, no adoption of conservation agriculture by farmers and lack of education and training services for conservation agriculture were the most important issues that found in this research about conservation agriculture. Therefore, support the creating of cooperatives to provide necessary services for implementing conservation agriculture practices is definitely recommended.

  7. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kangmin

    2011-01-01

    The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agricu...

  8. Observation of excited level populations of Li-like aluminium ions in a recombining plasma: role of atomic processes involving doubly excited levels of Be-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aluminium slab target was irradiated by multiple pulses of Nd:glass laser light with the irradiance of 1.5x1012 W cm-2. After the laser irradiation, a laser-produced aluminium plasma was observed in its recombining phase using a spectrometer whose relative sensitivity was calibrated. We measured relative intensities of the resonance series lines and the lines of the 2p2P-nd2D and 2p2P-ns2S series of the Li-like aluminium ions and derived the excited level populations of the upper levels. >From the slope of the population distribution of the high-lying excited levels and the transition from the series lines to the continuum, the electron temperature and the electron density were estimated to be 8 eV and 3.5x1025 m-3. A comparison of the experimental population distribution with a collisional-radiative (CR) model calculation indicates that recombination of the excited Li-like ions through doubly excited levels of the Be-like ions plays an important role in the population kinetics of the Li-like ions. (author)

  9. Relation of glycated hemoglobin with carotid atherosclerosis in ischemic stroke patients: An observational study in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shankar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Glycated hemoglobin A 1 c (HbA 1 c indicates long-term uncontrolled hyperglycemia in the body, which in diabetic patients leads to various vascular complications as a part of generalized atherosclerosis culminating ultimately into ischemic stroke. Aims: Study aims to show the association between marker of uncontrolled long-term hyperglycemia HbA 1 c and marker of atherosclerosis (Carotid intima media thickness [CIMT] and carotid plaque in ischemic stroke patients. Subjects and Methods: Carotid sonography using high resolution 7.5 MHz sonography technique was done in each patient to find the occurrence of increased CIMT and presence of plaque according to Mannheim CIMT Consensus (2004-2006. Levels of HbA 1 c measured in blood in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients and a comparison made between them. Finally an association sought between HbA 1 c levels with CIMT and plaque. Results: The average value of HbA 1 c of this cohort was 7.51 ± 1.75% with higher values in diabetic patients (9.29 ± 1.73%. The patients with high CIMT (>0.8 mm had higher values of HbA 1 c then that of normal CIMT patients and this was nearly significantly (P = 0.06. However, HbA 1 c levels of blood were significantly associated with stroke patients with presence of carotid arteries plaque (P = 0.008. Conclusions: Prediction of future risk and prevention strategies for ischemic stroke could be formulated by utilizing HbA 1 c levels in both diabetic and non-diabetic population.

  10. Two Populations of Old Star Clusters in the Spiral Galaxy M101 Based on HST/ACS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Simanton, Lesley A; Whitmore, Bradley C

    2015-01-01

    We present a new photometric catalog of 326 candidate globular clusters (GCs) in the nearby spiral galaxy M101, selected from B, V, and I Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images. The luminosity function (LF) of these clusters has an unusually large number of faint sources compared with GCLFs in many other spiral galaxies. Accordingly, we separate and compare the properties of "bright" (M_V -6.5; one magnitude fainter than the expected GC peak) clusters within our sample. The LF of the bright clusters is well fit by a peaked distribution similar to those observed in the Milky Way (MW) and other galaxies. These bright clusters also have similar size (r_{eff}) and spatial distributions as MW GCs. The LF of the faint clusters, on the other hand, is well described by a power law, dN(L_V)/dL_V proportional to L_V^alpha with alpha = -2.6 plus or minus 0.3, similar to those observed for young and intermediate-age cluster systems in star forming galaxies. We find that the faint clusters have larger ...

  11. [Agriculture and food in the Algerian reforms: a place for the farmers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulet, C

    1991-01-01

    Available documents, legal texts, press reports, and some contemporary observations and studies are used to assess aspects of Algeria's drive to reform agriculture and food distribution. Algeria, like many other countries, is striving to replace a centralized agricultural and food distribution system with a greater responsiveness to market conditions. This document examines the climatic and physical constraints on agriculture in Algeria, the government role in agriculture and food distribution since independence, the various groups involved in agricultural policy making and production, and recent changes in agricultural policy and development strategies. Lack of cultivable land, a semiarid climate with marked annual variations in rainfall, soil exhaustion and erosion, and competition for land and water from industry and the growing urban population are among the problems besetting agricultural production. Partial collectivization after independence led to progressive development of 2 parallel agricultural systems, a state portion relying ever more heavily on importation of basic foodstuffs to feed a rapidly growing population, and a private or informal sector outside state control and of unknown size that supplied fruits, vegetables and other nonstaples at market rates. The public sector agriculture was not able to become profitable because of the political functions it was required to fill. At the moment of its proposed agricultural reforms, Algeria has neither a solid agricultural base nor a population resigned to inequality. State intervention in food acquisition and distribution has, according to nutritional surveys, resulted in an improved nutritional status almost everywhere in Algeria. Consumers have become an important pressure group. Other groups whose interest would be affected by a new agricultural policy include diverse groups of agricultural producers ranging from salaried workers on large properties to peasants working family holdings, potential

  12. Metrics for Local Community Planning and Evaluation: The Case for Observational Measurement of High Risk Rural Sub-Populations in Occupant Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Davidson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study is to examine the relevance of non-specific safety belt use data for interventions to rural teens and to pilot a data collection project to provide more specific data to traffic safety stakeholders and educators in rural areas.Methods: Twelve high schools in Southeast Georgia were used for observed safety belt data collection over a 16 month period. Observational surveys were conducted at the entrance to student parking lots of the studied schools in the morning or afternoon. Observers were trained and survey methods were standardized to maintain comparability between results.Results: Observational surveys revealed a safety belt usage rate of 38.6% among high schools teens at the studied high schools. Safety belt usage rates ranged from 9.5% to 66.9%. Observed safety belt use for female vehicle occupants was 48.4% compared to 35.6% for males.Conclusion: The observational survey results from this study support research showing that rural teens have lower safety belt usage rates than adults or urban teens. Despite efforts to target rural areas, programs must specifically target sub populations, especially rural male teens, in order to hold any traction. Because of the wide gap between measured safety belt use in rural Georgia (79.9% and the studied rural high schools (38.6%, local program planners must assess actual safety belt usage in their high risk rural teen population in order to use accurate metrics for intervention and education efforts. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(4:380-383.

  13. Climate change - Agricultural land use - Food security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn

    2015-04-01

    In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate

  14. Observations préliminaires sur les populations de truite de mer (Salmo trutta L. en Basse-Normandie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RICHARD A.

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available 1 439 truites de mer (Salmo trutta L. adultes ont été capturées par pêche électrique et à la ligne sur les bassins de l'Orne, de la Dives et de la Touques, dans le département du Calvados, de Septembre 1979 à Janvier 1981. Les caractéristiques de 819 poissons ont été étudiées : • La taille varie de 265 à 850 mm pour une moyenne de 516 mm, le poids s'échelonnant de 185 à 7500 g pour une moyenne de 1650 g. • Les truites de mer de l'Orne sont plus grosses (659 mm que celles de la Touques (511 mm et de la Dives (508 mm. • Les poissons sont âgés de un et deux ans d'eau douce, cette dernière classe d'âge étant majoritaire (65 %. En moyenne, les jeunes truites de mer de l'Orne restent un an en rivière, celles de la Dives et de la Touques deux ans. • L'âge de mer total varie de quelques mois (0+ à près de 6 ans (V+ et plusieurs types de truite de mer sont définis selon leur âge de mer à la première remontée : — 0+ de mer (type dominant sur la Touques et la Dives — I+ de mer { (types dominants sur l'Orne — II+ de mer • La croissance est donc moyenne pour les truites de mer de la Touques et de la Dives en raison du retour précoce en rivière et des fraies successives. Sur l'Orne, la croissance est forte et comparable à celle du saumon atlantique Salmo salar L. Ces premières caractéristiques sont comparées à celles des populations de truite de mer étudiées dans d'autres pays.

  15. Involvement in emergency situations by primary care doctors on-call in Norway - a prospective population-based observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunskaar Steinar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care doctors on-call in the emergency primary health care services in Norway are, together with the ambulances, the primary resources for handling emergencies outside hospitals. There is a lack of reliable data for Norway on how often the primary care doctors are alerted and on their responses in the most urgent emergency cases. The aim of this study was to investigate how doctors on-call are involved in red responses (highest priority, using three different emergency medical communication centres (EMCC as catchment area for a prospective population-based study. Methods In the period from October to December 2007 three dispatch centres covering approximately 816 000 inhabitants prospectively recorded all acute emergency cases. Ambulance records, air ambulance records and records from the doctors on-call were collected. NACA score was used to define the severity of the emergencies. Results 5 105 cases were classified as red responses during the period. We have complete basic recordings (AMIS forms from all and resaved ambulance records, air ambulance records and records from doctors on-call in 89% of the cases. Ambulances were alerted in 96% and doctors on-call in 47% of the cases, but there were large differences between the three EMCCs. Doctors on-call responded with call-out in 42% of the alerted cases. 28% of all patients were taken to a casualty clinic, 46% were admitted to hospital by a doctor and 24% were taken directly to hospital by ambulances. In total, primary care doctors on-call took active part in 42% of all red response cases, and together with GPs' daytime activity the primary health care services were involved in 50% of the cases. 29% of the cases were classified as life-threatening. Call-out by doctors on-call were found to be more frequent in life-threatening situations compared with not life-threatening situations. Conclusion Doctors on-call and GPs on daytime were involved in half of all red

  16. Local knowledge of agriculture / environmental symbioses

    OpenAIRE

    Siedenburg, Jules Renaldo; Dr Judith U. Heyer, Professor Deryke Belshaw

    2004-01-01

    In rural districts of Sub-Saharan Africa, livelihoods typically centre around peasant agriculture and herding. While historically effective, changing resource constraints associated with rapid population growth and resource degradation have put these livelihoods under strain. Dramatic shifts over recent years in agricultural policy and the prices of agricultural inputs and outputs have not helped. Together, such changes arguably amount to a set of destabilising influences and a r...

  17. Risk management in agricultural water use

    OpenAIRE

    Tychon, Bernard; Balaghi, Riad; Jlibene, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    Water availability for agricultural activities will decrease in the twenty-first century. As a consequence, agricultural water management will have to improve in order to meet two challenges: satisfy the needs of an increasing world population; and alleviate the climate change impacts. One way to improve agricultural water management consists of including the ‘risk’ notion as much as possible at the different decision levels of: farmers, farmer corporations and states or associations of st...

  18. The image of Agriculture in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Moreira; Ana Côrte-Real; Paulo Lencastre

    2010-01-01

    Presently the brand concept can range from personal brand to country or continent brand. We therefore consider that studying a sector of the economy, in this case Agriculture, according to the brand concept would be an added value. Agriculture is a key sector in any economy. Its main function is to guarantee food supply for the population, but it is also important its part on territory order and environment protection. Starting from the importance Agriculture has in any country, we wanted to ...

  19. EMPLOYMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ramanaidu

    2015-01-01

    Human resources in an economy constitute a Hsignificant input in the production process of goods and services. The study of human resources their quality and problems is of immense use in manpower planning in both developing as well as developed economies. The agriculture is the major sector of Indian economy. Most of the population is depending upon agriculture which is contributing about half of the national income in the country. The agricultural labour constitutes an overwhelmingly pre...

  20. Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Rodent Control Using

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Iddo; Motro, Yoav; Horvitz, Nir; Kimhi, Ayal; Leshem, Yossi; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Nathan, Ran

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We develop an empirical framework for evaluating the profitability of the use of barn owls to control rodent populations by locating nesting boxes in agricultural areas. Barn owls’ behavior is incorporated into the analysis by estimated functions that relate agricultural production to the birds’ spatial patterns of hunting and nesting choices. The model was developed based on agricultural and zoological data collected in a kibbutz in northern Israel. Focusing on alfalfa, the presence...

  1. Ethiopian agriculture: A dynamic geographic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlin, Jordan; Schmidt, Emily

    2011-01-01

    The opportunities and constraints facing Ethiopian agriculture are strongly influenced by conditions which vary across geographical space. These conditions include basic agricultural production potentials, access to input and output markets, and local population densities which represent both labor availability and local demand for food. Understanding the geographical expression of these factors is an important way of making sense of Ethiopia’s agricultural and rural development options and f...

  2. Sustainable Agriculture: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Provides some background on concerns about the sustainability of agriculture, outlines and discusses views about what constitutes sustainable agriculture and contrasts the sustainability of modern industrialised agriculture with that of traditional agriculture. Then the question is considered (taking into account the available evidence) whether organic agriculture is more sustainable than non-organic agriculture. Barriers to switching from non-organic to organic agriculture are mentioned. The...

  3. ATTITUDES OF MALAYSIAN EXTENSION WORKERS TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Neda Tiraieyari; Azimi Hamzah; Bahaman Abu Samah; Jegak Uli

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of producing enough food for growing population increasingly affected Malaysian agricultural sector. Intensive farming system and increase in fertilizer used by farmers has led the agricultural sector to some environmental damage. The Department of Agriculture (DOA) has earmarked Sustainable Agricultural Practices (SAP) to transfer unsustainable agriculture into a sustainable manner. The SAP should be transferred by extension workers to the farmers. However little is known about...

  4. St Vincent Youth and Careers in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Nicole; Ganpat, Wayne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Given the ageing farming population in the Caribbean and the importance of agriculture to economy, there is cause for concern about the future of farming. This study seeks to explore the extent to which students pursuing agriculture in secondary schools in St Vincent and the Grenadines (SVG) were likely to engage in farming as well as…

  5. Observational and genetic plasma YKL-40 and cancer in 96,099 individuals from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, Alisa D; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Johansen, Julia S;

    2015-01-01

    Plasma YKL-40 is high in patients with cancer and in individuals who later develop cancer. Whether YKL-40 is only a marker or indeed a cause of cancer is presently unknown. We tested the hypothesis that observationally and genetically, high plasma YKL-40 is associated with high risk of cancer. For...... cancer, 913 developed lung cancer, 2,863 women developed breast cancer, 1,557 men developed prostate cancer and 5,146 individuals developed other cancer. Follow-up was 100% complete. Multifactorially and CRP adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for gastrointestinal cancer was 1.82 (95%CI, 1.16-2.86) for 96......-100% versus 0-33% YKL-40 percentile category. Corresponding HR were 1.71 (0.95-3.07) for lung cancer, but insignificant for breast cancer, prostate cancer and other cancers. CHI3L1 rs4950928 genotype was associated with plasmaYKL-40 levels, but not with risk of any cancer category. For gastrointestinal cancer...

  6. IASI observations of seasonal and day-to-day variations of tropospheric ozone over three highly populated areas of China: Beijing, Shanghai, and Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, G.; Eremenko, M.; Orphal, J.; Flaud, J.-M.

    2010-04-01

    IASI observations of tropospheric ozone over the Beijing, Shanghai and Hong Kong areas during one year (2008) have been analysed, demonstrating the capability of space-borne infrared nadir measurements to probe seasonal and even day-to-day variations of lower tropospheric ozone (0-6 km partial columns) on the regional scale of highly populated areas. The monthly variations of lower tropospheric ozone retrieved from IASI clearly show the influence of the Asian summer monsoon that brings clean air masses from the Pacific during summer. They exhibit indeed a sharp ozone maximum in late spring and early summer (May-June) followed by a summer minimum. The time periods and the intensities of the maxima and of the decreases are latitude-dependent: they are more pronounced in Hong Kong and Shanghai than in Beijing. Moreover, IASI provides the opportunity to follow the spatial variations of ozone over the surroundings of each megacity as well as its daily variability. We show here that the large lower tropospheric ozone amounts (0-6 km partial columns) observed with IASI are mainly downwind the highest populated areas in each region, thus possibly suggesting the anthropogenic origin of the large ozone amounts observed. Finally, an analysis of the mean ozone profiles over each region - for selected days with high ozone events - in association with the analysis of the meteorological situation shows that the high ozone amounts observed during winter are likely related to descents of ozone-rich air from the stratosphere, whereas in spring and summer the tropospheric ozone is likely enhanced by photochemical production in polluted areas and/or in air masses from fire plumes.

