WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural plot scale

  1. Optimal management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic optimization framework for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. Different open loop and closed loop control strategies are evaluated within this stochastic optimization framework in order to generate reliable stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). The resulting database of SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  2. Integrated management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. Recent trends of weather extremes in Saxony, Germany also enhance drought risks for agricultural production. In addition, signals of longer and more intense drought conditions during the vegetation period can be found in future regional climate scenarios for Saxony. However, those climate predictions are associated with high uncertainty and therefore, e.g. stochastic methods are required to analyze the impact of changing climate patterns on future crop water requirements and water availability. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic approach for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. The developed concept of stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  3. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T. X.

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of 20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km2 in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km2 in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km2 on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km2 on the woodland plot, 213 t/km2 on the grassland plot, 467 t/km2 on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km2 on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km2 on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  4. Effectiveness of Conservation Measures in Reducing Runoff and Soil Loss Under Different Magnitude-Frequency Storms at Plot and Catchment Scales in the Semi-arid Agricultural Landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, T X

    2016-03-01

    In this study, multi-year stormflow data collected at both catchment and plot scales on an event basis were used to evaluate the efficiency of conservation. At the catchment scale, soil loss from YDG, an agricultural catchment with no conservation measures, was compared with that from CZG, an agricultural catchment with an implementation of a range of conservation measures. With an increase of storm recurrence intervals in the order of 20 years, the mean event sediment yield was 639, 1721, 5779, 15191, 19627, and 47924 t/km(2) in YDG, and was 244, 767, 3077, 4679, 8388, and 15868 t/km(2) in CZG, which represented a reduction effectiveness of 61.8, 55.4, 46.7, 69.2, 57.2, and 66.8 %, respectively. Storm events with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years contributed about two-thirds of the total runoff and sediment in both YDG and CZG catchments. At the plot scale, soil loss from one cultivated slopeland was compared with that from five conservation plots. The mean event soil loss was 1622 t/km(2) on the cultivated slopeland, in comparison to 27.7 t/km(2) on the woodland plot, 213 t/km(2) on the grassland plot, 467 t/km(2) on the alfalfa plot, 236 t/km(2) on the terraceland plot, and 642 t/km(2) on the earthbank plot. Soil loss per unit area from all the plots was significantly less than that from the catchments for storms of all categories of recurrence intervals.

  5. Measurements of the effectiveness of conservation agriculture at the field scale using radioisotopic techniques and runoff plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, L.; Klik, A.; Toloza, A.; Benmansour, M.; Geisler, A.; Gerstmann, U. C.

    2009-04-01

    Growing evidence of the cost of soil erosion on agricultural land and off site impact of associated processes has emphasized the needs for quantitative assessment of erosion rates to develop and assess erosion control technology and to allocate conservation resources and development of conservation regulation, policies and programmes. Our main study goal was to assess the magnitude of deposition rates using Fallout Radionuclides ‘FRNs' (137-Cs and 210-Pb) and the mid-term (13 years) erosion rates using conventional runoff plot measurements in a small agricultural watershed under conventional and conservation tillage practices. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage system (CT), mechanical plough to 30 cm depth (the most common tillage system within the watershed); conservation tillage (CS) with cover crops during winter; and direct seeding (DS) no tillage with cover crops during winter. The experimental design - located in Mistelbach watershed 60 km north of Vienna/Austria - consists of one 3-metre-wide and 15-metre-long runoff plot (silt loam - slope of 14%) for each tillage system (CT, CS and DS) with the plots placed in the upper part of an agricultural field. 76 soil samples were collected to evaluate the initial fallout of 137-Cs and 210-Pb in a small forested area close to the experimental field, along a systematic multi-grid design,. In the sedimentation area of the watershed and down slope the agricultural field, 2 additional soil profiles were collected to 1 m depth. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to 2mm and analysed for their 137-Cs and 210-Pb contents using gamma detector. The main results and conclusion can be summarised as following: i) The initial 137-Cs fallout as measured in the 76 forested soil samples ranged from 1123 to 3354 Bq/m2 for an average of 1954 Bq/m2 with a coefficient of variation of 20.4 %. ii) Long-term erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of the agricultural field just up

  6. The plot size effect on soil erosion on rainfed agriculture land under different land uses in eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Bodí, M. B.; Burguet, M.; Segura, M.; Jovani, C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion at slope scale is dependent on the size of the plot. This is because soil erosion is a scale-dependent process due to the spatial variability in infiltration, the potential for sediment to be captured by vegetation and other roughness components, and the changes in erosion rates and processes with increasing amounts of runoff. The effects of plot size may also vary with land use, as plot size may be less important in areas with a more homogeneous plant cover or bares soils; meanwhile the soil transmission losses will higher on vegetation covered soils and on patchy distributed plants. A series of study plots were established in 2003 at the El Teularet experimental Station in the Sierra de Enguera in eastern Spain. The overall goal is to assess runoff and erosion rates from different land uses at different spatial scales. Thirteen sets of plots have been established, and each set consists of five adjacent plots that vary in size from 1 m2 (1 x 1 m), 2 m2 (1 x 2 m), 4 m2 (1 x 4 m), 16 m2 (2 x 8 m) and 48 m2 (3 m wide x 16 m length). Each set of plots has a different land use, and the land uses being tested in the first year of this study are fallow, ploughed but unplanted, untilled oats and beans, tilled oats and beans, straw mulch, mulched with chipped olive branches, a geotextile developed to control erosion on agricultural fields, scrub oaks (Quercus coccifera), gorse (Ulex parviflorus), and three herbicide treatments—a systemic herbicide, a contact herbicide, and a persistent herbicide. From those plots, three plots were selected to analyse the effect of the size of the plot on the soil erosion assessment. Herbicide (bare), Catch crops (oat) and scrubland were selected to analyze the soil losses during 2004 and 2005. The results shows that sediment delivery is highly dependent on the land use and land management as the scrubland contributed with null sediment yield, meanwhile the herbicide reached the largest soil loss. The soil erosion was higher

  7. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñuela, A.; Javaux, M.; Bielders, C. L.

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The Relative Surface Connection (RSC) function was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009) as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C) as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrograph at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function). For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m) and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m) with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l) or width (w) of the field. To different extents depending on the microtopography, border effects were observed for the smaller scales when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w, but a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased, the change in C being inversely proportional to the change in l. However, this observation applied only up to approx. 50-70% (depending on the hydrological response of the field) of filling of depression storage, after which no

  8. Scale effect on overland flow connectivity at the plot scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Peñuela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in present-day hydrological sciences is to enhance the performance of existing distributed hydrological models through a better description of subgrid processes, in particular the subgrid connectivity of flow paths. The relative surface connection function (RSC was proposed by Antoine et al. (2009 as a functional indicator of runoff flow connectivity. For a given area, it expresses the percentage of the surface connected to the outflow boundary (C as a function of the degree of filling of the depression storage. This function explicitly integrates the flow network at the soil surface and hence provides essential information regarding the flow paths' connectivity. It has been shown that this function could help improve the modeling of the hydrogram at the square meter scale, yet it is unknown how the scale affects the RSC function, and whether and how it can be extrapolated to other scales. The main objective of this research is to study the scale effect on overland flow connectivity (RSC function. For this purpose, digital elevation data of a real field (9 × 3 m and three synthetic fields (6 × 6 m with contrasting hydrological responses were used, and the RSC function was calculated at different scales by changing the length (l or width (w of the field. Border effects, at different extents depending on the microtopography, were observed for the smaller scales, when decreasing l or w, which resulted in a strong decrease or increase of the maximum depression storage, respectively. There was no scale effect on the RSC function when changing w. On the contrary, a remarkable scale effect was observed in the RSC function when changing l. In general, for a given degree of filling of the depression storage, C decreased as l increased. This change in C was inversely proportional to the change in l. This observation applied only up to approx. 50–70

  9. Application of GPS and Near-Surface Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Agricultural Test Plot Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field research facility with two pairs of replicated agricultural test plots (four total) was established at a location in northwest Ohio during 2005 for the purpose of studying water table management strategies. Initial efforts at this field research facility were devoted to evaluating difference...

  10. Characterization of Surface Runoff, Soil Erosion, Nutrient Loss and their relationship for Agricultural plots in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan La

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to explore the existence of relationship among rainfall, runoff, soil loss and nutrient losses from the agricultural plots located at Roorkee, Uttarakhand, India. The natural rainfall generated runoff and soil loss from the 12 agricultural runoff plots (with four land uses namely sugarcane, maize, black gram and fallow land and having slope 5%, 3% and 1% for each land use were recorded during monsoon period (June 2013 to September 2013. The highest grade plot was found to yield the highest magnitude of runoff (i.e. runoff coefficient for a given land use and soil type. The soil loss from the experimental plots of various characteristics shown that for given rainfall input, on average, the plots with sugarcane land use were found to produce high amount of soil loss followed by Maize, fallow land and Blackgram. The nutrients losses were very low in the sediment as compared to the dissolved losses. Nutrients concentrations in sediment and runoff water were found to be more during the critical period. The higher limit of seasonal sediment yield obtained from the present study is lower than soil loss tolerance limit of 2.5 to 12.5 t/ha /yr for Indian subcontinent.

  11. Instrumentation for full-year plot-scale runoff monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Replicated 0.34 ha cropping systems plots have been in place since 1991 at the USDA-ARS Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed in central Missouri. Recently, instrumentation has been installed at 18 of those plots for continuous runoff water quality and quantity monitoring. That installation require...

  12. Soil moisture - resistivity relation at the plot and catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamita, Giuseppe; Perrone, Angela; Satriani, Antonio; Brocca, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso

    2010-05-01

    The key role played by soil moisture in both Global Hydrological Cycle and Earth Radiation Budget has been claimed by numerous authors during past decades. The importance of this environmental variable is evident in several natural processes operating in a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. At continental and regional scales soil moisture influences the evapotranspiration process and so acts indirectly on the climate processes; at middle scale is one of the major controls of the infiltration-runoff soil response during rainfall events; at small scales the knowledge of soil moisture evolution is crucial for precision agriculture and the associated site-specific management practices. However, soil moisture exhibits an high temporal and spatial variability and this is even more evident in the vadose zone. Thus, in order to better understand the soil moisture dynamics it is desirable to capture its behavior at different temporal and/or spatial scales. Traditional in situ methods to measure soil moisture like TDR can be very precise and allows an high temporal resolution. Recently, the application in field of geophysical methods for capturing soil moisture spatial and temporal variations has demonstrated to be a promising tool for hydro-geological studies. One of the major advantages relies on the capability to capture the soil moisture variability at larger scales, that is decametric or hectometric scale. In particular, this study is based on the simultaneous application of the electrical resistivity and the TDR methods. We present two study cases that differ from each other by both spatial and temporal resolution. For the first one, simultaneous measurements obtained during four different period of the year and carried out within a test catchment (~60 km2) in Umbria region (central Italy) were analyzed. The second case concerns almost three months of simultaneous measurements carried out in a small test site ( sampling events during 80 days. In both case we

  13. A new instrument to measure plot-scale runoff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Stewart

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurement of the amount and timing of surface runoff at multiple scales is needed to understand fundamental hydrological processes. At the plot-scale (i.e., length scales on the order of 1 to 10 m current methods for direct measurement of runoff either store the water in a collection vessel, which is unconducive to long-term monitoring studies, or utilize expensive installations such as large-scale tipping buckets or flume/weir systems. We developed an alternative low-cost, robust and reliable instrument to measure runoff that we call the "Upwelling Bernoulli Tube" (UBeTube. The UBeTube instrument is a pipe with a slot machined in its side that is installed vertically at the base of a runoff collection system. The flow rate through the slot is inferred by measuring the water height within the pipe. The geometry of the slot can be modified to suit the range of flow rates expected for a given site; we demonstrate a slot geometry which is capable of measuring flow rates across more than three orders of magnitude (up to 300 L min−1 while requiring only 30 cm of hydraulic head. System accuracy is dependent on both the geometry of the slot and the accuracy of the water level measurements. With an off-the-shelf pressure transducer sensor, the mean theoretical error for the demonstrated slot geometry was ~17% (ranging from errors of more than 50% at low flow rates to less than 2% at high flow rates, while the observed error during validation was 1–25%. A simple correction factor reduced this mean error to −14%, and further reductions in error could be achieved through the use of taller, narrower slot dimensions (which requires greater head gradients to drive flow or through more accurate water level measurements. The UBeTube device has been successfully employed in a long-term rainfall-runoff study, demonstrating the ability of the instrument to measure surface runoff across a range of flows and conditions.

  14. Steroid hormone runoff from agricultural test plots applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Gray, James L.; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica G.; ReVollo, Rhiannon C.; Borch, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The potential presence of steroid hormones in runoff from sites where biosolids have been used as agricultural fertilizers is an environmental concern. A study was conducted to assess the potential for runoff of seventeen different hormones and two sterols, including androgens, estrogens, and progestogens from agricultural test plots. The field containing the test plots had been applied with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. Target compounds were isolated by solid-phase extraction (water samples) and pressurized solvent extraction (solid samples), derivatized, and analyzed by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Runoff samples collected prior to biosolids application had low concentrations of two hormones (estrone -1 and androstenedione -1) and cholesterol (22.5 ± 3.8 μg L-1). In contrast, significantly higher concentrations of multiple estrogens (-1), androgens (-1), and progesterone (-1) were observed in runoff samples taken 1, 8, and 35 days after biosolids application. A significant positive correlation was observed between antecedent rainfall amount and hormone mass loads (runoff). Hormones in runoff were primarily present in the dissolved phase (hormones from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters or redistributed to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. Although concentrations decrease over time, 35 days is insufficient for complete degradation of hormones in soil at this site.

  15. Effect of sheet and rill erosion on overland flow connectivity in bare agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuela Fernandez, Andres; Rocio Rodriguez Pleguezuelo, Carmen; Javaux, Mathieu; Bielders, Charles L.

    2014-05-01

    Rill erosion processes generate preferential flow paths that may increase the degree of connectivity of the soil surface and hence strongly modify its hydrological response. However, few studies have tried to quantify the effect of rill development on overland flow connectivity. For this purpose, changes in surface microtopography were monitored on three bare agricultural plots (3 m wide x 10 m long and 11% of slope) in Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium) under natural rainfall conditions. Digital elevation models of these plots were obtained on a monthly basis over a 1-year period by photogrammetry using the Micmac software. Runoff was collected at the plot outlets. To characterize the hydrological connectivity, a functional connectivity indicator was used, called the relative surface connection function (RSCf). This indicator, which relates the area connected to the outflow boundary to the degree of filling of maximum depression storage (MDS), is fast to compute and was previously shown to be able to capture runoff-relevant connectivity properties. The RSC function was calculated for each DEM and the evolution of overland flow connectivity was quantified and compared to the measured runoff. The results of this study showed that the changes in microtopography resulting from sheet and rill erosion have a strong impact on the hydrological connectivity as reflected in the RSCf. A higher volume of runoff was generated as a consequence of surface sealing and the decrease of the MDS. More rapid runoff initiation was observed as the RSCf evolved from a concave to a convex shape.

  16. Phosphorus export by runoff from agricultural field plots with different crop cover in Lake Taihu watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Runoff and soil losses from agricultural fields are investigated as major nonpoint sources of phosphorus (P) entering lakes of Eastern China. There is relatively little information on P transport from ricefield and cropland of Lake Taihu watershed in Eastern China. Soil and P in surface runoff from a series of plots in the watershed were evaluated under simulated rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate theeffects of crop cover, slope, and fertilizer application on P concentrations in surface runoff and eroded soil. Accumulated sediment yields varied from 7.1 to 300 g/m2 for croplands, depending on management practices. For all experiment plots, weighted average concentrations of total-P (TP), dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) are much higher than 0.02 mg/L, the limiting concentration in lake water. This result showed the potential contamination of lake water from agricultural surface runoff. Accumulated TP losses were 3.8 and 18.8 mg/m2 for ricefield and cropland, respectively. The estimated annual loss of TP was 0.74 kg/(hm2鷄) for cropland. Most of P loss is in PP form, which accounts for more than 90% of TP loss for cropland.

  17. Evaluation of the Soil Conservation Service curve number methodology using data from agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Mohan; Mishra, S. K.; Pandey, Ashish; Pandey, R. P.; Meena, P. K.; Chaudhary, Anubhav; Jha, Ranjit Kumar; Shreevastava, Ajit Kumar; Kumar, Yogendra

    2016-08-01

    The Soil Conservation Service curve number (SCS-CN) method, also known as the Natural Resources Conservation Service curve number (NRCS-CN) method, is popular for computing the volume of direct surface runoff for a given rainfall event. The performance of the SCS-CN method, based on large rainfall (P) and runoff (Q) datasets of United States watersheds, is evaluated using a large dataset of natural storm events from 27 agricultural plots in India. On the whole, the CN estimates from the National Engineering Handbook (chapter 4) tables do not match those derived from the observed P and Q datasets. As a result, the runoff prediction using former CNs was poor for the data of 22 (out of 24) plots. However, the match was little better for higher CN values, consistent with the general notion that the existing SCS-CN method performs better for high rainfall-runoff (high CN) events. Infiltration capacity (fc) was the main explanatory variable for runoff (or CN) production in study plots as it exhibited the expected inverse relationship between CN and fc. The plot-data optimization yielded initial abstraction coefficient (λ) values from 0 to 0.659 for the ordered dataset and 0 to 0.208 for the natural dataset (with 0 as the most frequent value). Mean and median λ values were, respectively, 0.030 and 0 for the natural rainfall-runoff dataset and 0.108 and 0 for the ordered rainfall-runoff dataset. Runoff estimation was very sensitive to λ and it improved consistently as λ changed from 0.2 to 0.03.

  18. Legumes increase rhizosphere carbon and nitrogen relative to cereals in California agricultural plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R.; Maltais-landry, G.

    2013-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient to plant growth, therefore a sufficient supply is needed for high yields. By using N-fixing plants like legumes in crop rotation, we can increase soil N and yields of following crops. Furthermore, legumes also affect soil carbon (C) and C:N ratios, which impacts nutrient cycling in soils. We assessed the effects of two legumes (vetch, fava bean) and a cereal mixture (oats and wheat) on soil N and C by comparing both rhizosphere and bulk soils. We studied the impacts of these plants with different management types (organic, low-input conventional, unfertilized) to see if plant effects on soil C and N changed across management. We used plots from the Long-Term Research on Agricultural Systems (LTRAS) experiment (Davis, CA) to conduct this experiment, where three plots were under each management type. Within each of these plots, we sampled three micro-plots, where we collected rhizosphere soil from fava bean, vetch, and cereals as well as bulk soil, i.e. non-rhizosphere soil. We collected 108 samples, each of which were dried and ball-milled into a fine, uniform powder. Tin capsules with 15-30mg of soil were then analyzed with a Carlo Erba Elemental analyzer to measure how much N and C was present in each of the samples. The different management types didn't affect the relationship among plants, but soil C and N were highest in organic and lowest in unfertilized plots. We found that N was significantly higher in legume rhizosphere than cereal rhizosphere and bulk soils. Soil C was also higher in legumes vs. cereals and bulk soils, but the only significant difference was with the bulk soils. This ultimately resulted in lower C:N ratios in the rhizosphere of legumes, only vetch, however, had significantly lower soil C:N than cereals. Vetch had higher N, and lower C and C:N than fava bean, but the difference between the two legumes was never significant. Similarly, cereals had higher C and N and lower C:N than bulk soils, although

  19. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjær, Lene; Hommen, Udo

    2014-01-01

    are restricted to plot-scale experiments. Here, we use agent-based modelling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how area of pesticide application and environmental half-life (DT50) affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale....... Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and DT50s. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 x 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. Our results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor...... indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection...

  20. Visual coherence for large-scale line-plot visualizations

    KAUST Repository

    Muigg, Philipp

    2011-06-01

    Displaying a large number of lines within a limited amount of screen space is a task that is common to many different classes of visualization techniques such as time-series visualizations, parallel coordinates, link-node diagrams, and phase-space diagrams. This paper addresses the challenging problems of cluttering and overdraw inherent to such visualizations. We generate a 2x2 tensor field during line rasterization that encodes the distribution of line orientations through each image pixel. Anisotropic diffusion of a noise texture is then used to generate a dense, coherent visualization of line orientation. In order to represent features of different scales, we employ a multi-resolution representation of the tensor field. The resulting technique can easily be applied to a wide variety of line-based visualizations. We demonstrate this for parallel coordinates, a time-series visualization, and a phase-space diagram. Furthermore, we demonstrate how to integrate a focus+context approach by incorporating a second tensor field. Our approach achieves interactive rendering performance for large data sets containing millions of data items, due to its image-based nature and ease of implementation on GPUs. Simulation results from computational fluid dynamics are used to evaluate the performance and usefulness of the proposed method. © 2011 The Author(s).

  1. Spatial Structure and Scaling of Agricultural Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Sousa, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Considering agricultural landscapes as networks can provide information about spatial connectivity relevant for a wide range of applications including pollination, pest management, and ecology. Global agricultural networks are well-described by power law rank-size distributions. However, regional analyses capture only a subset of the total global network. Most analyses are regional. In this paper, we seek to address the following questions: Does the globally observed scale-free property of agricultural networks hold over smaller spatial domains? Can similar properties be observed at kilometer to meter scales? We analyze 9 intensively cultivated Landsat scenes on 5 continents with a wide range of vegetation distributions. We find that networks of vegetation fraction within the domain of each of these Landsat scenes exhibit substantial variability - but still possess similar scaling properties to the global distribution of agriculture. We also find similar results using a 39 km2 IKONOS image. To illustrate an a...

  2. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  3. Biodiversity scales from plots to biomes with a universal species-area curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, John; Smith, Adam B; Storch, David

    2009-08-01

    Classic theory predicts species richness scales as the quarter-power of area, yet species-area relationships (SAR) vary widely depending on habitat, taxa, and scale range. Because power-law SAR are used to predict species loss under habitat loss, and to scale species richness from plots to biomes, insight into the wide variety of observed SAR and the conditions under which power-law behavior should be observed is needed. Here we derive from the maximum entropy principle, a new procedure for upscaling species richness data from small census plots to larger areas, and test empirically, using multiple data sets, the prediction that up to an overall scale displacement, nested SAR lie along a universal curve, with average abundance per species at each scale determining the local slope of the curve. Power-law behaviour only arises in the limit of increasing average abundance, and in that limit, the slope approaches zero, not (1/4). An extrapolation of tree species richness in the Western Ghats to biome scale (60,000 km(2)) using only census data at plot scale ((1/4) ha) is presented to illustrate the potential for applications of our theory.

  4. Recovery based on plot experiments is a poor predictor of landscape-level population impacts of agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Christopher John; Kjaer, Lene Jung; Hommen, Udo; Høye, Toke Thomas; Preuss, Thomas G; Sibly, Richard M; van Vliet, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Current European Union regulatory risk assessment allows application of pesticides provided that recovery of nontarget arthropods in-crop occurs within a year. Despite the long-established theory of source-sink dynamics, risk assessment ignores depletion of surrounding populations and typical field trials are restricted to plot-scale experiments. In the present study, the authors used agent-based modeling of 2 contrasting invertebrates, a spider and a beetle, to assess how the area of pesticide application and environmental half-life affect the assessment of recovery at the plot scale and impact the population at the landscape scale. Small-scale plot experiments were simulated for pesticides with different application rates and environmental half-lives. The same pesticides were then evaluated at the landscape scale (10 km × 10 km) assuming continuous year-on-year usage. The authors' results show that recovery time estimated from plot experiments is a poor indicator of long-term population impact at the landscape level and that the spatial scale of pesticide application strongly determines population-level impact. This raises serious doubts as to the utility of plot-recovery experiments in pesticide regulatory risk assessment for population-level protection. Predictions from the model are supported by empirical evidence from a series of studies carried out in the decade starting in 1988. The issues raised then can now be addressed using simulation. Prediction of impacts at landscape scales should be more widely used in assessing the risks posed by environmental stressors.

  5. An Outlook on Agricultural Modernization Path with Chinese Characteristics from Scale Agricultural Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanjiang; WANG

    2015-01-01

    First of all,this paper discusses the scale agricultural operation of China from the aspects of practical exploration and rational thinking. Later,it puts forward the concept of further promoting scale agricultural operation according to the present conditions of China,which includes encouraging large household pattern and scale breeding,developing various forms of socialized agricultural services,promoting agriculture industrialization,accelerating regional distribution of advantageous agricultural products and promoting the progress in agricultural science and technology comprehensively.

  6. Scaling up high throughput field phenotyping of corn and soy research plots using ground rovers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peshlov, Boyan; Nakarmi, Akash; Baldwin, Steven; Essner, Scott; French, Jasenka

    2017-05-01

    Crop improvement programs require large and meticulous selection processes that effectively and accurately collect and analyze data to generate quality plant products as efficiently as possible, develop superior cropping and/or crop improvement methods. Typically, data collection for such testing is performed by field teams using hand-held instruments or manually-controlled devices. Although steps are taken to reduce error, the data collected in such manner can be unreliable due to human error and fatigue, which reduces the ability to make accurate selection decisions. Monsanto engineering teams have developed a high-clearance mobile platform (Rover) as a step towards high throughput and high accuracy phenotyping at an industrial scale. The rovers are equipped with GPS navigation, multiple cameras and sensors and on-board computers to acquire data and compute plant vigor metrics per plot. The supporting IT systems enable automatic path planning, plot identification, image and point cloud data QA/QC and near real-time analysis where results are streamed to enterprise databases for additional statistical analysis and product advancement decisions. Since the rover program was launched in North America in 2013, the number of research plots we can analyze in a growing season has expanded dramatically. This work describes some of the successes and challenges in scaling up of the rover platform for automated phenotyping to enable science at scale.

  7. Plot-scale field experiment of surface hydrologic processes with EOS implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laymon, Charles A.; Macari, Emir J.; Costes, Nicholas C.

    1992-01-01

    Plot-scale hydrologic field studies were initiated at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to a) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of surface and subsurface hydrologic processes, particularly as affected by vegetation, and b) develop experimental techniques and associated instrumentation methodology to study hydrologic processes at increasingly large spatial scales. About 150 instruments, most of which are remotely operated, have been installed at the field site to monitor ground atmospheric conditions, precipitation, interception, soil-water status, and energy flux. This paper describes the nature of the field experiment, instrumentation and sampling rationale, and presents preliminary findings.

  8. Carbon dioxide balance of subarctic tundra from plot to regional scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Marushchak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report here the carbon dioxide (CO2 budget of a 98.6 km2 subarctic tundra area in northeast European Russia based on measurements at two different scales and two independent upscaling approaches. Plot-scale measurements (chambers on terrestrial surfaces, gas gradient method and bubble collectors on lakes were carried out from July 2007 to October 2008. The landscape-scale eddy covariance (EC measurements covered the snow-free period of 2008. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE of different land cover types ranged from −251 to 84 g C m−2. Leaf area index (LAI was an excellent predictor of the spatial variability in gross photosynthesis (GP, NEE and ecosystem respiration (ER. The plot-scale CO2 fluxes were first scaled up to the EC source area and then to the whole study area using two data sets: a land cover classification and a LAI map, both based on field data and a 2.4 m pixel-sized QuickBird satellite image. The good agreement of the CO2 balances for the EC footprint based on the different measuring techniques (−105 to −81 g C m−2 vs. −79 g C m−2; growing season 2008 justified the integration of the plot-scale measurements over the larger area. The regional CO2 balance based on area-integrated plot-scale measurements was −41 or −79 g C m−2 yr−1 according to the two upscaling methods, the land cover classification and the LAI map, respectively. Due to the heterogeneity of tundra, the effect of climate change on CO2 uptake will vary strongly according to the land cover type and, moreover, likely changes in their relative coverage in the future will have great impact on the regional CO2 balance.

  9. Plot-scale testing and sensitivity analysis of Be7 based soil erosion conversion models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Alex; Abdelli, Wahid; Barri, Bashar Al; Iurian, Andra; Gaspar, Leticia; Mabit, Lionel; Millward, Geoff; Ryken, Nick; Blake, Will

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 2 decades, a growing number of studies have recognised the potential for short-lived cosmogenic Be-7 (half-life 53 days) to be used as a tracer to evaluate soil erosion from short-term inter-rill erosion to hillslope sediment budgets. While conversion modelling approaches are now established for event-scale and extended-time-series applications, there is a lack of validation and sensitivity analysis to underpin confidence in their use across a full range of agro-climatic zones. This contribution aims to close this gap in the context of the maritime temperate climate of southwest UK. Two plots of 4 x 35 m were ploughed and tilled at the beginning of winter 2013/2014 in southwest UK to create (1) a bare, sloped soil surface and (2) a bare flat reference site. The bounded lower edge of the plot fed into a collection bin for overland flow and associated sediment. The tilled surface had a low bulk density and high permeability at the start of the experiment (ksat > 100 mm/hr). Hence, despite high rainfall in December (200 mm), notable overland flow was observed only after intense rain storms during late 2013 and early January 2014 when the soil profile was saturated i.e. driven by Saturation Overland Flow (SOF). At the time of SOF initiation, ca. 70% of the final Be-7 inventory had been delivered to the site. Subsequent to a series SOF events across a 1 month period, the plot soil surface was intensively sampled to quantify Be-7 inventory patterns and develop a tracer budget. Captured eroded sediment was dried, weighed and analysed for Be-7. All samples were analysed for particle size by laser granulometry. Be-7 inventory data were converted to soil erosion estimates using (1) standard profile distribution model, (2) the extended time series distribution model and (3) a new 'antecedent rainfall' extended time series model to account for lack of soil erosion prior to soil saturation. Results were scaled up to deliver a plot-scale sediment budget to include

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of throughfall at the plot scale in the Italian pre-Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuecco, Giulia; Oliviero, Omar; Penna, Daniele; van Meerveld, Ilja; Hopp, Luisa; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Borga, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The redistribution of rainfall in the forest canopy affects many hydrological and biogeochemical processes. Although many studies have focused on the quantification of throughfall, the controls on the spatial variability and temporal persistence of throughfall patterns are still poorly understood. This study therefore aims to: i) quantify throughfall at the plot scale for a pre-Alpine forested hillslope in Italy; ii) assess measurement differences between two different throughfall collectors; and iii) investigate the spatial and temporal variability of throughfall patterns and their relation to canopy characteristics. Throughfall measurements were taken from April to November 2013 in a 500 m2 experimental plot on the hillslope of a small and densely forested catchment (Ressi) in the Italian pre-Alps. The main tree species in the plot are beech and chestnut. The median Diameter at Breast Height of the trees in the plot is 4 cm (range 1-61 cm). Two different rainfall collectors were used: buckets (collecting area: 556 cm2; capacity: 162 mm) and rain gauges (collecting area: 47 cm2; capacity: 80 mm). Fifty buckets were randomly distributed in the plot, while 40 rain gauges were installed on a regular grid (spacing 2.5x3 m). One bucket and one rain gauge collected rainfall in a nearby open area. A tipping bucket rain gauge was installed in the open area as well. Rainfall and throughfall were measured for 20 events by manually emptying the collectors and measuring the volume of water in the collectors. Canopy openness was determined by taking pictures with a 24 mm lens upward from each sampler and selecting thresholds between dark (canopy) and light (sky) areas. For the measured events, rainfall in the open area ranged from 4 mm to 122 mm. Plot-average throughfall for these events ranged between 69%-94% and 68%-100% of precipitation for the buckets and rain gauges, respectively. Throughfall measured by the two types of samplers was statistically similar (Mann

  11. Evaluation of a plot-scale methane emission model using eddy covariance observations and footprint modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Budishchev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Most plot-scale methane emission models – of which many have been developed in the recent past – are validated using data collected with the closed-chamber technique. This method, however, suffers from a low spatial representativeness and a poor temporal resolution. Also, during a chamber-flux measurement the air within a chamber is separated from the ambient atmosphere, which negates the influence of wind on emissions. Additionally, some methane models are validated by upscaling fluxes based on the area-weighted averages of modelled fluxes, and by comparing those to the eddy covariance (EC flux. This technique is rather inaccurate, as the area of upscaling might be different from the EC tower footprint, therefore introducing significant mismatch. In this study, we present an approach to validate plot-scale methane models with EC observations using the footprint-weighted average method. Our results show that the fluxes obtained by the footprint-weighted average method are of the same magnitude as the EC flux. More importantly, the temporal dynamics of the EC flux on a daily timescale are also captured (r2 = 0.7. In contrast, using the area-weighted average method yielded a low (r2 = 0.14 correlation with the EC measurements. This shows that the footprint-weighted average method is preferable when validating methane emission models with EC fluxes for areas with a heterogeneous and irregular vegetation pattern.

  12. Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, Seerp; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees; Schut, Marc; Muilerman, Sander; Jochemsen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production involves the scaling of agricultural innovations such as disease-resistant and drought-tolerant maize varieties, zero-tillage techniques, permaculture cultivation practices based on perennial crops and automated milking systems. Scaling agricultural innovations should take

  13. Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigboldus, Seerp; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees; Schut, Marc; Muilerman, Sander; Jochemsen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production involves the scaling of agricultural innovations such as disease-resistant and drought-tolerant maize varieties, zero-tillage techniques, permaculture cultivation practices based on perennial crops and automated milking systems. Scaling agricultural innovations should take

  14. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A.; Conley, Matthew M.; Lewin, Keith F.

    2012-04-01

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (plants in small (≤3 m) plots. To address larger ecosystem scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using nested hexagonal and rectangular arrays. Energy costs depend on the overall efficiency (useable infrared energy on the plot per electrical energy in), which varies with the radiometric efficiency (infrared radiation out per electrical energy in) of the individual heaters and with the geometric efficiency (fraction of thermal radiation that falls on useable plot area) associated with the arrangement of the heaters in an array. Overall efficiency would be about 26% at 4 m s-1 wind speed for a single hexagonal array over a 3-m-diameter plot and 67% for a 199-hexagon honeycomb array over a 100-m-diameter plot, thereby resulting in an economy of scale.

  15. Infiltration and water storage in forest soils at the plot and the micro- catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimm, Eva-Maria; Lange, Benjamin; Lüscher, Peter; Germann, Peter; Weingartner, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Tree roots generate and conserve hydrologically active macropores. We explored the influence of root density on infiltration and water storage at six 1-m2 plots along an 8-m transect between two mature trees (spruce). The soil is a Flysch-based stagnic Cambisol with a flow-impeding horizon at a depth of about 60 cm. At a plot the experimental set up consisted of a 1m x 1m sprinkler and five Decagon HS-10 soil-moisture probes that were horizontally mounted from a trench into the centre of each horizon. We irrigated each plot three times at 24-hour intervals during one hour with a rate of 70 mm h-1. Data logging was at 60-seconds intervals that produced time series of water contents due to irrigation and drainage. After irrigation, soil cores of 10 cm diameter were sampled. Roots were extracted from the cores and their densities were optically analysed with the program "whinRIZO". The application of a rivulet approach to the time series of water contents produced the thickness F (μm) and the specific contact length L (m m-2) per cross-sectional area of the water films that represent Stokes-flow. The procedure leads to estimates of storage capacity and hydraulic connectivity in the vertical and lateral directions along the transect. Extrapolation from the transect to the micro-catchment scale is based on maps showing the spatial arrangements of trees, shrubs and soil properties like thickness and hydrological parameters of horizons.

  16. Measuring and Scaling Evapotranspiration of a Cottonwood Restoration Plot on the Lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Jetton, A.; Fleming, J. B.; Glenn, E. P.; Erker, J.; Morino, K.; Milliken, J. A.; Gloss, S. P.

    2006-05-01

    Evapotranpsiration (ET) by riparian vegetation is the second largest water user on western U.S. rivers. Efforts are underway to create restoration plots containing native trees such as cottonwood (Populus fremontii) (CW) because they provide valuable wildlife habitat. Up to now, estimates of riparian ET have been based on indirect methods and validation of estimates has been difficult. At Cibola NWR on the Colorado River, we estimated ET for a 20 acre plot of 3 year old CW trees for 50 consecutive days, July 25 - Sept 15, 2005. We measured transpiration rate using sap flow, heat-balance methods to get sap flow on pairs of branches on 20 CW trees. We scaled these ground measurements to high resolution (0.3 m) aerial readings and then to the satellite-level using Landsat ETM+ (30m) and EOS-1 Terra MODIS (250m) pixels. Using regression equations developed in Nagler et al. (2005a,b), we predicted ET at this CW site based on local, maximum air temperatures and ETM+ and MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) data. Sap flow rates ranged from 6 mm d-1 to 10 mm d-1. Results projected by MODIS imagery were similar to rates measured by sap flow sensors. Scaled over the whole plantation, annual ET rates were projected to be 1.33 m yr-1 (4.3 ft yr-1), approximately 50% higher than saltcedar on this river system. We conclude that replacing saltcedar with CW may result in increased water demand and the efficacy in supporting wildlife should be validated before they are widely implemented as a restoration strategy.

  17. Monitoring soil aggregates dynamics at a plot scale using multitemporal image texture and colour analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ymeti, Irena; van der Werff, Harald; van der Meer, Freek; Jetten, Victor

    2016-10-01

    Monitoring of soil aggregate breakdown remains, even at the micro-plot scale, a challenge. Remote sensing has shown its potential to assess many different soil properties and is a fast and non-destructive method to investigate soil susceptibility to water erosion. We designed an outdoor experiment to monitor soil aggregates breakdown under natural rainfall at a micro-plot scale using a regular camera. Five soils susceptible to detachment (silty loam with various organic matter content, loam and sandy loam) were photographed once per day. We collected images and rainfall data from November 2014 until February 2015. Considering that the soil surface roughness causes shadow cast, the blue/red band ratio is used to observe the soil aggregates changes. In addition, a Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) is used to extract the image texture entropy which reflects the process of soil aggregates breakdown. In our research the entropy calculated at 135 degrees along the direction of shadows gives best results. Our results show that both entropy and shadow index follow the wetting and drying cycles with a decrease due to a rain event. This decrease is small due to low rainfall intensity (< 2.5 mmh-1) for the entire period that the experiment ran. However, the biggest rain event of 20 mmday-1 resulted in a decrease in entropy, meaning that sufficient rainfall energy was present to trigger the soil aggregates break down. This research concludes that both entropy and shadow index obtained with a regular camera enable the monitoring of soil aggregate breakdown at a high spatial resolution.

  18. Systemic perspectives on scaling agricultural innovations. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Wigboldus, Seerp; Klerkx, Laurens; Leeuwis, Cees; Schut, Marc; Muilerman, Sander; Jochemsen, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural production involves the scaling of agricultural innovations such as disease-resistant and drought-tolerant maize varieties, zero-tillage techniques, permaculture cultivation practices based on perennial crops and automated milking systems. Scaling agricultural innovations should take into account complex interactions between biophysical, social, economic and institutional factors. Actual methods of scaling are rather empirical and based on the premise of ‘find out what works in o...

  19. Improving plot- and regional-scale crop models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, F.; Rötter, R.

    2013-12-01

    Many studies on global climate report that climate variability is increasing with more frequent and intense extreme events1. There are quite large uncertainties from both the plot- and regional-scale models in simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes on crop development, growth and productivity2,3. One key to reducing the uncertainties is better exploitation of experimental data to eliminate crop model deficiencies and develop better algorithms that more adequately capture the impacts of extreme events, such as high temperature and drought, on crop performance4,5. In the present study, in a first step, the inter-annual variability in wheat yield and climate from 1971 to 2012 in Finland was investigated. Using statistical approaches the impacts of climate variability and extremes on wheat growth and productivity were quantified. In a second step, a plot-scale model, WOFOST6, and a regional-scale crop model, MCWLA7, were calibrated and validated, and applied to simulate wheat growth and yield variability from 1971-2012. Next, the estimated impacts of high temperature stress, cold damage, and drought stress on crop growth and productivity based on the statistical approaches, and on crop simulation models WOFOST and MCWLA were compared. Then, the impact mechanisms of climate extremes on crop growth and productivity in the WOFOST model and MCWLA model were identified, and subsequently, the various algorithm and impact functions were fitted against the long-term crop trial data. Finally, the impact mechanisms, algorithms and functions in WOFOST model and MCWLA model were improved to better simulate the impacts of climate variability and extremes, particularly high temperature stress, cold damage and drought stress for location-specific and large area climate impact assessments. Our studies provide a good example of how to improve, in parallel, the plot- and regional-scale models for simulating impacts of climate variability and extremes, as needed for

  20. Observation of Discrete Oscillations in the Plot of Cosmological Scale Factor vs. Lookback Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringermacher, Harry I.; Mead, Lawrence R

    2014-06-01

    We have observed damped longitudinal cosmological-scale oscillations in a unique model-independent plot of scale factor against lookback time. We measured 2 full, constant frequency, oscillations with a period of 0.15 Hubble times. This period corresponds to a fundamental frequency of approximately 7 cycles over the age of the universe, which we term 7 “Hubble-Hertz” (HHz). Transition-z values quoted in the literature generally fall near these oscillation minima and may explain the reported spread and deviation from the predicted ΛCDM value of approximately z = 0.77. We also observe second and third harmonics of the fundamental consistent with the spectrum of a sawtooth waveform. We propose a cosmological scalar field damped simple harmonic oscillator model for the observation - which fits well. On this time scale, the scalar field particle mass is extraordinarily small at 10^ -32 ev. Particles on this scale have been suggested in the literature as being associated with massive gravitons, in which case we may be observing longitudinal mode gravitational waves. A multiverse 5-D brane collision scenario is one possible source for the scalar field and waves. This scenario enables an estimate of the compacted 5th dimension radius at approximately 1,000,000 ly - the size of a galaxy dark matter halo. Our scalar field density parameter precisely replaces the ΛCDM dark matter density parameter in the Friedmann equations, resulting in identical data fits, and its present value matches the Planck value. We therefore posit that this scalar field manifests itself as the dark matter.

  1. The scale effect on soil erosion. A plot approach to understand connectivity on slopes under cultivation at variable plot sizes and under Mediterranean climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bagarello, Vicenzo; Ferro, Vito; Iovino, Massimo; Borja, Manuel Estaban Lucas; Francisco Martínez Murillo, Juan; González Camarena, Rafael

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that soil erosion changes along time and seasons and attention was paid to this issue in the past (González Hidalgo et al., 2010; 2012). However, although the scientific community knows that soil erosion is also a time spatial scale-scale dependent process (Parsons et al., 1990; Cerdà et al., 2009; González Hidalgo et al., 2013; Sadeghi et al., 2015) very little is done on this topic. This is due to the fact that at different scales, different soil erosion mechanisms (splash, sheetflow, rill development) are active and their rates change with the scale of measurement (Wainwright et al., 2002; López-Vicente et al., 2015). This is making the research on soil erosion complex and difficult, and it is necessary to develop a conceptual framework but also measurements that will inform about the soil erosion behaviour. Connectivity is the key concept to understand how changes in the scale results in different rates of soil and water losses (Parsons et al., 1996; Parsons et al., 2015; Poeppl et al., 2016). Most of the research developed around the connectivity concept was applied in watershed or basin scales (Galdino et al., 2016; Martínez-Casasnovas et al., 2016; López Vicente et al., 2016; Marchamalo et al., 2015; Masselink et al., 2016), but very little is known about the connectivity issue at slope scale (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). El Teularet (Eastern Iberian Peninsula) and Sparacia (Sicily) soil erosion experimental stations are being active for 15 years and data collected on different plots sizes can shed light into the effect of scale on runoff generation and soil losses at different scales and give information to understand how the transport of materials is determined by the connectivity between pedon to slope scale (Cerdà et al., 2014; Bagarello et al., 2015a; 2015b). The comparison of the results of the two research stations will shed light into the rates of soil erosion and mechanisms involved that act under different scales. Our

  2. Variability in soil micronutrients extracted by DTPA and Mehlich-3 at the plot scale in an acidic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Lado, Marcos; de Abreu, Cleide A.

    2014-05-01

    Land use practices affect soil properties and nutrient supply. Very limited data are available on micronutrient extractability in northwest Spain. The aim of this study was to analyse long-term effects of land use on the concentration, variability and spatial distribution of soil nutrients. To this end, neighboring forest and cultivated stands were compared. The study was carried out in an acid, rich in organic matter soil developed over sediments at the province of Lugo, northwestern of Spain. Adjacent plots with a surface of 100 m2 were marked on regular square grids with 2-m spacing. Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu were extracted both by Mehlich-3 and DTPA solutions and determined by ICP-MS. General soil chemical and physical properties were routinely analyzed. In arable land, microelement concentration ranges were as follows: Fe (100 and 135 mg kg-1), Mn (7.6 and 21.5 mg kg-1), Zn (0.6 and 3.7 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.2 and 0.7 mg kg-1). In forest land, these ranges were: Fe (62 and 309 mg kg-1), Mn (0.2 and 2.1 mg kg-1), Zn (0.2 and 2.9 mg kg-1), and Cu (0.1 and 0.2 mg kg-1). With the exception of Fe-DTPA, microelement concentrations extracted both with DTPA and Mehlich-3 were higher in the cultivated than in the forest stand. Coefficients of variation were higher for the microelement content of the soil under forest. Principal component analysis was performed to evaluate associations between extractable microelements and general physico-chemical properties. At the studied scale, nutrient management was the main factor affecting the agricultural site, whereas soil-plant interactions were probably responsible for the higher variation within the forest site. Patterns of spatial variability of the studied nutrients at the small plot scale also were assessed by geostatistical techniques. Results were discussed in the frame of sustainable land use and organic matter decline with conventional tillage and sustainable land use

  3. Factors Influencing Microbial Carbon Emission Potential from Wetland Sediments and its Relation to Surface- and Plot-Scale Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, M.; Bohrer, G.; Mouser, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services by sequestering carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and serving as a sink for atmospheric nitrogen export. They are often constructed as buffers between agriculture lands and drainage channels to improve runoff water quality from elevated nutrient loading (e.g. nitrate-N). Unfortunately, carbon sequestration and denitrification in wetlands come with the tradeoff of increased production of methane, another more potent green house gas. Existing models correlate methane emission rates to increased temperature; however, surface- and plot-scale measurements show little or weak relationships between these factors at the field scale. This study examines the relationship of several environmental factors - temperature, zone location, and microbial community - to methane emissions under controlled laboratory conditions. Water and sediments collected from two depths (0-6" and 6-12") and four distinct biomes (open water and three distinct emergent macrophyte covers) were used to prepare anaerobic microcosms at two different temperatures (20°C and 30°C). Headspace gas (methane, carbon dioxide), water chemistry, and microbial community composition were analyzed over the course of several months. We observed: 1) an increase in methane emission potential with higher temperature; 2) higher levels of methane produced from shallower sediments; 3) differential production of methane versus carbon dioxide depending upon biome; and 4) variations in bacterial and archaeal diversity relating to methane production rates. This data helps provide upper limit estimates for methane emissions from wetlands by methanogenic Archaea and informs our ability to better parameterize biogeochemical and atmospheric models of these systems.

  4. The sense and non-sense of plot-scale, catchment-scale, continental-scale and global-scale hydrological modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstert, Axel; Heistermann, Maik; Francke, Till

    2017-04-01

    Hydrological models aim at quantifying the hydrological cycle and its constituent processes for particular conditions, sites or periods in time. Such models have been developed for a large range of spatial and temporal scales. One must be aware that the question which is the appropriate scale to be applied depends on the overall question under study. Therefore, it is not advisable to give a general applicable guideline on what is "the best" scale for a model. This statement is even more relevant for coupled hydrological, ecological and atmospheric models. Although a general statement about the most appropriate modelling scale is not recommendable, it is worth to have a look on what are the advantages and the shortcomings of micro-, meso- and macro-scale approaches. Such an appraisal is of increasing importance, since increasingly (very) large / global scale approaches and models are under operation and therefore the question arises how far and for what purposes such methods may yield scientifically sound results. It is important to understand that in most hydrological (and ecological, atmospheric and other) studies process scale, measurement scale, and modelling scale differ from each other. In some cases, the differences between theses scales can be of different orders of magnitude (example: runoff formation, measurement and modelling). These differences are a major source of uncertainty in description and modelling of hydrological, ecological and atmospheric processes. Let us now summarize our viewpoint of the strengths (+) and weaknesses (-) of hydrological models of different scales: Micro scale (e.g. extent of a plot, field or hillslope): (+) enables process research, based on controlled experiments (e.g. infiltration; root water uptake; chemical matter transport); (+) data of state conditions (e.g. soil parameter, vegetation properties) and boundary fluxes (e.g. rainfall or evapotranspiration) are directly measurable and reproducible; (+) equations based on

  5. Scaling wood volume estimates from inventory plots to landscapes with airborne LiDAR in temperate deciduous forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levick, Shaun R; Hessenmöller, Dominik; Schulze, E-Detlef

    2016-12-01

    Monitoring and managing carbon stocks in forested ecosystems requires accurate and repeatable quantification of the spatial distribution of wood volume at landscape to regional scales. Grid-based forest inventory networks have provided valuable records of forest structure and dynamics at individual plot scales, but in isolation they may not represent the carbon dynamics of heterogeneous landscapes encompassing diverse land-management strategies and site conditions. Airborne LiDAR has greatly enhanced forest structural characterisation and, in conjunction with field-based inventories, it provides avenues for monitoring carbon over broader spatial scales. Here we aim to enhance the integration of airborne LiDAR surveying with field-based inventories by exploring the effect of inventory plot size and number on the relationship between field-estimated and LiDAR-predicted wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest in central Germany. Estimation of wood volume from airborne LiDAR was most robust (R(2) = 0.92, RMSE = 50.57 m(3) ha(-1) ~14.13 Mg C ha(-1)) when trained and tested with 1 ha experimental plot data (n = 50). Predictions based on a more extensive (n = 1100) plot network with considerably smaller (0.05 ha) plots were inferior (R(2) = 0.68, RMSE = 101.01 ~28.09 Mg C ha(-1)). Differences between the 1 and 0.05 ha volume models from LiDAR were negligible however at the scale of individual land-management units. Sample size permutation tests showed that increasing the number of inventory plots above 350 for the 0.05 ha plots returned no improvement in R(2) and RMSE variability of the LiDAR-predicted wood volume model. Our results from this study confirm the utility of LiDAR for estimating wood volume in deciduous broad-leafed forest, but highlight the challenges associated with field plot size and number in establishing robust relationships between airborne LiDAR and field derived wood volume. We are moving into a forest management era where

  6. Time-lapse 3D ground-penetrating radar during plot-scale infiltration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Jackisch, Conrad; Tronicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    In electrical resistive soils, surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is known as the geophysical tool providing the highest spatial resolution. Thus, 2D and 3D GPR surveys are commonly used for imaging subsurface structures or estimating soil moisture content. Due to its sensitivity to soil moisture and its non-invasive character, GPR provides a large potential to monitor soil moisture variation at high temporal and spatial resolution. As shown in previous experiments, the acquisition of time-lapse GPR data under field conditions requires a high data quality in terms of repeatability as well as spatial and temporal resolution. We present hydrogeophysical field experiments at the plot scale (1m x 1m), during which we record time-lapse 3D GPR. For GPR data acquisition, we use a pulseEKKO PRO GPR system equipped with a pair of 500 MHz antennas in combination with a specially designed metal-free measuring platform. Additionally, we collect tracer and soil moisture data, which are used to improve the interpretation of the GPR data with special focus on preferential flow paths and their structured advective flow field. After an accurate time-lapse GPR data processing, we compare 3D reflection events before and after infiltration and quantitatively interpret their relative time-shift in terms of soil moisture variations. Thereby, we are able to account for basically all of the infiltrated water. The first experiments demonstrate the general applicability of our experimental approach but are limited by the number of acquired time steps and measurement during the sprinkling period (the time of the highest temporal dynamics) are not possible at all. Based on this experience we redesign our experimental setup to continuously collect GPR data during irrigation and infiltration. Thereby, we strongly increase the temporal resolution of our measurements, improve the interpretability of the GPR data, and monitor the temporal and spatial dynamics of shallow subsurface

  7. Runoff Responses to Forest Thinning at Plot and Catchment Scales in a Headwater Catchment Draining Japanese Cypress Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the effect of forest thinning on runoff generation at plot and catchment scales in headwater basins draining a Japanese cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) forest. We removed 58.3% of the stems (corresponding to 43.2% of the basal area) in the treated headwater basin (catc...

  8. Plot-scale evidence of tundra vegetation change and links to recent summer warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah C. Elmendorf; Gregory H.R. Henry; Robert D. Hollister; Robert G. Bjork; Noemie Boulanger-Lapointe; Elisabeth J. Cooper; Johannes H.C. Cornelissen; Thomas A. Day; Ellen Dorrepaal; Tatiana G. Elumeeva; Mike Gill; William A. Gould; John Harte; David S. Hik; Annika Hofgaard; David R. Johnson; Jill F. Johnstone; Ingijorg Svala Jonsdottir; Janet C. Jorgenson; Kari Klanderud; Julia A. Klein; Saewan Koh; Gaku Kudo; Mark Lara; Esther Levesque; Borgthor Magnusson; Jeremy L. May; Joel A. Mercado; Anders Michelsen; Ulf Molau; Isla H. Myers-Smith; Steven F. Oberbauer; Vladimir G. Onipchenko; Christian Rixen; Niels Martin Schmidt; Gaius R. Shaver; Marko J. Spasojevic; Pora Ellen Porhallsdottir; Anne Tolvanen; Tiffany Troxler; Craig E. Tweedie; Sandra Villareal; Carl-Henrik Wahren; Xanthe Walker; Patrick J. Webber; Jeffrey M. Welker; Sonja Wipf

    2012-01-01

    Temperature is increasing at unprecedented rates across most of the tundra biome1. Remote-sensing data indicate that contemporary climate warming has already resulted in increased productivity over much of the Arctic2,3, but plot-based evidence for vegetation transformation is not widespread. We analysed change in tundra vegetation surveyed between 1980 and 2010 in 158...

