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Sample records for agricultural pesticide exposure

  1. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risks of Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Gary M; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Stevenson, David K; Carmichael, Suzan L; English, Paul B

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides exposures are aspects of the human exposome that have not been sufficiently studied for their contribution to risk for preterm birth. We investigated risks of spontaneous preterm birth from potential residential exposures to 543 individual chemicals and 69 physicochemical groupings that were applied in the San Joaquin Valley of California during the study period, 1998-2011. The study population was derived from birth certificate data linked with Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maternal and infant hospital discharge data. After exclusions, the analytic study base included 197,461 term control births and 27,913 preterm case births. Preterm cases were more narrowly defined as 20-23 weeks (n = 515), 24-27 weeks (n = 1,792), 28-31 weeks (n = 3,098), or 32-36 weeks (n = 22,508). The frequency of any (versus none) pesticide exposure was uniformly lower in each preterm case group relative to the frequency in term controls, irrespective of gestational month of exposure. All odds ratios were below 1.0 for these any versus no exposure comparisons. The majority of odds ratios were below 1.0, many of them statistically precise, for preterm birth and exposures to specific chemical groups or chemicals. This study showed a general lack of increased risk of preterm birth associated with a range of agriculture pesticide exposures near women's residences.

  2. Addressing bystander exposure to agricultural pesticides in life cycle impact assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Morten Walbech; Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Mosqueron, Luc

    2018-01-01

    Residents living near agricultural fields may be exposed to pesticides drifting from the fields after application to different field crops. To address this currently missing exposure pathway in life cycle assessment (LCA), we developed a modeling framework for quantifying exposure of bystanders...... magnitude of individual bystanders can be substantially larger than the exposure of populations not living in the proximity to agricultural fields. Our framework for assessing bystander exposure to pesticide applications closes a relevant gap in the exposure assessment included in LCA for agricultural...... to pesticide spray drift from agricultural fields. Our framework consists of three parts addressing: (1) loss of pesticides from an agricultural field via spray drift; (2) environmental fate of pesticide in air outside of the treated field; and (3) exposure of bystanders to pesticides via inhalation...

  3. Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure: A Safety Program Manual. Participatory Education with Farmworkers in Pesticide Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wake Forest Univ., Winston-Salem, NC. Dept. of Family and Community Medicine.

    Preventing Agricultural Chemical Exposure among North Carolina Farmworkers (PACE) is a project designed to describe farmworker pesticide exposure and to develop an educational intervention to reduce farmworker pesticide exposure. The PACE project used a community participation framework to ensure that the community played a significant role in…

  4. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2015-11-01

    Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N=31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993-1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR=1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR=1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure-response pattern for husband's cumulative use of these pesticides. ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  6. Pesticide exposure and self-reported incident depression among wives in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, John D; Hoppin, Jane A; Richards, Marie; Alavanja, Michael C R; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2013-10-01

    Depression in women is a public health problem. Studies have reported positive associations between pesticides and depression, but few studies were prospective or presented results for women separately. We evaluated associations between pesticide exposure and incident depression among farmers' wives in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study in Iowa and North Carolina. We used data on 16,893 wives who did not report physician-diagnosed depression at enrollment (1993-1997) and who completed a follow-up telephone interview (2005-2010). Among these wives, 1054 reported physician diagnoses of depression at follow-up. We collected information on potential confounders and on ever use of any pesticide, 11 functional and chemical classes of pesticides, and 50 specific pesticides by wives and their husbands via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment. We used inverse probability weighting to adjust for potential confounders and to account for possible selection bias induced by the death or loss of 10,639 wives during follow-up. We used log-binomial regression models to estimate risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After weighting for age at enrollment, state of residence, education level, diabetes diagnosis, and drop out, wives' incident depression was positively associated with diagnosed pesticide poisoning, but was not associated with ever using any pesticide. Use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' depression. Among wives who never used pesticides, husbands' ever use of individual pesticides or functional or chemical classes of pesticides was generally not associated with wives' incident depression. Our study adds further evidence that high level pesticide exposure, such as pesticide poisoning, is associated with increased risk of depression and sets a lower bound on the level of exposure related to depression, thereby providing reassurance that the moderate levels

  7. Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J

    2001-01-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and a...

  8. Pesticide Exposure and Head and Neck Cancers: A Case-Control Study in an Agricultural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amizadeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Causes of head and neck cancers (HNCs are multifactorial, and few studies have investigated the association between chemical exposure and HNCs. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between HNCs, agricultural occupations, and pesticide exposure. The potential for the accumulation of pesticides in the adipose tissue of patients was also investigated.   Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on demographics, occupation, and exposure to pesticides in a hospital-based case-control study. Pesticide residue in the adipose tissue of the neck in both cases and controls was also monitored via gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.   Results: Thirty-one HNC cases were included in this study as well as 32 gender-, age-, and smoking-matched controls. An agricultural occupation was associated with HNC (odds ratio [OR], 3.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13–9.43 after controlling for age, sex, and smoking. Pesticide exposure was associated with total HNC cases (OR, 7.45; 95% CI, 1.78–3.07 and larynx cancer (OR, 9.33; 95% CI, 1.65–52.68. A dose-response pattern was observed for HNC cases (P=0.06 and larynx cancer (P=0.01. In tracing the pesticide residue, five chlorinated pesticides, namely dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT, dichlorodipheny-ldichloroethane (DDD, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE, dieldrin, and lindane, were identified in the adipose tissue. Chlorinated pesticide detection was significantly associated with HNC (OR, 3.91; 95% CI 0.9–0.16.9.   Conclusion: HNCs were found to be associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. A high education level was identified as a modifying factor decreasing the risk of HNCs. Further studies with larger number of subjects are recommended to assess these relationships in greater detail.

  9. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle L; Vandever, Mark; Smalling, Kelly L

    2016-01-15

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado in both grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >2% of the samples included: insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), imidacloprid (13%), fipronil desulfinyl (7%; degradate); fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), pyraclostrobin (11%), fluxapyroxad (9%), and propiconazole (9%); herbicides atrazine (19%) and metolachlor (9%). Concentrations ranged from 1 to 310 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m radius influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in an agricultural landscape are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Multipathway organophosphorus pesticide exposures of preschool children living in agricultural and nonagricultural communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Chensheng; Kedan, Golan; Fisker-Andersen, Jennifer; Kissel, J.C.; Fenske, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Environmental measurements of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides were conducted in the homes of 13 children, who lived either in the Seattle metropolitan area or in the agricultural region of Washington State, to ascertain exposure through multiple pathways. Each home was sampled for two 24-h periods during two seasons, summer and fall. Samples included 24-h indoor air, drinking water, soil, house dust, and hand and toy wipes and 24-h duplicate diets. At least one OP pesticide was found in each of the matrices sampled except for drinking water. Half of the indoor air samples contained detectable levels of chlorpyrifos or diazinon. Detectable levels of diazinon and azinphosmethyl in house dust were found in most of the agricultural homes, whereas only diazinon was found in the Seattle homes in the summer. Quantifiable chlorpyrifos and azinphosmethyl were found on either agricultural children's hands or their toys. These findings suggest different exposure pathways for children living in agricultural and nonagricultural regions

  11. Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J

    2001-05-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and analyses of home-dust samples for pesticide residues of major organophosphates used in area crops. Results indicate that migrant farmworker housing is diverse, and the amounts and types of pesticide residues found in homes differ. Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM in farmworker homes was 1.45 ppm compared to 1.64 ppm in the entry area of grower homes. The median level of AZM in the play areas of grower homes was 0.71 ppm. The levels of AZM in migrant farmworker homes were most associated with the distance from fields and the number of agricultural workers in the home. Although the levels of AZM in growers and farmworker homes were comparable in certain areas, potential for disproportionate exposures occur in areas of the homes where children are most likely to play. The relationship between home resident density, levels of pesticide residues, and play behaviors of children merit further attention.

  12. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides and the Incidence of Lung Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Occupational pesticide use is associated with lung cancer in some, but not all, epidemiologic studies. In the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), we previously reported positive associations between several pesticides and lung cancer incidence. Objective: We evaluated...

  13. An algorithm for quantitatively estimating non-occupational pesticide exposure intensity for spouses in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: Women living or working on farms may be exposed to pesticides from direct occupational use of agricultural pesticides and from non-occupational pathways, such as take-home exposure from skin, clothes and shoes of farmworkers, drift from nearby fields, and pest treatments...

  14. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H Krupke

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen or by contact (soil/planter dust is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed

  15. Breaking the Take Home Pesticide Exposure Pathway for Agricultural Families: Workplace Predictors of Residential Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Richard A.; Lu, Chensheng; Negrete, Maria; Galvin, Kit

    2018-01-01

    Background Pesticides used in agriculture can be taken into worker homes and pose a potential risk for children and other family members. This study focused on identification of potential intervention points at the workplace. Methods Workers (N = 46) recruited from two tree fruit orchards in Washington State were administered a 63-item pesticide safety questionnaire. Dust was collected from commuter vehicles and worker homes and analyzed for four organophosphorus (OP) pesticides (azinphosmethyl, phosmet, chlorpyrifos, malathion). Results Geometric mean azinphosmethyl concentrations in dust for three worker groups (16 pesticide handlers, 15 green fruit thinners, 15 organic orchard workers) ranged from 0.027–1.5 μg/g, with levels in vehicle dust higher than in house dust, and levels in house dust from handlers’ homes higher than levels from tree fruit thinners’ homes. Vehicle and house dust concentrations of azinphosmethyl were highly associated (R2 = 0.44, P < 0.001). Significant differences were found across worker groups for availability of laundry facilities, work boot storage, frequency of hand washing, commuter vehicle use, parking location, and safety training. Conclusions These findings support a focus on intervention activities to reduce take home pesticide exposure closer to the source of contamination; specifically, the workplace and vehicles used to travel to the workplace. Am. J. Ind. Med. 56:1063–1071, 2013. PMID:23853121

  16. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers : an epidemiological and public health perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ohayo - Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communities in Kenya where cotton, tobacco, flowers and other horticultural crops are grown, with a view to developing strategies for the prevention and control of pesticide poisoning. 666 agric...

  17. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutris, J M; How, V; Sumeri, S A; Muhammad, M; Sardi, D; Mohd Mokhtar, M T; Muhammad, H; Ghazi, H F; Isa, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7%) showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm) than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm). There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide) and length of residence in (exposure) the study area.

  18. Genotoxicity following Organophosphate Pesticides Exposure among Orang Asli Children Living in an Agricultural Island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JM Sutris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Agriculture is an important sector for the Malaysian economy. The use of pesticides in agriculture is crucial due to its function in keeping the crops from harmful insects. Children living near agricultural fields are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic risk among children who exposed to pesticides and measure DNA damage due to pesticides exposure. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 180 Orang Asli Mah Meri children aged between 7 and 12 years were studied. They were all living in an agricultural island in Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia. The data for this study were collected via modified validated questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, which consisted of 131 food items. 6 urinary organophosphate metabolites were used as biomarkers for pesticides exposure. For genotoxic risk or genetic damage assessment, the level of DNA damage from exfoliated buccal mucosa cells was measured using the comet assay electrophoresis method. Results: Out of 180 respondents, 84 (46.7% showed positive traces of organophosphate metabolites in their urine. Children with detectable urinary pesticide had a longer tail length (median 43.5; IQR 30.9 to 68.1 μm than those with undetectable urinary pesticides (median 24.7; IQR 9.5 to 48.1 μm. There was a significant association between the extent of DNA damage and the children's age, length of residence in the area, pesticides detection, and frequency of apple consumption. Conclusion: The organophosphate genotoxicity among children is associated with the amount of exposure (detectability of urinary pesticide and length of residence in (exposure the study area.

  19. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers : an epidemiological and public health perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo - Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01


    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural

  20. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Blair

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (n = 88 and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17. Modifications to the algorithm weighting factors were based on geometric means (GM of post-application urine concentrations for applicators grouped by application method and use of chemically-resistant (CR gloves. Measurement data from a second study were also used to evaluate relative exposure levels associated with airblast as compared to hand spray application methods. Algorithm modifications included an increase in the exposure reduction factor for use of CR gloves from 40% to 60%, an increase in the application method weight for boom spray relative to in-furrow and for air blast relative to hand spray, and a decrease in the weight for mixing relative to the new weights assigned for application methods. The weighting factors for the revised algorithm now incorporate exposure measurements taken on Agricultural Health Study (AHS participants for the application methods and personal protective equipment (PPE commonly reported by study participants.

  1. Heavy metals and pesticide exposure from agricultural activities and former agrochemical factory in a Salvadoran rural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteros, Edgar; Ribó, Alexandre; Mejía, Roberto; López, Alejandro; Belteton, Wilfredo; Comandari, Aimee; Orantes, Carlos M; Pleites, Ernesto B; Hernández, Carlos E; López, Dina L

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide handling in farming activities involves substantial hazards for the rural population and for the environment. In Latin America, it is estimated that the population at risk of being affected by heavy metals is over 4 million. This research describes the different types of exposure to pesticides and heavy metals in a rural population (Loma del Gallo), considering both environmental and occupational exposure. This study consists of an inspection in a former pesticide factory (QUIMAGRO), analysis of heavy metals in samples from surface and ground water in the community close to the factory, and a survey to the local population about their perceptions of pesticide exposures. Containers with 34.6 tons of chemicals improperly stored were identified in the former factory and removed by the government. Arsenic and cadmium were found in groundwater, and the highest values were 0.012 and 0.004 mg/l, respectively. These contaminants were also detected in most surface water samples, with maximum values of 0.026 and 0.0001 mg/l, respectively. Results of the survey show that of the 44 participants 42 % were farmers. Farmers used 19 different pesticide products containing 11 active ingredients. The most used active ingredients were paraquat (65 %), methamidophos (35 %), and atrazina (29 %). Eighty-two percent of the farmers did not use personal protective equipment. In addition to the pesticides used in the agriculture of the area, pesticide containers were removed from the QUIMAGRO area, but the pollution was still present at time of sampling and it is evident by the odor of the site. Surface water had the major concentration of heavy metals than the groundwater. Loma del Gallo population has been exposed to toxic pesticide from QUIMAGRO and agriculture for many years. The farmers carry out mishandling of pesticides and they not use PPE.

  2. Exposure of native bees foraging in an agricultural landscape to current-use pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Vandever, Mark W.; Smalling, Kelly L.

    2016-01-01

    The awareness of insects as pollinators and indicators of environmental quality has grown in recent years, partially in response to declines in honey bee (Apis mellifera) populations. While most pesticide research has focused on honey bees, there has been less work on native bee populations. To determine the exposure of native bees to pesticides, bees were collected from an existing research area in northeastern Colorado from two land cover types: grasslands (2013-2014) and wheat fields (2014). Traps were deployed bi-monthly during the summer at each land cover type and all bees, regardless of species, were composited as whole samples and analyzed for 136 current-use pesticides and degradates. This reconnaissance approach provides a sampling of all species and represents overall pesticide exposure (internal and external). Nineteen pesticides and degradates were detected in 54 composite samples collected. Compounds detected in >10% of the samples included the insecticides thiamethoxam (46%), bifenthrin (28%), clothianidin (24%), chlorpyrifos (17%), and imidacloprid (13%), the fungicides azoxystrobin (17%), and pyraclostrobin (11%), and the herbicide atrazine (19%). Concentrations ranged from 1.1 to 312 ng/g for individual pesticides. Pesticides were detected in samples collected from both grasslands and wheat fields; the location of the sample and the surrounding land cover at the 1000 m buffer influenced the pesticides detected but because of a small number of temporally comparable samples, correlations between pesticide concentration and land cover were not significant. The results show native bees collected in both grasslands and wheat fields are exposed to multiple pesticides, these results can direct future research on routes/timing of pesticide exposure and the design of future conservation efforts for pollinators.

  3. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure in agriculture: effects of temperature, ultraviolet light and abrasion on PVC gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ISMAIL, Ismaniza; GASKIN, Sharyn; PISANIELLO, Dino; EDWARDS, John W.

    2017-01-01

    Elbow length PVC gloves are often recommended for protection against organophosphorus pesticide (OP) exposure in agriculture. However, performance may be reduced due to high temperature, UV exposure and abrasion. We sought to assess these impacts for two OPs under normal use and reasonable worst-case scenarios. Glove permeation tests were conducted using ASTM cells with two PVC glove brands at 23°C and 45°C for up to 8 h. Technical grade dichlorvos and formulated diazinon were used undiluted and at application strength. Breakthough of undiluted dichlorvos occurred at both 23°C and 45°C, but only at 45°C for application strength. Breakthrough of diazinon was not achieved, except when undiluted at 45°C. UV-exposed and abraded gloves showed reduced performance, with the effect being approximately two-fold for dichlorvos. Only small differences were noted between glove brands. Extra precautions should be taken when handling concentrated OPs at high temperature, or when using abraded or sunlight-exposed gloves. PMID:29199264

  4. Assessment of occupational exposure to pesticides in agriculture : Pt 1 General aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmen, J.J. van

    1992-01-01

    For registration of pesticides data on toxicology and on occupational exposure are required. In this series of reviews the exposure data available in the published literature for mixing and loading, application and re-entry are considered for the establishment of generic/surrogate data bases with

  5. Pesticide exposure and lymphohaematopoietic cancers: a case-control study in an agricultural region (Larissa, Thessaly, Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokouva, Maria; Bitsolas, Nikolaos; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M; Rachiotis, George; Papadoulis, Nikolaos; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2011-01-04

    The causality of lymphohaematopoietic cancers (LHC) is multifactorial and studies investigating the association between chemical exposure and LHC have produced variable results. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between exposure to pesticides and LHC in an agricultural region of Greece. A structured questionnaire was employed in a hospital-based case control study to gather information on demographics, occupation, exposure to pesticides, agricultural practices, family and medical history and smoking. To control for confounders, backward conditional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used. To assess the dose-response relationship between exposure and disease, the chi-square test for trend was used. Three hundred and fifty-four (354) histologically confirmed LHC cases diagnosed from 2004 to 2006 and 455 sex- and age-matched controls were included in the study. Pesticide exposure was associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.04), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.00-3.51) and leukaemia (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.09-4.20). A dose-response pattern was observed for total LHC cases (P = 0.004), MDS (P = 0.024) and leukaemia (P = 0.002). Pesticide exposure was independently associated with total LHC cases (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.00 - 2.00) and leukaemia (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02-4.12) after controlling for age, smoking and family history (cancers, LHC and immunological disorders). Smoking during application of pesticides was strongly associated with total LHC cases (OR 3.29, 95% CI 1.81-5.98), MDS (OR 3.67, 95% CI 1.18-12.11), leukaemia (OR 10.15, 95% CI 2.15-65.69) and lymphoma (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.02-8.00). This association was even stronger for total LHC cases (OR 18.18, 95% CI 2.38-381.17) when eating simultaneously with pesticide application. Lymphohaematopoietic cancers were associated with pesticide exposure after controlling for confounders. Smoking and eating during pesticide application were identified as

  6. The importance of pesticide exposure duration and mode on the foraging of an agricultural pest predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caitlyn; Hanna, Chadwick J; Hanna, Catherine J B

    2015-02-01

    The striped lynx spider (Oxyopes salticus), is a natural predator of crop pests and therefore frequently encounters pesticides on its substrate and its prey. While pesticide exposure may negatively impact the lifespan of spiders, sublethal effects can also alter their normal behaviors. This study examined how prey capture was affected when spiders and their prey were exposed to bifenthrin and malathion. When spiders were continually exposed to bifenthrin residues, prey capture decreased over time, but mortality was not affected. Malathion exposed spiders, however, showed increased mortality, but their ability to catch prey was unaltered. When spiders encountered pesticide dosed prey, predation was unaffected, implying that spiders are unable to detect residues on prey. These results improve the understanding of how pesticides affect natural pest control and raise questions about the functional roles that spiders play when exposed to different chemicals.