  7. Health effects from low-frequency noise and infrasound in the general population: Is it time to listen? A systematic review of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; van Poll, Ric; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-07-01

    A systematic review of observational studies was conducted to assess the association between everyday life low-frequency noise (LFN) components, including infrasound and health effects in the general population. Literature databases Pubmed, Embase and PsycInfo and additional bibliographic sources such as reference sections of key publications and journal databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published from 2000 to 2015. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of them examined subjective annoyance as primary outcome. The adequacy of provided information in the included papers and methodological quality of studies was also addressed. Moreover, studies were screened for meta-analysis eligibility. Some associations were observed between exposure to LFN and annoyance, sleep-related problems, concentration difficulties and headache in the adult population living in the vicinity of a range of LFN sources. However, evidence, especially in relation to chronic medical conditions, was very limited. The estimated pooled prevalence of high subjective annoyance attributed to LFN was about 10%. Epidemiological research on LFN and health effects is scarce and suffers from methodological shortcomings. Low frequency noise in the everyday environment constitutes an issue that requires more research attention, particularly for people living in the vicinity of relevant sources. PMID:26994804

  8. PRIMUS: AN OBSERVATIONALLY MOTIVATED MODEL TO CONNECT THE EVOLUTION OF THE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AND GALAXY POPULATIONS OUT TO z ∼ 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an observationally motivated model to connect the active galactic nucleus (AGN) and galaxy populations at 0.2 1 ≈ –0.65 and an overall normalization that evolves with redshift. We test several simple assumptions to extend this model to high specific accretion rates (beyond the measurements) and compare the predictions for the XLF with the observed data. We find good agreement with a model that allows for a break in the specific accretion rate distribution at a point corresponding to the Eddington limit, a steep power-law tail to super-Eddington ratios with slope γ2=-2.1+0.3-0.5, and a scatter of 0.38 dex in the scaling between black hole and host stellar mass. Our results show that samples of low luminosity AGNs are dominated by moderately massive galaxies (M* ∼ 1010-1011 M☉) growing with a wide range of accretion rates due to the shape of the galaxy stellar mass function rather than a preference for AGN activity at a particular stellar mass. Luminous AGNs may be a severely skewed population with elevated black hole masses relative to their host galaxies and in rare phases of rapid accretion

  9. Applications of radioisotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India has large population which is engaged in agriculture or related activities. With many agro-climatic zones, diversity in crops and traditional largely plant food based diets, there is need to meet these and increase agricultural production in the face of increasing constraints. Radiations and radioisotopes can contribute significantly to these developments. Mutation breeding is very useful technique in Indian context. Basic technique can be applied where a radiation source or irradiation service and facility to grow few thousand plants are available. Radiation processing can save the valuable food which is subject to spoilage by microbes and insects. Value addition by export is possible by meeting the quarantine and hygienisation conditions

  10. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  11. Population crises and population cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  12. biotechnology: a tool for innovation sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed 9.6 billion people, according to UN projections, will populate the planet in 2050. This is the challenge that agriculture is called to deal and that will be one of the themes supporting the EXPO 2015. The answer to food needs of a population growing, in particular in In developing countries, it will certainly not be unique, but the road seems marked: it is that of an intensification sustainable agriculture, supported by innovation and research, able to enhance agricultural yields without adding to the budget input necessary for the production (energy, earth, water).

  13. Agricultural Statistics of Egypt, 1970-84

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, George R.; Parker, John B.

    1985-01-01

    Egypt is one of the world's largest foad importers, annually consuming over $4 billion worth of imported agricultural commodities to feed a population of 48 million. The import bill is growing rapidly as population and consumption ~rowth rates exceed that of agricultural production. Egypt was the 10th largest market for U.S. agricultural exports in 1984. The U.S. market share is about 25 percent, with wheat, wheat flour, and corn making up the bulk of the shipments. This report consists of 90...

  14. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  15. Food Security Through Earth Observation

    OpenAIRE

    Justice, C.; Bingfang, W.; Kosuth, P.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, agricultural ministers from the world’s leading economies agreed to the G-20 “Action Plan on Food Price Volatility and Agriculture,” which launched the "Global Agricultural Geo-Monitoring Initiative" (GEO-GLAM), to improve global monitoring of agricultural production and food security using Earth observation, led by the Group on Earth Observations (GEO). This GEO-GLAM initiative will build on the current GEO Agricultural Monitoring Task, providing enhancements ...

  16. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  17. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  18. Field observations of the effects of protracted low levels of ionizing radiation on natural aquatic population by using a cytogenetic tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present study, an effort is attempted to record the impact of chronic radiation on natural aquatic populations exposed to protracted doses (lower if compared to intervention levels but higher if compared to typical background) and to chemical pollution. The methodology is based on the analyses of chromosome aberrations observed in cells. Therefore, some preliminary research results on the cytogenetic effects on aquatic organisms of various taxa, in coastal ecosystems are presented, considering some selective regions of elevated natural gamma radiation and conventional pollution. These areas are the geothermal spring areas in the island of Ikaria--Eastern Aegean Sea and the port of Pireus, in Greece. The data are compared to the findings recorded in some organisms collected from the North Aegean Sea the early period after the Chernobyl accident. With regard to the different species examined, a first evaluation of the results is made using the reported field findings for the wide area of Chernobyl. The environmental assessment of the studied areas in terms of radiation impact is based on the cytogenetic injuries observed, and evidence of ecosystem disturbance is also pointed out. The final environmental assessment based on the quantified effects observed in the organisms from the studied areas takes into account a published conceptual model of zones of radiation dose rates and the resulting organism responses in a step function scale

  19. MAIN NATURAL RESOURCES SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion, SCURTU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the process of agricultural production we are using natural resources, human resources and capital. Responsible management of natural resources will allow the development of sustainable agriculture with the possibility of agricultural products to satisfy both quantitatively and qualitatively food requirements of the population. Natural resources that are irreplaceable in agricultural production are soil and water and now must be taken global measures for slowing and stopping global warming and climate change, which could jeopardize the attainment of agricultural production. In the paper reference is made to the quality of agricultural soils of Romania, the existence of water resources and measures to be taken to preserve soil fertility and combating drought.

  20. Discovery of the Pre-Main Sequence Population of the Stellar Association LH 95 in the Large Magellanic Cloud with Hubble Space Telescope ACS Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Gouliermis, Dimitrios A; Brandner, Wolfgang; Dolphin, Andrew E; Rosa, Michael; Brandl, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    We report the discovery of an extraordinary number of pre-main sequence (PMS) stars in the vicinity of the stellar association LH 95 in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Using the {\\em Advanced Camera for Surveys} on-board the {\\em Hubble} Space Telescope in wide-field mode we obtained deep high-resolution imaging of the main body of the association and of a nearby representative LMC background field. These observations allowed us to construct the color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of the association in unprecedented detail, and to decontaminate the CMD for the average LMC stellar population. The most significant result is the direct detection of a substantial population of PMS stars and their clustering properties with respect to the distribution of the higher mass members of the association. Although LH 95 represents a rather modest star forming region, our photometry, with a detection limit $V$ \\lsim 28 mag, reveals in its vicinity more than 2,500 PMS stars with masses down to $\\sim 0.3$ M{\\solar}. Our observat...

  1. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  2. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  3. Transforming Vietnamese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, Vietnam’s agricultural sector has made enormous progress. Vietnam’s performance in terms of agricultural yields, output, and exports, however, has been more impressive than its gains in efficiency, farmer welfare, and product quality. Vietnamese agriculture now sits at a turning point. The agricultural sector now faces growing domestic competition - from cities, ...

  4. Radio Detection Prospects for a Bulge Population of Millisecond Pulsars as Suggested by Fermi-LAT Observations of the Inner Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calore, F.; Di Mauro, M.; Donato, F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Weniger, C.

    2016-08-01

    The dense stellar environment of the Galactic center has been proposed to host a large population of as-yet undetected millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recently, this hypothesis has found support in an analysis of gamma-rays detected using the Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi satellite, which revealed an excess of diffuse GeV photons in the inner 15 deg about the Galactic center. The excess can be interpreted as the collective emission of thousands of MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with a spherical distribution strongly peaked toward the Galactic center. In order to fully establish the MSP interpretation, it is essential to find corroborating evidence in multi-wavelength searches, most notably through the detection of radio pulsations from individual bulge MSPs. Based on globular cluster observations and gamma-ray emission from the inner Galaxy, we investigate the prospects for detecting MSPs in the Galactic bulge. While previous pulsar surveys failed to identify this population, we demonstrate that upcoming large-area surveys of this region should lead to the detection of dozens of bulge MSPs. Additionally, we show that deep targeted searches of unassociated Fermi sources should be able to detect the first few MSPs in the bulge. The prospects for these deep searches are enhanced by a tentative gamma-ray/radio correlation that we infer from high-latitude gamma-ray MSPs. Such detections would constitute the first clear discoveries of field MSPs in the Galactic bulge, with far-reaching implications for gamma-ray observations, the formation history of the central Milky Way, and strategy optimization for future deep radio pulsar surveys.

  5. Does lumbar spinal degeneration begin with the anterior structures? A study of the observed epidemiology in a community-based population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarvik Jeffrey G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background- Prior studies that have concluded that disk degeneration uniformly precedes facet degeneration have been based on convenience samples of individuals with low back pain. We conducted a study to examine whether the view that spinal degeneration begins with the anterior spinal structures is supported by epidemiologic observations of degeneration in a community-based population. Methods- 361 participants from the Framingham Heart Study were included in this study. The prevalences of anterior vertebral structure degeneration (disk height loss and posterior vertebral structure degeneration (facet joint osteoarthritis were characterized by CT imaging. The cohort was divided into the structural subgroups of participants with 1 no degeneration, 2 isolated anterior degeneration (without posterior degeneration, 3 combined anterior and posterior degeneration, and 4 isolated posterior degeneration (without anterior structure degeneration. We determined the prevalence of each degeneration pattern by age group Results- As the prevalence of the no degeneration and isolated anterior degeneration patterns decreased with increasing age group, the prevalence of the combined anterior/posterior degeneration pattern increased. 22% of individuals demonstrated isolated posterior degeneration, without an increase in prevalence by age group. Isolated posterior degeneration was most common at the L5-S1 and L4-L5 spinal levels. In multivariate analyses, disk height loss was independently associated with facet joint osteoarthritis, as were increased age (years, female sex, and increased BMI (kg/m2, but not smoking. Conclusions- The observed epidemiology of lumbar spinal degeneration in the community-based population is consistent with an ordered progression beginning in the anterior structures, for the majority of individuals. However, some individuals demonstrate atypical patterns of degeneration, beginning in the posterior joints. Increased age and BMI

  6. AGRICULTURE: ESSENTIAL TO MINNESOTA'S ECONOMY AND ITS REGIONS AND COMMUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Maki, Wilbur R.; Stenberg, Peter L.; del Ninno, Carlo

    1981-01-01

    This report presents local data and related discussion on the economic importance of agriculture and agriculture-related industries in Minnesota. Statistical findings show the contribution of agriculture to Minnesota's economic base and to changes in employment, income, and population in the state and its substate regions and counties.

  7. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M. M.; H.T. van Velthuizen

    2002-01-01

    The challenge of agriculture in the 21st century requires a systemic integration of the environmental, social and economic pillars of development to meet the needs of present generations without sacrificing the livelihoods of future generations. Over the next 50 years, the world population is projected to increase by some 3 billion, primarily in the developing countries. Yet, even today, some 800 million people go hungry daily, and more than a billion live on less than a dollar a day. This fo...

  8. Perception of Teachers of Agriculture about Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) in Secondary Schools in Ekiti and Ondo States Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famiwole, Remi O.; Kolawole, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the perception of teachers of agriculture about Supervised Agricultural Experience Programmes (SAEP) in secondary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States. The population used for the study consisted of 520 teachers of agricultural science in all the secondary schools in Ekiti and Ondo States. The sample used for this study was 136…

  9. National workshop on population education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, M

    1979-01-01

    The First National Workshop on Population Education was held from 16 to 18 November 1978, involving principals and instructors in extension education of all the eight agricultural extension training institutes, regional directors of agriculture, some district extension officers and representatives from voluntary agencies involved in population education. The object of the Workshop was to discuss and modify the materials prepared for the introduction of the concept of population education in agricultural training institutes. Some materials were also adopted for training purposes of village extension agents. The World Bank project of the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for introducing in Bangladesh the concept of population education to pre-service, village-level extension workers in the various agricultural extension institutes, and the first project to recruit female extension workers for service in rural areas. PMID:12309487

  10. AGRICULTURE AND ITS PLACE IN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF UZBEKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilorom Tadjibaeva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the share of agriculture in GDP in Uzbekistan, the country can be allocated to a group of countries with a transitional type of economy that proceeds from agriculture to urbanization. At the same time specific local features exist. In Uzbekistan, about 65% of the population live in rural areas and currently about 3 million people are employed in agriculture. Although the trend shows a decline in the share of agriculture in gross domestic product, the number of people employed in agriculture has comparably slowly reduced. Agriculture's share of investment is only about 3-4% of the total amount of a fixed capital.

  11. Effective Factors in Achieving Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Sharghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The indiscriminate use of chemical inputs led to severe degradation of resources in Iran. Therefore, considering the increasing population and growing demand of agricultural products, it seems necessary to achieve a sustainable agriculture. In this study, sustainable agriculture refers to a kind of agriculture which is ecologically appropriate, economically justifiable, and socially desirable. Approach: There were two objectives for this study .The first objective of this study was to identify the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. The second objective was to categorize the effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture. In this study the Delphi technique has been used. Sustainable agriculture expert researchers of statistical and related issues were 56 scholars selected from the experts in the research centers of Tehran and Yazd provinces. The instruments used in data collection were three series of questionnaires sent to the researchers via email, fax and mail. Results: Findings have shown that the researchers have identified effective factors in achieving sustainable agriculture in Iran as the sections of Infrastructure, policy-making, economy, society, participation, research, extension and education. From the 35 factors exposed to the researchers, the factors of attainment of researches related to sustainable agriculture by agricultural research institutions in Iran, Interaction and participation of researchers, extension educators, farmers and policy-makers of sustainable agriculture, attempt to give priority to those who are the most appropriate from the standpoint of practically creating interactive, logical as well as flexible planning system between different sections dealing with sustainable agriculture have gained the agreement of 100% researchers. Conclusion: The important conclusion is that the communication between extension, farmers and policymaker should be strengthened. So

  12. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar B.

    2014-01-01

    In India, half of the world's labour force is in agriculture and an estimated 1.3 billion workers are engaged in agricultural production world wide. The share of the agricultural labour force in the very economically active population is under 10 per cent in the developed countries and accounts for 59 per cent of workers in the less developed regions (International Labour Conference (ILC) 2000). Compared to workers in other sectors, agricultural workers are under protected...

  13. Promoting Organizational Entrepreneurship in Iran: Evidences from Agricultural Extension Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Naderi; Nematollah Shiri; Mojgan Khoshmaram; Masoud Ramezani

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the role of Knowledge Management (KM) in Organizational Entrepreneurship (OE) among agriculture extension workers at Kermanshah Township, Iran. The statistical population in this study consisted of all agriculture extension workers of Jihad-e-Agriculture management and centers of agricultural services at Kermanshah Township (N=143), of whom 129 were available and provided data for this study. The main instrument in this st...

  14. A Strategic Agricultural Sector and Food Security Diagnostic for Myanmar.

    OpenAIRE

    Haggblade, Steven; Boughton, Duncan

    2013-01-01

    Despite its enormous potential, Myanmar’s agriculture has underperformed over the past fifty years. Today, per capita earnings in agriculture average roughly $200 a year, one-half to one-third of the levels achieved by its regional peers. Given that two-thirds of the population works primarily in agriculture, low farm productivity translates into high rates of poverty and food insecurity. Currently, about one quarter of the population falls below the national poverty line. As a result, in spi...

  15. The clinical assessment study of the foot (CASF: study protocol for a prospective observational study of foot pain and foot osteoarthritis in the general population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menz Hylton B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA affects approximately 10% of adults aged over 60 years. The foot joint complex is commonly affected by OA, yet there is relatively little research into OA of the foot, compared with other frequently affected sites such as the knee and hand. Existing epidemiological studies of foot OA have focussed predominantly on the first metatarsophalangeal joint at the expense of other joints. This three-year prospective population-based observational cohort study will describe the prevalence of symptomatic radiographic foot OA, relate its occurrence to symptoms, examination findings and life-style-factors, describe the natural history of foot OA, and examine how it presents to, and is diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods All adults aged 50 years and over registered with four general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, will be invited to participate in a postal Health Survey questionnaire. Respondents to the questionnaire who indicate that they have experienced foot pain in the preceding twelve months will be invited to attend a research clinic for a detailed clinical assessment. This assessment will consist of: clinical interview; physical examination; digital photography of both feet and ankles; plain x-rays of both feet, ankles and hands; ultrasound examination of the plantar fascia; anthropometric measurement; and a further self-complete questionnaire. Follow-up will be undertaken in consenting participants by postal questionnaire at 18 months (clinic attenders only and three years (clinic attenders and survey participants, and also by review of medical records. Discussion This three-year prospective epidemiological study will combine survey data, comprehensive clinical, x-ray and ultrasound assessment, and review of primary care records to identify radiographic phenotypes of foot OA in a population of community-dwelling older adults, and describe their impact on symptoms, function and

  16. IPSAS AGRICULTURE – PROBLEMS OF A START

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Agriculture theme raises a lot of problems fom the point of view of its reflection in the public sector accounting. In this context, at international level, there was need for a separate international regulation on this topic. According to IAS 41 Agriculture, a project has been subject to public debate – Exposure Draft (ED) 36 Agriculture, by whose modeling based on subscribed observations and proposals, to be able to build an international standardfor public sector on the topic of agricu...