  9. Intensive agriculture erodes β-diversity at large scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Daniel S; Rominger, Andrew J; Zook, Jim; Ranganathan, Jai; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-09-01

    Biodiversity is declining from unprecedented land conversions that replace diverse, low-intensity agriculture with vast expanses under homogeneous, intensive production. Despite documented losses of species richness, consequences for β-diversity, changes in community composition between sites, are largely unknown, especially in the tropics. Using a 10-year data set on Costa Rican birds, we find that low-intensity agriculture sustained β-diversity across large scales on a par with forest. In high-intensity agriculture, low local (α) diversity inflated β-diversity as a statistical artefact. Therefore, at small spatial scales, intensive agriculture appeared to retain β-diversity. Unlike in forest or low-intensity systems, however, high-intensity agriculture also homogenised vegetation structure over large distances, thereby decoupling the fundamental ecological pattern of bird communities changing with geographical distance. This ~40% decline in species turnover indicates a significant decline in β-diversity at large spatial scales. These findings point the way towards multi-functional agricultural systems that maintain agricultural productivity while simultaneously conserving biodiversity.

  10. Landscape-scale Ips typographus attack dynamics: from monitoring plots to GIS-based disturbance models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlyter F

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In natural spruce stands, a change of generation is usually initiated by wind or bark beetle disturbances. We combined semi-temporary monitoring plots, remote sensing, and GIS in order to understand and model these processes. Sub plots, called “active”, were located in areas with a high probability of bark beetle or wind disturbances. The optimal location of these plots is usually at an active forest edge, i.e., the zone of maximal change in bark beetle abundance over time, corresponding to the border between wind-damaged or bark beetle-attacked parts and undisturbed parts of a forest stand. The key variable investigated was tree mortality caused by bark beetles. Other variables were similar to those recorded in traditional forest monitoring. Tree defense indicators (resin flow, phenolic compounds and reaction of a tree to bark beetle inoculation were measured. Terrestrial data were then combined with remote sensing data. Time series of satellite images were analyzed in order to define the pattern of wind and bark beetle damages. Weather monitoring data were used for predicting bark beetle and water stress development. All of the information was integrated in a GIS-based system and future bark beetle infestations were predicted. In this paper, we review previous studies and conclude that: (1 the hypotheses of habitat selection (non-host volatiles and semiochemical diversity and location of moderately-stressed host trees are confirmed, although further work about olfactory orientation and host resistance is needed;(2 reactions of trees to bark beetle attack can be predicted by monitoring several parameters, e.g., air temperature and tree physiology; (3 data from ground monitoring can be integrated with GIS and remote sensing systems for bark beetle prognosis and management at the habitat and landscape levels.

  11. Large-Scale Agriculture and Outgrower Schemes in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    As a result of the growing demand for food, feed and industrial raw materials in the first decade of this century, and the usually welcoming policies regarding investors amongst the governments of developing countries, there has been a renewed interest in agriculture and an increase in large...... to ‘land grabbing’ for large-scale farming (i.e. outgrower schemes and contract farming could modernise agricultural production while allowing smallholders to maintain their land ownership), to integrate them into global agro-food value chains and to increase their productivity and welfare. However......, the impact of large-scale agriculture and outgrower schemes on productivity, household welfare and wages in developing countries is highly contentious. Chapter 1 of this thesis provides an introduction to the study, while also reviewing the key debate in the contemporary land ‘grabbing’ and historical large...

  12. Revealing plot scale heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics under contrasting vegetation assemblages using 3D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Tetzlaff, Doerthe; Bradford, John; Soulsby, Chris

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture is a fundamental component of the water cycle that influences many hydrological processes, such as flooding, solute transport, biogeochemical processes, and land-atmosphere interactions. The relationship between vegetation and soil moisture is complex and reciprocal. Soil moisture may affect vegetation distribution due to its function as the primary source of water, in turn the structure of vegetation canopies regulate water partitioning into interception, throughfall and steam flow. Such spatial differences in inputs, together with complex patterns of water uptake from distributed root networks can create marked heterogeneity in soil moisture dynamics at small scales. Traditional methods of monitoring soil moisture have revolved around limited point measurements, but improved geophysical techniques have facilitated a trend towards more spatially distributed measurements to help understand this heterogeneity. Here, we present a study using 3D ERT surveys in a 3.2km upland catchment in the Scottish Highlands where increasing afforestation (for climate change adaptation, biofuels and conservation) has the potential to increase interception losses and reduce soil moisture storage. The study combined 3D surveys, traditional point measurements and laboratory analysis of soil cores to assess the plot scale soil moisture dynamics in podzolic soils under forest stands of 15m high Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and adjacent non-forest plots dominated by heather (Calluna vulgaris) shrubs (water content in the soils below. These results are important as the point to potential water stresses with planned increased afforestation which may be compounded by climate change projections of decreasing precipitation during the growing season.

  13. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  14. A Networked Sensor System for the Analysis of Plot-Scale Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, German; Plaza, Fernando; Zhong, Xiaoyang; Davis, Tyler W.; Navarro, Miguel; Li, Yimei; Slater, Thomas A.; Liang, Yao; Liang, Xu

    2017-01-01

    This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP) testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors. Innovative techniques (e.g., balanced energy efficient routing and heterogeneous over-the-air mote reprogramming) maintained high success rates (>96%) and enabled effective software updating, throughout the large-scale heterogeneous WSN. The edaphic properties monitored by the network showed strong agreement with data logger measurements and were fitted to pedotransfer functions for estimating local soil hydraulic properties. Furthermore, sap flow measurements, scaled to tree stand transpiration, were found to be at or below potential evapotranspiration estimates. While outdoor WSNs still present numerous challenges, the ASWP testbed proves to be an effective and (relatively) low-cost environmental monitoring solution and represents a step towards developing a platform for monitoring and quantifying statistically relevant environmental parameters from large-scale network deployments. PMID:28335534

  15. A Networked Sensor System for the Analysis of Plot-Scale Hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, German; Plaza, Fernando; Zhong, Xiaoyang; Davis, Tyler W; Navarro, Miguel; Li, Yimei; Slater, Thomas A; Liang, Yao; Liang, Xu

    2017-03-20

    This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP) testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN). The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors. Innovative techniques (e.g., balanced energy efficient routing and heterogeneous over-the-air mote reprogramming) maintained high success rates (>96%) and enabled effective software updating, throughout the large-scale heterogeneous WSN. The edaphic properties monitored by the network showed strong agreement with data logger measurements and were fitted to pedotransfer functions for estimating local soil hydraulic properties. Furthermore, sap flow measurements, scaled to tree stand transpiration, were found to be at or below potential evapotranspiration estimates. While outdoor WSNs still present numerous challenges, the ASWP testbed proves to be an effective and (relatively) low-cost environmental monitoring solution and represents a step towards developing a platform for monitoring and quantifying statistically relevant environmental parameters from large-scale network deployments.

  16. A Networked Sensor System for the Analysis of Plot-Scale Hydrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    German Villalba

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the latest updates to the Audubon Society of Western Pennsylvania (ASWP testbed, a $50,000 USD, 104-node outdoor multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN. The network collects environmental data from over 240 sensors, including the EC-5, MPS-1 and MPS-2 soil moisture and soil water potential sensors and self-made sap flow sensors, across a heterogeneous deployment comprised of MICAz, IRIS and TelosB wireless motes. A low-cost sensor board and software driver was developed for communicating with the analog and digital sensors. Innovative techniques (e.g., balanced energy efficient routing and heterogeneous over-the-air mote reprogramming maintained high success rates (>96% and enabled effective software updating, throughout the large-scale heterogeneous WSN. The edaphic properties monitored by the network showed strong agreement with data logger measurements and were fitted to pedotransfer functions for estimating local soil hydraulic properties. Furthermore, sap flow measurements, scaled to tree stand transpiration, were found to be at or below potential evapotranspiration estimates. While outdoor WSNs still present numerous challenges, the ASWP testbed proves to be an effective and (relatively low-cost environmental monitoring solution and represents a step towards developing a platform for monitoring and quantifying statistically relevant environmental parameters from large-scale network deployments.

  17. Effects of scale on sediment transfer from agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, C.; Heathwaite, A. L.; Hodgkinson, R.; Brazier, R. E.

    2009-04-01

    The limitations of current monitoring techniques mean that it is necessary to select particular spatial scales at which to measure and study soil erosion processes. This study uses event-based runoff and suspended sediment data collected at three spatial scales (1.9 ha, 2.5 ha and 3.7 ha) integrated within a small (30.6 ha) agricultural catchment, to demonstrate that the scale which we measure influences the data we can collect, and hence the inferences we make about soil erosion through monitoring experiments. Seventeen rainfall events were monitored in the Jubilee catchment, Herefordshire, UK, in one hydrological year, however, responses to all rainfall events did not occur at all scales. Only ten event responses occurred at all scales monitored, and the number of event responses observed increased with scale of observation. Six event discharge and suspended sediment characteristics were used to describe the event response at different scales. Temporal variability between events was high, but variance between the scales was greater than variance within scales for two characteristics, peak discharge, and peak suspended sediment concentration, where values varied significantly between scales. Peak discharge showed a significant increasing trend with increasing scale (r2 = 0.61), while peak suspended sediment concentration showed a significant decreasing trend with increasing scale (r2=0.62). There was no significant difference in either discharge yields or suspended sediment yields between these scales, or in the timing of the discharge or suspended sediment peak. A number of event rainfall, soil moisture and runoff characteristics were used to explore relationships between discharge and suspended characteristics at each scale, and so determine dominant factors which may influence the discharge and suspended sediment response at each scale. The results highlight the importance of scale-appropriate monitoring, and the need for more consideration of the observation

  18. Characteristics of Gaseous Carbon Emission from a Tropical Peatland Fire: A Plot-Scale Field Experiment in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y.; Darung, U.; Limin, S. H.; Hatano, R.

    2014-12-01

    Tropical peatland in Southeast Asia is a vast reservoir of terrestrial carbon, which covers 24.8 million hectares and stores 68.5 PgC peat, equal to 11-14% of global peat carbon. In recent decades, large scale peatland fire has occurred frequently in that region, in which many areas of peatland were reclaimed with intention to use the land for forest plantation and rice paddy. We conducted a plot-scale peat burning experiment to elucidate the characteristics of gaseous carbon emission from a tropical peatland fire at the ground level. The experimental site was established at an open area 20 km southeast from Palangka Raya, Central Kalimantan Province, Indonesia. The size of the burning plot is 4 m in length and 3 m in width. Gas samples were collected at heights of 1.0, 0.5, 0.0 (aboveground), -0.1 and -0.2 m (belowground) through stainless steel and/or aluminum tubes settled across the edge of the plot. The concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH4) and particulate matter (PM) was determined. Soil temperature was recorded every 10 minutes 0.1 and 0.2 m below the ground surface. Twelve iron rods were installed in 1-m by 1-m square grid to determine the depth of burn scar. After ignition, flaming stage of peat burning was ceased within 1-2 hours. The following smoldering stage continued for a week. In the flaming stage, soil temperature at -0.1 m increased tentatively. After the smoldering stage began, the temperature rapidly increased to 350-450°C. Response of soil temperature at -0.2 m was less prominent. Concentrations of gaseous components became maximal in the flaming stage. During the smoldering stage, the concentrations gradually decreased. The influence of burning on CO2 and PM was prominently remained at -0.1 m, whereas those at -0.2 m were not so much. The averaged burnt depth was 5.8±5.1 cm. Based on bulk density of 0.22 g/cm3 and carbon content of 55.5%, the amount of carbon lost from the plot was 85.3 kg. Most of the

  19. ECONOMIES OF SCALE IN AGRICULTURE: A REEXAMINATION OF THE EVIDENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Kislev, Yoav; Peterson, Willis L.

    1991-01-01

    It is generally accepted that agricultural production is characterized by increasing returns to scale. In this paper we examine the evidence allegedly supporting this assertation and come to the conclusion that the hypothesis of increasing returns is not warranted. The essence of our argument is that if increasing returns were important we would have seen huge "food factories" dominating the industry. Instead, the dominating form of organization is the family unit and farms come in a multitud...

  20. The distribution of soil insects across three spatial scales in agricultural grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly eBenefer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of specific environmental factors on abundance and distribution of some individual soil insect taxa is known, but how scale influences spatial distribution is less well evaluated, particularly at the community level. However, given that many soil insects are pests or beneficial natural enemies, and that collectively they play a role in soil processes, this information is of potential value for predictive modelling and in furthering our understanding of soil ecology and management. The objectives of this study were to characterize the spatial distribution, relative population sizes, effect of sampling scale and taxa co-occurrence on a range of soil insects at the family level over two years. Soil cores were taken from agricultural grassland soils across three different sampling scales (farm, field and core using a systematic sampling approach. Spatial distribution was assessed using the variance-to-mean (VMR ratio and taxa distribution plots and the contribution of scale, spatial (geographical location and biotic (presence-absence of other species factors determined using deviance partitioning. Tipulid larvae (leatherjackets were the most abundant taxa in both years, but the composition of other Dipteran and Coleopteran taxa varied between years. The VMRs revealed differences in spatial distribution between taxa across scales and years, showing a range of underlying distributional patterns. Scale was the most important factor influencing species distributions, but a large proportion of deviance remained unexplained and there was much variation between taxa, suggesting biological and scale-specific factors are driving distributions, in agreement with a previous study.

  1. Development and testing of a large, transportable rainfall simulator for plot-scale runoff and parameter estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Wilson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is increased interest in the interplay between vegetation conditions and overland flow generation. The literature is unclear on this relationship and there is little quantitative guidance for modeling efforts. Therefore, experimental efforts are needed and these call for a lightweight transportable plot-scale (>10 m2 rainfall simulator that can be deployed quickly and quickly redeployed over various vegetation cover conditions. Accordingly, a variable intensity rainfall simulator and collection system was designed and tested in the laboratory and in the field. The system was tested with three configurations of common pressure washing nozzles producing rainfall intensities of 62, 43, and 32 mm h−1 with uniformity coefficients of 76, 65, and 62, respectively, over a plot of 15.12 m2. Field tests were carried out in on a grassy field with silt-loam soil in Orroli, Sardinia in July and August 2010, and rainfall, soil moisture, and runoff data were collected. The two-term Philip infiltration model was used to find optimal values for the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil surface and bulk soil, soil water retention curve slope, and air entry suction head. Optimized hydraulic conductivity values were comparable to both the measured final infiltration rate and literature values for saturated hydraulic conductivity. This inexpensive rainfall simulator can therefore be used to identify field parameters needed for hydrologic modeling.

  2. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  3. Long-term trends of plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off from various land uses in Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiyama, Yoshifumi; Onda, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Kazuya; Nakamura, Noriko; Manome, Ryo

    2016-04-01

    Understanding plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off is indispensable for predicting Cs-137 fate. However, there are only a few numbers of long-term observations and hence lack of information on temporal trends of Cs-137 wash-off leaves uncertainties on future predictions. This study shows approximately three years' observation results of plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off from various land uses after the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Erosion plots were established in 2011 and 2013 on two uncultivated farmlands (FL-A1, FL-B1), two cultivated farmlands (FL-A2, FL-B2), three grasslands (GL-A, GL-B, GL-C) and one Japanese cedar forest (JCdF) in Kawamata town. Each erosion plot consisted of eroding surface with length of 22.13 m and width of 5 m, surface water monitoring apparatus at the outlet of eroding surface and sediment traps. Sediment traps were connected with pipes in series and it enabled us to collect deposited sediments and suspended sediments separately. Eroded sediments as well as the data of rainfall and vegetation cover were collected almost every two weeks. Collected deposited and suspended sediment were dried, weighed and measured with HPGe type gamma detectors for Cs-137 concentrations. Standardized Cs-137 concentration, Sc (m2/kg), was calculated by dividing Cs-137 concentration by initial Cs-137 deposition. Annual soil loss ranged from 0.04 to 75 t/ha/year and the largest was from FL-A2 followed by FL-B2, FL-A1, FL-B1, GL-A, GL-B, JCdF and then GL-C. Soil erosion rate were positively correlated with mean values of vegetation cover on undisturbed soils, whereas high erosion rate were found on cultivated farmlands compared with even with similar vegetation cover to uncultivated farmlands. Concentrations of Cs-137 in eroded sediments ranged from the order of 103 to 105 Bq/kg and basically depended on the initial Cs-137 deposition. Sediment amount weighted mean values Sc ranged from 0.0062 to 0.084 m2/kg and the largest was from JCdF followed by FL-B1

  4. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  5. Plot 3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Gjessing, Susanne; Hermansen, Anne-Mette

    Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning.......Plot 3 er første udgivelse af et alsidigt dansksystem til mellemtrinnet, hvor digitale medier er integreret i den daglige undervisning....

  6. Examining the Impacts of Wildfire on Throughfall and Stemflow Chemistry and Flux at Plot and Catchment Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. M.; Swetnam, T. L.; McIntosh, J. C.; Meixner, T.; Brooks, P. D.; Chorover, J.

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the effects of fire on the chemistry and flux of precipitation diverted to the forest floor as stemflow and throughfall by observing the impact of the June 2013 Thompson Ridge wildfire in the Jemez River Basin of New Mexico. The loss of canopy cover from wildfire drastically modifies landscapes and alters ecosystems as high intensity burns replace canopies with charred branches and trunks, change soil composition and erosion processes, and affect hydrologic flow paths and water chemistry. In order to track these changes throughfall and stemflow collectors were installed beneath burned and unburned canopies in two catchments impacted by the Thompson Ridge fire. Throughfall, stemflow, and open precipitation samples were analyzed for major cations, anions, organic matter, trace metals, and rare earth elements to determine how fire affects the chemical composition of the precipitation that interacts with burned canopies. Precipitation samples collected from both burned and unburned sites during the 2014 summer monsoon season show variations across burn severity, specifically in calcium and strontium concentrations, and collector type with stemflow concentrations generally higher than throughfall and open precipitation concentrations. Precipitation samples collected from burned sites have distinct rare earth element concentrations, positive europium anomalies, and titanium/zirconium ratios as compared to those of unburned sites. Aqueous extracts of ash and charred bark were also analyzed to determine the origin of these signatures. A stem count model was used to determine tree density for individual plots and catchments from orthophotos taken before and after the 2013 fire. Upscaling these plot scale concentrations and fluxes to catchment scale allows this study to represent changes to an entire catchment and quantify effects of wildfire on chemical load and water chemistry.

  7. Hydrologic connectivity between landscapes and streams: Transferring reach- and plot-scale understanding to the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencso, K.G.; McGlynn, B.L.; Gooseff, M.N.; Wondzell, S.M.; Bencala, K.E.; Marshall, L.A.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between catchment structure and runoff characteristics is poorly understood. In steep headwater catchments with shallow soils the accumulation of hillslope area (upslope accumulated area (UAA)) is a hypothesized first-order control on the distribution of soil water and groundwater. Hillslope-riparian water table connectivity represents the linkage between the dominant catchment landscape elements (hillslopes and riparian zones) and the channel network. Hydrologic connectivity between hillslope-riparian-stream (HRS) landscape elements is heterogeneous in space and often temporally transient. We sought to test the relationship between UAA and the existence and longevity of HRS shallow groundwater connectivity. We quantified water table connectivity based on 84 recording wells distributed across 24 HRS transects within the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest (U.S. Forest Service), northern Rocky Mountains, Montana. Correlations were observed between the longevity of HRS water table connectivity and the size of each transect's UAA (r2 = 0.91). We applied this relationship to the entire stream network to quantify landscape-scale connectivity through time and ascertain its relationship to catchment-scale runoff dynamics. We found that the shape of the estimated annual landscape connectivity duration curve was highly related to the catchment flow duration curve (r2 = 0.95). This research suggests internal catchment landscape structure (topography and topology) as a first-order control on runoff source area and whole catchment response characteristics. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Upscaling plot-scale soil respiration in winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands in Julu County, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ni; Wang, Li; Guo, Yiqiang; Niu, Zheng

    2017-02-01

    Soil respiration (Rs) data from 45 plots were used to estimate the spatial patterns of Rs during the peak growing seasons of winter wheat and summer maize in Julu County, North China, by combining satellite remote sensing data, field-measured data, and a support vector regression (SVR) model. The observed Rs values were well reproduced by the model at the plot scale, with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 and a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.73. No significant difference was detected between the prediction accuracy of the SVR model for winter wheat and summer maize. With forcing from satellite remote sensing data and gridded soil property data, we used the SVR model to predict the spatial distributions of Rs during the peak growing seasons of winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands in Julu County. The SVR model captured the spatial variations of Rs at the county scale. The satellite-derived enhanced vegetation index was found to be the most important input used to predict Rs. Removal of this variable caused an RMSE increase from 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 to 0.42 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. Soil properties such as soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil bulk density (SBD) were the second most important factors. Their removal led to an RMSE increase from 0.31 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 to 0.37 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1. The SVR model performed better than multiple regression in predicting spatial variations of Rs in winter wheat and summer maize rotation croplands, as shown by the comparison of the R2 and RMSE values of the two algorithms. The spatial patterns of Rs are better captured using the SVR model than performing multiple regression, particularly for the relatively high and relatively low Rs values at the center and northeast study areas. Therefore, SVR shows promise for predicting spatial variations of Rs values on the basis of remotely sensed data and gridded soil property data at the county scale.

  9. Water content dynamics at plot scale - comparison of time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography monitoring and pore pressure modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieher, Thomas; Markart, Gerhard; Ottowitz, David; Römer, Alexander; Rutzinger, Martin; Meißl, Gertraud; Geitner, Clemens

    2017-01-01

    Physically-based dynamic modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility rests on several assumptions and simplifications. However, the applicability of physically-based models is only rarely tested in the field at the appropriate scale. This paper presents results of a spray irrigation experiment conducted on a plot of 100 m2 on an Alpine slope susceptible to shallow landsliding. Infiltrating precipitation applied at a constant rate (27.5 mm/h for 5.3 h) was monitored by means of 2D time-lapse electrical resistivity tomography, combined with time-domain reflectometry sensors installed at various depths. In addition, regolith characteristics were assessed by dynamic cone penetration tests using a light-weight cone penetrometer. The spray irrigation experiment resulted in a vertically progressing wetting front to a depth of 80-100 cm. Below that, the unconsolidated material was already saturated by rainfall in the previous days. The observed mean resistivity reduction attributed to infiltrating water during irrigation was scaled to pressure head. Mean variations in pore pressure were reproduced by a linear diffusion model also used in physically-based dynamic landslide susceptibility modelling. Sensitive parameters (hydraulic conductivity and specific storage) were tested over selected value ranges and calibrated. Calibrated parameter values are within published and experimentally derived ranges. The results of the comparison of observations and model results suggest that the model is capable of reproducing mean changes of pore pressure at a suitable scale for physically-based modelling of shallow landslide susceptibility. However, small-scale variations in pore pressure that may facilitate the triggering of shallow landslides are not captured by the model.

  10. An application of plot-scale NDVI in predicting carbon dioxide exchange and leaf area index in heterogeneous subarctic tundra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagg, J.; Lafleur, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that examined the flow of carbon into and out of tundra ecosystems. It is necessary to accurately predict carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) exchange in the Tundra because of the impacts of climate change on carbon stored in permafrost. Understanding the relationships between the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and vegetation and CO{sub 2} exchange may explain how small-scale variation in vegetation community extends to remotely sensed estimates of landscape characteristics. In this study, CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with a portable chamber in a range of Tundra vegetation communities. Biomass and leaf area were measured with destructive harvest, and NDVI was obtained using a hand-held infrared camera. There was a weak correlation between NDVI and leaf area index in some vegetation communities, but a significant correlation between NDVI and biomass, including mosses. NDVI was found to be strongly related to photosynthetic activity and net CO{sub 2} uptake in all vegetation groups. However, NDVI related to ecosystem respiration only in wet sedge. It was concluded that at plot scale, the ability of NDVI to predict ecosystem properties and CO{sub 2} exchange in heterogeneous Tundra vegetation is variable.

  11. Large-Scale Agriculture and Outgrower Schemes in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    , whereas Chapter 4 indicates that sugarcane outgrowers’ easy access to credit and technology and their high productivity compared to the plantation does not necessarily improve their income and asset stocks particularly when participation in outgrower schemes is mandatory, the buyer has monopsony market...... commands a higher wage than ‘formal’ large-scale agriculture, while rather different wage determination mechanisms exist in the two sectors. Human capital characteristics (education and experience) partly explain the differences in wages within the formal sector, but play no significant role...

  12. Food security through large scale investments in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the human appropriation of freshwater resources is for food production. There is some concern that in the near future the finite freshwater resources available on Earth might not be sufficient to meet the increasing human demand for agricultural products. In the late 1700s Malthus argued that in the long run the humanity would not have enough resources to feed itself. Malthus' analysis, however, did not account for the emergence of technological innovations that could increase the rate of food production. The modern and contemporary history has seen at least three major technological advances that have increased humans' access to food, namely, the industrial revolution, the green revolution, and the intensification of global trade. Here we argue that a fourth revolution has just started to happen. It involves foreign direct investments in agriculture, which intensify the crop yields of potentially highly productive agricultural lands by introducing the use of more modern technologies. The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of verified land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with large scale land acquisitions. We

  13. Linking the runoff response at micro-plot and catchment scale following wildfire and terracing, north-central Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Martinho A. S.; Rial-Rivas, María E.; Machado, Ana I.; Serpa, Dalila; Prats, Sergio A.; Faria, Sílvia R.; Varela, María E. T.; González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, J. Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires are known as one of the principal natural hazards affecting the Mediterranean region. This includes Portugal, where wildfires have affected some 100.000 ha of rural lands each year. The effects of wildfires on runoff generation and/or the associated soil (fertility) losses have been studied in Portugal for more than two decades. Some of these studies have reported strong and sometimes extreme hydrological responses in recently burnt areas. Forestry operations in such areas have increasingly come to include bench terracing in preparation of new eucalypt plantations. The hydrological impacts of bench terracing, however, have received little research attention so far and the few existing publications are limited to small spatial scales. The construction of terraces is commonly considered an effective practice for soil conservation on steep slopes, having been applied by mankind since early history. Nonetheless, the present authors have measured high rates of splash as well as inter-rill erosion on recently constructed terraces, and have regularly observed rill formation, including on forest tracks which typically constitute an extensive network in such bench terraced plantations. The present study was carried out in a 29-ha forest catchment in north-central Portugal that was burnt by a wildfire during the summer of 2010, logged during early winter 2010/11, and then bench terraced with bulldozers during late winter 2011, some 6 months after the wildfire. The catchment outlet was instrumented immediately after the fire with an automatic hydrometric station comprising two subsequent flumes with maximum discharge capacities of 120 and 1700 l sec-1. Within the catchment, rainfall was measured using several automatic and storage gauges and overland flow was monitored on two contrasting slopes using 3 micro-plots of approximately 0.25m2 on each slope.Overland flow was measured at 1- to 2-weekly intervals during the hydrological years of 2010/11 and 2011/12, i

  14. Scale-Aware Pansharpening Algorithm for Agricultural Fragmented Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lillo-Saavedra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing (RS has played an important role in extensive agricultural monitoring and management for several decades. However, the current spatial resolution of satellite imagery does not have enough definition to generalize its use in highly-fragmented agricultural landscapes, which represents a significant percentage of the world’s total cultivated surface. To characterize and analyze this type of landscape, multispectral (MS images with high and very high spatial resolutions are required. Multi-source image fusion algorithms are normally used to improve the spatial resolution of images with a medium spatial resolution. In particular, pansharpening (PS methods allow one to produce high-resolution MS images through a coherent integration of spatial details from a panchromatic (PAN image with spectral information from an MS. The spectral and spatial quality of source images must be preserved to be useful in RS tasks. Different PS strategies provide different trade-offs between the spectral and the spatial quality of the fused images. Considering that agricultural landscape images contain many levels of significant structures and edges, the PS algorithms based on filtering processes must be scale-aware and able to remove different levels of detail in any input images. In this work, a new PS methodology based on a rolling guidance filter (RGF is proposed. The main contribution of this new methodology is to produce artifact-free pansharpened images, improving the MS edges with a scale-aware approach. Three images have been used, and more than 150 experiments were carried out. An objective comparison with widely-used methodologies shows the capability of the proposed method as a powerful tool to obtain pansharpened images preserving the spatial and spectral information.

  15. Effects of cycle length and plot density on estimators for a national-scale forest monitoring sample design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis A. Roesch; Todd A. Schroeder; James T. Vogt

    2017-01-01

    The resilience of a National Forest Inventory and Monitoring sample design can sometimes depend upon the degree to which it can adapt to fluctuations in funding. If a budget reduction necessitates the observation of fewer plots per year, some practitioners weigh the problem as a tradeoff between reducing the total number of plots and measuring the original number of...

  16. Remote sensing of a coupled carbon-water-energy-radiation balances from the Globe to plot scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Y.; Jiang, C.; Huang, Y.; Kim, J.; Hwang, Y.; Kimm, H.; Kim, S.

    2016-12-01

    Advancements in near-surface and satellite remote sensing technologies have enabled us to monitor the global terrestrial ecosystems at multiple spatial and temporal scales. An emergent challenge is how to formulate a coupled water, carbon, energy, radiation, and nitrogen cycles from remote sensing. Here, we report Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS), which coupled radiation (shortwave, longwave, PAR, diffuse PAR), carbon (gross primary productivity, ecosystem respiration, net ecosystem exchange), water (evaporation), and energy (latent and sensible heat) balances across the global land at 1 km resolution, 8 daily between 2000 and 2015 using multiple satellite remote sensing. The performance of BESS was tested against field observations (FLUXNET, BSRN) and other independent products (MPI-BGC, MODIS, GLASS). We found that the coupled model, BESS showed on par with, or better performance than the other products which computed land surface fluxes individually. Lastly, we show one plot-level study conducted in a paddy rice to demonstrate how to couple radiation, carbon, water, nitrogen balances with a series of near-surface spectral sensors.

  17. Effects of Cycle Length and Plot Density on Estimators for a National-Scale Forest Monitoring Sample Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis A. Roesch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The resilience of a National Forest Inventory and Monitoring sample design can sometimes depend upon the degree to which it can adapt to fluctuations in funding. If a budget reduction necessitates the observation of fewer plots per year, some practitioners weigh the problem as a tradeoff between reducing the total number of plots and measuring the original number of plots over a greater number of years. Here, we explore some of the effects of differing plot intensities and cycle lengths on variants of three general classes of estimators for annual cubic meter per hectare volume, using a simulated population and appropriately-graduated sampling simulations. The simulations showed that an increase in cycle length yielded quite dramatic effects while differences due to a simulated reduction in plot intensity had more subtle effects.

  18. Plot 4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 4, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  19. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  20. Plotting Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Margaret Ann; Wilkinson, John Provost

    1997-01-01

    Conflict management theory is illustrated in a series of hypothetical scenarios, typical of library situations. Each scenario is discussed in terms of a specific management theory and the theories are transposed into useful management tools by plotting each situation along relevant axes. (Author/AEF)

  1. Plot 5

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Inger-Lise; Hermansen, Anne-Mette; Ferdinand, Trine

    Danskfaglig vejledning informerer om de tanker, der ligger til grund for Plot 5, og beskriver danskfaget ud fra nyere forskning inden for fagets mange delområder. Kapitelvejledning introducerer bogens tekster, forklarer hensigten med kapitlernes opgaver, giver forslag til undervisningen og brugen...

  2. Agricultural insecticides threaten surface waters at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Schulz, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Compared with nutrient levels and habitat degradation, the importance of agricultural pesticides in surface water may have been underestimated due to a lack of comprehensive quantitative analysis. Increasing pesticide contamination results in decreasing regional aquatic biodiversity, i.e., macroinvertebrate family richness is reduced by ∼30% at pesticide concentrations equaling the legally accepted regulatory threshold levels (RTLs). This study provides a comprehensive metaanalysis of 838 peer-reviewed studies (>2,500 sites in 73 countries) that evaluates, for the first time to our knowledge on a global scale, the exposure of surface waters to particularly toxic agricultural insecticides. We tested whether measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; i.e., quantified insecticide concentrations) exceed their RTLs and how risks depend on insecticide development over time and stringency of environmental regulation. Our analysis reveals that MICs occur rarely (i.e., an estimated 97.4% of analyses conducted found no MICs) and there is a complete lack of scientific monitoring data for ∼90% of global cropland. Most importantly, of the 11,300 MICs, 52.4% (5,915 cases; 68.5% of the sites) exceeded the RTL for either surface water (RTLSW) or sediments. Thus, the biological integrity of global water resources is at a substantial risk. RTLSW exceedances depend on the catchment size, sampling regime, and sampling date; are significantly higher for newer-generation insecticides (i.e., pyrethroids); and are high even in countries with stringent environmental regulations. These results suggest the need for worldwide improvements to current pesticide regulations and agricultural pesticide application practices and for intensified research efforts on the presence and effects of pesticides under real-world conditions. PMID:25870271

  3. Runoff production in a small agricultural catchment in Lao PDR: influence of slope, land-use and observation scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patin, J.; Ribolzi, O.; Mugler, C.; Valentin, C.; Mouche, E.

    2010-12-01

    After years of traditional slash and burn cultures, the Houay Pano catchment is now under high land pressures due to population resettling and environmental preservation policies. This evolution leads to rapid land-use changes in the uplands, such as fallow time reductions and growing of cash crops as teaks or banana. The catchment is located in the Luang Prabang province, in the north of Lao PDR and was selected in late 1998 as a benchmark site for the Managing Soil Erosion Consortium (MSEC). It is a small (60ha) agricultural catchment representative of the rural mountainous South East Asia : it exhibits steep cultivated slopes (from 2% to more than 110%) under a wet-dry monsoon climate. To understand the partition between runoff and infiltration, data from runoff on 20 plot experiments (1m2) under natural rainfall and with representative slopes and land uses is collected from 2003 to 2009. A simulated rainfall experiment was conducted in 2002 on bare soil plots (1m2) with different antecedent cultures. We investigate the role of crust, slope and land-use on runoff production at different scales. A model accounting for small scale variability is applied to compute the time and space variations of soil infiltrability at the plot scale (1m2) and sub-catchment scale (0.6ha). From the hypothesis of exponentially distributed infiltrabilities at the centimeter scale, we found that infiltration is log-normaly distributed over time for a given land use. The median infiltrability vary from 10mm/h under teak cultures to 150mm/h on plots with fallow. Variations along a year are tribute to many meteorological and human factors.

  4. Agriculture, Crops, Agricultural Use, Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Franklin County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Crops dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2010. It is described as...

  5. Agriculture, Other, Agriculture use address points, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Lane County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Other dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  6. A Study of the Moderate Scale Operation of China’s Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling; XIN; Zhiquan; HU

    2015-01-01

    In order to promote the development of agricultural large-scale operation in China,this paper constructs a calculation model for agricultural moderate large-scale operation to estimate moderate operation scale of China’s major crops and different agricultural varieties in different regions based on the analysis of present situation of agricultural moderate large-scale operation. The results show that the national average moderate operation area of grain is 7. 3 ha; the average moderate operation area of vegetable,cotton and apple is 0. 61,21. 42 and 0. 37 ha,respectively; the average moderate scale of hog and sheep is 388 and 234. 8,respectively. In addition,for different varieties of agricultural products,we estimate their moderate scale in different provinces. The study provides a scientific basis for speeding up agricultural land transfer and realizing moderate large-scale operation,and sets forth corresponding recommendations on this basis.

  7. Consequences of dispersal for the quantitative study of adaptation in small-scale plots: a case study of an avian island population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambrechts, M.M.; Visser, M.E.; Verboven, N.

    2000-01-01

    Lifetime recruitment of breeding offspring estimated in small- scale study plots (i.e local recruitment) is considered to be the best available ecological measure of contributions to following generations, and sufficient for the quantitative study of adaptation in natural populations. Recent investi

  8. Mechanisms of basin-scale nitrogen load reductions under intensified irrigated agriculture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecka Törnqvist

    Full Text Available Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N, due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2 semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000 of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here

  9. Study on Growth of China’s Agricultural Industrial Chain from the Perspective of Large Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui; LIU; Yingliang; ZHANG; Taiyan; YANG

    2014-01-01

    The growth of agricultural industrial chain is the result of market demand,fund,technology,industrial development and policy guidance. At present,separate and small peasant operating model has become one of the important factors restricting the growth of agricultural industrial chain. From growth mechanism of agricultural industrial chain and actual conditions of China,this paper analyzed actual factors restricting the growth of agricultural industrial chain,and held that it is required to break system bottleneck of large scale agricultural production,match management conditions of large scale agricultural production,and orient towards large scale organization,large scale service,large scale industrial distribution,and large scale chain.

  10. The Plot

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J. Kent

    1991-01-01

    The following essay on the Popish Plot is chapter nine of my biography of Thomas, 5th Baron, 1st Earl, and 1st Marquess of Wharton; and perhaps it is the only chapter in the history of biography that barely mentions the name of the protagonist. This odd state of affairs arises because neither the political career of Thomas Wharton, who later became de facto prince of the Whigs, nor the English Revolution, which he vigorously supported, can be understood without considerable bac...

  11. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Reganold, John P

    2015-06-16

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (-8 to -7%) and net present values (-27 to -23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22-35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20-24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29-32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5-7%, even with organic yields being 10-18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7-13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world.

  12. Complexity Plots

    KAUST Repository

    Thiyagalingam, Jeyarajan

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present a novel visualization technique for assisting the observation and analysis of algorithmic complexity. In comparison with conventional line graphs, this new technique is not sensitive to the units of measurement, allowing multivariate data series of different physical qualities (e.g., time, space and energy) to be juxtaposed together conveniently and consistently. It supports multivariate visualization as well as uncertainty visualization. It enables users to focus on algorithm categorization by complexity classes, while reducing visual impact caused by constants and algorithmic components that are insignificant to complexity analysis. It provides an effective means for observing the algorithmic complexity of programs with a mixture of algorithms and black-box software through visualization. Through two case studies, we demonstrate the effectiveness of complexity plots in complexity analysis in research, education and application. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Cabidoche

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the relative water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h−1 under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI. Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 130 mm rainfall depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow and to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to calibrate

  14. visPIG--a web tool for producing multi-region, multi-track, multi-scale plots of genetic data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Scales

    Full Text Available We present VISual Plotting Interface for Genetics (visPIG; http://vispig.icr.ac.uk, a web application to produce multi-track, multi-scale, multi-region plots of genetic data. visPIG has been designed to allow users not well versed with mathematical software packages and/or programming languages such as R, Matlab®, Python, etc., to integrate data from multiple sources for interpretation and to easily create publication-ready figures. While web tools such as the UCSC Genome Browser or the WashU Epigenome Browser allow custom data uploads, such tools are primarily designed for data exploration. This is also true for the desktop-run Integrative Genomics Viewer (IGV. Other locally run data visualisation software such as Circos require significant computer skills of the user. The visPIG web application is a menu-based interface that allows users to upload custom data tracks and set track-specific parameters. Figures can be downloaded as PDF or PNG files. For sensitive data, the underlying R code can also be downloaded and run locally. visPIG is multi-track: it can display many different data types (e.g association, functional annotation, intensity, interaction, heat map data,…. It also allows annotation of genes and other custom features in the plotted region(s. Data tracks can be plotted individually or on a single figure. visPIG is multi-region: it supports plotting multiple regions, be they kilo- or megabases apart or even on different chromosomes. Finally, visPIG is multi-scale: a sub-region of particular interest can be 'zoomed' in. We describe the various features of visPIG and illustrate its utility with examples. visPIG is freely available through http://vispig.icr.ac.uk under a GNU General Public License (GPLv3.

  15. Urban Agriculture, Commons and Urban Policies: Scaling up Local Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Mancebo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available May urban agriculture be the cornerstone that helps reconfigure more sustainable cities and if so, under which conditions? And if so, what type of urban agriculture? Such are the two issues underlying this article. Why not counteracting urban sprawl by fostering what could be called “rural sprawl”, by introducing nature and rural characteristics such as farming within the city, in its interstitial areas and wastelands? In this perspective, urban agriculture becomes a common good, bringing people together and reshaping the whole urban fabric that would eventually propose a radical remaking of the urban. Urban agriculture lends particularly well to long-lasting urban policies, especially those turning environmental “bads”—such as brownfields and wastelands—into environmental “goods” and urban amenities. Urban agriculture in interstitial abandoned urban areas may be one of cities’ main seedbeds of creative innovation. It is all about the right to decide and the power to create, renewing and deepening what Henri Lefebvre called The Right to the City.

  16. Blending local scale information for developing agricultural resilience in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Husak, Gregory; Mahiny, A.S; Gary Eilerts,; Rowland, James

    2013-01-01

    This brief article looks at the intersection of climate, land cover/land use, and population trends in the world's most food insecure country, Ethiopia. As a result of warming in the Indian and Western Pacific oceans, Ethiopia has experienced substantial drying over the past 20 years. We intersect the spatial pattern of this drying with high resolution climatologies, maps of agricultural expansion, population data, and socioeconomic livelihoods information to suggest that the coincidence of drying and agricultural expansion in south-central Ethiopia is likely adversely affecting a densely populated region with high levels of poverty and low wage levels.

  17. A Conservation Approach of Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS: Improving Traditional Agricultural Patterns and Promoting Scale-Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxun Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Heritage conservation is an important recurring research theme on agricultural heritage systems. Improving the income of farmers from agriculture is regarded as an effective conservation approach. This study examined how the improved rice-fish-duck coculture (IRFDC promotes the protection of the Honghe Hani Rice Terraced System (HHRTS by keeping farmers farming in their hometowns. A semi-structural interview and a questionnaire survey were used to collect data on agricultural input–outputs and household employment in HHRTS. As a result, a fairly large proportion of HHRTS rice terraces were used for the hybrid rice monoculture (HRM with chemical inputs, and most of these rice terraces were wasted for half a year on account of being left unused; the IRFDC requires considerable time input for farming and breeding, but barely needs any chemical inputs. IRFDC entails a higher cost than HRM, but also has a higher return than HRM. Driving a family to do full-time farming requires extra more than 0.71 ha rice terraces for IRFDC. In conclusion, Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHSs can be used for protecting terraces from abandonment and destruction by improving agricultural economic benefits for farmers. At present, a shortage of laborers in HHRTS sites is false. Agricultural heritage sites do not actual need so many people if peasant households can do large-scale farming.

  18. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  19. Influence of SWR on the hydrological response on two contrasting Mediterranean hillslopes at plot scale using rainfall simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarron Galeote, M. A.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.

    2012-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) has proved to be a common phenomenon in Mediterranean environments, where it is favored by a four-month-long dry season and a high organic matter input in the soil from vegetation. Among the main effects of SWR are reducing infiltration and enhancing overland flow. The objectives of this study are: i) to characterize the SWR in two contrasting hillslopes and over different microenvironments; ii) to determine the effect of SWR in infiltration, run-off generation and soil loss processes. The experimental area is located in southern Spain (36°50'N, 4°50'W), 22 km northwestern of the city of Málaga, and includes two hillslopes having different exposures. In general, the area is characterized by a dry Mediterranean climate (mean annual precipitation: 576.1 mm year-1; mean annual temperature: 15.7°C), the dominance of water erosion processes on steep hillslopes (> 12.5°) with a substratum of metamorphic rocks (phyllites). Vegetation cover consists on an open wood of cork oak with typical degraded Mediterranean scrub, where the dominant genus is Cistus spp. Soil depths range from 20 to 50 cm. Three soil microenvironments were selected on each hillslope: Soil covered by Cistus spp. and litter, soil covered by Cistus spp. removing the litter and bare soil. On each microenvironment SWR was measured by mean of WDPT method and 5 rainfall simulations was performed. Experiments were carried out in September, after a prolonged drought period, when SWR is supposed to be most strongly expressed. The water repellency for all micro-environments was an order of magnitude greater on the north-facing hillslope (p<0.000), where the greatest value was found for plots of Cistus spp. with litter (843.2 s ± 675.4 s, followed by plots of Cistus spp. without litter (492.0 s ± 56 s) and bare soil plots (97.4 s ± 86.7 s). On the south-facing hillslope the Cistus spp. plots with and without litter had mean water repellency values of 77.3 s ± 49.3 s (strong

  20. Distribution of lithium in agricultural and grazing land soils at European continental scale (GEMAS project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrel, Philippe; Reimann, Clemens; Ladenberger, Anna; Birke, Manfred

    2017-04-01

    The environmental chemistry of Li has received attention because Li has been shown to have numerous and important implications for human health and agriculture and the stable isotope composition of lithium is a powerful geochemical tool that provides quantitative information about Earth processes such as sediment recycling, global chemical weathering and its role in the carbon cycle, hydrothermal alteration, and groundwater evolution. However, the role of bedrock sources, weathering and climate changes in the repartition of Li at the continental scale has been scarcely investigated. Agricultural soil (Ap-horizon, 0-20 cm) and grazing land soil (Gr-horizon, 0-10 cm) samples were collected from a large part of Europe (33 countries, 5.6 million km2) as a part of the GEMAS (GEochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil) soil mapping project. GEMAS soil data have been used to provide a general view of element mobility and source rocks at the continental scale, either by reference to average crustal abundances or to normalized patterns of element mobility during weathering processes. The survey area includes a diverse group of soil parent materials with varying geological history, a wide range of climate zones and landscapes. The concentrations of Li in European soil were determined by ICP-MS after a hot aqua regia extraction, and their spatial distribution patterns generated by means of a GIS software. Due to the partial nature of the aqua regia extraction, the mean concentration of Li in the European agricultural soil (ca 11.4 mg/kg in Ap and Gr soils) is about four times lower than in the Earth's upper continental crust (UCC = 41 mg/kg). The combined plot histogram - density trace one- dimensional scattergram - boxplot of the aqua regia data displays the univariate data distribution of Li. The one-dimensional scattergram and boxplot highlight the existence of many outliers at the lower end of the Li distribution and very few at the upper end. Though the

  1. Analysis and modelling of the temporal stability of throughfall and near-surface soil moisture at the plot scale in the Italian pre-Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuecco, Giulia; van Meerveld, Ilja; Penna, Daniele; Hopp, Luisa; Borga, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the spatial and temporal variation in soil moisture at different scales is crucial for hydrological sciences. In forested areas, spatial patterns in throughfall and vegetation characteristics are expected to control soil moisture variability. However, few studies have focused on the influence of throughfall spatial patterns on near-surface soil moisture. Therefore, this study aimed to: i) investigate the relation between the spatial patterns of throughfall and near-surface soil moisture at the plot scale for a forested hillslope, ii) compare the temporal stability of throughfall and soil moisture with canopy characteristics, and iii) assess the controls on the correlation between throughfall and soil moisture temporal stability by means of a dynamic soil moisture model. Throughfall and soil moisture measurements were taken in a 500 m2 experimental plot on the hillslope of a densely forested catchment (Ressi) in the Italian pre-Alps between April 2013 and March 2014. The main tree species in the plot are beech and chestnut. The median diameter at breast height of the trees in the plot is 4 cm (range 1-61 cm). Fifty buckets (collecting area: 556 cm2; capacity: 162 mm) were randomly distributed in the plot for throughfall measurements, while a bucket was also installed in a nearby open area (approximately 150 m from the experimental plot) to collect rainfall. Volumetric soil moisture content was measured at 50 points, about 30 cm upslope of each bucket, at two depths (0-7 and 0-12 cm) before and after 23 rainfall events (7.7 mm to 156 mm) using portable TDR (Time Domain Reflectivity) probes. Canopy openness and leaf area index (LAI) were determined from hemispherical pictures at each bucket. For the measured events throughfall and soil moisture spatial patterns were not significantly or only weakly correlated, likely due to the lateral and vertical redistribution of water in the soil profile during the 2-36 hour period between the end of the rainfall

  2. Influence of vegetation, soil and antecedent soil moisture on the variability of surface runoff coefficients at the plot scale in the eastern alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifflard, P.; Kohl, B.; Markart, G.; Kirnbauer, R.

    2009-04-01

    Modelling the runoff of a catchment in a high spatial resolution, you need to know the potential of a single plot to generate surface runoff. The portion of surface runoff is highly significant for storm runoff events, accordingly, it mainly forms the hydrograph. In this study, the influence of vegetation, soil features and antecedent soil moisture on generating surface runoff at the plot scale have been analysed. To achieve an appropriate fit of the plots, a plot sizes between 50 and 400 m² were chosen. The rainfall intensities ranged between 10 mm/h and 100 mm/h. Based on 260 rain simulations with a transportable sprinkling instrumentation on representative plots in the eastern Alps (Austria, Italy, Germany), including investigations on land-use, vegetation cover and soil physical characteristics, various soil-vegetation complexes and their surface runoff processes have been be analysed. Additionally, we investigated flow paths, travel distance, infiltration hindrance, flow resistance and overland flow velocity. The soil water status was monitored by using TDR-probes, which had been installed in two profiles within the plot in different depths ranging from 5 cm to 40 cm. For every sprinkling experiment, a surface runoff coefficient was calculated as the ratio between total rainfall amount and surface runoff. With this substantial dataset, the regression analysis was used to examine the influence of the hydrological key factors as soil, vegetation and initial soil moisture condition on the distribution functions of the surface runoff coefficient. The first results show that the vegetation cover is very important for the surface runoff. If initial soils are covered by alpine or sub-alpine pioneering vegetation surface runoff can be found very scarce. If these initial soils are covered i.e. by subalpine nardus grasslands the surface runoff coefficients range from 0.1 up to 0.8. On the other hand it can be shown that soils with a high bulk density mainly generate

  3. NPLOT - NASTRAN PLOT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcentire, K.

    1994-01-01

    becomes command driven, enabling the user to manipulate the display or execute a command without having to return to the menu. NPLOT is also able to plot deformed shapes allowing it to perform post-processing. The program can read displacements, either static displacements or eigenvectors, from a MSC/NASTRAN F06 file or a UAI/NASTRAN PRT file. The displacements are written into a unformatted scratch file where they are available for rapid access when the user wishes to display a deformed shape. All subcases or mode shapes can be read in at once. Then it is easy to enable the deformed shape, to change subcases or mode shapes and to change the scale factor for subsequent plots. NPLOT is written in VAX FORTRAN for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. As distributed, the NPLOT source code makes calls to the DI3000 graphics package from Precision Visuals; however, a set of interface routines is provided to translate the DI3000 calls into Tektronix PLOT10/TCS graphics library calls so that NPLOT can use the standard Tektronix 4010 which many PC terminal emulation software programs support. NPLOT is available in VAX BACKUP format on a 9-track 1600 BPI DEC VAX BACKUP format magnetic tape (standard media) or a TK50 tape cartridge. This program was developed in 1991. DEC, VAX, VMS, and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation. Tektronix, PLOT10, and TCS are trademarks of Tektronix, Inc. DI3000 is a registered trademark of Precision Visuals, Inc. NASTRAN is a registered trademark of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. MSC/ is a trademark of MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation. UAI is a trademark of Universal Analytics, Inc.

  4. Performance and energy costs associated with scaling infrared heater arrays for warming field plots from 1 to 100 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    To study the likely effects of global warming on open-field vegetation, hexagonal arrays of infrared heaters are currently being used for low-stature (scales, herein we show that excellent uniformity of the warming can be achieved using...

  5. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  6. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-M. Cabidoche

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks, which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h−1 under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI. Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data

  7. Modelling runoff at the plot scale taking into account rainfall partitioning by vegetation: application to stemflow of banana (Musa spp.) plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, J.-B.; Moussa, R.; Cattan, P.; Cabidoche, Y.-M.; Voltz, M.

    2009-11-01

    Rainfall partitioning by vegetation modifies the intensity of rainwater reaching the ground, which affects runoff generation. Incident rainfall is intercepted by the plant canopy and then redistributed into throughfall and stemflow. Rainfall intensities at the soil surface are therefore not spatially uniform, generating local variations of runoff production that are disregarded in runoff models. The aim of this paper was to model runoff at the plot scale, accounting for rainfall partitioning by vegetation in the case of plants concentrating rainwater at the plant foot and promoting stemflow. We developed a lumped modelling approach, including a stemflow function that divided the plot into two compartments: one compartment including stemflow and the related water pathways and one compartment for the rest of the plot. This stemflow function was coupled with a production function and a transfer function to simulate a flood hydrograph using the MHYDAS model. Calibrated parameters were a "stemflow coefficient", which compartmented the plot; the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), which controls infiltration and runoff; and the two parameters of the diffusive wave equation. We tested our model on a banana plot of 3000 m2 on permeable Andosol (mean Ks=75 mm h-1) under tropical rainfalls, in Guadeloupe (FWI). Runoff simulations without and with the stemflow function were performed and compared to 18 flood events from 10 to 140 rainfall mm depth. Modelling results showed that the stemflow function improved the calibration of hydrographs according to the error criteria on volume and on peakflow, to the Nash and Sutcliffe coefficient, and to the root mean square error. This was particularly the case for low flows observed during residual rainfall, for which the stemflow function allowed runoff to be simulated for rainfall intensities lower than the Ks measured at the soil surface. This approach also allowed us to take into account the experimental data, without needing to

  8. From one plot to many and from hillslopes to streams: Improving our understanding of catchment hydrology with a multi-scale experimental approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, Theresa; Weiler, Markus; Angermann, Lisa; Beiter, Daniel; Hassler, Sibylle; Kaplan, Nils; Lieder, Ernestine; Sprenger, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Sustainable water resources management needs to be based on sound process understanding. This is especially true in a changing world, where boundary conditions change and models calibrated to the status quo are no longer helpful. There is a general agreement in the hydrologic community that we are in need of a better process understanding and that one of the most promising ways to achieve this is by using nested experimental designs that cover a range of scales. In the here presented study we argue that while we might be able to investigate a certain process at a plot or hillslope in detail, the real power of advancing our understanding lies in site intercomparison and if possible knowledge transfer and generalization. The experimental design of the CAOS observatory is based on sensor clusters measuring ground-, soil and stream water, sap flow and climate variables in 45 hydrological functional units which were chosen from a matrix of site characteristics (geology, land use, hillslope aspect, and topographic positions). This design allows for site intercomparisons that are based on more than one member per class and thus does not only characterize between class differences but also attempts to identify within-class variability. These distributed plot scale investigations offer a large amount of information on plot scale processes and their variability in space and time (e.g. water storage dynamics and patterns, vertical flow processes and vadose zone transit times, transpiration dynamics and patterns). However, if we want to improve our understanding of runoff generation (and thus also of nutrient and contaminant transport and export to the stream) we need to also understand how these plots link up within hillslopes and how and when these hillslopes are connected to the stream. And certainly, this is again most helpful if we do not focus on single sites but attempt experimental designs that aim at intercomparison and generalization. At the same time, the

  9. Strategies for implementing Climate Smart Agriculture and creating marketable Greenhouse emission reduction credits, for small scale rice farmers in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, R.; Kritee, K.; Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Thu Ha, T.