  7. Pesticide resistance from historical agricultural chemical exposure in Thamnocephalus platyurus (Crustacea: Anostraca)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brausch, John M. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)], E-mail: john.brausch@ttu.edu; Smith, Philip N. [Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX 79416 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Extensive pesticide usage in modern agriculture represents a considerable anthropogenic stressor to freshwater ecosystems throughout the United States. Acute toxicity of three of the most commonly used agricultural pesticides (Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, Karmex DF, and DDT) was determined in two different wild-caught strains of the fairy shrimp Thamnocephalus platyurus. Fairy shrimp collected from playas surrounded by native grasslands were between 200% and 400% more sensitive than fairy shrimp derived from playas in agricultural watersheds for Methyl Parathion 4ec, Tempo SC Ultra, and Karmex DF, likely due to the development of resistance. Additionally, reduced sensitivity to DDT was observed among fairy shrimp from agriculturally-impacted playas as compared to those from native grassland-dominated playas. These data suggest that fairy shrimp inhabiting playas in agricultural regions have developed some degree of resistance to a variety of agrochemicals in response to historical usage. - This manuscript discusses the potential effects of long-term pesticide usage on the development of resistance and cross-resistance on a non-target aquatic invertebrate.

  8. Maternal residential exposure to agricultural pesticides and birth defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappazzo, Kristen M; Warren, Joshua L; Meyer, Robert E; Herring, Amy H; Sanders, Alison P; Brownstein, Naomi C; Luben, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agricultural pesticide exposure and birth defects. We linked singleton live birth records for 2003 to 2005 from the North Carolina (NC) State Center for Health Statistics to data from the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Included women had residence at delivery inside NC and infants with gestational ages from 20 to 44 weeks (n = 304,906). Pesticide exposure was assigned using a previously constructed metric, estimating total chemical exposure (pounds of active ingredient) based on crops within 500 meters of maternal residence, specific dates of pregnancy, and chemical application dates based on the planting/harvesting dates of each crop. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for four categories of exposure (90(th) percentiles) compared with unexposed. Models were adjusted for maternal race, age at delivery, education, marital status, and smoking status. We observed elevated ORs for congenital heart defects and certain structural defects affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and musculoskeletal systems (e.g., OR [95% confidence interval] [highest exposure vs. unexposed] for tracheal esophageal fistula/esophageal atresia = 1.98 [0.69, 5.66], and OR for atrial septal defects: 1.70 [1.34, 2.14]). Our results provide some evidence of associations between residential exposure to agricultural pesticides and several birth defects phenotypes. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:240-249, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Residential agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects among offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric; Kegley, Susan E; Brown, Timothy J; English, Paul B; Lammer, Edward J; Shaw, Gary M

    2016-01-01

    We examined associations of birth defects with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications in California. Subjects included 367 cases representing five types of birth defects and 785 nonmalformed controls born 1997 to 2006. Associations with any versus no exposure to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates. Overall, 46% of cases and 38% of controls were classified as exposed to pesticides within a 500 m radius of mother's address during a 3-month periconceptional window. We estimated odds ratios (ORs) for 85 groups and 95 chemicals with five or more exposed cases and control mothers. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CI) excluded 1.0 for 11 ORs for groups and 22 ORs for chemicals, ranging from 1.9 to 3.1 for groups and 1.8 to 4.9 for chemicals except for two that were <1 (noted below). For groups, these ORs were for anotia/microtia (n = 95 cases) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters and neonicotinoids; anorectal atresia/stenosis (n = 77) and alcohol/ethers and organophosphates (these ORs were < 1.0); transverse limb deficiencies (n = 59) and dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, petroleum derivatives, and triazines; and craniosynostosis (n = 79) and alcohol/ethers, avermectins, neonicotinoids, and organophosphates. For chemicals, ORs were: anotia/microtia and five pesticides from the groups dichlorophenoxy acids/esters, copper-containing compounds, neonicotinoids, organophosphates, and triazines; transverse limb deficiency and six pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups copper-containing compounds, 2,6-dinitroanilines, neonicotinoids, petroleum derivatives and polyalkyloxy compounds; craniosynostosis and 10 pesticides - oxyfluorfen and pesticides from the groups alcohol/ethers, avermectins, n-methyl-carbamates, neonicotinoids, ogranophosphates (two chemicals), polyalkyloxy compounds (two chemicals), and pyrethroids; and

  10. Estimated exposure of hands inside the protective gloves used by non-occupational handlers of agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beránková, Martina; Hojerová, Jarmila; Peráčková, Zuzana

    2017-11-01

    Exposure of handlers'/operators' hands is a main route of agricultural pesticides entry into their body. Non-occupational handlers still lack information about appropriate selection of protective gloves to minimize exposure and reduce adverse effects of these chemicals. According to the results of our previous survey, six commercially available, water-resistant gloves commonly used by non-professional gardeners were evaluated for permeation of Acetamiprid, Pirimicarb, and Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Chlorp-m) pesticides by means of in vitro testing. In-use conditions were mimicked as close as possible. Chlorp-m through latex was observed inside the glove from >10 to ⩽15 min; however, Acetamiprid and Pirimicarb through neoprene/latex and all the three pesticides through butyl were not observed inside gloves for the duration of the experiments (the Breakthrough time (BT)>8 h). The 1-h exposure proved the interior glove contamination with Chlorp-m through disposable latex, vinyl, and nitrile gloves (51, 33, and 41% of applied dose (AD), respectively) just as with Acetamiprid and Pirimicarb through latex glove (11 and 14%AD, respectively). However, when storing the used gloves for 4 days after the exposure, no release of the three pesticides from the butyl and Acetamiprid from neoprene/latex gloves was detected. In all other cases, pesticides were found in the interior glove (36-79, 31-63, and 51-81%AD for Acetamiprid, Pirimicarb, and Chlorp-m, respectively). If used repeatedly, gloves contaminated in this way lose their protective function but give the user a false sense of security. The results suggest that (i) water-resistant gloves are not necessarily pesticide resistant; (ii) disposable latex gloves commonly worn by non-professional gardeners provide inadequate protection even for a short-time contact with pesticides; (iii) to assess the efficiency of reusable gloves, not only BT value but also the reservoir/release effect of parent pesticide and its degradation

  11. Pesticide exposure on sloths (Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni) in an agricultural landscape of Northeastern Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnock Branford, Margaret Verónica; de la Cruz, Elba; Solano, Karla; Ramírez, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    Between 2005 and 2008, wild Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni inhabiting an agricultural landscape and captive animals from a rescue center in Northeastern Costa Rica were studied to assess exposure to pesticides. A total of 54 animals were sampled: 42 wild sloths captured at an agricultural landscape and 12 captive animals from a rescue center. Pesticides' active ingredients were determined in three sample matrices: hair, aqueous mixture (paws' wash) and cotton gauze (mouth clean) based on multi-residue gas chromatography methods. Recoveries tests ranged from 73 to 146% and relative standard deviations were less than 20% throughout all the recovery tests. Active ingredients detected in sloths samples were ametryn, chlorothalonil, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, difenoconazole, ethoprophos and thiabendazole. These active ingredients were used in intensive agricultural production for bananas, pineapples and other crops. Blood plasma cholinesterase activity (PChE) was determined by the Ellman method modified for micro plates. Enzyme activity determination was normalized to protein content in the samples according to Bradford method. Wild sloth PChE activity was similar for both species while sloths in captivity showed differences between species. Enzyme activity was significantly lower for two-toed sloths. This study showed that sloths were exposed to pesticides that caused acute and chronic effect in mammals and can also be a threat to other wildlife species. There is a need to better understand the potential effects of exposure to pesticides in sloths and other wild mammal populations, especially those threatened or endangered. More studies in this field must be carried out on the wildlife fauna inhabiting the agricultural landscape and its surroundings.

  12. Proximity to agricultural fields as proxy for environmental exposure to pesticides among children : The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukalasa, Joseph S; Brunekreef, Bert; Brouwer, Maartje; Vermeulen, Roel; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M.; Wijga, Alet; Huss, Anke; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agricultural pesticides are frequently used for crop protection. Residents living in close proximity to treated fields may be exposed to these pesticides. There is some indication that children living near agricultural fields have an increased risk of developing asthma and decreased lung

  13. Investigation of potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cellular stability after the exposure of agricultural workers to pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JODEL S. ALVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agricultural workers involved in the harvest of tobacco crops are regularly exposed to large quantities of pesticides. In order to determine how this exposure to pesticides induces genetic alterations in these workers, blood samples were obtained from 77 exposed individuals, as well as from 60 unexposed subjects. DNA damage was analyzed by the Comet assay and by the micronucleus (MN test. The antioxidant profile was evaluated by activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the polymorphism of gene PON1 was used as a susceptibility biomarker. The content of inorganic elements in the blood samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Our results demonstrated that the damage frequency, damage index, the MN frequency, and the SOD activity were significantly elevated in the exposed relative to the unexposed group. A modulation of the MN results for the PON1 gene was observed in the exposed group. The concentrations of inorganic elements in the exposed group were higher compared to those of the unexposed group. In this study, we observed that genetic damage, and change in oxidative balance were induced by the exposure of workers to complex mixtures of pesticides in the presence of inorganic compounds, whereby an influence of the genotype was evident.

  14. Organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred

    2017-11-01

    Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p < 0.05). Although nearly all associations were positive, fewer statistically significant associations were observed between metrics of solvent exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.

  15. Pesticide exposure - Indian scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. India started pesticide production with manufacturing plant for DDT and benzene hexachloride (BHC) (HCH) in the year 1952. In 1958, India was producing over 5000 metric tonnes of pesticides. Currently, there are approximately 145 pesticides registered for use, and production has increased to approximately 85,000 metric tonnes. Rampant use of these chemicals has given rise to several short-term and long-term adverse effects of these chemicals. The first report of poisoning due to pesticides in India came from Kerala in 1958 where, over 100 people died after consuming wheat flour contaminated with parathion. Subsequently several cases of pesticide-poisoning including the Bhopal disaster have been reported. Despite the fact that the consumption of pesticides in India is still very low, about 0.5 kg/ha of pesticides against 6.60 and 12.0 kg/ha in Korea and Japan, respectively, there has been a widespread contamination of food commodities with pesticide residues, basically due to non-judicious use of pesticides. In India, 51% of food commodities are contaminated with pesticide residues and out of these, 20% have pesticides residues above the maximum residue level values on a worldwide basis. It has been observed that their long-term, low-dose exposure are increasingly linked to human health effects such as immune-suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities, and cancer. In this light, problems of pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, use of biotechnology, and biopesticides, and use of pesticides obtained from natural plant sources such as neem extracts are some of the future strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides

  16. Exposure assessment of organochlorine pesticides, arsenic, and lead in children from the major agricultural areas in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Montenegro, Maria M; Valenzuela-Quintanar, Ana I; Balderas-Cortés, José J; Yañez-Estrada, Leticia; Gutiérrez-Coronado, Maria L; Cuevas-Robles, Alberto; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2013-04-01

    There is a lack of information of exposure to organochlorine pesticides (OCP) and some metals, such as lead (Pb) and arsenic (As), both of which were used as arsenicals pesticides, in children living in the major agricultural areas of Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the exposure of children to different OCP, As, and Pb in the Yaqui and Mayo valleys of Sonora to generate population baseline levels of these toxins. A cross-sectional study was undertaken in 165 children (age 6-12 years old) from 10 communities from both valleys during 2009. Blood samples were analyzed for OCP and Pb and first morning void urine for inorganic As (InAs). All of the blood samples had detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethylene (p,p'-DDE) ranging from 0.25 to 10.3 μg/L. However lindane, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), aldrin, and endosulfan were detected in far less of the population (36.4, 23.6, 9.1, and 3 %, respectively). Methoxychlor and endrin were not found in any sample. The average value of Pb in this population was 3.2 μg Pb/dL (range 0.17-9.0) with 8.5 % of the samples having levels 50 μg/L were observed in 12.7 % of the samples. Our results show that is important to start a risk-reduction program to decrease exposure to these toxins in Mexican communities. In addition, the results can be used to establish the baseline levels of exposure to these toxins in this agricultural region and may be used as a reference point for regulatory agencies.

  17. Pesticide Exposure in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James R.; Karr, Catherine J.

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are a collective term for a wide array of chemicals intended to kill unwanted insects, plants, molds, and rodents. Food, water, and treatment in the home, yard, and school are all potential sources of children’s exposure. Exposures to pesticides may be overt or subacute, and effects range from acute to chronic toxicity. In 2008, pesticides were the ninth most common substance reported to poison control centers, and approximately 45% of all reports of pesticide poisoning were for children. Organophosphate and carbamate poisoning are perhaps the most widely known acute poisoning syndromes, can be diagnosed by depressed red blood cell cholinesterase levels, and have available antidotal therapy. However, numerous other pesticides that may cause acute toxicity, such as pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and rodenticides, also have specific toxic effects; recognition of these effects may help identify acute exposures. Evidence is increasingly emerging about chronic health implications from both acute and chronic exposure. A growing body of epidemiological evidence demonstrates associations between parental use of pesticides, particularly insecticides, with acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors. Prenatal, household, and occupational exposures (maternal and paternal) appear to be the largest risks. Prospective cohort studies link early-life exposure to organophosphates and organochlorine pesticides (primarily DDT) with adverse effects on neurodevelopment and behavior. Among the findings associated with increased pesticide levels are poorer mental development by using the Bayley index and increased scores on measures assessing pervasive developmental disorder, inattention, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related animal toxicology studies provide supportive biological plausibility for these findings. Additional data suggest that there may also be an association between parental pesticide use and adverse birth

  18. Seven-year neurodevelopmental scores and prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos, a common agricultural pesticide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia; Arunajadai, Srikesh; Horton, Megan; Perera, Frederica; Hoepner, Lori; Barr, Dana B; Whyatt, Robin

    2011-08-01

    In a longitudinal birth cohort study of inner-city mothers and children (Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health), we have previously reported that prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF) was associated with neurodevelopmental problems at 3 years of age. The goal of the study was to estimate the relationship between prenatal CPF exposure and neurodevelopment among cohort children at 7 years of age. In a sample of 265 children, participants in a prospective study of air pollution, we measured prenatal CPF exposure using umbilical cord blood plasma (picograms/gram plasma) and 7-year neurodevelopment using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition (WISC-IV). Linear regression models were used to estimate associations, with covariate selection based on two alternate approaches. On average, for each standard deviation increase in CPF exposure (4.61 pg/g), Full-Scale intelligence quotient (IQ) declined by 1.4% and Working Memory declined by 2.8%. Final covariates included maternal educational level, maternal IQ, and quality of the home environment. We found no significant interactions between CPF and any covariates, including the other chemical exposures measured during the prenatal period (environmental tobacco smoke and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). We report evidence of deficits in Working Memory Index and Full-Scale IQ as a function of prenatal CPF exposure at 7 years of age. These findings are important in light of continued widespread use of CPF in agricultural settings and possible longer-term educational implications of early cognitive deficits.

  19. Spatial modeling of personalized exposure dynamics: the case of pesticide use in small-scale agricultural production landscapes of the developing world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binder Claudia R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticide poisoning is a global health issue with the largest impacts in the developing countries where residential and small-scale agricultural areas are often integrated and pesticides sprayed manually. To reduce health risks from pesticide exposure approaches for personalized exposure assessment (PEA are needed. We present a conceptual framework to develop a spatial individual-based model (IBM prototype for assessing potential exposure of farm-workers conducting small-scale agricultural production, which accounts for a considerable portion of global food crop production. Our approach accounts for dynamics in the contaminant distributions in the environment, as well as patterns of movement and activities performed on an individual level under different safety scenarios. We demonstrate a first prototype using data from a study area in a rural part of Colombia, South America. Results Different safety scenarios of PEA were run by including weighting schemes for activities performed under different safety conditions. We examined the sensitivity of individual exposure estimates to varying patterns of pesticide application and varying individual patterns of movement. This resulted in a considerable variation in estimates of magnitude, frequency and duration of exposure over the model runs for each individual as well as between individuals. These findings indicate the influence of patterns of pesticide application, individual spatial patterns of movement as well as safety conditions on personalized exposure in the agricultural production landscape that is the focus of our research. Conclusion This approach represents a conceptual framework for developing individual based models to carry out PEA in small-scale agricultural settings in the developing world based on individual patterns of movement, safety conditions, and dynamic contaminant distributions. The results of our analysis indicate our prototype model is sufficiently

  20. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W.; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting. PMID:24287863

  1. Maternal Residential Exposure to Agricultural Pesticides and Birth Defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agr...

  2. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Schinasi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from a systematic review and a series of meta-analyses of nearly three decades worth of epidemiologic research on the relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and occupational exposure to agricultural pesticide active ingredients and chemical groups. Estimates of associations of NHL with 21 pesticide chemical groups and 80 active ingredients were extracted from 44 papers, all of which reported results from analyses of studies conducted in high-income countries. Random effects meta-analyses showed that phenoxy herbicides, carbamate insecticides, organophosphorus insecticides and the active ingredient lindane, an organochlorine insecticide, were positively associated with NHL. In a handful of papers, associations between pesticides and NHL subtypes were reported; B cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicides and the organophosphorus herbicide glyphosate. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was positively associated with phenoxy herbicide exposure. Despite compelling evidence that NHL is associated with certain chemicals, this review indicates the need for investigations of a larger variety of pesticides in more geographic areas, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which, despite producing a large portion of the world’s agriculture, were missing in the literature that were reviewed.