  17. IPSAS Agriculture – Problems of a Start

    OpenAIRE

    Nistor Cristina Silvia; Cozma Ighian Diana

    2010-01-01

    The Agriculture theme raises a lot of problems from the point of view of its reflection in the public sector accounting. In this context, at international level, there was need for a separate international regulation on this topic. According to IAS 41 Agriculture, a project has been subject to public debate – Exposure Draft (ED) 36 Agriculture, by whose modeling based on subscribed observations and proposals, to be able to build an international standard for public sector on the topic of agri...

  18. AN ANALYSIS OF CURRENT PROBLEMS IN CHINA'S AGRICULTURE DEVELOPMENT: AGRICULTURE, RURAL AREAS AND FARMERS

    OpenAIRE

    Quan, Yongxin; Liu, Zeng-Rung

    2002-01-01

    China is the most populous country in the world. Of its 1.3 billion people, 22% of the world population, about 67% are living in rural areas. Although China is the third largest country in terms of area, the arable land is only 7% of the global amount. With relatively meager endowment, it is undoubtedly a daunting task for the agricultural sector to provide adequate supply to fulfil huge needs for food and other agricultural products. In addition, agriculture development in China confronts wi...

  19. Water and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Klohn

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of water resources causes concern, especially with reference to agriculture-related applications. Such scarcity is not due to hydrological reasons, but goes back to the dynamics of human society and the way in which the resource is used. Thisarticle emphasizes the basic facts of this dynamic. For instance, while total quantity of water available yearly on our planet has not changed significantly, the human population has increased greatly –consequently, the quantity of water available per person is inferior.Natural disasters multiply themselves and have a greater resonance, perhaps helped by a climatic change, and their impact on society is dramatic. The human beings affected by disasters are generally not only the poorest, but are constrained to living on steep hills,along river beds that easily flood, and in arid regions of scarce productive potential. Beyond this, the volume of water appropriated in one way or another for human use is already considerable and the rhythm of water appropriation cannot be extended towards the future. Irrigation for agriculture itself amounts to about 70% of all water extraction. Our civilization, capable of exploring the solar system, has the technological solutions to the water problems, but the levels of costs and of the necessary social organization for their application make these solutions available only to the richest societies. The technical, economic and social solutions to overcome the water global crisis exist, but their application requires the existence of a political will, and, in many cases, of international cooperation. At present, such political will appears hesitant, and multilateral international cooperation is undergoing a deep crisis. It is necessary for a public opinion to be formed on these topics so that it can find expression at a political level.

  20. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  1. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention in...... agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... given by means of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both...

  2. Agricultural science policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Technological advances developed through R&D have supplied the world with not only more food, but better food. This report looks at issues raised by this changing environment for agricultural productivity, agricultural R&D, and natural resource management.

  3. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  4. Factors associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy in older people with intellectual disability differ from the general population: a cross-sectional observational nationwide study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Máire; Peklar, Jure; McCallion, Philip; McCarron, Mary; Henman, Martin C

    2016-01-01

    Objectives (1) To evaluate the prevalence of polypharmacy (5–9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ medicines) and (2) to determine associated demographic and clinical characteristics in an ageing population with intellectual disabilities (IDs). Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Wave One (2009/2010) of the Intellectual Disability Supplement to the Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (IDS-TILDA). Participants A nationally representative sample of 753 persons with ID, aged between 41 and 90 years. Participants/proxy reported medicines (prescription and over the counter) taken on a regular basis; medication data was available for 736 participants (98%). Main outcome measures/interventions Participants were divided into those with no polypharmacy (0–4 medicines), polypharmacy (5–9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (10+ medicines). Medication use patterns were analysed according to demographic variables and reported chronic conditions. A multinomial logistic regression model identified factors associated with polypharmacy (5–9 medicines) and excessive polypharmacy (≥10 medicines). Results Overall, 90% of participants reported use of medicines. Polypharmacy was observed in 31.5% of participants and excessive polypharmacy in 20.1%. Living in a residential institution, and reporting a mental health or neurological condition were strongly associated with polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy after adjusting for confounders, but age or gender had no significant effect. Conclusions Polypharmacy was commonplace for older adults with ID and may be partly explained by the high prevalence of multimorbidity reported. Review of appropriateness of medication use is essential, as polypharmacy places ageing people with ID at risk of adverse effects. PMID:27044582

  5. Rural Roads and Agricultural Development in Swaziland

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay A. K.; Mukole Kongolo

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the importance of managing and maintaining the quality of rural roads to support agricultural and rural development in the Kingdom of Swaziland, to facilitate the distribution of agricultural products and its accessibility to the population. A structured questionnaire survey was used to collect both secondary and primary data sources, to fill the key information gaps through random sampling method. The data collected were tabulated and analysed throu...

  6. Agricultural exit problems: Causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Headey, Derek; Bezemer, Dirk; Hazell, Peter B.

    2008-01-01

    "Contrary to conventional economic theories, the relationship between income growth and the share of the population within the rural or agricultural sector is extremely diverse, even among regions starting from similar levels of development, such as Asia and Africa. The pattern in developing Asia is characterized by fast growth and slow urbanization, primarily as the result of labor-intensive agricultural growth and strong farm–nonfarm linkages. But for all its success to date, Asia appears t...

  7. Organic Agriculture - Driving Innovations in Crop Research

    OpenAIRE

    Forster, Dionys; Adamtey, Noah; Messmer, Monika M.; Pfiffner, Lukas; Baker, Brian; Huber, Beate; Niggli, Urs

    2012-01-01

    At present, agriculture faces the unprecedented challenge of securing food supplies for a rapidly growing human population, while seeking to minimize adverse impacts on the environment and to reduce the use of non-renewable resources and energy. A shift towards sustainable agricultural production entails the adoption of more system-oriented strategies that include farmderived inputs and productivity based on ecological processes and functions (Garnett and Godfray, 2012). Sustainable agricultu...

  8. DIRECTIONS AND CHALLENGES IN GLOBAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of global agricultural market has been at the forefront of professional studies. Expert opinions have quite differing views as to whether the world’s food production will be able to supply the huge demand of growing population. This scientific paper provides a general overview of global agricultural directions, including views on whether agricultural productivity increases will be able to keep with food demand increases and price trends. The scientific paper has focused on the present state of the agricultural market and on the analysis of the key factors defining the tasks of the agricultural sector in the near future, with a special attention to the case of Republic of Moldova.

  9. Machine vision in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for t...

  10. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Samborski; Dariusz Gozdowski

    2007-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM). Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing yield monitors. Because...

  11. Agricultural conversion without external water and nutrient inputs reduces terrestrial vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. Kolby; Cleveland, Cory C.; Reed, Sasha C.; Running, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    Driven by global population and standard of living increases, humanity co-opts a growing share of the planet's natural resources resulting in many well-known environmental trade-offs. In this study, we explored the impact of agriculture on a resource fundamental to life on Earth: terrestrial vegetation growth (net primary production; NPP). We demonstrate that agricultural conversion has reduced terrestrial NPP by ~7.0%. Increases in NPP due to agricultural conversion were observed only in areas receiving external inputs (i.e., irrigation and/or fertilization). NPP reductions were found for ~88% of agricultural lands, with the largest reductions observed in areas formerly occupied by tropical forests and savannas (~71% and ~66% reductions, respectively). Without policies that explicitly consider the impact of agricultural conversion on primary production, future demand-driven increases in agricultural output will likely continue to drive net declines in global terrestrial productivity, with potential detrimental consequences for net ecosystem carbon storage and subsequent climate warming.

  12. How Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Trendsfrom Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Système Probatoire d’Observation de la Terre VEGETATION (SPOT VGT) Time Series Differ in Agricultural Areas: An Inner Mongolian Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Hostert; Dirk Pflugmacher; Thomas Udelhoven; Rasmus Fensholt; He Yin

    2012-01-01

    Detailed information from global remote sensing has greatly advanced ourunderstanding of Earth as a system in general and of agricultural processes in particular.Vegetation monitoring with global remote sensing systems over long time periods iscritical to gain a better understanding of processes related to agricultural change over longtime periods. This specifically relates to sub-humid to semi-arid ecosystems, whereagricultural change in grazing lands can only be detected based on long time ...

  13. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  14. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  15. Cambodian Agriculture in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report seeks to understand the successes, challenges and opportunities of Cambodia’s agricultural transformation over the past decade to derive lessons and insights on how to maintain future agricultural growth, and particularly on the government’s role in facilitating it. It is prepared per the request of the Supreme National Economic Council and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry ...

  16. Options for enhancing agricultural productivity in Nigeria:

    OpenAIRE

    Nkonya, Ephraim; Pender, John L.; Kato, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, economic growth in Nigeria has been strong. Annual GDP grew by 9.1 percent per annum between 2003 and 2005 and by 6 .1 percent per annum between 2006 and 2008. Much of this growth can be attributed to the non-oil economy which has grown rapidly. This is due primarily to agriculture, which contributes approximately 35 percent to total GDP and supports 70 percent of the population. Agricultural research has been shown to be crucial in increasing agricultural productivity and reducin...

  17. VLT AND ACS OBSERVATIONS OF RDCS J1252.9-2927: DYNAMICAL STRUCTURE AND GALAXY POPULATIONS IN A MASSIVE CLUSTER AT Z=1.237*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demarco, R; Rosati, P; Lidman, C; Girardi, M; Nonino, M; Rettura, A; Strazzullo, V; der Wel, A v; Ford, H C; Mainieri, V; Holden, B P; Stanford, S A; Blakeslee, J P; Gobat, R; Postman, M; Tozzi, P; Overzier, R A; Zirm, A W; Benitez, N; Homeier, N L; Illingworth, G D; Infante, L; Jee, M J; Mei, S; Menanteau, F; Motta, V; Zheng, W; Clampin, M; Hartig, G

    2007-03-23

    We present results from an extensive spectroscopic survey, carried out with FORS on the ESO Very Large Telescope, and from an extensive multi-wavelength imaging data set from the Advanced Camera for Surveys and ground based facilities of the cluster of galaxies RDCS J1252.9-2927. We have spectroscopically confirmed 38 cluster members in the redshift range 1.22 < z < 1.25. The distribution in velocity of these spectroscopic members yields a cluster median redshift of z = 1.237 and a rest-frame velocity dispersion of 747{sub -84}{sup +74} km s{sup -1}. Star-forming members are observed to mainly populate the outskirts of the cluster while passive galaxies dominate the central cluster region. Using the 38 confirmed redshifts, we were able to resolve, for the first time at z > 1, kinematic structure. The velocity distribution, which is not Gaussian at the 95% confidence level, is consistent with two groups that are also responsible for the projected elongation of the cluster in the East-West direction. The groups are composed of 26 and 12 galaxies and have velocity dispersions of 486{sub -85}{sup +47} km s{sup -1} and 426{sub -105}{sup +57} km s{sup -1}, respectively. The elongation is also seen in the intracluster gas (from X-ray observations) and the dark matter distribution (from a weak lensing analysis). This leads us to conclude that RDCS J1252.9-2927 has not yet reached a final virial state. We extend the analysis of the color-magnitude diagram of spectroscopic members to more than 1 Mpc from the cluster center. The scatter and slope of non-[OII]-emitting cluster members in the near-IR red sequence is similar to that seen in clusters at lower redshift. Furthermore, none of the galaxies with luminosities greater than {approx} K*{sub s} + 1.5 show any [OII] emission feature, indicating that these more luminous, redder galaxies have stopped forming stars earlier than the fainter, bluer galaxies. Our observations provide detailed dynamical and spectrophotometric

  18. Dynamics and evolution of tree populations and soil-vegetation relationships in Fogscapes: Observations over a period of 14 years at the experimental sites of Meija (Peru).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salbitano, F.; Calamini, G.; Certini, G.; Ortega, A.; Pierguidi, A.; Villasante, L.; Caceres, R.; Coaguila, D.; Delgado, M.

    2010-07-01

    The Fogscapes, i.e. fog-dependent landscapes, and the sub mountain drylands of the Pacific Coast from Ecuador to Northern Chile are amongst the most fragile regions of the planet. The so-called "Lomas" (i.e. Hills) ecosystems are characterised by pre-desertic flora and vegetation where the plant phenological pattern coincides with the fog season from June to December every year. The occurance of ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) affects these ecosystems inducing, occasionally, a sudden change in the characteristics of the vegetation. Relics of low-density woodlands dominated by Caesalpinea spinosa and scattered trees of the same species (which during the fog season appear as savannah-like ecosystems) are still present but becoming increasingly rare due to past and present overgrazing In the experimental site of Las Cuchillas, located on the coastal hills close to Meija (Dept. Arequipa, South Peru) trees of native species (Caesalpinaea spinosa and Prosopis pallida) and exotic species (Acacia saligna, Casuarina equisetifolia, Parkinsonia aculeata) were planted in 1996, in order to look at the rehabilitation potential of the degraded "lomas" ecosystems. This paper deals with the results observed over a period of 14 years’ of tree growth patterns and the related results concerning the soil and habitat dynamics. Among indigenous species Caesalpinea spinosa shows the heighest rate of survival even if the height increment is low and the tree crowns tend to dry out at a height of approximately two metres, followed by the appearance of new shoots produced during the course of the seasons. The exotic Acacia saligna shows the maximum height, diameter and crown volume increments. The habitat conditions, both in term of diversity / frequency of plant and animal populations, and plant cover (LAI estimated by processing fish-eye lens images) have changed substantially over the years. A number of samples from the top mineral soil and random samples from the forest floor were

  19. A Consideration of Agriculture and Agricultural Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gengling

    2006-01-01

    The article explores the importance of agricultulture in line with development of society. It uses examples of high productivity achieved in grain and cotton crops in lnner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas to show that the fundamental objective of agricultural science is to maximize crops through the most effective use of soil, fertilizer and water in gaining the greatest benefit from power of the sun. Agricultural science should take up relevant theories and methodologies from other sciences, such as biological science, earth science and economics. The use of information technology will have great benefits for agricultural science. It hopes the scientific communities of China can make a significant contribution to solving the problems facing our rural areas, farmers and agriculture itself.

  20. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  1. Stellar Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  2. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  3. Population and Sustainability: Understanding Population, Environment, and Development Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Clay, Daniel C.; Reardon, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The triple challenge of rapid population growth, declining agricultural productivity, and natural resource degradation are not isolated from one another; they are intimately related. However, strategic planning and development programming tend to focus on individual sectors such as the environment, agriculture, and population; they do not explicitly take into account the compatibilities and inconsistencies among them. Farm households and their livelihood strategies are at the core of the inte...

  4. A CRITICAL REVIEW ON THE NATURAL OCCURRENCE OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC FUNGI IN AGRICULTURAL ECOSYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    E. Hemasree

    2013-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi mostly belong to deuteromycetes and entomopthorales. Fungi from about 90 genera are pathogenic to insects, which includes more than 700 sps. However, only 20 fungal species have been remarkably studied for their use against insect pests in Agriculture. Most of them induce natural epizootics on insects. The fungi have been observed to cause mortality in pest populations and several fungal species have been investigated for their potential use as an alternative to chemica...

  5. Crop type influences edge effects on the reproduction of songbirds in sagebrush habitat near agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Elly C. Knight; Nancy A. Mahony; Green, David J.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive fragmentation of the sagebrush shrubsteppe of western North America could be contributing to observed population declines of songbirds in sagebrush habitat. We examined whether habitat fragmentation impacts the reproduction of songbirds in sagebrush edge habitat near agriculture, and if potential impacts vary depending on the adjacent crop type. Specifically, we evaluated whether nest abundance and nest survival varied between orchard edge habitat, vineyard edge habitat, and interio...