    2014-12-01

    Industrial agriculture systems, mostly in developed and some emerging economies, are far different from the small holder farms that dot the landscapes in Asia and Africa. At Environmental Defense Fund, along with our partners from non-governmental, corporate, academic and government sectors and farmers, we have worked actively in India and Vietnam for the last four years to better understand how small scale farmers working on rice paddy (and other upland crops) cultivation can best deal with climate change. Some of the questions we have tried to answer are: What types of implementable best practices, both old and new, on small farm systems lend themselves to improved yields, farm incomes, climate resilience and mitigation? Can these practices be replicated everywhere or is the change more landscape and people driven? What are the institutional, cultural, financial and risk-perception related barriers that prevent scaling up of these practices? How do we innovate and overcome these barriers? The research community needs to work more closely together and leverage multiple scientific, economic and policy disciplines to fully answer these questions. In the case of small farm systems, we find that it helps to follow certain steps if the climate-smart (or low carbon) farming programs are to succeed and the greenhouse credits generated are to be marketed: Demographic data collection and plot demarcation Farmer networks and diaries Rigorous baseline determination via surveys Alternative practice determination via consultation with local universities/experts Measurements on representative plots for 3-4 years (including GHG emissions, yields, inputs, economic and environmental savings) to help calibrate biogeochemical models and/or calculate regional emission factors. Propagation of alternative practices across the landscape via local NGOs/governments Recording of parameters necessary to extrapolate representative plot GHG emission reductions to all farmers in a given

  10. Scaling point/plot measurements of greenhouse gas fluxes, balances and intensities to whole-farms and landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenstock, T.S.; Rufino, Mariana; Chirinda, N.; Bussel, van L.G.J.; Reidsma, P.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of nutrient stocks and greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes are typically collected at very local scales (<1 to 30 m2) and then extrapolated to estimate impacts at larger spatial extents (farms, landscapes, or even countries). Translating point measurements to higher levels of aggregation is

  11. Is CH4 consumption by soils controlled by physics or biology? Results from a study of plot-scale variability of greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Martin; Paulus, Sinikka; Nicolai, Clara; Nauer, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of trace gases vary on different spatial scales, between landscapes and ecosystems down to the plot scale within apparently homogenous sites. The production and consumption of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) underlie different spatial and temporal changes, und thus, their interrelation is difficult to unravel. Small-scale variability in soil properties is well-known from soil surveys, affecting theoretically water availability for plants, soil aeration, vegetation, the local photosynthesis rate, and, eventually, greenhouse gas fluxes. We investigated the small scale variability of greenhouse gas fluxes in a homogenous Scots Pine stand in a former riparian flood plain. Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were carried out at 60 points on a 250 m2 plot with strata of diverse soil substrates and understory vegetation. Gas flux measurements were combined with soil physical lab measurements, and a soil vegetation survey. The soil was a source of CO2 and a sink for CH4 and N2O. No correlations between the fluxes and only weak correlations between the fluxes and soil physical factors were observed. CH4 and CO2 fluxes were significantly different for the soil-vegetation strata. Separating the dataset into the different soil-vegetation strata showed that CH4 consumption increased significantly with soil gas diffusivity and soil respiration. Methane consumption in the silt stratum was higher at a given soil gas diffusivity than in the sand stratum, indicating a higher methanotrophic microbe population and thus better habitats in silt. CH4 consumption increased with soil respiration in all strata, so that we speculate that the rhizosphere and decomposing organic litter (as origin of most of the soil respiration) facilitate a preferred habitat of methanotrophic microbes. The patterns of N2O consumption were more complex, but consumption seemed to be limited at locations with

  12. A mechanistic ecohydrological model to investigate complex interactions in cold and warm water-controlled environments. 1. Theoretical framework and plot-scale analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Fatichi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have explored the role of vegetation in controlling and mediating hydrological states and fluxes at the level of individual processes, which has led to improvements in our understanding of plot-scale dynamics. Relatively less effort has been directed toward spatially-explicit studies of vegetation-hydrology interactions at larger scales of a landscape.Only few continuous, process-oriented ecohydrological models had been proposed with structures of varying complexity. This study contributes to their further evolution and presents a novel ecohydrological model, {it Tethys-Chloris}. The model synthesizes the state-of-the-art knowledge on individual processes and coupling mechanisms drawn from the disciplines of hydrology, plant physiology, and ecology. Specifically, the model reproduces all essential components of the hydrological cycle: it resolves the mass and energy budgets in the atmospheric surface layer at the hourly scale, while representing up to two layers of vegetation; it includes a module of snowpack evolution; it describes the saturated and unsaturated soil water dynamics, processes of runoff generation and flow routing. The component of vegetation dynamics parameterizes lifecycle processes of different plant functional types, including photosynthesis, phenology, carbon allocation, and tissue turnover. This study presents a confirmation of the long-term, plot-scale model performance by simulating two types of ecosystems corresponding to different climate conditions. A consistent and highly satisfactory model skill in reproducing the energy and water budgets as well as physiological cycles of plants with minimum calibration overhead is demonstrated.Furthermore, these applications demonstrate that the model permits the identification of data types and observation frequencies crucial for appropriate evaluation of modeled dynamics. More importantly, through a synthesis of a wide array of process representations, the model

  13. Assessment of soil erosion and conservation on agricultural sloping lands using plot data in the semi-arid hilly loess region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.X. Zhu

    2014-11-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: The results revealed that runoff per unit area slightly increased with slope angle on SSP, but reached a maximum at 15° and then decreased with slope angle on LSP. Soil loss per unit area increased with slope angle on both SSP and LSP. An average of 36.4% less runoff but only 3.6% less soil loss per unit area was produced on LSP than on SSP. The S factor calculated using the slope factor equations in USLE/RUSLE was significantly greater than that estimated from the measured soil loss on the plots. Rainstorms with recurrence intervals greater than 2 years were responsible for more than two thirds of the total soil and water loss. The effectiveness in reducing surface runoff by five types of conservation practices was mixed. However, all the conservation practices yielded much less soil loss than cropland.

  14. PLOT3D: An Interactive Graphics Code for Three Dimensional Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-28

    all program parameters PLOTF Plots the function y-f(x.z) according to the specified programs parameters. PLOTS Manipulates data for scaling and angles...of rotation; Calls PLOTF to plot each line PERIM Draws the plane of projection and perimeter around the plotted data PLTIF Puts data information on...PLT3T ADISP Clears alphanumeric display PLOTS Same as in PLT3T segment PLOTF Plots on pen plotter instead of the graphics terminal PERIM Same as in

  15. A Scale-Explicit Framework for Conceptualizing the Environmental Impacts of Agricultural Land Use Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago Lowe Hale

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Demand for locally-produced food is growing in areas outside traditionally dominant agricultural regions due to concerns over food safety, quality, and sovereignty; rural livelihoods; and environmental integrity. Strategies for meeting this demand rely upon agricultural land use change, in various forms of either intensification or extensification (converting non-agricultural land, including native landforms, to agricultural use. The nature and extent of the impacts of these changes on non-food-provisioning ecosystem services are determined by a complex suite of scale-dependent interactions among farming practices, site-specific characteristics, and the ecosystem services under consideration. Ecosystem modeling strategies which honor such complexity are often impenetrable by non-experts, resulting in a prevalent conceptual gap between ecosystem sciences and the field of sustainable agriculture. Referencing heavily forested New England as an example, we present a conceptual framework designed to synthesize and convey understanding of the scale- and landscape-dependent nature of the relationship between agriculture and various ecosystem services. By accounting for the total impact of multiple disturbances across a landscape while considering the effects of scale, the framework is intended to stimulate and support the collaborative efforts of land managers, scientists, citizen stakeholders, and policy makers as they address the challenges of expanding local agriculture.

  16. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  17. Realtime infiltration process monitoring in macroporous soil - a plot-scale experiment accompanied by high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; Allroggen, Niklas

    2016-04-01

    Infiltration and quick vertical redistribution of event water through rapid subsurface flow in soil structures is one of the key issues in hydrology. Although the importance of preferential flow is broadly recognised, our theories, observation techniques and modelling approaches lose grounds when the assumption of well-mixed states in REVs collapses. To characterise the combination of advective and diffusive flow is especially challenging. We have shown in earlier studies that a combination of TDR monitoring, dye- and salt-tracer recovery and time-lapse 3D GPR in irrigation experiments provides means to characterise infiltration dynamics at the plot- and hillslope-scale also in highly structured soils. We pinpointed that the spatial and temporal resolution requires special attention and improvement - particularly owing to the facts of high velocity (10-3 ms-1) of advective flow and small scale (10-2 m) of the respective flow structures. We present insights from a novel technique of continuous high-resolution time-lapse 3D GPR measurements during and after a plot-scale (1 m x 1 m) irrigation experiment. Continuous TDR soil moisture measurements, dye tracer excavation and salt-tracer samples are used as qualitative and quantitative references. While classical infiltration experiments either look at spatial patterns or temporal dynamics at singular gauges, we highlight the advantage of combining both to achieve a more complete image of the infiltration process. Although operating at the limits of the techniques this setup enables non-invasive observation of preferential flow processes in the field and allows to explore and characterise macropore matrix exchange.

  18. Quantifying Spatial Heterogeneity and Co-variance of Surface Hydrologic Parameters at the Plot Scale in a Semi-arid Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truschel, A.; Bhark, E. W.; Small, E. E.

    2005-12-01

    In arid to semi-arid ecosystems, the partitioning of precipitation into infiltration, runoff, and interception loss is strongly influenced by the spatial arrangement of vegetation and related (near-)surface hydraulic properties. This partitioning is critical to a variety of hydrological and ecological processes and the interactions between them. On semi-arid hillslopes, we study the spatial patterns of infiltration and runoff, including vegetation mosaic geometry, microtopography, and soil hydraulic properties, from the centimeter to tens-of-meters scale. Approximately 8,000 measurements were collected in creostebush shrubland and black grama grassland hillslopes in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, central New Mexico. Measurements were collected over plot-scale (100 sq. m.) domains, the surface area of which was defined prior as a representative elementary area (REA) with respect to mosaic geometry, in sampling schemes designed for semivariogram estimation. All measurements were colocated. Auto- and cross- relationships in the form of experimental semivariograms are first characterized between properties out to the maximum measurement scale. These relationships are used to define spatial scales of directional heterogeneity within and between variables. Next, geostatistical models are fit to the experimental data, at appropriately smaller scales, for model parameter estimation. Model parameters are used 1) to identify surface properties that control features of the semivariogram, 2) for the comparison of spatial features between the data sets, and 3) for improved estimation of the measured properties for use in related flow simulation. Results show marked attributes of the semivariogram that can be directly related to spatial patterns of surface properties. Similarly, the strong spatial correlation between properties appears as distinct features on the cross-semivariogram. Corresponding (cross-)semivariogram model parameters indicate that significant

  19. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Multiple-scale Proximal Sensor and Remote Imagery Technology for Sustaining Agricultural Productivity During Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, D. L.; Scudiero, E.

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climatic patterns have had dramatic influence on agricultural areas worldwide, particularly in irrigated arid-zone agricultural areas subjected to recurring drought, such as California's San Joaquin Valley. Climate change has impacted water availability, which subsequently has impacted soil salinity levels in the root zone, especially on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley (WSJV). Inventorying and monitoring the extent of climate change on soil salinity is crucial to evaluate the extent of the problem, to recognize trends, and to formulate state-wide and field-scale irrigation management strategies that will sustain the agricultural productivity of the WSJV. Over the past 3 decades, Corwin and colleagues at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory have developed proximal sensor (i.e., electrical resistivity and electromagnetic induction) and remote imagery (i.e., MODIS and Landsat 7) methodologies for assessing soil salinity at multiple scales: field (0.5 ha to 3 km2), landscape (3 to 10 km2), and regional (10 to 105 km2) scales. The purpose of this presentation is to provide an overview of these scale-dependent salinity assessment technologies. Case studies for the WSJV are presented to demonstrate at multiple scales the utility of these approaches in assessing soil salinity changes due to management-induced changes and to changes in climate patterns, and in providing site-specific irrigation management information for salinity control. Land resource managers, producers, agriculture consultants, extension specialists, and Natural Resource Conservation Service field staff are the beneficiaries of this information.

  1. A parameter optimization tool for evaluating the physical consistency of the plot-scale water budget of the integrated eco-hydrological model GEOtop in complex terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Giacomo; Cordano, Emanuele; Brenner, Johannes; Senoner, Samuel; Della Chiesa, Stefano; Niedrist, Georg

    2017-04-01

    In mountain regions, the plot- and catchment-scale water and energy budgets are controlled by a complex interplay of different abiotic (i.e. topography, geology, climate) and biotic (i.e. vegetation, land management) controlling factors. When integrated, physically-based eco-hydrological models are used in mountain areas, there are a large number of parameters, topographic and boundary conditions that need to be chosen. However, data on soil and land-cover properties are relatively scarce and do not reflect the strong variability at the local scale. For this reason, tools for uncertainty quantification and optimal parameters identification are essential not only to improve model performances, but also to identify most relevant parameters to be measured in the field and to evaluate the impact of different assumptions for topographic and boundary conditions (surface, lateral and subsurface water and energy fluxes), which are usually unknown. In this contribution, we present the results of a sensitivity analysis exercise for a set of 20 experimental stations located in the Italian Alps, representative of different conditions in terms of topography (elevation, slope, aspect), land use (pastures, meadows, and apple orchards), soil type and groundwater influence. Besides micrometeorological parameters, each station provides soil water content at different depths, and in three stations (one for each land cover) eddy covariance fluxes. The aims of this work are: (I) To present an approach for improving calibration of plot-scale soil moisture and evapotranspiration (ET). (II) To identify the most sensitive parameters and relevant factors controlling temporal and spatial differences among sites. (III) Identify possible model structural deficiencies or uncertainties in boundary conditions. Simulations have been performed with the GEOtop 2.0 model, which is a physically-based, fully distributed integrated eco-hydrological model that has been specifically designed for mountain

  2. Factors associated with small-scale agricultural machinery adoption in Bangladesh: Census findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaleb, Khondoker Abdul; Krupnik, Timothy J; Erenstein, Olaf

    2016-08-01

    There is strong advocacy for agricultural machinery appropriate for smallholder farmers in South Asia. Such 'scale-appropriate' machinery can increase returns to land and labour, although the still substantial capital investment required can preclude smallholder ownership. Increasing machinery demand has resulted in relatively well-developed markets for rental services for tillage, irrigation, and post-harvest operations. Many smallholders thereby access agricultural machinery that may have otherwise been cost prohibitive to purchase through fee-for-service arrangements, though opportunity for expansion remains. To more effectively facilitate the development and investment in scale-appropriate machinery, there is a need to better understand the factors associated with agricultural machinery purchases and service provision. This paper first reviews Bangladesh's historical policy environment that facilitated the development of agricultural machinery markets. It then uses recent Bangladesh census data from 814,058 farm households to identify variables associated with the adoption of the most common smallholder agricultural machinery - irrigation pumps, threshers, and power tillers (mainly driven by two-wheel tractors). Multinomial probit model results indicate that machinery ownership is positively associated with household assets, credit availability, electrification, and road density. These findings suggest that donors and policy makers should focus not only on short-term projects to boost machinery adoption. Rather, sustained emphasis on improving physical and civil infrastructure and services, as well as assuring credit availability, is also necessary to create an enabling environment in which the adoption of scale-appropriate farm machinery is most likely.

  3. National, holistic, watershed-scale approach to understand the sources, transport, and fate of agricultural chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capel, P.D.; McCarthy, K.A.; Barbash, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an introduction to the following series of papers that report on in-depth investigations that have been conducted at five agricultural study areas across the United States in order to gain insights into how environmental processes and agricultural practices interact to determine the transport and fate of agricultural chemicals in the environment. These are the first study areas in an ongoing national study. The study areas were selected, based on the combination of cropping patterns and hydrologic setting, as representative of nationally important agricultural settings to form a basis for extrapolation to unstudied areas. The holistic, watershed-scale study design that involves multiple environmental compartments and that employs both field observations and simulation modeling is presented. This paper introduces the overall study design and presents an overview of the hydrology of the five study areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  4. A threshold area ratio of organic to conventional agriculture causes recurrent pathogen outbreaks in organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adl, S; Iron, D; Kolokolnikov, T

    2011-05-01

    Conventional agriculture uses herbicides, pesticides, and chemical fertilizers that have the potential to pollute the surrounding land, air and water. Organic agriculture tries to avoid using these and promotes an environmentally friendly approach to agriculture. Instead of relying on herbicides, pesticides and chemical fertilizers, organic agriculture promotes a whole system approach to managing weeds, pests and nutrients, while regulating permitted amendments. In this paper, we consider the effect of increasing the total area of agricultural land under organic practices, against a background of conventional agriculture. We hypothesized that at a regional scale, organic agriculture plots benefit from existing in a background of conventional agriculture, that maintains low levels of pathogens through pesticide applications. We model pathogen dispersal with a diffusive logistic equation in which the growth/death rate is spatially heterogeneous. We find that if the ratio of the organic plots to conventional plots remains below a certain threshold l(c), the pest population is kept small. Above this threshold, the pest population in the organic plots grows rapidly. In this case, the area in organic agriculture will act as a source of pest to the surrounding region, and will always infect organic plots as they become more closely spaced. Repeated localized epidemics of pest outbreaks threaten global food security by reducing crop yields and increasing price volatility. We recommend that regional estimates of this threshold are necessary to manage the growth of organic agriculture region by region. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Occupational activities associated with a reported history of malaria among women working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Naidoo (Steven); L. London (Leslie); A. Burdorf (Alex); S. Naidoo (Steven); H. Kromhout (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMalaria-endemic agricultural communities are at risk for this disease because of crop and agricultural activities. A cross-sectional survey among women in small-scale agriculture on irrigated and dryland areas in Makhatini Flats, KwaZulu-Natal South Africa explored associations with self

  6. Mapping Large-Scale Mechanized Agriculture Across the Brazilian Cerrado Between 2001-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, S. A.; Mustard, J. F.; VanWey, L.

    2014-12-01

    Brazil is a global commodities powerhouse. Over the last decade, dynamic changes in agricultural development and land transformations occurred within Brazil's tropical savanna region, the cerrado. This interdisciplinary study uses remote sensing tools to map land cover across more than 3.6 million km2 of cerrado and statistical methods to characterize drivers of this land-cover change. We use the MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index 16-day data product and a decision-tree algorithm, proven highly accurate in Mato Grosso (Spera et al. 2014) and here modified for the broader cerrado region, to characterize crop type, cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment of large-scale mechanized agriculture during the 2001-2013 period. The algorithm exploits phenological differences between forest, pasture and cerrado, and mechanized agriculture. It is parameterized to distinguish between crop rotations in Mato Grosso, Goias, and the new agricultural frontier spanning Maranhao, Tocantins, Piaui, and Bahia (MaToPiBa). Training and validation data were collected using Google's Earth Engine. We map single-cropped soy, corn, and cotton; double-cropped soy/corn and soy/cotton rotations; and irrigated agriculture across these six Brazilian cerrado states. We find that while double cropping dominates in Mato Grosso and Goias, single cropping is still the dominant form of mechanized agriculture in the burgeoning MaToPiBa region. In western Bahia alone, preliminary results show agriculture has expanded by almost 350,000 ha and double cropping has increased by almost 40,000 ha. With MaToPiBa touted as Brazil's latest and last agricultural frontier, we predict that the region will experience a transition similar to that of Mato Grosso during the 2000s—an expansion and intensification of agriculture—which may beget unprecedented ramifications on regional climate processes that can then affect ecosystem health and the economic feasibility of cultivating rain-fed export crops.

  7. Spatial Scaling Assessment of Surface Soil Moisture Estimations Using Remotely Sensed Data for Precision Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Esfahani, L.; Torres-Rua, A. F.; Jensen, A.; McKee, M.

    2014-12-01

    Airborne and Landsat remote sensing are promising technologies for measuring the response of agricultural crops to variations in several agricultural inputs and environmental conditions. Of particular significance to precision agriculture is surface soil moisture, a key component of the soil water balance, which addresses water and energy exchanges at the surface/atmosphere interface and affects vegetation health. Its estimation using the spectral reflectance of agricultural fields could be of value to agricultural management decisions. While top soil moisture can be estimated using radiometric information from aircraft or satellites and data mining techniques, comparison of results from two different aerial platforms might be complicated because of the differences in spatial scales (high resolution of approximately 0.15m versus coarser resolutions of 30m). This paper presents a combined modeling and scale-based approach to evaluate the impact of spatial scaling in the estimation of surface soil moisture content derived from remote sensing data. Data from Landsat 7 ETM+, Landsat 8 OLI and AggieAirTM aerial imagery are utilized. AggieAirTM is an airborne remote sensing platform developed by Utah State University that includes an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) which captures radiometric information at visual, near-infrared, and thermal wavebands at spatial resolutions of 0.15 m or smaller for the optical cameras and about 0.6 m or smaller for the thermal infrared camera. Top soil moisture maps for AggieAir and Landsat are developed and statistically compared at different scales to determine the impact in terms of quantitative predictive capability and feasibility of applicability of results in improving in field management.

  8. Innovation behaviour and the use of research and extension services in small-scale agricultural holdings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmery Ramos-Sandoval

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ views on research and extension services (RES included in the Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation System are rarely investigated. This study analyses the relationship between key factors of innovation behaviour (market orientation, learning orientation, and innovation attitude and the use of RES through structural equation modelling, focusing on small-scale agricultural holdings. Market orientation and learning orientation appear to be positively correlated, confirming that synergies between both factors provide a background for innovativeness. Learning orientation and farm-holders’ education level, improve knowledge exchange and make the agriculture innovation process more inclusive. However, farmers’ innovation attitude is not clearly correlated with the use of RES. Motivations about “the will to do innovations” are represented by a construct that does not appear to have a determinant effect as a mediator in farmer’s decisions about using RES.

  9. Toward environmental management systems in Australian agriculture to achieve better environmental outcomes at the catchment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Eloise J; Ridley, Anna M

    2005-03-01

    Environmental Management Systems (EMS) are being trialed for Australian agricultural industries as society becomes more concerned about agriculture's environmental performance. EMS is a structured approach used by farm businesses to assess, monitor, and improve environmental performance. Use of EMS in conjunction with other policy tools (such as financial incentives and regulation) in agriculture could enhance management of both on-farm and off-farm environmental issues. Based on the international standard ISO14001, EMS was designed to be applied at the individual business level. However, governments in Australia are exploring its potential to be applied at a catchment scale, among other things, for the purpose of linking farm-level actions to catchment targets. In Australia, governments and catchment management bodies are using Integrated Catchment Management (ICM) as the framework to try to achieve environmental targets set out in catchment plans. In this article, we compare aspects of the EMS and ICM frameworks and comment on the potential of using EMS to achieve catchment-scale environmental outcomes. We conclude that EMS could be a useful policy tool to improve farm management and to contribute, in part, to better off-site outcomes at the catchment/landscape scale. Recommendations on the use of EMS at the catchment scale are discussed. These include using an educational approach for EMS delivery, linking the EMS process to catchment targets, and ensuring catchment targets are realistic and achievable.

  10. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D; W. Dale Plummer Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventio...

  11. Merging plot and Landsata data to estimate the frequency distribution of Central Amazon mortality event size for landscape-scale ecosystem simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, A. V.; Chambers, J. Q.

    2012-12-01

    Mitigation strategies and estimates of land use change emissions assume initial states of landscapes that respond to prescribed scenarios. The Amazon basin is a target for both mitigation (e.g. maintenance of old-growth forest) and land use change (e.g. agriculture), but the current states of its old-growth and secondary forest landscapes are uncertain with respect to carbon cycling. Contributing to this uncertainty in old-growth forest ecosystems is a mosaic of patches in different successional stages, with the areal fraction of any particular stage relatively constant over large temporal and spatial scales. Old-growth mosaics are generally created through ongoing effects of tree mortality, with the Central Amazon mosaic generated primarily by wind mortality. Unfortunately, estimation of generalizable frequency distributions of mortality event size has been hindered by limited spatial and temporal scales of observations. To overcome these limitations we merge field and remotely sensed tree mortality data and fit the top two candidate distributions (power law and exponential) to these data to determine the most appropriate statistical mortality model for use in landscape-scale ecosystem simulations. Our results show that the power law model better represents the distribution of mortality event size than the exponential model. We also use an individual-tree-based forest stand model to simulate a 100 ha landscape using the best fit of each candidate distribution to demonstrate the effects of different mortality regimes on above ground biomass in the Central Amazon forest mosaic. We conclude that the correct mortality distribution model is critical for robust simulation of patch succession dynamics and above ground biomass.

  12. Measurements of snow radiometric and microstructure properties over a transect of plot-scale field observations: Application to snow thermodynamic and passive microwave emission models (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, A.; Royer, A.; Montpetit, B.; Roy, A.; Derksen, C.

    2010-12-01

    Snow geophysical and thermophysical properties are known to be sensitive to climate variability and change and are of primary importance for hydrological and climatological processes in northern regions. Specifically, spatial and temporal variations of snow extent and thickness are good indicators of climate variability and change, and better tools are required to assess those changes from space. Numerous studies have looked at the linkages between passive microwave brightness temperatures (Tb) and snow thickness and water equivalent (SWE), but lingering uncertainties remain with regards to the effect of snow grain metamorphism on the microwave emission. Snow grains play an important role in the scattering mechanisms, but the lack of objectivity and repeatability in the measurement of snow grain morphology highlights the need for improved observations in order to fully exploit passive microwave radiometry. This work presents an innovative approach to measure and better define snow grains through accurate measurements of specific surface area (SSA) using near-infrared photography at 715 nm and laser measurements at 1310 nm. The relationship between infrared reflectance and snow grain morphology parameters measured from directional lighting photographs is also investigated. Using the theoretical snow albedo model of Kokhanovsky and Zege (2004), vertical SSA profiles are derived and coupled to snow thermodynamic and microwave emission models (SNOWPACK and MEMLS). Measurements of snow properties and microwave emission at 19 and 37 GHz were performed over a transect of 2 000 km in northerneastern Canada, from the dense boreal forest to arctic tundra. A series of plot-scale observations were performed every 40 km. Results show that with proper assessment of snow grains, simulations of brightness temperatures are improved when compared to field measurements from airborne passive microwave radiometers.

  13. Spatial variability of soil moisture regimes at different scales: implications in the context of precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voltz, M

    1997-01-01

    Precision agriculture is based on the concept of soil-specific management, which aims to adapt management within a field according to specific site conditions in order to maximize production and minimize environmental damage. This paper examines how the nature and sources of variation in soil moisture regimes affect our ability to simulate soil water behaviour within a field with adequate precision in order to advise optimal soil-specific management. Field examples of variation in soil moisture regimes are described to illustrate the difficulties involved. A discussion identifies three main points. First, it is recognized that the current modelling approaches to soil moisture regimes do not sufficiently account for local heterogeneities in soil and crop characteristics such as soil morphology and rooting patterns. Second, the estimation of within-field variation of soil hydraulic properties is difficult because of large short-range variation of the properties and general lack of observed data; one way to overcome this problem is to seek new measurement techniques or to find easy-to-measure auxiliary variables spatially correlated to the variables of interest. Last, as pollution impacts often become noticeable to society at scales larger than the scale of agricultural management, hydrological modelling can serve for linking both scales and advising agricultural practices that minimize undesirable pollution effects.

  14. An integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, M.; Sakurai, G.; Iizumi, T.; Yokozawa, M.

    2012-12-01

    Agricultural production utilizes regional resources (e.g. river water and ground water) as well as local resources (e.g. temperature, rainfall, solar energy). Future climate changes and increasing demand due to population increases and economic developments would intensively affect the availability of water resources for agricultural production. While many studies assessed the impacts of climate change on agriculture, there are few studies that dynamically account for changes in water resources and crop production. This study proposes an integrated model for assessing both crop productivity and agricultural water resources at a large scale. Also, the irrigation management to subseasonal variability in weather and crop response varies for each region and each crop. To deal with such variations, we used the Markov Chain Monte Carlo technique to quantify regional-specific parameters associated with crop growth and irrigation water estimations. We coupled a large-scale crop model (Sakurai et al. 2012), with a global water resources model, H08 (Hanasaki et al. 2008). The integrated model was consisting of five sub-models for the following processes: land surface, crop growth, river routing, reservoir operation, and anthropogenic water withdrawal. The land surface sub-model was based on a watershed hydrology model, SWAT (Neitsch et al. 2009). Surface and subsurface runoffs simulated by the land surface sub-model were input to the river routing sub-model of the H08 model. A part of regional water resources available for agriculture, simulated by the H08 model, was input as irrigation water to the land surface sub-model. The timing and amount of irrigation water was simulated at a daily step. The integrated model reproduced the observed streamflow in an individual watershed. Additionally, the model accurately reproduced the trends and interannual variations of crop yields. To demonstrate the usefulness of the integrated model, we compared two types of impact assessment of

  15. Spatial variability in soil organic carbon in a tropical montane landscape: associations between soil organic carbon and land use, soil properties, vegetation, and topography vary across plot to landscape scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Corre, Marife D.; Paudel, Ekananda; Harrison, Rhett D.; Brumme, Rainer; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2017-08-01

    Presently, the lack of data on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in relation to land-use types and biophysical characteristics prevents reliable estimates of ecosystem carbon stocks in montane landscapes of mainland SE Asia. Our study, conducted in a 10 000 ha landscape in Xishuangbanna, SW China, aimed at assessing the spatial variability in SOC concentrations and stocks, as well as the relationships of SOC with land-use types, soil properties, vegetation characteristics and topographical attributes at three spatial scales: (1) land-use types within a landscape (10 000 ha), (2) sampling plots (1 ha) nested within land-use types (plot distances ranging between 0.5 and 12 km), and (3) subplots (10 m radius) nested within sampling plots. We sampled 27 one-hectare plots - 10 plots in mature forests, 11 plots in regenerating or highly disturbed forests, and 6 plots in open land including tea plantations and grasslands. We used a sampling design with a hierarchical structure. The landscape was first classified according to land-use types. Within each land-use type, sampling plots were randomly selected, and within each plot we sampled within nine subplots. SOC concentrations and stocks did not differ significantly across the four land-use types. However, within the open-land category, SOC concentrations and stocks in grasslands were higher than in tea plantations (P landscape, variability within plots accounted for more than 50 % of the overall variance in SOC stocks to a depth of 0.9 m and the topsoil SOC concentrations. The relationships of SOC concentrations and stocks with land-use types, soil properties, vegetation characteristics, and topographical attributes varied across spatial scales. Variability in SOC within plots was determined by litter layer carbon stocks (P < 0.01 for 0-0.15 m and P = 0.03 for 0.15-0.30 and 0-0.9 m depth) and slope (P ≤ 0.01 for 0-0.15, 0.15-0.30, and 0-0.9 m depth) in open land, and by litter layer carbon stocks (P < 0.001 for 0

  16. GlobPlot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linding, Rune; Russell, Robert B; Neduva, Victor

    2003-01-01

    are important for protein function. We present here a new tool for discovery of such unstructured, or disordered regions within proteins. GlobPlot (http://globplot.embl.de) is a web service that allows the user to plot the tendency within the query protein for order/globularity and disorder. We show examples...... with known proteins where it successfully identifies inter-domain segments containing linear motifs, and also apparently ordered regions that do not contain any recognised domain. GlobPlot may be useful in domain hunting efforts. The plots indicate that instances of known domains may often contain additional...... N- or C-terminal segments that appear ordered. Thus GlobPlot may be of use in the design of constructs corresponding to globular proteins, as needed for many biochemical studies, particularly structural biology. GlobPlot has a pipeline interface--GlobPipe--for the advanced user to do whole proteome...

  17. Difference and ratio plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anders Jørgen; Holmskov, U; Bro, Peter

    1995-01-01

    hitherto unnoted differences between controls and patients with either rheumatoid arthritis or systemic lupus erythematosus. For this we use simple, but unconventional, graphic representations of the data, based on difference plots and ratio plots. Differences between patients with Burkitt's lymphoma...... and systemic lupus erythematosus from another previously published study (Macanovic, M. and Lachmann, P.J. (1979) Clin. Exp. Immunol. 38, 274) are also represented using ratio plots. Our observations indicate that analysis by regression analysis may often be misleading....

  18. Fuzzy recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, T. D.

    2016-12-01

    Recurrence plots display binary texture of time series from dynamical systems with single dots and line structures. Using fuzzy recurrence plots, recurrences of the phase-space states can be visualized as grayscale texture, which is more informative for pattern analysis. The proposed method replaces the crucial similarity threshold required by symmetrical recurrence plots with the number of cluster centers, where the estimate of the latter parameter is less critical than the estimate of the former.

  19. Is there an optimum scale for predicting bird species' distribution in agricultural landscapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Céline; Bonthoux, Sébastien; Castellarini, Fabiana; Goulard, Michel; Ladet, Sylvie; Balent, Gérard

    2014-04-01

    Changes in forest cover in agricultural landscapes affect biodiversity. Its management needs some indications about scale to predict occurrence of populations and communities. In this study we considered a forest cover index to predict bird species and community patterns in agricultural landscapes in south-western France. We used generalized linear models for that purpose with prediction driven by wooded areas' spatial distribution at nine different radii. Using 1064 point counts, we modelled the distribution of 10 bird species whose habitat preferences are spread along a landscape opening gradient. We also modelled the distribution of species richness for farmland species and for forest species. We used satellite images to construct a 'wood/non-wood' map and calculated a forest index, considering the surface area of wooded areas at nine radii from 110m to 910m. The models' predictive quality was determined by the AUC (for predicted presences) and ρ (for predicted species richness) criteria. We found that the forest cover was a good predictor of the distribution of seven bird species in agricultural landscapes (mean AUC for the seven species = 0.74 for the radius 110m). Species richness of farmland and forest birds was satisfactorily predicted by the models (ρ = 0.55 and 0.49, respectively, for the radius 110m). The presence of the studied species and species richness metrics were better predicted at smaller scales (i.e. radii between 110 m and 310 m) within the range tested. These results have implications for bird population management in agricultural landscapes since better pinpointing the scale to predict species distributions will enhance targeting efforts to be made in terms of landscape management.

  20. Soil quality and soil degradation in agricultural loess soils in Central Europe - impacts of traditional small-scale and modernized large-scale agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The study analyzes the impact of different farming systems on soil quality and soil degradation in European loess landscapes. The analyses are based on geo-chemical soil properties, landscape metrics and geomorphological indicators. The German Middle Saxonian Loess Region represents loess landscapes whose ecological functions were shaped by land consolidation measures resulting in large-scale high-input farming systems. The Polish Proszowice Plateau is still characterized by a traditional small-scale peasant agriculture. The research areas were analyzed on different scale levels combining GIS, field, and laboratory methods. A digital terrain classification was used to identify representative catchment basins for detailed pedological studies which were focused on soil properties that responded to soil management within several years, like pH-value, total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), inorganic carbon (IC), soil organic carbon (TOC=TC-IC), hot-water extractable carbon (HWC), hot-water extractable nitrogen (HWN), total phosphorus, plant-available phosphorus (P), plant-available potassium (K) and the potential cation exchange capacity (CEC). The study has shown that significant differences in major soil properties can be observed because of different fertilizer inputs and partly because of different cultivation techniques. Also the traditional system increases soil heterogeneity. Contrary to expectations the study has shown that the small-scale peasant farming system resulted in similar mean soil organic carbon and phosphorus contents like the industrialized high-input farming system. A further study could include investigations of the effects of soil amendments like herbicides and pesticide on soil degradation.

  1. The Concept of Agricultural Productivity on Ecosystem Scale and Its Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wan-bin; QIU Hua-jiao; CHANG Xin; CHENG Xu

    2006-01-01

    What is the connotation and the extension of the productivity concept and how to calculate it are the core problems in evaluating an agricultural-production process. The attributes of agricultural production processes have changed greatly in the last 100 years, and the methods to describe and measure the productivity failed to keep in pace with the production processes, resulting in a totally vague, incomplete evaluation of the production processes. Sometimes the serious problem of pollution is ignored in the race to shortdated money making, thus leading to a blooming and flooding pollution;sometimes the great ecological benefits are ignored and the corresponding production processes suffer drastically from "economic deficit". With the old agricultural productivity indices, no prediction can be made of the ultimate effects of agroecosytem on mankind-pollution or welfare. A new concept, agricultural productivity on ecosystem scale (APES) and the related indices are defined here to solve these problems. Emergy and exergy are introduced to help the measurement of the indices. Emergy is the memory of energy, which can be used to measure the total cost, including natural capital and social capital. APES of the agroecosystem is the aggregated contributions of all components to mankind and its habitat in uniformed dimensions, it may be expressed in material, energy, information, organization, pollution and damage, etc., positive or negative, and are calculated based on exergy methods. And a related index agroecological coupling degree (ACD) shows sustainability.

  2. Regional Scale Simulations of Nitrate Leaching through Agricultural Soils of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, E.; Walkinshaw, M.; O'Geen, A. T.; Harter, T.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate is recognized as one of California's most widespread groundwater contaminants. As opposed to point sources, which are relative easily identifiable sources of contamination, non-point sources of nitrate are diffuse and linked with widespread use of fertilizers in agricultural soils. California's agricultural regions have an incredible diversity of soils that encompass a huge range of properties. This complicates studies dealing with nitrate risk assessment, since important biological and physicochemical processes appear at the first meters of the vadose zone. The objective of this study is to evaluate all agricultural soils in California according to their potentiality for nitrate leaching based on numerical simulations using the Richards equation. We conducted simulations for 6000 unique soil profiles (over 22000 soil horizons) taking into account the effect of climate, crop type, irrigation and fertilization management scenarios. The final goal of this study is to evaluate simple management methods in terms of reduced nitrate leaching. We estimated drainage rates of water under the root zone and nitrate concentrations in the drain water at the regional scale. We present maps for all agricultural soils in California which can be used for risk assessment studies. Finally, our results indicate that adoption of simple irrigation and fertilization methods may significantly reduce nitrate leaching in vulnerable regions.

  3. Large-Scale Agricultural Management and Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Conservation in the Argentine Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil is the most basic resource for sustainable agricultural production; it promotes water quality, is a key component of the biogeochemical cycles and hosts a huge diversity of organisms. However, we are not paying enough attention to soil degradation produced by land use. Modern agriculture has been successful in increasing yields but has also caused extensive environmental damage, particularly soil degradation. In the Argentine Pampas, agriculturization reached a peak with the generalized use of the no-till technological package: genetically modified soybeans tolerant to glyphosate, no-till, glyphosate, and inorganic fertilizers. This phenomenon has been widely spread in the country; the no-till package has been applied in large areas and has been used by tenants in a 60%–70% of cultivated lands. Thus, those who were involved in developing management practices may not be the same as those who will face degradation issues related to those practices. Indeed, most evidence reviewed in this paper suggests that the most widely distributed practices in the Pampas region are actually producing severe soil degradation. Biological degradation is particularly important because soil biota is involved in numerous soil processes on which soil functioning relies, affecting soil fertility and productivity. For example, soil meso- and macrofauna are especially important in nutrient cycling and in soil structure formation and maintenance, and they are key components of the network that links microbial process to the scale of fields and landscapes where ecosystem services are produced. However, the knowledge of the impact of different agricultural managements on soil meso- and macrofauna in Pampas agroecosystems is far from conclusive at this stage. The reason for this lack of definite conclusions is that this area has been given less attention than in other parts of the world; the response of soil fauna to agricultural practices is complex and taxa

  4. Forest Conversion, Agricultural Transitions and the Influence of Multi-scale Market Factors in Southwest Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, E.; Lambin, E.; Asner, G. P.

    2015-12-01

    The changing structure of demand for commodities associated with food security and energy has had a startling impact on land use change in tropical forests in recent decades. Yet, the composition of conversion in the Congo basin remains a major uncertainty, particularly with regards to the scale of drivers of change. Owing to rapid expansion of production globally and longstanding historical production locally in the Congo basin, oil palm offers a lens through which to evaluate local land use decisions across a spectrum of small- to large-scales of production as well as interactions with regional and global supply chains. We examined the effect of global commodity crop expansion on land use change in Southwest Cameroon using a mixed-methods approach to integrate remote sensing, field surveys and socioeconomic data. Southwest Cameroon (2.5 Mha) has a long history of large- and small-scale agriculture, ranging from mixed crop subsistence agriculture to large monocrop plantations of oil palm, cocoa, and rubber. Trends and spatial patterns of forest conversion and agricultural transitions were analyzed from 2000-2015 using satellite imagery. We used economic, demographic and field survey datasets to assess how regional and global market factors and local commodity crop decisions affect land use patterns. Our results show that oil palm is a major commodity crop expanding in this region, and that conversion is occurring primarily through expansion by medium-scale producers and local elites. Results also indicate that global and regional supply chain dynamics influence local land use decision making. This research contributes new information on land use patterns and dynamics in the Congo basin, an understudied region. More specifically, results from this research contribute information on recent trends of oil palm expansion in Cameroon that will be used in national land use planning strategies.

  5. Faithfulness of Recurrence Plots: A Mathematical Proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yoshito; Komuro, Motomasa; Horai, Shunsuke; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    It is practically known that a recurrence plot, a two-dimensional visualization of time series data, can contain almost all information related to the underlying dynamics except for its spatial scale because we can recover a rough shape for the original time series from the recurrence plot even if the original time series is multivariate. We here provide a mathematical proof that the metric defined by a recurrence plot [Hirata et al., 2008] is equivalent to the Euclidean metric under mild conditions.

  6. A small-scale land-sparing approach to conserving biological diversity in tropical agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Richard B; King, David I; Raudales, Raul; Trubey, Richard; Chandler, Carlin; Chávez, Víctor Julio Arce

    2013-08-01

    Two contrasting strategies have been proposed for conserving biological diversity while meeting the increasing demand for agricultural products: land sparing and land sharing production systems. Land sparing involves increasing yield to reduce the amount of land needed for agriculture, whereas land-sharing agricultural practices incorporate elements of native ecosystems into the production system itself. Although the conservation value of these systems has been extensively debated, empirical studies are lacking. We compared bird communities in shade coffee, a widely practiced land-sharing system in which shade trees are maintained within the coffee plantation, with bird communities in a novel, small-scale, land-sparing coffee-production system (integrated open canopy or IOC coffee) in which farmers obtain higher yields under little or no shade while conserving an area of forest equal to the area under cultivation. Species richness and diversity of forest-dependent birds were higher in the IOC coffee farms than in the shade coffee farms, and community composition was more similar between IOC coffee and primary forest than between shade coffee and primary forest. Our study represents the first empirical comparison of well-defined land sparing and land sharing production systems. Because IOC coffee farms can be established by allowing forest to regenerate on degraded land, widespread adoption of this system could lead to substantial increases in forest cover and carbon sequestration without compromising agricultural yield or threatening the livelihoods of traditional small farmers. However, we studied small farms (<5 ha); thus, our results may not generalize to large-scale land-sharing systems. Furthermore, rather than concluding that land sparing is generally superior to land sharing, we suggest that the optimal approach depends on the crop, local climate, and existing land-use patterns. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  7. Patterns and scaling properties of surface soil moisture in an agricultural landscape: An ecohydrological modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korres, W.; Reichenau, T. G.; Schneider, K.

    2013-08-01

    Soil moisture is a key variable in hydrology, meteorology and agriculture. Soil moisture, and surface soil moisture in particular, is highly variable in space and time. Its spatial and temporal patterns in agricultural landscapes are affected by multiple natural (precipitation, soil, topography, etc.) and agro-economic (soil management, fertilization, etc.) factors, making it difficult to identify unequivocal cause and effect relationships between soil moisture and its driving variables. The goal of this study is to characterize and analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of surface soil moisture (top 20 cm) in an intensively used agricultural landscape (1100 km2 northern part of the Rur catchment, Western Germany) and to determine the dominant factors and underlying processes controlling these patterns. A second goal is to analyze the scaling behavior of surface soil moisture patterns in order to investigate how spatial scale affects spatial patterns. To achieve these goals, a dynamically coupled, process-based and spatially distributed ecohydrological model was used to analyze the key processes as well as their interactions and feedbacks. The model was validated for two growing seasons for the three main crops in the investigation area: Winter wheat, sugar beet, and maize. This yielded RMSE values for surface soil moisture between 1.8 and 7.8 vol.% and average RMSE values for all three crops of 0.27 kg m-2 for total aboveground biomass and 0.93 for green LAI. Large deviations of measured and modeled soil moisture can be explained by a change of the infiltration properties towards the end of the growing season, especially in maize fields. The validated model was used to generate daily surface soil moisture maps, serving as a basis for an autocorrelation analysis of spatial patterns and scale. Outside of the growing season, surface soil moisture patterns at all spatial scales depend mainly upon soil properties. Within the main growing season, larger scale

  8. Water limited agriculture in Africa: Climate change sensitivity of large scale land investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, M. C.; D'Odorico, P.; Chiarelli, D. D.; Davis, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    The past few decades have seen unprecedented changes in the global agricultural system with a dramatic increase in the rates of food production fueled by an escalating demand for food calories, as a result of demographic growth, dietary changes, and - more recently - new bioenergy policies. Food prices have become consistently higher and increasingly volatile with dramatic spikes in 2007-08 and 2010-11. The confluence of these factors has heightened demand for land and brought a wave of land investment to the developing world: some of the more affluent countries are trying to secure land rights in areas suitable for agriculture. According to some estimates, to date, roughly 38 million hectares have been acquired worldwide by large scale investors, 16 million of which in Africa. More than 85% of large scale land acquisitions in Africa are by foreign investors. Many land deals are motivated not only by the need for fertile land but for the water resources required for crop production. Despite some recent assessments of the water appropriation associated with large scale land investments, their impact on the water resources of the target countries under present conditions and climate change scenarios remains poorly understood. Here we investigate irrigation water requirements by various crops planted in the acquired land as an indicator of the pressure likely placed by land investors on ("blue") water resources of target regions in Africa and evaluate the sensitivity to climate changes scenarios.

  9. Agriculture, Crops, ag use properties, Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Marshall County Appraiser's Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Crops dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2011. It is described...

  10. Characterisation and quantification of phosphorus transfer in agricultural runoff through simultaneous monitoring at nested spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deasy, Clare; Heathwaite, Louise; Brazier, Richard

    2010-05-01

    Current data available for understanding and characterising nutrient transfer are generally collected at the catchment scale, where stream measurements integrate signals from upstream flow pathways. However, predicting and managing nutrient transfer at this scale requires a detailed understanding of the smaller scale processes and pathways which influence catchment scale data. This paper presents an original dataset which characterises and quantifies phosphorus transfer through simultaneous measurements collected at nested spatial scales (c.0.01 to 30.6 ha) within a small catchment. Monitoring took place in a mixed land use agricultural catchment in the UK between 2004 and 2006. Discharge was continuously measured on a five minute timestep, at five catchment locations: a flume fed by surface runoff (1.9 ha); three drain outfalls (1.9 ha, 2.5 ha and 3.7 ha); and the stream catchment outlet (30.6 ha). Water samples collected through five storm events were analysed for total phosphorus and total dissolved phosphorus, and were used together with discharge data to calculate phosphorus loadings and area normalised yields for the various flow pathways and scales. Data from the smallest scale, the unbounded hillslope patch (c.0.01 ha), where flow only occurred over the field surface during storm events, was collected using timed flow measurements and grab samples. The results show that phosphorus transfer within the catchment is extremely complex both spatially and temporally. In particular, variations occurred in phosphorus concentrations, loads and yields, and in the proportion of total phosphorus transported as dissolved phosphorus, between runoff pathways and scales and between storm events. The highest phosphorus concentrations were recorded in data collected at the hillslope patch scale (max. 12 mg TP l-1), while concentrations at pathways representing larger scales were much lower; measured total P concentrations were below 5 mg TP l-1 in surface runoff at the field

  11. Ammonia emissions, transport, and deposition downwind of agricultural areas at local to regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zondlo, Mark; Pan, Da; Golston, Levi; Sun, Kang; Tao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Ammonia (NH3) emissions from agricultural areas show extreme spatiotemporal variations, yet agricultural emissions dominate the global NH3 budget and ammoniated aerosols are a dominant component of unhealthy fine particulate matter. The emissions of NH3 and their deposition near and downwind of agricultural areas is complex. As part of a multi-year field intensive along the Colorado Front Range (including the NASA DISCOVER-AQ and NSF FRAPPE field experiments), we have examined temporal emissions of NH3 from feedlots, regional transport of ammonia and ammoniated aerosols from the plains to relatively pristine regions in Rocky Mountain National Park, and dry deposition and re-emission of grassland NH3 in the park. Eddy covariance measurements at feedlots and natural grasslands in the mountains were conducted with newly-developed open-path, eddy covariance laser-based sensors for NH3 (0.7 ng NH3/m2/s detection limit at 10 Hz). These measurements were coupled with other NH3/NHx measurements from mobile laboratories, aircraft, and satellite to examine the transport of NH3 from agricultural areas to cleaner regions downwind. At the farm level, eddy covariance NH3 fluxes showed a strong diurnal component correlated with temperature regardless of the season but with higher absolute emissions in summer than winter. While farm-to-farm variability (N=62 feedlots) was high, similar diurnal trends were observed at all sites regardless of individual farm type (dairy, beef, sheep, poultry, pig). Deposition at scales of several km showed relatively small deposition (10% loss) based upon NH3/CH4 tracer correlations, though the NH3 concentrations were so elevated (up to ppmv) that these losses should not be neglected when considering near-farm deposition. Ammonia was efficiently transported at least 150 km during upslope events to the Colorado Front Range (ele. 3000-4000 m) based upon aircraft, mobile laboratory, and model measurements. The gas phase lifetime of NH3 was estimated to

  12. Field strategies for the calibration and validation of high-resolution forest carbon maps: Scaling from plots to a three state region MD, DE, & PA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, K. A.; Huang, W.; Johnson, K. D.; Birdsey, R.; Finley, A. O.; Dubayah, R.; Hurtt, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    In 2010 Congress directed NASA to initiate research towards the development of Carbon Monitoring Systems (CMS). In response, our team has worked to develop a robust, replicable framework to quantify and map aboveground forest biomass at high spatial resolutions. Crucial to this framework has been the collection of field-based estimates of aboveground tree biomass, combined with remotely detected canopy and structural attributes, for calibration and validation. Here we evaluate the field- based calibration and validation strategies within this carbon monitoring framework and discuss the implications on local to national monitoring systems. Through project development, the domain of this research has expanded from two counties in MD (2,181 km2), to the entire state of MD (32,133 km2), and most recently the tri-state region of MD, PA, and DE (157,868 km2) and covers forests in four major USDA ecological providences. While there are approximately 1000 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots distributed across the state of MD, 60% fell in areas considered non-forest or had conditions that precluded them from being measured in the last forest inventory. Across the two pilot counties, where population and landuse competition is high, that proportion rose to 70% Thus, during the initial phases of this project 850 independent field plots were established for model calibration following a random stratified design to insure the adequate representation of height and vegetation classes found across the state, while FIA data were used as an independent data source for validation. As the project expanded to cover the larger spatial tri-state domain, the strategy was flipped to base calibration on more than 3,300 measured FIA plots, as they provide a standardized, consistent and available data source across the nation. An additional 350 stratified random plots were deployed in the Northern Mixed forests of PA and the Coastal Plains forests of DE for validation.

  13. Landscape scale assessment of soil and water salinization processes in agricultural coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elen Bless, Aplena; Follain, Stéphane; Coiln, François; Crabit, Armand

    2017-04-01

    Soil salinization is among main land degradation process around the globe. It reduces soil quality, disturbs soil function, and has harmful impacts on plant growth that would threaten agricultural sustainability, particularly in coastal areas where mostly susceptible on land degradation because of pressure from anthropogenic activities and at the same time need to preserve soil quality for supporting food production. In this presentation, we present a landscape scale analysis aiming to assess salinization process affecting wine production. This study was carried out at Serignan estuary delta in South of France (Languadoc Roussillon Region, 43˚ 28'N and 3˚ 31'E). It is a sedimentary basin near coastline of Mediterranean Sea. Field survey was design to characterize both space and time variability of soil and water salinity through water electrical conductivity (ECw) and soil 1/5 electrical conductivity (EC1/5). For water measurements, Orb River and groundwater salinity (piezometers) were determined and for soil 1737 samples were randomly collected from different soil depths (20, 50, 80, and 120 cm) between year 2012 and 2016 and measured. In order to connect with agricultural practices observations and interviews with farmers were conducted. We found that some areas combining specific criteria presents higher electrical conductivity: positions with lower elevation (a.s.l), Cambisols (Calcaric) / Fluvisols soil type (WRB) and dominated clay textures. These observations combined with geochemical determination and spatial analysis confirm our first hypothesis of sea salt intrusion as the main driven factor of soil salinity in this region. In this context, identification of salinization process, fine determination of pedological specificities and fine understanding of agricultural practices allowed us to proposed adaptation strategies to restore soil production function. Please fill in your abstract text. Key Words: Salinity, Coastal Agriculture, Landscape, Soil, Water

  14. Distributed plot-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Bossen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    different socio-technical systems (paper-based and electronic patient records). Drawing on the theory of distributed cognition and narrative theory, primarily inspired by the work done within health care by Cheryl Mattingly, we propose that the creation of overview may be conceptualised as ‘distributed plot......-making’. Distributed cognition focuses on the role of artefacts, humans and their interaction in information processing, while narrative theory focuses on how humans create narratives through the plot construction. Hence, the concept of distributed plot-making highlights the distribution of information processing...... between different social actors and artefacts, as well as the filtering, sorting and ordering of such information into a narrative that is made coherent by a plot. The analysis shows that the characteristics of paper-based and electronic patient records support or obstruct the creation of overview in both...