  3. Residential Agricultural Pesticide Exposures and Risk of Neural Tube Defects and Orofacial Clefts Among Offspring in the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Carmichael, Suzan L.; Roberts, Eric M.; Kegley, Susan E.; Padula, Amy M.; English, Paul B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined whether early gestational exposures to pesticides were associated with an increased risk of anencephaly, spina bifida, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CLP), or cleft palate only. We used population-based data along with detailed information from maternal interviews. Exposure estimates were based on residential proximity to agricultural pesticide applications during early pregnancy. The study population derived from the San Joaquin Valley, California (1997–2006). Analyses included 73 cases with anencephaly, 123 with spina bifida, 277 with CLP, and 117 with cleft palate only in addition to 785 controls. A total of 38% of the subjects were exposed to 52 chemical groups and 257 specific chemicals. There were relatively few elevated odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals that excluded 1 after adjustment for relevant covariates. Those chemical groups included petroleum derivatives for anencephaly, hydroxybenzonitrile herbicides for spina bifida, and 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides and dithiocarbamates-methyl isothiocyanate for CLP. The specific chemicals included 2,4-D dimethylamine salt, methomyl, imidacloprid, and α-(para-nonylphenyl)-ω-hydroxypoly(oxyethylene) phosphate ester for anencephaly; the herbicide bromoxynil octanoate for spina bifida; and trifluralin and maneb for CLP. Adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.6 to 5.1. Given that such odds ratios might have arisen by chance because of the number of comparisons, our study showed a general lack of association between a range of agricultural pesticide exposures and risks of selected birth defects. PMID:24553680

  4. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  5. Agricultural expansion as risk to endangered wildlife: Pesticide exposure in wild chimpanzees and baboons displaying facial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Sabrina; Berny, Philippe; Gumisiriza, Francis; Gross, Régine; Demeneix, Barbara; Fini, Jean Baptiste; Chapman, Colin A; Chapman, Lauren J; Seguya, Andrew; Wasswa, John

    2017-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation. Each pathology could have a congenital component, potentially exacerbated by environmental factors. In addition, at least six of 35 photographed baboons from a Sebitoli troop (17%) have similar severe nasal deformities. Our inquiries in villages and tea factories near Sebitoli revealed use of eight pesticides (glyphosate, cypermethrin, profenofos, mancozeb, metalaxyl, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and 2,4-D amine). Chemical analysis of samples collected from 2014 to 2016 showed that mean levels of pesticides in fresh maize stems and seeds, soils, and river sediments in the vicinity of the chimpanzee territory exceed recommended limits. Notably, excess levels were found for total DDT and its metabolite pp'-DDE and for chlorpyrifos in fresh maize seeds and in fish from Sebitoli. Imidacloprid was detected in coated maize seeds planted at the edge the forest and in fish samples from the Sebitoli area, while no pesticides were detected in fish from central park areas. Since some of these pesticides are thyroid hormone disruptors, we postulate that excessive pesticide use in the Sebitoli area may contribute to facial dysplasia in chimpanzees and baboons through this endocrine pathway. Chimpanzees are considered as endangered by IUCN and besides their intrinsic value and status as closely related to humans, they

  6. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metayer, C.; Buffler, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  7. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus ®, 0.1 μg active...

  8. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  9. Survey and Risk Assessment of Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Exposure to Neonicotinoid Pesticides in Urban, Rural, and Agricultural Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, T J; Culbert, E M; Felsot, A S; Hebert, V R; Sheppard, W S

    2016-04-01

    A comparative assessment of apiaries in urban, rural, and agricultural areas was undertaken in 2013 and 2014 to examine potential honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides from pollen foraging. Apiaries ranged in size from one to hundreds of honey bee colonies, and included those operated by commercial, sideline (semicommercial), and hobbyist beekeepers. Residues in and on wax and beebread (stored pollen in the hive) were evaluated for the nitro-substituted neonicotinoid insecticides imidacloprid and its olefin metabolite and the active ingredients clothianidin, thiamethoxam, and dinotefuran. Beebread and comb wax collected from hives in agricultural landscapes were more likely to have detectable residues of thiamethoxam and clothianidin than that collected from hives in rural or urban areas (∼50% of samples vs. bee behavior or colony health.

  10. Agricultural and residential pesticides in wipe samples from farmworker family residences in North Carolina and Virginia.

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Rao, Pamela; Snively, Beverly M; Camann, David E; Doran, Alicia M; Yau, Alice Y; Hoppin, Jane A; Jackson, David S

    2004-01-01

    Children of farmworkers can be exposed to pesticides through multiple pathways, including agricultural take-home and drift as well as residential applications. Because farmworker families often live in poor-quality housing, the exposure from residential pesticide use may be substantial. We measured eight locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses in residences of 41 farmworker families with at least one child < 7 years of age in western North Caro...

  11. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damalas, Christos A.; Eleftherohorinos, Ilias G.

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms), many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization of the already

  12. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  13. Agricultural pesticide use and adverse birth outcomes in the San Joaquin Valley of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Ashley E; Gaines, Steven D; Deschênes, Olivier

    2017-08-29

    Virtually all agricultural communities worldwide are exposed to agricultural pesticides. Yet, the health consequences of such exposure are poorly understood, and the scientific literature remains ambiguous. Using individual birth and demographic characteristics for over 500 000 birth observations between 1997-2011 in the agriculturally dominated San Joaquin Valley, California, we statistically investigate if residential agricultural pesticide exposure during gestation, by trimester, and by toxicity influences birth weight, gestational length, or birth abnormalities. Overall, our analysis indicates that agricultural pesticide exposure increases adverse birth outcomes by 5-9%, but only among the population exposed to very high quantities of pesticides (e.g., top 5th percentile, i.e., ~4200 kg applied over gestation). Thus, policies and interventions targeting the extreme right tail of the pesticide distribution near human habitation could largely eliminate the adverse birth outcomes associated with agricultural pesticide exposure documented in this study.The health consequences of exposure to pesticides are uncertain and subject to much debate. Here, the effect of exposure during pregnancy is investigated in an agriculturally dominated residential area, showing that an increase in adverse birth outcomes is observed with very high levels of pesticide exposure.

  14. Effects of Agricultural Management Policies on the Exposure of Black-Winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus Chicks to Cholinesterase-Inhibiting Pesticides in Rice Fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio M Toral

    Full Text Available Levels of exposure to pesticides in rice fields can be significant depending on the environmental policies practiced. The aim of European Union integrated management policy is to reduce pesticide use and impact on environment. Rice fields provide an alternative breeding habitat for many waterbirds that are exposed to the pesticides used and therefore can be valuable indicators of their risk for wildlife. To evaluate integrated management success we examined exposure of Black-winged Stilts (Himantopus himantopus to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides in rice fields under different types of management by measuring plasma cholinesterase activity. Cholinesterase activity was lower in birds sampled in (a 2008 after a period of intense pesticide application, than in (b 2005-2007 and 2011 in rice fields subject to integrated management in Doñana (SW Spain and (c in control natural wetlands in Spain and Morocco. During 2009 and 2010, cholinesterase activity was lower in rice fields in Doñana than in rice fields in Larache and Sidi Allal Tazi (NW Morocco. Our results suggest that integrated management successfully reduced the exposure of Black-winged Stilts to pesticides in most of the years. Care should be taken to implement mosquito and pest crop controls on time and with environmentally friendly products in order to reduce its impact on wildlife.

  15. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F; Engel, Lawrence S; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P

    2016-01-01

    Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 39 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Via linkage to the US Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrolment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55 580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided information on use of pesticides via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: (1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 39 pesticides, (2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures and (3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalisation. Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide permethrin. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR=2.13; 95% CI 1.17 to 3.89) and hospitalisation due to pesticide use (HR=3.05; 95% CI 1.67 to 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides, and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00352924. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Trends of pesticide exposure and related cases in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jinky Leilanie; Cosca, Katherine Z; Del Mundo, Jocelyn

    2010-01-01

    The study aims to provide a comprehensive trend of pesticide poisoning cases in the Philippines as well as pesticide exposures, and risk factors related to the adverse effects of pesticide. Records were gathered from the National Poison Control and Management Center (NPCMC), the Philippine General Hospital, De La Salle Medical Center, and other hospitals, and reviewed research studies conducted in the Philippines. Based on hospital surveys, the number of pesticide cases as well as mortality trends have been increasing. Studies from 2006 to 2010 showed that human health especially those of the farmers is at risk due to pesticide exposure. Illnesses and symptoms such as headache, skin abnormalities, fatigue, fever, and weaknesses were the common health complaints experienced by the farmers as reported in the research studies. Moreover, the studies showed risk factors to pesticide exposure, work practices, and pesticide residues in environmental media that could be contributory to pesticide poisoning cases. Government agencies should intensify their surveillance and regulation on both household and agricultural pesticides. The state of pesticide-related illnesses mirrors the poor safety practices among farmers as well as lack of necessary supervision from the government agencies.

  17. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  18. Sittig's handbook of pesticides and agricultural chemicals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greene, Stanley A; Pohanish, Richard P

    2005-01-01

    ... Card Number: 2005005935 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Sittig's handbook of pesticides and agricultural chemicals / edited by Stanley A. Greene and Richard P. Pohanish. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references. ISBN 0-8155-1516-2 (alk. paper) 1. Fertilizers--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Fertilizers--Environmental aspects--Ha...

  19. Dermal Exposure Associated with Occupational End Use of Pesticides and the Role of Protective Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewan MacFarlane

    2013-09-01

    Conclusions: Although international and national efforts to reduce pesticide exposure through regulatory means should continue, it is difficult in the agricultural sector to implement engineering or system controls. It is clear that use of PPE does reduce dermal pesticide exposure but compliance among the majority of occupationally exposed pesticide end users appears to be poor. More research is needed on higher-order controls to reduce pesticide exposure and to understand the reasons for poor compliance with PPE and identify effective training methods.

  20. Climate change: the potential impact on occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatto, Maria Pia; Cabella, Renato; Gherardi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the possible influence of global climate change (GCC) on exposure to plant protection products (PPP) in the workplace. The paper has evaluated the main potential relationships between GCC and occupational exposure to pesticides, by highlighting how global warming might affect their future use and by reviewing its possible consequence on workers' exposure. Global warming, influencing the spatial and temporal distribution and proliferation of weeds, the impact of already present insect pests and pathogens and the introduction of new infesting species, could cause a changed use of pesticides in terms of higher amounts, doses and types of products applied, so influencing the human exposure to them during agricultural activities. GCC, in particular heat waves, may also potentially have impact on workers' susceptibility to pesticides absorption. Prevention policies of health in the workplace must be ready to address new risks from occupational exposure to pesticide, presumably different from current risks, since an increased use may be expected.

  1. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrón, Tesifón; Requena, Mar; Hernández, Antonio F.; Alarcón, Raquel

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: ► Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative–psychiatric disorders. ► Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. ► Males from areas with high pesticide exposure had a higher risk of polyneuropathy.

  2. Hazard-ranking of agricultural pesticides for chronic health effects in Yuma County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J; Beamer, Paloma I; Lutz, Eric A; Rosales, Cecilia B

    2013-10-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam-sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugeng, Anastasia J.; Beamer, Paloma I.; Lutz, Eric A.; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modified, and novel schemes for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity were developed to rank pesticide hazards. The hazard-ranking schemes accounted for pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential based on chemical properties of each pesticide. Pesticides were ranked as hazards with respect to each health effect, as well as overall chronic health effects. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides for overall chronic health effects were maneb, metam sodium, trifluralin, pronamide, and bifenthrin. The relative pesticide rankings were unique for each health effect. The highest hazard-ranked pesticides differed from those most heavily applied, as well as from those previously detected in Yuma homes over a decade ago. The most hazardous pesticides for cancer in Yuma County, Arizona were also different from a previous hazard-ranking applied in California. Hazard-ranking schemes that take into account pesticide use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize pesticides of greatest health risk in agricultural communities. This study is the first to provide pesticide hazard-rankings for endocrine disruption and reproductive/developmental toxicity based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential. These hazard-ranking schemes can be applied to other agricultural communities for prioritizing community-specific pesticide hazards to target decreasing health risk. PMID:23783270

  4. Hair 2010 Documentation: Calculating risk indicators related to agricultural use of pesticides within the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijne, R.; Deneer, J.W.; Lahr, J.; Vlaming, J.

    2011-01-01

    The HAIR instrument calculates risk indicators related to the agricultural use of pesticides in EU Member States. HAIR combines databases and models for calculating potential environmental environmental effects expressed by the exposure toxicity ratio.

  5. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  6. 40 CFR 161.55 - Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 161.55 Section 161.55 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES General Provisions § 161.55 Agricultural vs. non-agricultural pesticides. Section 25(a)(1) of FIFRA instructs the...

  7. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R.; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C. H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Objectives: Our aim

  8. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  9. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.

    2006-01-01

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment

  10. Maternal pesticide use and birth weight in the agricultural health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Basso, Olga; Karr, Catherine J; Lozano, Paula; Alavanja, Michael; Sandler, Dale P; Hoppin, Jane A

    2010-04-01

    Studies examining the association between maternal pesticide exposure and low birth weight yield conflicting results. The authors examined the association between maternal pesticide use and birth weight among women in the Agricultural Health Study, a large study of pesticide applicators and their spouses in Iowa and North Carolina. The authors evaluated self-reported pesticide use of 27 individual pesticides in relation to birth weight among 2246 farm women whose most recent singleton birth occurred within 5 years of enrollment (1993-1997). The authors used linear regression models adjusted for site, preterm birth, medical parity, maternal body mass index, height, and smoking. The results showed that mean infant birth weight was 3586 g (+/- 546 g), and 3% of the infants were low birth weight (birth weight. Ever use of the pesticide carbaryl was associated with decreased birth weight (-82 g, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -132, -31). This study thus provides limited evidence about pesticide use as a modulator of birth weight. Overall, the authors observed no associations between birth weight and pesticide-related activities during early pregnancy; however, the authors have no data on temporal specificity of individual pesticide exposures prior to or during pregnancy and therefore cannot draw conclusions related to these exposure windows. Given the widespread exposure to pesticide products, additional evaluation of maternal pregnancy exposures at specific time windows and subsequent birth outcomes is warranted.

  11. Reproductive disorders associated with pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Linda M

    2007-01-01

    Exposure of men or women to certain pesticides at sufficient doses may increase the risk for sperm abnormalities, decreased fertility, a deficit of male children, spontaneous abortion, birth defects or fetal growth retardation. Pesticides from workplace or environmental exposures enter breast milk. Certain pesticides have been linked to developmental neurobehavioral problems, altered function of immune cells and possibly childhood leukemia. In well-designed epidemiologic studies, adverse reproductive or developmental effects have been associated with mixed pesticide exposure in occupational settings, particularly when personal protective equipment is not used. Every class of pesticides has at least one agent capable of affecting a reproductive or developmental endpoint in laboratory animals or people, including organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, herbicides, fungicides, fumigants and especially organochlorines. Many of the most toxic pesticides have been banned or restricted in developed nations, but high exposures to these agents are still occurring in the most impoverished countries around the globe. Protective clothing, masks and gloves are more difficult to tolerate in hot, humid weather, or may be unavailable or unaffordable. Counseling patients who are concerned about reproductive and developmental effects of pesticides often involves helping them assess their exposure levels, weigh risks and benefits, and adopt practices to reduce or eliminate their absorbed dose. Patients may not realize that by the first prenatal care visit, most disruptions of organogenesis have already occurred. Planning ahead provides the best chance of lowering risk from pesticides and remediating other risk factors before conception.

  12. Hispanic adolescent farmworkers' perceptions associated with pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Mary K; Napolitano, Marie; Scherer, Jennifer A; McCauley, Linda A

    2004-03-01

    The migrant farmworker population in the United States is a vulnerable and understudied population whose characteristics are constantly shifting. The number of youth involved in agriculture work is increasing, and they, in particular, may be at increased risk for occupational hazards, such as pesticide exposure. The present study utilized an ecological framework for focus group discussions with 33 adolescent migrant farmworkers in Oregon. Adolescents' risk perception and health beliefs associated with pesticide exposure are examined on four levels of environmental influence: microenvironment, organizational environment, social/community environment, and macroenvironment. Adolescents provided insight on such topics as perceived vulnerability of illness due to pesticide exposure, attitudes toward farmwork, influence of their boss, knowledge of occupational hazards, safety training, and barriers to occupational choice. Cultural influences on occupational safety and health are discussed and increased attention to safety training is recommended.

  13. Association between environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parron, Tesifon [University of Almeria, Department of Neurosciences and Health Sciences, Almeria (Spain); Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Requena, Mar [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain); Hernandez, Antonio F., E-mail: ajerez@ugr.es [University of Granada School of Medicine, Granada (Spain); Alarcon, Raquel [Andalusian Council of Health at Almeria province, Almeria (Spain)

    2011-11-15

    Preliminary studies have shown associations between chronic pesticide exposure in occupational settings and neurological disorders. However, data on the effects of long-term non-occupational exposures are too sparse to allow any conclusions. This study examines the influence of environmental pesticide exposure on a number of neuropsychiatric conditions and discusses their underlying pathologic mechanisms. An ecological study was conducted using averaged prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral degeneration, polyneuropathies, affective psychosis and suicide attempts in selected Andalusian health districts categorized into areas of high and low environmental pesticide exposure based on the number of hectares devoted to intensive agriculture and pesticide sales per capita. A total of 17,429 cases were collected from computerized hospital records (minimum dataset) between 1998 and 2005. Prevalence rates and the risk of having Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis and suicide were significantly higher in districts with greater pesticide use as compared to those with lower pesticide use. The multivariate analyses showed that the population living in areas with high pesticide use had an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts and that males living in these areas had increased risks for polyneuropathies, affective disorders and suicide attempts. In conclusion, this study supports and extends previous findings and provides an indication that environmental exposure to pesticides may affect the human health by increasing the incidence of certain neurological disorders at the level of the general population. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmental exposure to pesticides and neurodegenerative-psychiatric disorders. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased risk for Alzheimer's disease and suicide attempts in high exposure areas. Black

  14. Stakeholder attitudes towards cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Loo, Ellen J; Vanhonacker, Filiep; Delcour, Ilse; Spanoghe, Pieter; van Klaveren, Jacob D

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates the attitudes and perspectives of different stakeholder groups (agricultural producers, pesticide manufacturers, trading companies, retailers, regulators, food safety authorities, scientists and NGOs) towards the concepts of cumulative and aggregate exposure assessment of pesticides by means of qualitative in-depth interviews (n = 15) and a quantitative stakeholder survey (n = 65). The stakeholders involved generally agreed that the use of chemical pesticides is needed, primarily for meeting the need of feeding the growing world population, while clearly acknowledging the problematic nature of human exposure to pesticide residues. Current monitoring was generally perceived to be adequate, but the timeliness and consistency of monitoring practices across countries were questioned. The concept of cumulative exposure assessment was better understood by stakeholders than the concept of aggregate exposure assessment. Identified pitfalls were data availability, data limitations, sources and ways of dealing with uncertainties, as well as information and training needs. Regulators and food safety authorities were perceived as the stakeholder groups for whom cumulative and aggregate pesticide exposure assessment methods and tools would be most useful and acceptable. Insights obtained from this exploratory study have been integrated in the development of targeted and stakeholder-tailored dissemination and training programmes that were implemented within the EU-FP7 project ACROPOLIS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g -1 . At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  17. Quantification of pesticides used in agriculture in the EU-27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Susanne; Fantke, Peter; Theloke, Jochen; Friedrich, Rainer

    2010-05-01

    were identified for each EU member state. The focus was on herbicides and insecticides. Also, the average dosage (i.e. application rate [kg active substance/ha]) for chemical classes per crop category and country was provided. Each active substance was then related to the average dosage of its chemical class for each crop category and country. The amount of active substance applied on a specific crop type in a country was calculated by multiplying the country specific crop production area with the respective dosage. Based on the loss fraction of applied substance to air, the emission into air can be calculated. With this approach we identified 89 active substances of relevance (63 herbicides, 26 insecticides) in the EU-27. The analysis showed a high variation of active substances between the member states, i.e. each country uses particular herbicides and insecticides for particular commodities according to specific climate conditions. For the majority of the member states, our approach covers more than 70 % of total use compared to the aggregated consumption of active substances per country as published in Eurostat. For some specific countries with substance-specific application data available, our results can be compared to real application rates. Discrepancies can be considered as an indicator for the variation of our estimates. By relating the emission inventory data sets to land use maps, they can be spatially disaggregated and thus may serve as input for a subsequent exposure and impact assessment modelling of individual pesticides. References: Arias-Estévez, M., López-Periago, E., Martínez-Carballo, E., Simal-Gándara, J., Mejuto, J.-C., García-Río, L. (2008). The mobility and degradation of pesticides in soils and the pollution of groundwater resources. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 123(4): 247-260. EPER. The European Pollutant Emission Register. Available online at: http://www.eper.ec.europa.eu/. E-PRTR. The European Pollutant Release and

  18. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  19. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Palacios N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  20. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in...