  6. [Brazilian colonization in the Paraguayan agricultural frontier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupert, R F

    1991-04-01

    This work briefly describes Brazilian colonization of the Paraguayan agricultural frontier, analyzes factors responsible for expelling population from Brazil and for attracting Brazilians to Paraguay, and assesses the economic and social consequences of immigration to the area. Paraguay's vast and sparsely populated agricultural frontier in areas outside the Central subregion underwent a process of intense colonization from the early 1960s to the mid-1980s. The Paraguayan government initiated an ambitious colonization program in 1963 to increase production, relieve population pressure and subdivision of small parcels in the Central subregion, encourage agricultural modernization, and produce a more diversified agriculture. Paraguayan agriculture in the early 1960s suffered from excessive concentration of land in a few hands and resulting exclusion of around 3/4 of workers from ownership and from any possibility of obtaining credit to fund technological improvements. Results of studies 2 decades after implementation of the colonization plan suggest that it has failed in significant areas. Although a considerable population redistribution alleviated pressure in the Central subregion, it apparently resulted more from spontaneous movement of peasants outside the colonization areas than from the official program. Concentration of lands is now occurring in the colonization area. Assistance for agricultural modernization and diversification of production in the peasant sector has been minimal. On the other hand, production of soy, wheat, and cotton for export increased substantially, because of an entrepreneurial agriculture capitalized by foreign as well as national interests The unmet goals of the colonization program would have required structural reforms rather than simple spatial redistribution of the population. Many of the colonists in the 1970s were Brazilian families displaced by mechanized agriculture in the southern states of Parana, Santa Catarina, and Rio

  7. Cross-sectional observational survey of serum biochemistry values in a population of 69 adult female alpacas (Vicugna pacos) in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, P D; Mackie, I; Perry, J; Caraguel, C; Townsend, K; Reichel, M P

    2016-04-01

    Blood samples were collected from 69 'healthy' female alpacas aged ≥12 months from 11 properties in South Australia. The 10-90 percentile ranges of the 16/19 analytes measured in this sample population were within the published ranges of four healthy alpaca populations from other geographic locations. Marginal exceptions were glutamate dehydrogenase and bicarbonate. Potassium was notably elevated, probably because of haemolysis of some samples. The sample size was insufficient to provide the appropriate statistical power to define diagnostic references ranges according to international standards. The health status of the sample population of alpacas was presumptive based on a physical examination. PMID:27021895

  8. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  9. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  10. Warming of the Indian Ocean Threatens Eastern and Southern Africa, but could be Mitigated by Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Chris; Dettinger, Michael D.; Brown, Molly E.; Michaelsen, Joel C.; Verdin, James P.; Barlow, Mathew; Howell, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Since 1980, the number of undernourished people in eastern and southern Africa has more than doubled. Rural development stalled and rural poverty expanded during the 1990s. Population growth remains very high and declining per capita agricultural capacity retards progress towards Millennium Development goals. Analyses of in situ station data and satellite observations of precipitation identify another problematic trend. Main growing season rainfall receipts have diminished by approximately 15% in food insecure countries clustered along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Occurring during the main growing seasons in poor countries dependent on rain fed agriculture, these declines are societally dangerous. Will they persist or intensify? Tracing moisture deficits upstream to an anthropogenically warming Indian Ocean leads us to conclude that further rainfall declines are likely. We present analyses suggesting that warming in the central Indian Ocean disrupts onshore moisture transports, reducing continental rainfall. Thus late 20th century anthropogenic Indian Ocean warming has probably already produced societally dangerous climate change by creating drought and social disruption in some of the world's most fragile food economies. We quantify the potential impacts of the observed precipitation and agricultural capacity trends by modeling millions of undernourished people as a function of rainfall, population, cultivated area, seed and fertilizer use. Persistence of current tendencies may result in a 50% increase in undernourished people. On the other hand, modest increases in per capita agricultural productivity could more than offset the observed precipitation declines. Investing in agricultural development can help mitigate climate change while decreasing rural poverty and vulnerability.

  11. Perceived mental stress in women associated with psychosomatic symptoms, but not mortality: observations from the Population Study of Women in Gothenburg, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hange D

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dominique Hange,1 Kirsten Mehlig,2 Lauren Lissner,2 Xinxin Guo,3 Calle Bengtsson,1,† Ingmar Skoog,3 Cecilia Björkelund1 1Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Primary Health Care, 2Department of Public Health and Community Medicine/Public Health Epidemiology, 3Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Section of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Neuropsychiatric Epidemiology Unit, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden †Calle Bengtsson passed away on 23rd March 2013 Purpose: To investigate possible association between mental stress and psychosomatic symptoms, socioeconomic status, lifestyle, as well as incident mortality in a middle-aged female population followed over 37 years. Methods: A prospective observational study initiated in 1968–1969, including 1462 women aged 60, 54, 50, 46, and 38 years, with follow-ups in 1974–1975, 1980–1981, and 2000–2001, was performed. Measures included self-reported mental stress as well as psychosomatic symptoms and smoking, physical activity, total cholesterol, S-triglycerides, body mass index, waist–hip ratio, blood pressure, socioeconomic status and mortality. Results: Smoking, not being single, and not working outside home were strongly associated with reported mental stress at baseline. Women who reported high mental stress in 1968–1969 were more likely to report presence of abdominal symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 1.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39–2.46, headache/migraine (OR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.53–2.72, frequent infections (OR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.14–2.70, and musculoskeletal symptoms (OR = 1.70, 95% CI: 1.30–2.23 than women who did not report mental stress. Women without these symptoms at baseline 1968–1969, but with perceived mental stress were more likely to subsequently report incident abdominal symptoms (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.39–3.34, headache/migraine (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.48–3.48 and frequent infections (OR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.12

  12. Liraglutide effect in reducing HbA1c and weight in Arab population with type2 diabetes, a prospective observational trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bashier, Alaaeldin M. K.; Hussain, Azza Abdulaziz Khalifa Bin; Abdelgadir, Elamin Ibrahim Elamin; Eltinay, Ahmed Tarig; Thadani, Puja; Abdalla, Mohamed Elhassan; Abusnana, Salah; AlAwadi, Fatheya F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The pathophysiology of type2 diabetes differs between different ethnic groups. Asians develop type2 diabetes at younger age, lower body mass index, and in relatively short time. Not only that, some ethnicities have different responses and dosing regimens to different classes of anti-diabetic agents. Data from Japanese population showed that the optimal doses of liraglutide used are smaller than other population and that weight loss is not as effective as seen in Caucasians. Methods...

  13. Machine vision in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gouws

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for this technology. It is also indicated that machine vision in agriculture does not only hold potential financial advantages, but that it can also contribute to improved quality of life for agricultural workers, and even for farm animals.

  14. Stellar Populations

    CERN Document Server

    Peletier, Reynier

    2012-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 IAC Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School was {\\it Secular Evolution of Galaxies} I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of 10. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group...

  15. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  16. Urban Agriculture : Sustainability Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Årevall, Agnieszka Janicka

    2013-01-01

    For some years now, the phenomena of urban agriculture have been present in the public discourse on cities and sustainability. It is often assumed that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to an increased sustainability of the cities. However, many practical and theoretical obstacles might have to be overcome in order to realize this potential. One ambition of this thesis is to analyse urban agriculture as a “sustainability multiplier” – that is, as a practice that can positively...

  17. Agriculture and riparian areas

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture has historically been based in the subirrigated riparian ecosystems. Often the engineering and agricultural practices have altered the systems and many of the associated ecological processes. In the Western United States, the most common agricultural practices affecting riparian systems has been livestock grazing. Effects have been both positive and negative. Lack of management has deteriorated many of these systems. Current research has shown what types of management have been su...

  18. Risk management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Ramaswami; Shamika Ravi; S.D. Chopra

    2003-01-01

    This monograph was written to be part of the series of studies commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture under the rubric of "State of Indian Farmer - A Millennium Study". On the basis of existing literature, this study documents the status of our knowledge on risks of agriculture and their management. Chapter 2 discusses the evidence on the nature, type and magnitude of agricultural risks. Chapter 3 discusses farmer strategies to combat risk. In addition to the mechanisms at the level of t...

  19. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  20. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  1. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  2. Salinity Impacts on Agriculture and Groundwater in Delta Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D.; Salehin, M.; Jairuddin, M.; Saleh, A. F. M.; Rahman, M. M.; Parks, K. E.; Haque, M. A.; Lázár, A. N.; Payo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Delta regions are attractive for high intensity agriculture due to the availability of rich sedimentary soils and of fresh water. Many of the world's tropical deltas support high population densities which are reliant on irrigated agriculture. However environmental changes such as sea level rise, tidal inundation and reduced river flows have reduced the quantity and quality of water available for successful agriculture. Additionally, anthropogenic influences such as the over abstraction of ground water and the increased use of low quality water from river inlets has resulted in the accumulation of salts in the soils which diminishes crop productivity. Communities based in these regions are usually reliant on the same water for drinking and cooking because surface water is frequently contaminated by commercial and urban pollution. The expansion of shallow tube well systems for drinking water and agricultural use over the last few decades has resulted in mobilisation of salinity in the coastal and estuarine fringes. Sustainable development in delta regions is becoming constrained by water salinity. However salinity is often studied as an independent issue by specialists working in the fields of agriculture, community water supply and groundwater. The lack of interaction between these disciplines often results in corrective actions being applied to one sector without fully assessing the effects of these actions on other sectors. This paper describes a framework for indentifying the causes and impacts of salinity in delta regions based on the source-pathway-receptor framework. It uses examples and scenarios from the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta in Bangladesh together with field measurements and observations made in vulnerable coastal communities. The paper demonstrates the importance of creating an holistic understanding of the development and management of water resources to reduce the impact of salinity in fresh water in delta regions.

  3. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  4. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  5. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  6. Universal HbA1c Measurement in Early Pregnancy to Detect Type 2 Diabetes Reduces Ethnic Disparities in Antenatal Diabetes Screening: A Population-Based Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R C E Hughes

    Full Text Available In response to the type 2 diabetes epidemic, measuring HbA1c with the first-antenatal blood screen was recently recommended in NZ. This would enable prompt treatment of women with unrecognised type 2 diabetes, who may otherwise go undetected until the gestational diabetes (GDM screen. We compare inter-ethnic antenatal screening practices to examine whether the HbA1c test would be accessed by ethnicities most at risk of diabetes, and we determined the prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes in our pregnant population. This is an observational study of pregnancies in Christchurch NZ during 2008-2010. Utilising electronic databases, we matched maternal characteristics to first-antenatal bloods, HbA1c, and GDM screens (glucose challenge tests and oral glucose tolerance tests. Overall uptake of the first-antenatal bloods versus GDM screening was 83.1% and 53.8% respectively in 11,580 pregnancies. GDM screening was lowest in Māori 39.3%, incidence proportion ratio (IPR 0.77 (0.71, 0.84 compared with Europeans. By including HbA1c with the first-antenatal bloods, the number screened for diabetes increases by 28.5% in Europeans, 40.0% in Māori, 28.1% in Pacific People, and 26.7% in 'Others' (majority of Asian descent. The combined prevalence of unrecognised type 2 diabetes and prediabetes by NZ criteria, HbA1c ≥5.9% (41mmol/mol, was 2.1% in Europeans, Māori 4.7% IPR 2.59 (1.71, 3.93, Pacific People 9.5% IPR 4.76 (3.10, 7.30, and 'Others' 6.2% IPR 2.99 (2.19, 4.07. Applying these prevalence data to 2013 NZ national births data, routine antenatal HbA1c testing could have identified type 2 diabetes in 0.44% and prediabetes in 3.96% of women. Routine HbA1c measurement in early pregnancy is an ideal screening opportunity, particularly benefitting vulnerable groups, reducing ethnic disparities in antenatal diabetes screening. This approach is likely to have world-wide relevance and applicability. Further research is underway to

  7. EMPLOYMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramanaidu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Human resources in an economy constitute a Hsignificant input in the production process of goods and services. The study of human resources their quality and problems is of immense use in manpower planning in both developing as well as developed economies. The agriculture is the major sector of Indian economy. Most of the population is depending upon agriculture which is contributing about half of the national income in the country. The agricultural labour constitutes an overwhelmingly predominant auction of the rural workforce. The agricultural labour occupies the lowest rung of the rural ladder. Agricultural labourers constitute the largest role of the labourers and they constitute one of the biggest slices of Indian population. The agricultural labour, total workers are fast growing which is purely depending on wage paid employment in India. The farmers will try to substitute family labour in place of hired labour because of their low capacity to pay. If the population grows at the present rate accompanied by low industrial development, the unemployment problem in the agriculture becomes serious and the agricultural labourers become the victims in that vicious circle. The objective is to study the pattern of employment of agricultural labour for different crops and to find out the nature of employment for male and female labour separately in Andhra Pradesh. The primary data included information collected directly from the sample respondents through a field survey in of Andhra Pradesh. In addition to primary data, a good bit of information was collected from secondary sources. The suggestions can be made for the improvement of socio-economic positions of the agricultural labourers. The better implementation of legislative measures, creating alternative sources of employment, protection of women and child labourers, public works programmes should be for longer period in year, improving the working conditions, regulations of hours of work

  8. Geologic research in support of sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, L.P.; Herring, J.R.

    1993-01-01

    The importance and role of the geosciences in studies of sustainable agriculture include such traditional research areas as, agromineral resource assessments, the mapping and classification of soils and soil amendments, and the evaluation of landscapes for their vulnerability to physical and chemical degradation. Less traditional areas of study, that are increasing in societal importance because of environmental concerns and research into sustainable systems in general, include regional geochemical studies of plant and animal trace element deficiencies and toxicities, broad-scale water quality investigations, agricultural chemicals and the hydrogeologic interface, and minimally processed and ion-exchange agrominerals. We discuss the importance and future of phosphate in the US and world based on human population growth, projected agromineral demands in general, and the unavailability of new, high-quality agricultural lands. We also present examples of studies that relate geochemistry and the hydrogeologic characteristics of a region to the bioavailability and cycling of trace elements important to sustainable agricultural systems. ?? 1993.

  9. ISSUES OF CIVIL REGULATION CALCULATIONS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulash Umarov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of providing economic growth of agriculture and maintenance welfare life of population of Uzbekistan is required to develop step-by-step legislation. It regulates legal relations linked with calculations in agriculture and constantly its legal basis by virtue of theory, studies and principles of civil law according to the frames of reforms. The main goal of providing social-economic reforms in agriculture of Uzbekistan is to hardly continue maintaining successful life of country, and apropos of this increasing the size of producing in agriculture which based on competitive market, widening new range of production. Uninterruptedly continuing the strategy of economic reforms directed to provide successfully execution of governmental programs which aimed to develop diversified farm enterprise – studying legal problems of civil legal regulation of social-economic and investments relations play the main role based on calculations of current industry.

  10. Why we need GMO crops in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fact that in a very short period of 35 years the global population will reach an estimated 9 billion people presents a massive challenge to agriculture: how do we feed all of these people with nutritious food in a sustainable way? At the present time the yields of most of our major crops are sta...

  11. Regional Agriculture, Food Supply Systems and Competitiveness of Agriculture Prodiction Industries in Stavropol Territory

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Nikolaevna Lapina; Natalia Vladimirovna Sobchenko; Larisa Vladimirovna Kuleshova; Svetlana Yurievna Shamrina

    2015-01-01

    The article is devoted to the issue of ensuring the competitiveness of the agriculture and food system currently present in Stavropol Territory. Provision of the local population with locally manufactured food products in sufficient quantities and of the appropriate quality is one of the main challenges for the regional authorities. Assesment for the most advantageous trends for developing agriculture sector in Stavropol Krai considering its supply security, production costs and market demand...

  12. Climate proofing agricultural research investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The case for impending climate change is now proven. Governments can decide, by their action or inaction, to what extent the change will occur; the International Agriculture Research Community (IARC will have no say in this whatsoever. It is up to the IARC to try to maintain objectives in the face of the possible scenarios. In this paper we discuss the various types of agricultural research projects in terms of their time to fruition and the expected longevity of their results. We look at the information requirements for ensuring that project products have the necessary lifetimes to justify the investments in the research. We show that strategies differ depending on the type of research that is undertaken. Basic research into genetic traits and capacities within the available germplasm has to be planned in the long term with outcomes in mind. The vulnerability of the populations and agricultural systems that use developments from this basic research now places its priority setting in a changing climate and world concept. Ensuring that the germplasm is available for use has taken on a critical new importance with recent studies. Germplasm banks comprise a small fraction of what we will be relying on for the future. Well over 90% of useful genetic variability may still be in the wild. This has to be considered carefully in setting out research objectives. Plant breeders, who will put together the results of the basic research into useful packages, now have an uncertain target to aim for when regarding future climate conditions. They may not be able to choose their testing sites in present climates to target agricultural populations that will be using their products in the future. Agronomic and agricultural development projects face the most difficult task. How do we develop stable farming systems in an environment that is not only unstable, but also changing so slowly that the farmers cannot see, or even envisage, the changes. These are some

  13. Adoption: a new Stata routine for estimating consistently population technological adoption parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Aliou Diagne

    2012-01-01

    In Agricultural Economics 37 (2007) 201–210, using a counterfactual outcomes framework, Diagne and Demont showed that observed sample technological adoption rate does not consistently estimate the population adoption rate even if the sample is random. Likewise, it is shown that a model of adoption with observed adoption outcome as a dependent variable and where exposure to the technology is not observed and controlled for cannot yield consistent estimates of the determinants of adoption. In...

  14. The impact of the Krakatoa eruption in 1883 on the population of Rhinoceros sondaicus in Ujung Kulon, with details of rhino observations from 1857 to 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.van. Strien

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent suggestion that the entire population of the Javan Rhinoceros in Ujung Kulon National Park was annihilated by the effects of the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883 is investigated. Based on a review of contemporary reports, it is shown that people survived the waves and remained settled in one village until 1906 when it was evacuated during a plague of tigers. The first report of a rhinoceros in the peninsula of Ujung Kulon dates from 1857 and the animals were occasionally reported from the area afterwards. There is no indication from the available estimates and sightings that rhinos were exterminated in the area. Ujung Kulon has been a protected area since 1921. Rhino numbers ranged upwards to about 40 or 50 for most of the period until 1949. The population of Rhinoceros sondaicus is not a new founder population established after the eruption of the Krakatoa in 1883.