  15. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...... will not go there. Faceting is strictly speaking for plotting all variable / classes against each other....

  16. Multiple plots in R

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Stefan McKinnon

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter I will investigate how to combine multiple plots into a single. The scenario is a dataset of a series of measurements, on three samples in three situations. There are many ways we can display this, e.g. 3d graphs or faceting. 3d graphs are not good for displaying static data so we...... will not go there. Faceting is strictly speaking for plotting all variable / classes against each other....

  17. Agricultural intensification and biodiversity partitioning in European landscapes comparing plants, carabids, and birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flohre, A.; Fischer, C.; Aavik, T.; Bengtson, J.; Berendse, F.; Geiger, F.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on biodiversity are often assessed on the plot scale, although processes determining diversity also operate on larger spatial scales. Here, we analyzed the diversity of vascular plants, carabid beetles, and birds in agricultural landscapes in cereal crop

  18. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William D. Dupont

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional scatter plot. Each bin with from l to d observations contains a light sunflower. Other bins contain a dark sunflower. In a light sunflower each petal represents one observation. In a dark sunflower, each petal represents k observations. (A dark sunflower with p petals represents between /2-pk k and /2+pk k observations. The user can control the sizes and colors of the sunflowers. By selecting appropriate colors and sizes for the light and dark sunflowers, plots can be obtained that give both the overall sense of the data density distribution as well as the number of data points in any given region. The use of this graphic is illustrated with data from the Framingham Heart Study. A documented Stata program, called sunflower, is available to draw these graphs. It can be downloaded from the Statistical Software Components archive at http://ideas.repec.org/c/boc/bocode/s430201.html . (Journal of Statistical Software 2003; 8 (3: 1-5. Posted at http://www.jstatsoft.org/index.php?vol=8 .

  19. Predicting and adapting to the agricultural impacts of large-scale drought (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, J. W.; Glotter, M.; Best, N.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K.; Hatfield, J.; Jones, J.; Rosenzweig, C.; Smith, L. A.; Foster, I.

    2013-12-01

    The impact of drought on agriculture is an important socioeconomic consequence of climate extremes. Drought affects millions of people globally each year, causing an average of 6-8 billion of damage annually in the U.S. alone. The 1988 U.S. drought is estimated to have cost 79 billion in 2013 dollars, behind only Hurricane Katrina as the most costly U.S. climate-related disaster in recent decades. The 2012 U.S. drought is expected to cost about 30 billion. Droughts and heat waves accounted for 12% of all billion-dollar disaster events in the U.S. from 1980-2011 but almost one quarter of total monetary damages. To make matters worse, the frequency and severity of large-scale droughts in important agricultural regions is expected to increase as temperatures rise and precipitation patterns shift, leading some researchers to suggest that extended drought will harm more people than any other climate-related impact, specifically in the area of food security. Improved understanding and forecasts of drought would have both immediate and long-term implications for the global economy and food security. We show that mechanistic agricultural models, applied in novel ways, can reproduce historical crop yield anomalies, especially in seasons for which drought is the overriding factor. With more accurate observations and forecasts for temperature and precipitation, the accuracy and lead times of drought impact predictions could be improved further. We provide evidence that changes in agricultural technologies and management have reduced system-level drought sensitivity in US maize production in recent decades, adaptations that could be applied elsewhere. This work suggests a new approach to modeling, monitoring, and forecasting drought impacts on agriculture. Simulated (dashed line), observed (solid line), and observed linear trend (dashed straight green line) of national average maize yield in tonnes per hectare from 1979-2012. The red dot indicates the USDA estimate for 2012

  20. Development of the Seasonal Migrant Agricultural Worker Stress Scale in Sanliurfa, Southeast Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Zeynep; Ersin, Fatma; Kirmizitoprak, Evin

    2016-01-01

    Stress is one of the main causes of health problems, especially mental disorders. These health problems cause a significant amount of ability loss and increase cost. It is estimated that by 2020, mental disorders will constitute 15% of the total disease burden, and depression will rank second only after ischemic heart disease. Environmental experiences are paramount in increasing the liability of mental disorders in those who constantly face sustained high levels of stress. The objective of this study was to develop a stress scale for seasonal migrant agricultural workers aged 18 years and older. The sample consisted of 270 randomly selected seasonal migrant agricultural workers. The average age of the participants was 33.1 ± 14, and 50.7% were male. The Cronbach alpha coefficient and test-retest methods were used for reliability analyses. Although the factor analysis was performed for the structure validity of the scale, the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin coefficient and Bartlett test were used to determine the convenience of the data for the factor analysis. In the reliability analyses, the Cronbach alpha coefficient of internal consistency was calculated as .96, and the test-retest reliability coefficient was .81. In the exploratory factor analysis for validity of the scale, four factors were obtained, and the factors represented workplace physical conditions (25.7% of the total variance), workplace psychosocial and economic factors (19.3% of the total variance), workplace health problems (15.2% of the total variance), and school problems (10.1% of the total variance). The four factors explained 70.3% of the total variance. As a result of the expert opinions and analyses, a stress scale with 48 items was developed. The highest score to be obtained from the scale was 144, and the lowest score was 0. The increase in the score indicates the increase in the stress levels. The findings show that the scale is a valid and reliable assessment instrument that can be used in

  1. Balancing detail and scale in assessing transparency to improve the governance of agricultural commodity supply chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godar, Javier; Suavet, Clément; Gardner, Toby A.; Dawkins, Elena; Meyfroidt, Patrick

    2016-03-01

    To date, assessments of the sustainability of agricultural commodity supply chains have largely relied on some combination of macro-scale footprint accounts, detailed life-cycle analyses and fine-scale traceability systems. Yet these approaches are limited in their ability to support the sustainability governance of agricultural supply chains, whether because they are intended for coarser-grained analyses, do not identify individual actors, or are too costly to be implemented in a consistent manner for an entire region of production. Here we illustrate some of the advantages of a complementary middle-ground approach that balances detail and scale of supply chain transparency information by combining consistent country-wide data on commodity production at the sub-national (e.g. municipal) level with per shipment customs data to describe trade flows of a given commodity covering all companies and production regions within that country. This approach can support supply chain governance in two key ways. First, enhanced spatial resolution of the production regions that connect to individual supply chains allows for a more accurate consideration of geographic variability in measures of risk and performance that are associated with different production practices. Second, identification of key actors that operate within a specific supply chain, including producers, traders, shippers and consumers can help discriminate coalitions of actors that have shared stake in a particular region, and that together are capable of delivering more cost-effective and coordinated interventions. We illustrate the potential of this approach with examples from Brazil, Indonesia and Colombia. We discuss how transparency information can deepen understanding of the environmental and social impacts of commodity production systems, how benefits are distributed among actors, and some of the trade-offs involved in efforts to improve supply chain sustainability. We then discuss the challenges and

  2. Watershed-Scale Cover Crops Reduce Nutrient Export From Agricultural Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tank, J. L.; Hanrahan, B.; Christopher, S. F.; Trentman, M. T.; Royer, T. V.; Prior, K.

    2016-12-01

    The Midwestern US has undergone extensive land use change as forest, wetlands, and prairies have been converted to agroecosystems. Today, excess fertilizer nutrients from farm fields enter Midwestern agricultural streams, which degrades both local and downstream water quality, resulting in algal blooms and subsequent hypoxic "dead zones" far from the nutrient source. We are quantifying the benefits of watershed-scale conservation practices that may reduce nutrient runoff from adjacent farm fields. Specifically, research is lacking on whether the planting of winter cover crops in watersheds currently dominated by row-crop agriculture can significantly reduce nutrient inputs to adjacent streams. Since 2013, farmers have planted cover crops on 70% of croppable acres in the Shatto Ditch Watershed (IN), and "saturation level" implementation of this conservation practice has been sustained for 3 years. Every 14 days, we have quantified nutrient loss from fields by sampling nutrient fluxes from multiple subsurface tile drains and longitudinally along the stream channel throughout the watershed. Cover crops improved stream water quality by reducing dissolved inorganic nutrients exported downstream; nitrate-N and DRP concentrations and fluxes were significantly lower in tiles draining fields with cover crops compared to those without. Annual watershed nutrient export also decreased, and reductions in N and P loss ( 30-40%) exceeded what we expected based on only a 6-10% reduction in runoff due to increased watershed water holding capacity. We are also exploring the processes responsible for increased nutrient retention, where they are occurring (terrestrial vs. aquatic) and when (baseflow vs. storms). For example, whole-stream metabolism also responded to cover crop planting, showing reduced variation in primary production and respiration in years after watershed-scale planting of cover crops. In summary, widespread land cover change, through cover crop planting, can

  3. A step toward regionalized scale-consistent agricultural life cycle assessment inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Tiago G; Teixeira, Ricardo Fm; Domingos, Tiago

    2017-09-01

    Life cycle inventory (LCI) regionalization (i.e., the determination of input and output flows from production processes at a subcountry scale) is a priority in life cycle assessment (LCA) studies, particularly in the agri-food sector. Many regionalized LCAs fail to ensure that microlevel inventories are consistent with country-level aggregated data-or "scale consistent." They also fail to construct LCIs using international reference guidelines and trustworthy standardized data sources. This failure generates inaccuracies and biases in inventories and can compromise comparability among international LCA studies. Our study introduces scale consistency as a principle for regionalized agri-food LCIs. We present a generic procedure that defines how scale-dependent LCI flows should be regionalized, depending on data availability. We then present a list of inventory flows that require regionalization and their suggested calculation procedures (methods and models) from 2 methodological guides developed by projects Agribalyse and World Food LCA Database. As proof of concept, we apply the procedure to Portugal and assess whether the methods and models proposed for each type of inventory flow in both guides can potentially be applied consistently with the data available. For 17 inventory flows, we apply calculated scale-consistent inventory flows for Portuguese agriculture, covering 260 products that can be used in future LCA studies. Comparing results with international databases, we show that this procedure can improve country-level estimates significantly. Our study is the first step in introducing scale consistency as a guiding principle for regionalized LCIs for agri-food LCA studies. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:939-951. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  4. An application to model traffic intensity of agricultural machinery at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katja; Kuhwald, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Several soil-pressure-models deal with the impact of agricultural machines on soils. In many cases, these models were used for single spots and consider a static machine configuration. Therefore, a statement about the spatial distribution of soil compaction risk for entire working processes is limited. The aim of the study is the development of an application for the spatial modelling of traffic lanes from agricultural vehicles including wheel load, ground pressure and wheel passages at the field scale. The application is based on Open Source software, application and data formats, using python programming language. Minimum input parameters are GPS-positions, vehicles and tires (producer and model) and the tire inflation pressure. Five working processes were distinguished: soil tillage, manuring, plant protection, sowing and harvest. Currently, two different models (Diserens 2009, Rücknagel et al. 2015) were implemented to calculate the soil pressure. The application was tested at a study site in Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 2015, field traffic were recorded by RTK-GPS and used machine set ups were noted. Using these input information the traffic lanes, wheel load and soil pressure were calculated for all working processes. For instance, the maize harvest in 2016 with a crop chopper and one transport vehicle crossed about 55 % of the total field area. At some places the machines rolled over up to 46 times. Approximately 35 % of the total area was affected by wheel loads over 7 tons and soil pressures between 163 and 193 kPa. With the information about the spatial distribution of wheel passages, wheel load and soil pressure it is possible to identify hot spots of intensive field traffic. Additionally, the use of the application enables the analysis of soil compaction risk induced by agricultural machines for long- and short-term periods.

  5. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  6. Spatial recurrence plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, D B; Lopes, S R; Viana, R L; Kurths, J

    2006-05-01

    We propose an extension of the recurrence plot concept to perform quantitative analyzes of roughness and disorder of spatial patterns at a fixed time. We introduce spatial recurrence plots (SRPs) as a graphical representation of the pointwise correlation matrix, in terms of a two-dimensional spatial return plot. This technique is applied to the study of complex patterns generated by coupled map lattices, which are characterized by measures of complexity based on SRPs. We show that the complexity measures we propose for SRPs provide a systematic way of investigating the distribution of spatially coherent structures, such as synchronization domains, in lattice profiles. This approach has potential for many more applications, e.g., in surface roughness analyzes.

  7. Delineation and Scale Effect of Precision Agriculture Management Zones Using Yield Monitor Data Over Four Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang; PAN Yu-chun; GE Zhong-qiang; ZHAO Chun-jiang

    2007-01-01

    In this study, precision agriculture management zones were delineated using yield data over four years from the combine harvester equipped with yield monitor and DGPS receiver. Relative yields measured during each year were interpolated to 4 m2 grid size using ordinary kriging. The resultant interpolated yield maps were averaged across years to create a map of the mean relative yield, which was then used for cluster analysis. The mean yield map of post-classification was processed by applying majority filtering with window sizes that were equivalent to the grid sizes of 12, 20, 28, 36, 44, 52 and 60 m. The scale effect of management zones was evaluated using relative variance reduction, test of significant differences of the means of yield zones, spatial fragmentation, and spatial agreement. The results showed that the post-classification majority filtering (PCMF) eliminated lots of isolated cells or patches caused by random variation while preserving yield means, high variance reduction, general yield patterns, and high spatial agreement. The zoned result can be used as yield goal map for preplant or in-season fertilizer recommendation in precision agriculture.

  8. Reducing Agricultural Water Footprints at the Farm Scale: A Case Study in the Beijing Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Beijing is one of the most water-stressed regions in the world. Reducing agricultural water use has long been the basis of local policy for sustainable water use. In this article, the potential to reduce the life cycle (cradle to gate water footprints of wheat and maize that contribute to 94% of the local cereal production was assessed. Following ISO 14046, consumptive and degradative water use for the wheat-maize rotation system was modeled under different irrigation and nitrogen (N application options. Reducing irrigation water volume by 33.3% compared to current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but the water scarcity footprint and water eutrophication footprint were decreased by 27.5% and 23.9%, respectively. Similarly, reducing the N application rate by 33.3% from current practice did not cause a significant yield decline, but led to a 52.3% reduction in water eutrophication footprint while maintaining a similar water scarcity footprint. These results demonstrate that improving water and fertilizer management has great potential for reducing the crop water footprints at the farm scale. This situation in Beijing is likely to be representative of the challenge facing many of the water-stressed regions in China, where a sustainable means of agricultural production must be found.

  9. Scale-dependence of land use effects on water quality of streams in agricultural catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Oliver; Niyogi, Dev K; Townsend, Colin R

    2004-07-01

    The influence of land use on water quality in streams is scale-dependent and varies in time and space. In this study, land cover patterns and stocking rates were used as measures of agricultural development in two pasture and one native grassland catchment in New Zealand and were related to water quality in streams of various orders. The amount of pasture per subcatchment correlated well to total nitrogen and nitrate in one catchment and turbidity and total phosphorous in the other catchment. Stocking rates were only correlated to total phosphorous in one pasture catchment but showed stronger correlations to ammonium, total phosphorous and total nitrogen in the other pasture catchment. Winter and spring floods were significant sources of nutrients and faecal coliforms from one of the pasture catchments into a wetland complex. Nutrient and faecal coliform concentrations were better predicted by pastural land cover in fourth-order than in second-order streams. This suggests that upstream land use is more influential in larger streams, while local land use and other factors may be more important in smaller streams. These temporal and spatial scale effects indicate that water-monitoring schemes need to be scale-sensitive.

  10. Agricultural non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA at a catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Perez, Debora; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Information on the actual input of pesticides into the environment is crucial for proper risk assessment and the design of risk reduction measures. The Crespo basin is found within the Balcarce County, located south-east of the Buenos Aires Province. The whole basin has an area of approximately 490 km2 and the river has a length of 65 km. This study focuses on the upper basin of the Crespo stream, covering an area of 226 km2 in which 94.7% of the land is under agricultural production representing a highly productive area, characteristic of the Austral Pampas region. In this study we evaluated the levels of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soils; and the non-point source pollution of surface waters, stream sediments and groundwater, over a period of one year. Stream water samples were taken monthly using propylene bottles, from the center of the bridge. If present, sediment samples from the first 5 cm were collected using cylinder samplers. Groundwater samples were taken from windmills or electric pumps from different farms every two months. At the same time, composite soil samples (at 5 cm depth) were taken from an agricultural plot of each farm. Samples were analyzed for detection and quantification of glyphosate and AMPA using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The limit of detection (LD) in the soil samples was 0.5 μg Kg-1 and the limit of quantification (LQ) was 3 μg Kg-1, both for glyphosate and AMPA. In water samples the LD was 0.1 μg L-1 and the LQ was 0.5 μg L-1. The results showed that the herbicide dispersed into all the studied environmental compartments. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were detected in 34 and 54% of the stream water samples, respectively. Sediment samples had a higher detection frequency (>96%) than water samples, and there was no relationship between the presence in surface water with the detection in sediment samples. The presence in sediment samples

  11. Pesticide use and cholinesterase inhibition in small-scale agricultural workers in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Botião Nerilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A controlled cross-sectional study of family growers of fruit and vegetables was conducted between October 2009 and October 2010 to characterize the use of pesticides, establish the socio-demographic profile, and analyze cholinesterase activity in small-scale agricultural workers in Southern Brazil. Data was collected for 173 workers and 179 controls. A structured questionnaire was applied collecting socio-demographic information and determining knowledge and work practices in relation to pesticide use. The benchmarks for total cholinesterase (ChEs and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE were obtained from the average enzymatic activity of the occupationally unexposed group (control. The mean age of the exposed population was 40.0 ± 11.2 years. The symptoms differed significantly (p30% of ChEs activity, whereas no workers showed high inhibition (>50% of BuChE. Potential factors involved include gender, education, pesticide orientation, exposure, and hygiene measures.

  12. Nutrient cycles in agricultural systems at sub-catchment scale within the UK and China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellarby, Jessica; Surridge, Ben; Haygarth, Philip M.; Lai, Xin; Zhang, Guilong; Song, Xiaolong; Zhou, Jianbin; Meng, Fanqiao; Shen, Jianbo; Rahn, Clive; Smith, Laurence; Burke, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse water pollution from agriculture (DWPA) represents a significant challenge in both the UK and China. The UK has developed policies and practices which seek to mitigate DWPA, yet the risks and adverse impacts of DWPA remain widespread. In contrast, China's past priorities have largely focussed on food security, with an emphasis on increasing food production through high fertiliser application rates with little attention being paid to enhanced nutrient export from land to water and to air. This has contributed to severe environmental problems which are only now beginning to be recognised and addressed. We have prepared nutrient balances (phosphorus and nitrogen) in contrasting agricultural production systems at sub-catchment scale within China and the UK. These draw from a variety of sources ranging from general yearly statistics collected by the respective government to farm surveys. Our aim is to use the resulting nutrient balances to underpin the sharing of knowledge and innovation to mitigate DWPA in both nations. In the UK, the case studies focus on the three Demonstration Test Catchment locations, covering a range of livestock and arable production systems across England. Here, the high frequency monitoring of phosphorus river loads enables the cross-validation of the simple nutrient budget approaches applied in this study. In China, our case studies span kiwi orchard, fruit and vegetable solar greenhouse systems, double cropped rice-wheat and wheat-maize production systems. Substantial differences in nutrient stocks and flows exist between individual production systems both across and within the two countries. These differences will be expressed along the source-mobilisation-delivery-impact continuum that underpins our budgets for both phosphorus and nitrogen. We will present the phosphorus cycles of some case studies and highlight their challenges and relevance at sub-catchment scale. Based on our nutrient budgets, general recommendations can be

  13. Short-time phosphorus losses by overland flow in burnt pine and eucalypt plantations in north-central Portugal: A study at micro-plot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R V; Serpa, D; Cerqueira, M A; Keizer, J J

    2016-05-01

    Over the past decades, wildfires have affected vast areas of Mediterranean ecosystems leading to a variety of negative on- and off-site environmental impacts. Research on fire-affected areas has given more attention to sediment losses by fire-enhanced overland flow than to nutrient exports, especially in the Mediterranean region. To address this knowledge gap for post-fire losses of phosphorus (P) by overland flow, a recently burnt forest area in north-central Portugal was selected and instrumented immediately after a wildfire. Three slopes were selected for their contrasting forest types (eucalypt vs. pine) and parent materials (granite vs. schist). The selected study sites were a eucalypt site on granite (BEG), a eucalypt site on schist (BES) and a maritime pine site on schist (BPS). Micro-plots were monitored over a period of six months, i.e. till the construction of terraces for reforestation obliged to the removal of the plots. During this 6-month period, overland flow samples were collected at 1- to 2-weekly intervals, depending on rainfall. Total P and PO4-P losses differed markedly between the two types of forests on schist, being lower at the pine site than at the eucalypt site, probably due to the presence of a protective layer of pine needle cast. Parent material did not play an important role in PO4-P losses by overland flow but it did in TP losses, with significantly lower values at the eucalypt site on granite than that on schist. These differences in TP losses can be attributed to the coarser texture of granite soils, typically promoting infiltration and decreasing runoff. The present findings provided further insights into the spatial and temporal patterns of post-fire soil nutrient losses in fire-prone forest types during the initial stages of the window-of-disturbance, which can be useful for defining post-fire emergency measures to reduce the risk of soil fertility losses.

  14. Local soil fertility management on small-scale farming systems for sustainable agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namriah, Kilowasid, Laode Muhammad Harjoni

    2015-09-01

    The sustainability of small-scale farming systems on marginal lands is still being a topic of debate in scientific and institutional communities. To address this, a study was conducted to find a method of sustaining the productivity of marginal lands for food crop production. Agricultural practices (fallow and traditional cultivation) used by the local small-scale farmers in managing soil fertility to meet the natural biological processes above and below the ground were studied in Muna Island Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia. Participatory approach was used to gather data and information on soil and land as well as to collect soil macrofauna. The results showed that the practices of local small-scale farmers are based on local soil and land suitability. Organic materials are the source of nutrient inputs to sustain the productivity of their lands by fallowing, burning natural vegetation, putting back the crop residues, doing minimum tillage and mix- and inter-crops. In conclusion, the sustainability of local small-scale farming systems will be established by knowing and understanding local soil and land classification systems and preferred crops being planted. Following the nature of fallow and monitoring soil macrofauna diversity and abundance, all preferred crops should be planted during rainy season with different time of harvest until the next rainy season. Therefore, soils are still covered with crops during dry season. It was suggested that planting time should be done in the rainy season. Doing more researches in other locations with different socio-cultural, economical, and ecological conditions is suggested to validate and refine the method.

  15. Plant functional group composition and large-scale species richness in European agricultural landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liira, J.; Schmidt, T.; Aavik, T.; Arens, P.F.P.; Augenstein, I.; Bailey, D.; Billeter, R.; Bukacek, R.; Burel, F.; Blust, de G.; Cock, de R.; Dirksen, J.; Edwards, P.J.; Hamersky, R.; Herzog, F.; Klotz, S.; Kuhn, I.; Coeur, Le D.; Miklova, P.; Roubalova, M.; Schweiger, O.; Smulders, M.J.M.; Wingerden, van W.K.R.E.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Zobel, M.

    2008-01-01

    Question: Which are the plant functional groups responding most clearly to agricultural disturbances? Which are the relative roles of habitat availability, landscape configuration and agricultural land use intensity in affecting the functional composition and diversity of vascular plants in agricult

  16. Plot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    Den velfungerende krimi faciliterer denne dobbelte plotlæsning ved at muliggøre en særlig form for legende og udforskende interaktion mellem læser og plot: Ved at lægge spor ud og holde tolkningsmuligheder og løsningsmuligheder åbne får vi mulighed for at påtage os og udføre opklaringsarbejdet side......, der inviterer os med ind i selve handlingens rum og forløb og giver os forskellige handlingsmuligheder i forhold til disse. I bogen omtales denne særlige form for plot for forlystelsesplot med henvisning til forlystelsesparken og den særlige form for interaktiv fortælleform, som vi finder der: en...

  17. Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, M B

    1998-01-01

    Arrhenius-type plots for multifragmentation process, defined as the transverse energy dependence of the single-fragment emission-probability, -ln(p_{b}) vs 1/sqrt(E_{t}), have been studied by examining the relationship of the parameters p_{b} and E_{t} to the intermediate-mass fragment multiplicity . The linearity of these plots reflects the correlation of the fragment multiplicity with the transverse energy. These plots may not provide thermal scaling information about fragment production as previously suggested.

  18. corner: Corner plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman-Mackey, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    corner uses matplotlib to visualize multidimensional samples using a scatterplot matrix. In these visualizations, each one- and two-dimensional projection of the sample is plotted to reveal covariances. corner was originally conceived to display the results of Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulations and the defaults are chosen with this application in mind but it can be used for displaying many qualitatively different samples. An earlier version of corner was known as triangle.py.

  19. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  20. Fungicides transport in runoff from vineyard plot and catchment: contribution of non-target areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrancq, Marie; Payraudeau, Sylvain; García Verdú, Antonio Joaquín; Maillard, Elodie; Millet, Maurice; Imfeld, Gwenaël

    2014-04-01

    Surface runoff and erosion during the course of rainfall events are major processes of pesticides transport from agricultural land to aquatic ecosystem. These processes are generally evaluated either at the plot or the catchment scale. Here, we compared at both scales the transport and partitioning in runoff water of two widely used fungicides, i.e., kresoxim-methyl (KM) and cyazofamid (CY). The objective was to evaluate the relationship between fungicides runoff from the plot and from the vineyard catchment. The results show that seasonal exports for KM and CY at the catchment were larger than those obtained at the plot. This underlines that non-target areas within the catchment largely contribute to the overall load of runoff-associated fungicides. Estimations show that 85 and 62 % of the loads observed for KM and CY at the catchment outlet cannot be explained by the vineyard plots. However, the partitioning of KM and CY between three fractions, i.e., the suspended solids (>0.7 μm) and two dissolved fractions (i.e., between 0.22 and 0.7 µm and catchment and the plot scales enable to evaluate the sources areas of pesticide off-site transport.

  1. Denitrification in Agricultural Soils: Integrated control and Modelling at various scales (DASIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Christoph; Well, Reinhard; Böttcher, Jürgen; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dannenmann, Michael; Deppe, Marianna; Dittert, Klaus; Dörsch, Peter; Horn, Marcus; Ippisch, Olaf; Mikutta, Robert; Senbayram, Mehmet; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Wrage-Mönnig, Nicole; Müller, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    The new research unit DASIM brings together the expertise of 11 working groups to study the process of denitrification at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. Based on state-of-the art analytical techniques our aim is to develop improved denitrification models ranging from the microscale to the field/plot scale. Denitrification, the process of nitrate reduction allowing microbes to sustain respiration under anaerobic conditions, is the key process returning reactive nitrogen as N2to the atmosphere. Actively denitrifying communities in soil show distinct regulatory phenotypes (DRP) with characteristic controls on the single reaction steps and end-products. It is unresolved whether DRPs are anchored in the taxonomic composition of denitrifier communities and how environmental conditions shape them. Despite being intensively studied for more than 100 years, denitrification rates and emissions of its gaseous products can still not be satisfactorily predicted. While the impact of single environmental parameters is well understood, the complexity of the process itself with its intricate cellular regulation in response to highly variable factors in the soil matrix prevents robust prediction of gaseous emissions. Key parameters in soil are pO2, organic matter content and quality, pH and the microbial community structure, which in turn are affected by the soil structure, chemistry and soil-plant interactions. In the DASIM research unit, we aim at the quantitative prediction of denitrification rates as a function of microscale soil structure, organic matter quality, DRPs and atmospheric boundary conditions via a combination of state-of-the-art experimental and analytical tools (X-ray μCT, 15N tracing, NanoSIMS, microsensors, advanced flux detection, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular methods including next generation sequencing of functional gene transcripts). We actively seek collaboration with researchers working in the field of denitrification.

  2. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further featu

  3. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further

  4. The Half-Half Plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, J.H.J.; Gantner, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Half-Half (HH) plot is a new graphical method to investigate qualitatively the shape of a regression curve. The empirical HH-plot counts observations in the lower and upper quarter of a strip that moves horizontally over the scatter plot. The plot displays jumps clearly and reveals further featu

  5. Recurrence plots from altimetry data of some lakes in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.

  6. Using ensemble models to identify and apportion heavy metal pollution sources in agricultural soils on a local scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Xie, Zhiyi; Li, Fangbai

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to identify and apportion multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution from natural and anthropogenic inputs using ensemble models that include stochastic gradient boosting (SGB) and random forest (RF) in agricultural soils on the local scale. The heavy metal pollution sources were quantitatively assessed, and the results illustrated the suitability of the ensemble models for the assessment of multi-source and multi-phase heavy metal pollution in agricultural soils on the local scale. The results of SGB and RF consistently demonstrated that anthropogenic sources contributed the most to the concentrations of Pb and Cd in agricultural soils in the study region and that SGB performed better than RF.

  7. Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel; Yinesor, Guzide [Marmara University-Goztepe Campus, Faculty of Engineering - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34722 Kuyubasi Kadikoy Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    A small scale fixed bed downdraft gasifier system to be fed with agricultural and forestry residues has been designed and constructed. The downdraft gasifier has four consecutive reaction zones from the top to the bottom, namely drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones. Both the biomass fuel and the gases move in the same direction. A throat has been incorporated into the design to achieve gasification with lower tar production. The experimental system consists of the downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning unit made up by a cyclone, a scrubber and a filter box. A pilot burner is utilized for initial ignition of the biomass fuel. The product gases are combusted in the flare built up as part of the gasification system. The gasification medium is air. The air to fuel ratio is adjusted to produce a gas with acceptably high heating value and low pollutants. Within this frame, different types of biomass, namely wood chips, barks, olive pomace and hazelnut shells are to be processed. The developed downdraft gasifier appears to handle the investigated biomass sources in a technically and environmentally feasible manner. This paper summarizes selected design related issues along with the results obtained with wood chips and hazelnut shells. (author)

  8. Mapping Agricultural Frozen Soil on the Watershed Scale Using Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Khaldoune

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical model for classifying frozen/unfrozen soils in the entire Bras d’Henri River watershed (167 km2 near Quebec City (Quebec, Canada. It was developed to produce frozen soil maps under snow cover using RADARSAT-1 fine mode images and in situ data during three winters. Twelve RADARSAT-1 images were analyzed from fall 2003 to spring 2006 to discern the intra- and interannual variability of frozen soil characteristics. Regression models were developed for each soil group (parent material-drainage-soil type and land cover to establish a threshold for frozen soil from the backscattering coefficients (HH polarization. Tilled fields showed higher backscattering signal (+3 dB than the untilled fields. The overall classification accuracy was 87% for frozen soils and 94% for unfrozen soils. With respect to land use, that is, tilled versus untilled fields, an overall accuracy of 89% was obtained for the tilled fields and 92% for the untilled fields. Results show that this new mapping approach using RADARSAT-1 images can provide estimates of surface soil status (frozen/unfrozen at the watershed scale in agricultural areas.

  9. matplotlib plotting cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Devert, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    This book follows a cookbook style approach that puts orthogonal and non-redundant recipes in your hands. Rather than rehashing the user manual, the explanations expose the underlying logic behind Matplotlib. If you are an engineer or scientist who wants to create great visualizations with Python, rather than yet another specialized language, this is the book for you. While there are several very competent plotting packages, Matplotlib is ""just"" a Python module. Thus, if you know some Python already, you will feel at home from the first steps on. In case you are an application writer, you wo

  10. Modelling field scale water partitioning using on-site observations in sub-Saharan rainfed agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makurira, H.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2010-04-01

    Smallholder rainfed farming systems generally realise sub-optimal crop yields which are largely attributed to dry spell occurrences during crop growth stages. However, through the introduction of appropriate farming practices, it is possible to substantially increase yield levels even with little and highly variable rainfall. The presented results follow research conducted in the Makanya catchment in northern Tanzania where gross rainfall amounts to less than 400 mm/season which is insufficient to support staple food crops (e.g. maize). The yields from farming system innovations (SIs), which are basically alternative cultivation techniques, are compared against traditional farming practices. The SIs tested in this research are runoff harvesting used in combination with in-field trenches and soil bunds (fanya juus). These SIs aim to reduce soil and nutrient loss from the field and, more importantly, promote in-field infiltration and water retention. Water balance components have been observed in order to study water partitioning processes for the "with" and "without" SI scenarios. Based on rainfall, soil evaporation, transpiration, runoff and soil moisture measurements, a water balance model has been developed to simulate soil moisture variations over the growing season. Simulation results show that, during the field trials, the average productive transpiration flow ranged between 1.1-1.4 mm d-1 in the trial plots compared to 0.7-1.0 mm d-1 under traditional tillage practice. Productive transpiration processes accounted for 23-29% while losses to deep percolation accounted for 33-48% of the available water. The field system has been successfully modelled using the spreadsheet-based water balance 1-D model. Conclusions from the research are that the SIs that were tested are effective in enhancing soil moisture retention at field scale and that diversions allow crop growth moisture conditions to be attained with early rains. From the partitioning analysis, it is also

  11. 利用多尺度形态学和递归图分离辨识大地电磁微弱信号%Separation and identification of magnetotelluric weak data using multi-scale morphology and recurrence plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋; 汤井田; 蔡剑华; 燕欢

    2016-01-01

    In order to highlight relevant local characteristics of different scales of structural elements for morphology filtering, and depict inherent multi-scale features of magnetotelluric data hierarchically, a new method that combined weighted multi-scale morphological filtering with recurrence plot to analyze the effect of signal-to-noise separation and identification of magnetotelluric weak data was proposed. Firstly, different scales of structural elements were used to scan magnetotelluric data comprehensively. Then, the more elaborate information of morphological characteristics was obtained by weighted synthesis. Finally, recurrence plot of non-linear dynamic behavior that inspects the characteristics of signal and noise of magnetotelluric data was adopted. The results indicate that the weak signal and noise of magnetotelluric data separate more elaborately, and recurrence plots of phase space trajectory are suitable for inspecting unsteady dynamic changes of time series of magnetotelluric qualitatively. Moreover, Cagniard resistivity curve becomes more smooth and continuous, and the quality of low frequency for magnetotelluric data is improved effectively.%为了突出形态滤波中结构元素不同尺度下的相关局部特性、分层次刻画大地电磁信号本身所固有的多尺度特征,将加权多尺度形态滤波与递归图相结合对大地电磁微弱信号与噪声进行信噪分离及信噪辨识。首先,利用不同尺度的结构元素对大地电磁信号进行全方位扫描;然后,加权合成获取更精细的形态特征信息;最后,引入非线性动力学行为中的递归图对分离出的信噪特征进行确定性检验。研究结果表明:大地电磁微弱信号与噪声得到更精细分离;递归图的相空间轨迹适合定性判断大地电磁时间序列的非稳态动态变化;卡尼亚电阻率曲线更加光滑、连续,大地电磁低频段数据质量得到有效改善。

  12. Plotting Gothic: A Paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Murray

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paradox of the title is that while most historians of medieval architecture agree that a combination of geometric and arithmetic methods was generally used to lay out a medieval church, there has been little consensus on the specifics of the process in relation to the design of any particular edifice. I begin by identifying four premises which underlie the debate. I then ask whether the new technologies — laser scanning and computer assisted design/drafting applications — can help. A case study uses newly generated point cloud data from a laser scan of the choir of Beauvais Cathedral. Finally, the notion of ‘plotting’ introduces essential sociological, anthropological and rhetorical dimensions. In the spirit of Roland Barthes ('Le plaisir du texte' and Peter Brooks ('Reading for the Plot', we can understand the urgency with which the architectural historian may seek to unscramble the hidden codes of the building as compulsive ‘reading for the plot’.

  13. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined.

  14. Plot and field scale soil moisture dynamics and subsurface wetness control on runoff generation in a headwater in the Ore Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Zehe

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This study presents an application of an innovative sampling strategy to assess soil moisture dynamics in a headwater of the Weißeritz in the German eastern Ore Mountains. A grassland site and a forested site were instrumented with two Spatial TDR clusters (STDR that consist of 39 and 32 coated TDR probes of 60 cm length. Distributed time series of vertically averaged soil moisture data from both sites/ensembles were analyzed by statistical and geostatistical methods. Spatial variability and the spatial mean at the forested site were larger than at the grassland site. Furthermore, clustering of TDR probes in combination with long-term monitoring allowed identification of average spatial covariance structures at the small field scale for different wetness states. The correlation length of soil water content as well as the sill to nugget ratio at the grassland site increased with increasing average wetness and but, in contrast, were constant at the forested site. As soil properties at both the forested and grassland sites are extremely variable, this suggests that the correlation structure at the forested site is dominated by the pattern of throughfall and interception. We also found a very strong correlation between antecedent soil moisture at the forested site and runoff coefficients of rainfall-runoff events observed at gauge Rehefeld. Antecedent soil moisture at the forest site explains 92% of the variability in the runoff coefficients. By combining these results with a recession analysis we derived a first conceptual model of the dominant runoff mechanisms operating in this catchment. Finally, we employed a physically based hydrological model to shed light on the controls of soil- and plant morphological parameters on soil average soil moisture at the forested site and the grassland site, respectively. A homogeneous soil setup allowed, after fine tuning of plant morphological parameters, most of the time unbiased predictions of the observed

  15. Long-term Trends of Plot-scale Cs-137 Wash-off on Various Land Uses in the Area Affected by the Accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiyama, Y.; Onda, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; Takahashi, J.; Nakamura, N.; Manome, R.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off is indispensable for predicting Cs-137 fate. However, there are only a few numbers of long-term observations and hence lack of information on temporal trends of Cs-137 wash-off leaves uncertainties on the predictions. This study shows approximately three years' observation results of plot-scale Cs-137 wash-off from various land uses after the accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Erosion plots (22.3 m × 5.0 m) were established in 2011 and 2013 on two uncultivated farmlands (FL-A1, FL-B1), two cultivated farmlands (FL-A2, FL-B2), three grasslands (GL-A, GL-B, GL-C) and one Japanese cedar forest (JCdF) in Kawamata town. Eroded sediments as well as the data of rainfall and vegetation cover were collected almost every two weeks. At the end of observations, we took soil samples from three to nine points on each plot with scraper plates (30 cm ×15 cm) to obtain Cs-137 depth distributions. Collected sediment and soil samples were dried, weighed and measured with HPGe type gamma detectors. We calculated βeff, 'effective' relaxation depth (g/m2), based on Cs-137 depth distributions. Annual soil loss ranged from 0.04 to 75 t/ha/year and the largest was from FL-A2 followed by FL-B2, FL-A1, FL-B1, GL-A, GL-B, JCdF and then GL-C. Sediment amount weighted mean values of Cs-137 concentration normalized by initial deposition density ranged from 0.0062 to 0.084 ((Bq/kg)/(Bq/m2)) and the largest was from JCdF followed by FL-B1, FL-A1, GL-A, FL-A2, FL-B2, GL-B, and then GL-C. Decreasing trends of Cs-137 concentration were found on FL-A1 and FL-B1, whereas no trend was found on other plots due to constant values on FL-A2 and FL-B2 and due to variable values on GL-C, GL-B, GL-C and JCdF. Depth distributions of Cs-137 on FL-A1 and FL-B1 showed exponential distributions with low inventories on their upslope points and deeper penetrations with high inventories on their downslope points. Mean values of βeff ranged from 2.1 to 24

  16. Application of total station in the positioning of large-scale plot sampling in forest ecosystem%全站仪在森林生态系统大样地定位中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林观土; 王长委; 韩锡君; 徐庆华; 陈军

    2011-01-01

    The principles and methodology of total station used in lofting survey and measurement of tree height and diameter at breast height were introduced, and the precision of measurement was analyzed according to law of propagated error. It was shown that total station used in large-scale plot sampling in forest ecosystem was feasible. The precision of grid vertex, the measurement of tree height and diameter at breast height about 300 meter from the control point was 1/100, 1/250 and 1/S0, respectively, which satisfied the demand of the specification for forest investigation and will provide referential values for the future large-scale plot setting and tree sampling in forest ecosystem.%本文介绍全站仪在森林大样地内进行放样测量、树高测量及胸径测量的原理与方法,通过误差传播定律分析其测量的精度,结果表明:全站仪在森林生态调查定位中是可行的.放样距控制点300m的方格顶点的精度可达到1/100,树高测量的精度可达到1/250,胸径测量的精度可达到1/50,可满足林业调查规范的要求.对于日后森林生态系统大样地的设置及树木测量具有参考意义.

  17. An Exploratory Literature Review of Efforts to Help the Small-Scale, Resource Poor Farmer in International Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Jennifer E. II

    1998-01-01

    An Exploratory Literature Review of Efforts to Help the Small-Scale, Resource Poor Farmer in International Agricultural Development By Jennifer E. Taylor Abstract Since the 1979 World Conference on Agrarian Reform and Rural Development (WCARRD) and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment Development, which generated the Agenda 21 document, international agaricultural development organizations have been urged to strengthen their focus toward the sustainable development o...

  18. Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals, DATCP licensed nurseries and christmas tree farms., Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Nurseries and Ornamentals dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is...

  19. Large-scale expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Leydimere J. C.; Costa, Marcos H.; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S.; Coe, Michael T.

    2013-06-01

    Using simplified climate and land-use models, we evaluated primary forests’ carbon storage and soybean and pasture productivity in the Brazilian Legal Amazon under several scenarios of deforestation and increased CO2. The four scenarios for the year 2050 that we analyzed consider (1) radiative effects of increased CO2, (2) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2, (3) effects of land-use changes on the regional climate and (4) radiative and physiological effects of increased CO2 plus land-use climate feedbacks. Under current conditions, means for aboveground forest live biomass (AGB), soybean yield and pasture yield are 179 Mg-C ha-1, 2.7 Mg-grains ha-1 and 16.2 Mg-dry mass ha-1 yr-1, respectively. Our results indicate that expansion of agriculture in Amazonia may be a no-win scenario: in addition to reductions in carbon storage due to deforestation, total agriculture output may either increase much less than proportionally to the potential expansion in agricultural area, or even decrease, as a consequence of climate feedbacks from changes in land use. These climate feedbacks, usually ignored in previous studies, impose a reduction in precipitation that would lead agriculture expansion in Amazonia to become self-defeating: the more agriculture expands, the less productive it becomes.

  20. Aristotle's theory of tragedy plot and comparison with modern plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋莹

    2008-01-01

    This paper is to study Aristotle's theory of tragedy and his tragedy plot from the Poetics. He says,'tragedy is an imitation of an action that is serious,complete,and of adequate magnitude-in language embellished in different ways in different parts-in the form of action,not of narration-through pity and fear effecting the purgation of these emotions. The elements of tragedy are plot,character,thought,diction,melody and spectacle in their order of importance.' However there exist some differences and similarities between his plot in Poetics and modern plot.

  1. Constructed wetlands targeting nitrogen removal in agricultural drainage discharge – a subcatchment scale mitigation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Bruun, Jacob Druedahl

    in agricultural drainage water. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH”project (2010-2016) (www.supremetech.dk) and the innovation project “iDRAIN” (www.idrain.dk ) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing and implementing cost-effective drainage filter technologies targeting N-removal in agricultural subsurface...... of recipients, drainage water nutrient loads have a major impact on water quality, and end-of-pipe drainage filter solution may offer the benefits of a targeted measure. This calls for a paradigm shift towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses......Despite substantial efforts, the leaching of nutrients from agricultural land is still a serious and costly environmental problem in Denmark and elsewhere. The quality goals of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) for the aquatic environment require a substantial reduction of diffuse...

  2. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  3. Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Improving Farm Scale Agricultural Water Management in Agriculture at a Farm Scale. A case study for field crops in the California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellin-Azuara, J.; Morande, J. A.; Jin, Y.; Chen, Y.; Paw U, K. T.; Viers, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    Traditional methods for estimating consumptive water use as evapotranspiration (ET) for agriculture in areas with water limitations such as California have always been a challenge for farmers, water managers, researchers and government agencies. Direct measurement of evapotranspiration (ET) and crop water stress in agriculture can be a cumbersome and costly task. Furthermore, spatial variability of applied water and irrigation and stress level in crops, due to inherent heterogeneity in soil conditions, topography, management practices, and lack of uniformity in water applications may affect estimates water use efficiency and water balances. This situation difficult long-term management of agroecosystems. This paper presents a case study for various areas in California's Central Valley using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) for a late portion of the 2016 irrigation season These estimates are compared those obtained by direct measurement (from previously deployed stations), and energy balance approaches with remotely sensed data in a selection of field crop parcels. This research improves information on water use and site conditions in agriculture by enhancing remote sensing-based estimations through the use of higher resolution multi-spectral and thermal imagery captured by UAV. We assess whether more frequent information at higher spatial resolution from UAVs can improve estimations of overall ET through energy balance and imagery. Stress levels and ET are characterized spatially to examine irrigation practices and their performance to improve water use in the agroecosystem. Ground based data such as air and crop temperature and stem water potential is collected to validate UAV aerial measurements. Preliminary results show the potential of UAV technology to improve timing, resolution and accuracy in the ET estimation and assessment of crop stress at a farm scales. Side to side comparison with ground level stations employing surface renewal, eddy covariance and

  4. GnuForPlot Graphics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-11-04

    Gnuforplot Graphics is a Fortran90 program designed to generate two and three dimensional plots of data on a personal computer. The program uses calls to the open source code Gnuplot to generate the plots. Two Fortran90 programs have been written to use the Gnuplot graphics capabilities. The first program, named Plotsetup.f90 reads data from output files created by either the Stadium or LeachXS/Orchestra modeling codes and saves the data in arrays for plotting. This program then calls Gnuforplot which takes the data array along with user specified parameters to set plot specifications and issues Gnuplot commands that generate the screen plots. The user can view the plots and optionally save copies in jpeg format.

  5. E-precision agriculture for small scale cash crops in Tobasa regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra Simanjuntak, Panca; Tiurniari Napitupulu, Pangeran; Pratama Silalahi, Soni; Kisno; Pasaribu, Norlina; Valešová, Libuše

    2017-09-01

    Cash crop is a promising sector in Tobasa regency; however, the trend showed a negative change of the cash crop production in. This research aims to develop an application which is based on Arduino for watering and fertilizing corn land. The result of using e-precision agriculture based on embedded system is 100% higher than the conventional one and the risk of harvesting failure using the embedded system decreased to 50%. Embedded system in this study acquired critical environment measurements which at last affected the yield raising and risk reduction. As the result, the use of e-precision agriculture provided a framework to be used by different stakeholders to implement e-agriculture platform that supports marketing of agricultural production since the system is proven to save the material and time which finally reduces the risk of harvesting failure and increases the yield. In other words, the system is able to economize the use of water and fertilizer on a small corn land. The system will be developed for more efficiency in material loss and the mobile-based application development to reach sustainable rural development particularly for cash-crop farmers.

  6. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability. Study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical marketing systems (

  7. Agricultural marketing systems and sustainability : study of small scale Andean hillside farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaño, J.

    2001-01-01

    A better understanding of the way in which marketing systems can contribute to the adoption of sustainable agricultural practices (ASAP) on small-farms constitutes the aim of this study. In particular, the study examines the contribution of vertical

  8. The development and investigation of the psychometric properties of a burnout scale within a South African agricultural research institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris N. Asiwe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Burnout of employees is well documented within South Africa, but researchers have adapted imported instruments with a number of limitations. Therefore there is a need to develop a new instrument suitable for use in South Africa.Research purpose: To give an overview of current burnout measures, identify gaps within the literature and develop a new burnout scale for use within South Africa. The research examined the construct validity, reliability, construct equivalence and item bias of this new scale and investigated any differences that exist in relation to demographic variables.Motivation for the study: This study aimed to address various limitations regarding existing measures by developing a reliable and valid instrument for measuring burnout in South African employees that includes cognitive, physical and emotional (affective components.Research approach, design and method: This empirical, quantitative research study delivered a cross-sectional survey, including the burnout scale and a biographical data questionnaire, to 443 employees of an agricultural research institution. Items for the burnout scale were written based on a literature review.Main findings: Exploratory factor analysis with target rotations resulted in a three-factor burnout model. Reliability analysis showed that all three scales (1 were sufficiently internally consistent and (2 showed construct equivalence for Black and White employees and speakers of Afrikaans and African languages. A practically significant difference in burnout levels was found in relation to age.Practical/managerial implications: The scale can be used to assess burnout for different cultural groups within research-based institutions.Contribution/value-add: This study contributes to knowledge regarding the burnout levels of employees in an agricultural research institution in South Africa and provides a new burnout scale that can be utilised in similar institutions.

  9. Study on Surface Plotting Methods in Parts Plotting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhen; ZHAO Fa-dong

    2013-01-01

    According to the factors that confirm the shape of surface, it is classified into two categories:arc surface and curve surface. The method to confirm the category of surfaces and the plotting methods are discussed in this paper, which provide guidance for parts plotting.

  10. PetroPlot: A plotting and data management tool set for Microsoft Excel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yongjun; Langmuir, Charles H.; Asimow, Paul D.

    2003-03-01

    PetroPlot is a 4000-line software code written in Visual Basic for the spreadsheet program Excel that automates plotting and data management tasks for large amount of data. The major plotting functions include: automation of large numbers of multiseries XY plots; normalized diagrams (e.g., spider diagrams); replotting of any complex formatted diagram with multiple series for any other axis parameters; addition of customized labels for individual data points; and labeling flexible log scale axes. Other functions include: assignment of groups for samples based on multiple customized criteria; removal of nonnumeric values; calculation of averages/standard deviations; calculation of correlation matrices; deletion of nonconsecutive rows; and compilation of multiple rows of data for a single sample to single rows appropriate for plotting. A cubic spline function permits curve fitting to complex time series, and comparison of data to the fits. For users of Excel, PetroPlot increases efficiency of data manipulation and visualization by orders of magnitude and allows exploration of large data sets that would not be possible making plots individually. The source codes are open to all users.

  11. The Corporative Food Regime and Mexican Small Scale Agricultural Production Case Study: Tonatico, Estado De México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malin Jönsson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During a global corporative food regime (1980–2008, the creation of the international legal framework for trade liberalization, the protection of intellectual property rights, and consequently the implementation of neoliberal policies at a national level have drastically changed the conditions for Mexican agricultural production. In this article, the origin of these significant changes is identified with an explanation of the food system’s structural transformation at an international and national level, as well as illustrated with the transnational agribusiness’ dominance in agricultural production. Subsequently, in this context an example of subordinated Mexican small scale maize production in the rural municipality of Tonatico, Estado de México, is analyzed. This is accomplished by illustrating the incremented exploitation of campesino production within the corporate food regime. The analysis at a local level is based on field work carried out while staying in the municipality.

  12. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cleveland

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit-cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  13. Mapping Irrigated Lands at 250-m Scale by Merging MODIS Data and National Agricultural Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Shahriar Pervez

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accurate geospatial information on the extent of irrigated land improves our understanding of agricultural water use, local land surface processes, conservation or depletion of water resources, and components of the hydrologic budget. We have developed a method in a geospatial modeling framework that assimilates irrigation statistics with remotely sensed parameters describing vegetation growth conditions in areas with agricultural land cover to spatially identify irrigated lands at 250-m cell size across the conterminous United States for 2002. The geospatial model result, known as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Irrigated Agriculture Dataset (MIrAD-US, identified irrigated lands with reasonable accuracy in California and semiarid Great Plains states with overall accuracies of 92% and 75% and kappa statistics of 0.75 and 0.51, respectively. A quantitative accuracy assessment of MIrAD-US for the eastern region has not yet been conducted, and qualitative assessment shows that model improvements are needed for the humid eastern regions where the distinction in annual peak NDVI between irrigated and non-irrigated crops is minimal and county sizes are relatively small. This modeling approach enables consistent mapping of irrigated lands based upon USDA irrigation statistics and should lead to better understanding of spatial trends in irrigated lands across the conterminous United States. An improved version of the model with revised datasets is planned and will employ 2007 USDA irrigation statistics.

  14. Box-and-Whisker Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Russell D.

    1985-01-01

    Box-and-whisker plots (which give rapid visualization of batches of data) can be effectively used to present diverse collections of data used in traditional first-year chemistry courses. Construction of box-and-whisker plots and their use with bond energy data and data on heats of formation and solution are discussed. (JN)

  15. S2PLOT: Three-dimensional (3D) Plotting Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, D. G.; Fluke, C. J.; Bourke, P. D.; Parry, O. T.

    2011-03-01

    We present a new, three-dimensional (3D) plotting library with advanced features, and support for standard and enhanced display devices. The library - S2PLOT - is written in C and can be used by C, C++ and FORTRAN programs on GNU/Linux and Apple/OSX systems. S2PLOT draws objects in a 3D (x,y,z) Cartesian space and the user interactively controls how this space is rendered at run time. With a PGPLOT inspired interface, S2PLOT provides astronomers with elegant techniques for displaying and exploring 3D data sets directly from their program code, and the potential to use stereoscopic and dome display devices. The S2PLOT architecture supports dynamic geometry and can be used to plot time-evolving data sets, such as might be produced by simulation codes. In this paper, we introduce S2PLOT to the astronomical community, describe its potential applications, and present some example uses of the library.

  16. PLOT3D user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walatka, Pamela P.; Buning, Pieter G.; Pierce, Larry; Elson, Patricia A.

    1990-01-01

    PLOT3D is a computer graphics program designed to visualize the grids and solutions of computational fluid dynamics. Seventy-four functions are available. Versions are available for many systems. PLOT3D can handle multiple grids with a million or more grid points, and can produce varieties of model renderings, such as wireframe or flat shaded. Output from PLOT3D can be used in animation programs. The first part of this manual is a tutorial that takes the reader, keystroke by keystroke, through a PLOT3D session. The second part of the manual contains reference chapters, including the helpfile, data file formats, advice on changing PLOT3D, and sample command files.