  1. Environmental exposure to pesticides and the risk of Parkinson's disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; van der Mark, Marianne; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; de Snoo, Geert R; Kromhout, Hans; Vermeulen, Roel C H

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pesticides has been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), although associations between specific pesticides and PD have not been well studied. Residents of rural areas can be exposed through environmental drift and volatilization of agricultural pesticides. Our aim was to investigate the association between lifetime environmental exposure to individual pesticides and the risk of PD, in a national case-control study. Environmental exposure to pesticides was estimated using a spatio-temporal model, based on agricultural crops around the residential address. Distance up to 100m from the residence was considered most relevant, considering pesticide drift potential of application methods used in the Netherlands. Exposure estimates were generated for 157 pesticides, used during the study period, of which four (i.e. paraquat, maneb, lindane, benomyl) were considered a priori relevant for PD. A total of 352 PD cases and 607 hospital-based controls were included. No significant associations with PD were found for the a priori pesticides. In a hypothesis generating analysis, including 153 pesticides, increased risk of PD was found for 21 pesticides, mainly used on cereals and potatoes. Results were suggestive for an association between bulb cultivation and PD. For paraquat, risk estimates for the highest cumulative exposure tertile were in line with previously reported elevated risks. Increased risk of PD was observed for exposure to (a cluster of) pesticides used on rotating crops. High correlations limited our ability to identify individual pesticides responsible for this association. This study provides some evidence for an association between environmental exposure to specific pesticides and the risk of PD, and generates new leads for further epidemiological and mechanistic research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Estimating pesticide emissions for LCA of agricultural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2000-01-01

    Emission data for pesticides from agricultural product systems may be based on national and international pesticide usage statistics, but these only provide information on the applied dose. When the field is considered as part of the technosphere, the emissions from the system are those quantitie...

  3. Information resources for assessing health effects from chemical exposure: Office of pesticides programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenner-Crisp, P. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1990-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Pesticide Programs is trying to develop a complete picture of a chemical`s toxicity and exposure profile. It is also important to share information in the office`s files because of pesticides, particularly as a consequence of agricultural use, find their way into places not necessarily intended.

  4. Terrestrial pesticide exposure of amphibians: an underestimated cause of global decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühl, Carsten A; Schmidt, Thomas; Pieper, Silvia; Alscher, Annika

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, a class of animals in global decline, are present in agricultural landscapes characterized by agrochemical inputs. Effects of pesticides on terrestrial life stages of amphibians such as juvenile and adult frogs, toads and newts are little understood and a specific risk assessment for pesticide exposure, mandatory for other vertebrate groups, is currently not conducted. We studied the effects of seven pesticide products on juvenile European common frogs (Rana temporaria) in an agricultural overspray scenario. Mortality ranged from 100% after one hour to 40% after seven days at the recommended label rate of currently registered products. The demonstrated toxicity is alarming and a large-scale negative effect of terrestrial pesticide exposure on amphibian populations seems likely. Terrestrial pesticide exposure might be underestimated as a driver of their decline calling for more attention in conservation efforts and the risk assessment procedures in place do not protect this vanishing animal group.

  5. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia R. Binder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  6. Cognitive impairment in agricultural workers and nearby residents exposed to pesticides in the Coquimbo Region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Sebastián A; de Angel, Valeria; Salas, Natalia; Zúñiga-Venegas, Liliana; Gaspar, Pablo A; Pancetti, Floria

    2017-07-01

    Chronic exposure to organophosphate pesticides is a worldwide public health concern associated with several psychiatric disorders and dementia. Most existing studies on the effects of pesticides only evaluate agricultural workers. Therefore, this study sought to establish if individuals indirectly exposed to pesticides, such as residents in agricultural areas, also suffer cognitive impairments. Neuropsychological evaluations were carried out on three groups (n=102): agricultural workers directly exposed to pesticides (n=32), individuals living in agricultural areas indirectly (i.e. environmentally) exposed to pesticides (n=32), and an unexposed control group (n=38). The assessed cognitive processes included memory, executive functions, attention, language praxis, and visuoconstruction. The direct exposure group performed significantly lower in executive function, verbal fluency, and visual and auditory memory tests than the indirect exposure group, which, in turn, performed worse than the unexposed group. Even after adjusting for age, gender, and educational level, both exposure groups showed higher rates of cognitive deficit than control individuals. In conclusion, both direct and indirect chronic exposure to pesticides affects cognitive functioning in adults and, consequently, actions should be taken to protect the health of not only agricultural workers, but also of residents in agricultural areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Biodegradation kinetics for pesticide exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolt, J D; Nelson, H P; Cleveland, C B; van Wesenbeeck, I J

    2001-01-01

    Understanding pesticide risks requires characterizing pesticide exposure within the environment in a manner that can be broadly generalized across widely varied conditions of use. The coupled processes of sorption and soil degradation are especially important for understanding the potential environmental exposure of pesticides. The data obtained from degradation studies are inherently variable and, when limited in extent, lend uncertainty to exposure characterization and risk assessment. Pesticide decline in soils reflects dynamically coupled processes of sorption and degradation that add complexity to the treatment of soil biodegradation data from a kinetic perspective. Additional complexity arises from study design limitations that may not fully account for the decline in microbial activity of test systems, or that may be inadequate for considerations of all potential dissipation routes for a given pesticide. Accordingly, kinetic treatment of data must accommodate a variety of differing approaches starting with very simple assumptions as to reaction dynamics and extending to more involved treatments if warranted by the available experimental data. Selection of the appropriate kinetic model to describe pesticide degradation should rely on statistical evaluation of the data fit to ensure that the models used are not overparameterized. Recognizing the effects of experimental conditions and methods for kinetic treatment of degradation data is critical for making appropriate comparisons among pesticide biodegradation data sets. Assessment of variability in soil half-life among soils is uncertain because for many pesticides the data on soil degradation rate are limited to one or two soils. Reasonable upper-bound estimates of soil half-life are necessary in risk assessment so that estimated environmental concentrations can be developed from exposure models. Thus, an understanding of the variable and uncertain distribution of soil half-lives in the environment is

  8. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  9. Organophosphate pesticides exposure among farmworkers: pathways and risk of adverse health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suratman, Suratman; Edwards, John William; Babina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds are the most widely used pesticides with more than 100 OP compounds in use around the world. The high-intensity use of OP pesticides contributes to morbidity and mortality in farmworkers and their families through acute or chronic pesticides-related illnesses. Many factors contributing to adverse health effects have been investigated by researchers to determine pathways of OP-pesticide exposure among farmers in developed and developing countries. Factors like wind/agricultural pesticide drift, mixing and spraying pesticides, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), knowledge, perceptions, washing hands, taking a shower, wearing contaminated clothes, eating, drinking, smoking, and hot weather are common in both groups of countries. Factors including low socioeconomic status areas, workplace conditions, duration of exposure, pesticide safety training, frequency of applying pesticides, spraying against the wind, and reuse of pesticide containers for storage are specific contributors in developing countries, whereas housing conditions, social contextual factors, and mechanical equipment were specific pathways in developed countries. This paper compares existing research in environmental and behavioural exposure modifying factors and biological monitoring between developing and developed countries. The main objective of this review is to explore the current depth of understanding of exposure pathways and factors increasing the risk of exposure potentially leading to adverse health effects specific to each group of countries.

  10. Measuring exposure to organochlorinated pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulnar Azevedo e Silva Mendonça

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental epidemiological investigations in cancer remain, with rare exceptions, inconclusive. The difficulties of establishing patterns of measurements of exposure in the human body is one of the limitations of these studies. The findings of six recent epidemiological studies that analyzed the association between organochlorinated compounds and breast cancer are reviewed in considering the problems of measuring environmental exposure through biological markers. The epidemiological evidence based on these studies do not indicate a risk of breast cancer related to organochlorines. Some aspects that may partially explain this absence of risk are discussed regarding the investigation of environmental carcinogenic agents in populations with low but homogeneously sprayed levels of exposure.

  11. Biomarkers of Sensitivity and Exposure in Washington State Pesticide Handlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, M.C.; Checkoway, H.; De Roos, A.J.; Farin, F.M.; Fenske, R.A.; Richter, R.J.; van Belle, G.; Furlong, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are widely used in agriculture in the US and abroad. These compounds – which inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity – continue to be responsible for a high proportion of pesticide poisonings among US agricultural workers. It is possible that some individuals may be especially susceptible to health effects related to OP/CB exposure. The paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme metabolizes the highly toxic oxon forms of some OPs, and an individual's PON1 status may be an important determinant of his or her sensitivity to these chemicals. This chapter discusses methods used to characterize individual PON1 status and reviews previous epidemiologic studies that have evaluated PON1-related sensitivity to OPs in relation to various health endpoints. It also describes an ongoing longitudinal study among OP-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers who are participating in a recently implemented cholinesterase monitoring program in Washington State. This study will evaluate handlers' PON1 status as a hypothesized determinant of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. Such studies will be useful to determine how regulatory risk assessments might account for differences in PON1-related OP sensitivity when characterizing inter-individual variability in risk related to OP exposure. Recent work assessing newer and more sensitive biomarkers of OP exposure is also discussed briefly in this chapter. PMID:20221867

  12. Hydraulically active biopores stimulate pesticide mineralization in agricultural subsoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Johnsen, Anders R.; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2013-01-01

    for microbially-mediated pesticide mineralization, thereby reducing the risk of pesticide leaching. To investigate this we identified hydraulically active biopores in a test plot of an agricultural field by percolating brilliant blue through the soil. Small portions of soil (500 mg) were sampled at approx. 1-cm...... highly stimulated in the transition zone biopores, whereas the density of MCPA degraders was significantly lower in the subsoil, where no MCPA mineralization occurred. We conclude that hydraulically active biopores may constitute hot spots for pesticide mineralization, but that this biopore effect...

  13. [Exposure pathways to pesticides in schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Muñoz, María Pía

    2014-01-01

    To describe pesticide concentrations in distinct environmental matrices at two time points (low and high seasons in local agricultural production) and to estimate the association between the presence of pesticide residues in matrices and the use of pesticides in the home with the sociodemographic variables of schoolchildren in the Province of Talca, Chile. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 190 schoolchildren. Families were surveyed about their children's vegetable consumption in school and at home, the use of pesticides in the home, and other sociodemographic variables. Additionally, we measured pesticide residues in vegetables and water consumed by the schoolchildren and in the soil of 14 schools. At both time points, the vegetable matrix had the highest pesticide concentration, both in urban and rural schoolchildren. The most common pesticide residues in vegetables were chlorpyrifos, diphenylamine, pyrimethanil, and thiabendazole. In the home, pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides were mainly used in summer. Dangerous pesticide residues such as azinphos methyl and dimethoate were found in vegetables consumed by the children in schools and households, and organochlorines were found in the soil in some schools. Pesticide exposure should be limited and the health effects related to pesticide exposure should be assessed in the school population. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Agricultural Pesticides. An Instructional Unit for Teachers of Adult Vocational Education in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Kenneth M.; Iverson, Maynard J.

    The proper use of agricultural pesticides is the major emphasis on the unit of instruction developed as a guide for use by teachers in planning and conducting young farmer and adult farmer classes. Seven lessons are included in the unit covering topical areas related to the utilization of pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and the…

  15. Pesticide exposures and chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valcke, Mathieu; Levasseur, Marie-Eve; Soares da Silva, Agnes; Wesseling, Catharina

    2017-05-23

    The main causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) globally are diabetes and hypertension but epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) occur in Central America, Sri Lanka, India and beyond. Althoug also being observed in women, CKDu concentrates among men in agricultural sectors. Therefore, suspicions fell initially on pesticide exposure, but currently chronic heat stress and dehydration are considered key etiologic factors. Responding to persistent community and scientific concerns about the role of pesticides, we performed a systematic review of epidemiologic studies that addressed associations between any indicator of pesticide exposure and any outcome measure of CKD. Of the 21 analytical studies we identified, seven were categorized as with low, ten with medium and four with relatively high explanation value. Thirteen (62%) studies reported one or more positive associations, but four had a low explanation value and three presented equivocal results. The main limitations of both positive and negative studies were unspecific and unquantified exposure measurement ('pesticides'), the cross-sectional nature of most studies, confounding and selection bias. The four studies with stronger designs and better exposure assessment (from Sri Lanka, India and USA) all showed exposure-responses or clear associations, but for different pesticides in each study, and three of these studies were conducted in areas without CKDu epidemics. No study investigated interactions between pesticides and other concommittant exposures in agricultural occupations, in particular heat stress and dehydration. In conclusion, existing studies provide scarce evidence for an association between pesticides and regional CKDu epidemics but, given the poor pesticide exposure assessment in the majority, a role of nephrotoxic agrochemicals cannot be conclusively discarded. Future research should procure assessment of lifetime exposures to relevant specific pesticides and enough power

  16. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stores. Exposure to pesticides can happen in the workplace, through foods that are eaten, and in the ... or place bait in areas where children or pets have access. DO NOT stock up on pesticides, ...

  17. Sampling and Analysis for Non-Occupational Pesticide Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are used extensively in the United States to control a variety of pests. Commercial agriculture and non-agricultural industries account for about 80% of the total pesticide use in the United States, while the remaining 20% is used for pest control associated with home,...

  18. Preventive measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihan Önen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study describes protective measures used by farmers during agricultural pesticide application in Çelikhan, Adıyaman. Methods: The target population of this descriptive study consists of 900 active farmers registered at Chamber of Agriculture in Çelikhan. The Sample included 381 farmers, who were interviewed, face to face, during January and February 2014. The Chi-square (Fisher’s exact test was used for the statistical evaluation. Results: Of the 363 farmers, who were growing tobacco, 358 used pesticides. The percentage of the farmers who use protective equipment during the application of pesticides was as follows: 78.8% used a face-mask, 73.2% used protective gloves, 29.6% used protective clothing, 16.8% used protective goggles and 15.6% used boots, while 4.7% never used any protective equipment. The following related to environmental factors: 72.3%, used appropriate doses and qualifications, 70.7% did not use pesticides during windy weather, 66.2% removed people from the field (55.6% kept it the pesticide in an appropriate warehouse and 17.6% used warning signs. A significant statistical relationship was found between the educational status and safe disposal of pesticide waste, not releasing pesticide boxes into the environment and knowing the harm of pesticide to human body (p<0.05. Conclusion: Farmers in this study are using masks and gloves for personal protection, a majority of them are not eating and drinking during spraying and nearly half of them are removing drug equipment safely. The need for protective equipment and for health education of the farmers is important as is the need for the safe disposal of waste materials. In order to awaken the interest of farmers, environmental and individual consciousness must be created.

  19. Biomonitoring of organophosphate exposure of pesticide sprayers and comparison of exposure levels with other population groups in Thessaly (Greece).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koureas, Michalis; Tsakalof, Andreas; Tzatzarakis, Manolis; Vakonaki, Elena; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the exposure of different population groups in Thessaly (Greece) to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) and investigate the dependence of exposure levels on pesticide application practices, personal protective and hygienic measures taken. For the exposure assessment, four dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides were quantified in spot urine samples of 77 pesticide sprayers, 75 residents of the studied agricultural area non-involved in agricultural activities and 112 urban residents who served as a control group. Structured questionnaires were used to record demographic characteristics, pesticide application parameters and protective measures taken. Univariate and multivariate analysis of the obtained cross-sectional data was performed to identify potential risk factors associated with biomarker levels. It was found that total DAP median level in the sprayers' group was 24.9 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 13.0-42.1), while the rural and urban residents had significantly lower (p<0.001) levels of 11.3 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 5.3-18.7) and 11.9 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 6.3-20.3), respectively. In sprayers who had recently applied an OP pesticide (n=28), the median levels of DAP metabolites were 31.8 μg/g creatinine (IQR: 22.3-117.2). Logistic regression analysis showed that the use of full body coveralls while handling and spraying pesticides was significantly associated with lower DAP levels (OR 4.05, 95% CI 1.22 to 13.46). Also, changing clothes immediately after accidental contamination of clothing with pesticide amounts was found to be significantly associated with lower exposure levels (OR 4.04, CI 1.05 to 15.57). Our study findings confirm the increased exposure to OPs in pesticide sprayers and underline the importance of protective measures especially those that focus on dermal exposure mitigation.

  20. Emissions from Open burning of Used Agricultural Pesticide Containers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from simulated open burning of used agricultural pesticide containers were sampled for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs), and particle matter (PM10 and PM2.5). Clean high density polyethyl...

  1. Pesticide Leaching Models in a Brazilian Agricultural Field Scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorza, R.P.; Oliveira Rigitano, de R.L.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2011-01-01

    The use of Pesticide Leaching Models (PLM) for risk assessment may be an efficient and attractive way of assessing solutions to some agricultural and environmental problems. Many countries of the European Union and the USA have been using PLM for risk assessment already for a few decades. This

  2. Pesticide use and biodiversity conservation in the Amazonian agricultural frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesari, Luis; Waichman, Andrea; Brock, Theo; Adams, Cristina; Grillitsch, Britta

    2013-06-05

    Agricultural frontiers are dynamic environments characterized by the conversion of native habitats to agriculture. Because they are currently concentrated in diverse tropical habitats, agricultural frontiers are areas where the largest number of species is exposed to hazardous land management practices, including pesticide use. Focusing on the Amazonian frontier, we show that producers have varying access to resources, knowledge, control and reward mechanisms to improve land management practices. With poor education and no technical support, pesticide use by smallholders sharply deviated from agronomical recommendations, tending to overutilization of hazardous compounds. By contrast, with higher levels of technical expertise and resources, and aiming at more restrictive markets, large-scale producers adhered more closely to technical recommendations and even voluntarily replaced more hazardous compounds. However, the ecological footprint increased significantly over time because of increased dosage or because formulations that are less toxic to humans may be more toxic to other biodiversity. Frontier regions appear to be unique in terms of the conflicts between production and conservation, and the necessary pesticide risk management and risk reduction can only be achieved through responsibility-sharing by diverse stakeholders, including governmental and intergovernmental organizations, NGOs, financial institutions, pesticide and agricultural industries, producers, academia and consumers.