  15. Agricultural Industrialization: It's Inevitable

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Thomas N.

    1991-01-01

    The industrialization of agriculture is with us. It's driven by consumer and processor needs, supported by new and useful technology, and augmented by the severe agricultural recession of the 1980s, which changed attitudes towards risk. The consequences for farm policy and rural development are significant, and should be favorable.

  16. Agriculture. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the impact of agriculture on the earth's atmosphere. It describes the natural carbon cycle, the socioeconomic factors that influence it, and the climate effects. The climatic relevance of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds, methane and other hydrocarbons, and ammonia emissions from biological and agricultural process is discussed. (SR)

  17. Managing risk in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "This book examines the implications of risk management for policy in agriculture. Opening with a chapter on risk management principles and guidelines for policy design in agriculture, the book goes on to look at quantitative analysis of risk and then at policy in various countries." --> Publisher's description.

  18. Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, risks are inherent and ubiquitous, posing potentially serious consequences for stakeholders and consumers. Risks disrupt supply chains, causing extensive financial and economic losses. Agricultural risks are also the principal cause of transient food insecurity, creating a poverty trap for millions of households across the developing world that enforces a viciou...

  19. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  20. Precision agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  1. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among drivers, pressures, state and impacts, and facilitates the targeted identification of response strategies aimed at improving the sustainability of wetlands.

  2. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...

  3. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  4. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  5. Urban agriculture in the new framework of green cities.

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Boente, Isabel de; Briz de Felipe, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Urban Agriculture was a common practice in the old times. However after a period of low interest by urban population there is a movement of renaissance of urban agriculture especially in the new megalopolis. It is important to understand the role of UA in the new framework, and the interface of urban and rural agricultures, with their comparative advantages. Thus, we describe the impact of UA in several scenarios: political, socioeconomic and environmental. As a consequence several acti...

  6. Role of Women in Agriculture: A Micro Level Study

    OpenAIRE

    E. Krishna Rao

    2006-01-01

    India has a predominantly agrarian economy. 70% of her population is rural; of those households, 60% engage in agriculture as their main source of income. It has always been India's most important economic sector. In this important agricultural sector woman plays a vital role, because it is largely a household enterprise. Women in India are major producers of food in terms of value, volume and number of hours worked. Nearly 63 percent of all economically active men are engaged in agriculture ...

  7. Agricultural Dualism, Incidence of Child Labour and Subsidy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2009-01-01

    This paper purports to examine the validity of the common belief that in a developing economy the backward agricultural sector should be subsidized as poorer group of the working population are employed in this sector that send their children out to work out of sheer poverty. A three-sector general equilibrium framework with agricultural dualism and child labour has been employed for the purpose of analysis. It finds that a price subsidy policy to backward agricultural sector is likely to agg...

  8. Agricultural Growth in China and Sub-Saharan African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    MAHMOOD H. KHAN; Mohsin S. Khan

    1995-01-01

    Agriculture remains a dominant sector in the economies of most African and several Asian countries. However, the poor performance of agriculture in Africa stands in sharp contrast to the robust agricultural growth in many Asian countries.2 In this regard, the experience of China is perhaps as impressive as it is relevant to many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. A general observation is that the productivity of land and labour has to rise through intensive agriculture, given the limited area o...

  9. How Dr. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer Contributed to Organic Agriculture in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    Ehrenfried Pfeiffer (1899-1961) was 25 years old when Rudolf Steiner (1861-1925) delivered his eight lectures on agriculture from 7th June to 16th June 1924. In those eight lectures at Koberwitz, Rudolf Steiner laid the basis for biodynamic agriculture. Steiner advocated an agriculture informed by anthroposophy, and that the ideas he expounded in the eight agriculture lectures should be developed by experiments, practice and observation. Ehrenfried Pfeiffer took up this task and he spent the ...

  10. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  11. Observations on health outcome studies of exposure of the worker and the general population during the nuclear reactor accident at three mile island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear reactor accident at Three Mile Island in March 1979 resulted in the release of radioactivity to the environment. Radiation exposure of the workers and the general population living in the vicinity of the damaged nuclear reactor was estimated based on dose measurements, meteorological conditions, demographic characteristics, reconstruction of the source term, and a number of other factors. The projected estimates of potential delayed health effects in the worker and general population, notable cancer, developmental abnormalities of the newborn, and genetic ill-health, were carefully estimated based on then-current knowledge of radiation risks and statistical techniques of analysis. Almost a decade later, we now have epidemiological and statistical data on certain of these health outcomes in the exposed populations at risk. Discussion includes the reliability of the initial radiation risk estimates, the major illnesses of concern, the mental stress and behavioral effects at the time of and following the accident, and the current findings of the ongoing studies of the health outcomes of the vulnerable populations at risk

  12. 西部干旱区农业野外科学观测试验台站发展现状%Current situation of the development of the agriculture field scientific observation test stations in western arid regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高峰; 孟宪学; 张雨; 李宁; 王艳娜; 王琛

    2011-01-01

    阐述了野外科学观测试验台站的功能,界定了西部干旱区农业野外科学观测试验台站的内涵,通过对西部干旱区农业野外科学观测试验台站的学科领域分布、野外监(观)测和基础数据积累情况、观测人员结构、基础设施与条件平台、科研立项、研究成果以及人才培养等5方面的调查分析,提出了相关建议.%On the definition of the western arid areas, the paper uses ways of coordinate location and the field survey to select the agricultural field observation scientific test stations in to the western arid areas of China, and expounds the functional orientation, connotation and subject classification of the agricultural field observation scientific test stations in the western arid areas. Through the preliminary investigation analysis of the domanial distribution of the field scientific observations in western arid areas, field observation and the situation of the basic data accumulation, the structure of observers, infrastructure and condition platform, scientific research projects selection, research findings and personnel training, the paper draw a conclusion that the subject classification of the agricultural field observation scientific test stations in the western arid areas mainly are farmland ecological system field observation scientific test stations, up to 44% of all stations. Compared with department field stations and scientific research field stations, the number of scientific research personnel in national field stations is much larger. Personnel with doctor degree and with master degree increased 180% and 60% respectively. The percentage of doctor master and undergraduate changed from 1:1:2 in 2006 to 14; 8; 15 in 2010. The education background of scientific research personnel of the field stations in the western arid areas continued to increase. The scale of experimental observation area and living area of the agricultural field observation scientific test stations

  13. Aerobic Methanotrophs in Natural and Agricultural Soils of European Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kravchenko

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Human activities such as land management and global warming have great impact on the environment. Among changes associated with the global warming, rising methane emission is a serious concern. Therefore, we assessed methane oxidation activity and diversity of aerobic methanotrophic bacteria in eight soil types (both unmanaged and agricultural distributed across the European part of Russia. Using a culture-independent approach targeting pmoA gene, we provide the first baseline data on the diversity of methanotrophs inhabiting most typical soil types. The analysis of pmoA clone libraries showed that methanotrophic populations in unmanaged soils are less diverse than in agricultural areas. These clone sequences were placed in three groups of, so far, uncultured methanotrophs: USC-gamma, cluster I, and pmoA/amoA cluster, which are believed to be responsible for atmospheric methane oxidation in upland soils. Agricultural soils harbored methanotrophs related to genera Methylosinus, Methylocystis, Methylomicrobium, Methylobacter, and Methylocaldum. Despite higher numbers of detected molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs, managed soils showed decreased methane oxidation rates as observed in both in situ and laboratory experiments. Our results also suggest that soil restoration may have a positive effect on methane consumption by terrestrial ecosystems.

  14. Effect of agricultural management regime on Burkholderia community structure in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, J F; van Elsas, J D; van Veen, J A

    2006-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the Burkholderia community structure associated with areas under different agricultural management and to evaluate to which extent this community structure is affected by changes in agricultural management. Two fields with distinct soil history (arable land and permanent grassland) were exposed to three agricultural management regimes (crop rotation, maize monoculture, and grassland). By using a culture-independent approach, based on a Burkholderia-specific polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis system, it was possible to observe the conversion of Burkholderia communities typical for permanent grassland to those of arable land after four consecutive years. However, the time needed to achieve the reverse transition, i.e., converting the Burkholderia community associated with arable land to that of grassland, was beyond the duration of the field experiment. In addition, by applying principal response curves, the direction and extent of the conversion from grassland to arable land (maize monoculture and to crop rotation) were determined. Hence, the results suggested that agricultural practices, such as fertilization and tillage, were more effective in changing the Burkholderia community structure than agricultural management regime. To determine the effect of agricultural management on the Burkholderia population with biocontrol abilities, the culturable fraction of the Burkholderia community was assessed. The areas under permanent grassland and grassland converted to maize monoculture had the highest percentages of Burkholderia strains with antagonistic activity against Rhizoctonia solani AG-3, mainly Burkholderia pyrrocinia and Burkholderia sp. LMG 22929. The isolation frequency of antagonistic isolates from arable land was extremely low. Our results indicate that (changes in) agricultural management, mainly crop rotation, affect the frequency of isolation of antagonistic Burkholderia

  15. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  16. Global Strategy to Improve Agricultural and Rural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2010-01-01

    Policy makers and development practitioners who are responsible for developing investment strategies to promote economic growth find many challenges in the changing face of agriculture in the twenty-first century. In addition to its productive role of providing food, clothing, fuel, and housing for a growing world population, agriculture assumes other roles, the importance of which has mor...

  17. Texas Agricultural Science Teachers' Attitudes toward Information Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ryan; Williams, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The researchers sought to find the Agricultural Science teachers' attitude toward five innovations (Computer-Aided Design, Record Books, E-Mail Career Development Event Registration, and World Wide Web) of information technology. The population for this study consisted of all 333 secondary Agricultural science teachers from Texas FFA Areas V and…

  18. Nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops in Papua New Guinea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Bourke, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    In Papua New Guinea the population is growing faster than the area under cultivation. As a result, land use is being intensified and soil nutrient depletion may occur, resulting in nutrient deficiencies of agricultural crops. This paper reviews nutrient deficiencies in the agricultural crops of Papu

  19. Evapotranspiration: Progress in measurement and modeling in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    As the water resources available for agriculture become limiting due to population growth, competition from other water users, drought and water quality degradation, the importance of evapotranspiration (ET) as a major component of water use in agriculture grows. This paper provides a focused survey...

  20. Agricultural sustainability: concepts, principles and evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules

    2008-02-12

    Concerns about sustainability in agricultural systems centre on the need to develop technologies and practices that do not have adverse effects on environmental goods and services, are accessible to and effective for farmers, and lead to improvements in food productivity. Despite great progress in agricultural productivity in the past half-century, with crop and livestock productivity strongly driven by increased use of fertilizers, irrigation water, agricultural machinery, pesticides and land, it would be over-optimistic to assume that these relationships will remain linear in the future. New approaches are needed that will integrate biological and ecological processes into food production, minimize the use of those non-renewable inputs that cause harm to the environment or to the health of farmers and consumers, make productive use of the knowledge and skills of farmers, so substituting human capital for costly external inputs, and make productive use of people's collective capacities to work together to solve common agricultural and natural resource problems, such as for pest, watershed, irrigation, forest and credit management. These principles help to build important capital assets for agricultural systems: natural; social; human; physical; and financial capital. Improving natural capital is a central aim, and dividends can come from making the best use of the genotypes of crops and animals and the ecological conditions under which they are grown or raised. Agricultural sustainability suggests a focus on both genotype improvements through the full range of modern biological approaches and improved understanding of the benefits of ecological and agronomic management, manipulation and redesign. The ecological management of agroecosystems that addresses energy flows, nutrient cycling, population-regulating mechanisms and system resilience can lead to the redesign of agriculture at a landscape scale. Sustainable agriculture outcomes can be positive for food

  1. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Samborski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture (PA is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM. Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS, remote sensing yield monitors. Because of the multidisciplinary character of precision agriculture, books published on this subject differ in their content. The first books on this topic appeared in the mid 90’ of the last century. The intention of this paper is to present reviews of three books the titles of which each contains the term “precision agriculture”. The books are as follows:1 Handbook of Precision Agriculture – Principles and Applications (2006 edited by Ancha Srinivasan. 2 Precision Agriculture’05 (2005 edited by John V. Stafford 3 Precision Agriculture (2006 by Terry A. Brasse.

  2. Aspectos ecológicos da tripanossomíase americana: XIV - Persistência e potencial de domiciliação de populações triatomínicas silvestres em região de intensa atividade agropecuária Ecological aspects of South American tripanosomiasis: XIV - Persistence and domiciliation potential of sylvatic triatominae populations in an intensive agricultural and cattle breeding region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de observações sobre populações triatomínicas extradomiciliares em região de intensa atividade agropecuária. Os restos de vegetação primitiva, embora reduzidos a menos de 8,0%, mostraram-se suficientes para manter essas populações. Pelo menos para Triatoma sordida, a destruição progressiva parece favorecer sua sobrevivência, graças à multiplicação de ecótopos preferidos por esse triatomíneo. Tanto essa espécie como Panstrongylus megistus e Rhodnius neglectus mostraram-se aptos à colonização em ecótopos artificiais representados por galinheiros experimentais.The results of observation of sylvatic triatominae population in a region of intensive agricultural and cattle breeding activity are reported. Important environmental changes had occurred in the area, including destruction of the primitive vegetation and intensive use of pesticides. Nevertheless, these modifications apparently did not affect the survival of Triatominae, since they were found in the remaining vegetation. Moreover, this destruction seems to have favored, to some extent, survival of Triatoma sordida by increasing the available ecotopes. This species, as well as Panstrongylus megistus and Rhodnius neglectus, showed enough ecological valence to colonize experimental fowes houses, used as artificial ecotopes.

  3. Spatial Structure and Scaling of Agricultural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Considering agricultural landscapes as networks can provide information about spatial connectivity relevant for a wide range of applications including pollination, pest management, and ecology. Global agricultural networks are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. However, regional analyses capture only a subset of the total global network. Most analyses are regional. In this paper, we seek to address the following questions: Does the globally observed scale-free property of agricultural networks hold over smaller spatial domains? Can similar properties be observed at kilometer to meter scales? We analyze 9 intensively cultivated Landsat scenes on 5 continents with a wide range of vegetation distributions. We find that networks of vegetation fraction within the domain of each of these Landsat scenes exhibit substantial variability - but still possess similar scaling properties to the global distribution of agriculture. We also find similar results using a 39 km2 IKONOS image. To illustrate an a...

  4. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades agricultural engineering has also focused on environmental aspects. Nowadays knowledge and expertise generated in several agricultural and environmental engineering fields must be integrated with experti...

  5. HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING AND DIFFICULTIES ENCOUNTERED IN THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL ACCOUNTING*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki Doğan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sector, from past to present, had assumed very important duties on economic and social development of societies. It became a globally indispensable and strategic sector due to its various attributes such as: direct/indirect contributions to population nourishment, national income, employment, capital transfers, raw material supply for industry, exportation, biological diversity and ecological balance. Since the dawn of humankind, agricultural sector had gone through a variety of phases in terms of production activities and land proprietorship. Agricultural activities that emerged in the period of hunter-gatherer societies have been superseded by today’s specialized and planned agricultural enterprises utilizing information and technology. Agricultural accounting has also experienced a significant change in parallel with those improvements. This study aims to investigate historical development of agricultural accounting and difficulties encountered during its implementation. Research studies indicate that agricultural assets were initially recorded and inventory controls were performed by Sumerians. Until the Middle Ages, agricultural accounting did not experience any development, whereas it still encounters various difficulties eve

  6. Assessment of the agricultural sustainability of Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Qian; Zhao Xueping

    2007-01-01

    It is significant for the study on the sustainable development of regional agriculture to monitor and measure the trend of agricultural development with an effective method. The sustainable development of regional agriculture should accord with regional population, rural economic development, social progress, resource and environmental support. This paper establishes the evaluating indicators system of sustainable development of regional agriculture,evaluates the agricultural sustainable development in Shaanxi Province with a comprehensive multi-indicator method,analyzes the support of resource and environment for regional agriculture by the resource-development index and the environment-development index, and gets the conclusion that the indicators, such as education level, the income gap between urban and rural residents, the per capita area under cultivation and the consumption of pesticides and chemical fertilizers per hectare, are the main factors to restrict agricultural sustainability, and that the pressure of the development of subsystems of population, economy and society on the subsystems of resource and environment turns out to be stronger and stronger. Agricultural environment gets better, but resource becomes one of the important factors to restrict the development of regional agriculture. In a word, this paper highlights the potentials and limitations of sustainable agriculture of Shaanxi and helps identify the development direction in the future.