  17. Agriculture, Other, Parcel Map/Taxroll Data, Published in 1997, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Other dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1997. It is...

  18. Agriculture, Crops, Parcel Map/Taxroll Data, Published in 1997, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Lafayette County Land Records.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Agriculture, Crops dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 1997. It is...

  19. Trellis plots as visual aids for analyzing split plot experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Menon, Anil

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of split plot experiments can be challenging due to a complicated error structure resulting from restrictions on complete randomization. Similarly, standard visualization methods do not provide the insight practitioners desire to understand the data, think of explanations, generate...... hypotheses, build models, or decide on next steps. This article demonstrates the effective use of trellis plots in the preliminary data analysis for split plot experiments to address this problem. Trellis displays help to visualize multivariate data by allowing for conditioning in a general way. They can...

  20. Towards a Quantitative Use of Satellite Remote Sensing in Crop Growth Models for Large Scale Agricultural Production Estimate (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defourny, P.

    2013-12-01

    The development of better agricultural monitoring capabilities is clearly considered as a critical step for strengthening food production information and market transparency thanks to timely information about crop status, crop area and yield forecasts. The documentation of global production will contribute to tackle price volatility by allowing local, national and international operators to make decisions and anticipate market trends with reduced uncertainty. Several operational agricultural monitoring systems are currently operating at national and international scales. Most are based on the methods derived from the pioneering experiences completed some decades ago, and use remote sensing to qualitatively compare one year to the others to estimate the risks of deviation from a normal year. The GEO Agricultural Monitoring Community of Practice described the current monitoring capabilities at the national and global levels. An overall diagram summarized the diverse relationships between satellite EO and agriculture information. There is now a large gap between the current operational large scale systems and the scientific state of the art in crop remote sensing, probably because the latter mainly focused on local studies. The poor availability of suitable in-situ and satellite data over extended areas hampers large scale demonstrations preventing the much needed up scaling research effort. For the cropland extent, this paper reports a recent research achievement using the full ENVISAT MERIS 300 m archive in the context of the ESA Climate Change Initiative. A flexible combination of classification methods depending to the region of the world allows mapping the land cover as well as the global croplands at 300 m for the period 2008 2012. This wall to wall product is then compared with regards to the FP 7-Geoland 2 results obtained using as Landsat-based sampling strategy over the IGADD countries. On the other hand, the vegetation indices and the biophysical variables

  1. A new system of labour management in African large-scale agriculture?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibbon, Peter; Riisgaard, Lone

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies a convention theory (CT) approach to the analysis of labour management systems in African large-scale farming. The reconstruction of previous analyses of high-value crop production on large-scale farms in Africa in terms of CT suggests that, since 1980–95, labour management has...... moved from a ‘domestic’ to a ‘market’ system. However, data collected by the authors from a sample of 11 large-scale rose farms in Kenya in 2011 (covering around 20% of national output) points to the adoption of systems that, in CT terms, combine ‘industrial’ and ‘civic’ elements. The paper concludes...

  2. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  3. Action Between Plot and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Thor

    2007-01-01

    , these narrated actions disrupt the theoretical divisions, on the one hand, between the narrated story and the narrating discourse, and on the other hand, between plot-narratology and discourse-narratology. As narrated actions, they seem to belong to the domain of plot-narratology, but insofar as they serve...... an important visualizing function, these narrated actions have a communicative function and, as such, they can be said to belong to the domain of discourse-narratology. In the first part of the article, I argue that a certain type of plot-narratology, due to its retrospective epistemology and abstract...

  4. Changes in catchment-scale water fluxes due to time-variant soil hydraulic properties in a subtropical agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrot, Lucile; Geris, Josie; Gao, Lei; Peng, Xinhua; Hallett, Paul

    2017-04-01

    In agricultural landscapes, temporal fluxes in hydraulic properties due to tillage, grazing, crop root growth and cycles of wetting and drying influenced by irrigation, could have large impacts at catchment scale. These effects are particularly evident in tropical climates where long periods of drought are followed by intense rainfall that greatly exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil. This work explores the impact of the seasonal development of crops and the shifts in time between crop types on soil physical properties and the relative changes in the probability distribution of the water storage and fluxes dynamics. We focussed on an agricultural catchment in south east China where the climatic conditions include periods of droughts and heavy rainfall. Using coupled 1-dimension and semi-distributed catchment modelling combined with basic water balance data and both on-site and literature values for soil and crop properties, we investigated the impact of soil physical changes in the root-zone of the soil over different time scales ranging from daily to annual. Our results also showed that the resulting time-variant spatial patterns in soil water storage and flow had an impact on the integrated catchment runoff response at different times of the year.

  5. Prospects for integrating utility-scale solar photovoltaics and industrial agriculture in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlin, K.; Anderegg, W.; Hernandez, R. R.; Hiza, N.; Johnson, J. E.; Maltais-landry, G.; Wolf, A.; Zimmerman, N. B.

    2011-12-01

    One of the key challenges to many alternative energy options is land use competition, such as conflict with food production (e.g., corn or sugar cane ethanol) or natural resource protection (e.g., solar panels in desert habitat). Wind power has largely avoided these conflicts by leasing land from farmers and maintaining a small footprint on the landscape. Here, we ask whether similar opportunities exist for solar photovoltaics in agricultural settings. Our test case consists of a soybean field in Ames, Iowa (USA), with south-facing solar panels in rows spaced 16 m apart (~3 times further than typical), a center pole height of 3 m (3 times higher than in a typical ground-mounted system), and a fixed tilt of 25 degrees. Using a geometric shade model coupled to a common crop model (DSSAT) and driven by 14 years of weather data, we find that the average annual soybean yield is not significantly reduced (renewable energy with little or no reduction in yields. Using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) System Advisor Model and assuming 18 to 20% efficient panels, we estimate that this configuration at this location will produce 295 MWh ha-1 in the first year of operation. With this configuration the United States' current (2007) electricity production could be met by incorporating photovoltaic panels into as little as 11% of currently cropped land. We are currently developing an independent model that will complement our DSSAT analyses by simulating the effects of solar photovoltaics on available light, albedo and temperature on a range of different crops. We also review some of the major challenges to and potential benefits of integrated solar-agricultural systems in different regions and cropping systems.

  6. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Eco-efficiency of agricultural water systems: Methodological approach and assessment at meso-level scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorovic, Mladen; Mehmeti, Andi; Scardigno, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a methodological framework for the meso-level eco-efficiency assessment of agricultural water systems using a life-cycle system-based approach. The methodology was applied to the Sinistra Ofanto irrigation scheme, located in Southern Italy, where about 28,165 ha are under irrigation. The environmental performance of the system was evaluated through a set of selected mid-point environmental impact categories while the economic performance was measured using the total value added to the system's final products due to water use and the adopted management practices. Both economic performance and environmental performance were measured at different stages and for each stakeholder in the value chain. A distinction was made between foreground and background systems referring, respectively, to the processes that occurred inside the water system boundaries and those used for the production of supplementary resources. The analysis revealed that the major environmental burdens are: i) the freshwater resource depletion (i.e. excessive groundwater pumping), ii) climate change (i.e. direct emissions due to fertilizer use and diesel combustion), and iii) eutrophication (as a result of excessive application of N and P fertilizers). A considerable impact was observed on the background system where energy, fuel and agrochemicals were produced thereby confirming the prominent role of background processes in the comprehensive eco-efficiency assessment. The presented methodology aimed at the quantitative assessment of the eco-efficiency level rather than at the identification of the most affected environmental category. Hence, the results can be used to compare the performance of the system from one year to the next, among different stakeholders (water users) and/or to assess the impact of adopting innovative technologies and management practices. Moreover, the presented approach is useful for comparing the performance among different agricultural water systems and

  8. Estimating riverine nutrient concentrations in agricultural catchments - Do we reduce uncertainty by using local scale data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capell, Rene; Hankin, Barry; Strömqvist, Johan; Lamb, Rob; Arheimer, Berit

    2017-04-01

    Nutrient transport models are important tools for large scale assessments of macro-nutrient fluxes (nitrate, phosphate) and thus can serve as support tool for environmental assessment and management. Results from model applications over large areas, i.e. on major river basin to continental scales can fill a gap where monitoring data is not available. However, both phosphate and nitrate transport are highly complex processes, and nutrient models must balance data requirements and process simplification. Data typically become increasingly sparse and less detailed with increasing spatial scale. Here, we compare model estimates of riverine nitrate concentrations in the Weaver-Dane basin (UK) and to evaluate the role of available environmental data sources for model performance by using (a) open environmental data sources available at European scale and (b) closed data sources which are more localised and typically not openly available. In particular, we aim to evaluate, how model structure, spatial model resolution, climate forcing products, and land use and management information impact on model-estimated nitrate concentrations. We use the European rainfall-runoff and nutrient model E-HYPE (http://hypeweb.smhi.se/europehype/about/) as a baseline large-scale model built on open data sources, and compare with more detailed model set-ups in different configurations using local data. Nitrate estimates are compared using a GLUE uncertainty framework.

  9. Normal probability plots with confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantarangsi, Wanpen; Liu, Wei; Bretz, Frank; Kiatsupaibul, Seksan; Hayter, Anthony J; Wan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Normal probability plots are widely used as a statistical tool for assessing whether an observed simple random sample is drawn from a normally distributed population. The users, however, have to judge subjectively, if no objective rule is provided, whether the plotted points fall close to a straight line. In this paper, we focus on how a normal probability plot can be augmented by intervals for all the points so that, if the population distribution is normal, then all the points should fall into the corresponding intervals simultaneously with probability 1-α. These simultaneous 1-α probability intervals provide therefore an objective mean to judge whether the plotted points fall close to the straight line: the plotted points fall close to the straight line if and only if all the points fall into the corresponding intervals. The powers of several normal probability plot based (graphical) tests and the most popular nongraphical Anderson-Darling and Shapiro-Wilk tests are compared by simulation. Based on this comparison, recommendations are given in Section 3 on which graphical tests should be used in what circumstances. An example is provided to illustrate the methods.

  10. Ecologies of Scale: Multifunctionality Connects Conservation and Agriculture across Fields, Farms, and Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Allen McGranahan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology and landscape ecology are two land-use sciences based on ecological principles, but have historically focused on fine and broad spatial scales, respectively. As global demand for food strains current resources and threatens biodiversity conservation, concepts such as multifunctional landscapes and ecologically-analogous agroecosystems integrate ecological concepts across multiple spatial scales. This paper reviews ecological principles behind several concepts crucial to the reconciliation of food production and biodiversity conservation, including relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions such as productivity and stability; insect pest and pollinator management; integrated crop and livestock systems; countryside biogeography and heterogeneity-based rangeland management. Ecological principles are integrated across three spatial scales: fields, farms, and landscapes.

  11. Centimeter-scale spatial variability in 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid mineralization increases with depth in agricultural soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Sørensen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Mineralization of organic chemicals in soil is typically studied using large homogenized samples, but little is known about the small-scale spatial distribution of mineralization potential. We studied centimeter-scale spatial distribution of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) mineralizati...... to the groundwater if transported from the plow layer into the subsoil. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.......Mineralization of organic chemicals in soil is typically studied using large homogenized samples, but little is known about the small-scale spatial distribution of mineralization potential. We studied centimeter-scale spatial distribution of 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) mineralization...... activity at different depths (8-115 cm) in a Danish agricultural soil profi le using a 96-well microplate C-radiorespirometric method for small-volume samples. The heterotrophic microbial population and specifi c MCPA degraders decreased 10- to 100-fold from the plow layer to a depth of 115 cm. MCPA...

  12. Valuing Soft Components in Agricultural Water Management Interventions in Meso-Scale Watersheds: A Review and Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennie Barron

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Meso-scale watershed management (1-10,000 km2 is receiving growing attention as the spatial scale where policy in integrated water resource management (IWRM goes into operational mode. This is also where aggregated field-level agricultural water management (AWM interventions may result in externalities. But there is little synthesised 'lessons learned' on the costs and benefits of interventions at this scale. Here we synthesise selected cases and meta-analyses on the investment cost in 'soft components' accompanying AWM interventions. The focus is on meso-scale watersheds in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. We found very few cases with benefit-to-cost evaluation at full project level, or separate costing of hard and soft components. The synthesis suggests higher development success rates in communities with an initial level of social capital, where projects were implemented with cost- and knowledge-sharing between involved stakeholders, and where one or more 'agents of change' were present to facilitate leadership and communications. There is a need to monitor and evaluate both the external and the internal gains and losses in a more systematic manner to help development agents and other investors to ensure wiser and more effective investments in AWM interventions and watershed management.

  13. Use of the soil and water assessment tool to scale sediment delivery from field to watershed in an agricultural landscape with topographic depressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendinger, James E; Murphy, Marylee S; Ulrich, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    For two watersheds in the northern Midwest United States, we show that landscape depressions have a significant impact on watershed hydrology and sediment yields and that the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has appropriate features to simulate these depressions. In our SWAT models of the Willow River in Wisconsin and the Sunrise River in Minnesota, we used Pond and Wetland features to capture runoff from about 40% of the area in each watershed. These depressions trapped considerable sediment, yet further reductions in sediment yield were required for calibration and achieved by reducing the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) cropping-practice (P) factor to 0.40 to 0.45. We suggest terminology to describe annual sediment yields at different conceptual spatial scales and show how SWAT output can be partitioned to extract data at each of these scales. These scales range from plot-scale yields calculated with the USLE to watershed-scale yields measured at the outlet. Intermediate scales include field, upland, pre-riverine, and riverine scales, in descending order along the conceptual flow path from plot to outlet. Sediment delivery ratios, when defined as watershed-scale yields as a percentage of plot-scale yields, ranged from 1% for the Willow watershed (717 km) to 7% for the Sunrise watershed (991 km). Sediment delivery ratios calculated from published relations based on watershed area alone were about 5 to 6%, closer to pre-riverine-scale yields in our watersheds. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Scale effects in Hortonian surface runoff on agricultural slopes in West Africa: Field data and models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giesen, van de N.; Stomph, T.J.; Ajayi, A.E.; Bagayoko, F.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of both experimental and modeling research carried out over the past 15 years by the authors addressing scaling effects in Hortonian surface runoff. Hortonian surface runoff occurs when rainfall intensity exceeds infiltration capacity of the soil. At three sites in

  15. Small scale agriculture, marginal conditions and market access: impacts on natural resources and farmers' welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavatassi, R.

    2010-01-01

    Keywords: small-scale farmers, food security, impact evaluation, Ecuador, Ethiopia, crop choice, social capital, crop genetic diversity, pesticides. Numerous are the obstacles and difficulties smallholder farmers from developing countries have to face to achieve food security or improve their well

  16. Changes of the Scale and Structure of Agricultural Laborer and Their Impacts on Food Production ——Empirical study on YinshanPo Village, Suizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the strength of expounding the general situation of study area and the status quo of agricultural laborers in China, the changes of the scale and structure of agricultural laborer from 1985 to 2009 are analyzed by relying on the survey from farmers and statistical data from the government. The causes of these changes are analyzed from the aspects of rural farmland policy,birth-control policy, farmland marginalization and industrialization. Based on the study on the causes, the impacts of the changes on food production are analyzed from operation scale of household, the grain cropping area, the multi-cropping index and land productivity. The results show that the quality of agricultural laborers is decreasing form 1985 to 2009, which is characterized by the lack of middle-aged agricultural laborers and the aging of agricultural laborers. The causes of the changes include farmland policy, birth-control policy, farmland marginalization and urbanization. The shrinkage of agricultural laborers has grave impact on the multiple-cropping index. In addition, the land productivity is comprehensively affected by the scale and structure of agricultural laborers.

  17. Asymmetry of agricultural water consumption in arid regions during alternating decadal scale wet and dry periods: explanation using behavioral economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Increase of human water consumption for agriculture and consequent degradation of the ecological environment is a common feature in many arid regions. Understanding the driving mechanisms behind this phenomenon is of critical importance for regional sustainable development. In this study, analyses of temporal patterns of human water consumption are carried out in three hyper-arid inland basins, i.e., Aral Sea Basin in Central Asia, and the Tarim and Heihe River Basins in Northwestern China. Multi-decadal time series of hydrological and human consumption data are divided into decadal sequences of wet and dry years. During the wet phases, the greater water availability inspires economic expansion and human water consumption experiences growth at a rate faster than that of incoming water. During the dry phases, however, the expanded economy (e.g., irrigation land expansion in an agriculture-based economy) has been managed to sustain or even to increase production by over-exploitation of water with sophisticated technologies. Inability to reduce human water consumption at a rate commensurate with the decrease of incoming water supply leads to serious ecosystem degradation. This asymmetric human water consumption response of society to decadal scale hydrologic variability can be explained in terms of prospect theory drawn from behavioral economics, which states that people tend to be risk averse when facing gains and show risk preference when facing losses. In the three socio-hydrological case studies, direct economic gain/loss has relatively low value but high certainty when compared to indirect economic loss/gain (such as environmental or sustainability loss/gain), which has high value but with high uncertainty. According to prospect theory, people tend to gain direct economic benefits at the expense of environmental degradation and at the risk of system collapse. The outcomes of this study have major implications for water resources management at long time scales

  18. Long-term field-scale experiment on using lime filters in an agricultural catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkkala, Teija; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Tarvainen, Marjo

    2012-01-01

    The River Yläneenjoki catchment in southwest Finland is an area with a high agricultural nutrient load. We report here on the nutrient removal performance of three on-site lime-sand filters (F1, F2, and F3), established within or on the edge of the buffer zones. The filters contain burnt lime (CaO) or spent lime [CaO, Ca(OH), and CaCO]. Easily soluble lime results in a high pH level (>11) and leads to an efficient precipitation of soluble phosphorus (P) from the runoff. Water samples were taken from the inflow and outflow of each site in different hydrological situations. The length of the monitoring period was 4 yr for F1, 6 yr for F2, and 1.5 yr for F3. F1 and F2 significantly reduced the suspended solids (SS), total P (PTOT), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) in the treated water. The proportional reduction (%) varied but was usually clearly positive. Filter F3 was divided into two equal parts, one containing burnt lime and the other spent lime. Both filter parts removed PTOT and SS efficiently from the water; the burnt-lime part also removed DRP. The mixed-lime part removed DRP for a year, but then the efficiency decreased. The effect of filters on nitrogen compounds varied. We conclude that sand filters incorporating lime can be used together with buffer zones to reduce both P and SS load to watercourses.

  19. Energy from Agricultural and Animal Farming Residues: Potential at a Local Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Guariso

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Animal wastes from high-density farming have severe impacts on the nitrogen cycle. According to current regulations, the disposal of manure on cropland is constrained by nitrogen content in the agricultural soils. On the contrary, anaerobic digestion (AD of these wastes can produce energy and a digestate, which is easier to handle than manure and can be applied for agronomic uses. When herbaceous crops are co-digested with manure to increase the efficiency of biogas production, the nitrogen content in the digestate further increases, unless these larger plants are equipped with nitrogen stripping technologies. We propose a model to compare larger (cooperative and smaller (single parcel AD conversion plants. The whole process is modeled: from the collection of manures, to the cultivation of energy crops, to the disposal of the digestate. The model maximizes the energy produced on the basis of available biomass, road network, local heat demand and local availability of land for digestate disposal. Results are the optimal size and location of the plants, their technology and collection basins. The environmental performances of such plants are also evaluated. The study has been applied to the province of Forlì-Cesena, an Italian district where animal farming is particularly relevant.

  20. Modelling the impact of agricultural management on soil carbon stocks at the regional scale: the role of lateral fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeu, Elisabet; Gobin, Anne; Fiener, Peter; van Wesemael, Bas; van Oost, Kristof

    2015-08-01

    Agricultural management has received increased attention over the last decades due to its central role in carbon (C) sequestration and greenhouse gas mitigation. Yet, regardless of the large body of literature on the effects of soil erosion by tillage and water on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in agricultural landscapes, the significance of soil redistribution for the overall C budget and the C sequestration potential of land management options remains poorly quantified. In this study, we explore the role of lateral SOC fluxes in regional scale modelling of SOC stocks under three different agricultural management practices in central Belgium: conventional tillage (CT), reduced tillage (RT) and reduced tillage with additional carbon input (RT+i). We assessed each management scenario twice: using a conventional approach that did not account for lateral fluxes and an alternative approach that included soil erosion-induced lateral SOC fluxes. The results show that accounting for lateral fluxes increased C sequestration rates by 2.7, 2.5 and 1.5 g C m(-2)  yr(-1) for CT, RT and RT+i, respectively, relative to the conventional approach. Soil redistribution also led to a reduction of SOC concentration in the plough layer and increased the spatial variability of SOC stocks, suggesting that C sequestration studies relying on changes in the plough layer may underestimate the soil's C sequestration potential due to the effects of soil erosion. Additionally, lateral C export from cropland was in the same of order of magnitude as C sequestration; hence, the fate of C exported from cropland into other land uses is crucial to determine the ultimate impact of management and erosion on the landscape C balance. Consequently, soil management strategies targeting C sequestration will be most effective when accompanied by measures that reduce soil erosion given that erosion loss can balance potential C uptake, particularly in sloping areas.

  1. External Use of TOPCAT's Plotting Library

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, M B

    2014-01-01

    The table analysis application TOPCAT uses a custom Java plotting library for highly configurable high-performance interactive or exported visualisations in two and three dimensions. We present here a variety of ways for end users or application developers to make use of this library outside of the TOPCAT application: via the command-line suite STILTS or its Jython variant JyStilts, via a traditional Java API, or by programmatically assigning values to a set of parameters in java code or using some form of inter-process communication. The library has been built with large datasets in mind; interactive plots scale well up to several million points, and static output to standard graphics formats is possible for unlimited sized input data.

  2. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  3. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Agricultural Preservation Districts: The most common use is for the interpretation of agricultural use protected lands within the county. The data is frequently used in the Protected Lands Map, Published in 2009, 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, Washington County GIS Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset, published at 1:7200 (1in=600ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009....

  4. Linking ecology and aesthetics in sustainable agricultural landscapes: Lessons from the Palouse region of Washington, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda R. Klein; William G. Hendrix; Virginia I. Lohr; Jolie B. Kaytes; Rodney D. Sayler; Mark E. Swanson; William J. Elliot; John P. Reganold

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by international escalation in agricultural sustainability debates, we explored the promise of landscape-scale conservation buffers to mitigate environmental damage, improve ecological function, and enhance scenic quality. Although the ecological benefits of buffer vegetation are well established by plot- and field-scale research, buffer adoption by farmers is...

  5. Scale-up analysis and critical issues of an experimental pilot plant for edible film production using agricultural waste processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Sarghini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to test a multifunctional experimental pilot plant with a reduced environmental impact that is able to process agricultural (fennel and food production (liquid whey waste. The pilot plant, using different thermal and filtration process parameters, is able to recover pectin and whey proteins in a single processing unit in order to produce edible films. An innovative feature of the proposed configuration is related to the possibility of coupling different types of waste treatment, obtaining a final product with a higher economical value, combining the two processing lines. Although an edible film production procedure based on pectin extracted from fennel matrix and whey proteins has already been published in literature, the scale-up process highlighted several critical issues, in particular related to the fennel matrix. Nonetheless, the pilot plant configuration allowed an edible film to be produced that is suitable for use as a direct coating to improve the shelf-life of food products.

  6. Soil organic carbon distribution in an agricultural catchment in Southern Brazil: from hillslope to catchment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigalet, Sylvain; Chartin, Caroline; Van Oost, Kristof; van Wesemael, Bas

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the soil organic carbon (SOC) distribution a few decades after conversion to cropland and plantations in a hilly catchment in southern Brazil is challenging due to scale-dependent controlling factors. Firstly, SOC, bulk density (BD) and texture were measured by depth intervals along 18 soil profiles located in three topographical positions (sloping plateau, central back slope and concave foot slope) in cropland and forest with contrasting slopes. SOC stocks in concave footslope position were not significantly different between fields on steep (11.1 kg C m-2) and gentle slopes (12.8 kg C m-2). However, in eroding profiles, SOC stocks are twice as high in fields on gentle slopes (17.6/12.6 kg C m-2) compared to steep slopes (8.3/7.1 kg C m-2). SOC stocks on steep slope on cropland (8.8 kg C m-2) are three times lower than SOC stocks on steep slope under undisturbed forest (23.7 kg C m-2). On gentle slopes, the effect of deforestation on SOC stocks was not so drastic (14.3 and 14.4 kg C m-2). Therefore, contrasting topography generates different patterns of SOC redistribution in the catchment. The effect of conversion to cropland is probably due to soil redistribution by water and tillage erosion aggravated by the steep terrain. Secondly, in order to assess the heterogeneity of SOC distribution at catchment scale, samples were collected at 10-20; 40-50 and 75-85 cm in 167 soil profiles sampled with an auger. SOC concentrations (gC kg-1 ) in numerous bulk soil samples (n = 378) were predicted by VIS-NIR spectroscopy and partial least-square regression models. SOC stocks were assessed by a mass preserving spline tool by interpolating SOC mass at the three non-contiguous depth intervals. Samples of calibration-validation dataset (n = 95) were used for physical SOC fractionation allowing the measurement of carbon associated with correlation coefficients were used to assess the influence of several covariates on SOC stocks, SOC in bulk soil and fractions

  7. Agricultural Set-aside Programs and Grassland Birds: Insights from Broad-scale Population Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riffell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The Conservation Reserve Program (CRP is a voluntary set-aside program in the United States designed to amelioratesoil erosion, control crop overproduction, enhance water quality, and provide wildlife habitat by replacing crops with other forms of land cover. Because CRP includes primarily grass habitats, it has great potential to benefitdeclining North American grassland bird populations. We looked at the change in national and state population trends of grassland birds and related changes to cover-specific CRP variables (previous research grouped all CRP practices. Changes in national trends after the initiation of the CRP were inconclusive, but we observed signficant bird-CRP relations at the state level. Most bird-CRP relations were positive, except for some species associated with habitats that CRP replaced. Practice- and configuration-specific CRP variables were related to grassland bird trends, rather than a generic measure of all CRP types combined. Considering all CRP land as a single, distinct habitat type may obscure actual relations between birds and set-aside characteristics. Understanding and predictingthe effects of set-aside programs (like CRP or agri-environment schemes on grassland birds is complex and difficult. Because available broad-scale datasets are less than adequate, studies should be conducted at a variety of spatial and temporal scales.

  8. Spatial Modeling of Agricultural Land-Use Change at Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiyappan, Prasanth; Dalton, Michael; O'Neill, Brian C.; Jain, Atul K.

    2013-12-01

    Land use is both a source and consequence of climate change. Long-term modeling of land use is central in global scale assessments using Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) to explore policy alternatives; especially because adaptation and mitigation of climate change requires long-term commitment. We present a land-use change modeling framework that can reproduce the past 100 years of evolution of global cropland and pastureland patterns to a reasonable accuracy. The novelty of our approach underlies in integrating knowledge from both the observed behavior and economic rationale behind land-use decisions, thereby making up for the intrinsic deficits in both the disciplines. The underlying economic rationale is profit maximization of individual landowners that implicitly reflects local-level decisions-making process at a larger scale. Observed behavior based on examining the relationships between contemporary land-use patterns and its socioeconomic and biophysical drivers, enters as an explicit factor into the economic framework. The land-use allocation is modified by autonomous developments and competition between land-use types. The framework accounts for spatial heterogeneity in the nature of driving factors across geographic regions. The model is currently configured to downscale continental-scale aggregate land-use information to region specific changes in land-use patterns (0.5-deg spatial resolution). The temporal resolution is one year. The historical validation experiment is facilitated by synthesizing gridded maps of a wide range of potential biophysical and socioeconomic driving factors for the 20th century. To our knowledge, this is the first retrospective analysis that has been successful in reproducing the historical experience at a global scale. We apply the method to gain useful insights on two questions: (1) what are the dominant socioeconomic and biophysical driving factors of contemporary cropland and pastureland patterns, across geographic

  9. Agricultural drought assessment at spatial and temporal scales using remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yongchul; Park, Kyungwon; Rhee, Jinyoung; Yoon, Sunkwon

    2016-04-01

    We estimated soil moisture dynamics in the root zone based on a soil moisture data assimilation scheme using remotely sensed (RS) data. The data assimilation scheme estimated the soil hydraulic and root parameters from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data. Then, root zone soil moisture was estimated at spatio-temporal scales based on the estimated soil/root parameters and weather forcings. We validated our approach at the Little Washita(LW13) in Oklahoma and Chungmi-cheon/Seolma-cheon sites. The estimated water retention curves identified well with the measurements at the LW 13 site. Also, the estimated root zone soil moisture dynamics showed an agreement with the Time Domain Reflectrometry(TDR)-based measured data. Furthermore, we tested this approach at ungauged regions (Seolma Cheon-SC and Chungmi Cheon-CC) South Korea indicating that the soil/root parameters at the pixel where the SC site is located were derived from the calibrated MODIS-based(the CC site) soil moisture values. Then, the estimated root zone soil moisture values were validated with the measured data at the SC site. Although the model outputs were slightly overestimated compared to the measured data, these results showed the applicability of this proposed approach in application to ungauged regions. Thus, our proposed approach can be helpful to evaluate root zone soil moisture at spatio-temporal scales across South Korea. Acknowledgement This research was partially supported by Kyungpook National University Research Fund (2015) and a grant (14AWMP-B079364-01) from Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  10. Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Frans; Sartas, Murat; van Schagen, Boudy; van Asten, Piet

    2017-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their ‘capacity to innovate’ and contribute to the ‘scaling of innovations’. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over- and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors) are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts. PMID:28166226

  11. Social network analysis of multi-stakeholder platforms in agricultural research for development: Opportunities and constraints for innovation and scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Frans; Sartas, Murat; van Schagen, Boudy; van Asten, Piet; Schut, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Multi-stakeholder platforms (MSPs) are seen as a promising vehicle to achieve agricultural development impacts. By increasing collaboration, exchange of knowledge and influence mediation among farmers, researchers and other stakeholders, MSPs supposedly enhance their 'capacity to innovate' and contribute to the 'scaling of innovations'. The objective of this paper is to explore the capacity to innovate and scaling potential of three MSPs in Burundi, Rwanda and the South Kivu province located in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In order to do this, we apply Social Network Analysis and Exponential Random Graph Modelling (ERGM) to investigate the structural properties of the collaborative, knowledge exchange and influence networks of these MSPs and compared them against value propositions derived from the innovation network literature. Results demonstrate a number of mismatches between collaboration, knowledge exchange and influence networks for effective innovation and scaling processes in all three countries: NGOs and private sector are respectively over- and under-represented in the MSP networks. Linkages between local and higher levels are weak, and influential organisations (e.g., high-level government actors) are often not part of the MSP or are not actively linked to by other organisations. Organisations with a central position in the knowledge network are more sought out for collaboration. The scaling of innovations is primarily between the same type of organisations across different administrative levels, but not between different types of organisations. The results illustrate the potential of Social Network Analysis and ERGMs to identify the strengths and limitations of MSPs in terms of achieving development impacts.

  12. Intensification of agriculture, landscape composition and wild bee communities: A large scale study in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feon, Le V.; Schermann-Legionnet, A.; Delettre, Y.; Aviron, S.; Billeter, R.; Bugter, R.J.F.; Hendrickx, F.; Burel, F.

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of agricultural practices and landscape composition on bee communities were investigated in 14 sites located in four Western European countries (Belgium, France, the Netherlands and Switzerland). Standardized interviews with farmers assessed agricultural practices in terms of agricultura

  13. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. cbs.dtu.dk/services/MatrixPlot. Contact : gorodkin@cbs.dtu.dk...

  14. MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorodkin, Jan; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Lund, Ole

    1999-01-01

    MatrixPlot: visualizing sequence constraints. Sub-title Abstract Summary : MatrixPlot is a program for making high-quality matrix plots, such as mutual information plots of sequence alignments and distance matrices of sequences with known three-dimensional coordinates. The user can add information...... about the sequences (e.g. a sequence logo profile) along the edges of the plot, as well as zoom in on any region in the plot. Availability : MatrixPlot can be obtained on request, and can also be accessed online at http://www. cbs.dtu.dk/services/MatrixPlot. Contact : gorodkin@cbs.dtu.dk...

  15. Conservation agriculture among small scale farmers in semi-arid region of Kenya does improve soil biological quality and soil organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waweru, Geofrey; Okoba, Barrack; Cornelis, Wim

    2016-04-01

    The low food production in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been attributed to declining soil quality. This is due to soil degradation and fertility depletion resulting from unsustainable conventional farming practices such as continuous tillage, crop residue burning and mono cropping. To overcome these challenges, conservation agriculture (CA) is actively promoted. However, little has been done in evaluating the effect of each of the three principles of CA namely: minimum soil disturbance, maximum surface cover and diversified/crop rotation on soil quality in SSA. A study was conducted for three years from 2012 to 2015 in Laikipia East sub county in Kenya to evaluate the effect of tillage, surface cover and intercropping on a wide variety of physical, chemical and biological soil quality indicators, crop parameters and the field-water balance. This abstract reports on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) and soil organic carbon (SOC). The experimental set up was a split plot design with tillage as main treatment (conventional till (CT), no-till (NT) and no-till with herbicide (NTH)), and intercropping and surface cover as sub treatment (intercropping maize with: beans, MB; beans and leucaena, MBL; beans and maize residues at 1.5 Mg ha-1 MBMu, and dolichos, MD). NT had significantly higher SMBC by 66 and 31% compared with CT and NTH respectively. SOC was significantly higher in NTH than CT and NT by 15 and 4%, respectively. Intercropping and mulching had significant effect on SMBC and SOC. MBMu resulted in higher SMBC by 31, 38 and 43%, and SOC by 9, 20 and 22% as compared with MBL, MD and MB, respectively. SMBC and SOC were significantly affected by the interaction between tillage, intercropping and soil cover with NTMBMu and NTHMBMu having the highest SMBC and SOC, respectively. We conclude that indeed tillage, intercropping and mulching substantially affect SMBC and SOC. On the individual components of CA, tillage and surface cover had the highest effect on SMBC and

  16. Is voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities achieving sustainability goals for small-scale producers? A review of the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFries, Ruth S.; Fanzo, Jessica; Mondal, Pinki; Remans, Roseline; Wood, Stephen A.

    2017-03-01

    Over the last several decades, voluntary certification programs have become a key approach to promote sustainable supply chains for agricultural commodities. These programs provide premiums and other benefits to producers for adhering to environmental and labor practices established by the certifying entities. Following the principles of Cochrane Reviews used in health sciences, we assess evidence to evaluate whether voluntary certification of tropical agricultural commodities (bananas, cocoa, coffee, oil palm, and tea) has achieved environmental benefits and improved economic and social outcomes for small-scale producers at the level of the farm household. We reviewed over 2600 papers in the peer-review literature and identified 24 cases of unique combinations of study area, certification program, and commodity in 16 papers that rigorously analyzed differences between treatment (certified households) and control groups (uncertified households) for a wide range of response variables. Based on analysis of 347 response variables reported in these papers, we conclude that certification is associated on average with positive outcomes for 34% of response variables, no significant difference for 58% of variables, and negative outcomes for 8% of variables. No significant differences were observed for different categories of responses (environmental, economic and social) or for different commodities (banana, coffee and tea), except negative outcomes were significantly less for environmental than other outcome categories (p = 0.01). Most cases (20 out of 24) investigated coffee certification and response variables were inconsistent across cases, indicating the paucity of studies to conduct a conclusive meta-analysis. The somewhat positive results indicate that voluntary certification programs can sometimes play a role in meeting sustainable development goals and do not support the view that such programs are merely greenwashing. However, results also indicate that

  17. Evaluation of Nitrate Fluxes to Groundwater under Agriculture Land Uses across the Loess Plateau - A Catchment Scale Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkeltaub, T.; Jia, X.; Binley, A. M.

    2016-12-01

    Nitrate management is required for fulfilling the objective of high agriculture productivity and concurrently reduced groundwater contamination to minimum. Yet, nitrate is considered as a non-point contaminant. Therefore, understanding the temporal and spatial processes controls of nitrate transport in the vadose zone are imperative for protection of groundwater. This study is conducted in the Loess Plateau which located in the north-central of mainland China and characterized with a semi-arid climate. Moreover, it accounts for about 6.6% of the Chinese territory and supports over 8.5% of the Chinese population. This area undergoes high pressure from human activities and requiring optimal management interventions. Integrated modelling frameworks, which include unsaturated and saturated processes, are able to simulate nitrate transport under various scenarios, and provide reasonable prediction for the decision-makers. We used data obtained from soil samples collected across a region of 41 × 104 km2 (243 samples, to 5 m depth) to derive unsaturated flow and transport properties. Particle size distributions, saturated hydraulic conductivity, water content at field capacity (0.33 atm) and saturated water content were also obtained for the shallower layers (0-40 cm). The van Genuchten - Mualem soil parameters describing the retention and the unsaturated hydraulic conductivity curves were estimated with the Rosetta code. The analysis of the soil samples indicated that the silt loam soil type is dominant. Hence, a scaling approach was chosen as an adequate method for estimation of representative retention and hydraulic conductivity curves. Water flow and nitrate leaching were simulated with mechanistic based 1-D model for each agriculture land use within the area. The simulated nitrate losses were compared with results of root zone model simulations. Subsequently, the calculated fluxes were input as upper boundary conditions in the Modflow model to examine the regional

  18. Field-scale experiments reveal persistent yield gaps in low-input and organic cropping systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Alexandra N.; Snapp, Sieglinde S.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of production-system performance is largely based on observations at the experimental plot scale. Although yield gaps between plot-scale and field-scale research are widely acknowledged, their extent and persistence have not been experimentally examined in a systematic manner. At a site in southwest Michigan, we conducted a 6-y experiment to test the accuracy with which plot-scale crop-yield results can inform field-scale conclusions. We compared conventional versus alternative, that is, reduced-input and biologically based–organic, management practices for a corn–soybean–wheat rotation in a randomized complete block-design experiment, using 27 commercial-size agricultural fields. Nearby plot-scale experiments (0.02-ha to 1.0-ha plots) provided a comparison of plot versus field performance. We found that plot-scale yields well matched field-scale yields for conventional management but not for alternative systems. For all three crops, at the plot scale, reduced-input and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, reduced-input yields were lower than conventional. For soybeans at the plot scale, biological and conventional managements produced similar yields; at the field scale, biological yielded less than conventional. For corn, biological management produced lower yields than conventional in both plot- and field-scale experiments. Wheat yields appeared to be less affected by the experimental scale than corn and soybean. Conventional management was more resilient to field-scale challenges than alternative practices, which were more dependent on timely management interventions; in particular, mechanical weed control. Results underscore the need for much wider adoption of field-scale experimentation when assessing new technologies and production-system performance, especially as related to closing yield gaps in organic farming and in low-resourced systems typical of much of the developing world. PMID:28096409

  19. Round versus rectangular: Does the plot shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserloh, Thomas; Bäthke, Lars; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Field rainfall simulators are designed to study soil erosion processes and provide urgently needed data for various geomorphological, hydrological and pedological issues. Due to the different conditions and technologies applied, there are several methodological aspects under review of the scientific community, particularly concerning design, procedures and conditions of measurement for infiltration, runoff and soil erosion. Extensive discussions at the Rainfall Simulator Workshop 2011 in Trier and the Splinter Meeting at EGU 2013 "Rainfall simulation: Big steps forward!" lead to the opinion that the rectangular shape is the more suitable plot shape compared to the round plot. A horizontally edging Gerlach trough is installed for sample collection without forming unnatural necks as is found at round or triangle plots. Since most research groups did and currently do work with round plots at the point scale (<1m²), a precise analysis of the differences between the output of round and square plots are necessary. Our hypotheses are: - Round plot shapes disturb surface runoff, unnatural fluvial dynamics for the given plot size such as pool development especially directly at the plot's outlet occur. - A square plot shape prevent these problems. A first comparison between round and rectangular plots (Iserloh et al., 2015) indicates that the rectangular plot could indeed be the more suitable, but the rather ambiguous results make a more elaborate test setup necessary. The laboratory test setup includes the two plot shapes (round, square), a standardised silty substrate and three inclinations (2°, 6°, 12°). The analysis of the laboratory test provide results on the best performance concerning undisturbed surface runoff and soil/water sampling at the plot's outlet. The analysis of the plot shape concerning its influence on runoff and erosion shows that clear methodological standards are necessary in order to make rainfall simulation experiments comparable. Reference

  20. Convergence of Place and Plot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil

    2010-01-01

    efterladt sig en række mærker og spor som kan læses og fortolkes. Blodspor, rester af negle, hår udgør forskellige (DNA)koder som kan dekrypteres og dechifreres på samme måde som krudtslam, skudhuller, fysiske skader er tegn som skal læses og fortolkes. Som sådan rummer stedet et plot (en fortælling) som...

  1. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  2. County-Scale Spatial Distribution of Soil Enzyme Activities and Enzyme Activity Indices in Agricultural Land: Implications for Soil Quality Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Xiangping Tan; Baoni Xie; Junxing Wang; Wenxiang He; Xudong Wang; Gehong Wei

    2014-01-01

    Here the spatial distribution of soil enzymatic properties in agricultural land was evaluated on a county-wide (567 km2) scale in Changwu, Shaanxi Province, China. The spatial variations in activities of five hydrolytic enzymes were examined using geostatistical methods. The relationships between soil enzyme activities and other soil properties were evaluated using both an integrated total enzyme activity index (TEI) and the geometric mean of enzyme activities (GME). At the county scale, soil...

  3. Towards a ‘systems’ approach for guiding agricultural environmental management: a South African case study of a small-scale maize farming system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musvoto, Constansia D

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available environmental management intervention points in an agricultural system, illustrated through a case study of a small-scale maize farming system in South Africa. A review of documented information on the ecological, socio-political and economic components...

  4. Deeply sequenced metagenome and metatranscriptome of a biogas-producing microbial community from an agricultural production-scale biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremges, Andreas; Maus, Irena; Belmann, Peter; Eikmeyer, Felix; Winkler, Anika; Albersmeier, Andreas; Pühler, Alfred; Schlüter, Andreas; Sczyrba, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The production of biogas takes place under anaerobic conditions and involves microbial decomposition of organic matter. Most of the participating microbes are still unknown and non-cultivable. Accordingly, shotgun metagenome sequencing currently is the method of choice to obtain insights into community composition and the genetic repertoire. Here, we report on the deeply sequenced metagenome and metatranscriptome of a complex biogas-producing microbial community from an agricultural production-scale biogas plant. We assembled the metagenome and, as an example application, show that we reconstructed most genes involved in the methane metabolism, a key pathway involving methanogenesis performed by methanogenic Archaea. This result indicates that there is sufficient sequencing coverage for most downstream analyses. Sequenced at least one order of magnitude deeper than previous studies, our metagenome data will enable new insights into community composition and the genetic potential of important community members. Moreover, mapping of transcripts to reconstructed genome sequences will enable the identification of active metabolic pathways in target organisms.

  5. EFFECT OF WITH/WITHOUT AGITATIONOF AGRICULTURAL WASTE ON BIOGAS PRODUCTION FROM ANAEROBIC CO-DIGESTION-A SMALL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naphon Keanoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing worldwide concerns over environment, health and monetary aspects have triggered a search for efficient and economic renewable sources of energy production. Agricultural sector holds the potential for development of one of the major source of renewable energy such as biogas. In this study, CSTR-small scale fermentation (200 L stainless steel was studied to observe the effect of stirring for natural water, cow dung, rice straw and water hyacinth ratio (2:1:1:1, which there are suitable of C: N ratio at 31.1: 1on the biogas and methane production at ambient temperature (31°C, 6.7-7.2 and 6.7-7.8 of pH for with/without stirring digester, respectively, for 52 days. The result showed that the biogas production increased progressively with stirring digester. The maximum biogas production and methane concentration was 98.56 L/days and 64.07% was obtained at stirring digester. This gave an increase of 7.56 over without stirring digester. Thus, agitation of digester can be used effectively as an operating strategy to optimize biogas production.

  6. Establishment of Chinese Agricultural Brand Value Scale and Study of Its Reliability and Validity Based on Customer Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng HUANG; Le ZHANG; Chong GONG

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,we explore the influencing factors as well as inherent mechanism related to the formation of Chinese agricultural brand value. On the basis of empirical survey on Chinese agricultural brand,we establish a scientific and operable evaluation indicator system to measure Chinese agricultural brand value,and this system consists of four parts( brand quality and safety control force,brand market power,brand innovation force,brand vitality).

  7. Large-scale deforestation for plantation agriculture in the hill country of Sri Lanka and its impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramagamage, P.

    1998-10-01

    The forest cover in the hill country river catchment areas of Sri Lanka has been reduced to isolated patches on hilltops and a handful of reserves above the 1524 m (5000 ft) contour. Most of the land that was under forest cover at the turn of the nineteenth century is now covered with plantation crops. The districts of Kandy, Matale, Nuwara Eliya, Badulla, Ratnapura and Kegalle are the main hill country plantation areas. Within a period of less than half a century most of the forests in the hill country were cleared for plantation crops. Shifting cultivation was responsible for deforestation in the drier parts of the hill country. At the time of the British conquest of the hill country, the population of the whole island was not more than 3/4 to 1 million and they had settled in isolated villages at elevations below 1066 m. Subsistence agriculture was the main occupation of this predominantly rural population.During the first phase (1830-1880) of the plantation industry, large tracts of mostly forest land were cleared for coffee cultivation. By 1878, the extent of the coffee plantations reached its maximum of 111 336 ha most of which was situated in the wet zone hill country. The second phase of plantation agriculture began as the coffee industry was completely wiped out by a leaf disease. Most of the abandoned coffee plantations and the remaining forests were converted to tea, rubber and cinchona estates. The first two crops managed to survive price fluctuations in the world market, while the latter collapsed because of over production.During the period of large-scale deforestation in the hill country, the climate also underwent changes as exemplified by rainfall and temperature trends. However, these trends are not uniform everywhere in the plantation areas of the hill country. The temperature has risen a few degrees over a period of about a century and quarter in the hill country stations, while rainfall has declined significantly at some stations. These changes

  8. AUTOMATED TECHNIQUE FOR CREATING LITHOLOGIC LOG PLOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Posavec

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents automated technique for creating lithologic log plots. Technique is based on three computer tools: Microsoft (MS Access program, LogPlot program, and Visual Basic (VB macros for MS Excel. MS Access ensures professional storage of lithologic data which can be in that way easier and faster entered, searched, updated, and also used for different purposes, while LogPlot provides tools for creating lithologic log plots. VB macros enable transfer of lithologic data from MS Access to LogPlot. Data stored in MS Access are exported in ASCII files which are later used by LogPlot for creation of lithologic log plots. Presented concept facilitates creation of lithologic log plots, and automated technique enables processing of a large number of data i.e. creation of lareg number lithologic log plots in a short period of time (the paper is published in Croatian.

  9. Benchmarking water productivity in agriculture and the scope for improvement - remote sensing modelling from field to global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer and water. In the context of an increasing population and less water available for the agricultural sector, the water productivity needs to be sustained or increased to secure food security. This study provides benchmark values for water productivity for the major

  10. Effects of landscape heterogeneity on the elevated trace metal concentrations in agricultural soils at multiple scales in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Li, Fangbai; Wu, Zhifeng; Cheng, Jiong

    2015-11-01

    Based on multiple geo-accumulation indices and correlation and partial redundancy analyses, we examined the spatial patterns of agricultural soil contaminations for As, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni in the Pearl River Delta, South China and their relations with landscape heterogeneity at small, medium and large spatial scales. We found that the concentrations of trace elements were slightly elevated, and most trace metals had a geogenic origin. Landscape variables explained 21-53% of the variation of elevated trace metal concentrations with an increasing explanatory power from the small to the large scale. The three variable groups representing parent materials, distance density characteristics and land use had different contributions to the elevated trace metals among scales. Both the distance density variables and land use pattern had a stronger influences on trace metal concentrations at a small scale than at a larger scale, while the parent materials was important at all the scales.

  11. Interactive design of farm conversion : linking agricultural research and farmer learning for sustainable small scale horticulture production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  12. Interactive Design of Farm Conversion : linking Agricultural Research and Farmer Learning for Sustainable Small Scale Horticulture Production in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    Key words: interactive conversion design / vegetable production / small farms / sustainable farming / Colombia / learning processes / facilitation / agricultural research methods

  13. On the use of agricultural system models for exploring technological innovations across scales in Africa: A critical review

    OpenAIRE

    Rötter, Reimund P.; Sehomi, Fanou L.; Höhn, Jukka G.; Niemi, Jarkko K.; Van Den Berg, Marrit

    2016-01-01

    The major challenge of the 21st century is to achieve food security under, roughly, a doubling in food demand by 2050 compared to present, and producing the additional food under marked shifts in climatic risks and with environmentally sound farming practices. Sustainable intensification of agricultural production is required that meets the dual goal of improved environmental sustainability and economic efficiency. Ex ante evaluation of technological innovations to support agricultural produc...

  14. iCanPlot: visual exploration of high-throughput omics data using interactive Canvas plotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit U Sinha

    Full Text Available Increasing use of high throughput genomic scale assays requires effective visualization and analysis techniques to facilitate data interpretation. Moreover, existing tools often require programming skills, which discourages bench scientists from examining their own data. We have created iCanPlot, a compelling platform for visual data exploration based on the latest technologies. Using the recently adopted HTML5 Canvas element, we have developed a highly interactive tool to visualize tabular data and identify interesting patterns in an intuitive fashion without the need of any specialized computing skills. A module for geneset overlap analysis has been implemented on the Google App Engine platform: when the user selects a region of interest in the plot, the genes in the region are analyzed on the fly. The visualization and analysis are amalgamated for a seamless experience. Further, users can easily upload their data for analysis--which also makes it simple to share the analysis with collaborators. We illustrate the power of iCanPlot by showing an example of how it can be used to interpret histone modifications in the context of gene expression.

  15. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of

  16. Multiple hypothesis clustering in radar plot extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizing, A.G.; Theil, A.; Dorp, Ph. van; Ligthart, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    False plots and plots with inaccurate range and Doppler estimates may severely degrade the performance of tracking algorithms in radar systems. This paper describes how a multiple hypothesis clustering technique can be applied to mitigate the problems involved in plot extraction. The measures of con

  17. Historical Roots of the Spatial, Temporal, and Diversity Scales of Agricultural Decision-Making in Sierra de Santa Marta, Los Tuxtlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrete-Yankelevich, Simoneta; Porter-Bolland, Luciana; Blanco-Rosas, José Luis; Barois, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Land degradation is a serious problem in tropical mountainous areas. Market prices, technological development, and population growth are often invoked as the prime causes. Using historical agrarian documents, literature sources, and historical population data, we (1) provide quantitative and qualitative evidence that the land degradation present at Sierra de Santa Marta (Los Tuxtlas, Mexico) has involved a historical reduction in the temporal, spatial, and diversity scales, in which individual farmers make management decisions, and has resulted in decreased maize productivity; and (2) analyze how these three scalar changes can be linked to policy, population growth, and agrarian history. We conclude that the historical reduction in the scales of land use decision-making and practices constitutes a present threat to indigenous agricultural heritage. The long-term viability of agriculture requires that initiatives consider incentives for co-responsibility with an initial focus on self-sufficiency.