  3. Agricultural Landscape and Pesticide Effects on Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Biological Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Steckel, Sandra J; Williams, Matthew T; Skinner, John A; Tarpy, David R; Meikle, William G; Adamczyk, John; Stewart, Scott D

    2017-06-01

    Sixteen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes to study the effects of agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health. Colonies were located in three different agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas) and one nonagricultural area (NAG area). Colonies were monitored for their performance and productivity for one year by measuring colony weight changes, brood production, and colony thermoregulation. Palynological and chemical analyses were conducted on the trapped pollen collected from each colony and location. Our results indicate that the landscape's composition significantly affected honey bee colony performance and development. Colony weight and brood production were significantly greater in AG areas compared to the NAG area. Better colony thermoregulation in AG areas' colonies was also observed. The quantities of pesticides measured in the trapped pollen were relatively low compared to their acute toxicity. Unexplained queen and colony losses were recorded in the AG areas, while colony losses because of starvation were observed in the NAG area. Our results indicate that landscape with high urban activity enhances honey bee brood production, with no significant effects on colony weight gain. Our study indicates that agricultural crops provide a valuable resource for honey bee colonies, but there is a trade-off with an increased risk of exposure to pesticides. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Ranking system for national regulatory jurisdictions based on pesticide standard values in major exposures

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    Zijian Li

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available To control the risk of human exposure to pesticides, about 50 nations have promulgated pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs, and 104 nations have provided pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs. In addition, 90 nations have regulated pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs. Pesticide standard values (PSVs for one single pesticide varied in a range of six, seven, or even eight orders of magnitude. Some PSVs are too large to prevent the impact of pesticides on human health. Many nations have not provided PSVs for some commonly used pesticides until now. This research has introduced several completeness values and numerical values methods to evaluate the national jurisdiction’s performance on PSVs on a nation base. The national jurisdiction ranking system developed by these methods will be beneficial to the environmental regulation makers in the management of PSVs. Results also indicate that European countries perform better in the regulation of pesticide soil RGVs, drinking water MCLs, and agricultural commodity MRLs.

  5. Sources of exposure to and public health implications of organophosphate pesticides

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    Kushik Jaga

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the public health significance of organophosphate pesticide exposure in the United States of America. Since the situation of high organophosphate pesticide exposure and the concomitant health risks in the developing countries of the world is well known, this article seeks to highlight the public health significance of organophosphate exposure in the United States, where it is less common than in many other nations. Looking at the situation in the United States would serve to further emphasize the seriousness of organophosphate pesticide-related health issues in developing countries. METHODS: A search for journal articles on organophosphate pesticides and organophosphate exposure was done on the PubMed electronic bibliographic database system of the National Library of Medicine of the United States. To supplement that search, information on organophosphate toxicity, biological monitoring, and regulation of pesticides was obtained from other published articles, textbooks, and relevant Internet sites. RESULTS: Organophosphate pesticides are a group of chemicals that are mainly used in agriculture. Organophosphates inhibit the activity of both the cholinesterase (ChE enzymes-red blood cell (RBC ChE and serum ChE-resulting in the cholinergic features of organophosphate toxicity. A 50% reduction in serum ChE activity from the baseline is an indication of acute organophosphate toxicity. The RBC ChE activity, which is less rapidly depressed than the serum ChE activity, is a measure of chronic exposure to organophosphates. Exposures to organophosphates are broadly classified into two categories: occupational and environmental. Occupational exposures occur among agricultural workers (including migrant farmworkers, industrial workers, pest control exterminators, and other workers. Nonoccupational exposure affects a large segment of the general population in the United States. Residential exposures come from organophosphate pesticide

  6. Increased levels of oxidative DNA damage in pesticide sprayers in Thessaly Region (Greece). Implications of pesticide exposure.

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    Koureas, Michalis; Tsezou, Aspasia; Tsakalof, Andreas; Orfanidou, Timoklia; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-10-15

    The widespread use of pesticides substances nowadays largely guarantees the protection of crops and people from undesired pests. However, exposure to pesticides was related to a variety of human health effects. The present study was conducted in the region of Thessaly which is characterized by intensive agricultural activities and wide use of pesticides. The study aimed at estimating the oxidative damage to DNA in different subpopulations in Thessaly region (Greece) and investigating its correlation with exposure to pesticides and other potential risk factors. In total, the study involved 80 pesticide sprayers, 85 rural residents and 121 individuals, inhabitants of the city of Larissa. Demographic characteristics, habits, medical history and exposure history of the participants to pesticides were recorded by personal interviews. Blood and urine samples were collected from all participants. For the measurement of exposure to organophosphorus insecticides, dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites were quantified in urine, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples and the oxidation by-product 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was determined by Enzyme Immuno-Assay. Urinary metabolite concentrations were not associated with 8-OHdG levels but it was found that pesticide sprayers had significantly higher levels of 8-OHdG (p=0.007) in comparison to the control group. Last season's exposure to insecticides and fungicides, expressed as total area treated multiplied by the number of applications, showed a statistically significant association with the risk of having high 8-OHdG levels [RR: 2.19 (95%CI:1.09-4.38) and RR: 2.32 (95% CI:1.16-4.64) respectively]. Additionally, from the subgroups of pesticides examined, seasonal exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides [RR: 2.22 (95% CI:1.07-4.63)] and glufosinate ammonium [RR: 3.26 (95% CI:1.38-7.69)] was found to have the greater impact on 8-OHdG levels. This study produced findings

  7. Exposure of women to organochlorine pesticides in Southern Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botella, B.; Crespo, Jorge; Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Olea-Serrano, M.F.; Olea, N.

    2004-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides are lipophilic compounds that persist in the environment. Because of their lipid solubility and resistance to metabolism, some of these chemicals accumulate in human tissues. The largest area of intensive greenhouse agriculture in Europe is near the Mediterranean coast of Southern Spain, where this type of farming has greatly expanded since the 1960s. We determined and compared the levels of 15 organochlorine pesticides in the adipose tissue and blood of 200 women living in Southern Spain. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, lindane, methoxychlor, endosulfans, and DDT and its metabolites were identified. Detectable concentrations of p,p'-DDE were found in 100% of adipose tissue and serum samples. Among the remaining DDTs, p,p'-DDT was the most common, being detected in 39% of adipose tissue and 76.5% of serum samples, followed by endosulfans I and II, which also were found in both adipose tissue and serum samples but at lower concentrations. Endosulfans were followed in frequency by lindane, aldrin, and dieldrin. Endrin and methoxychlor were present at a much lower frequency compared to those of the other organochlorines. Serum concentrations of p,p'-DDE o,p'-DDD, and endosulfan -I, -sulfate, -lactone, and -diol were significantly correlated with their adipose tissue concentrations. No significant relationships were found between the serum and adipose tissue concentrations of the remaining nine compounds determined, raising doubts about the equivalent use of fat/serum samples for the exposure assessment of some pesticides in epidemiological studies. The results suggested that women of reproductive age in Southern Spain have been and are currently exposed to organochlorine pesticides. Because many of these chemicals can mobilize during pregnancy and lactation, further research is warranted to interpret the health consequences for the children of such exposure

  8. Dialkyl phosphate metabolites of organophosphorus in applicators of agricultural pesticides in Majes – Arequipa (Peru

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    Chung Arturo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Organophosphorus (OPs pesticides are the most commonly used pesticides in Peruvian agriculture. The population at risk for OPs exposure includes formulators, applicators and farmers. Majes Valley is the most important agricultural center of the Southern region of Peru. The present study was aimed to determine the knowledge about using OPs, safety practice and urinary dialkylphosphate metabolites on OP applicators in the Majes Valley, Peru. Methods This study was based on a questionnaire which included socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge of safety practices to handling OPs, characteristics of pesticide application and use of protective measures to avoid pesticide contamination. Exposure was assessed by measuring six urinary OP metabolites (DMP, DMTP, DMDTP, DEP, DETP, and DEDTP by gas chromatography using a single flame photometric detector. The sample consisted of 31 men and 2 women aged 20 – 65 years old. Results 76% of applicators had at least one urinary dialkylphosphate metabolite above the limit of detection. The geometric mean (GM and the geometric standard deviation (GSD of DMP and DEP were 5.73 ug/g cr. (GSD 2.51, and 6.08 ug/g cr. (GSD 3.63, respectively. The percentage of applicators with detectable DMP, DMDTP, and DMTP in urine was 72.72%, 3.03%, and 15.15%, respectively, while the corresponding figures for DEP, DETP, and DEDTP were 48.48%, 36.36% and 15.15%, respectively. There was no significant association between the use of protection practices and the absence of urine OPs metabolites suggesting inadequate protection practices. Conclusion The pesticide applicators in Majes Valley have significant exposure to OP pesticides, probably due to inappropriate protective practices. Future work should evaluate possible health effects.

  9. Monitoring of occupational exposure to pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebulska-Wasilewska, A.; Marcos, R.; Siffel, C.; Piperakis, S.

    2000-01-01

    Number of pesticides applied is constantly increasing, and although in general they are beneficial they may create a genotoxic hazard to environment and human health too. The aim of study performed in four countries (Greece, Hungary, Poland and Spain) was to assess potential genotoxic risk of occupational exposure to pesticides. Interviews were performed and biological samples were taken from 426 donors, 50% unexposed and 50% donors occupationally exposed to genotoxic agrochemical. In this paper is presented comparison of results from studies on the influence of occupational exposure on individual susceptibility to the induction of the DNA damage by UV and DNA damage repair efficiency. Levels of the DNA damage induced in vivo and by various treatments in vitro were assessed by the use of single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE) also known as a Comet assay. Susceptibility to UVC and repair capacities of lymphocytes of all unexposed and exposed to pesticides people from four countries was compared. A Hungarian subgroup of donors consisted of unexposed exposed and highly exposed persons. All groups of donors were at the similar age, sex and occupation. In general, all donors were free of major health problems. Lymphocytes, from collected in various countries whole blood samples were isolated and frozen, and then were transported to Poland in a dry ice for farther DNA damage analysis. In defrosted lymphocytes viability and presence of DNA damage were tested. Lymphocytes from Hungarian group expressed significantly lower viability of lymphocytes and very high damage (∼ 30 times higher than in other groups) detected either in untreated or treated lymphocytes. Results from all other groups of samples except Hungarian group did not show statistically significant differences between levels of DNA damages detected in defrosted lymphocytes from reference and exposed to pesticides subgroups. Statistically significant difference between the whole investigated groups from

  10. Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticides: The CHARGE Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Estella M.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Delwiche, Lora D.; Schmidt, Rebecca J.; Ritz, Beate; Hansen, Robin L.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    Background: Gestational exposure to several common agricultural pesticides can induce developmental neurotoxicity in humans, and has been associated with developmental delay and autism. Objectives: We evaluated whether residential proximity to agricultural pesticides during pregnancy is associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) or developmental delay (DD) in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and Environment (CHARGE) study. Methods: The CHARGE study is a population-based case–control study of ASD, DD, and typical development. For 970 participants, commercial pesticide application data from the California Pesticide Use Report (1997–2008) were linked to the addresses during pregnancy. Pounds of active ingredient applied for organophophates, organochlorines, pyrethroids, and carbamates were aggregated within 1.25-km, 1.5-km, and 1.75-km buffer distances from the home. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) of exposure comparing confirmed cases of ASD (n = 486) or DD (n = 168) with typically developing referents (n = 316). Results: Approximately one-third of CHARGE study mothers lived, during pregnancy, within 1.5 km (just under 1 mile) of an agricultural pesticide application. Proximity to organophosphates at some point during gestation was associated with a 60% increased risk for ASD, higher for third-trimester exposures (OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.1, 3.6), and second-trimester chlorpyrifos applications (OR = 3.3; 95% CI: 1.5, 7.4). Children of mothers residing near pyrethroid insecticide applications just before conception or during third trimester were at greater risk for both ASD and DD, with ORs ranging from 1.7 to 2.3. Risk for DD was increased in those near carbamate applications, but no specific vulnerable period was identified. Conclusions: This study of ASD strengthens the evidence linking neurodevelopmental disorders with gestational pesticide exposures, particularly organophosphates, and provides novel results of

  11. Determinants of Organophosphorus Pesticide Urinary Metabolite Levels in Young Children Living in an Agricultural Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda Eskenazi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Organophosphorus (OP pesticides are used in agriculture and several are registered for home use. As young children age they may experience different pesticide exposures due to varying diet, behavior, and other factors. We measured six OP dialkylphosphate (DAP metabolites (three dimethyl alkylphosphates (DMAP and three diethyl alkylphosphates (DEAP in urine samples collected from ~400 children living in an agricultural community when they were 6, 12, and 24 months old. We examined bivariate associations between DAP metabolite levels and determinants such as age, diet, season, and parent occupation. To evaluate independent impacts, we then used generalized linear mixed multivariable models including interaction terms with age. The final models indicated that DMAP metabolite levels increased with age. DMAP levels were also positively associated with daily servings of produce at 6- and 24-months. Among the 6-month olds, DMAP metabolite levels were higher when samples were collected during the summer/spring versus the winter/fall months. Among the 12-month olds, DMAP and DEAP metabolites were higher when children lived ≤60 meters from an agricultural field. Among the 24-month-olds, DEAP metabolite levels were higher during the summer/spring months. Our findings suggest that there are multiple determinants of OP pesticide exposures, notably dietary intake and temporal and spatial proximity to agricultural use. The impact of these determinants varied by age and class of DAP metabolite.

  12. Personal exposure to pesticide among workers engaged in pesticide container recycling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L; Yoshida, K; Clough, V

    1994-12-01

    Pesticide container handling operations in western Canada were examined to determine the exposure of workers to residual pesticide in sorting, metal-container crushing, metal-container shredding, plastic-container shredding, metal washing, and metal melting. Environmental exposure monitoring and biological monitoring were applied, including measurement of pesticide deposition density on outer clothing (test coveralls and other protective wear), deposition on fabric and gauze patches under the outer clothing, inhalation of airborne pesticide residues, dislodgement of pesticide residues by hand washing, and pre- and postexposure urinary excretion of pesticide (2,4-D). Exposure levels were highly variable; some variability was accounted for by work practices or lapses in protection. The highest levels of exposure were observed for metal washing, metal crushing, and metal shredding; sorting and plastic shredding were intermediate, and metal melting was associated with very little exposure. Urinary 2,4-D excretion, as an indicator of internal dose, correlated most closely with exposure by the inhalation route, and both were highest for metal washing and shredding. Deposition of pesticide on garments was highest for metal crushing. Melting of washed metal does not appear to present a significant hazard of exposure. Recommendations are proposed for the protection of workers emphasizing health and safety guidelines, worker education, personal hygiene, exposure and health monitoring, and record-keeping, and specific recommendations for each process. These recommendations apply to all pesticide container recycling operations except melting of washed metal containers.

  13. Characterization of pesticide exposure in a sample of pregnant women in Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J.; Hund, Lauren; Páez, Maritza; Bear, Samantha; Greenberg, Carolyn; Fenske, Richard A.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2015-01-01

    Background Few studies have detailed the prenatal pesticide exposure levels of women employed in or residing near large-scale agricultural industries. This study reports pesticide metabolite levels during and shortly after pregnancy in a pilot study of workers in Ecuador. Methods Urine samples were collected for 16 rose workers and 10 non-agricultural workers enrolled into the study in early pregnancy. We measured six nonspecific organophosphate dialkylphosphate (DAP) pesticide metabolites, two alkylenebis-dithiocarbamate pesticide metabolites (ethylene thiourea [ETU] and propylene thiourea [PTU]), 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy], malathion dicarboxylic acid, and two pyrethroid metabolites (2,2-dimethylcyclopropanecarboxylic acid and 3-phenooxybenzoic acid). Results We collected 141 urine samples (mean: 5.4 per woman). We observed high detection frequencies for five DAP metabolites and ETU, PTU, and TCPy. We report elevated levels of ETU in the entire sample (median 4.24 ng/mL, IQR 2.23, 7.18), suggesting other possible non-occupational pathways of exposure. We found no statistical differences in pesticide levels by current employment status, though the highest pesticide levels were among rose workers. We observed within-woman correlation in TCPy and PTU levels, but not in ETU or DAP levels. Conclusions The present study is the first to characterize prenatal pesticide exposure levels among working women in Ecuador. Limitations include a small sample size and use of a convenience sample. Strengths include a longitudinal design and multiple urine samples per woman. Results provide an initial characterization of prenatal pesticide exposure levels and how these levels vary over pregnancy in a community impacted by agricultural industry and will inform further studies in the region. PMID:26311023

  14. Genotoxic biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticides in the north of Sinaloa State, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Valenzuela, Carmen; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Waliszewski, Stefan; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Félix-Gastélum, Rubén; Alvarez-Torres, Armando

    2009-11-01

    Genotoxic damage was evaluated in 70 agricultural workers, 25 women and 45 men, exposed to pesticides in Las Grullas, Ahome, Sinaloa, Mexico, with an average of 7 years of exposure. The effect was detected through the sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) in lymphocytes of peripheral blood and micronuclei (MN) and other nuclear anomalies (NA) in buccal exfoliated cells. Also, the influence on cellular proliferation kinetics (CPK) was studied by means of the replication index (RI) and the cytotoxic effect was examined with the mitotic index (MI). The non-exposed group consisted of 70 other persons, 21 women and 47 men from the city of Los Mochis, Sinaloa, Mexico. Significant differences between the exposed and the non-exposed groups were observed in SCE, CPK, MI, MN and NA. Analysis of variance revealed that age, gender, smoking and alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on genetic damage. However, there was a correlation between exposure time to pesticides and SCE frequency. These results could have been due to the exposure of workers to pesticides containing different chemical compounds. This study afforded valuable data to estimate the possible risk to health associated with pesticide exposure.

  15. Variation in organophosphate pesticide metabolites in urine of children living in agricultural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, William E; Lasarev, Michael; Muniz, Juan; Scherer, Jennifer; Rothlein, Joan; Santana, Juanita; McCauley, Linda

    2005-04-01

    Children of migrant farmworkers are at increased risk of exposure to organophosphate pesticides because of "carry-home" transport processes and residential location. Although this at-risk status is generally recognized, few available reports describe the extent of this exposure among agricultural communities. We quantified dialkyl phosphate (DAP) levels in serial samples of urine from 176 children, 2-6 years of age, in three Oregon communities hosting differing agricultural industries: pears, cherries, and fruit berries. Up to three spot samples of urine were collected from children at the beginning, mid-point, and end of their parents' work seasons. The median levels of dimethylthiophosphate (DMTP), the most commonly detected metabolite, was significantly higher in urine samples from children in each of the three agricultural communities (17.5, 19.0, and 41.0 ng/mL) relative to a reference group of children who lived in an urban community and whose parents did not work in agriculture (6.5 ng/mL; Kruskal-Wallis, p orchards and fields, or the movement of these working families. Additional studies of variation in pesticide exposure across agricultural regions are needed.

  16. Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunschel, Javen; Poole, Jill A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have made advances into understanding the complex agriculture work exposure environment in influencing asthma in adults. The objective of this study is to review studies of occupational agricultural exposures including dust, animal, and pesticide exposures with asthma in adult populations. PubMed databases were searched for articles pertaining to farming, agriculture, asthma, occupational asthma, airway inflammation, respiratory disease, lung disease, pesticides, and organic dust. Studies chosen were published in or after 1999 that included adults and asthma and farming/agricultural work or agricultural exposures and airway inflammatory disease measurements. The data remain inconclusive. Several retrospective studies demonstrate agricultural work to be protective against asthma in adults, especially with increased farming exposure over time. In contrast, other studies find increased risk of asthma with farming exposures, especially for the non-atopic adult. Mechanistic and genetic studies have focused on defining the wide variety and abundance of microorganisms within these complex organic dusts that trigger several pattern recognition receptor pathways to modulate the hosts' response. Asthma risk depends on the interplay of genetic factors, gender, atopic predisposition, type of livestock, pesticide exposure, and magnitude and duration of exposure in the adult subject. Longer exposure to occupational farming is associated with decreased asthma risk. However, studies also suggest that agricultural work and multiple types of livestock are independent risk factors for developing asthma. Prospective and longitudinal studies focusing on genetic polymorphisms, objective assessments, and environmental sampling are needed to further delineate the influence of agriculture exposure in the adult worker.