  7. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  8. Agriculture. Sector 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Lebanon, emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities occur through the following processes: -enteric fermentation and manure management of the domestic livestock emits methane and nitrous oxide. -agricultural burning of crop residues is of minor importance since field burning of crop residue is not a common practice in Lebanon -agricultural soils are a source of nitrous oxide directly from the soils and from animal production, and indirectly from the nitrogen added to the soils. The following results were obtained for the inventory year 1994: 7.60955 Gg of methane, 3.01478 Gg of nitrous oxide, 0.00146 Gg of nitrogen oxides and 0.04306 Gg of carbon monoxide

  9. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Candia Rowel; Besigye Fred; Martha Betson; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C.; Kabatereine, Narcis B.; J. Russell Stothard

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were cla...

  10. Brazil: The Future of Modern Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Matthey; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fuller, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations m...

  11. Spatial Structure and Scaling of Agricultural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Daniel; Small, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Considering agricultural landscapes as networks can provide information about spatial connectivity relevant for a wide range of applications including pollination, pest management, and ecology. Global agricultural networks are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. However, regional analyses capture only a subset of the total global network. Most analyses are regional. In this paper, we seek to address the following questions: Does the globally observed scale-free property of ag...

  12. Monitoring the agricultural landscape for insect resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Joseph; Glaser, J. A.; Copenhaver, Ken

    Farmers in 25 countries on six continents are using plant biotechnology to solve difficult crop production challenges and conserve the environment. In fact, 13.3 million farmers, which include 90 percent of the farming in developing countries, choose to plant biotech crops. Over the past decade, farmers increased area planted in genetically modified (GM) crops by more than 10 percent each year, thus increasing their farm income by more than 44 billion US dollars (1996-2007), and achieved economic, environmental and social benefits in crops such as soybeans, canola, corn and cotton. To date, total acres of biotech crops harvested exceed more than 2 billion with a proven 13-year history of safe use. Over the next decade, expanded adoption combined with current research on 57 crops in 63 countries will broaden the advantages of genetically modified foods for growers, consumers and the environment. Genetically modified (GM) crops with the ability to produce toxins lethal to specific insect pests are covering a larger percentage of the agricultural landscape every year. The United States department of Agriculture (USDA) estimated that 63 percent of corn and 65 percent of cotton contained these specific genetic traits in 2009. The toxins could protect billions of dollars of loss from insect damage for crops valued at greater than 165 billion US dollars in 2008. The stable and efficient production of these crops has taken on even more importance in recent years with their use, not only as a food source, but now also a source of fuel. It is in the best interest of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to ensure the continued efficacy of toxin producing GM crops as their use reduces pesticides harmful to humans and animals. However, population genetics models have indicated the risk of insect pests developing resistance to these toxins if a high percentage of acreage is grown in these crops. The USEPA is developing methods to monitor the agricultural

  13. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health and safety program. Contact your state or territorial health department or use this directory of local ... producers, small business owners, youth, consumers, and rural communities nationwide. NIOSH Agricultural Safety and Health Centers conduct ...

  14. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  15. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  16. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  17. Radioactive contamination and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some guidelines are presented for the Belgian agriculture to realise three vital objectives in case of a nuclear accident : protection of food quality and public health, radiation protection for farmers and keeping the production apparatus intact. (H.E.)

  18. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  19. The Agriculture Grants Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogmann, David W.; Key, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Reviews historical background surrounding the origins of the Competitive Research Grants Office, established in 1978 to support basic research related to agriculture. Describes current controversy within the legislature which threatens its existence. (CS)

  20. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  1. Overview of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, P.; Merfield, C.

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition of food, textiles and other resources from plants and animals has been a major concern for human societies, from the earliest days as hunter-gathers, through pastoral and swidden phases, to agrarian societies, with an associated trend away from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles. Yet as agricultural production intensified and expanded, the negative effects on the underlying resource base have also increased. The history of environmental damage caused by agriculture is well docume...

  2. Agricultural Clusters in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminami, Lily; Kiminami, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of clustering in the development of agriculture and rural communities in China. We shall examine in detail the food industry, which is the link in the food chain that propels the industrialization of agriculture, and identify instances of industrial agglomeration and business collaboration. Next, we shall analyze the externalities (i.e. spillovers) of clusters, demand conditions in cluster formation, and the effectiveness of business collab...

  3. Agriculture Sector Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Stasytytė; Viktorija Dužinskytė

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture sector is characterized by a particular specificity that is not considered in other fields and because of that agriculture sector is defined as highly risky sector. Response to risk is still very im-portant and responsible activity in this field. According to this, the process and applied strategies of risk management make and ensure that the sector activity and operations are more stable and effective. The aim of the article reflects the need to distinguish the most appropriate a...

  4. TRANSITION AND AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rozelle, Scott D.; Swinnen, Johan F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The overall objectives of our proposed paper is to: (a) systematically document the post-reform trends in agricultural performance in Asia, Europe, and the Former Soviet Union; (b) identify the main reform strategies and institutional innovations that have contributed to the successes and failures of the sector; (c) analyze the mechanisms by which reform policies and initial conditions have affected the transition process in agriculture; and (d) draw lessons and policy implications from the e...

  5. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  6. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  7. Population growth and forest sustainability in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu; Brian A., Jingwa

    2011-01-01

    Recent distressing trends in climate change, population explosion and deforestation inspired this paper, which completes existing literature by providing empirical justification to hypothetical initiatives on the impact of population growth on forest sustainability in Africa. Using three instruments of forest exploitation, the study shows how rural, agricultural and national population growths affect forest-area and agricultural-land. In this particular study the findings indicate that instru...

  8. Environmental epidemiology of intestinal schistosomiasis in Uganda: population dynamics of biomphalaria (gastropoda: planorbidae) in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with observations on natural infections with digenetic trematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowel, Candia; Fred, Besigye; Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, Jose C; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Stothard, J Russell

    2015-01-01

    This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni) or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P < 0.001) in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P = 0.04) in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert (N = 6,183), 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria (N = 13,172) were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene. PMID:25705680

  9. Environmental Epidemiology of Intestinal Schistosomiasis in Uganda: Population Dynamics of Biomphalaria (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Lake Albert and Lake Victoria with Observations on Natural Infections with Digenetic Trematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candia Rowel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documented the population dynamics of Biomphalaria and associated natural infections with digenetic trematodes, along the shores of Lake Albert and Lake Victoria, recording local physicochemical factors. Over a two-and-a-half-year study period with monthly sampling, physicochemical factors were measured at 12 survey sites and all freshwater snails were collected. Retained Biomphalaria were subsequently monitored in laboratory aquaria for shedding trematode cercariae, which were classified as either human infective (Schistosoma mansoni or nonhuman infective. The population dynamics of Biomphalaria differed by location and by lake and had positive relationship with pH (P<0.001 in both lakes and negative relationship with conductivity (P=0.04 in Lake Albert. Of the Biomphalaria collected in Lake Albert N=6,183, 8.9% were infected with digenetic trematodes of which 15.8% were shedding S. mansoni cercariae and 84.2% with nonhuman infective cercariae. In Lake Victoria, 2.1% of collected Biomphalaria  N=13,172 were infected with digenetic trematodes with 13.9% shedding S. mansoni cercariae, 85.7% shedding nonhuman infective cercariae, and 0.4% of infected snails shedding both types of cercariae. Upon morphological identification, species of Biomphalaria infected included B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. stanleyi in Lake Albert and B. sudanica, B. pfeifferi, and B. choanomphala in Lake Victoria. The study found the physicochemical factors that influenced Biomphalaria population and infections. The number and extent of snails shedding S. mansoni cercariae illustrate the high risk of transmission within these lake settings. For better control of this disease, greater effort should be placed on reducing environmental contamination by improvement of local water sanitation and hygiene.

  10. Ghana Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Vikas; D'Alessandro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Improved agricultural risk management is one of the core enabling actions of the Group of Eight’s (G-8’s) New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. The Agricultural Risk Management Team (ARMT) of the Agriculture and Environment Services Department of the World Bank conducted an agricultural sector risk assessment to better understand the dynamics of agricultural risks and identify appropriate responses, incorporate agricultural risk perspective into decision-making, and bui...

  11. FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Beghin, John C.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Frank H. Fuller; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Kaus, Phillip J.; Fang, Cheng; Hart, Chad E.; Kovarik, Karen; Womack, Abner W.; Young, Robert E., II; Suhler, Gregg; Patrick C. Westhoff; Trujillo, Joe; Brown, D. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) prepares a preliminary agricultural outlook on world agricultural production, consumption, and trade every fall. This is followed by an outside review, re-evaluation of projections, and completion of the final baseline in January. The FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook presents these final projections for world agricultural markets. A companion volume, the FAPRI 2000 U.S. Agricultural Outlook, presents the U.S. component of the ba...

  12. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area. PMID

  13. Boosting the agricultural production capabilities of Indian rural communities in the micro region of South Ahuachapán (El Salvador), in order to improve food safety and raise income for the local population

    OpenAIRE

    Fouillade, J-M.; Roudière, F.; Rodriguez, R.

    2011-01-01

    As is the case with many Latin American countries, El Salvador, which is regularly affected by hurricanes and is in transition towards democracy following a period of violent civil war, suffers from major inequality in the distribution of its national wealth, with almost half the population living below the poverty line. It was in light of this that, in 2002, the Secours populaire français intervened in the North-West of the country in the coffee growing area of the southern part of the Ahuac...

  14. Biotechnology: a tool for sustainable innovation in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feed 9.6 billion people, according to UN projections, will populate the planet in 2050. This is the challenge that agriculture is called to deal and that will be one of the topics carriers EXPO 2015. The answer to food needs of a population growing, in particular in the Countries in the developing world, will certainly not unique, but the road seems marked: it is that of an intensification sustainable agriculture, supported by innovation and research, able to enhance agricultural yields without adding to the budget input necessary for the production (energy, earth, water).

  15. Constraining the Population of Cosmic Ray Protons in Cooling Flow Clusters with Gamma-Ray and Radio Observations: Are Radio Mini-Halos of Hadronic Origin?

    CERN Document Server

    Pfrommer, C; Pfrommer, Christoph; Ensslin, Torsten A.

    2003-01-01

    We wish to constrain the cosmic-ray proton (CRp) population in galaxy clusters. By hadronic interactions with the thermal gas of the intra-cluster medium (ICM), the CRp produce gamma-rays for which we develop an analytic formalism to deduce their spectral distribution. Assuming the CRp-to-thermal energy density ratio X_CRp and the CRp spectral index to be spatially constant, we derive an analytic relation between the gamma-ray and bolometric X-ray fluxes, F_gamma and F_X. Based on our relation, we compile a sample of suitable clusters which are promising candidates for future detection of gamma-rays resulting from hadronic CRp interactions. Comparing to EGRET upper limits, we constrain the CRp population in the cooling flow clusters Perseus and Virgo to X_CRp < 10%. Assuming a plausible value for the CRp diffusion coefficient kappa, we find the central CRp injection luminosity of M87 to be limited to 10^41 erg s^-1 kappa/(10^28 cm^2 s^-1). The synchrotron emission from secondary electrons generated in CRp ...

  16. Impact of different agricultural practices on the genetic structure of Lumbricus terrestris, Arion lusitanicus and Microtus arvalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kautenburger, R.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Little attention has been given to date to the potential influence of agricultural land use methods or farming practice on the genetic variability of native species. In the present study, we measured the genetic structure of three model species —Microtus arvalis, Arion lusitanicus and Lumbricus terrestris— in an agricultural landscape with a diversity of land use types and farming practices. The aim of the study was to investigate whether different management strategies such as the method of land use or type of farming practice (conventional and ecological farming have an impact on the species’ genetic structure. We used RAPD markers and multilocus DNA fingerprints as genetic tools. Genetic similarity was based on the presence or absence of bands, which revealed a wide range of variability within and between the analysed populations for each model species. Cluster analysis and Mantel tests (isolation by distance showed different genetic structures in the populations of M. arvalis from sampling sites with different land use. However, the main factors influencing the genetic variability of these vole populations were geographic distances and isolation barriers. The genetic variability observed in A. lusitanicus populations correlated with geographic distance and the type of land use method, but no correlation was found with different farming practices. Our preliminary results suggest that the genetic structure of L. terrestris populations is influenced by the agricultural land use method used at the different sampling sites but not by the geographic distance.

  17. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  18. Romania's Agriculture and its Role in the Convergence Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN POSTOIU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of agriculture in Romania is linked to the fact that 45% of its population is in the rural area, mostly dependent on agricultural activities. This paper aims to determine in what extent agriculture influences the convergence process of Romania with the euro area. The structural convergence index is computed in order to assess the degree in which the structure of the Romanian economy resembles the one of the euro area in terms of both gross value added and employment. Research indicates that Romania has the lowest score in terms of structural convergence with the euro area. The main reason is the oversized agricultural sector which employs almost a third of the active population. The productivity of the Romanian agriculture is then assessed in order to identify its possible effect on the country’s overall competitiveness and on the whole convergence process.

  19. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together. PMID:12284925

  20. Karst and agriculture in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillieson David

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Much of the development and degradation of karst lands in Australia has occurred in the last two centuries since European settlement. Recent prolonged El Nino events add further climatic uncertainty and place real constraints on sustainable agriculture. The lower southeast of South Australia is perhaps the one area in Australia where karst, and particularly karst hydrology, impinge on the daily lives of the community in that pollution and overexploitation of the aquifer are readily apparent to the local population. Effluent from intensive dairy farms, piggeries and cheese factories enters the karst and has caused concern over pollution of water supplies. Human impacts on the Mole Creek karst of Tasmania have been well documented. The principal recent impacts on the karst arc associated with land clearance for farmland, forest cutting for timber, road building, refuse disposal and associated hydrological change. There is similar evidence of agricultural impacts un karst in central New South Wales, with clear evidence of vegetation clearance and soil stripping on the limestones at Wellington, Orange and Molong.

  1. Countermeasures implemented in intensive agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wide application of countermeasures in agriculture at different times after the Chernobyl accident provided an opportunity to estimate the most efficient means of reducing radionuclide transfer through the chain soil-plant-animal-man. The choice of countermeasures against the background of traditional practices was governed by a variety of factors, including the composition of the radioactive fallout, the soil types, land usage, the time elapsed since the accident and the economics. The efficiency of the various countermeasures was assessed in terms of both reduction of individual dose in the contaminated areas and of the collective dose. The estimation of the various countermeasures comparative efficiency is presented, their impact on individual doses reduction and the contribution reduction of produce produced in the contaminated area into the collective dose of the population is shown

  2. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Min [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2016-01-08

    Methods of convective/stratiform precipitation classification and surface rain rate estimation based on the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program cloud radar measurements were developed and evaluated. Simultaneous and collocated observations of the Ka-band ARM zenith radar (KAZR), two scanning precipitation radars (NCAR S-PolKa and Texas A&M University SMART-R), and surface precipitation during the DYNAMO/AMIE field campaign were used. The motivation of this study is to apply the unique long-term ARM cloud radar observations without accompanying precipitation radars to the study of cloud lifecycle and precipitation features under different weather and climate regimes.