  18. How useful are Green-Ampt parameters derived from small rainfall simulation plots for modelling runoff at different plot lengths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhans, Christoph; Engels, Lien; Tegenbos, Lize; Govers, Gerard; Diels, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulation on small field plots is an invaluable method to derive effective field parameters for infiltration models such as Green-Ampt. Plot scales of ca. 1m² integrate much of the micro-scale variability and processes, which ring-infiltrometers or soil core measurements cannot capture. However, these parameters have to be used with caution on larger scales, because processes such as run-on infiltration can be considerable. The Green-Ampt parameters suction across the wetting front (psi) and effective hydraulic conductivity (Ke) were estimated from rainfall simulations on two ridged fields in Togo, West Africa. Additionally, rainfall events were recorded, and on plots of 1m width and lengths of 1, 4 and 16m, total runoff volume and sediment concentration were measured. The storm runoff hydrographs of the plots were modelled with Chu's Green-Ampt variable rainfall intensity infiltration model, using the field-average parameters derived from the simulations. Potential effects of runoff lag time were assumed negligible. Calculated total runoff volumes were compared to measured runoff volumes. For the 1m plots, runoff was underestimated, as patches of seal in the furrows produced runoff already at rainfall intensities much lower than the average infiltration capacity. For the longer plots, no run-on infiltration or other scale dependent processes were assumed, so the relative error due to scale effects was proportional to the average difference or runoff depth. In contrast to the 1m plots, runoff was overestimated by a factor of 1.2 and 2 for the 4m and 16m plots, respectively. It appears that the application of the Green-Ampt effective hydraulic conductivity derived from rainfall simulations faces two main problems, which are their dependence on one single rainfall intensity and scale-effects by run-on infiltration. Errors necessarily propagate into the scale dependency of erosion and sediment transport, as these processes are directly dependent on runoff

  19. Unraveling brackish groundwater - surface water interaction in an agricultural field using direct measurements at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsman, Joost; Waterloo, Maarten; Groen, Michel; Groen, Koos

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the interaction between groundwater and surface water is important for a myriad of reasons, including flow forecasting, nutrient transport, and water allocation for agriculture and other water users. This understanding is especially important in deep polder areas in the Netherlands, where brackish groundwater seepage (upward flowing regional groundwater) results in a significant salt load to surface water, and may damage crops if salts reach the rootzone in dry summers. Research on groundwater - surface water interaction historically focused on relatively pristine headwater catchments, only recently shifting somewhat to agricultural catchments. The latter pose specific research challenges, as agricultural activities and active water management can have a significant influence on hydrology. A brackish seepage flux, with a different density as precipitation, may significantly influence flow paths to surface water. Research on this specific topic is, however, lacking. We therefore investigated the interaction between groundwater and surface water in an agricultural catchment with a significant brackish seepage flux. In addition, we investigated the effects of intake of fresh water during periods of precipitation deficits, a common management strategy in lowland regions. We instrumented an agricultural ditch to enable direct, 15 min interval measurements of water fluxes and salinity to both agricultural drains and the ditch separately. These measurements are supported by piezometer nests, soil moisture sensors, temperature sensors, geophysics and a meteorological tower. Measurements focused on the summer period and were taken during two measurement periods: May 2012 - November 2012, and April 2013 - October 2013. Our measurements allowed for a direct, high-frequency separation of hydrological flow routes on this agricultural field between flow to agricultural drains and the ditch. The salinity of seepage water allowed for a relatively easy separation of

  20. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder Claudia R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently

  1. Pollinator declines. Extinctions of aculeate pollinators in Britain and the role of large-scale agricultural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Erenler, Hilary; Edwards, Mike; Crockett, Robin

    2014-12-12

    Pollinators are fundamental to maintaining both biodiversity and agricultural productivity, but habitat destruction, loss of flower resources, and increased use of pesticides are causing declines in their abundance and diversity. Using historical records, we assessed the rate of extinction of bee and flower-visiting wasp species in Britain from the mid-19th century to the present. The most rapid phase of extinction appears to be related to changes in agricultural policy and practice beginning in the 1920s, before the agricultural intensification prompted by the Second World War, often cited as the most important driver of biodiversity loss in Britain. Slowing of the extinction rate from the 1960s onward may be due to prior loss of the most sensitive species and/or effective conservation programs. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  2. From microbes to water districts: Linking observations across scales to uncover the implications of riparian and channel management on water quality in an irrigated agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A.; Cadenasso, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Interactions among runoff, riparian and stream ecosystems, and water quality remain uncertain in many settings, particularly those heavily impacted by human activities. For example, waterways in the irrigated agricultural landscape of California's Central Valley are seasonally disconnected from groundwater tables and are extensively modified by infrastructure and management. These conditions make the impact of riparian and channel management difficult to predict across scales, which hinders efforts to promote best management practices to improve water quality. We seek to link observations across catchment, reach, and patch scales to understand patterns of nitrate and turbidity in waterways draining irrigated cropland. Data was collected on 80 reaches spanning two water management districts. At the catchment scale, water districts implemented waterway and riparian management differently: one water district had a decentralized approach, allowing individual land owners to manage their waterway channels and banks, while the other had a centralized approach, in which land owners defer management to a district-run program. At the reach scale, riparian and waterway vegetation, geomorphic complexity, and flow conditions were quantified. Reach-scale management such as riparian planting projects and channel dredging frequency were also considered. At the patch scale, denitrification potential and organic matter were measured in riparian toe-slope soils and channel sediments, along with associated vegetation and geomorphic features. All factors were tested for their ability to predict water quality using generalized linear mixed effects models and the consistency of predictors within and across scales was evaluated. A hierarchy of predictors emerges: catchment-scale management regimes predict reach-scale geomorphic and vegetation complexity, which in turn predicts sediment denitrification potential - the patch-scale factor most associated with low nitrate. Similarly

  3. Contribution by urban and agricultural pesticide uses to water contamination at the scale of the Marne watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchoud, H; Moreau-Guigon, E; Farrugia, F; Chevreuil, M; Mouchel, J M

    2007-04-01

    This study establishes an annual watershed (12,762 km(2)) budget of pesticide contamination in the Marne River based on detailed enquiries from farmers' organizations, public services and residents and pesticide usage. Results showed that urban uses were considerably lower (47 tons/yr) than agricultural ones (4300 tons/yr). However, the proportion of the amounts used transferred to surface water, differs considerably between urban and agricultural environments. Transfer from urban uses was estimated from runoff experiments with different surfaces, including concrete, tarmac, sand and gravel, and grass. Transfer coefficients from agricultural uses were derived from the calibrated value previously obtained from a detailed budget established for atrazine, taking into account the specific adsorption capacity (Koc) and half-life time of each substance used. The calculated annual budget shows a similar contribution by urban pesticides in the Marne River due to runoff over impervious surfaces as compared to agricultural pesticides used on cultivated soils (about 11 tons/yr in both cases). These estimates are consistent with data available from analytical surveys concerning pesticide occurrence in the rivers of the Paris region.

  4. Dissipation and effects of chlortetracycline and tylosin in two agricultural soils: A field-scale study in southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Jacobsen, Anne-Marie; Jensen, John

    2005-01-01

    Presently, there is a basic lack of information concerning the accumulation of antibacterial agent residues in agricultural soils. In this field study, performed in southern Denmark, we assess the dissipation of chlortetracycline (CTC), and tylosin A (TYL A) as a function of time. Field soils were...

  5. The Practice of Scaling down Practical Assessment Components of Agriculture in Junior Secondary Schools Curriculum: A Synthesis of Teachers Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulela, Keba

    2017-01-01

    This ethnographic research study aimed at investigating factors that contributed to the decline in the number of practical assessed projects in junior secondary agricultural education assessment in Botswana. Participant-observation technique was used to gather data in the form of field notes from in-service teachers at BCA and in-school teachers…

  6. Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plot

    CERN Document Server

    Riley, Michael; Giuliani, Alessandro; Webber, Charles; Jr, Jr; Translational Recurrences : From Mathematical Theory to Real-World Applications

    2014-01-01

    This book features 13 papers presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots, held August 2013 in Chicago, IL. It examines recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantifi cation analysis (RQA) with special emphasis on biological and cognitive systems and the analysis of coupled systems using cross-recurrence methods. Readers will discover new applications and insights into a range of systems provided by recurrence plot analysis and new theoretical and mathematical developments in recurrence plots. Recurrence plot based analysis is a powerful tool that operates on real-world complex systems that are nonlinear, non-stationary, noisy, of any statistical distribution, free of any particular model type, and not particularly long. Quantitative analyses promote the detection of system state changes, synchronized dynamical regimes, or classifi cation of system states. Th e book will be of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researc...

  7. Targeting, out-scaling and prioritising climate-smart interventions in agricultural systems: Lessons from applying a generic framework to the livestock sector in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenbaert, An; Pfeifer, Catherine; Silvestri, Silvia; Herrero, Mario

    2017-02-01

    As a result of population growth, urbanization and climate change, agricultural systems around the world face enormous pressure on the use of resources. There is a pressing need for wide-scale innovation leading to development that improves the livelihoods and food security of the world's population while at the same time addressing climate change adaptation and mitigation. A variety of promising climate-smart interventions have been identified. However, what remains is the prioritization of interventions for investment and broad dissemination. The suitability and adoption of interventions depends on a variety of bio-physical and socio-economic factors. Also their impacts, when adopted and out-scaled, are likely to be highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity expresses itself not only spatially and temporally but also in terms of the stakeholders affected, some might win and some might lose. A mechanism that can facilitate a systematic, holistic assessment of the likely spread and consequential impact of potential interventions is one way of improving the selection and targeting of such options. In this paper we provide climate smart agriculture (CSA) planners and implementers at all levels with a generic framework for evaluating and prioritising potential interventions. This entails an iterative process of mapping out recommendation domains, assessing adoption potential and estimating impacts. Through examples, related to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa, we demonstrate each of the steps and how they are interlinked. The framework is applicable in many different forms, scales and settings. It has a wide applicability beyond the examples presented and we hope to stimulate readers to integrate the concepts in the planning process for climate-smart agriculture, which invariably involves multi-stakeholder, multi-scale and multi-objective decision-making.

  8. Adding stress plot function to NASTRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, S.

    1978-01-01

    Stress plot function was developed and added to the NASTRAN level 15.5. Computed stress distribution can be displayed by this function, with vectors showing the principal stresses of the finite elements over the specified portions of the structure. NASTRAN is reviewed in the aspect of plotting capabilities. Stress tensor field is examined in preparation of stress display. Then the stress plot function as added to the NASTRAN is described. A sample plotout by this function is shown.

  9. Uncertainty analysis of moderate- versus coarse-scale satellite fire products for quantifying agricultural burning: Implications for Air Quality in European Russia, Belarus, and Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, J. L.; Krylov, A.; Prishchepov, A. V.; Banach, D. M.; Potapov, P.; Tyukavina, A.; Rukhovitch, D.; Koroleva, P.; Turubanova, S.; Romanenkov, V.

    2015-12-01

    Cropland and pasture burning are common agricultural management practices that negatively impact air quality at a local and regional scale, including contributing to short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs). This research focuses on both cropland and pasture burning in European Russia, Lithuania, and Belarus. Burned area and fire detections were derived from 500 m and 1 km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), 30 m Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) data. Carbon, particulate matter, volatile organic carbon (VOCs), and harmful air pollutants (HAPs) emissions were then calculated using MODIS and Landsat-based estimates of fire and land-cover and land-use. Agricultural burning in Belarus, Lithuania, and European Russia showed a strong and consistent seasonal geographic pattern from 2002 to 2012, with the majority of fire detections occurring in March - June and smaller peak in July and August. Over this 11-year period, there was a decrease in both cropland and pasture burning throughout this region. For Smolensk Oblast, a Russian administrative region with comparable agro-environmental conditions to Belarus and Lithuania, a detailed analysis of Landsat-based burned area estimations for croplands and pastures and field data collected in summer 2014 showed that the agricultural burning area can be up to 10 times higher than the 1 km MODIS active fire estimates. In general, European Russia is the main source of agricultural burning emissions compared to Lithuania and Belarus. On average, all cropland burning in European Russia as detected by the MCD45A1 MODIS Burned Area Product emitted 17.66 Gg of PM10 while annual burning of pasture in Smolensk Oblast, Russia as detected by Landsat burn scars emitted 494.85 Gg of PM10, a 96% difference. This highlights that quantifying the contribution of pasture burning and burned area versus cropland burning in agricultural regions is important for accurately

  10. An Excel macro for generating trilinear plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikaze, Steven G; Crowe, Allan S

    2007-01-01

    This computer note describes a method for creating trilinear plots in Microsoft Excel. Macros have been created in MS Excel's internal language: Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). A simple form has been set up to allow the user to input data from an Excel worksheet. The VBA macro is used to convert the triangular data (which consist of three columns of percentage data) into X-Y data. The macro then generates the axes, labels, and grid for the trilinear plot. The X-Y data are plotted as scatter data in Excel. By providing this macro in Excel, users can create trilinear plots in a quick, inexpensive manner.

  11. Representing uncertainty on model analysis plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Trevor I.

    2016-12-01

    Model analysis provides a mechanism for representing student learning as measured by standard multiple-choice surveys. The model plot contains information regarding both how likely students in a particular class are to choose the correct answer and how likely they are to choose an answer consistent with a well-documented conceptual model. Unfortunately, Bao's original presentation of the model plot did not include a way to represent uncertainty in these measurements. I present details of a method to add error bars to model plots by expanding the work of Sommer and Lindell. I also provide a template for generating model plots with error bars.

  12. Urban and agricultural contribution of annual loads of glyphosate and AMPA towards surface waters at the Orge River catchment scale (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Hélène

    2010-05-01

    The general use of pesticides in the Orge Basin, located in the southern part of the Paris suburb (France), is damaging surface water quality. Consequently, an increase in the water supply costs is registered by the water supply agencies that are situated downstream the Orge confluence with the Seine River. In this catchment, high uses of glyphosate are registered for fallow fields (upstream part) and for roadway weed control (downstream part). The proportion of glyphosate coming from these two zones was not well known, along with the double source of its metabolite AMPA originated from the degradation of some detergent phosphonates. The aim of this work was firstly to identify the potential sources of glyphosate and AMPA in urban sectors (such as sewerage system inputs) and in agricultural areas and to quantify the origins of urban pesticides pathways towards surface waters at the basin scale. The new approach of this project was to collect information at three different scales to establish a first step of modeling. At the basin scale, 1 year of surface water monitoring at the outlet of the Orge River was useful to establish the inputs towards the Seine River. At the urban catchment scale, the investigations have permitted to record glyphosate and AMPA loads transferred by storm waters and by wastewaters. Loads were estimated during and out of application calendar, in different hydrological conditions such as rainfall with high intensity or dry conditions. Impact of WWTP on surface water was also demonstrated. The third phase of this work was the interpretation of agricultural inputs from two different agricultural catchments of the Orge River. The results showed the impact of urban uses of glyphosate upon the Orge River contamination with annual loads from 100 times higher from the urban zone than from the agricultural one. Storm sewers were recognized to be the main way for glyphosate transfer towards surface waters. A budget of glyphosate and AMPA inputs and

  13. Evaluating the Reliability of Reanalysis as a Substitute for Observational Data in Large-scale Agricultural Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glotter, M.; Ruane, A. C.; Moyer, E. J.; Elliott, J. W.

    2014-12-01

    Future projections of food security require historical agricultural assessments to validate, improve, and understand the limitations of yield estimates. Poor observational climate networks often force historical assessments to rely on reanalysis data- climate model output nudged by observations- for inputs to crop models. However, agricultural yields are sensitive to changes in precipitation, and since reanalysis products generally use little or no observational precipitation in the data assimilation process, its use may compromise the validation exercise. Previous studies do not systematically assess whether reanalysis data is sufficient or data measurements are required. We test the reliability of reanalysis data for agricultural analyses with simulations of maize yields in the U.S., where observational data are extensive. We drive the widely used Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer (DSSAT) crop model with climate inputs from a combination of data sources: bias- and unbias-corrected reanalyses, and observation-based precipitation and solar radiation. We find that driving DSSAT with reanalysis precipitation produces unreliable yield estimates, but driving it with reanalysis bias-corrected with monthly observations is more robust. Bias corrections do require observational data, but gathering reliable monthly data may be easier than gathering daily data. The approach is therefore promising for data-poor regions where observational precipitation is less available and existing data is unreliable. The priority for climate monitoring networks may not be in daily records but instead in lower-cost observational systems that estimate data over coarser temporal resolutions.

  14. Disentangling the influence of hydroclimatic patterns and agricultural management on river nitrate dynamics from sub-hourly to decadal time scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupas, Rémi; Jomaa, Seifeddine; Musolff, Andreas; Borchardt, Dietrich; Rode, Michael

    2016-11-15

    Despite extensive efforts to reduce nitrate transfer in agricultural areas, limited response is often observed in the nitrate concentration in rivers. To investigate the reasons for this limited response, nitrate dynamics in a 100km(2) agricultural catchment in eastern Germany was analysed from sub-hourly to decadal time-scales. Sub-hourly analysis of storm event dynamics during a typical hydrological year (2005-2006) was performed to identify periods of the year with high leaching risk and to link the latter to agricultural management practices in the catchment. Dynamic Harmonic Regression analysis of a 32-year (1982-2014) record of nitrate and discharge revealed that i) the long-term trend in nitrate concentration was closely related to that in discharge, suggesting that large-scale weather and climate patterns were masking the effect of improved nitrogen management on nitrate trends; ii) a persistent seasonal pattern with winter concentration maxima and summer minima could be observed, which was interpreted in terms of a dynamic nitrate concentration profile in the soil and subsoil; and iii) the catchment progressively changed from chemodynamic to more chemostatic behaviour over the three decades of study, which is a sign of long-term homogenisation of nitrate concentrations distribution over depth. This study shows that detailed physical understanding of nitrate dynamics across time scales can be obtained only through combined analysis of long-term records and high-resolution sensor data. Hence, a joint effort is advocated between environmental authorities, who usually perform long-term monitoring, and scientific programmes, which usually perform high-resolution monitoring.

  15. Development of instrumentation systems as a base for control of digestion process stability in full-scale agricultural and industrial biogas plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawski, O; Steinmetz, H

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of instrumentation from three modern German full-scale biogas plants with different inputs and typical process engineering concepts for German conditions. The measured results from each plant and the suitability of the instrumentation used are evaluated and assessed. Conclusions are also made about improving the use and architecture of the instrumentation. The analysis results show which benefits and optimum combination of on-line and off-line instrumentation could result for the control and automation of industrial and agricultural biogas plants.

  16. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge…

  17. The Heuristic Interpretation of Box Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lem, Stephanie; Onghena, Patrick; Verschaffel, Lieven; Van Dooren, Wim

    2013-01-01

    Box plots are frequently used, but are often misinterpreted by students. Especially the area of the box in box plots is often misinterpreted as representing number or proportion of observations, while it actually represents their density. In a first study, reaction time evidence was used to test whether heuristic reasoning underlies this…

  18. Reaction Order Ambiguity in Integrated Rate Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Integrated rate plots are frequently used in reaction kinetics to determine orders of reactions. It is often emphasised, when using this methodology in practice, that it is necessary to monitor the reaction to a substantial fraction of completion for these plots to yield unambiguous orders. The present article gives a theoretical and statistical…

  19. Box Plots in the Australian Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Jane M.

    2012-01-01

    This article compares the definition of "box plot" as used in the "Australian Curriculum: Mathematics" with other definitions used in the education community; describes the difficulties students experience when dealing with box plots; and discusses the elaboration that is necessary to enable teachers to develop the knowledge necessary to use them…

  20. A Discussion on Mean Excess Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Souvik

    2009-01-01

    A widely used tool in the study of risk, insurance and extreme values is the mean excess plot. One use is for validating a Generalized Pareto model for the excess distribution. This paper investigates some theoretical and practical aspects of the use of the mean excess plot.

  1. [Effects of spatial heterogeneity on spatial extrapolation of sampling plot data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Hu, Yuan-Man; Bu, Ren-Cang

    2012-01-01

    By using model combination method, this paper simulated the changes of response variable (tree species distribution area at landscape level under climate change) under three scenarios of environmental spatial heterogeneous level, analyzed the differentiation of simulated results under different scenarios, and discussed the effects of environmental spatial heterogeneity on the larger spatial extrapolation of the tree species responses to climate change observed in sampling plots. For most tree species, spatial heterogeneity had little effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to class scale; for the tree species insensitive to climate warming and the azonal species, spatial heterogeneity also had little effects on the extrapolation from plot-scale to zonal scale. By contrast, for the tree species sensitive to climate warming, spatial heterogeneity had effects on the extrapolation from plot scale to zonal scale, and the effects could be varied under different scenarios.

  2. National Large-Scale Wetland Creation in Agricultural Areas—Potential versus Realized Effects on Nutrient Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan E. B. Weisner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2007–2013, the Swedish Board of Agriculture granted support within a national program to about 1000 wetlands, corresponding to a 5300-hectare wetland area, with the dual goal to remove nutrients from water and to improve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on nutrient transports that are realized within the national program to what could be obtained with the same area of wetlands if location and design of wetlands were optimized. In single, highly nutrient-loaded wetlands, a removal of around 1000 kg nitrogen and 100 kg phosphorus per hectare wetland area and year was estimated from monitoring data. Statistical models were developed to estimate the overall nutrient removal effects of wetlands created within the national program. Depending on model, the effect of the national program as a whole was estimated to between 27 and 38 kg nitrogen and between 2.7 and 4.5 kg phosphorus per hectare created wetland area and year. Comparison of what is achieved in individual wetlands to what was achieved in the national program indicates that nutrient removal effects could be increased substantially in future wetland programs by emphasising location and design of wetlands.

  3. Comparison of production-phase environmental impact metrics derived at the farm- and national-scale for United States agricultural commodities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Christine; Xue, Xiaobo; Howarth, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural production is critical for human survival and simultaneously contributes to ecosystem degradation. There is a need for transparent, rapid methods for evaluating the environmental impacts of agricultural production at the system-level in order to develop sustainable food supplies. We have developed a method for estimating the greenhouse gas (GHG), land use and reactive nitrogen inputs associated with the agricultural production phase of major crop and livestock commodities produced in the United States (US). Materials flow analysis (MFA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques were applied to national inventory datasets. The net anthropogenic nitrogen inputs (NANI) toolbox served as the primary accounting tool for LCA and MFA. NANI was updated to create links between nitrogen fertilizer and nitrogen fixation associated with feed crops and animal food commodities. Results for the functional units kilogram (kg) of product and kg of protein for 2002 data fall within ranges of published LCA results from farm-scale studies across most metrics. Exceptions include eutrophication potential for milk and GHGs for chicken and eggs, these exceptions arise due to differing methods and boundary assumptions; suggestions for increasing agreement are identified. Land use for livestock commodities are generally higher than reported by other LCA studies due to the inclusion of all land identified as pasture or grazing land in the US in this study and given that most of the estimates from other LCAs were completed in Europe where land is less abundant. The method provides a view of the entire US agricultural system and could be applied to any year using publically available data. Additionally, utilizing a top-down approach reduces data collection and processing time making it possible to develop environmental inventory metrics rapidly for system-level decision-making.

  4. An integrated approach to monitoring ecosystem services and agriculture: implications for sustainable agricultural intensification in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Melissa F; Bonham, Curan A; Dempewolf, Jan; Arakwiye, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining the long-term sustainability of human and natural systems across agricultural landscapes requires an integrated, systematic monitoring system that can track crop productivity and the impacts of agricultural intensification on natural resources. This study presents the design and practical implementation of a monitoring framework that combines satellite observations with ground-based biophysical measurements and household surveys to provide metrics on ecosystem services and agricultural production at multiple spatial scales, reaching from individual households and plots owned by smallholder farmers to 100-km(2) landscapes. We developed a set of protocols for monitoring and analyzing ecological and agricultural household parameters within two 10 × 10-km landscapes in Rwanda, including soil fertility, crop yield, water availability, and fuelwood sustainability. Initial results suggest providing households that rely on rainfall for crop irrigation with timely climate information and improved technical inputs pre-harvest could help increase crop productivity in the short term. The value of the monitoring system is discussed as an effective tool for establishing a baseline of ecosystem services and agriculture before further change in land use and climate, identifying limitations in crop production and soil fertility, and evaluating food security, economic development, and environmental sustainability goals set forth by the Rwandan government.

  5. Mitigation scenario analysis: modelling the impacts of changes in agricultural management practices on surface water quality at the catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Sam; He, Yi; Hiscock, Kevin

    2014-05-01

    Increasing human pressures on the natural environment through the demand for increased agricultural productivity have exacerbated and deteriorated water quality conditions within many environments due to an unbalancing of the nutrient cycle. As a consequence, increased agricultural diffuse water pollution has resulted in elevated concentrations of nutrients within surface water and groundwater bodies. This deterioration in water quality has direct consequences for the health of aquatic ecosystems and biodiversity, human health, and the use of water as a resource for public water supply and recreation. To mitigate these potential impacts and to meet commitments under the EU Drinking Water and Water Framework Directives, there is a need to improve our understanding of the impacts that agricultural land use and management practices have on water quality. Water quality models are one of the tools available which can be used to facilitate this aim. These simplified representations of the physical environment allow a variety of changes to be simulated within a catchment, including for example changes in agricultural land use and management practices, allowing for predictions of the impacts of those measures on water quality to be developed and an assessment to be made of their effectiveness in improving conditions. The aim of this research is to apply the water quality model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to the Wensum catchment (area 650 km2), situated in the East of England, to predict the impacts of potential changes in land use and land management practices on water quality as part of a process to select those measures that in combination will have the greatest potential to improve water quality. Model calibration and validation is conducted at three sites within the catchment against observations of river discharge and nitrate and total phosphorus loads at a monthly time-step using the optimisation algorithm SUFI-2 (Sequential Uncertainty Fitting Version 2

  6. Land Use and Land Cover, Agriculture Use, Published in 2010, 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, Franklin County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:600 (1in=50ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  7. County-Scale Spatial Distribution of Soil Enzyme Activities and Enzyme Activity Indices in Agricultural Land: Implications for Soil Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangping Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here the spatial distribution of soil enzymatic properties in agricultural land was evaluated on a county-wide (567 km2 scale in Changwu, Shaanxi Province, China. The spatial variations in activities of five hydrolytic enzymes were examined using geostatistical methods. The relationships between soil enzyme activities and other soil properties were evaluated using both an integrated total enzyme activity index (TEI and the geometric mean of enzyme activities (GME. At the county scale, soil invertase, phosphatase, and catalase activities were moderately spatially correlated, whereas urease and dehydrogenase activities were weakly spatially correlated. Correlation analysis showed that both TEI and GME were better correlated with selected soil physicochemical properties than single enzyme activities. Multivariate regression analysis showed that soil OM content had the strongest positive effect while soil pH had a negative effect on the two enzyme activity indices. In addition, total phosphorous content had a positive effect on TEI and GME in orchard soils, whereas alkali-hydrolyzable nitrogen and available potassium contents, respectively, had negative and positive effects on these two enzyme indices in cropland soils. The results indicate that land use changes strongly affect soil enzyme activities in agricultural land, where TEI provides a sensitive biological indicator for soil quality.

  8. Rainfall–runoff model parameter estimation and uncertainty evaluation on small plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four seasonal rainfall simulations in 2009 and 2010were applied to a field containing 36 plots (0.75 × 2 m each), resulting in 144 runoff events. In all simulations, a constant rate of rainfall was applied then halted 60min after initiation of runoff, with plot-scale monitoring o...

  9. Climate change adaptation in arable land use, and impact on nitrogen load at catchment scale in northern agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Rankinen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Prolongation of the growing season due to a warming climate could represent new opportunities for northern agriculture. Climatic and biotic constraints may challenge future crop production. The objective of this study was to speculate how a range of arable land use patterns, resulting from various policy driven choices, could be introduced into a farming system, and how they would affect the risks associated with nutrient leaching. We found that while adaptation to climate change must include consideration of crop choices, there are conflicts associated with allocations and rotations for various market and policy situations. The expected increase in nutrient loading in the simulations caused by climate change was moderate. The increase can partly be compensated for by changes in farmland use, more in the shorter term than in the longer term to mid-century. In the future, adaptation at cropping system level is potentially an efficient way to manage nutrient load risks.

  10. Implementing automatic LiDAR and supervised mapping methodologies to quantify agricultural terraced landforms at landscape scale: the case of Veneto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugenio Pappalardo, Salvatore; Ferrarese, Francesco; Tarolli, Paolo; Varotto, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Traditional agricultural terraced landscapes presently embody an important cultural value to be deeply investigated, both for their role in local heritage and cultural economy and for their potential geo-hydrological hazard due to abandonment and degradation. Moreover, traditional terraced landscapes are usually based on non-intensive agro-systems and may enhance some important ecosystems services such as agro-biodiversity conservation and cultural services. Due to their unplanned genesis, mapping, quantifying and classifying agricultural terraces at regional scale is often critical as far as they are usually set up on geomorphologically and historically complex landscapes. Hence, traditional mapping methods are generally based on scientific literature and local documentation, historical and cadastral sources, technical cartography and aerial images visual interpretation or, finally, field surveys. By this, limitations and uncertainty in mapping at regional scale are basically related to forest cover and lack in thematic cartography. The Veneto Region (NE of Italy) presents a wide heterogeneity of agricultural terraced landscapes, mainly distributed within the hilly and Prealps areas. Previous studies performed by traditional mapping method quantified 2,688 ha of terraced areas, showing the higher values within the Prealps of Lessinia (1,013 ha, within the Province of Verona) and in the Brenta Valley (421 ha, within the Province of Vicenza); however, terraced features of these case studies show relevant differences in terms of fragmentation and intensity of terraces, highlighting dissimilar degrees of clusterization: 1.7 ha on one hand (Province of Verona) and 1.2 ha per terraced area (Province of Vicenza) on the other one. The aim of this paper is to implement and to compare automatic methodologies with traditional survey methodologies to map and assess agricultural terraces in two representative areas of the Veneto Region. Testing different Remote Sensing

  11. Economic and agricultural transformation through large-scale farming : impacts of large-scale farming on local economic development, household food security and the environment in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, M.S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined impacts of large-scale farming in Ethiopia on local economic development, household food security, incomes, employment, and the environment. The study adopted a mixed research approach in which both qualitative and quantitative data were generated from secondary and primary sourc

  12. Upscaling of an electronic nose for completely stirred tank reactor stability monitoring from pilot-scale to real-scale agricultural co-digestion biogas plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gilles; Lemaigre, Sébastien; Goux, Xavier; Delfosse, Philippe; Romain, Anne-Claude

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the use of an electronic nose for on-line anaerobic reactor state monitoring at the pilot-scale level and then upscaling to the full-scale level. E-nose indicator was compared to classical state indicators such as pH, alkalinity, volatile fatty acids concentration and to other gas phase compounds. Multivariate statistical process control method, based on principal component analysis and the Hotelling's T(2) statistics was used to derive an indicator representative of the reactor state. At the pilot-scale level, the e-nose indicator was relevant and could distinguish 3 process states: steady-state, transient and collapsing process. At the full-scale level, the e-nose indicator could provide the warning of the major disturbance whereas two slight disturbances were not detected and it gave one major false alarm. This work showed that gas phase relation with anaerobic process should be deeper investigated, as an e-nose could indicate the reactor state, focusing on the gas phase.

  13. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  14. Generalised Recurrence Plot Analysis for Spatial Data

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Juergen; Saparin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the ...

  15. Development of TRatioPlot in ROOT

    CERN Document Server

    Gessinger-Befurt, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The ROOT data analysis and visualization framework is a software package which is widely used in physics, especially in high energy physics. A common visualization which has so far been lacking a direct implementation is the ratio plot, as well as a few similar types of plots. The scope and goal of the summer student project at CERN was to implement a class in ROOT itself, that can take care of the most common types of calculations, and produces high quality visuals.

  16. Multi-scale land use analysis for agricultural policy assessment: a model-based study in Ilocos Norte province, Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laborte, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Pressures on the natural resources, especially land and water, continue to increase as a result of an ever-increasing world population and continuing economic growth. These pressures originate from the many claims of stakeholders at different scales on the limited resources, and are aggravated by th

  17. Ag-PIE: a GIS-based screening model for assessing agricultural pressures and impacts on water quality on a European scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giupponi, Carlo; Vladimirova, Irena

    2006-04-15

    Diffuse pollution of water resources from agricultural sources is a major environmental issue in the European Union, and has been dealt with by specific legislation: the Nitrate Directive of 1991 and the Water Framework Directive of 2000. These attempts to provide a coordinated approach to solving environmental problems require methods and tools for spatial analysis and modelling on a continental scale, with river basins being used as spatial units. This paper presents a screening model (Ag-PIE), developed in a GIS environment, for the assessment of pressures from agricultural land use and the consequent impacts on surface and groundwater. Ag-PIE has been applied at the European scale (EU15), with focus on nitrogen pollution from chemical fertilisers and manure. The model adopts a multi-criteria evaluation procedure applied to spatial data layers which represent the variety of factors affecting the pollution process. The DPSIR (Driving forces, Pressures, State, Impact, Responses) approach is applied to provide the modelling approach with a conceptual framework and to further analyse and communicate results. Ag-PIE is ultimately aimed at providing a tool making use of state-of-the-art geographical databases to support policy-makers at the European level. The scale of reference adopted is the river basin, in particular those that extend across national boundaries. The quality of the results obtained has been assessed against existing related studies and monitoring reports and by means of sensitivity analysis. Conclusions are driven by considering the potential of Ag-PIE in devising policy support and its strengths and weaknesses in view of identifying future research needs.

  18. Participatory approach: from problem identification to setting strategies for increased productivity and sustainability in small scale irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habtu, Solomon; Ludi, Eva; Jamin, Jean Yves; Oates, Naomi; Fissahaye Yohannes, Degol

    2014-05-01

    Practicing various innovations pertinent to irrigated farming at local field scale is instrumental to increase productivity and yield for small holder farmers in Africa. However the translation of innovations from local scale to the scale of a jointly operated irrigation scheme is far from trivial. It requires insight on the drivers for adoption of local innovations within the wider farmer communities. Participatory methods are expected to improve not only the acceptance of locally developed innovations within the wider farmer communities, but to allow also an estimation to which extend changes will occur within the entire irrigation scheme. On such a base, more realistic scenarios of future water productivity within an irrigation scheme, which is operated by small holder farmers, can be estimated. Initial participatory problem and innovation appraisal was conducted in Gumselassa small scale irrigation scheme, Ethiopia, from Feb 27 to March 3, 2012 as part of the EAU4FOOD project funded by EC. The objective was to identify and appraise problems which hinder sustainable water management to enhance production and productivity and to identify future research strategies. Workshops were conducted both at local (Community of Practices) and regional (Learning Practice Alliance) level. At local levels, intensive collaboration with farmers using participatory methods produced problem trees and a "Photo Safari" documented a range of problems that negatively impact on productive irrigated farming. A range of participatory methods were also used to identify local innovations. At regional level a Learning Platform was established that includes a wide range of stakeholders (technical experts from various government ministries, policy makers, farmers, extension agents, researchers). This stakeholder group did a range of exercise as well to identify major problems related to irrigated smallholder farming and already identified innovations. Both groups identified similar problems

  19. A future Demand Side Management (DSM) opportunity for utility as variable renewable penetrate scale up using agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ines, A.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Modi, V.; Robertson, A. W.; Lall, U.; Kocaman Ayse, S.; Chaudhary, S.; Kumar, A.; Ganapathy, A.; Kumar, A.; Mishra, V.

    2015-12-01

    Energy demand management, also known as demand side management (DSM), is the modification of consumer demand for energy through various methods such as smart metering, incentive based schemes, payments for turning off loads or rescheduling loads. Usually, the goal of demand side management is to encourage the consumer to use less power during periods of peak demand, or to move the time of energy use to off-peak times. Peak demand management does not necessarily decrease total energy consumption, but could be expected to reduce the need for investments in networks and/or power plants for meeting peak demands. Electricity use can vary dramatically on short and medium time frames, and the pricing system may not reflect the instantaneous cost as additional higher-cost that are brought on-line. In addition, the capacity or willingness of electricity consumers to adjust to prices by altering elasticity of demand may be low, particularly over short time frames. In the scenario of Indian grid setup, the retail customers do not follow real-time pricing and it is difficult to incentivize the utility companies for continuing the peak demand supply. A question for the future is how deeper penetration of renewable will be handled? This is a challenging problem since one has to deal with high variability, while managing loss of load probabilities. In the case of managing the peak demand using agriculture, in the future as smart metering matures with automatic turn on/off for a pump, it will become possible to provide an ensured amount of water or energy to the farmer while keeping the grid energized for 24 hours. Supply scenarios will include the possibility of much larger penetration of solar and wind into the grid. While, in absolute terms these sources are small contributors, their role will inevitably grow but DSM using agriculture could help reduce the capital cost. The other option is of advancing or delaying pump operating cycle even by several hours, will still ensure

  20. Planning and costing agricultural adaptation to climate change in small-scale maize production system of Malawi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matiya, George; Lunduka, Rodney; Sikwese, Margaret

    2011-09-15

    Malawi has recently experienced an increased incidence of climate change-related hazards. More droughts and floods have occurred in the last decade (2000 - 2010) than in the past three decades before (1970 - 2000). Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors and consequently has suffered from the negative impacts of climate change. As a result, communities, NGOs and the government of Malawi are adapting (adjusting to continue deriving benefits) to the changing conditions in order for Malawian farmers and their families to survive, since their livelihoods are dependent on agriculture. This adaptation is inevitable and will add a cost to the national economy and households. To successfully calculate this there is a need for proper planning and costing of adaptation strategies at household, community and national level. Currently, the exact costs of adaptation are not yet known; hence, this study was undertaken to investigate what adaptation measures are currently available in the maize subsector in Chikhwawa District in the Lower Shire Valley of Malawi and how much it will cost at household, community and national level to continue to carry out such activities. The calculation is based on climate projections that are likely to happen in Chikhwawa in the next 50 years. The study revealed that communities are already coping with climate change through a number of strategies including: use of early and drought-resistant varieties, irrigation systems, selling of assets, winter cropping and diversification. Regarding climate projections, it is expected that the temperatures in Chikhwawa will increase by 3 deg C by 2065, which will translate into having more days in a month with a mean temperature of above 32 deg C. It is also expected that drier conditions will prevail in the future (2046 - 2065). In terms of costs, Chikhwawa will require about US$55,034,932 (over five years) in the maize subsector to adapt to climate change. The results of the study suggest that

  1. Whose waters? Large-scale agricultural development and water grabbing in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelia van Eeden

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In Tanzania like in other parts of the global South, in the name of 'development' and 'poverty eradication' vast tracts of land have been earmarked by the government to be developed by investors for different commercial agricultural projects, giving rise to the contested land grab phenomenon. In parallel, Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM has been promoted in the country and globally as the governance framework that seeks to manage water resources in an efficient, equitable and sustainable manner. This article asks how IWRM manages the competing interests as well as the diverse priorities of both large and small water users in the midst of foreign direct investment. By focusing on two commercial sugar companies operating in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania and their impacts on the water and land rights of the surrounding villages, the article asks whether institutional and capacity weaknesses around IWRM implementation can be exploited by powerful actors that seek to meet their own interests, thus allowing water grabbing to take place. The paper thus highlights the power, interests and alliances of the various actors involved in the governance of water resources. By drawing on recent conceptual insights from the water grabbing literature, the empirical findings suggest that the IWRM framework indirectly and directly facilitates the phenomenon of water grabbing to take place in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin in Tanzania.

  2. Storm Event Suspended Sediment-Discharge Hysteresis and Controls in Agricultural Watersheds: Implications for Watershed Scale Sediment Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie C; Rowan, John S; Fenton, Owen; Jordan, Philip; Melland, Alice R; Mellander, Per-Erik; hUallacháin, Daire Ó

    2016-02-16

    Within agricultural watersheds suspended sediment-discharge hysteresis during storm events is commonly used to indicate dominant sediment sources and pathways. However, availability of high-resolution data, qualitative metrics, longevity of records, and simultaneous multiwatershed analyses has limited the efficacy of hysteresis as a sediment management tool. This two year study utilizes a quantitative hysteresis index from high-resolution suspended sediment and discharge data to assess fluctuations in sediment source location, delivery mechanisms and export efficiency in three intensively farmed watersheds during events over time. Flow-weighted event sediment export was further considered using multivariate techniques to delineate rainfall, stream hydrology, and antecedent moisture controls on sediment origins. Watersheds with low permeability (moderately- or poorly drained soils) with good surface hydrological connectivity, therefore, had contrasting hysteresis due to source location (hillslope versus channel bank). The well-drained watershed with reduced connectivity exported less sediment but, when watershed connectivity was established, the largest event sediment load of all watersheds occurred. Event sediment export was elevated in arable watersheds when low groundcover was coupled with high connectivity, whereas in the grassland watershed, export was attributed to wetter weather only. Hysteresis analysis successfully indicated contrasting seasonality, connectivity and source availability and is a useful tool to identify watershed specific sediment management practices.

  3. Ionospheric Values (Daily Work Sheets), F-Plots, Tabulations, Booklets, Catalogs, and Log Books

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These ionospheric data consist of scaling notes, equipment usage logs, and ionospheric values in the form of daily work sheets, F-Plots, tabulations, and booklets....

  4. Dry anaerobic digestion of cow manure and agricultural products in a full-scale plant: Efficiency and comparison with wet fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, Alessandro; da Borso, Francesco; Limina, Sonia

    2017-04-04

    For years, anaerobic digestion processes have been implemented for the management of organic wastes, agricultural residues, and animal manure. Wet anaerobic digestion still represents the most common technology, while dry fermentation, dedicated to the treatment of solid inputs (TS>20%) can be considered as an emerging technology, not in terms of technological maturity, but of diffusion. The first agricultural dry anaerobic digestion plant constructed in Italy was monitored from the start-up, for over a year. The plant was fed with manure and agricultural products, such as corn silage, triticale, ryegrass, alfalfa, and straw. Three Combined Heat and Power units, for a total installed power of 910kWe, converted biogas into thermal and electric energy. The monitoring included the determination of quality and quantity of input feedstocks, of digestate (including recirculation rate), of leachate, biogas quality (CH4, CO2, H2S), biogas yield, energy production, labor requirement for loading, and unloading operations. The results of the monitoring were compared to performance data obtained in several full scale wet digestion plants. The dry fermentation plant revealed a start-up phase that lasted several months, during which the average power resulted in 641kWe (70.4% of nominal power), and the last period the power resulted in 788kWe (86.6% of installed power). Improving the balance of the input, the dry fermentation process demonstrated biogas yields similar to wet anaerobic digestion, congruent to the energy potential of the biomasses used in the process. Furthermore, the operation of the plant required significant man labor, mainly related to loading and unloading of the anaerobic cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scale Urban Agriculture in Havana and the Reproduction of the ‘New Man’ in Contemporary Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Premat

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on ethnographic data collected in the  city of Havana, from 1999 to 2001, this paper  interrogates the purported rise in ‘individualistic’  and ‘capitalistic’ practices in post-Soviet Bloc Cuba. Specifically, the paper focuses on a group  of sites associated with the post-1989 ‘privatization’ of agricultural land and agricultural production; namely, the parcelas or urban garden lots of  the city of Havana. An examination of these sites  as foci of individual activity and social interaction  and as meeting points of citizen and state reveals  a shifting landscape of power fraught with tensions between the private and the public domains,  tensions that, nevertheless, underscore the resilience of certain values and practices longespoused by the revolutionary government, such  as the right of all citizens to food and the ideal of  self-sacrifice for the greater good.  Resumen: Agricultura urbana en pequeña  escala en la Habana y la reproducción del ‘hombre nuevo’ en la Cuba contemporáneaEste artículo, basado en un estudio antropológico  llevado a cabo en la ciudad de La Habana, entre  los años 1999 y 2002, cuestiona el supuesto incremento en actitudes ‘individualistas’ y ‘capitalistas’ en Cuba a partir de la crisis desatada por la disolución del Bloque Soviético a inicios de 1989. Específicamente, el artículo se enfoca en un grupo  de espacios que en cierta medida ilustran la ‘privatización’ de la tierra y producción agrícolas que  ha caracterizado esta última década en dicho país.  Se trata de las parcelas o huertos urbanos de la  ciudad de La Habana. El estudio de los mismos como focos de actividad individual e interacción  social, y como puntos de encuentro entre el estado  y el ciudadano, revela cambios en la configuración del poder en dicho país expresados, entre  otras cosas, en tensiones entre las esferas privada  y pública. Tensiones que, ante todo, parecen

  6. Social Impact Assessment of Crude Oil Pollution on Small Scale Farmers in Oil Producing Communities of the Central Agricultural Zone of Delta State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofuoku, A. O. U.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the social impact of oil production on small holder farmers in oil-producing communities of the Central zone of Delta State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 120 respondents by the use of questionnaires. Soil erosion (96.6%, noise pollution (98.3%, bush burning (93.3%, land degradation/pollution (87.5%, water pollution (80.3%, air pollution (62.5%, massive deforestation (62.5% and acid rain (52.5% were seen as the major environmental problems experienced in the study area. The respondents reported that oil pollution impacted negatively on their income (83.3%, agricultural production (98.3% and land availability (85.8%. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents such as age, gender, Educational level, religion, marital status, type of farming, family size, Farming experience, farm size, income, housing, tenure, membership of organization, land tenure and source of labour were found to determine the social impact of oil pollution on small-scale farmers. Recommendations given dwelt on making the environment conducive for the communities, agricultural activities and it sustenance for future generations.

  7. Crop residue decomposition in Minnesota biochar amended plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyers, S. L.; Spokas, K. A.

    2014-02-01

    Impacts of biochar application at laboratory scales are routinely studied, but impacts of biochar application on decomposition of crop residues at field scales have not been widely addressed. The priming or hindrance of crop residue decomposition could have a cascading impact on soil processes, particularly those influencing nutrient availability. Our objectives were to evaluate biochar effects on field decomposition of crop residue, using plots that were amended with biochars made from different feedstocks and pyrolysis platforms prior to the start of this study. Litterbags containing wheat straw material were buried below the soil surface in a continuous-corn cropped field in plots that had received one of seven different biochar amendments or a non-charred wood pellet amendment 2.5 yr prior to start of this study. Litterbags were collected over the course of 14 weeks. Microbial biomass was assessed in treatment plots the previous fall. Though first-order decomposition rate constants were positively correlated to microbial biomass, neither parameter was statistically affected by biochar or wood-pellet treatments. The findings indicated only a residual of potentially positive and negative initial impacts of biochars on residue decomposition, which fit in line with established feedstock and pyrolysis influences. Though no significant impacts were observed with field-weathered biochars, effective soil management may yet have to account for repeat applications of biochar.

  8. Understanding Droughts and their Agricultural Impact in North America at the Basin Scale through the Development of Satellite Based Drought Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Hernandez, A.; Lawford, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Drought is a major constraint severely affecting numerous agricultural regions in North America. Decision makers need timely information on the existence of a drought as well as its intensity, frequency, likely duration, and economic and social effects in order to implement adaptation strategies and minimize its impacts. Countries like Mexico and Canada face a challenge associated with the lack of consistent and reliable in-situ data that allows the computation of drought indicators at resolutions that effectively supports decision makers at the watershed scale. This study focuses on (1) the development of near-real time drought indicators at high resolution utilizing various satellite data for use in improving adaptation plans and mitigation actions at the basin level; (2) the quantification of the relationships between current and historical droughts and their agricultural impacts by evaluating thresholds for drought impacts; and (3) the assessment of the effects of existing water policies, economic subsidies, and infrastructure that affect the vulnerability of a particular region to the economic impacts of a drought. A pilot study area located in Northwest Mexico and known as the Rio Yaqui Basin was selected for this study in order to make comparisons between the satellite based indicators derived from currently available satellite products to provide an assessment of the quality of the products generated. The Rio Yaqui Basin, also referred to as the "bread basket" of Mexico, is situated in an arid to semi-arid region where highly sophisticated irrigation systems have been implemented to support extensive agriculture. Although for many years the irrigation systems acted as a safety net for the farmers, recent droughts have significantly impacted agricultural output, affected thousands of people, and increase the dependence on groundwater. The drought indices generated are used in conjunction with a decision-support model to provide information on drought impacts

  9. Multiscale recurrence quantification analysis of order recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mengjia; Shang, Pengjian; Lin, Aijing

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of multiscale recurrence quantification analysis (MSRQA) to analyze the structure of order recurrence plots. The MSRQA is based on order patterns over a range of time scales. Compared with conventional recurrence quantification analysis (RQA), the MSRQA can show richer and more recognizable information on the local characteristics of diverse systems which successfully describes their recurrence properties. Both synthetic series and stock market indexes exhibit their properties of recurrence at large time scales that quite differ from those at a single time scale. Some systems present more accurate recurrence patterns under large time scales. It demonstrates that the new approach is effective for distinguishing three similar stock market systems and showing some inherent differences.

  10. 6th International Symposium on Recurrence Plots

    CERN Document Server

    Jr, Jr; Ioana, Cornel; Marwan, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    The chapters in this book originate from the research work and contributions presented at the Sixth International Symposium on Recurrence Plots held in Grenoble, France in June 2015. Scientists from numerous disciplines gathered to exchange knowledge on recent applications and developments in recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis. This meeting was remarkable because of the obvious expansion of recurrence strategies (theory) and applications (practice) into ever-broadening fields of science. It discusses real-world systems from various fields, including mathematics, strange attractors, applied physics, physiology, medicine, environmental and earth sciences, as well as psychology and linguistics. Even readers not actively researching any of these particular systems will benefit from discovering how other scientists are finding practical non-linear solutions to specific problems. The book is of interest to an interdisciplinary audience of recurrence plot users and researchers interested in time...

  11. BOREAS TE-23 Map Plot Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Paul M.; Fournier, Robert; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-23 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected map plot data in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on canopy architecture and understory cover at the BOREAS tower flux sites and selected auxiliary sites from May to August 1994. Mapped plots (typical dimensions 50 m x 60 m) were set up and characterized at all BOREAS forested tower flux and selected auxiliary sites. Detailed measurement of the mapped plots included: (1) stand characteristics (location, density, basal area); (2) map locations diameter at breast height (DBH) of all trees; (3) detailed geometric measures of a subset of trees (height, crown dimensions); and (4) understory cover maps. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  12. Application of mapped plots for single-owner forest surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul C. Van Deusen; Francis Roesch

    2009-01-01

    Mapped plots are used for the nation forest inventory conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. Mapped plots are also useful foro single ownership inventoires. Mapped plots can handle boundary overlap and can aprovide less variable estimates for specified forest conditions. Mapping is a good fit for fixed plot inventories where the fixed area plot is used for both mapping...

  13. PLOT3D Export Tool for Tecplot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The PLOT3D export tool for Tecplot solves the problem of modified data being impossible to output for use by another computational science solver. The PLOT3D Exporter add-on enables the use of the most commonly available visualization tools to engineers for output of a standard format. The exportation of PLOT3D data from Tecplot has far reaching effects because it allows for grid and solution manipulation within a graphical user interface (GUI) that is easily customized with macro language-based and user-developed GUIs. The add-on also enables the use of Tecplot as an interpolation tool for solution conversion between different grids of different types. This one add-on enhances the functionality of Tecplot so significantly, it offers the ability to incorporate Tecplot into a general suite of tools for computational science applications as a 3D graphics engine for visualization of all data. Within the PLOT3D Export Add-on are several functions that enhance the operations and effectiveness of the add-on. Unlike Tecplot output functions, the PLOT3D Export Add-on enables the use of the zone selection dialog in Tecplot to choose which zones are to be written by offering three distinct options - output of active, inactive, or all zones (grid blocks). As the user modifies the zones to output with the zone selection dialog, the zones to be written are similarly updated. This enables the use of Tecplot to create multiple configurations of a geometry being analyzed. For example, if an aircraft is loaded with multiple deflections of flaps, by activating and deactivating different zones for a specific flap setting, new specific configurations of that aircraft can be easily generated by only writing out specific zones. Thus, if ten flap settings are loaded into Tecplot, the PLOT3D Export software can output ten different configurations, one for each flap setting.

  14. Improving Soil Organic Carbon stock estimates in agricultural topsoil at a regional scale using a Stochastic Gradient Boosting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillaci, Calogero; Lombardo, Luigi; Saia, Sergio; Fantappiè, Maria; Märker, Michael; Acutis, Marco

    2016-04-01

    soil texture, land use and the Band8 among the most important contributors to the model. Conversely, GLMM selected temperature, annual rainfall, slope and LS-factor as primary contributors. Finally, total CS stock was extracted per each agricultural land use within the area of study. The cumulated topsoil CS (0-30cm) within the aforementioned classes accounted for about 59·106 tons, on 1,6 million hectares (about 60% of the island surface). In particular, Non irrigated (rainfed) arable lands, fruit trees and berry plantations, olive groves, and vineyards accounted for 47,4% and 10,2% 13,5%, 9.0 %, of the total CS, respectively, and 48,9%, 9,5%, 13,5%, 9.6% of the total area respectively. The results have implication on both the landscape management when aiming to reduce GHG emission and the computation of the contribute of each land use class to the potential CS and GHG variation. In addition, the model and map resulting from the present work have particular implication when aiming to infer SOC dynamics under climate change or varying ecosystem management scenarios.

  15. Generalised recurrence plot analysis for spatial data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany)]. E-mail: marwan@agnld.uni-potsdam.de; Kurths, Juergen [Institute of Physics, University of Potsdam, 14415 Potsdam (Germany); Saparin, Peter [Department of Biomaterials, Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces, 14424 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)

    2007-01-08

    Recurrence plot based methods are highly efficient and widely accepted tools for the investigation of time series or one-dimensional data. We present an extension of the recurrence plots and their quantifications in order to study recurrent structures in higher-dimensional spatial data. The capability of this extension is illustrated on prototypical 2D models. Next, the tested and proved approach is applied to assess the bone structure from CT images of human proximal tibia. We find that the spatial structures in trabecular bone become more recurrent during the bone loss in osteoporosis.

  16. [Effects of sampling plot number on tree species distribution prediction under climate change].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; He, Hong-Shi; Wu, Zhi-Wei; Li, Xiao-Na; Luo, Xu

    2013-05-01

    Based on the neutral landscapes under different degrees of landscape fragmentation, this paper studied the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale under climate change. The tree species distribution was predicted by the coupled modeling approach which linked an ecosystem process model with a forest landscape model, and three contingent scenarios and one reference scenario of sampling plot numbers were assumed. The differences between the three scenarios and the reference scenario under different degrees of landscape fragmentation were tested. The results indicated that the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution depended on the tree species life history attributes. For the generalist species, the prediction of their distribution at landscape scale needed more plots. Except for the extreme specialist, landscape fragmentation degree also affected the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction. With the increase of simulation period, the effects of sampling plot number on the prediction of tree species distribution at landscape scale could be changed. For generalist species, more plots are needed for the long-term simulation.

  17. Multifunctional Landscapes: Site Characterization and Field-Scale Design to Incorporate Biomass Production into an Agricultural System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ssegane, Herbert; Cristina Negri, M; Quinn, John; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2015-09-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha−1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha−1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits.

  18. A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    A reduced volumetric expansion factor plot has been constructed for simple fluids which is suitable for engineering computations in heat transfer. Volumetric expansion factors have been found useful in correlating heat transfer data over a wide range of operating conditions including liquids, gases and the near critical region.

  19. Co-creating Understanding in Water Use & Agricultural Resilience in a Multi-scale Natural-human System: Sacramento River Valley--California's Water Heartland in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbanks, D. H.; Brimlowe, J.; Chaudry, A.; Gray, K.; Greene, T.; Guzley, R.; Hatfield, C.; Houk, E.; Le Page, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Sacramento River Valley (SRV), valued for its $2.5 billion agricultural production and its biodiversity, is the main supplier of California's water, servicing 25 million people. . Despite rapid changes to the region, little is known about the collective motivations and consequences of land and water use decisions, or the social and environmental vulnerability and resilience of the SRV. The overarching research goal is to examine whether the SRV can continue to supply clean water for California and accommodate agricultural production and biodiversity while coping with climate change and population growth. Without understanding these issues, the resources of the SRV face an uncertain future. The defining goal is to construct a framework that integrates cross-disciplinary and diverse stakeholder perspectives in order to develop a comprehensive understanding of how SRV stakeholders make land and water use decisions. Traditional approaches for modeling have failed to take into consideration multi-scale stakeholder input. Currently there is no effective method to facilitate producers and government agencies in developing a shared representation to address the issues that face the region. To address this gap, researchers and stakeholders are working together to collect and consolidate disconnected knowledge held by stakeholder groups (agencies, irrigation districts, and producers) into a holistic conceptual model of how stakeholders view and make decisions with land and water use under various management systems. Our approach integrates a top-down approach (agency stakeholders) for larger scale management decisions with a conceptual co-creation and data gathering bottom-up approach with local agricultural producer stakeholders for input water and landuse decisions. Land use change models that combine a top-down approach with a bottom-up stakeholder approach are rare and yet essential to understanding how the social process of land use change and ecosystem function are

  20. Agriculture: Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture Newsroom. News releases, reports, and other documents from around EPA that are of interest or direct importance to the environmental management or compliance efforts of the agricultural community.