  17. Revealing Pesticide Residues Under High Pesticide Stress in Taiwan's Agricultural Environment Probed by Fresh Honey Bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nai, Yu-Shin; Chen, Tsui-Yao; Chen, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Ting; Chen, Bor-Yann; Chen, Yue-Wen

    2017-10-01

    Significant pesticide residues are among the most serious problems for sustainable agriculture. In the beekeeping environment, pesticides not only impact a honey bee's survival, but they also contaminate bee products. Taiwan's agricultural environment has suffered from pesticide stress that was higher than that found in Europe and America. This study deciphered problems of pesticide residues in fresh honey bee pollen samples collected from 14 monitoring apiaries in Taiwan, which reflected significant contaminations within the honey bee population. In total, 155 pollen samples were screened for 232 pesticides, and 56 pesticides were detected. Among the residues, fluvalinate and chlorpyrifos showed the highest concentrations, followed by carbendazim, carbaryl, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, ethion, and flufenoxuron. The average frequency of pesticide residues detected in pollen samples was ca. 74.8%. The amounts and types of pesticides were higher in winter and in southwestern Taiwan. Moreover, five of these pollen samples were contaminated with 11-15 pesticides, with average levels between 1,560 and 6,390 μg/kg. Compared with the literature, this study emphasized that pollen gathered by honey bee was highly contaminated with more pesticides in Taiwan than in the America, France, and Spain. The ubiquity of pesticides in the pollen samples was likely due to the field applications of common pesticides. Recently, the Taiwanese government began to improve the pesticide policy. According to the resurvey data in 2016, there were reductions in several pesticide contamination parameters in pollen samples from west to southwest Taiwan. A long-term investigation of pollen pesticide residues should be conducted to inspect pesticides usage in Taiwan's agriculture. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Analytical method developed for measurement of dialkylphosphate metabolites in urine collected from children non-occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides in an agricultural community in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchuay, Chidhathai; Thoumsang, Somkiet; Visuthismajarn, Parichart; Vitayavirasak, Banjong; Buckley, Brian; Hore, Paromita; Borjan, Marija; Robson, Mark

    2008-10-01

    There has been increasing concern in regards to organophosphate (OP) pesticide exposure among farm workers and their families in Thailand's agricultural areas. Therefore, the development of an analytical method for estimating OP pesticide exposure is necessary to allow for monitoring of OP pesticide exposures within these populations. This paper describes an analytical method developed to measure dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolites in urine. The methods in this study are important in the biological monitoring of OP metabolites in agricultural families in Thailand and can be used as an initial guidance procedure in any environmental toxicological laboratory in Thailand.

  19. Mechanism underlying the effect of long-term exposure to low dose of pesticides on DNA integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleva, Renata; Manzella, Nicola; Gaetani, Simona; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Bracci, Massimo; Ciarapica, Veronica; Monaco, Federica; Borghi, Battista; Amati, Monica; Ferretti, Gianna; Tomasetti, Marco

    2018-04-01

    Pesticides, including herbicides, insecticides and fungicides, are widely used in intensive agriculture. Recently, the long-term effects of pesticide exposure were found to be associated with many diseases. In this study, we evaluated the long-term effect of low-level exposure to a mixture of pesticides on DNA damage response (DDR) in relation to individual detoxifying variability. A residential population chronically exposed to pesticides was enrolled, biological/environmental pesticide levels; paroxonase 1 (PON-1) activity and 192 Q/R polymorphism and DDR were evaluated at three different periods of pesticide exposure. OGG1-dependent DNA repair activity was decreased in relation to pesticide exposure. The increase of DNA lesions and pesticide levels in the intensive pesticide-spraying period was independent on PON-1 activity. Next, human bronchial epithelial and neuronal cells were used as a model for in vitro evaluation of the mechanistic effect of pesticides. Pesticides induced mitochondrial dysfunction leading to ROS formation. ROS from mitochondria induced DNA damage, which in turn induced OGG1-dependent DNA repair activity through 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (OGG1) expression and activation. Even though OGG1 was overexpressed, an inhibition of its activity, associated with DNA lesion accumulation, was found at prolonged pesticide-exposure. A post-translational regulation of OGG1 by pesticide may be postulated. Taken together, long-term exposure to low-levels of pesticides affects DDR resulting in accumulation of DNA lesions that eventually may lead to cancer or neurological disorders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Combined Prenatal Pesticide Exposure and Folic Acid Intake in Relation to Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Rebecca J; Kogan, Vladimir; Shelton, Janie F; Delwiche, Lora; Hansen, Robin L; Ozonoff, Sally; Ma, Claudia C; McCanlies, Erin C; Bennett, Deborah H; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva; Tancredi, Daniel J; Volk, Heather E

    2017-09-08

    Maternal folic acid (FA) protects against developmental toxicity from certain environmental chemicals. We examined combined exposures to maternal FA and pesticides in relation to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Participants were California children born from 2000-2007 who were enrolled in the Childhood Autism Risks from Genetics and the Environment (CHARGE) case-control study at age 2-5 y, were clinically confirmed to have ASD (n=296) or typical development (n=220), and had information on maternal supplemental FA and pesticide exposures. Maternal supplemental FA and household pesticide product use were retrospectively collected in telephone interviews from 2003-2011. High vs. low daily FA intake was dichotomized at 800μg (median). Mothers' addresses were linked to a statewide database of commercial applications to estimate agricultural pesticide exposure. High FA intake (≥800μg) during the first pregnancy month and no known pesticide exposure was the reference group for all analyses. Compared with this group, ASD was increased in association with pesticide exposure {adjusted odds ratio [OR]=2.5 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3, 4.7]} compared with low FA [OR=1.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 2.2)] or indoor pesticides [OR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8)] alone. ORs for the combination of low FA and regular pregnancy exposure (≥6 mo) to pet pesticides or to outdoor sprays and foggers were 3.9 (95% CI: 1.4, 11.5) and 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.1), respectively. ORs for low maternal FA and agricultural pesticide exposure 3 mo before or after conception were 2.2 (95% CI: 0.7, 6.5) for chlorpyrifos, 2.3 (95% CI: 0.98, 5.3) for organophosphates, 2.1 (95% CI: 0.9, 4.8) for pyrethroids, and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.5, 4.8) for carbamates. Except for carbamates, these ORs were approximately two times greater than those for either exposure alone or for the expected ORs for combined exposures under multiplicative or additive models. In this study population, associations between pesticide exposures and ASD

  1. Urinary microRNAs as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, Brittany A.; Shubin, Sara Pacheco; Smith, Marissa N.; Workman, Tomomi; Artemenko, Alexander; Griffith, William C.; Thompson, Beti; Faustman, Elaine M.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that silence messenger RNAs. Because miRNAs are stable at room temperature and long-lived, they have been proposed as molecular biomarkers to monitor disease and exposure status. While urinary miRNAs have been used clinically as potential diagnostic markers for kidney and bladder cancers and other diseases, their utility in non-clinical settings has yet to be fully developed. Our goal was to investigate the potential for urinary miRNAs to act as biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response by identifying the miRNAs present in urine from 27 parent/child, farmworker/non-farmworker pairs (16FW/11NFW) collected during two agricultural seasons (thinning and post-harvest) and characterizing the between- and within-individual variability of these miRNA epigenetic regulators. MiRNAs were isolated from archived urine samples and identified using PCR arrays. Comparisons were made between age, households, season, and occupation. Of 384 miRNAs investigated, 297 (77%) were detectable in at least one sample. Seven miRNAs were detected in at least 50% of the samples, and one miRNA was present in 96% of the samples. Principal components and hierarchical clustering analyses indicate significant differences in miRNA profiles between farmworker and non-farmworker adults as well as between seasons. Six miRNAs were observed to be positively associated with farmworkers status during the post-harvest season. Expression of five of these miRNA trended towards a positive dose response relationship with organophosphate pesticide metabolites in farmworkers. These results suggest that miRNAs may be novel biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response. - Highlights: • A novel method to identify microRNA biomarkers in urinary samples is proposed. • Six miRNAs have been identified as associated with occupational farm work and pesticide exposure. • An observed seasonal difference suggests transient

  2. Urinary microRNAs as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weldon, Brittany A.; Shubin, Sara Pacheco; Smith, Marissa N.; Workman, Tomomi; Artemenko, Alexander; Griffith, William C. [Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Thompson, Beti [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Faustman, Elaine M., E-mail: faustman@uw.edu [Institute for Risk Analysis and Risk Communication, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-12-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional regulators that silence messenger RNAs. Because miRNAs are stable at room temperature and long-lived, they have been proposed as molecular biomarkers to monitor disease and exposure status. While urinary miRNAs have been used clinically as potential diagnostic markers for kidney and bladder cancers and other diseases, their utility in non-clinical settings has yet to be fully developed. Our goal was to investigate the potential for urinary miRNAs to act as biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response by identifying the miRNAs present in urine from 27 parent/child, farmworker/non-farmworker pairs (16FW/11NFW) collected during two agricultural seasons (thinning and post-harvest) and characterizing the between- and within-individual variability of these miRNA epigenetic regulators. MiRNAs were isolated from archived urine samples and identified using PCR arrays. Comparisons were made between age, households, season, and occupation. Of 384 miRNAs investigated, 297 (77%) were detectable in at least one sample. Seven miRNAs were detected in at least 50% of the samples, and one miRNA was present in 96% of the samples. Principal components and hierarchical clustering analyses indicate significant differences in miRNA profiles between farmworker and non-farmworker adults as well as between seasons. Six miRNAs were observed to be positively associated with farmworkers status during the post-harvest season. Expression of five of these miRNA trended towards a positive dose response relationship with organophosphate pesticide metabolites in farmworkers. These results suggest that miRNAs may be novel biomarkers of pesticide exposure and early biological response. - Highlights: • A novel method to identify microRNA biomarkers in urinary samples is proposed. • Six miRNAs have been identified as associated with occupational farm work and pesticide exposure. • An observed seasonal difference suggests transient

  3. Differences among Thai Agricultural Workers' Health, Working Conditions, and Pesticide Use by Farm Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Mahaboonpeeti, Redeerat; Bootsikeaw, Sasivimol; Batsungnoen, Kiattisak; Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Woskie, Susan

    2018-02-13

    More than 11 million Thai people (38%) work in agriculture, but since most are in the informal sector, government enforcement and support are very limited. As a result, working conditions on Thai farms vary greatly, putting the health of many agricultural workers at risk. A cross-sectional study in three Thai provinces collected information on the work activities and conditions of 424 farmers representing five farm types: rice, vegetable, flower, rice/vegetable, and flower/vegetable. The agricultural workers were mainly women (60%); their average age was 53 but ranged from 18 to 87 years. More than 64% worked more than 5 days/week. Seventy-four percent of them had only primary school education. A number of the health and hazardous working conditions surveyed were significantly different by farm type. Rice farmers were found to have the highest prevalence of allergies, nasal congestion, wheezing, and acute symptoms after pesticide use, while flower farmers had the lowest prevalence of these health outcomes. Rice farmers reported the highest prevalence of hazardous working conditions including high noise levels, working on slippery surfaces, sitting or standing on a vibrating machine, spills of chemicals/pesticides, and sharp injuries. The lowest prevalence of these working conditions (except noise) was reported by flower farmers. Vegetable farmers reported the highest prevalence knee problems, while rice farmers had the lowest prevalence. Among these farmers, more than 27 different types of pesticides were reported in use during the past year, with the majority reporting use once a month. The flower/vegetable farming group reported the highest frequency of good exposure prevention practices during pesticide use. They were the most likely to report using cotton or rubber gloves or a disposable paper masks during insecticide spraying. Those farmers who only grew vegetables had the lowest frequency of good exposure prevention practices, including use of personal

  4. Constructed Wetlands as a Mitigation Strategy to Reduce Pesticide Loads in Agricultural Tailwater

    OpenAIRE

    Budd, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Pyrethroid and organophosphate pesticides have been found in numerous waterways throughout the United States. Monitoring studies within the San Diego Creek watershed in Orange County, California, confirmed that runoff from agricultural fields are a primary contributor to pesticide loads within these waterways. As a mitigation option for non-point pesticide pollution, constructed wetlands were investigated in this study to reduce pesticide loading in agricultural tailwaters. Multiple wetlan...

  5. Occupational determinants of serum cholinesterase inhibition among organophosphate-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers in Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Keifer, Matthew C; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Fenske, Richard A; Furlong, Clement E; van Belle, Gerald; Checkoway, Harvey

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify potential risk factors for serum cholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition among agricultural pesticide handlers exposed to organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides. Methods We conducted a longitudinal study among 154 agricultural pesticide handlers who participated in the Washington State cholinesterase monitoring program in 2006 and 2007. BuChE inhibition was analyzed in relation to reported exposures before and after adjustment for potential confounders using linear regression. Odds ratios estimating the risk of ‘BuChE depression’ (>20% from baseline) were also calculated for selected exposures based on unconditional logistic regression analyses. Results An overall decrease in mean BuChE activity was observed among study participants at the time of follow-up testing during the OP/CB spray season relative to pre-season baseline levels (mean decrease of 5.6%, P < 0.001). Score for estimated cumulative exposure to OP/CB insecticides in the past 30 days was a significant predictor of BuChE inhibition (β = −1.74, P < 0.001). Several specific work practices and workplace conditions were associated with greater BuChE inhibition, including mixing/loading pesticides and cleaning spray equipment. Factors that were protective against BuChE inhibition included full-face respirator use, wearing chemical-resistant boots, and storing personal protective equipment in a locker at work. Conclusions Despite existing regulations, agricultural pesticide handlers continue to be exposed to OP/CB insecticides at levels resulting in BuChE inhibition. These findings suggest that modifying certain work practices could potentially reduce BuChE inhibition. Replication from other studies will be valuable. PMID:19819864

  6. Use-exposure relationships of pesticides for aquatic risk assessment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuzhou Luo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Field-scale environmental models have been widely used in aquatic exposure assessments of pesticides. Those models usually require a large set of input parameters and separate simulations for each pesticide in evaluation. In this study, a simple use-exposure relationship is developed based on regression analysis of stochastic simulation results generated from the Pesticide Root-Zone Model (PRZM. The developed mathematical relationship estimates edge-of-field peak concentrations of pesticides from aerobic soil metabolism half-life (AERO, organic carbon-normalized soil sorption coefficient (KOC, and application rate (RATE. In a case study of California crop scenarios, the relationships explained 90-95% of the variances in the peak concentrations of dissolved pesticides as predicted by PRZM simulations for a 30-year period. KOC was identified as the governing parameter in determining the relative magnitudes of pesticide exposures in a given crop scenario. The results of model application also indicated that the effects of chemical fate processes such as partitioning and degradation on pesticide exposure were similar among crop scenarios, while the cross-scenario variations were mainly associated with the landscape characteristics, such as organic carbon contents and curve numbers. With a minimum set of input data, the use-exposure relationships proposed in this study could be used in screening procedures for potential water quality impacts from the off-site movement of pesticides.

  7. Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and incidence of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Peggy; Hurley, S.E.; Goldberg, D.E.; Yerabati, Sauda; Gunier, R.B.; Hertz, Andrew; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Peel, David; Pinder, Richard; Ross, R.K.; West, Dee; Wright, W.E.; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2004-01-01

    We examined the association between residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and breast cancer incidence among members of the California Teachers Study cohort, a large study of professional school employees with extensive information on breast cancer risk factors, followed for cancer incidence since 1995. We identified 1552 invasive breast cancer cases, diagnosed between 1996 and 1999, among 114,835 cohort members. We used California Pesticide Use Reporting data to select pesticides for analysis based on use volume, carcinogenic potential, and exposure potential; a Geographic Information System was used to estimate pesticide applications within a half-mile radius of subjects' residences. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard rate ratios (HR) for selected pesticides, adjusting for age, race, and socioeconomic status. We saw no association between residential proximity to recent agricultural pesticide use and invasive breast cancer incidence. HR estimates for the highest compared to the lowest exposure categories for groups of agents were as follows: probable or likely carcinogens (1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.32), possible or suggestive carcinogens (1.06, 95% CI: 0.87-1.29), mammary carcinogens (1.15, 95% CI: 0.90-1.48), and endocrine disruptors (1.03, 95% CI: 0.86-1.25). HR estimates for other groups and individual pesticides did not differ from unity, nor was there a trend for any groupings of or individual pesticides examined. Stratifying by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer did not substantially affect our results. Our analyses suggest that breast cancer incidence is not elevated in areas of recent, high agricultural pesticide use in California

  8. Practical tracer investigations of pesticide residues in agricultural ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    According to the FAO's latest estimates, the world food supply can only be guaranteed if the 1982 agricultural production is increased by approx. 50% by the year 2000. 2/3 of this production increase must be achieved on areas already under cultivation. This means that in addition to balanced mineral fertilization the use of pesticides will have to be intensively continued in order to fully exploit the improved yield potential of the cultivated plants achieved by breeding. The primary research objective is therefore to extend our knowledge of the uptake and effects of pesticides in the plant as well as their persistence in agricultural ecosystems in order to be able to apply them both more efficiently and more safely. The Institute of Radioagronomy at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Juelich Nuclear Research Centre) is carrying out practical experiments into these problems using 14 C-labelled pesticides under field conditions. In this way statements will become possible on the uptake and residue situation in plants, translocation and metabolism in the soil, the balance in the year of application as well as on the uptake of untreated cultures in the crop rotation. Parallel to this, uptake after leaf spraying or after seed grain treatment is being studied under standardized conditions, as well as for example the mineralization, sorption and fixation of active substances and metabolites in the soil. Results from the past 12 years are being utilized as a basis for an evaluation of the state of knowledge. (orig.)

  9. Risk of pesticide exposure for reptile species in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingo, Valentin; Lötters, Stefan; Wagner, Norman

    2016-08-01

    Environmental pollution has an especially high impact on wildlife. This is especially the case in industrialized countries. Although, many species within the European Union benefit from protection by the Habitats Directive, no special consideration is given to possible detrimental effects of pesticides. This is in particular remarkable as negative effects, which may lead to a regional diversity loss, have already been identified in laboratory and mesocosm studies. We conducted a pesticide exposure risk evaluation for all European reptile species with sufficient literature data on the considered biological and ecological aspects and occurrence data within agricultural areas with regular pesticide applications (102 out of 141). By using three evaluation factors - (i) pesticide exposure, (ii) physiology and (iii) life history - a taxon-specific pesticide exposure risk factor (ERF) was created. The results suggest that about half of all evaluated species, and thus at least 1/3 of all European species exhibited a high exposure risk. At the same time, two of them (Mauremys leprosa and Testudo graeca) are globally classified as threatened with extinction in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Variation regarding species occurrence in exposed landscapes between pesticide admission zones within the EU is rather large. This variation is mainly caused by differing land use and species abundances between zones. At the taxonomic level, significant differences in exposure risk can be observed between threatened and non-threatened species, which can be explained by the formers remote distribution areas. Lizards display the highest sensitivity toward pesticides, although no differences in overall ERFs can be observed between taxonomic groups. By identifying species at above-average risk to pesticide exposure, species-based risk evaluations can improve conservation actions for reptiles from cultivated landscapes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pesticide pollution in agricultural areas of Northern Vietnam: Case study in Hoang Liet and Minh Dai communes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoai, Pham Manh; Sebesvari, Zita; Minh, Tu Binh; Viet, Pham Hung; Renaud, Fabrice G.