  3. Spatiotemporal behavior of floods and droughts and their impacts on agriculture in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Gu, Xihui; Singh, Vijay P.; Kong, Dongdong; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-08-01

    China is an agricultural country with the largest population in the world. However, intensification of droughts and floods and amplification of precipitation extremes are having critical negative impacts on agriculture. In this study, flood- and drought-affected, flood- and drought-damaged crop areas, and also flood- and drought-induced agricultural loss from 29 provinces across China are analyzed in both space and time. Results indicate the following: (1) Large parts of China are dominated by intensified floods. Comparatively, spatial ranges dominated by intensifying drought hazards are smaller than those by intensifying flood hazards. (2) Drought intensity is increasing in northwest China with moderate changes in the degree of influence. Increasing flood intensity can be observed in northwest, southwest and central China. However, flood risks are higher in arid regions such as northwest China and drought risks are higher in humid regions such as southwest China. (3) Agreements are identified between abrupt behaviors of flood-affected and -destroyed crop areas. The change points of flood-affected and -destroyed crop areas is in the 1980s in northeast, north and central China and in the 1990s in south and southwest China. Nevertheless, spatial patterns of the change points in the drought-affected and -destroyed crop areas are sporadic but not confirmative. (4) Flood- and drought-induced losses of agricultural production have significant increasing trends in most parts of China. The loss rate and loss magnitude of agriculture before change points are significantly higher than those after change points. (5) Generally, amplifications of precipitation extremes, decreasing consecutive wet days and increasing consecutive dry days in both space and time are the major driving factors behind the changes of drought- and flood-affected, and -destroyed crop areas and their impacts on agriculture across China. These results are theoretically and practically relevant for

  4. The cultivated agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)

  5. Evaluating the Efficacy of Three U.S. Department of Agriculture-Approved Antimicrobial Sprays for Reducing Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Surrogate Populations on Bob Veal Carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Effective antimicrobial intervention strategies to reduce Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) risks associated with veal are needed. This study evaluated the efficacy of lactic acid (4.5%, pH 2.0), Citrilow (pH 1.2), and Beefxide (2.25%, pH 2.3) for reducing STEC surrogates on prerigor and chilled bob veal carcasses and monitored the effects of these interventions on chilled carcass color. Dehided bob veal carcasses were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of rifampin-resistant, surrogate E. coli bacteria.E. coli surrogates were enumerated after inoculation, after water wash, after prechill carcass antimicrobial spray application, after chilling for 24 h, and after postchill carcass antimicrobial spray application; carcass color was measured throughout the process. A standard carcass water wash (∼50°C) reduced the STEC surrogate population by 0.9 log CFU/cm(2) (P ≤ 0.05). All three antimicrobial sprays applied to prerigor carcasses delivered an additional ∼0.5-log reduction (P ≤ 0.05) of the surrogates. Chilling of carcasses for 24 h reduced (P ≤ 0.05) the surrogate population by an additional ∼0.4 log cycles. The postchill application of the antimicrobial sprays provided no further reductions. Carcass L*, a*, and b* color values were not different (P > 0.05) among carcass treatments. Generally, the types and concentrations of the antimicrobial sprays evaluated herein did not negatively impact visual or instrumental color of chilled veal carcasses. This study demonstrates that warm water washing, followed by a prechill spray treatment with a low-pH chemical intervention, can effectively reduce STEC risks associated with veal carcasses; this provides processors a validated control point in slaughter operations. PMID:27296599

  6. RESEARCH ON THE LABOUR FORCE FROM ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Through this research is analyzed labor force from Romanian agriculture. The agriculture in Romania has a very large share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Compared to other countries, the share of romanian agriculture in the GDP is 1.6 times higher compared to Hungary, almost three times compared to Poland and more than nine times to European Union. This does not explain the performance of romanian agriculture, but rather show the underperforming of the other sectors (industry and services sector from Romania compared to those sectors of the developed countries. Also, Romania is currently one of the European countries, with the most farmers about 30% of the total active population. This share is almost 40% of the number of farmers, existing in the European Union, where the share of the active population in agriculture of all activities, is less than 5%. In Romania, the share of active population employed in agriculture, was relatively stable until 1990, about 3 million people were employed in this area. Structural economic reforms and dismantling of Agricultural Production Cooperatives of the early 1990s led to a drastic increase of the labor force employed in agriculture area. Rural labor force is engaged mainly in the agricultural sector, which is one of the major constraints of economic development of the country. Regarding of the quantitative and qualitative structural evolution of the labor resources in romanian agriculture, on long-term, the employment in agriculture fall into the general tend of all countries wich are in the course of modernization, respectively of the absolute and relative reduction.

  7. Estimating Ancestral Population Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Wakeley, J.; Hey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The expected numbers of different categories of polymorphic sites are derived for two related models of population history: the isolation model, in which an ancestral population splits into two descendents, and the size-change model, in which a single population undergoes an instantaneous change in size. For the isolation model, the observed numbers of shared, fixed, and exclusive polymorphic sites are used to estimate the relative sizes of the three populations, ancestral plus two descendent...

  8. THE ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE – A MODEL OF DURABLE AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    TABITA CORNELIA ADAMOV; T. IANCU; ANDREA NAGY; COSMINA-SIMONA TOADER

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the community agriculture politics orientation toward a natural agriculture, where the concept of ecological agriculture has a very well defined place, it is necessary to intensify the efforts to promote the ecological agriculture practices and to inform the farmers about the importance and the role of the ecological technologies and, last but not least, the economical advantages and also the advantages to improve the environment. The ecological agriculture (similar term for...

  9. Agricultural land evaluation in the process of agricultural land consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Fištravec, Polonca

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land is limited and therefore needs to be protected, preserved and adequately managed. One of the most important instruments of rural planning as well as agricultural land planning represent agricultural operations, first of all the process of land consolidation. Diploma thesis deals with the process of agricultural land consolidation as a whole, emphasizing the agricultural land evaluation during the process. This is cruicial for just and efficient dealings of the...

  10. Agents adopting agriculture : Modeling the agricultural transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, Elske; de Boer, Bart; Hankel, Albert; Verheij, Bart; Nolfi, S; Baldassarre, G; Calabretta, R; Hallam, JCT; Marocco, D; Meyer, JA; Miglino, O; Parisi, D

    2006-01-01

    The question "What drove foragers to farm?" has drawn answers from many different disciplines, often in the form of verbal models. Here, we take one such model, that of the ideal free distribution, and implement it as an agent-based computer simulation. Populations distribute themselves according to

  11. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  12. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  13. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, INTERDEPENDENCE AND UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jock R.

    1982-01-01

    Interdependence has always been central to economics but assumes pressing importance for agricultural economists as they deal with industrialising agricultures. Continued unresolvable uncertainties, when properly recognised, also add to the challenge of relevant work in agricultural economics. The related roles of interdependence and uncertainty are illustrated through examples from the progress of agricultural technology and enhancement of food security.

  14. Population dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    recapture analysis with model estimates. The utility of combining sources of information into analysis of populations was the explicit subject of the other two papers. Gauthier & Lebreton (2004 draw on a long–term study of an Arctic–breeding Goose population, where both extensive mark–recapture, ring recovery, and census data are available. The primary goal is to use these various sources of information to to evaluate the effect of increased harvests on dynamics of the population. A number of methods are compared; most notably they describe an approach based on the Kalman filter which allows for different sources of information to be used in the same model, that is demographic data (i.e. transition matrix and census data (i.e. annual survey. They note that one advantage of this approach is that it attempts to minimize both uncertainties associated with the survey and demographic parameters based on the variance of each estimate. The final paper, by Brooks, King and Morgan (Brooks et al., 2004 extends the notion of the combining information in a common model further. They present a Bayesian analysis of joint ring–recovery and census data using a state–space model allowing for the fact that not all members of the population are directly observable. They then impose a Leslie–matrix–based model on the true population counts describing the natural birth–death and age transition processes. Using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC approach (which eliminates the need for some of the standard assumption often invoked in use of a Kalman filter, Brooks and colleagues describe methods to combine information, including potentially relevant covariates that might explain some of the variation, within a larger framework that allows for discrimination (selection amongst alternative models. We submit that all of the papers presented in this session indicate clearly significant interest in approaches for combining data and modeling approaches. The Bayesian framework appears a natural

  15. Triatoma rubrovaria (Blanchard, 1843 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae II: trophic resources and ecological observations of five populations collected in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Carlos Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma rubrovaria has become the most frequently captured triatomine species after the control of T. infestans in the State of Rio Grande do Sul (RS, Brazil. Isoenzymatic and chromatic studies indicate the existence of, at least, two distinct phenotypic patterns of T. rubrovaria in RS. The geographic variation noted through molecular tools may also result in distinct profiles of vectorial potentiality. In order to enhance our understanding of the bionomic knowledge of T. rubrovaria separate batches of the species were collected from different municipalities of RS distant from 72 to 332 km: Santana do Livramento (natural ecotope, Santana do Livramento (artificial ecotope, Santiago (natural ecotope, Canguçu (peridomicile and Encruzilhada do Sul (natural ecotope. A total of 285 specimens were collected, 85 specimens kept sufficient fecal material in their guts for the precipitin analysis. The results indicated the food eclecticism for this species and the anti-rodent serum showed the highest positivity in most localities. From the total of analyzed samples, only 1.3% of unique positivity for human blood was registered, all of them for Santiago population. This reactivity to human blood may be associated to pastures activities in the field.

  16. Population dynamics of rose aphid Macrosiphum rosae L. on different cultivars of Rosa indica L. in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research was carried out at the Pir Mehr Ali Shah-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi research field area on rose plants for rose aphid populations during 2008-09. Data were recorded on weekly basis. Nymphs, winged and wingless adults were counted from leaves (upper, middle and lower leaves), buds and flowers by visual observation from tagged plants. Aphid populations start to develop in November and its population decline with decline in temperature in December. While its population started rising again at the end of February. Significantly more aphid populations were observed on Perfecta than other varieties; however, significantly few aphids were observed on Christan Diar. These studies revealed that farmers growing roses on a commercial scale should grow Christan Diar to avoid aphid attack. Maximum average number of aphid nymph, winged and wingeless adults on leaves, buds and flowers were 11.11, 4.97 and 10.13, respectively observed on Perfecta variety. (author)

  17. Earth Observations for Global Water Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Richard; Strauch, Adrian; Toll, David; Fekete, Balazs; Cripe, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The combined effects of population growth, increasing demands for water to support agriculture, energy security, and industrial expansion, and the challenges of climate change give rise to an urgent need to carefully monitor and assess trends and variations in water resources. Doing so will ensure that sustainable access to adequate quantities of safe and useable water will serve as a foundation for water security. Both satellite and in situ observations combined with data assimilation and models are needed for effective, integrated monitoring of the water cycle's trends and variability in terms of both quantity and quality. On the basis of a review of existing observational systems, we argue that a new integrated monitoring capability for water security purposes is urgently needed. Furthermore, the components for this capability exist and could be integrated through the cooperation of national observational programmes. The Group on Earth Observations should play a central role in the design, implementation, management and analysis of this system and its products.

  18. Helping agricultural pollination & bees in farmland

    OpenAIRE

    Balfour, Nicholas James

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that bees are vital to crop pollination. However, modern agricultural practices are occupying an increasing share of the world's land area and have been heavily linked to declining bee populations. This thesis explores: i) the foraging behaviour of the honey bee (Apis mellifera) and its influence on crop pollination, and ii) the impact of current farmland management on bees and other flower visiting insects. Chapter 3 demonstrates, via waggle dance decoding, tha...

  19. Integrated aerospace technologies in precision agriculture support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a scenery where agriculture plays a more and more 'decisive and strategic role, the spread, in that sector, of aerospace and advanced robotic technology, more and more' accessible, meets the needs of basing decisions on integrated information, not only for increase production, but also to ensure food quality 'to the world population, minimizing the environmental impacts and climatic problems, and enhancing biodiversity'.

  20. Brazilian Agriculture and Policy Changes under GATT

    OpenAIRE

    Michael D. Helmar

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture has been central to Brazil's development from the 1500's to the mid-1900's. During this period, Brazil's economy was geared toward exporting a small number of primary products and its society was predominantly rural (Baer 1989). Since the Great Depression, and more rapidly since World War II, Brazil's population has become urbanized and the economy has been dominated by an expanding industrial sector. Many policies and investments needed to fuel industrial growth have been at the ...

  1. Climate change and agriculture in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter reviews the current knowledge on effects of climate change on agriculture in Denmark, and the contribution of agriculture to greenhouse gas emissions in Denmark. The chapter also considers the possibilities of Danish agriculture to adapt to changing climate and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The relations to other aspects of global change are discussed, including liberalisation of world markets and changes in land use. Scenarios of climate change for Denmark suggest increases in annual mean temperature of 1 to 4 deg. C by the end of the 21st century depending on socioeconomic development. Winter rainfall may increase up to 20%. This implies a wide range of possible consequences. Agricultural productivity may be expected to increase under increasing temperature and increasing CO2 concentration. Highter temperatures will increase the risk of pests and deseases. Warming in association with increased winter rainfall will also increase the risk of nitrate leaching. Climate change may thus be expected to reinforce the current trends in Danish agriculture of declining cattle population and increasing pig and cereal production. Apart from an anticipated continued decline in total agricultural area, land use will probably not be greatly affected. The current environmental regulation in Denmark aims at reducing pesticide use and nitrogen losses from agriculture. Some of the regulations are very detailed and directly regulate farming practices in a manner that may not provide the most cost-effective mechanism under a changed climate. Some of these existing rigid frameworks for environmental regulation should thus be substituted by more flexible goal-oriented environmental protection strategies, in order to ensure sustainability of farming under global climate change. (LN)

  2. Changing Structure of Turkish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Charles K.

    1983-01-01

    Professor Resat Aktan, whose memory is honoured by this paper, occupied a unique place in the history of Turkish agriculture--teacher, scholar, Minister of Agriculture, and long-time Turkish delegate to the IAAE. Among his many accomplishments, he led two landmark agricultural surveys which serve to chronicle the development of modern Turkish agriculture. While Ataturk had set Turkey on the road to modernization of agriculture, the end of World War II still found Turkish wheat farming little ...

  3. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  4. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  5. Factor Analysis of Agricultural Development Indicators from Iranian Agriculture Experts’ Viewpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Sabouri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and its development is the foundation of development in Iran as a developing country. So, it can be regarded as the foundation for economical and social development. The capabilities of agriculture sector are limited and its efficiency is trivial because of neglecting agricultural development and keeping its support just as a slogan. The transformation of agriculture to a developed, dynamic, efficient environment depends not only on appropriate climate and natural resources but also on human resource development in the relevant sector. The main purpose of the present research was to study and recognize agricultural development indicators from agriculture experts’ viewpoints (including researchers, trainers and extension experts in six provinces in Iran on the basis of Adjacent Provinces Plan. The study was designed with three phases of theoretical foundations, field operations and data analysis. The statistical population was 863 experts, out of which 198 experts were selected by stratified sampling. The validity and reliability of measurement tool (questionnaire was analyzed by SPSS software package. The study was a correlation-descriptive study in which factor analysis statistics was used in addition to descriptive statistics. Experts grouped indicators of future agricultural development in nine groups (access to inputs, application of technologies for the development of human resource and sustainability; reduction of losses; economical development; improvement of infrastructures; agricultural mechanization; social status; improvement of marketing; land reform; yield increase. Results about the difference in respondents’ viewpoints revealed significant differences in experts’ viewpoints in six studied province about relevant variables and in their viewpoints about the components of agricultural development (infrastructure improvement, marketing, optimum management and sustainability, human resource development and economical

  6. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  7. Knowing Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvany, P.

    2001-01-01

    The term "agricultural biodiversity" is relatively recent, perhaps post-CBD. Although, the specific nature of the biodiversity used by people was recognised for a long time, the overwhelming emphasis in the CBD was on general biodiversity, mainly 'wild' flora and fauna that inhabit this fragile biosphere in which people also live.

  8. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  9. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  10. Agriculture Oral Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  11. Community Supported Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Givens, Emily

    2009-01-01

    A report on the definition, history, production, membership and local benefits of community supported agriculture. Editor's note: the following article was written as a class assignment for Dr. Greg Welbaum's Vegetable Production course at Virginia Tech. Emily provides some good history and information on the CSA marketing option for specialty crop growers." "Originally printed in Virginia Vegetable, Small Fruit and Specialty Crops, June 2002

  12. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  13. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  14. Agricultural Development in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Hampwaye, Godfrey; Phiri, Douglas

    Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing...

  15. Mexico Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally

    2008-01-01

    As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.

  16. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  17. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  18. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research

  19. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: First results from the SCUBA-2 observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud and a virial analysis of its prestellar core population

    CERN Document Server

    Pattle, K; Kirk, J M; White, G J; Drabek-Maunder, E; Buckle, J; Beaulieu, S F; Berry, D S; Broekhoven-Fiene, H; Currie, M J; Fich, M; Hatchell, J; Kirk, H; Jenness, T; Johnstone, D; Mottram, J C; Nutter, D; Pineda, J E; Quinn, C; Salji, C; Tisi, S; Walker-Smith, S; Di Francesco, J; Hogerheijde, M R; André, Ph; Bastien, P; Bresnahan, D; Butner, H; Chen, M; Chrysostomou, A; Coude, S; Davis, C J; Duarte-Cabral, A; Fiege, J; Friberg, P; Friesen, R; Fuller, G A; Graves, S; Greaves, J; Gregson, J; Griffin, M J; Holland, W; Joncas, G; Knee, L B G; Könyves, V; Mairs, S; Marsh, K; Matthews, B C; Moriarty-Schieven, G; Rawlings, J; Richer, J; Robertson, D; Rosolowsky, E; Rumble, D; Sadavoy, S; Spinoglio, L; Thomas, H; Tothill, N; Viti, S; Wouterloot, J; Yates, J; Zhu, M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present the first observations of the Ophiuchus molecular cloud performed as part of the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey (GBS) with the SCUBA-2 instrument. We demonstrate methods for combining these data with previous HARP CO, Herschel, and IRAM N$_{2}$H$^{+}$ observations in order to accurately quantify the properties of the SCUBA-2 sources in Ophiuchus. We produce a catalogue of all of the sources found by SCUBA-2. We separate these into protostars and starless cores. We list all of the starless cores and perform a full virial analysis, including external pressure. This is the first time that external pressure has been included in this level of detail. We find that the majority of our cores are either bound or virialised. Gravitational energy and external pressure are on average of a similar order of magnitude, but with some variation from region to region. We find that cores in the Oph A region are gravitationally bound prestellar cores, while cores in the Oph C and ...