  1. Driver for solar cell i-v characteristic plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.B.

    1980-01-15

    A bipolar voltage ramp generator applies a linear voltage through a resistor to a solar cell for plotting its current versus voltage (I-v) characteristic between short circuit and open circuit conditions, with automatic stops at the end points. The resistor serves the multiple purpose of providing a current sensing resistor, setting the full-scale current value, and providing a load line with a slope approximately equal to one, such that it will pass through the origin and the approximate center of the i-v curve with about equal distance from that center to each of the end points.

  2. FLOWCHART; a computer program for plotting flowcharts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Bernice

    1982-01-01

    The computer program FLOWCHART can be used to very quickly and easily produce flowcharts of high quality for publication. FLOWCHART centers each element or block of text that it processes on one of a set of (imaginary) vertical lines. It can enclose a text block in a rectangle, circle or other selected figure. It can draw a 'line connecting the midpoint of any side of any figure with the midpoint of any side of any other figure and insert an arrow pointing in the direction of flow. It can write 'yes' or 'no' next to the line joining two figures. FLOWCHART creates flowcharts using some basic plotting subroutine* which permit plots to be generated interactively and inspected on a Tektronix compatible graphics screen or plotted in a deferred mode on a Houston Instruments 42' pen plotter. The size of the plot, character set and character height in inches are inputs to the program. Plots generated using the pen plotter can be up to 42' high--the larger size plots being directly usable as visual aids in a talk. FLOWCHART centers each block of text on an imaginary column line. (The number of columns and column width are specified as input.) The midpoint of the longest line of text within the block is defined to be the center of the block and is placed on the column line. The spacing of individual words within the block is not altered when the block is positioned. The program writes the first block of text in a designated column and continues placing each subsequent block below the previous block in the same column. A block of text may be placed in a different column by specifying the number of the column and an earlier block of text with which the new block is to be aligned. If block zero is given as the earlier block, the new text is placed in the new column continuing down the page below the previous block. Optionally a column and number of inches from the top of the page may be given for positioning the next block of text. The program will normally draw one of five

  3. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  4. The Revelation from the Experience of Brazil’s Agricultural Specialized Production at Scale%巴西农业专业化与规模化对我国的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高京平; 邢飞; 吴亚超

    2014-01-01

    Brazil is a big agricultural export country in the world.During less than 30 years,Brazil became the world granary from an agri-cultural import country via the process of agricultural specialized production at scale.The achievement Brazil has made is valuable experiences for China’s agricultural development.%巴西是农牧业大国,巴西政府在发展农业的进程中,走出了专业化生产、规模化经营的道路,在不到30年的时间内,巴西从一个粮食进口国转变为世界大粮仓之一,这其中的发展经验与历程值得我国学习和借鉴。

  5. Use of field and airborne advanced remote sensing data for the characterisation of surface erosional stages in agricultural semi-arid soils (central Spain) at various scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, Robert; Chabrillat, Sabine; Schmid, Thomas; Rodriguez, Manuel; Schuett, Brigitta

    2014-05-01

    derived mainly from tillage practices. The identification of these contrasting soil surface layers based on the optical properties of different soil components is a major goal of this study. The optical analysis is accompanied by a geomorphological assessment of the spatial distribution of defined soil erosion and depositional stages. Morphometric variables derived from a digital terrain model based on the acquired LIDAR data are related to topographical features and associated with local soil erosion models that exist for the study area. In this paper we present preliminary results at various scales from field and remote sensing analyses over selected test sites chosen as representative of the main soil types in the area, and of the main erosion and depositional stages that could be observed. Results show that the identification and mapping of different soil horizons linked to soil erosion and depositional stages as well as slope and curvature analyses can be achieved based on the spectroscopy data and on the LIDAR data, respectively. Therefore, the spatial mapping of the soil erosion and depositional stages are consistent with the soil erosion models implemented for southern agricultural areas.

  6. Realtime multi-plot graphics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipkowski, Michael S.

    1990-01-01

    The increased complexity of test operations and customer requirements at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF) surpassed the capabilities of the initial realtime graphics system. The analysis of existing hardware and software and the enhancements made to develop a new realtime graphics system are described. The result of this effort is a cost effective system, based on hardware already in place, that support high speed, high resolution, generation and display of multiple realtime plots. The enhanced graphics system (EGS) meets the current and foreseeable future realtime graphics requirements of the NTF. While this system was developed to support wind tunnel operations, the overall design and capability of the system is applicable to other realtime data acquisition systems that have realtime plot requirements.

  7. Convex Arrhenius plots and their interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, Donald G.; Kohen, Amnon

    2001-01-01

    This paper draws attention to selected experiments on enzyme-catalyzed reactions that show convex Arrhenius plots, which are very rare, and points out that Tolman's interpretation of the activation energy places a fundamental model-independent constraint on any detailed explanation of these reactions. The analysis presented here shows that in such systems, the rate coefficient as a function of energy is not just increasing more slowly than expected, it is actually decreasing. This interpretation of the data provides a constraint on proposed microscopic models, i.e., it requires that any successful model of a reaction with a convex Arrhenius plot should be consistent with the microcanonical rate coefficient being a decreasing function of energy. The implications and limitations of this analysis to interpreting enzyme mechanisms are discussed. This model-independent conclusion has broad applicability to all fields of kinetics, and we also draw attention to an analogy with diffusion in metastable fluids and glasses. PMID:11158559

  8. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF AGRICULTURAL POLLUTION ON GROUNDWATER AND SOIL QUALITY IN AN AGRICULTURAL FARM (NORTH EASTERN MOROCCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fetouani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure sustainable food security, Morocco gives priority to agricultural and rural development by promoting investment in agricultural sector and use of intensification factors to improve incomes in rural areas. The Triffa irrigated perimeter is one of the oldest and the most productive in the country thanks to the Mohammed the V dam activity and the beginning of agricultural development intensification. Although this intensification has a positive effect on agricultural yields, it has negative impacts on soil and generatesgroundwater quality degradation. Indeed, recent studies performed in this area by us and Bendra (Fetouani et al., 2008; Bendra et al, 2012 have mentioned the existence of salinity problems, nitric groundwater pollution and soils salinization. This degradation is caused essentially by intensive use of agrochemicals, including nitrogen fertilizers and pesticides, and non-control of irrigation and cultivated plots drainage. However, a degradation of groundwater and soil quality is not without risk to Human health. Having a global vision about situation of groundwater and soil quality in the Triffa plain we have decided to deepen this theme to a local scale and to study in details the impact of intensive agriculture on groundwater and soil quality in a farm, located in the centre of the Triffa plain.To sum up the results of this study the state of soil quality in the farm is not alarming. However, the groundwater quality is mainly dramatic, because it is a receptacle of all the nutrients applied on the surface, especially nitrates.

  9. Extended quantification of the generalized recurrence plot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Maik; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    The generalized recurrence plot is a modern tool for quantification of complex spatial patterns. Its application spans the analysis of trabecular bone structures, Turing structures, turbulent spatial plankton patterns, and fractals. But, it is also successfully applied to the description of spatio-temporal dynamics and the detection of regime shifts, such as in the complex Ginzburg-Landau- equation. The recurrence plot based determinism is a central measure in this framework quantifying the level of regularities in temporal and spatial structures. We extend this measure for the generalized recurrence plot considering additional operations of symmetry than the simple translation. It is tested not only on two-dimensional regular patterns and noise but also on complex spatial patterns reconstructing the parameter space of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. The extended version of the determinism resulted in values which are consistent to the original recurrence plot approach. Furthermore, the proposed method allows a split of the determinism into parts which based on laminar and non-laminar regions of the two-dimensional pattern of the complex Ginzburg-Landau-equation. A comparison of these parts with a standard method of image classification, the co-occurrence matrix approach, shows differences especially in the description of patterns associated with turbulence. In that case, it seems that the extended version of the determinism allows a distinction of phase turbulence and defect turbulence by means of their spatial patterns. This ability of the proposed method promise new insights in other systems with turbulent dynamics coming from climatology, biology, ecology, and social sciences, for example.

  10. AvoPlot: An extensible scientific plotting tool based on matplotlib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nial Peters

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available AvoPlot is a simple-to-use graphical plotting program written in Python and making extensive use of the matplotlib plotting library. It can be found at http://code.google.com/p/avoplot/. In addition to providing a user-friendly interface to the powerful capabilities of the matplotlib library, it also offers users the possibility of extending its functionality by creating plug-ins. These can import specific types of data into the interface and also provide new tools for manipulating them. In this respect, AvoPlot is a convenient platform for researchers to build their own data analysis tools on top of, as well as being a useful standalone program.

  11. 9 CFR 108.3 - Preparation of plot plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preparation of plot plans. 108.3... LICENSED ESTABLISHMENTS § 108.3 Preparation of plot plans. Plot plans shall show all of the buildings on a... on the plot plan the use of immediate adjacent properties such as, residential area, pasture,...

  12. Evaluating uncertainty in 7Be-based soil erosion estimates: an experimental plot approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Abdelli, Wahid; Gaspar, Leticia; Barri, Bashar Al; Ryken, Nick; Mabit, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion remains a major concern for the international community and there is a growing need to improve the sustainability of agriculture to support future food security. High resolution soil erosion data are a fundamental requirement for underpinning soil conservation and management strategies but representative data on soil erosion rates are difficult to achieve by conventional means without interfering with farming practice and hence compromising the representativeness of results. Fallout radionuclide (FRN) tracer technology offers a solution since FRN tracers are delivered to the soil surface by natural processes and, where irreversible binding can be demonstrated, redistributed in association with soil particles. While much work has demonstrated the potential of short-lived 7Be (half-life 53 days), particularly in quantification of short-term inter-rill erosion, less attention has focussed on sources of uncertainty in derived erosion measurements and sampling strategies to minimise these. This poster outlines and discusses potential sources of uncertainty in 7Be-based soil erosion estimates and the experimental design considerations taken to quantify these in the context of a plot-scale validation experiment. Traditionally, gamma counting statistics have been the main element of uncertainty propagated and reported but recent work has shown that other factors may be more important such as: (i) spatial variability in the relaxation mass depth that describes the shape of the 7Be depth distribution for an uneroded point; (ii) spatial variability in fallout (linked to rainfall patterns and shadowing) over both reference site and plot; (iii) particle size sorting effects; (iv) preferential mobility of fallout over active runoff contributing areas. To explore these aspects in more detail, a plot of 4 x 35 m was ploughed and tilled to create a bare, sloped soil surface at the beginning of winter 2013/2014 in southwest UK. The lower edge of the plot was bounded by

  13. A New Process Monitoring Method Based on Waveform Signal by Using Recurrence Plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Process monitoring is an important research problem in numerous areas. This paper proposes a novel process monitoring scheme by integrating the recurrence plot (RP method and the control chart technique. Recently, the RP method has emerged as an effective tool to analyze waveform signals. However, unlike the existing RP methods that employ recurrence quantification analysis (RQA to quantify the recurrence plot by a few summary statistics; we propose new concepts of template recurrence plots and continuous-scale recurrence plots to characterize the waveform signals. A new feature extraction method is developed based on continuous-scale recurrence plot. Then, a monitoring statistic based on the top-  approach is constructed from the continuous-scale recurrence plot. Finally, a bootstrap control chart is built to detect the signal changes based on the constructed monitoring statistics. The comprehensive simulation studies show that the proposed monitoring scheme outperforms other RQA-based control charts. In addition, a real case study of progressive stamping processes is implemented to further evaluate the performance of the proposed scheme for process monitoring.

  14. Split-Plot Designs with Mirror Image Pairs as Subplots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyssedal, John; Kulahci, Murat; Bisgaard, Soren

    2011-01-01

    In this article we investigate two-level split-plot designs where the sub-plots consist of only two mirror image trials. Assuming third and higher order interactions negligible, we show that these designs divide the estimated effects into two orthogonal sub-spaces, separating sub-plot main effects...... and sub-plot by whole-plot interactions from the rest. Further we show how to construct split-plot designs of projectivity P≥3. We also introduce a new class of split-plot designs with mirror image pairs constructed from non-geometric Plackett–Burman designs. The design properties of such designs are very...

  15. Optimal plot design in a multipurpose forest inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Henttonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We explore the factors affecting the optimal plot design (size and type as well as the subsample tree selection strategies within a plot and their relative importance in defining the optimal plot design in amultipurpose forest inventory. The factors include time used to lay out the plot and to make the tree measurements within the plot, the between-plot variation of each of the variables of interest in the area, and the measurement and model errors for the different variables. Methods: We simulate different plot types and sizes and subsample tree selection strategies on measuredtest areas from North Lapland. The plot types used are fixed-radius, concentric and relascope plots. Weselect the optimal type and size first at plot level using a cost-plus-loss approach and then at cluster level byminimizing the weighted standard error with fixed budget. Results: As relascope plots are very efficient at the plot level for volume and basal area, and fixed-radius plots for stems per ha, the optimal plot type strongly depends on the relative importance of these variables. The concentric plot seems to be a good compromise between these two in many cases. The subsample tree selection strategy was more important in selecting optimal plot than many other factors. In cluster level, the most important factor is the transfer time between plots. Conclusions: While the optimal radius of plots and other parameters were sensitive to the measurement times and other cost factors, the concentric plot type was optimal in almost all studied cases. Subsample tree measurement strategies need further studies, as they were an important cost factor. However, their importance to the precision was not as clear. Keywords: Sample, Plot, Forest inventory, Measurement, Cost, Loss

  16. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  17. Charm Dalitz Plot Analysis Formalism and Results

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, David M

    2004-01-01

    Charm meson decay dynamics have been studied extensively over the last decade. We describe the Dalitz-plot analysis technique which has been applied by many experiments to three-body D0, D+ and Ds decays. We discuss experimental results from Mark II, Mark III, E687, E691, ARGUS, E791, FOCUS, CLEO and BABAR. These studies probe a variety of physics including doubly-Cabibbo suppressed decays, searches for CP violation, the properties of established light mesons and the properties of pipi and Kpi S-wave states.

  18. Optimal plot design in a multipurpose forest inventory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Helena M Henttonen; Annika Kangas

    2016-01-01

    Background:We explore the factors affecting the optimal plot design (size and type as well as the subsample tree selection strategies within a plot) and their relative importance in defining the optimal plot design in amultipurpose forest inventory. The factors include time used to lay out the plot and to make the tree measurements within the plot, the between-plot variation of each of the variables of interest in the area, and the measurement and model errors for the different variables. Methods:We simulate different plot types and sizes and subsample tree selection strategies on measuredtest areas from North Lapland. The plot types used are fixed-radius, concentric and relascope plots. Weselect the optimal type and size first at plot level using a cost-plus-loss approach and then at cluster level byminimizing the weighted standard error with fixed budget. Results:As relascope plots are very efficient at the plot level for volume and basal area, and fixed-radius plots for stems per ha, the optimal plot type strongly depends on the relative importance of these variables. The concentric plot seems to be a good compromise between these two in many cases. The subsample tree selection strategy was more important in selecting optimal plot than many other factors. In cluster level, the most important factor is the transfer time between plots. Conclusions:While the optimal radius of plots and other parameters were sensitive to the measurement times and other cost factors, the concentric plot type was optimal in almost al studied cases. Subsample tree measurement strategies need further studies, as they were an important cost factor. However, their importance to the precision was not as clear.

  19. Geo-Ontologies Are Scale Dependent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, A. U.

    2009-04-01

    Philosophers aim at a single ontology that describes "how the world is"; for information systems we aim only at ontologies that describe a conceptualization of reality (Guarino 1995; Gruber 2005). A conceptualization of the world implies a spatial and temporal scale: what are the phenomena, the objects and the speed of their change? Few articles (Reitsma et al. 2003) seem to address that an ontology is scale specific (but many articles indicate that ontologies are scale-free in another sense namely that they are scale free in the link densities between concepts). The scale in the conceptualization can be linked to the observation process. The extent of the support of the physical observation instrument and the sampling theorem indicate what level of detail we find in a dataset. These rules apply for remote sensing or sensor networks alike. An ontology of observations must include scale or level of detail, and concepts derived from observations should carry this relation forward. A simple example: in high resolution remote sensing image agricultural plots and roads between them are shown, at lower resolution, only the plots and not the roads are visible. This gives two ontologies, one with plots and roads, the other with plots only. Note that a neighborhood relation in the two different ontologies also yield different results. References Gruber, T. (2005). "TagOntology - a way to agree on the semantics of tagging data." Retrieved October 29, 2005., from http://tomgruber.org/writing/tagontology-tagcapm-talk.pdf. Guarino, N. (1995). "Formal Ontology, Conceptual Analysis and Knowledge Representation." International Journal of Human and Computer Studies. Special Issue on Formal Ontology, Conceptual Analysis and Knowledge Representation, edited by N. Guarino and R. Poli 43(5/6). Reitsma, F. and T. Bittner (2003). Process, Hierarchy, and Scale. Spatial Information Theory. Cognitive and Computational Foundations of Geographic Information ScienceInternational Conference

  20. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Hullman

    Full Text Available Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs, that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity.

  1. Hypothetical Outcome Plots Outperform Error Bars and Violin Plots for Inferences about Reliability of Variable Ordering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullman, Jessica; Resnick, Paul; Adar, Eytan

    2015-01-01

    Many visual depictions of probability distributions, such as error bars, are difficult for users to accurately interpret. We present and study an alternative representation, Hypothetical Outcome Plots (HOPs), that animates a finite set of individual draws. In contrast to the statistical background required to interpret many static representations of distributions, HOPs require relatively little background knowledge to interpret. Instead, HOPs enables viewers to infer properties of the distribution using mental processes like counting and integration. We conducted an experiment comparing HOPs to error bars and violin plots. With HOPs, people made much more accurate judgments about plots of two and three quantities. Accuracy was similar with all three representations for most questions about distributions of a single quantity. PMID:26571487

  2. NOTE - Minimum number of common bean plants per plot to assess field resistance to white mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    uliana Andrade Dias

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the minimum number of plants per plot to assess the field resistance in common beanto white mold. Thirteen cultivars were inoculated with six isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and evaluated in a randomized blockdesign with three replications and plots consisting of 1-m rows with 15 plants. Plants were inoculated by the straw test as proposedby Petzoldt and Dickson (1996, to evaluate partial resistance in a greenhouse. Eight days after inoculation the disease severity wasevaluated on a 1-9 diagrammatic scale, where 1 = asymptomatic plants to 9 = plant death. To determine the minimum number ofplants per plot, the following methods were used: maximum curvature, segmented linear model, quadratic segmented model and therelative CV model. There were significant differences among cultivars and isolates and no significant cultivar - isolate interaction.It was observed that eight plants per plot is an adequate number to assess the reaction of common bean to white mold.

  3. A Plot Story:The Ransom of Red Chief

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Si-yu

    2015-01-01

    The Ransom of Red Chief is a short story written by O · Henry. Some critics regard it as a plot story but some do not. A typical plot story should focus on the plot:using techniques such as flashback or foreshadowing to unfold the plot and containing exposition, complication, climax, resolution, conclusion to rich the plot. The main characters are presented with internal and ex⁃ternal conflicts as well. In this thesis, a detailed analysis will be presented to prove that this story is really a plot story.

  4. Classification of Plot-Level Fire-Caused Tree Mortality in a Redwood Forest Using Digital Orthophotography and LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D. Bishop

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aerial and satellite imagery are widely used to assess the severity and impact of wildfires. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR is a newer remote sensing technology that has demonstrated utility in measuring vegetation structure. Combined use of imagery and LiDAR may improve the assessment of wildfire impacts compared to imagery alone. Estimation of tree mortality at the plot scale could serve for more rapid, broad-scale, and lower cost post-fire assessments than feasible through field assessment. We assessed the accuracy of classifying color-infrared imagery in combination with post-fire LiDAR, and with differenced (pre- and post-fire LiDAR, in estimating plot percent mortality in a second-growth coast redwood forest near Santa Cruz, CA. Percent mortality of trees greater than 25.4 cm DBH in 47 permanent 0.08 ha plots was categorized as low (<25%, moderate (25%–50%, or high (>50%. The model using Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI from National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP was 74% accurate; the model using NDVI and post-fire LiDAR was 85% accurate, while the model using NDVI and differenced LiDAR was 83% accurate. The addition of post-fire LiDAR data provided a modest increase in accuracy compared to imagery alone, which may not justify the substantial cost of data acquisition. The method demonstrated could be applied to rapidly estimate tree mortality resulting from wildfires at fine to moderate scale.

  5. Recovery of Bacillus and Pseudomonas spp. from the 'fired plots' under shifting cultivation in northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anita; Chaudhry, Shivaji; Sharma, Avinash; Choudhary, Vipin Singh; Malviya, Mukesh Kumar; Chamoli, Swati; Rinu, K; Trivedi, Pankaj; Palni, Lok Man S

    2011-01-01

    Soil samples, collected after the fire operations at agricultural sites under shifting cultivation in northeast India, were subjected to physico-chemical and microbial analysis. The fire affected various physico-chemical properties of the soil. Significant differences in pH and electrical conductivity were recorded in soil of fired and fallow plots. Significantly higher amounts of total organic carbon and nitrogen were estimated in fallow plots as compared to the fired. Difference in total phosphates was not significant. The fire operations resulted in stimulation of microbial communities. The bacteria were the most affected group followed by actinomycetes and fungi, respectively. The bacterial and actinomycetes counts were significantly higher in fired plots as compared to the fallow plots. The representative bacterial species recovered from the 'fired plots' belonged to the genus Bacillus and Pseudomonas. 16S rRNA analysis revealed their maximum similarity with B. clausii, B. licheniformis, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, B. thuringiensis, P. aeruginosa and P. stutzeri. Most of these species were found to be positive for phosphate solubilization and antagonism in plate based assays. In view of the importance of Bacillus and Pseudomonas species in plant growth promotion and biocontrol, recovery of these species after fire operations is indicative of the microbiological merit of shifting cultivation.

  6. Reflection of agricultural modernization and the vitality of small-scale peasant economy in China%农业现代化的反思与中国小农经济生命力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张孝德; 张文明

    2016-01-01

    在农业现代化进程中,小农经济的“存”与“亡”成为学术界和有关部门争论的焦点。部分学者基于农业现代化与传统小农之间生产方式差异性的判断而形成小农经济消亡论。然而,执此类观点者忽视了农业现代化强势之下所引发的农业功能错位、农业经营主体不明、农业大规模经营失灵等问题,忽视了世界农业经济“小规模”经营回归趋势,由此形成对小农经济的认识误区。中国小农经济顽强的生命力需要得到进一步认识:因自给自足及低劳动力成本而形成国家粮食安全保障(生产性),因蕴含农业生态性而促成多元化农业发展(生态性),因体现生命价值与人性而成为农民生计底线(生活性),因维持着乡土社会稳定而成为乡村文化载体(文化性)。小农经济与农业现代化并非是不可调和的矛盾体,认识中国小农经济生命力所在是正确把握中国小农经济发展困境及化解路径的前提,也是走中国特色农业现代化道路的重要保障。%In the process of agricultural modernization,survival or death of the small-scale peasant economy become the focus of academia and relevant departments of the debate.Based on difference of production mode between agricultural modernization and the traditional small-scale peasant economy,some scholars hold that small-scale peasant economy will disappear.However,this view neglects agricultural modernization with the function dislocation,the unknown main body and the failure of agricultural large-scale management,ignores the trend of the world agricultural economy management regression,resulting misunderstanding of small-scale peasant economy.Tenacious vitality of the small-scale peasant economy in China needs to be further understood.Because of self-sufficiency and low labor cost it guanantees a national food security;because of containing various ecological systems it forms

  7. Heterogeneous Molecular Catalysis of Electrochemical Reactions: Volcano Plots and Catalytic Tafel Plots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Cyrille; Savéant, Jean-Michel

    2017-06-14

    We analyze here, in the framework of heterogeneous molecular catalysis, the reasons for the occurrence or nonoccurrence of volcanoes upon plotting the kinetics of the catalytic reaction versus the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate of the catalytic process. As in the case of homogeneous molecular catalysis or catalysis by surface-active metallic sites, a strong motivation of such studies relates to modern energy challenges, particularly those involving small molecules, such as water, hydrogen, oxygen, proton, and carbon dioxide. This motivation is particularly pertinent for what concerns heterogeneous molecular catalysis, since it is commonly preferred to homogeneous molecular catalysis by the same molecules if only for chemical separation purposes and electrolytic cell architecture. As with the two other catalysis modes, the main drawback of the volcano plot approach is the basic assumption that the kinetic responses depend on a single descriptor, viz., the stabilization free energy of the primary intermediate. More comprehensive approaches, investigating the responses to the maximal number of experimental factors, and conveniently expressed as catalytic Tafel plots, should clearly be preferred. This is more so in the case of heterogeneous molecular catalysis in that additional transport factors in the supporting film may additionally affect the current-potential responses. This is attested by the noteworthy presence of maxima in catalytic Tafel plots as well as their dependence upon the cyclic voltammetric scan rate.

  8. Generalized confidence interval plots using commands or dialogs

    OpenAIRE

    Roger Newson

    2005-01-01

    Confidence intervals may be presented as publication-ready tables or as presentation-ready plots. -eclplot- produces plots of estimates and confidence intervals. It inputs a dataset (or resultsset) with one observation per parameter and variables containing estimates, lower and upper confidence limits, and a fourth variable, against which the confidence intervals are plotted. This resultsset can be used for producing both plots and tables, and may be generated using a spreadsheet or using -st...

  9. When does the mean excess plot look linear?

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Souvik

    2010-01-01

    In risk analysis, the mean excess plot is a commonly used exploratory plotting technique for confirming iid data is consistent with a generalized Pareto assumption for the underlying distribution, since in the presence of such a distribution thresholded data have a mean excess plot that is roughly linear. Does any other class of distributions share this linearity of the plot? Under some extra assumptions, we are able to conclude that only the generalized Pareto family has this property.

  10. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  11. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  12. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  13. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  14. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  15. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  16. Variabilidade espacial dos parâmetros hidrodinâmicos de duas parcelas agrícolas no estado da Paraíba Spatial variability of hydrodynamic parameters in two agricultural plots in Paraíba state - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Soares de Souza

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das curvas de retenção e da condutividade hidráulica da água do solo é indispensável para a modelagem do transporte de água e de poluentes em sistemas agrícolas. Essas propriedades são afetadas por numerosas fontes de variabilidade, geralmente associadas a fatores espacial e temporal, e relacionadas com o manejo agrícola. O objetivo desse trabalho foi analisar a variabilidade espacial dos parâmetros das curvas de retenção da água (van Genuchten e da condutividade hidráulica (Brooks & Corey da água do solo, obtidos com o método "Beerkan", que se baseia em ensaios de infiltração simplificados e nas informações texturais do solo. Esses parâmetros são de forma ou texturais (parâmetros de ajuste que dão forma às curvas e de normalização ou estruturais (umidade volumétrica saturada, condutividade hidráulica saturada do solo e potencial de entrada de ar. Os ensaios de campo foram conduzidos em uma malha regular de 25 x 25 m num Neossolo Flúvico e num Latossolo Amarelo cultivados com feijão (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp.. Para ambos os solos, os valores dos parâmetros de forma, da umidade volumétrica saturada, dos logaritmos da condutividade hidráulica saturada e do potencial de entrada de ar apresentaram dependência espacial. Os valores da umidade volumétrica saturada e dos logaritmos do potencial de entrada de ar foram mais sensíveis à variação a pouca distância no Neossolo Flúvico do que do Latossolo Amarelo, com semivariogramas apresentando estruturas de variação com fraca dependência espacial.Knowledge on soil hydraulic properties such as water retention and hydraulic conductivity curves is indispensable for water and pollutant transport modeling of agricultural systems. This soil hydraulic properties are affected by numerous sources of variability, mostly associated with spatial, temporal, and management-related factors. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial variability of

  17. Source apportionment advances using polar plots of bivariate correlation and regression statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grange, Stuart K.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Carslaw, David C.

    2016-11-01

    This paper outlines the development of enhanced bivariate polar plots that allow the concentrations of two pollutants to be compared using pair-wise statistics for exploring the sources of atmospheric pollutants. The new method combines bivariate polar plots, which provide source characteristic information, with pair-wise statistics that provide information on how two pollutants are related to one another. The pair-wise statistics implemented include weighted Pearson correlation and slope from two linear regression methods. The development uses a Gaussian kernel to locally weight the statistical calculations on a wind speed-direction surface together with variable-scaling. Example applications of the enhanced polar plots are presented by using routine air quality data for two monitoring sites in London, United Kingdom for a single year (2013). The London examples demonstrate that the combination of bivariate polar plots, correlation, and regression techniques can offer considerable insight into air pollution source characteristics, which would be missed if only scatter plots and mean polar plots were used for analysis. Specifically, using correlation and slopes as pair-wise statistics, long-range transport processes were isolated and black carbon (BC) contributions to PM2.5 for a kerbside monitoring location were quantified. Wider applications and future advancements are also discussed.

  18. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  19. Water balance of rice plots under three different water treatments: monitoring activity and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Romani, Marco; Facchi, Arianna; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Ferrari, Daniele; Masseroni, Daniele; Rienzner, Michele; Battista Bischetti, Gian; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2014-05-01

    In the agricultural seasons 2012 and 2013, a broad monitoring activity was carried out at the Rice Research Centre of Ente Nazionale Risi (CRR-ENR) located in Castello d'Agogna (PV, Italy) with the purpose of comparing the water balance components of paddy rice (Gladio cv.) under different water regimes and assessing the possibility of reducing the high water inputs related to the conventional practice of continuous submergence. The experiments were laid out in six plots of about 20 m x 80 m each, with two replicates for each of the following water regimes: i) continuous flooding with wet-seeded rice (FLD), ii) continuous flooding from around the 3-leaf stage with dry-seeded rice (3L-FLD), and iii) surface irrigation every 7-10 days with dry-seeded rice (IRR). One out of the two replicates of each treatment was instrumented with: water inflow and outflow meters, set of piezometers, set of tensiometers and multi-sensor moisture probes. Moreover, an eddy covariance station was installed on the bund between the treatments FLD and IRR. Data were automatically recorded and sent by a wireless connection to a PC, so as to be remotely controlled thanks to the development of a Java interface. Furthermore, periodic measurements of crop biometric parameters (LAI, crop height and rooting depth) were performed in both 2012 and 2013 (11 and 14 campaigns respectively). Cumulative water balance components from dry-seeding (3L-FLD and IRR), or flooding (FLD), to harvest were calculated for each plot by either measurements (i.e. rainfall, irrigation and surface drainage) or estimations (i.e. difference in the field water storage, evaporation from both the soil and the water surface and transpiration), whereas the sum of percolation and capillary rise (i.e. the 'net percolation') was obtained as the residual term of the water balance. Incidentally, indices of water application efficiency (evapotranspiration over net water input) and water productivity (grain production over net water

  20. Density Distribution Sunflower Plots in Stata Version 8

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, William D

    2004-01-01

    Density distribution sunflower plots are used to display high-density bivariate data. They are useful for data where a conventional scatter plot is difficult to read due to overstriking of the plot symbol. The x-y plane is subdivided into a lattice of regular hexagonal bins of width w specified by the user. The user also specifies the values of l, d, and k that affect the plot as follows. Individual observations are plotted when there are less than l observations per bin as in a conventional ...

  1. Development of plotting position for the general extreme value distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Shin, Hongjoon; Joo, Kyoungwon; Heo, Jun-Haeng

    2012-12-01

    SummaryProbability plotting positions are used to graphically display the annual maximum rainfall or flood and to estimate the exceedance probabilities of those values. Therefore, the graphical approach using plotting positions has been applied in many hydrology and water resource engineering fields. The definition of unbiased plotting positions by Cunnane (1978) as the mean of the order statistics from reduced variates has influenced researchers to develop the plotting position of the probability distribution containing shape parameters. In this study, the plotting position formula for the general extreme value (GEV) distribution was derived by using the theoretical reduced variates of the GEV distribution for various sample sizes and shape parameters. To choose an appropriate plotting position formula, we examined eight plotting position formula types containing coefficients of skewness or squared coefficients of skewness in the numerator and/or denominator. In addition, the parameters of the plotting position formula for the GEV distribution were estimated by using a genetic optimization method known as the real-coded genetic algorithm (RGA). The accuracy of the derived plotting position formula for the GEV distribution was examined on the basis of the root mean square errors and relative bias between the theoretical reduced variates and those calculated from the derived and existing plotting position formulas. The derived plotting formula was found to be useful if the range of the shape parameter was within ±0.2.

  2. Protected Areas, State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation Land , Maryland Environmental Trust , County Conservation Land, Agriculture Preservation Easement, Agriculture Preservation District, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Eastern Shore Regional GIS Cooperative.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Protected Areas dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale as of 2005. It is described as 'State Conservation Land, Rural Legacy, Private Conservation...

  3. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-08-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literature: the 4-quadrant plot and the polar plot recently proposed by Critchley et al. The polar plot is thought to be the more advanced statistical tool, but care should be taken when it comes to its interpretation. The polar plot excludes possibly important measurements from the data. The polar plot transforms the data nonlinearily, which may prevent it from being seen clearly. In this article, we compare the 4-quadrant and the polar plot in detail and thoroughly describe advantages and limitations of each. We also discuss pitfalls concerning the methods to prepare the researcher for the sound use of both methods. Finally, we briefly revisit the Bland-Altman plot for the use in this context.

  4. Hydrological heterogeneity in agricultural riparian buffer strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hénault-Ethier, Louise; Larocque, Marie; Perron, Rachel; Wiseman, Natalie; Labrecque, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Riparian buffer strips (RBS) may protect surface water and groundwater in agricultural settings, although their effectiveness, observed in field-scale studies, may not extend to a watershed scale. Hydrologically-controlled leaching plots have often shown RBS to be effective at buffering nutrients and pesticides, but uncontrolled field studies have sometimes suggested limited effectiveness. The limited RBS effectiveness may be explained by the spatiotemporal hydrological heterogeneity near non-irrigated fields. This hypothesis was tested in conventional corn and soy fields in the St. Lawrence Lowlands of southern Quebec (Canada), where spring melt brings heavy and rapid runoff, while summer months are hot and dry. One field with a mineral soil (Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan) and another with an organic-rich soil (Boisbriand) were equipped with passive runoff collectors, suction cup lysimeters, and piezometers placed before and after a 3 m-wide RBS, and monitored from 2011 to 2014. Soil topography of the RBS was mapped to a 1 cm vertical precision and a 50 cm sampling grid. On average, surface runoff intersects the RBS perpendicularly, but is subject to substantial local heterogeneity. Groundwater saturates the root zones, but flows little at the time of snowmelt. Groundwater flow is not consistently perpendicular to the RBS, and may reverse, flowing from stream to field under low water flow regimes with stream-aquifer connectivity, thus affecting RBS effectiveness calculations. Groundwater flow direction can be influenced by stratigraphy, local soil hydraulic properties, and historical modification of the agricultural stream beds. Understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of surface and groundwater flows is essential to correctly assess the effectiveness of RBS in intercepting agro-chemical pollution. The implicit assumption that water flows across vegetated RBS, from the field to the stream, should always be verified.

  5. Plant mycorrhizal traits and carbon fates from plot to globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudzilovskaia, N.; Cornelissen, H. H. C.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that plant traits related to mycorrhizal symbiosis, i.e. mycorrhizal type and the degree of plant root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi have important consequences for carbon pools and allocation in plants and soil. How plant and soil carbon pools vary among vegetation dominated by plants of different mycorrhizal types is a new and exciting research challenge. Absence of global databases on abundance of mycorrhizal fungi in soil and plant roots retards research aimed to understand involvement of mycorrhizas into soil carbon transformation processes. Using own data and published studies we have assembled currently world-largest database of plant species-per-site degrees root colonization by two most common types of mycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and ectomycorrhizal (EM). The database features records for plant root colonization degrees by AM and EM (above 8000 records in total). Using this database, we demonstrate that the degree of mycorrhizal fungal colonization has globally consistent patterns across plant species. This suggests that the level of plant species-specific root colonization can be used as a plant trait. I will discuss how combining plot-level field data, literature data and mycorrhizal infection trait data may help us to quantify the carbon consequences of relative dominance by arbuscular versus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vegetation from plot to global scale. To exemplify this method, I will present an assessment of the impacts of EM shrub encroachment on carbon stocks in sub-arctic tundra, and show how the plant trait data (root, leaf, stem and mycorrhizal colonization traits) could predict (1) impacts of AM and EM vegetation on soil carbon budget and (2) changes in soil carbon budget due to increase of EM plants in an AM-dominated ecosystem and visa versa. This approach may help to predict how global change-mediated vegetation shifts, via mycorrhizal carbon pools and dynamics, may affect terrestric and

  6. Split-plot designs for robotic serial dilution assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzas, Jeffrey S; Wager, Carrie G; Lansky, David M

    2011-12-01

    This article explores effective implementation of split-plot designs in serial dilution bioassay using robots. We show that the shortest path for a robot to fill plate wells for a split-plot design is equivalent to the shortest common supersequence problem in combinatorics. We develop an algorithm for finding the shortest common supersequence, provide an R implementation, and explore the distribution of the number of steps required to implement split-plot designs for bioassay through simulation. We also show how to construct collections of split plots that can be filled in a minimal number of steps, thereby demonstrating that split-plot designs can be implemented with nearly the same effort as strip-plot designs. Finally, we provide guidelines for modeling data that result from these designs.

  7. Cross recurrence plot based synchronization of time series

    OpenAIRE

    N. Marwan; Thiel, M.; Nowaczyk, N. R.

    2002-01-01

    The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP) which, among others, enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS). A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of them is compressed or stretched) so ...

  8. Recurrence plot statistics and the effect of embedding

    OpenAIRE

    March, T. K.; Chapman, S. C.; Dendy, R.O.

    2005-01-01

    Recurrence plots provide a graphical representation of the recurrent patterns in a timeseries, the quantification of which is a relatively new field. Here we derive analytical expressions which relate the values of key statistics, notably determinism and entropy of line length distribution, to the correlation sum as a function of embedding dimension. These expressions are obtained by deriving the transformation which generates an embedded recurrence plot from an unembedded plot. A single unem...

  9. Phase Plots of Complex Functions: a Journey in Illustration

    CERN Document Server

    Wegert, Elias

    2010-01-01

    We propose to visualize complex (meromorphic) functions $f$ by their phase $P_f:=f/|f|$. Color--coding the points on the unit circle converts the function $P_f$ to an image (the phase plot of $f$), which represents the function directly on its domain. We discuss how special properties of $f$ are reflected by their phase plots and indicate several applications. In particular we reformulate a universality theorem for Riemann's Zeta function in the language of phase plots.

  10. Ultrasonic beam-plotting with very small spheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, W H; Swan, H

    1991-12-01

    A method of pulse-echo ultrasonic beam plotting is described. It differs from traditional pulse-echo beam plotting in that the ultrasonic pulses are scattered off a totally isolated sphere rather than a sphere suspended on a wire. The method also allows extremely small spheres to be used thus providing greater resolution. It is demonstrated that pulse-echo beam plotting using spheres of different size produces different iso-echo amplitude curves.

  11. Coarse-graining time series data: Recurrence plot of recurrence plots and its application for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Miwa; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series method for characterizing two layers of regularity simultaneously. The key of the method is using the recurrence plots hierarchically, which allows us to preserve the underlying regularities behind the original time series. We demonstrate the proposed method with musical data. The proposed method enables us to visualize both the local and the global musical regularities or two different features at the same time. Furthermore, the determinism scores imply that the proposed method may be useful for analyzing emotional response to the music.

  12. Coarse-graining time series data: Recurrence plot of recurrence plots and its application for music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukino, Miwa; Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki

    2016-02-01

    We propose a nonlinear time series method for characterizing two layers of regularity simultaneously. The key of the method is using the recurrence plots hierarchically, which allows us to preserve the underlying regularities behind the original time series. We demonstrate the proposed method with musical data. The proposed method enables us to visualize both the local and the global musical regularities or two different features at the same time. Furthermore, the determinism scores imply that the proposed method may be useful for analyzing emotional response to the music.

  13. 试论修辞谋划%On Rhetorical Plot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江结宝

    2015-01-01

    Rhetorical plot is the overall design,scheme and specification. It can be divided into macro⁃scopic plot,medium plot and microscopic plot,with different types of general plot and special plot.. Rhetori⁃cal plot is the beginning of rhetorical process running through the whole rhetoric process. Rhetoric should pay attention to research of rhetoric plot. Rhetoric plot is different from rhetorical strategy.%修辞谋划是对修辞行为的整体设计、谋定和规约。修辞谋划可分为宏观谋划、中观谋划和微观谋划三个层次,包括一般谋划和特殊谋划两大类型。修辞谋划是修辞过程的起点,并贯穿整个修辞过程,修辞学应该重视修辞谋划的研究。修辞谋划不同于一般所说的“修辞策略”。

  14. Application of GPS and Near-Surface Geophysical Methods to Evaluate Agricultural Test Plot Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS, ground penetrating radar, resistivity surveying, cone penetrometer probing, and soil sampling were used to measure soil properties that may influence future soil and water management research inherent to a selected set of research fields. A topographic map generated fr...

  15. The physical model of a terraced plot: first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlotto, Chiara; D'Agostino, Vincenzo; Buzzanca, Giacomo

    2017-04-01

    Terrace building have been expanded in the 19th century because of the increased demographic pressure and the need to crop additional areas at steeper slopes. Terraces are also important to regulate the hydrological behavior of the hillslope. Few studies are available in literature on rainfall-runoff processes and flood risk mitigation in terraced areas. Bench terraces, reducing the terrain slope and the length of the overland flow, quantitatively control the runoff flow velocity, facilitating the drainage and thus leading to a reduction of soil erosion. The study of the hydrologic-hydraulic function of terraced slopes is essential in order to evaluate their possible use to cooperate for flood-risk mitigation also preserving the landscape value. This research aims to better focus the times of the hydrological response, which are determined by a hillslope plot bounded by a dry-stone wall, considering both the overland flow and the groundwater. A physical model, characterized by a quasi-real scale, has been built to reproduce the behavior of a 3% outward sloped terrace at bare soil condition. The model consists of a steel metal box (1 m large, 3.3 m long, 2 m high) containing the hillslope terrain. The terrain is equipped with two piezometers, 9 TDR sensors measuring the volumetric water content, a surface spillway at the head releasing the steady discharge under test, a scale at the wall base to measure the outflowing discharge. The experiments deal with different initial moisture condition (non-saturated and saturated), and discharges of 19.5, 12.0 and 5.0 l/min. Each experiment has been replicated, conducting a total number of 12 tests. The volumetric water content analysis produced by the 9 TDR sensors was able to provide a quite satisfactory representation of the soil moisture during the runs. Then, different lag times at the outlet since the inflow initiation were measured both for runoff and groundwater. Moreover, the time of depletion and the piezometer

  16. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, Municipal & Non-Governmental Organization Conservation Lands; LocCons11; Non-State Conservation lands are real property permanently protected from future development by fee simple ownership, conservation or other restrictive easements, or deed restriction, Published in 2011, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as...

  17. Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural, State Conservation Lands; StaCons11; pproximate edges of Conservation Lands protected by the State of Rhode Island through Fee Title Ownership, Conservation Easement, or Deed Restriction., Published in 2011, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Conservation Lands and Preserves, Agricultural dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2011. It...

  18. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  19. Improvement of agricultural economics through integration of small scale heat and power production with non-food value-added products. Techno-economic assessment pyrolysis oil production in Southern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    Based on a Spanish case study, the primary objective of this project is to establish and verify cost and performance parameters for integrated concepts in which agricultural products are utilized as feedstock for both production of non-food value-added products and for small-scale heat and power production. The methodology applied is a techno-economic assessment, evaluating the reliability of the experimental data, isolating areas where further research is needed, and finally assessing the economics of the proposed scheme. (BA)

  20. Calibrated Passive Sampling--Multi-plot Field Measurements of NH3 Emissions with a Combination of Dynamic Tube Method and Passive Samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacholski, Andreas

    2016-03-21

    Agricultural ammonia (NH3) emissions (90% of total EU emissions) are responsible for about 45% airborne eutrophication, 31% soil acidification and 12% fine dust formation within the EU15. But NH3 emissions also mean a considerable loss of nutrients. Many studies on NH3 emission from organic and mineral fertilizer application have been performed in recent decades. Nevertheless, research related to NH3 emissions after application fertilizers is still limited in particular with respect to relationships to emissions, fertilizer type, site conditions and crop growth. Due to the variable response of crops to treatments, effects can only be validated in experimental designs including field replication for statistical testing. The dominating ammonia loss methods yielding quantitative emissions require large field areas, expensive equipment or current supply, which restricts their application in replicated field trials. This protocol describes a new methodology for the measurement of NH3 emissions on many plots linking a simple semi-quantitative measuring method used in all plots, with a quantitative method by simultaneous measurements using both methods on selected plots. As a semi-quantitative measurement method passive samplers are used. The second method is a dynamic chamber method (Dynamic Tube Method) to obtain a transfer quotient, which converts the semi-quantitative losses of the passive sampler to quantitative losses (kg nitrogen ha(-1)). The principle underlying this approach is that passive samplers placed in a homogeneous experimental field have the same NH3 absorption behavior under identical environmental conditions. Therefore, a transfer co-efficient obtained from single passive samplers can be used to scale the values of all passive samplers used in the same field trial. The method proved valid under a wide range of experimental conditions and is recommended to be used under conditions with bare soil or small canopies (<0.3 m). Results obtained from

  1. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.

    2009-01-01

    and most sensitive to the spatial land surface representation. A good agreement was observed in the timing and size of peak flows in catchment dominated by agricultural, forest and urban land uses in periods when E has important control on the water balance and soil water percolation to groundwater...... E modeling, (3) high accuracy remote sensing based estimation of vegetation parameters is particularly important during sparsely vegetated conditions, and (4) the use of component stream flow data to evaluate the physical consistency of spatial-deterministic models appears to be feasible and should...

  2. Monitoring changes in soil carbon resulting from intensive production, a non-traditional agricultural methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Brian P.

    2013-03-01

    New Mexico State University and a group of New Mexico farmers are evaluating an innovative agricultural technique they call Intensive Production (IP). In contrast to conventional agricultural practice, IP uses intercropping, green fallowing, application of soil amendments and soil microbial inocula to sequester carbon as plant biomass, resulting in improved soil quality. Sandia National Laboratories role was to identify a non-invasive, cost effective technology to monitor soil carbon changes. A technological review indicated that Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) best met the farmers objectives. Sandia partnered with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to analyze farmers test plots using a portable LIBS developed at LANL. Real-time LIBS field sample analysis was conducted and grab samples were collected for laboratory comparison. The field and laboratory results correlated well implying the strong potential for LIBS as an economical field scale analytical tool for analysis of elements such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphate.

  3. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  4. Development of gnuplot plotting package for MAD-X

    CERN Document Server

    Romero Leiro, Freddy Jose

    2015-01-01

    MAD-X is a general purpose software for charged-particle optics design and it needs a visualisation tool to be able to show the data in a more manageable way, this visualisation tools being already in MAD-X are the PLOT and SETPLOT commands. Nonetheless issues like compatibility and the desire of having alternative ways to show the plots in a more portable way have lead to explore the use of open source available software to reproduce the same results. The purpose of this project is to create a package compatible with the MAD-X output format, capable of generating publication quality plots, mainly lattice beamline plots and scatter plots by using the Gnuplot for creating plots. This software must support the same options as the PLOT and SETPLOT commands from MAD-X but additions or improvement over the present version are more than welcome. The main purpose of the program is to pre-process the data in order to be ready for Gnuplot to read it and plot it .This report is mostly a description of the development o...

  5. Conceptual recurrence plots: revealing patterns in human discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, Daniel; Smith, Andrew; Wiles, Janet

    2012-06-01

    Human discourse contains a rich mixture of conceptual information. Visualization of the global and local patterns within this data stream is a complex and challenging problem. Recurrence plots are an information visualization technique that can reveal trends and features in complex time series data. The recurrence plot technique works by measuring the similarity of points in a time series to all other points in the same time series and plotting the results in two dimensions. Previous studies have applied recurrence plotting techniques to textual data; however, these approaches plot recurrence using term-based similarity rather than conceptual similarity of the text. We introduce conceptual recurrence plots, which use a model of language to measure similarity between pairs of text utterances, and the similarity of all utterances is measured and displayed. In this paper, we explore how the descriptive power of the recurrence plotting technique can be used to discover patterns of interaction across a series of conversation transcripts. The results suggest that the conceptual recurrence plotting technique is a useful tool for exploring the structure of human discourse.

  6. A Guided Inquiry on Hubble Plots and the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forringer, Ted

    2014-01-01

    In our science for non-science majors course "21st Century Physics," we investigate modern "Hubble plots" (plots of velocity versus distance for deep space objects) in order to discuss the Big Bang, dark matter, and dark energy. There are two potential challenges that our students face when encountering these topics for the…

  7. Precise FIA plot registration using field and dense LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrios Gatziolis

    2009-01-01

    Precise registration of forest inventory and analysis (FIA) plots is a prerequisite for an effective fusion of field data with ancillary spatial information, which is an approach commonly employed in the mapping of various forest parameters. Although the adoption of Global Positioning System technology has improved the precision of plot coordinates obtained during...

  8. Weak limits for exploratory plots in the analysis of extremes

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Bikramjit

    2010-01-01

    Exploratory plotting tools have been devised aplenty in order to diagnose the goodness-of-fit of data sets to a hypothesized distribution. Some of them have found extensive use in diverse areas of finance, telecommunication, environmental science, etc. in order to detect sub-exponential or heavy-tailed behavior in observed data. In this paper we concentrate on two such plotting methodologies: the Quantile-Quantile plots for heavy-tails and the Mean Excess plots. Under the assumption of heavy-tailed behavior of the underlying sample the convergence in probability of these plots to a fixed set in a suitable topology of closed sets of $\\R^2$ has been studied in \\cite{das:resnick:2008} and \\cite{ghosh:resnick:2009}. These results give theoretical justifications for using the plots to test the null hypothesis that the underlying distribution is heavy-tailed by checking if the observed plot is ``close'' to the limit under the null hypothesis. In practice though one set of observations would lead to only one plot of...

  9. Selecting the aspect ratio of a scatter plot based on its delaunay triangulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Martin; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Spoerhase, Joachim; Wolff, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Scatter plots are diagrams that visualize two-dimensional data as sets of points in the plane. They allow users to detect correlations and clusters in the data. Whether or not a user can accomplish these tasks highly depends on the aspect ratio selected for the plot, i.e., the ratio between the horizontal and the vertical extent of the diagram. We argue that an aspect ratio is good if the Delaunay triangulation of the scatter plot at this aspect ratio has some nice geometric property, e.g., a large minimum angle or a small total edge length. More precisely, we consider the following optimization problem. Given a set Q of points in the plane, find a scale factor s such that scaling the x-coordinates of the points in Q by s and the y-coordinates by 1=s yields a point set P(s) that optimizes a property of the Delaunay triangulation of P(s), over all choices of s. We present an algorithm that solves this problem efficiently and demonstrate its usefulness on real-world instances. Moreover, we discuss an empirical test in which we asked 64 participants to choose the aspect ratios of 18 scatter plots. We tested six different quality measures that our algorithm can optimize. In conclusion, minimizing the total edge length and minimizing what we call the 'uncompactness' of the triangles of the Delaunay triangulation yielded the aspect ratios that were most similar to those chosen by the participants in the test.

  10. Applying manifold learning to plotting approximate contour trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Shigeo; Fujishiro, Issei; Okada, Masato

    2009-01-01

    A contour tree is a powerful tool for delineating the topological evolution of isosurfaces of a single-valued function, and thus has been frequently used as a means of extracting features from volumes and their time-varying behaviors. Several sophisticated algorithms have been proposed for constructing contour trees while they often complicate the software implementation especially for higher-dimensional cases such as time-varying volumes. This paper presents a simple yet effective approach to plotting in 3D space, approximate contour trees from a set of scattered samples embedded in the high-dimensional space. Our main idea is to take advantage of manifold learning so that we can elongate the distribution of high-dimensional data samples to embed it into a low-dimensional space while respecting its local proximity of sample points. The contribution of this paper lies in the introduction of new distance metrics to manifold learning, which allows us to reformulate existing algorithms as a variant of currently available dimensionality reduction scheme. Efficient reduction of data sizes together with segmentation capability is also developed to equip our approach with a coarse-to-fine analysis even for large-scale datasets. Examples are provided to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can successfully traverse the features of volumes and their temporal behaviors through the constructed contour trees.

  11. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  12. Superplot: Graphical interface for plotting and analyzing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowlie, Andrew; Bardsley, Michael Hugh

    2016-12-01

    Superplot calculates and plots statistical quantities relevant to parameter inference from a "chain" of samples drawn from a parameter space produced by codes such as MultiNest (ascl:1109.006), BAYES-X (ascl:1505.027), and PolyChord (ascl:1502.011). It offers a graphical interface for browsing a chain of many variables quickly and can produce numerous kinds of publication quality plots, including one- and two-dimensional profile likelihood, three-dimensional scatter plots, and confidence intervals and credible regions. Superplot can also save plots in PDF format, create a summary text file, and export a plot as a pickled object for importing and manipulating in a Python interpreter.