    2011-01-01

    Soils and agricultural products from the Red River basin in Northern Vietnam were reported to be contaminated by agrichemicals. To assess potential exposure of local farmers and consumers to these contaminants, pesticide use and management practices of local farmers were surveyed and residue concentrations were determined for recently used as well as for banned pesticides in water, soil, vegetables, and fish samples in two communes of Northern Vietnam. DDTs, HCHs, and Drin compounds still persist at relatively high concentrations in soil and occur in vegetable and fish samples. Recently used pesticides, such as fenobucarb, trichlorfon, cyfluthrin, and cypermethrin were detected in vegetable and fish samples. Thresholds for acceptable daily intake levels (ADI) were frequently reached in the analyzed food products pointing to the fact that current pesticide management practices do not only result in a pollution of the environment but also pose threats to human health. - Highlights: → Pesticide use and residue concentrations in the environment and biota was investigated. → Cypermethrin, trichlorfon, fenobucarb, cyfluthrin were frequently detected in biota. → Acceptable daily intake (ADI) levels were repeatedly exceeded in fish and vegetables. → Banned organochlorine pesticides still persist in the environment. → Better information-sharing is required to improve farmers' pesticide management. - Pollution with recently used and banned pesticides was observed in the environment and food products in Northern Vietnam and is discussed in context of human exposure.

  11. Honey Bee Survival and Pathogen Prevalence: From the Perspective of Landscape and Exposure to Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alburaki

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the in situ effects of the agricultural landscape and exposure to pesticides on honey bee health, sixteen honey bee colonies were placed in four different agricultural landscapes. Those landscapes were three agricultural areas with varying levels of agricultural intensity (AG areas and one non-agricultural area (NAG area. Colonies were monitored for different pathogen prevalence and pesticide residues over a period of one year. RT-qPCR was used to study the prevalence of seven different honey bee viruses as well as Nosema sp. in colonies located in different agricultural systems with various intensities of soybean, corn, sorghum, and cotton production. Populations of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor were also extensively monitored. Comprehensive MS-LC pesticide residue analyses were performed on samples of wax, honey, foragers, winter bees, dead bees, and crop flowers for each apiary and location. A significantly higher level of varroa loads were recorded in colonies of the AG areas, but this at least partly correlated with increased colony size and did not necessarily result from exposure to pesticides. Infections of two viruses (deformed wing virus genotype a (DWVa and acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV and Nosema sp. varied among the four studied locations. The urban location significantly elevated colony pathogen loads, while AG locations significantly benefited and increased the colony weight gain. Cotton and sorghum flowers contained high concentrations of insecticide including neonicotinoids, while soybean and corn had less pesticide residues. Several events of pesticide toxicity were recorded in the AG areas, and high concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticides were detected in dead bees.

  12. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in a landscape dominated by agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin; Vandever, Mark; Battaglin, William A; Hladik, Michelle L; Pierce, Clay L

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1,500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and implementing

  13. Pesticide concentrations in frog tissue and wetland habitats in alandscape dominated by agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalling, Kelly L.; Reeves, Rebecca; Muths, Erin L.; Vandever, Mark W.; Battaglin, William A.; Hladik, Michelle; Pierce, Clay L.

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and exposure to pesticides are likely primary factors contributing to amphibian decline in agricultural landscapes. Conservation efforts have attempted to restore wetlands lost through landscape modifications to reduce contaminant loads in surface waters and providing quality habitat to wildlife. The benefits of this increased wetland area, perhaps especially for amphibians, may be negated if habitat quality is insufficient to support persistent populations. We examined the presence of pesticides and nutrients in water and sediment as indicators of habitat quality and assessed the bioaccumulation of pesticides in the tissue of two native amphibian species Pseudacris maculata (chorus frogs) and Lithobates pipiens (leopard frogs) at six wetlands (3 restored and 3 reference) in Iowa, USA. Restored wetlands are positioned on the landscape to receive subsurface tile drainage water while reference wetlands receive water from overland run-off and shallow groundwater sources. Concentrations of the pesticides frequently detected in water and sediment samples were not different between wetland types. The median concentration of atrazine in surface water was 0.2 μg/L. Reproductive abnormalities in leopard frogs have been observed in other studies at these concentrations. Nutrient concentrations were higher in the restored wetlands but lower than concentrations thought lethal to frogs. Complex mixtures of pesticides including up to 8 fungicides, some previously unreported in tissue, were detected with concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 1500 μg/kg wet weight. No significant differences in pesticide concentrations were observed between species, although concentrations tended to be higher in leopard frogs compared to chorus frogs, possibly because of differences in life histories. Our results provide information on habitat quality in restored wetlands that will assist state and federal agencies, landowners, and resource managers in identifying and

  14. Biomonitoring and biomarkers of organophosphate pesticides exposure - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Cyranka, Małgorzata; Skrzypczak, Maciej; Kruszewski, Marcin

    2011-01-01

    Human biomonitoring provides an efficient and cost-effective way to identify and quantify exposure to chemical substances, including those having deleterious eff ects on human organisms. Once the risk of hazardous exposure has been identified and the mechanism of toxic eff ects has been elucidated, an ultimate decision about how to reduce exposure can be made. A particularly high risk of exposure to hazardous chemicals is associated with the use of pesticides in agriculture, especially the use of organophosphorous pesticides (OP), which are the most widely and commonly used insecticides worldwide. There is some strong evidence that chronic exposure to these compounds may have adverse eff ects on health. Exposure to pesticides has been associated with an increase in the incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, soft tissue sarcoma, lung sarcoma, and cancer of the pancreas, stomach, liver, bladder and gall bladder, Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, and reproductive outcomes. In view of these findings, the detection of populations at risk constitutes a very important topic. The biomonitoring studies on individuals exposed to pesticides have shown an elevated level of indicators of DNA damage, such as chromosomal aberrations (CA), sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), micronuclei (MN), and recently, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). The cytogenetic markers of DNA damage have become very popular and useful in providing an analytical data for risk assessment, such as internal exposure doses and early biological eff ects of both occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides. The article describes the usefulness and the limitations of these biomarkers in biomonitoring studies of populations exposed to pesticides, with regard to the main routes of uptake and different matrices, which can be used to monitor risk assessment in occupational settings. The article also summarizes the latest reports about biomarkers of susceptibility, and mentions other

  15. Comparative Probabilistic Assessment of Occupational Pesticide Exposures Based on Regulatory Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzou, Jane G.; Cullen, Alison C.; Yost, Michael G.; Kissel, John C.; Fenske, Richard A.

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of probabilistic analyses in exposure assessment can provide valuable insight into the risks of those at the extremes of population distributions, including more vulnerable or sensitive subgroups. Incorporation of these analyses into current regulatory methods for occupational pesticide exposure is enabled by the exposure data sets and associated data currently used in the risk assessment approach of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Monte Carlo simulations were performed on exposure measurements from the Agricultural Handler Exposure Database and the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database along with data from the Exposure Factors Handbook and other sources to calculate exposure rates for three different neurotoxic compounds (azinphos methyl, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate) across four pesticide-handling scenarios. Probabilistic estimates of doses were compared with the no observable effect levels used in the EPA occupational risk assessments. Some percentage of workers were predicted to exceed the level of concern for all three compounds: 54% for azinphos methyl, 5% for acetamiprid, and 20% for emamectin benzoate. This finding has implications for pesticide risk assessment and offers an alternative procedure that may be more protective of those at the extremes of exposure than the current approach. PMID:29105804

  16. Comparative Probabilistic Assessment of Occupational Pesticide Exposures Based on Regulatory Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouzou, Jane G; Cullen, Alison C; Yost, Michael G; Kissel, John C; Fenske, Richard A

    2017-11-06

    Implementation of probabilistic analyses in exposure assessment can provide valuable insight into the risks of those at the extremes of population distributions, including more vulnerable or sensitive subgroups. Incorporation of these analyses into current regulatory methods for occupational pesticide exposure is enabled by the exposure data sets and associated data currently used in the risk assessment approach of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Monte Carlo simulations were performed on exposure measurements from the Agricultural Handler Exposure Database and the Pesticide Handler Exposure Database along with data from the Exposure Factors Handbook and other sources to calculate exposure rates for three different neurotoxic compounds (azinphos methyl, acetamiprid, emamectin benzoate) across four pesticide-handling scenarios. Probabilistic estimates of doses were compared with the no observable effect levels used in the EPA occupational risk assessments. Some percentage of workers were predicted to exceed the level of concern for all three compounds: 54% for azinphos methyl, 5% for acetamiprid, and 20% for emamectin benzoate. This finding has implications for pesticide risk assessment and offers an alternative procedure that may be more protective of those at the extremes of exposure than the current approach. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  17. Population models for time-varying pesticide exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager T; Jong FMW de; Traas TP; LER; SEC

    2007-01-01

    A model has recently been developed at RIVM to predict the effects of variable exposure to pesticides of plant and animal populations in surface water. Before a pesticide is placed on the market, the environmental risk of the substance has to be assessed. This risk is estimated by comparing

  18. Pesticide-exposure Matrix helps identify active ingredients in pesticides used in past years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide-exposure Matrix was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years

  19. An improved model for estimating pesticide emissions for agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2011-01-01

    Credible quantification of chemical emissions in the inventory phase of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is crucial since chemicals are the dominating cause of the human and ecotoxicity-related environmental impacts in Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA). When applying LCA for assessment of agricultural...... products, off-target pesticide emissions need to be quantified as accurately as possible because of the considerable toxicity effects associated with chemicals designed to have a high impact on biological organisms like for example insects or weed plants. PestLCI was developed to estimate the fractions...

  20. Neonicotinoid pesticide exposure impairs crop pollination services provided by bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Dara A.; Garratt, Michael P. D.; Wickens, Jennifer B.; Wickens, Victoria J.; Potts, Simon G.; Raine, Nigel E.

    2015-12-01

    Recent concern over global pollinator declines has led to considerable research on the effects of pesticides on bees. Although pesticides are typically not encountered at lethal levels in the field, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to field-realistic levels can have sublethal effects on bees, affecting their foraging behaviour, homing ability and reproductive success. Bees are essential for the pollination of a wide variety of crops and the majority of wild flowering plants, but until now research on pesticide effects has been limited to direct effects on bees themselves and not on the pollination services they provide. Here we show the first evidence to our knowledge that pesticide exposure can reduce the pollination services bumblebees deliver to apples, a crop of global economic importance. Bumblebee colonies exposed to a neonicotinoid pesticide provided lower visitation rates to apple trees and collected pollen less often. Most importantly, these pesticide-exposed colonies produced apples containing fewer seeds, demonstrating a reduced delivery of pollination services. Our results also indicate that reduced pollination service delivery is not due to pesticide-induced changes in individual bee behaviour, but most likely due to effects at the colony level. These findings show that pesticide exposure can impair the ability of bees to provide pollination services, with important implications for both the sustained delivery of stable crop yields and the functioning of natural ecosystems.

  1. Chronic pesticide exposure and consequential keratectasia & corneal neovascularisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, Shalini; Law, Atrayo; Law, Sujata

    2017-11-01

    Ocular toxicity as a consequence of chronic pesticide exposure is one of the health hazards caused due to extended exposure to pesticides. The cornea, due to its position as the outer ocular layer and its role in protecting the internal layers of the eye; is gravely affected by this xenobiotic insult to the eye, leading to ocular irritation and damage to normal vision. The deleterious effects of chronic pesticide exposure on the various corneal layers and the ocular risks involved therein, were explored by mimicking the on-field scenario. Cytological, histological and flowcytometric parameters were taken into consideration to determine the enhanced risk of corneal neovascularisation and keratectasia, specifically, keratoconus. Chronic exposure to pesticides leads to heightened ocular morbidity wherein there were visible pathophysiological changes to the ocular surface. The cornea was found to be adversely affected with visible protuberance in a cone-like shape, characteristic of keratoconus in a majority of the experimental animals. Further analyses revealed a detrimental impact on all the corneal layers and an amplified expression of inflammation markers such as TNF-α, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1. Additionally, it was found that post pesticide exposure, the corneal surface developed hypoxia, leading to a significant increase of angiogenesis promoting factors and consequential neovascularisation. Apart from ocular toxicity, chronic exposure to pesticides significantly increases the risks of keratectasia and corneal neovascularisation; disorders which lead to diminished vision and if untreated, blindness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of waste water treatment plants to pesticide toxicity in agriculture catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trong Dieu Hien; Scharmüller, Andreas; Kattwinkel, Mira; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2017-11-01

    Pesticide residues are frequently found in water bodies and may threaten freshwater ecosystems and biodiversity. In addition to runoff or leaching from treated agricultural fields, pesticides may enter streams via effluents from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). We compared the pesticide toxicity in terms of log maximum Toxic Unit (log mTU) of sampling sites in small agricultural streams of Germany with and without WWTPs in the upstream catchments. We found an approximately half log unit higher pesticide toxicity for sampling sites with WWTPs (p pesticide toxicity in streams with WWTPs. A few compounds (diuron, terbuthylazin, isoproturon, terbutryn and Metazachlor) dominated the herbicide toxicity. Pesticide toxicity was not correlated with upstream distance to WWTP (Spearman's rank correlation, rho = - 0.11, p > 0.05) suggesting that other context variables are more important to explain WWTP-driven pesticide toxicity. Our results suggest that WWTPs contribute to pesticide toxicity in German streams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Human reproductive system disturbances and pesticide exposure in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koifman Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of reproductive disturbances in humans and in the wildlife has been reported in the last decade in different countries. Exposure to different chemicals possibly acting in the endocrine system or endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, has been a hypothesis raised to explain the observed changes. This paper aimed to present results of an epidemiological ecologic study carried out to explore population data on pesticides exposure in selected Brazilian states in the eighties and human reproductive outcomes in the nineties. Pearson correlation coefficients were ascertained between available data pesticides sales in eleven states in Brazil in 1985 and selected further reproductive outcomes or their surrogates. Moderate to high correlations were observed to infertility, testis, breast, prostate and ovarian cancer mortality. Despite the restrains of ecologic studies to establish cause-effect relationships, the observed results are in agreement with evidence supporting a possible association between pesticides exposure and the analyzed reproductive outcomes.

  4. The Impact of Prenatal Organophosphate Pesticide Exposures on Thai Infant Neurodevelopment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornpimol Kongtip

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A birth cohort was begun to investigate the levels and sources of pesticide exposure in pregnant women living in Thailand, and to examine the effects of pesticide exposure on infant neurodevelopment at five months of age. Subjects were interviewed using questionnaires regarding their demographic characteristics, educational background, and work and home activities related to pesticide exposures. Spot urine samples were collected at 28 weeks gestation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine maternal metabolite levels of organophosphate pesticides including dimethyl phosphate (DMP; total DEP (diethyl phosphate (DEP, diethyl thiophosphate (DETP, and diethyl dithiophosphate (DEDTP, and total DAP (the sum of all metabolite levels. At five months of age, infant development was evaluated using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III (Bayley-III. Higher total DEP and total DAP metabolite levels from the mother at 28 weeks’ gestation were significantly associated with reduced motor composite scores on the Bayley-III at five months of age. The total DEP levels were also significantly associated with reduced cognitive composite scores. Prenatal concentrations of maternal urinary metabolites were associated with infant cognitive and motor development. The results of several studies now suggest the need for public health intervention to reduce prenatal pesticide exposures from both agricultural and domestic use.

  5. Determination of Pesticide Dermal Transfer to Operators & Agricultural Workers through Contact with Sprayed Hard Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakirakis, Angelos N; Kasiotis, Konstantinos M; Anastasiadou, Pelagia; Charistou, Agathi N; Gerritsen-Ebben, Rianda; Glass, C Richard; Machera, Kyriaki

    2018-05-20

    In the present study, the dermal transfer rate of pesticides to agricultural workers occurring via contact with sprayed hard surfaces was investigated. Cotton gloves were used as dosimeters to collect residues from hard surfaces contaminated by pesticides in greenhouses. Dosimeters, either dry or moistened, were in contact with wood, metal and plastic surfaces previously sprayed. The experimental approach applied mimicked the typical hand contact. Moistened cotton gloves were used to simulate hand moisture from dew/condensation or rainfall. The effect of total duration of contact on the final hand exposure via transfer was investigated. The higher duration contact tested (50-sec) resulted in the higher transfer rates for metal and plastic surfaces; no such effect was noted in case of the wood surface. The pesticide amount transferred from the metal and plastic surfaces to wet gloves was greater than the one transferred to dry gloves. Such trend was not observed for the wood surface. Transfer rates varied from 0.46-77.62% and 0.17-16.90% for wet and dry samples, respectively. The current study has generated new data to quantify the proportion of pesticide deposits dislodged from three different non-crop surfaces when in contact with dry or wet gloves. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure to Atrazine and Selected Non-Persistent Pesticides among Corn Farmers during a Growing Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, Berit; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Barr, Dana B.; Stewart, Patricia A.; Blair, Aaron; Freeman, Laura Beane; Lynch, Charles F.; Allen, Ruth H.; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Vermeulen, Roel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers’ pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. Methods The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health Study farmers from Iowa and 10 nonfarming controls. Farmers completed daily and weekly diaries from March to November in 2002 and 2003 on pesticide use and other exposure determinants. Urine samples were collected at 10 timepoints relative to atrazine application and other farming activities. Pesticide exposure was assessed using urinary metabolites and diaries. Results The analytical limit of detection (LOD) ranged between 0.1–0.2 μg/l for all pesticide analytes except for isazaphos (1.5 μg/l) and diazinon (0.7 μg/l). Farmers had higher geometric mean urinary atrazine mercapturate (AZM) values than controls during planting (1.1 vs. urine collection (38% vs. 6%, p<0.0001). A similar pattern was observed for 2,4-D and acetochlor (92% vs. 47%, p<0.0001 and 45% vs. 4%, p<0.0001, respectively). Conclusion Urinary AZM levels in farmers were largely driven by recent application of atrazine. Therefore, the amount of atrazine applied is likely to provide valid surrogates of atrazine exposure in epidemiologic studies. Elevated background levels of non-persistent pesticides, especially 2,4-D, indicate importance in epidemiologic studies of capturing pesticide exposures that might not be directly related to the actual application. PMID:19052531

  7. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razi, Saeid; Rezaeian, Mohsen; Dehkordi, Fatemeh Ghani; Manshoori, Azita; Goujani, Reza; Vazirinejad, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4) and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6), respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother's residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  8. Exposure to pistachio pesticides and stillbirth: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Razi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES Stillbirth is an undesirable outcome of pregnancy. In light of the increasing use of pesticides and growing concerns about the possible health effects of agricultural pesticides, we investigated the effect of exposure to pistachio pesticides on stillbirth in pregnant mothers. METHODS This case-control study was conducted in Rafsanjan, Iran from 2011 to 2012. A total of 125 females who had a recent stillbirth were included as the case group, and 250 controls were selected from females who had a recent live birth. For each case, two controls with the nearest propensity score to the case were selected. Data were collected using a protocol developed by the researcher that involved interviewing respondents and reviewing their medical records. Conditional multivariate and univariate logistic regression analysis were performed and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated. RESULTS The ORs of stillbirth in mothers living in pistachio gardens and those who were exposed to sprayed pesticides, in comparison to the controls, were 14.1 (95% CI, 3.3 to 63.4 and 5.0 (95% CI, 1.2 to 28.6, respectively. No significant differences were found in stillbirth rates according to the distance between the mother’s residence and a pistachio garden or involvement in agricultural activities. CONCLUSIONS The results of our study showed that exposure to pistachio pesticides during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of stillbirth in mothers.