  20. Jet-powered supernovae of $\\sim 10^5\\,M_{\\odot}$ population III stars are observable by $Euclid$, $WFIRST$, $WISH$, and $JWST$

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Ioka, Kunihito; Nakamura, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Supermassive black holes observed at high redshift $z\\gtrsim6$ could grow from direct collapse black holes (DCBHs) with mass $\\sim10^5\\,M_{\\odot}$, which result from the collapse of supermassive stars (SMSs). If a relativistic jet is launched from a DCBH, it can break out of the collapsing SMS and produce a gamma-ray burst (GRB). Although most of the GRB jets are off-axis from our line of sight, we show that the energy injected from the jet into a cocoon is huge $\\sim10^{55-56}\\,{\\rm{erg}}$, so that the cocoon fireball is observed as ultra-luminous supernovae of $\\sim10^{45-46}\\rm{\\,erg\\,s^{-1}}$ for $\\sim5000 [(1+z)/16] \\rm{\\,days}$. They are detectable by the future telescopes with near infrared bands, such as, $Euclid$, $WFIRST$, $WISH$, and $JWST$ up to $z\\sim20$ and $\\sim 100$ events per year, providing a direct evidence of the DCBH scenario.

  1. Meeting the Challenges for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Les Copeland

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring food security is an ongoing global challenge. Many forecasts point to a need to increase food production by at least 70% if we are to feed the world’s projected population of nine billion in 2050. Recent volatility in commodity prices and the general upward trend in the cost of food are indicators that global food systems are now driven by demand rather than supply. There are various reasons for this: greater demand for animal protein with economic growth in developing countries; the continuing increase in world population; competition between food and bioenergy crops for land and water; low inventories of world grain stocks; reduced investment in agricultural R&D; and unfavorable weather resulting in a succession of poor harvests around the world. Increasing production of grains, which are the foundation of the human food supply, will have to be achieved through higher crop yields without boosting inputs of land, water and energy. Meeting community expectations for environmental stewardship and sustainability, and adapting food production to increasingly variable climate, add greatly to the challenge.

  2. Eating fossil fuels : oil, food and the coming crisis in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeiffer, D.A.

    2006-07-01

    This book proposed that a pending agricultural crisis is linked with an anticipated energy crisis. The book demonstrated that the expansion of agriculture has appropriated much of the photosynthetic capacity of the planet, and that population explosions in the world are not sustainable. The importance of fossil fuel-based agriculture for sustaining current population in North America was discussed. North Korea was used as a case study to demonstrate the dangers of ineffective agricultural practices. The impacts of agricultural and energy crises on health and society were reviewed along with issues related to land and water degradation and the use of fertilizers and diesel fuel. The book also provided a critique of the green revolution. It was suggested that energy depletion will have a disastrous effect on agriculture if sustainable, relocalized agricultural policies are not adopted around the world. A case study of Cuba was used to demonstrate the efficacy of sustainable agricultural practices. A resource guide was included. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Age at Menarche, Level of Education, Parity and the Risk of Hysterectomy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses of Population-Based Observational Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise F Wilson

    Full Text Available Although rates have declined, hysterectomy is still a frequent gynaecological procedure. To date, there has been no systematic quantification of the relationships between early/mid-life exposures and hysterectomy. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to quantify the associations between age at menarche, education level, parity and hysterectomy.Eligible studies were identified by searches in PubMed and Embase through March 2015. Study-specific estimates were summarised using random effects meta-analysis. Heterogeneity was explored using sub-group analysis and meta-regression.Thirty-two study populations were identified for inclusion in at least one meta-analysis. Each year older at menarche was associated with lower risk of hysterectomy-summary hazard ratio 0.86 (95% confidence interval: 0.78, 0.95; I2 = 0%; summary odds ratio 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82, 0.94; I2 = 61%. Low education levels conferred a higher risk of hysterectomy in the lowest versus highest level meta-analysis (summary hazard ratio 1.87 (95% confidence interval: 1.25, 2.80; I2 = 86%, summary odds ratio 1.51 (95% confidence interval: 1.35, 1.69; I2 = 90% and dose-response meta-analysis (summary odds ratio 1.17 (95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.23; I2 = 85% per each level lower of education. Sub-group analysis showed that the birth cohort category of study participants, the reference category used for level of education, the year the included article was published, quality of the study (as assessed by the authors and control for the key variables accounted for the high heterogeneity between studies in the education level meta-analyses. In the meta-analyses of studies of parity and hysterectomy the results were not statistically significant.The present meta-analyses suggest that the early life factors of age at menarche and lower education level are associated with hysterectomy, although this evidence should be interpreted with some caution due to variance

  4. Examining iPod Use by Texas Agricultural Science and Technology Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Miller, Kimberly A.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish baseline data regarding the adoption of iPods and similar technologies by agricultural science and technology teachers. The population consisted of all agricultural science and technology teachers in Texas. A sample of 310 was randomly drawn from the population. Study findings reveal that while…

  5. Modeling of Movement of Field Gudgeon, Gnathopogon elongatus elongatus, in Agricultural Canals in Yatsu Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Mizutani, Masakazu; Mori, Atsushi; Watabe, Keiji

    It is important as quantitative information for making a decision of project sites for networking of water area, to predict reproductive process of fish population when consolidating fish-ways on points dividing fish habitat. To that end, it is necessary to predict the number of individuals migrating to new habitats. Hence, modeling of movement of individuals is necessary as a first step in population modeling. We constructed a mathematical model of movement of field gudgeon in agricultural canals, comparing with observed data obtained by our surveys. A unit time span of this model is 50 days. This model is able to consider existence of 2 types of movement, namely, individuals of sedentary type and individuals of ambulant type. Parameters of the model were decided based on observed data which correspond to 1 unit span. Next, moving distances of 6 individuals for 4 unit span were calculated using those parameters. A histogram of calculated values was similar to that of observed data which correspond to 4 unit span. The model is expected to provide an important immigration component to a population dynamics model which is currently under development. The population model is needed to predict population recovery processes where areas of paddy fields are joined in larger networks through construction of fish-ways.

  6. [The population problems in the countryside of China from the viewpoint of ecological economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y

    1983-11-29

    There is a very close relationship between the population and the economy. The economy is the foundation for the existence and development of the population. Different socioeconomic patterns will determine population rules and population development, they have a strong influence on the social economy and the development of the entire society, and they may control the pace of social and economic development. In the last 30 years, excessive population growth has caused a great many difficulties for Socialist construction, overburdened agriculture, and created an imbalance in agricultural ecology. In order to understand the relationship between the development of the agricultural population and agricultural production, we have to understand to dominant position held by people in an agricultural ecology system. People have to control their own reproduction and match it with the productivity of the agricultural ecology system. Unrestrained population growth in the countryside is the main reason for an imbalance in China's agricultural ecology. Urgent action is needed to control the population growth in the rural areas, to fully utilized the available labor force, to promote the level of agricultural productivity, and to provide more employment opportunities. The final goal is to match China's huge agricultural human resources with its rich resources. investment should be encouraged to increase the wisdom and quality of the agricultural population. Both the quality and quantity of the agricultural labor force should also match development of agricultural productivity. In this way, a normal condition of agricultural ecology may be maintained. PMID:12159394

  7. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  8. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  9. Many hands make hard work, or why agriculture is not a puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Guzmán, Ricardo Andrés

    2007-01-01

    The shift from hunting and gathering to agriculture, some 10,000 years ago, triggered the first demographic explosion in history. Along with population, working time increased, while food consumption remained at the subsistence level. For that reason, most anthropologists regard the adoption of agriculture as an economical puzzle. I show, using a neoclassical economic model, that there is nothing puzzling about the adoption of agriculture. Agriculture brings four technological changes: an ...

  10. Underdeveloped Supply Chain dynamics of Indian Agriculture: Reference to Information Technology and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Parwez, Sazzad

    2013-01-01

    Agriculture in India is most important sector for food security and socio-economic development. Agriculture accounted for about 14% of the GDP and employed about 60% of the country’s population. Paper tries to explore the problems faced by Indian agriculture for food security in terms of inadequate infrastructure and highly inefficient supply chain in context of information technology. This paper examines the critical issues at each sub-system of agriculture supply chain, starting from the in...

  11. Climate change, rural livelihoods and agriculture (focus on food security) in Asia-Pacific region

    OpenAIRE

    S. Mahendra Dev

    2011-01-01

    Climate change is a major challenge for agriculture, food security and rural livelihoods for billions of people including the poor in the Asia-Pacific region. Agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate change due to its high dependence on climate and weather and because people involved in agriculture tend to be poorer compared with urban residents. More than 60 per cent of the population is directly or indirectly relying on agriculture as a source of livelihood in this region. Agric...

  12. Collaborative Masters Program in Agricultural and Applied Economics for Eastern, Central and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bashaasha, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    Program Genesis: Since the 1970s, African economies have under-performed and incomes have declined. Similarly, the agricultural sectors have malfunctioned and agricultural production shrunk despite over two-thirds of the population being dependent on agriculture for survival subjecting them to food insecurity, reduced incomes, massive poverty, unemployment and unsustainable resource utilisation. The decline in agricultural performance was brought about by numerous factors, including markets d...

  13. Reducing the Vulnerability of Uzbekistan's Agricultural Systems to Climate Change : Impact Assessment and Adaptation Options

    OpenAIRE

    William R. Sutton; Jitendra P. Srivastava; James E. Neumann; Droogers, Peter; Brent B. Boehlert

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is inextricably tied to climate, making agriculture one of the most climate-sensitive of all economic sectors. In countries such as Uzbekistan, the risks of climate change for the agricultural sector are a particularly immediate and important problem because the majority of the rural population depends either directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. Recent trends in water availability and the presence of drought in Uzbekistan have underscored these ...

  14. Youth in agriculture: Prospects and challenges in the Sissala area of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyuo Alfred Naamwintome

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is core to every nation’s development especially in this 21st century; hence, the investment on it by both developed and the developing countries. In a developing country like Ghana, however, more people are involved in agriculture but attract limited investment. Youth participation in agriculture for its sustained contribution to a nation’s development is crucial but this is not ascertained in the study area. This paper discusses the findings of a study which was principally a limited youth participation in agriculture. The survey was carried out in the Sissala area of Ghana, comprising of the Sissala East and Sissala West districts. Multi-stage sampling was employed at the district, area council and then community levels. The two districts were purposefully sampled within which area councils were randomly sampled for communities and then sampled population for the study ensuring that 25 to 50% of the population is captured for the study. Relevant data was solicited through the use of questionnaire at individual levels, focus group discussions and in addition to observation especially during the data collection. The study revealed that there is movement away from farming culminating to limited youth participation in agriculture as a result of limited youth control of resources or products even though farming is profitable. It is recommended on the basis of this that an enabling environment be created, for instance resources such as capital and land and products from farming should be controlled by the youth since this will motivate and attract them to the profit thereof.

  15. Stellar Populations of Lyman Break Galaxies at z=1-3 in the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Hathi, N P; Ryan, R E; Finkelstein, S L; McCarthy, P J; Windhorst, R A; Yan, H; Koekemoer, A M; Rutkowski, M J; O'Connell, R W; Straughn, A N; Balick, B; Bond, H E; Calzetti, D; Disney, M J; Dopita, M A; Frogel, J A; Hall, D N B; Holtzman, J A; Kimble, R A; Paresce, F; Saha, A; Silk, J I; Trauger, J T; Walker, A R; Whitmore, B C; Young, E T

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z=1-3 selected using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS channel filters. These HST/WFC3 observations cover about 50 sq. arcmin in the GOODS-South field as a part of the WFC3 Early Release Science program. These LBGs at z=1-3 are selected using dropout selection criteria similar to high redshift LBGs. The deep multi-band photometry in this field is used to identify best-fit SED models, from which we infer the following results: (1) the photometric redshift estimate of these dropout selected LBGs is accurate to within few percent; (2) the UV spectral slope {\\beta} is redder than at high redshift (z>3), where LBGs are less dusty; (3) on average, LBGs at z=1-3 are massive, dustier and more highly star-forming, compared to LBGs at higher redshifts with similar luminosities, though their median values are similar within 1{\\sigma} uncertainties. This could imply that identical dropout selection techniq...

  16. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z ≅ 1-3 IN THE HST/WFC3 EARLY RELEASE SCIENCE OBSERVATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ≅ 1-3 selected using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS channel filters. These HST/WFC3 observations cover about 50 arcmin2 in the GOODS-South field as a part of the WFC3 Early Release Science program. These LBGs at z ≅ 1-3 are selected using dropout selection criteria similar to high-redshift LBGs. The deep multi-band photometry in this field is used to identify best-fit SED models, from which we infer the following results: (1) the photometric redshift estimate of these dropout-selected LBGs is accurate to within few percent; (2) the UV spectral slope β is redder than at high redshift (z > 3), where LBGs are less dusty; (3) on average, LBGs at z ≅ 1-3 are massive, dustier, and more highly star forming, compared to LBGs at higher redshifts with similar luminosities (0.1L* ∼ 3, a true Lyman break selection at z ≅ 2 is essential. The future HST UV surveys, both wider and deeper, covering a large luminosity range are important to better understand LBG properties and their evolution.

  17. Nest density and other observations on a population of Aneuretus simoni Emery, 1893 (Formicidae, Aneuretinae and other ants in Indikada Mukalana Forest Reserve in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnayake K. S. Dias

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sri Lankan Relict Ant, Aneuretus simoni Emery, survives in several wet zone and intermediate zone forests in Sri Lanka. Nests of this species and other ants were surveyed at 159 m and 291 m elevations in Indikada Mukalana Forest Reserve by laying 20 quadrats of 1 m × 1 m at two plots of each locality in December, 2015. The number of ant nests within each quadrat was recorded; then the frequency of nest occurrence out of 40 quadrats, percentage nest abundance and mean nest density of A. simoni, as well as associated ant fauna were calculated. Percentage frequency of worker ant occurrence was also investigated using pitfall traps. Eighteen genera and 21 species in Aneuretinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae and Ponerinae were recorded from the two methods. Nests of A. simoni were found only in the locality at 291 m altitude in the forest; 17.5 % of quadrats with an A. simoni colonies, 9.7% of nest abundance in relation to that of other ant species and 0.18 m2 of mean nest density were observed. Nest density of A. simoni had the fourth rank among that of the other species. Frequency of occurrence of A. simoni workers in the pitfall traps at lower and upper elevations was 2% and 3%, respectively. An actualized map showing the current distribution of A. simoni is produced.

  18. The Spitzer c2d Survey of Large, Nearby, Interstellar Clouds. XII. The Perseus YSO Population as Observed with IRAC and MIPS

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Kaisa E; Lai, Shih-Ping; Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J

    2015-01-01

    The Spitzer Space Telescope mapped the Perseus molecular cloud complex with IRAC and MIPS as part of the c2d Spitzer Legacy project. This paper combines the observations from both instruments giving an overview of low-mass star formation across Perseus from 3.6 to 70 micron. We provide an updated list of young stellar objects with new classifications and source fluxes from previous works, identifying 369 YSOs in Perseus with the Spitzer dataset. By synthesizing the IRAC and MIPS maps of Perseus and building on the work of previous papers in this series (Jorgensen et al. 2006, Rebull et al. 2007), we present a current census of star formation across the cloud and within smaller regions. 67% of the YSOs are associated with the young clusters NGC 1333 and IC 348. The majority of the star formation activity in Perseus occurs in the regions around the clusters, to the eastern and western ends of the cloud complex. The middle of the cloud is nearly empty of YSOs despite containing regions of high visual extinction....

  19. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  20. An observational study of the feasibility of Airtraq guided intubations with Ring Adair Elvin tubes in pediatric population with cleft lip and palate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashima; Durga, Padmaja; Gurajala, Indira; Ramchandran, Gopinath

    2015-01-01

    Context: The airway management requires refined skills and technical help when associated with cleft lip and palate. Airtraq has improved our airway management skills and has been successfully used for rescue intubation in difficult pediatric airways. Aims: This study was to evaluate the efficacy of Airtraq as the primary intubation device in patients with cleft lip and palate. The study adheres to the STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational Studies Epidemiology Statement. Subjects and Methods: A total of 85 children posted consecutively for lip and palate repair were enrolled. Children were intubated with Ring Adair Elvin (RAE) tube using size 1 and 2 of Airtraq device. The design of Airtraq has an anatomical limitation to hold RAE tubes. The preformed bend of the tube was straightened with a malleable stylet. The intubations were assessed for device manipulations and time taken for glottis visualization and intubation, airway complications such as bleeding, laryngospasm and failed intubations. Statistical Analysis Used: The outcome data were reported as numbers and percentages or range with identified median value, where applicable. Results: The success rate of Airtraq guided intubations was 98.21%. The cumulative insertion times and intubation times were 31.50 ± 12.57 s and 48.04 ± 35.73 s respectively. Airtraq manipulations were applied in 25.45% subjects. Conclusions: The presence of cleft lip or palate did not hamper the insertion of Airtraq. The use of malleable stylet to facilitate the loading of the preformed tube into the guide channel is a simple and efficacious improvisation. Airtraq can be utilized as a primary intubation device in children with orofacial clefts. PMID:26712974