  13. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  14. Positive effects of organic farming on below-ground mutualists: large-scale comparison of mycorrhizal fungal communities in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbruggen, Erik; Röling, Wilfred F M; Gamper, Hannes A; Kowalchuk, George A; Verhoef, Herman A; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2010-06-01

    *The impact of various agricultural practices on soil biodiversity and, in particular, on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), is still poorly understood, although AMF can provide benefit to plants and ecosystems. Here, we tested whether organic farming enhances AMF diversity and whether AMF communities from organically managed fields are more similar to those of species-rich grasslands or conventionally managed fields. *To address this issue, the AMF community composition was assessed in 26 arable fields (13 pairs of organically and conventionally managed fields) and five semi-natural grasslands, all on sandy soil. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism community fingerprinting was used to characterize AMF community composition. *The average number of AMF taxa was highest in grasslands (8.8), intermediate in organically managed fields (6.4) and significantly lower in conventionally managed fields (3.9). Moreover, AMF richness increased significantly with the time since conversion to organic agriculture. AMF communities of organically managed fields were also more similar to those of natural grasslands when compared with those under conventional management, and were less uniform than their conventional counterparts, as expressed by higher beta-diversity (between-site diversity). *We suggest that organic management in agro-ecosystems contributes to the restoration and maintenance of these important below-ground mutualists.

  15. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  17. The local scale, from the periphery. An analysis of the agriculture machinery industry in Las Parejas (province of Santa Fe, Argentina, in connection withits its context in the Argentine economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Narodowski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the possibilities that local development strategies inspired in the reality of European countries may be applied to peripheral countries such as Argentina. A difference is made between a global/national context and a local one. the analysis takes into account geographical, sociological and economic discourses which, considering the Italian and French experience, among others, relativize the national scale as the axis of analysis and focus on the local birth as scale of reference. The agricultural machinery businesses of Las Parejas, in the province of Santa Fe, are used to exemplify how a medium-sized city can generate associative projects which help actors to deal with the context, though this is still a business performance and local productive networks life variable.

  18. Communicating uncertainty to agricultural scientists and professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice; Glendining, Margaret; Perryman, Sarah; Gordon, Taylor; Whitmore, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Models of agricultural systems often aim to predict the impacts of weather and soil nutrients on crop yields and the environment. These models are used to inform scientists, policy makers and farmers on the likely effects of management. For example, a farmer might be interested in the effect of nitrogen fertilizer on his yield, whilst policy makers might be concerned with the possible polluting effects of fertilizer. There are of course uncertainties related to any model predictions and these must be communicated effectively if the end user is to draw proper conclusions and so make sound decisions. We searched the literature and found several methods for expressing the uncertainty in the predictions produced by models. We tested six of these in a formal trial. The methods we considered were: calibrated phrases, such as 'very uncertain' and 'likely', similar to those used by the IPCC; probabilities that the true value of the uncertain quantity lay within a defined range of values; confidence intervals for the expected value; histograms; box plots; and shaded arrays that depict the probability density of the uncertain quantity. We held a series of three workshops at which the participants were invited to assess the six different methods of communicating the uncertainty. In total 64 individuals took part in our study. These individuals were either scientists, policy makers or those who worked in the agricultural industry. The test material comprised four sets of results from models. These results were displayed using each of the six methods described above. The participants were asked to evaluate the methods by filling in a questionnaire. The questions were intended to test how straightforward the content was to interpret and whether each method displayed sufficient information. Our results showed differences in the efficacy of the methods of communication, and interactions with the nature of the target audience. We found that, although the verbal scale was thought to

  19. Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected, National Agricultural Inventory Program - Orthoimagery Statewide, Published in 2005, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Office of Shared Solutions.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aerial Photography and Imagery, Ortho-Corrected dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as...

  20. Animal or Plant Disease, Gypsy Moth spray blocks, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Animal or Plant Disease dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  1. Herds, Milk, DATCP licensed milk producers - including cow, goat, sheep, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Herds, Milk dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'DATCP licensed...

  2. Dairies, DATCP licensed milk distributors, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dairies dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'DATCP licensed milk...

  3. Dairies, DATCP licensed bulk milk tankers, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dairies dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'DATCP licensed bulk...

  4. Dairies, DATCP licensed milk producers - including cow, goat, sheep, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Dairies dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as 'DATCP licensed milk...

  5. Land Use and Land Cover, Agricultural land use, Published in 2009, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Dickinson County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2009. It is described as...

  6. Aquaculture, Fresh Water, DATCP licensed aquaculture producers, Published in 2009, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Aquaculture, Fresh Water dataset, published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2009. It is described as...

  7. BASIN Synthesis and Spatial Mapping of Keeling Plot Data Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, K. P.; Lai, C.; Ehleringer, J.; McDowell, N.; Alstad, K.; Griffis, T.; Bowling, D.; Wingate, L.; Ogee, J.; Burlett, R.; Mortazavi, B.; Knohl, A.; Yakir, D.; Dawson, T.; Members, B.

    2008-12-01

    The "Keeling plot" method has proven to be a robust and highly informative measure of ecosystem- atmosphere interactions, particularly with respect to photosynthesis, respiration and water use efficiency of terrestrial ecosystems. Applied over many years and locations, the archive of Keeling plot data is steadily increasing, especially in light of recent coordinated collection efforts and advances in laser-based technologies. However, meta-analyses of this valuable and potentially informative record remains challenging because of the discontinuous nature of the largely campaign-based and site-specific collections over the years. One of the main objectives of the Biogeosphere-Atmosphere Stable Isotope Network (BASIN) is to facilitate the synthesis and exchange of stable isotope information related to ecosystem processes in carbon and water cycles at various scales. Towards this goal, we have initiated a BASIN-wide effort for routine synthesis of past and future Keeling plot data in the context of an objective and statistically based approach using an artificial neural network (ANN) to help elucidate coherent patterns in the inherently disparate data. Predictive relationships between Keeling plot intercepts and climate and vegetation developed with this method can help to not only reveal patterns in the data that may lead to future process-based research, but can also provide the means to efficiently translate site-specific, campaign-based data into spatial and temporally continuous maps of Keeling plot intercepts. Using this data-intensive approach, the ANN can be continually updated to increase its accuracy and resolution as new data from more sites becomes available. We will describe the various sites and datasets currently available (BASIN, SIBAE, DOE-TCP, etc.), results related to the training and site-specific validation of the ANN, functional responses of Keeling plot intercepts to environmental conditions and vegetation status as revealed through the ANN, and

  8. VTM plots as evidence of historical change: Goldmine or landmine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.

    2004-01-01

    VTM (Vegetation Type Map) plots comprise a huge data set on vegetation composition for many parts of California collected mostly between 1929 and 1935. Historical changes in vegetation have been inferred by sampling these areas many decades later and evaluating the changes in plant dominance. VTM plots can not be precisely relocated, and it has been assumed that errors resulting from this problem are inconsequential or can be eliminated by comparison with a composite of multiple contemporary plots. This study examines that assumption for southern California shrubland landscapes by comparing the differences in species composition between closely positioned VTM-sized plots. Comparing shrub species density in 400-m² plots separated by 30 m (center to center), I found that all species exhibited considerable differences in density even over this short distance. This patchiness in shrub distribution could lead to major errors in historical reconstructions from VTM plot data. Two methods are proposed for dealing with this problem. One is to collect multiple samples from the vicinity of the VTM plot and use the observed spatial variation to set bounds on the temporal changes required to represent significant historical change. The other is to look at broad landscape changes reflected in the averages observed in a large sampling of sites.

  9. CFD Extraction Tool for TecPlot From DPLR Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, David

    2013-01-01

    This invention is a TecPlot macro of a computer program in the TecPlot programming language that processes data from DPLR solutions in TecPlot format. DPLR (Data-Parallel Line Relaxation) is a NASA computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code, and TecPlot is a commercial CFD post-processing tool. The Tec- Plot data is in SI units (same as DPLR output). The invention converts the SI units into British units. The macro modifies the TecPlot data with unit conversions, and adds some extra calculations. After unit conversions, the macro cuts a slice, and adds vectors on the current plot for output format. The macro can also process surface solutions. Existing solutions use manual conversion and superposition. The conversion is complicated because it must be applied to a range of inter-related scalars and vectors to describe a 2D or 3D flow field. It processes the CFD solution to create superposition/comparison of scalars and vectors. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, slow, and cannot be inserted into an automated process. This invention is quick and easy to use, and can be inserted into an automated data-processing algorithm.

  10. Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Forest Sample Plot Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Vastaranta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated a smartphone app (TRESTIMATM for forest sample plot measurements. The app interprets imagery collected from the sample plots using the camera in the smartphone and then estimates forest inventory attributes, including species-specific basal areas (G as well as the diameter (DgM and height (HgM of basal area median trees. The estimates from the smartphone app were compared to forest inventory attributes derived from tree-wise measurements using calipers and a Vertex height measurement device. The data consist of 2169 measured trees from 25 sample plots (32 m × 32 m, dominated by Scots pine and Norway spruce from southern Finland. The root-mean-square errors (RMSEs in the basal area varied from 19.7% to 29.3% and the biases from 11.4% to 18.4% depending on the number of images per sample plot and image shooting location. DgM measurement bias varied from −1.4% to 3.1% and RMSE from 5.2% to 11.6% depending on the tree species. Respectively, HgM bias varied from 5.0% to 8.3% and RMSE 10.0% to 13.6%. In general, four images captured toward the center of the plot provided more accurate results than four images captured away from the plot center. Increasing the number of captured images per plot to the analyses yielded only marginal improvement to the results.

  11. Recurrence plot analysis of nonstationary data: the understanding of curved patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facchini, A; Kantz, H; Tiezzi, E

    2005-08-01

    Recurrence plots of the calls of the Nomascus concolor (Western black crested gibbon) and Hylobates lar (White-handed gibbon) show characteristic circular, curved, and hyperbolic patterns superimposed to the main temporal scale of the signal. It is shown that these patterns are related to particular nonstationarities in the signal. Some of them can be reproduced by artificial signals like frequency modulated sinusoids and sinusoids with time divergent frequency. These modulations are too faint to be resolved by conventional time-frequency analysis with similar precision. Therefore, recurrence plots act as a magnifying glass for the detection of multiple temporal scales in slightly modulated signals. The detected phenomena in these acoustic signals can be explained in the biomechanical context by taking in account the role of the muscles controlling the vocal folds.

  12. The detectability of nitrous oxide mitigation efficacy in intensively grazed pastures using a multiple-plot micrometeorological technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. S. McMillan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Methodologies are required to verify agricultural greenhouse gas mitigation at scales relevant to farm management. Micrometeorological techniques provide a viable approach for comparing fluxes between fields receiving mitigation treatments and control fields. However, they have rarely been applied to spatially verifying treatments aimed at mitigating nitrous oxide emission from intensively grazed pastoral systems. We deployed a micrometeorological system to compare N2O flux among several ~1.5 ha plots in intensively grazed dairy pasture. The sample collection and measurement system is referred to as the Field-Scale Nitrous Oxide Mitigation Assessment System (FS-NOMAS and used a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer to measure N2O gradients to high precision at four locations along a 300 m transect. The utility of the FS-NOMAS to assess mitigation efficacy depends largely on its ability to resolve very small vertical N2O gradients. The performance of the FS-NOMAS was assessed in this respect in laboratory and field-based studies. The FS-NOMAS could reliably resolve gradients of 0.039 ppb between a height of 0.5 and 1.0 m. The gradient resolution achieved corresponded to the ability to detect an inter-plot N2O flux difference of 26 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1 under the most commonly encountered conditions of atmospheric mixing (quantified here by a turbulent transfer coefficient, but this ranged from 11 to 59 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1 as the transfer coefficient ranged between its 5th and 95th percentile. Assuming a likely value of 100 μg N2O–N m−2 h−1 for post-grazing N2O fluxes from intensively grazed New Zealand dairy pasture, the system described here would be capable of detecting a mitigation efficacy of 26% for a single (40 min comparison. We demonstrate that the system has considerably greater sensitivity to treatment effects by measuring cumulative fluxes over extended periods.

  13. Using Zoom Technologies to Display HEP Plots and Talks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, G.

    2012-12-01

    Particle physics conferences and experiments generate a huge number of plots and presentations. It is impossible to keep up. A typical conference (like CHEP) will have 100's of plots. A single analysis result from a major experiment will have almost 50 plots. Scanning a conference or sorting out what plots are new is almost a full time job. The advent of multi-core computing and advanced video cards means that we have more processor power available for visualization than any time in the past. This poster describes two related projects that take advantage of this to solve the viewing problem. The first, Collider Plots, has a backend that looks for new plots released by ATLAS, CMS, CDF, and DZERO and organizes them by date, by experiment, and by subgroup for easy viewing and sorting. It maintains links back to associated conference notes and web pages with full result information. The second project, Deep Conference, renders all the slides as a single large zoomable picture. In both cases, much like a web mapping program, details are revealed as you zoom in. In the case of Collider Plots the plots are stacked as histograms to give visual clues for the most recent updates and activity have occurred. Standard plug-in software for a browser allows a user to zoom in on a portion of the conference that looks interesting. As the user zooms further more and more details become visible, allowing the user to make a quick and cheap decision on whether to spend more time on a particular talk or series of plots. Both projects are available at http://deeptalk.phys.washington.edu. The poster discusses the implementation and use as well as cross platform performance and possible future directions.

  14. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  15. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional chaos by recurrence plots

    CERN Document Server

    Marwana, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional chaos. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a high-dimensional example from the real world.

  16. Recurrence plot analysis of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by applying them to data from the Lorenz96 model. The recurrence plot based measures are able to qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.

  17. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marwan, Norbert; Foerster, Saskia; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. We show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analyzing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world.

  18. An Analysis of Property Rights in Privately Owned Family Plots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MengXiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    In the present Chinese system of rural land ownership, family plots still supplement the collectively-owned rural economy. As they occupy a very small proportion of the total amount of arable land, there has been little study of their economic effects; indeed, they have been totally neglected. In the past, under the planned economy, family plots could provide a diversified source of livelihood for Chinese farmers; at present, they have become a “bottleneck” obstructing the further industrialization of the rural economy. First of all, the ownership system for family plots fragments the system of land ownership, hindering the legal circulation of land-use,

  19. Dalitz plot distributions in presence of triangle singularities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szczepaniak, Adam P., E-mail: aszczepa@indiana.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Theory Center, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Center for Exploration of Energy and Matter, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47403 (United States)

    2016-06-10

    We discuss properties of three-particle Dalitz distributions in coupled channel systems in presence of triangle singularities. The single channel case was discussed long ago [1] where it was found that as a consequence of unitarity, effects of a triangle singularity seen in the Dalitz plot are not seen in Dalitz plot projections. In the coupled channel case we find the same is true for the sum of intensities of all interacting channels. Unlike the single channel case, however, triangle singularities do remain visible in Dalitz plot projections of individual channels.

  20. Does the disturbance hypothesis explain the biomass increase in basin-wide Amazon forest plot data?

    OpenAIRE

    Gloor, M.; Phillips, Oliver L.; Lloyd, J.; Lewis, Simon L.; Malhi, Y; Baker, T. R.; Lopez Gonzalez, G.; J. Peacock; Almeida, S; Alves de Oliveira, Atila Cristina; Alvarez, E; Amaral, Ieda; Arroyo, L.; Aymard, Gerardo; Banki, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    Positive aboveground biomass trends have been reported from old-growth forests across the Amazon basin and hypothesized to reflect a large-scale response to exterior forcing. The result could, however, be an artefact due to a sampling bias induced by the nature of forest growth dynamics. Here, we characterize statistically the disturbance process in Amazon old-growth forests as recorded in 135 forest plots of the RAINFOR network up to 2006, and other independent research programmes, and explo...

  1. Agricultural Investment Environment in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The features of ageing,low educational level and female domination on the part of agricultural labor forces,determine that the sustainable development of agriculture can not rely entirely on farmers,who are engaged in dispersed planting and small-scale operation,therefore,improving agricultural investment environment,and taking positive measures to promote diversification of the main body of agricultural investment,is the key to the healthy development of agriculture.From four aspects(the industrial base of agriculture,arable land resource conditions,capital investment capacity,input of means of production),this article establishes evaluation indicator system of agricultural investment environment in Shaanxi Province,and based on this,make recommendations for improvement of agricultural investment environment in Shaanxi.

  2. Vegetation-plot data and databases in Europe: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaminée, J.H.J.; Hennekens, S.M.; Chytrý, M.; Rodwell, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade many electronic databases of vegetation plots, mainly phytosociological relevés, were established in different European countries. These databases contain information which is extremely valuable for both testing various macroecological hypotheses and for nature conservation

  3. Field Plot Points for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 191 vegetation field plot samples were collected at Voyageurs National Park and environs to support vegetation classification development. Teams of...

  4. Casa Grande Ruins National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Plot Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This layer contains spatial information for 25 plots sampled during vegetation mapping and classification efforts at Casa Grande Ruins NM, AZ. Data was collected by...

  5. 2012 Four Square Mile survey plots : Kulm WMD

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of survey plots for the annual Four-Square-Mile survey conducted on the Kulm Wetland Management District (WMD) as part of a national effort to annually estimate...

  6. The master plot in the audiovisual narrative. The western case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Félix GONZÁLEZ SÁNCHEZ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A plot provides us the story that it offers a hyphen and later a film. Plots are limited, however possibilities, argument them that these offer music infinite. At the same time, we can say that all cultures avail themselves of some plots and similar arguments to structure their mythical stories. In addition, United States is the modern nation where better a dialectic relation between the myth and story keeps. At this nation, the significance of the event has been shown and you have gotten free through the myth. We will see through this article how the western is the kind of American cinema what else and better answer for the folkloric traditional story to the cánones, because your plots have been taken directly of the classical legends.

  7. Recurrence plots of sunspots, solar flux and irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    The paper shows the recurrence and cross recurrence plots of three time series, concerning data of the solar activity. The data are the sunspot number and the values of solar radio flux at 10.7 cm and of solar total irradiance, which are known as highly correlated. To compare the series, the radio flux and irradiance values are monthly averaged. Recurrence plots display the oscillating behaviour with remarkable features. Moreover, cross recurrence plots help in identifying time lags between the sunspot number maximum and the maximum of radio or irradiance signals, in circumstances where the data values are highly dispersed. Image processing is useful too, in enhancing the monitoring. An interesting behaviour is displayed by cross recurrence plots of irradiance, which are not symmetric with respect to the line of identity.

  8. Field Plot Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Wupatki...

  9. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik (Germany); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Foerster, Saskia [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.4 Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-05-08

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analysing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world. - Highlights: • We use recurrence plots for analysing partially extended dynamics. • We investigate the high-dimensional chaos of the Lorenz96 model. • The approach distinguishes different spatio-temporal dynamics. • We use the method for studying vegetation cover time series.

  10. A framework for plot control in interactive story systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgouros, N.M.; Papakonstantinou, G.; Tsanakas, P. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zographou Campus (Greece)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a framework for plot control in interactive story systems. In this framework, the user takes the place of the main character of the story, the protagonist. The rest of the cast consists of discrete characters, each playing a specific role in the story. A separate module in this system, the plot manager, controls the behavior of the cast and specifies what the protagonist can do. The story plot is dynamically shaped by the interference between cast members and their social interactions. The system accepts as input a story map which provides the main metaphor for organizing the plot and localizes the interaction of the protagonist with the rest of the cast. We are implementing this framework in PEGASUS, an interactive travel story environment for Greek mythology.

  11. Graphical interpretation of confidence curves in rankit plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyltoft Petersen, Per; Blaabjerg, Ole; Andersen, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    A well-known transformation from the bell-shaped Gaussian (normal) curve to a straight line in the rankit plot is investigated, and a tool for evaluation of the distribution of reference groups is presented. It is based on the confidence intervals for percentiles of the calculated Gaussian...... distribution and the percentage of cumulative points exceeding these limits. The process is to rank the reference values and plot the cumulative frequency points in a rankit plot with a logarithmic (In=log(e)) transformed abscissa. If the distribution is close to In-Gaussian the cumulative frequency points...... presentation, however, makes it easy to disclose deviations from In-Gaussianity, and to make other interpretations of the distributions, e.g., comparison to non-Gaussian distributions in the same plot, where the cumulative frequency percentage can be read from the ordinate. A long list of examples of In...

  12. China's largest tropical rainforest dynamics plot established in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A 20-ha Tropical Rainforest Dynamics Plot, located in Xishuangbanna in southwestern Yunnan Province, was recently established by the CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden (XTBG) and the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve Administration recently.

  13. Field Plot Points for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation field plots at Tuzigoot NM were visited, described, and documented in a digital database. The database consists of 3 parts - (1)Physical Descriptive Data,...

  14. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierrick Buri

    Full Text Available Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES. We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1 first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES; 2 first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3 first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing. Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year and cumulative (from one year to the following positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  15. Promoting pollinating insects in intensive agricultural matrices: field-scale experimental manipulation of hay-meadow mowing regimes and its effects on bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Pierrick; Humbert, Jean-Yves; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2014-01-01

    Bees are a key component of biodiversity as they ensure a crucial ecosystem service: pollination. This ecosystem service is nowadays threatened, because bees suffer from agricultural intensification. Yet, bees rarely benefit from the measures established to promote biodiversity in farmland, such as agri-environment schemes (AES). We experimentally tested if the spatio-temporal modification of mowing regimes within extensively managed hay meadows, a widespread AES, can promote bees. We applied a randomized block design, replicated 12 times across the Swiss lowlands, that consisted of three different mowing treatments: 1) first cut not before 15 June (conventional regime for meadows within Swiss AES); 2) first cut not before 15 June, as treatment 1 but with 15% of area left uncut serving as a refuge; 3) first cut not before 15 July. Bees were collected with pan traps, twice during the vegetation season (before and after mowing). Wild bee abundance and species richness significantly increased in meadows where uncut refuges were left, in comparison to meadows without refuges: there was both an immediate (within year) and cumulative (from one year to the following) positive effect of the uncut refuge treatment. An immediate positive effect of delayed mowing was also evidenced in both wild bees and honey bees. Conventional AES could easily accommodate such a simple management prescription that promotes farmland biodiversity and is likely to enhance pollination services.

  16. A field-scale study of cadmium phytoremediation in a contaminated agricultural soil at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand: (1) Determination of Cd-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokaew, Saengdao; Landrot, Gautier

    2015-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) phytoremediation capabilities of Gynura pseudochina, Chromolaena odorata, Conyza sumatrensis, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Nicotiana tabacum were determined by conducting in-situ experiments in a highly Cd-contaminated agricultural field at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Most of these five plant species, which are commonly found in Thailand, previously demonstrated Cd-hyperaccumulating capacities under greenhouse conditions. This study represented an important initial step in determining if any of these plants could, under field-conditions, effectively remove Cd from the Mae Sot contaminated fields, which represent a health threat to thousands of local villagers. All plant species had at least a 95% survival rate on the final harvest day. Additionally, all plant species, except C. odorata, could hyperaccumulate the extractable Cd amounts present in the soil, based on their associated Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF), Translocation Factor (TF), and background Vegetation Factor (VF). Therefore, the four Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species identified in this study may successfully treat a majority of contaminated fields at Mae Sot, as it was previously reported that Cd amounts present in a number of these soils were mostly available.

  17. Insights into gait disorders: walking variability using phase plot analysis, Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Johnny; Esser, Patrick; Khalil, Hanan; Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori; DeBono, Katy; Rosser, Anne; Nemeth, Andrea H; Dawes, Helen

    2014-09-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive inherited neurodegenerative disorder. Identifying sensitive methodologies to quantitatively measure early motor changes have been difficult to develop. This exploratory observational study investigated gait variability and symmetry in HD using phase plot analysis. We measured the walking of 22 controls and 35 HD gene carriers (7 premanifest (PreHD)), 16 early/mid (HD1) and 12 late stage (HD2) in Oxford and Cardiff, UK. The unified Huntington's disease rating scale-total motor scores (UHDRS-TMS) and disease burden scores (DBS) were used to quantify disease severity. Data was collected during a clinical walk test (8.8 or 10 m) using an inertial measurement unit attached to the trunk. The 6 middle strides were used to calculate gait variability determined by spatiotemporal parameters (co-efficient of variation (CoV)) and phase plot analysis. Phase plots considered the variability in consecutive wave forms from vertical movement and were quantified by SDA (spatiotemporal variability), SDB (temporal variability), ratio ∀ (ratio SDA:SDB) and Δangleβ (symmetry). Step time CoV was greater in manifest HD (p0.05). Phase plot analysis identified differences between manifest HD and controls for SDB, Ratio ∀ and Δangle (all pplot analysis may be a sensitive method of detecting gait changes in HD and can be performed quickly during clinical walking tests.

  18. Plotting partial correlation and regression in ecological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moya-Laraño

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple regression, the General linear model (GLM and the Generalized linear model (GLZ are widely used in ecology. The widespread use of graphs that include fitted regression lines to document patterns in simple linear regression can be easily extended to these multivariate techniques in plots that show the partial relationship of the dependent variable with each independent variable. However, the latter procedure is not nearly as widely used in ecological studies. In fact, a brief review of the recent ecological literature showed that in ca. 20% of the papers the results of multiple regression are displayed by plotting the dependent variable against the raw values of the independent variable. This latter procedure may be misleading because the value of the partial slope may change in magnitude and even in sign relative to the slope obtained in simple least-squares regression. Plots of partial relationships should be used in these situations. Using numerical simulations and real data we show how displaying plots of partial relationships may also be useful for: 1 visualizing the true scatter of points around the partial regression line, and 2 identifying influential observations and non-linear patterns more efficiently than using plots of residuals vs. fitted values. With the aim to help in the assessment of data quality, we show how partial residual plots (residuals from overall model + predicted values from the explanatory variable vs. the explanatory variable should only be used in restricted situations, and how partial regression plots (residuals of Y on the remaining explanatory variables vs. residuals of the target explanatory variable on the remaining explanatory variables should be the ones displayed in publications because they accurately reflect the scatter of partial correlations. Similarly, these partial plots can be applied to visualize the effect of continuous variables in GLM and GLZ for normal distributions and identity link

  19. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging.

  20. The Ramachandran plots of glycine and pre-proline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasseur Robert

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ramachandran plot is a fundamental tool in the analysis of protein structures. Of the 4 basic types of Ramachandran plots, the interactions that determine the generic and proline Ramachandran plots are well understood. The interactions of the glycine and pre-proline Ramachandran plots are not. Results In glycine, the ψ angle is typically clustered at ψ = 180° and ψ = 0°. We show that these clusters correspond to conformations where either the Ni+1 or O atom is sandwiched between the two Hα atoms of glycine. We show that the shape of the 5 distinct regions of density (the α, αL, βS, βP and βPR regions can be reproduced with electrostatic dipole-dipole interactions. In pre-proline, we analyse the origin of the ζ region of the Ramachandran plot, a region unique to pre-proline. We show that it is stabilized by a COi-1···CδHδi+1 weak hydrogen bond. This is analogous to the COi-1···NHi+1 hydrogen bond that stabilizes the γ region in the generic Ramachandran plot. Conclusion We have identified the specific interactions that affect the backbone of glycine and pre-proline. Knowledge of these interactions will improve current force-fields, and help understand structural motifs containing these residues.

  1. Reviewing ChIPS, The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J.; Burke, D. J.; Evans, I. N.; Evans, J. D.; McLaughlin, W.

    2015-09-01

    The Chandra Imaging and Plotting System (ChIPS) is a 2D plotting system designed to allow users to easily create, manipulate, and produce publication quality visualizations. ChIPS has a simple but very powerful interactive interface that allows users to dynamically modify the contents and layout of their plots quickly and efficiently, with the results of any changes being immediately visible. ChIPS allows users to construct their plots fully interactively, and then save the final plot commands as a Python script. This bypasses the need to iteratively edit and rerun the script when developing the plot. Features such as undo and redo commands allow users to easily step backwards and forwards through previous commands, while the ability so save ChIPS sessions in a platform-independent state file allows the session to be restored at any time, even on another machine. Because ChIPS offers a Python interface, users can analyze their data using the broad array of modules offered in Python, and visualize the information in ChIPS at the same time. In this paper we explore the design decisions behind the development of ChIPS and some of the lessons learned along the way.

  2. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES ON DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LAND MARKET IN SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubica RUMANOVSKÁ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the situation of the agricultural land market in Slovakia and in selected region of the SR – Nitra region, on the application and development of agricultural land prices in Slovakia and on the factors that influence the decisions of agricultural enterprises on the market with agricultural land. In this paper were used primary data obtained with interview method realized within the research of Department of European policies, Slovak University of Agriculture during the period 2012 – 2013 in all districts of region Nitra. The evaluation of the impact of agricultural subject on agricultural land market in Slovakia was realized by using the method of regression analysis. Based on the results from the research we can state that entrepreneurs still prefer more to rent land then to purchase a land. The main factors influencing the decision-making process of agricultural subjects are ownership fragmentation, the fragmentation of agricultural plots and business's financial situation and profitability of the purchase. Many entrepreneurs pointed to this indicator as one of the most influential in terms of increasing the market price, respectively as a reason for not signing the lease agreement. The agricultural land market in Slovakia is emerging but still not sufficiently transparent. Further development of the market will continue to be marked by the overall economic situation in agriculture, relatively low competitiveness of Slovak farmers in the European market and reduced profitability. Research showed that the most pronounced effect on the price of agricultural land and the amount of rent for agricultural land has the number of enterprises. Growing number of farms will increase the price or amount of rent for agricultural land.

  3. Field-Scale Pattern of Denitrifying Microorganisms and N2O Emission Rates Indicate a High Potential for Complete Denitrification in an Agriculturally Used Organic Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Stefanie; Kölbl, Angelika; Ebli, Martin; Buegger, Franz; Schloter, Michael; Fiedler, Sabine

    2017-05-11

    More than 50% of all anthropogenic N2O emissions come from the soil. Drained Histosols that are used for agricultural purposes are particularly potent sources of denitrification due to higher stocks of organic matter and fertiliser application. However, conditions that favour denitrification can vary considerably across a field and change significantly throughout the year. Spatial and temporal denitrifier dynamics were assessed in a drained, intensely managed Histosol by focusing on the genetic nitrite and N2O reduction potential derived from the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ genes. These data were correlated with soil properties at two different points in time in 2013. N2O emissions were measured every 2 weeks over three vegetation periods (2012-2014). Very low N2O emission rates were measured throughout the entire period of investigation in accordance with the geostatistical data that revealed an abundance of microbes carrying the N2O reductase gene nosZ. This, along with neutral soil pH values, is indicative of high microbial denitrification potential. While the distribution of the microbial communities was strongly influenced by total organic carbon and nitrogen pools in March, the spatial distribution pattern was not related to the distribution of soil properties in October, when higher nutrient availability was observed. Different nitrite reducer groups prevailed in spring and autumn. While nirS, followed by nosZ and nirK, was most abundant in March, the latter was the dominant nitrite reductase in October.

  4. Tracking Changes in Cardiac Output: Statistical Considerations on the 4-Quadrant Plot and the Polar Plot Methodology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Saugel, Bernd; Grothe, Oliver; Wagner, Julia Y

    2015-01-01

    When comparing 2 technologies for measuring hemodynamic parameters with regard to their ability to track changes, 2 graphical tools are omnipresent in the literaturethe 4-quadrant plot and the polar...

  5. Increasing the spatial scale of process-based agricultural systems models by representing heterogeneity: The case of urine patches in grazed pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snow, Val O.; Cichota, R; McAuliffe, John

    2017-01-01

    We sought to extend the spatial scale of soil-plant models by including, rather than ignoring, heterogeneity using the deposition of urine patches as an example. Our “pseudo-patches” approach preserves the most important biophysical effects but is computationally-tractable within a multi......-paddock simulation. It explicitly preserves the soil carbon and nitrogen heterogeneity but does not require independent simulation of soil water and plant processes and is temporal in that the patches of heterogeneity can appear and disappear during the simulation. The approach was tested through comparison...

  6. Integration of Multisensor Remote Sensing Data for the Retrieval of Consistent Times Series of High-Resolution NDVI Images for Crop Monitoring in Landscapes Dominated By Small-Scale Farming Agricultural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedano, F.; Kempeneers, P.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for timely and accurate information of food supply and early warnings of production shortfalls. Crop growth models commonly rely on information on vegetation dynamics from low and moderate spatial resolution remote sensing imagery. While the short revisit period of these sensors captures the temporal dynamics of crops, they are not able to monitor small-scale farming areas where environmental factors, crop type and management practices often vary at subpixel level. Although better suited to retrieve fine spatial structure, time series of higher resolution imagery (circa 30 m) are often incomplete due to larger revisit periods and persistent cloud coverage. However, as the Landsat archive expands and more fine resolution Earth observation sensors become available, the possibilities of multisensor integration to monitor crop dynamics with higher level of spatial detail are expanding. We have integrated remote sensing imagery from two moderate resolution sensors (MODIS and PROBA-V) and three medium resolution platforms (Landsat 7- 8; and DMC) to improve the characterization of vegetation dynamics in agricultural landscapes dominated by small-scale farms. We applied a data assimilation method to produce complete temporal sequences of synthetic medium-resolution NDVI images. The method implements a Kalman filter recursive algorithm that incorporates models, observations and their respective uncertainties to generate medium-resolution images at time steps for which only moderate-resolution imagery is available. The results for the study sites show that the time series of synthetic NDVI images captured seasonal vegetation dynamics and maintained the spatial structure of the landscape at higher spatial resolution. A more detailed characterization of spatiotemporal dynamics of vegetation in agricultural systems has the potential to improve the estimates of crop growth models and allow a more precise monitoring and forecasting of crop productivity.

  7. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  8. Agricultural Nutrient Cycling at the Strawberry Creek Watershed: Insights Into Processes Using Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuss, E.; English, M. C.; Spoelstra, J.

    2009-05-01

    When nitrogen availability exceeds biological demand, excess nitrogen, especially nitrate, may subsequently pollute ground and surface water. Agricultural practices in Southern Ontario typically supplement soils with organic and inorganic nutrients to aid in crop development, and employ various management techniques to limit nutrient loss. Excess nitrogen has several potential fates, which are controlled by the net effects of numerous nitrogen cycling reactions in the soil that are often difficult to measure directly. Nitrogen cycling in soils is controlled in large part by soil moisture, as it affects microbial activity and soil redox conditions. Stable isotope geochemistry is a powerful tool that provides information on nitrogen sources and processes. This study uses crop nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios to provide insights into the net effects of soil nitrogen cycling and nitrogen fate. This research was conducted at the Strawberry Creek Watershed (SCW), an agricultural research watershed located between Kitchener-Waterloo and Guelph, Ontario. The SCW exhibits elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater, tile discharge, and the stream itself. Previous isotopic work revealed that this nitrate is largely derived from chemical fertilizer and manure applications. Field-scale hydrological processes lead to areas where the fate of applied nitrogen differs, which has an isotopic effect on the residual nitrogen that is available to plants. Results of this study indicate significant patterns in the isotopic signature of plant tissue, in both temporal and spatial scales. At the plot-scale where soil conditions are similar, there is little to no variation in foliar isotope values, but at the field-scale there appears to be a significant amount of variability related to soil moisture and nitrogen loss. This relationship can potentially provide insight into ideal conditions for nitrogen uptake efficiency. Reducing agricultural nitrogen leaching to ground and surface

  9. Atrial fibrillation detection by heart rate variability in Poincare plot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeon Moongu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AFib is one of the prominent causes of stroke, and its risk increases with age. We need to detect AFib correctly as early as possible to avoid medical disaster because it is likely to proceed into a more serious form in short time. If we can make a portable AFib monitoring system, it will be helpful to many old people because we cannot predict when a patient will have a spasm of AFib. Methods We analyzed heart beat variability from inter-beat intervals obtained by a wavelet-based detector. We made a Poincare plot using the inter-beat intervals. By analyzing the plot, we extracted three feature measures characterizing AFib and non-AFib: the number of clusters, mean stepping increment of inter-beat intervals, and dispersion of the points around a diagonal line in the plot. We divided distribution of the number of clusters into two and calculated mean value of the lower part by k-means clustering method. We classified data whose number of clusters is more than one and less than this mean value as non-AFib data. In the other case, we tried to discriminate AFib from non-AFib using support vector machine with the other feature measures: the mean stepping increment and dispersion of the points in the Poincare plot. Results We found that Poincare plot from non-AFib data showed some pattern, while the plot from AFib data showed irregularly irregular shape. In case of non-AFib data, the definite pattern in the plot manifested itself with some limited number of clusters or closely packed one cluster. In case of AFib data, the number of clusters in the plot was one or too many. We evaluated the accuracy using leave-one-out cross-validation. Mean sensitivity and mean specificity were 91.4% and 92.9% respectively. Conclusions Because pulse beats of ventricles are less likely to be influenced by baseline wandering and noise, we used the inter-beat intervals to diagnose AFib. We visually displayed regularity of the inter

  10. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  11. Analysis of a Split-Plot Experimental Design Applied to a Low-Speed Wind Tunnel Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gary E.

    2013-01-01

    A procedure to analyze a split-plot experimental design featuring two input factors, two levels of randomization, and two error structures in a low-speed wind tunnel investigation of a small-scale model of a fighter airplane configuration is described in this report. Standard commercially-available statistical software was used to analyze the test results obtained in a randomization-restricted environment often encountered in wind tunnel testing. The input factors were differential horizontal stabilizer incidence and the angle of attack. The response variables were the aerodynamic coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment. Using split-plot terminology, the whole plot, or difficult-to-change, factor was the differential horizontal stabilizer incidence, and the subplot, or easy-to-change, factor was the angle of attack. The whole plot and subplot factors were both tested at three levels. Degrees of freedom for the whole plot error were provided by replication in the form of three blocks, or replicates, which were intended to simulate three consecutive days of wind tunnel facility operation. The analysis was conducted in three stages, which yielded the estimated mean squares, multiple regression function coefficients, and corresponding tests of significance for all individual terms at the whole plot and subplot levels for the three aerodynamic response variables. The estimated regression functions included main effects and two-factor interaction for the lift coefficient, main effects, two-factor interaction, and quadratic effects for the drag coefficient, and only main effects for the pitching moment coefficient.

  12. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howden, S.M.; Soussana, J.F.; Tubiello, F.N.; Chhetri, N.; Dunlop, M.; Meinke, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of

  13. Adapting agriculture to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howden, S.M.; Soussana, J.F.; Tubiello, F.N.; Chhetri, N.; Dunlop, M.; Meinke, H.B.

    2007-01-01

    The strong trends in climate change already evident, the likelihood of further changes occurring, and the increasing scale of potential climate impacts give urgency to addressing agricultural adaptation more coherently. There are many potential adaptation options available for marginal change of exi

  14. Land Use and Land Cover, WI Agricultural Statistics Service (WASS) WI Cropland Data Layer. Agriculture and non-ag land cover categories based on survey data (ground truth), satellite imagery classification, FSA common land unit, and 2001 National Land Cover dataset., Published in 2008, 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Land Use and Land Cover dataset, published at 1:100000 (1in=8333ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Observation information as of 2008. It is...

  15. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  16. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  17. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  18. Split-plot Experiments with Unusual Numbers of Subplot Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat

    2007-01-01

    In many experimental situations, it may not be feasible or even possible to run experiments in a completely randomized fashion as usually recommended. Under these circumstances, split-plot experiments in which certain factors are changed less frequently than the others are often used. Most...... of the literature on split-plot designs is based on 2-level factorials. For those designs, the number of subplots is a power of 2. There may however be some situations where for cost purposes or physical constraints, we may need to have unusual number of subplots such as 3, 5, 6, etc. In this article, we explore...... this issue and provide some examples based on the Plackett and Burman designs. Also algorithmically constructed D-optimal split-plot designs are compared to those based on Plackett and Burman designs....

  19. D.3.3 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri

    2012-01-01

    In this third and final deliverable of WP3: Persuasive Learning Designs, the theoretical cross field between persuasion and learning and the practical analysis of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool......, are linked together as persuasive learning designs are defined and exemplified through the four e-PLOT cases. Based on the literary study of D.3.1 as well as the subsequent discussions and reflections regarding the theoretical foundation and practical application of persuasive learning technologies......, and in acknowledgement that the results of this deliverable are to be applicable in both WP4 and 5, the persuasive learning designs presented in this report are not summarized as patterns. Instead the definition of persuasive learning designs is presented on more general terms and exemplified in relation to the e-PLOT...

  20. Cross recurrence plot based synchronization of time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Marwan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP which, among others, enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS. A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of them is compressed or stretched so that they are synchronized. An application of this method to geophysical sediment core data illustrates its suitability for real data. The rock magnetic data of two different sediment cores from the Makarov Basin can be adjusted to each other by using this method, so that they are comparable.

  1. Cross Recurrence Plot Based Synchronization of Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Marwan, N; Nowaczyk, N R

    2002-01-01

    The method of recurrence plots is extended to the cross recurrence plots (CRP), which among others enables the study of synchronization or time differences in two time series. This is emphasized in a distorted main diagonal in the cross recurrence plot, the line of synchronization (LOS). A non-parametrical fit of this LOS can be used to rescale the time axis of the two data series (whereby one of it is e.g. compressed or stretched) so that they are synchronized. An application of this method to geophysical sediment core data illustrates its suitability for real data. The rock magnetic data of two different sediment cores from the Makarov Basin can be adjusted to each other by using this method, so that they are comparable.

  2. Experts’ Misinterpretation of Box Plots – a Dual Processing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Lem

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that students often misinterpret the area of the box in box plots as representing the frequency or proportion of observations in that interval, while it actually represents density. This misinterpretation has been shown to be based on the saliency of this area and can be explained by heuristic reasoning as defined by dual process theories. In this study we tested whether expert users of box plots also display this misinterpretation and show signs of the same heuristic reasoning as found in students. Using a reaction time test, we found signs of heuristic reasoning in experts, both with respect to accuracy and reaction times. If even experts have difficulty interpreting box plots, one can question whether these are an appropriate form of representation to use when reporting data and deserve the prominent place they currently have in the statistics curriculum.

  3. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  4. Economic evaluation of GPS technology in Serbian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Dragan; Pokrajac, Slobodan; Simonović, Vojislav; Marković, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This paper examined the level of savings in the application of the most modern technical systems for satellite guidance and control over performing agricultural operations throughout the season. The exemplary property was Agricultural Corporation Belgrade (PKB), which covers about 21.000 hectares of arable land. The effects of plot shape and direction of movement of tractor-attachment units in calculating the savings from reduced overlapping of adjacent passes were studied. The analysis was c...

  5. Integrating field plots, lidar, and landsat time series to provide temporally consistent annual estimates of biomass from 1990 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren B. Cohen; Hans-Erik Andersen; Sean P. Healey; Gretchen G. Moisen; Todd A. Schroeder; Christopher W. Woodall; Grant M. Domke; Zhiqiang Yang; Robert E. Kennedy; Stephen V. Stehman; Curtis Woodcock; Jim Vogelmann; Zhe Zhu; Chengquan. Huang

    2015-01-01

    We are developing a system that provides temporally consistent biomass estimates for national greenhouse gas inventory reporting to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Our model-assisted estimation framework relies on remote sensing to scale from plot measurements to lidar strip samples, to Landsat time series-based maps. As a demonstration, new...

  6. Design criteria and eigensequence plots for satellite computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahba, G.

    1983-01-01

    The use of the degrees of freedom for signal is proposed as a design criteria for comparing different designs for satellite and other measuring systems. It is also proposed that certain eigensequence plots be examined at the design stage along with appropriate estimates of the parameter lambda playing the role of noise to signal ratio. The degrees of freedom for signal and the eigensequence plots may be determined using prior information in the spectral domain which is presently available along with a description of the system, and simulated data for estimating lambda. This work extends the 1972 work of Weinreb and Crosby.

  7. D.3.2 PLOT Persuasive Learning Design Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hansen, Sandra Burri; Schärfe, Henrik; Winther-Nielsen, Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    of the technological learning tools and products which are currently related to the PLOT project, namely the GLOMaker and the 3ET tool, and a selection of GLOs and learning exercises. The primary focus of the analysis is to explore how the theoretical perspectives presented in D.3.1 are represented in these tools......, in particular the notions of persuasive design and constructive alignment. Whilst the report provides a persuasive design perspective on the technologies related to Euro PLOT, it must be stressed that if the document is to function as a basis for further discussion within the consortium, the partners...

  8. [Recurrence plot analysis of HRV for brain ischemia and asphyxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng

    2008-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is the tiny variability existing in the cycles of the heart beats, which reflects the corresponding balance between sympathetic and vagus nerves. Since the nonlinear characteristic of HRV is confirmed, the Recurrence Plot method, a nonlinear dynamic analysis method based on the complexity, could be used to analyze HRV. The results showed the recurrence plot structures and some quantitative indices (L-Mean, L-Entr) during asphyxia insult vary significantly as compared to those in normal conditions, which offer a new method to monitor brain asphyxia injury.

  9. Recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis of human motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josiński, Henryk; Michalczuk, Agnieszka; Świtoński, Adam; Szczesna, Agnieszka; Wojciechowski, Konrad

    2016-06-01

    The authors present exemplary application of recurrence plots, cross recurrence plots and recurrence quantification analysis for the purpose of exploration of experimental time series describing selected aspects of human motion. Time series were extracted from treadmill gait sequences which were recorded in the Human Motion Laboratory (HML) of the Polish-Japanese Academy of Information Technology in Bytom, Poland by means of the Vicon system. Analysis was focused on the time series representing movements of hip, knee, ankle and wrist joints in the sagittal plane.

  10. Vector plotting as an indication of the approach to flutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A binary flexure-torsion analysis was made to check theoretically a method for predicting flutter which depends on plotting vectorially the amplitudes of response relative to the exciting force and extracting the relevant damping rate. The results of this calculation are given in graphs both of the vector plots themselves and of the estimated damping rate against forward speed. The estimated damping rates are compared with calculated values. The method has the advantage that in a flight flutter test damping can be estimated from continuous excitation records: the method is an extension of the Kennedy and Pancu technique used in ground resonance testing.

  11. Facilitated gate setting by sequential dot plot scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Susanne; Müller, Susann

    2015-07-01

    Microbial communities comprising thousands of unknown organisms can be studied flow cytometrically by applying just one fluorescent parameter and using scatter characteristics of cells. Resulting 2D-plots need to represent high numbers of cells to detect the many subcommunities, even rare ones that might be present in the sample. Evaluation of such data can be faulty and subjective due to the low number of parameters available for data discrimination and the high numbers of overlaying events. Here, we describe a procedure that helps to evaluate such data using facilitated gate setting by sequential dot-plot scanning.

  12. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  13. Evaluation of a Smartphone App for Forest Sample Plot Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Mikko Vastaranta; Eduardo González Latorre; Ville Luoma; Ninni Saarinen; Markus Holopainen; Juha Hyyppä

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated a smartphone app (TRESTIMA(TM)) for forest sample plot measurements. The app interprets imagery collected from the sample plots using the camera in the smartphone and then estimates forest inventory attributes, including species-specific basal areas (G) as well as the diameter (D-gM) and height (H-gM) of basal area median trees. The estimates from the smartphone app were compared to forest inventory attributes derived from tree-wise measurements using calipers and a Vertex height...

  14. On the Nature of Earth-Mars Porkchop Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Ryan C.; Whetsel, Charles W.

    2013-01-01

    Porkchop plots are a quick and convenient tool to help mission designers plan ballistic trajectories between two bodies. Parameter contours give rise to the familiar 'porkchop' shape. Each synodic period the pattern repeats, but not exactly, primarily due to differences in inclination and non-zero eccentricity. In this paper we examine the morphological features of Earth-to-Mars porkchop plots and the orbital characteristics that create them. These results are compared to idealistic and optimized transfers. Conclusions are drawn about 'good' opportunities versus 'bad' opportunities for different mission applications.

  15. PlotXY: A High Quality Plotting System for the Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) and the Astronomical Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuzzo, P.; Li, J.; Caux, E.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Interactive Processing Environment (HIPE) was developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) in collaboration with NASA and the Herschel Instrument Control Centres, to provide the astronomical community a complete environment to process and analyze the data gathered by the Herschel Space Observatory. One of the most important components of HIPE is the plotting system (named PlotXY) that we present here. With PlotXY it is possible to produce easily high quality publication-ready 2D plots. It provides a long list of features, with fully configurable components, and interactive zooming. The entire code of HIPE is written in Java and is open source released under the GNU Lesser General Public License version 3. A new version of PlotXY is being developed to be independent from the HIPE code base; it is available to the software development community for the inclusion in other projects at the URL google.com/p/jplot2d/'>http://code.google.com/p/jplot2d/.

  16. Small Scale Farmers’ Indigenous Agricultural Adaptation Options in the Face of Declining or Stagnant Crop Yields in the Fako and Meme Divisions of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence Epule Epule

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research has proven that, at a national scale in Cameroon, arable crop production is either declining or stagnant. In the face of these trends, governments, local and international organizations, communities and peasant farmers have developed adaptation options to sustain arable production and reduce poverty. Given this general context, and based on population perceptions and four study sites in the Southwest region of Cameroon, this study aims at verifying current trends in arable production and farmers’ adaptation options based on their indigenous knowledge. These analyses are based on the administration of 200 questionnaires and two focus group discussions (FGDs. The data were analysed using SPSS version 20 in which frequencies, percentages and means were calculated. In addition, the chi-squared statistical test of goodness of fit was calculated and the stated hypothesis was validated accordingly. The FGDs were analysed through verbatim transcriptions and with the aid of the context analysis software, Wordstat 7. The results show that current yields (2010–2014 in all the study sites are declining due to deforestation, poor governance, inadequate access to farm inputs such as fertilizers, increased economic opportunities elsewhere and a breakdown of cultural practices, while 10 years (2000–2010 previously, they had been increasing. It has also been found that the main adaptation options/coping mechanisms reported by the respondents in order of highest frquencies are: expansion of farm size, help from relatives and dependents that live on the farm, supplemental occupations or livelihood diversification and usage of organic fertilizers. From the chi-squared test, the alternate hypothesis that, “there is some difference between population proportions for different adaptation options or coping mechanisms” is validated.

  17. Agricultural Geophysics: Past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods are becoming an increasingly valuable tool for agricultural applications. Agricultural geophysics investigations are commonly (although certainly not always) focused on delineating small- and/or large-scale objects/features within the soil profile (~ 0 to 2 m depth) over very lar...

  18. Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft imagery for precision agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Daughtry, Craig S.T.; Mirsky, Steven B.; Hively, W. Dean

    2014-01-01

    An important application of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) may be remote-sensing for precision agriculture, because of its ability to acquire images with very small pixel sizes from low altitude flights. The objective of this study was to compare information obtained from two different pixel sizes, one about a meter (the size of a small vegetation plot) and one about a millimeter. Cereal rye (Secale cereale) was planted at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center for a winter cover crop with fall and spring fertilizer applications, which produced differences in biomass and leaf chlorophyll content. UAS imagery was simulated by placing a Fuji IS-Pro UVIR digital camera at 3-m height looking nadir. An external UV-IR cut filter was used to acquire true-color images; an external red cut filter was used to obtain color-infrared-like images with bands at near-infrared, green, and blue wavelengths. Plot-scale Green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index was correlated with dry aboveground biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.58$ ), whereas the Triangular Greenness Index (TGI) was not correlated with chlorophyll content. We used the SamplePoint program to select 100 pixels systematically; we visually identified the cover type and acquired the digital numbers. The number of rye pixels in each image was better correlated with biomass ( ${mbi {r}} = 0.73$ ), and the average TGI from only leaf pixels was negatively correlated with chlorophyll content ( ${mbi {r}} = -0.72$ ). Thus, better information for crop requirements may be obtained using very small pixel sizes, but new algorithms based on computer vision are needed for analysis. It may not be necessary to geospatially register large numbers of photographs with very small pixel sizes. Instead, images could be analyzed as single plots along field transects.

  19. Variability of Total Below Ground Carbon Allocation amongst Common Agricultural Land Management Practices: a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacha, K. M.; Papanicolaou, T.; Wilson, C. G.

    2010-12-01

    Field measurements and numerical models are currently being used to estimate quantities of Total Belowground Carbon Allocation (TBCA) for three representative land uses, viz. corn, soybeans, and prairie bromegrass for CRP (Conservation Reserve Program) of an agricultural Iowa sub-watershed, located within the Clear Creek Watershed (CCW). Since it is difficult to measure TBCA directly, a mass balance approach has been implemented to estimate TBCA as follows: TBCA = FS + FE+ Δ(CS + CR + CL) - FA , where the term Fs denotes soil respiration; FE is the carbon content of the eroded/deposited soil; ΔCS, ΔCR, ΔCL denote the changes in carbon content of the mineral soil, plant roots, and litter layer, respectively; and FA is the above ground litter fall of dead plant material to the soil. The terms are hypothesized to have a huge impact on TBCA within agricultural settings due to intensive tillage practices, water-driven soil erosion/deposition, and high usage of fertilizer. To test our hypothesis, field measurements are being performed at the plot scale, replicating common agricultural land management practices. Soil respiration (FS) is being measured with an EGM-4 CO2 Gas Analyzer and SRC-1 Soil Respiration Chamber (PP Systems), soil moisture and temperature are recorded in the top 20 cm for each respective soil respiration measurement, and litter fall rates (FA) are acquired by collecting the residue in a calibrated pan. The change in carbon content of the soil (ΔCS), roots (ΔCR) and litter layer (ΔCL) are being analyzed by collecting soil samples throughout the life cycle of the plant. To determine the term FE for the three representative land management practices, a funnel collection system located at the plot outlet was used for collecting the eroded material after natural rainfall events. Field measurements of TBCA at the plot scale via the mass balance approach are used to calibrate the numerical agronomic process model DAYCENT, which simulates the daily

  20. Field Plot and Accuracy Assessment Points for Palo Alto Battlefield National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Accuracy Assessment, Observation and Plot Points. Plot data were collected from 2000-2003; however, minimal attributes were maintained and a plots database was not...