  9. A GIS-based method for household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Michael J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in GIS technology and remote sensing have provided new opportunities to collect ecologic data on agricultural pesticide exposure. Many pesticide studies have used historical or records-based data on crops and their associated pesticide applications to estimate exposure by measuring residential proximity to agricultural fields. Very few of these studies collected environmental and biological samples from study participants. One of the reasons for this is the cost of identifying participants who reside near study fields and analyzing samples obtained from them. In this paper, we present a cost-effective, GIS-based method for crop field selection and household recruitment in a prospective pesticide exposure study in a remote location. For the most part, our multi-phased approach was carried out in a research facility, but involved two brief episodes of fieldwork for ground truthing purposes. This method was developed for a larger study designed to examine the validity of indirect pesticide exposure estimates by comparing measured exposures in household dust, water and urine with records-based estimates that use crop location, residential proximity and pesticide application data. The study focused on the pesticide atrazine, a broadleaf herbicide used in corn production and one of the most widely-used pesticides in the U.S. Results We successfully used a combination of remotely-sensed data, GIS-based methods and fieldwork to select study fields and recruit participants in Illinois, a state with high corn production and heavy atrazine use. Our several-step process consisted of the identification of potential study fields and residential areas using aerial photography; verification of crop patterns and land use via site visits; development of a GIS-based algorithm to define recruitment areas around crop fields; acquisition of geocoded household-level data within each recruitment area from a commercial vendor; and

  10. Human exposure and risk assessment to airborne pesticides in a rural French community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; López, Antonio; Yahyaoui, Abderrazak; Colin, Patrice; Robin, Corine; Poinsignon, Quentin; Yusà, Vicent

    2017-04-15

    Outdoor air samples collected during the pesticide agricultural application period (spring and summer) from a rural community in the Centre Region (France) were analyzed to investigate temporal variation of atmospheric pesticide levels (2006-2013) and human inhalation exposure in adults, children and infants. The most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides (trifluralin, pendimethalin), fungicides (chlorothalonil) and insecticides (lindane and α-endosulfan). The three currently-used pesticides most frequently detected presented concentrations ranging from 0.18 to 1128.38ngm -3 ; 0.13 to 117.32ngm -3 and 0.16 to 25.80ngm -3 for chlorothalonil, pendimethalin and trifluralin, respectively. The estimated chronic inhalation risk, expressed as Hazard Quotient (HQ), for adults, children and infants, was exposure for detected organophosphorus and chloroacetamide pesticides, was estimated using the Relative Potency Factor (RPF) and Hazard Index (HI) as metrics, which was indicated that no risk was observed. The cancer risk classified as likely or possibly carcinogen was estimated to be <8.93 E-05 in infants, for the detected pesticides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Occupational Exposure to Pesticides With Occupational Sun Exposure Increases the Risk for Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Segatto M, Marjorie; Hohmann, Clarissa; Miligi, Lucia; Bakos, Lucio; Bonamigo, Renan

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the association between occupational exposure to pesticides and cutaneous melanoma, controlling for all possible confounders. A pooled analysis of two case-control studies was conducted in two different geographic areas (Italy and Brazil). Detailed pesticides exposure histories were obtained. Ever use of any pesticide was associated with a high risk of cutaneous melanoma (odds ratio 2.58; 95% confidence interval 1.18-5.65) in particular exposure to herbicides (glyphosate) and fungicides (mancozeb, maneb), after controlling for confounding factors. When subjects were exposed to both pesticides and occupational sun exposure, the risk increased even more (odds ratio 4.68; 95% confidence interval 1.29-17.0). The study suggests an augmented risk of cutaneous melanoma among subjects with exposure to pesticides, in particular among those exposed to occupational sun exposure.

  12. Investigating the knowledge level of sellers of pesticides used in agricultural struggle in Adana province

    OpenAIRE

    Nazlıcan, Ersin; Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin; İlter, Hüseyin

    2018-01-01

    Objective:While significant increase in pesticide use in our country, most extensive usesare at Aegean and Mediterranean regions. Adjusting amount of pesticideconsumption is important for both human health and environmental contamination.Our aim is investigating the level of knowledge of sellers of pesticides usedin agricultural struggle about pesticides in Adana, in Mediterranean region.Method: In Adana, survey with 37 questions applied to sellers of pesticidesused in agricultural struggle, ...

  13. Exposure to Multiple Pesticides and Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Men from Six Canadian Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenadel, Karin; Harris, Shelley A.; McLaughlin, John R.; Spinelli, John J.; Pahwa, Punam; Dosman, James A.; Demers, Paul A.; Blair, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) has been linked to several agricultural exposures, including some commonly used pesticides. Although there is a significant body of literature examining the effects of exposure to individual pesticides on NHL, the impact of exposure to multiple pesticides or specific pesticide combinations has not been explored in depth. Data from a six-province Canadian case-control study conducted between 1991 and 1994 were analyzed to investigate the relationship between NHL, the total number of pesticides used and some common pesticide combinations. Cases (n = 513) were identified through hospital records and provincial cancer registries and controls (n = 1,506), frequency matched to cases by age and province of residence, were obtained through provincial health records, telephone listings, or voter lists. In multiple logistic regression analyses, risk of NHL increased with the number of pesticides used. Similar results were obtained in analyses restricted to herbicides, insecticides and several pesticide classes. Odds ratios increased further when only ‘potentially carcinogenic’ pesticides were considered (OR[one pesticide] = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.90–1.88; OR[two to four] = 1.54, CI = 1.11–2.12; OR[five or more] = 1.94, CI = 1.17–3.23). Elevated risks were also found among those reporting use of malathion in combination with several other pesticides. These analyses support and extend previous findings that the risk of NHL increases with the number of pesticides used and some pesticide combinations. PMID:21776232

  14. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. RESULTS: Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05 the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001 lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet

  15. Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

  16. Cancer incidence among glyphosate-exposed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Anneclaire J; Blair, Aaron; Rusiecki, Jennifer A; Hoppin, Jane A; Svec, Megan; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Sandler, Dale P; Alavanja, Michael C

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a broad-spectrum herbicide that is one of the most frequently applied pesticides in the world. Although there has been little consistent evidence of genotoxicity or carcinogenicity from in vitro and animal studies, a few epidemiologic reports have indicated potential health effects of glyphosate. We evaluated associations between glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of 57,311 licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Detailed information on pesticide use and other factors was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at time of enrollment (1993-1997). Among private and commercial applicators, 75.5% reported having ever used glyphosate, of which > 97% were men. In this analysis, glyphosate exposure was defined as a) ever personally mixed or applied products containing glyphosate; b) cumulative lifetime days of use, or "cumulative exposure days" (years of use times days/year); and c) intensity-weighted cumulative exposure days (years of use times days/year times estimated intensity level). Poisson regression was used to estimate exposure-response relations between glyphosate and incidence of all cancers combined and 12 relatively common cancer subtypes. Glyphosate exposure was not associated with cancer incidence overall or with most of the cancer subtypes we studied. There was a suggested association with multiple myeloma incidence that should be followed up as more cases occur in the AHS. Given the widespread use of glyphosate, future analyses of the AHS will allow further examination of long-term health effects, including less common cancers.

  17. Pesticide exposure and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: A case-control study using a geographic information system (GIS) to link SEER-Medicare and California pesticide data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VoPham, Trang; Brooks, Maria M; Yuan, Jian-Min; Talbott, Evelyn O; Ruddell, Darren; Hart, Jaime E; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Weissfeld, Joel L

    2015-11-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of primary liver cancer, is associated with low survival. U.S. studies examining self-reported pesticide exposure in relation to HCC have demonstrated inconclusive results. We aimed to clarify the association between pesticide exposure and HCC by implementing a novel data linkage between Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare and California Pesticide Use Report (PUR) data using a geographic information system (GIS). Controls were frequency-matched to HCC cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009 in California by year, age, race, sex, and duration of residence in California. Potential confounders were extracted from Medicare claims. From 1974 to 2008, pounds (1 pound represents 0.45 kg) of applied organophosphate, organochlorine, and carbamate pesticides provided in PURs were aggregated to the ZIP Code level using area weighting in a GIS. ZIP Code exposure estimates were linked to subjects using Medicare-provided ZIP Codes to calculate pesticide exposure. Agricultural residents were defined as living in ZIP Codes with a majority area intersecting agricultural land cover according to the 1992, 2001, and 2006 National Land Cover Database (NLCD) rasters. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the association between pesticide exposure and HCC. Among California residents of agriculturally intensive areas, previous annual ZIP Code-level exposure to over 14.53 kg/km(2) of organochlorine pesticides (75(th) percentile among controls) was associated with an increased risk of HCC after adjusting for liver disease and diabetes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17, 2.99; p=0.0085). ZIP Code-level organochlorines were significantly associated with an increased risk of HCC among males (adjusted OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.58, 4.82; p=0.0004), but not associated with HCC among females (adjusted OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.35, 1.93; p=0.6600) (interaction p=0.0075). This is

  18. A complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss rivers with agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Simon; Comte, Rahel; Doppler, Tobias; Wittmer, Irene; Moschet, Christoph; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz; Kunz, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in surface waters at concentration levels that raise ecotoxicological concerns. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides in agricultural watersheds, it is difficult to obtain a comprehensive overview of the actual pollution level. This collaborative project between research and Swiss federal and cantonal authorities aimed for a comprehensive analysis of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to address this knowledge gap. The five rivers are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops, such as grains, vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Urban activities and influences are low. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August with automatic sampling devices, resulting in 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (Orbitrap technology), involved a target screening of 248 pesticides including fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, as well as important transformation products. Data on the total number and distribution of pesticides, their detection frequency, crop specific applications and concentration time profiles will be presented. Preliminary results indicate substantial pesticide exposure since at least 20 different compounds were detected in all samples. One sample even contained a mixture of 80 pesticides. The majority of concentrations were in the low ng/L range but concentrations of a few compounds were very high (several micrograms/L) during discharge events as well as during low flow conditions

  19. Evaluation system for pesticides (ESPE) 2. Non-agricultural pesticides. To be incorporated into the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttik R; Emans HJB; Poel P van der; Linders JBHJ

    1993-01-01

    After the presentation of the Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE) 1. Agricultural pesticides (Emans et al. 1992) this present report is describing the logical successor ESPE 2: non-agricultural pesticides. Starting with an extensive emission analysis of the different types

  20. Pesticide residues in grain from Kazakhstan and potential health risks associated with exposure to detected pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, B; Kaczynski, P; Paritova, Capital A Cyrillic Е; Kuzembekova, G B; Abzhalieva, A B; Sarsembayeva, N B; Alihan, K

    2014-02-01

    This paper presents the first study of pesticide residue results in grain from Kazakhstan. A total of 80 samples: barley, oat, rye, and wheat were collected and tested in the accredited laboratory. Among 180 pesticides, 10 active substances were detected. Banned pesticides, such as DDTs, γ-HCH, aldrin and diazinon were found in cereal grain. Chlorpyrifos methyl and pirimiphos methyl were the most frequently detected residues. No residues were found in 77.5% of the samples, 13.75% contained pesticide residues at or below MRLs, and 8.75% above MRLs. The greatest percentage of samples with residues (29%) was noted for wheat, and the lowest for rye (20%). Obtained data were used to estimate potential health risks associated with exposure to these pesticides. The highest estimated daily intakes (EDIs) were as follows: 789% of the ADI for aldrin (wheat) and 49.8% of the ADI for pirimiphos methyl (wheat and rye). The acute risk from aldrin and tebuconazole in wheat was 315.9% and 98.7% ARfD, respectively. The results show that despite the highest EDIs of pesticide residues in cereals, the current situation could not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, an investigation into continuous monitoring of pesticide residues in grain is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  2. Pesticide residue assessment in three selected agricultural production systems in the Choluteca River Basin of Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammerbauer, J.; Moncada, J.

    1999-01-01

    There is a basic lack of information about the presence of pesticide residues in the environment in Central America. Over the period of February 1995 to June 1997, river, well, lagoon and spring water samples, as well as soil, fish tissue, lagoon bed sediments and some foodstuffs were taken from the greater Cholutecan River Basin of Honduras and analyzed for pesticide residues. These were collected at three separate sites (La Lima, Zamorano and Choluteca), each characterized by differing agricultural production systems. The main pesticide residues found in soil samples were dieldrin and p,p'-DDT, while river water samples were found to have detectable levels of heptachlor, endosulfan and chlorpyrifos, with lagoon and well water also being shown to contain heptachlor. These pesticides detected were in more than 20% of the samples assessed. In river water samples more pesticide residues at higher concentrations were found to be associated with areas of more intensive agricultural production. The fewest pesticides with lowest concentrations were found in the small subwatershed associated with traditional agricultural production. Although the pesticides found in the soils at the three sites were generally similar they tended to be higher in the southern part of the Cholutecan watershed, followed by the central zone, with the lowest concentrations being found in the more traditional production zone. In lagoon and well water samples more pesticides, but mostly in lower concentrations were detected at the traditional production site than at the others. Ten pesticide compounds were detected in fish tissue, mainly organochlorines, some of which were also found in lagoon sediments. In terms of food products, almost no pesticides were detected in vegetables, but the kidney adipose tissue taken from slaughtered cows was shown to have a tendency to contain some organochlorines. Spring water in the traditional agricultural production zone contained three organochlorine compounds

  3. Changing patterns in water toxicity associated with current use pesticides in three California agriculture regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Brian S; Phillips, Bryn M; Voorhees, Jennifer P; Deng, Xin; Geraci, Jeff; Worcester, Karen; Tjeerdema, Ron S

    2018-03-01

    Regulation of agriculture irrigation water discharges in California, USA, is assessed and controlled by its 9 Regional Water Quality Control Boards under the jurisdiction of the California State Water Resources Control Board. Each Regional Water Board has developed programs to control pesticides in runoff as part of the waste discharge requirements implemented through each region's Irrigated Lands Regulatory Program. The present study assessed how pesticide use patterns differ in the Imperial (Imperial County) and the Salinas and Santa Maria (Monterey County) valleys, which host 3 of California's prime agriculture areas. Surface-water toxicity associated with current use pesticides was monitored at several sites in these areas in 2014 and 2015, and results were linked to changes in pesticide use patterns in these areas. Pesticide use patterns appeared to coincide with differences in the way agriculture programs were implemented by the 2 respective Regional Water Quality Control Boards, and these programs differed in the 2 Water Board Regions. Different pesticide use patterns affected the occurrence of pesticides in agriculture runoff, and this influenced toxicity test results. Greater detection frequency and higher concentrations of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos were detected in agriculture runoff in Imperial County compared to Monterey County, likely due to more rigorous monitoring requirements for growers using this pesticide in Monterey County. Monterey County agriculture runoff contained toxic concentrations of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid pesticides, which impacted amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and midge larvae (Chironomus dilutus) in toxicity tests. Study results illustrate how monitoring strategies need to evolve as regulatory actions affect change in pesticide use and demonstrate the importance of using toxicity test indicator species appropriate for the suite of contaminants in runoff in order to accurately assess environmental risk. Integr

  4. Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling and Spatial Analysis to Evaluate Population Exposure to Pesticides from Farming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Costanzini

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work originates from an epidemiological study aimed to assess the correlation between population exposure to pesticides used in agriculture and adverse health effects. In support of the population exposure evaluation two models implemented by the authors were applied: a GIS-based proximity model and the CAREA atmospheric dispersion model. In this work, the results of the two models are presented and compared. Despite the proximity analysis is widely used for these kinds of studies, it was investigated how meteorology could affect the exposure assessment. Both models were applied to pesticides emitted by 1519 agricultural fields and considering 2584 receptors distributed over an area of 8430 km2. CAREA output shows a considerable enhancement in the percentage of exposed receptors, from the 4% of the proximity model to the 54% of the CAREA model. Moreover, the spatial analysis of the results on a specific test site showed that the effects of meteorology considered by CAREA led to an anisotropic exposure distribution that differs considerably from the symmetric distribution resulting by the proximity model. In addition, the results of a field campaign for the definition and planning of ground measurement of concentration for the validation of CAREA are presented. The preliminary results showed how, during treatments, pesticide concentrations distant from the fields are significantly higher than background values.

  5. Parameterization models for pesticide exposure via crop consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Shaddick, Gavin; Itoiz, Eva Sevigné; Friedrich, Rainer; Jolliet, Olivier

    2012-12-04

    An approach for estimating human exposure to pesticides via consumption of six important food crops is presented that can be used to extend multimedia models applied in health risk and life cycle impact assessment. We first assessed the variation of model output (pesticide residues per kg applied) as a function of model input variables (substance, crop, and environmental properties) including their possible correlations using matrix algebra. We identified five key parameters responsible for between 80% and 93% of the variation in pesticide residues, namely time between substance application and crop harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop-specific models by parametrizing a complex fate and exposure assessment framework. The parametric models thereby reflect the framework's physical and chemical mechanisms and predict pesticide residues in harvest using linear combinations of crop, crop surface, and soil compartments. Parametric model results correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest can finally be combined with reduction factors accounting for food processing to estimate human exposure from crop consumption. All parametric models can be easily implemented into existing assessment frameworks.

  6. Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C. G.; Mulleners, Wim M.; Sas, Antonetta M. G.; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses

  7. Testicular germ cell tumours and parental occupational exposure to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Cornet, Charlotte; Fervers, Béatrice; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A potential impact of exposure to endocrine disruptors, including pesticides, during intrauterine life, has been hypothesised in testicular germ cell tumour (TGCT) aetiology, but exposure assessment is challenging. This large-scale registry-based case-control study aimed to investigate...... controls per case were randomly selected from the general national populations, matched on year of birth. Information on parental occupation was collected through censuses or Pension Fund information and converted into a pesticide exposure index based on the Finnish National Job-Exposure Matrix. RESULTS......: A total of 9569 cases and 32 028 controls were included. No overall associations were found for either maternal or paternal exposures and TGCT risk in their sons, with ORs of 0.83 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.23) and of 1.03 (0.92 to 1.14), respectively. Country-specific estimates and stratification by birth cohorts...

  8. Exposure to pesticides or solvents and risk of Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzoli, Gianni; Cereda, Emanuele

    2013-05-28

    To investigate the risk of Parkinson disease (PD) associated with exposure to pesticides and solvents using meta-analyses of data from cohort and case-control studies. Prospective cohort and case-control studies providing risk and precision estimates relating PD to exposure to pesticides or solvents or to proxies of exposure were considered eligible. The heterogeneity in risk estimates associated with objective study quality was also investigated. A total of 104 studies/3,087 citations fulfilled inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. In prospective studies, study quality was not a source of heterogeneity. PD was associated with farming and the association with pesticides was highly significant in the studies in which PD diagnosis was self-reported. In case-control studies, study quality appeared to be a source of heterogeneity in risk estimates for some exposures. Higher study quality was frequently associated with a reduction in heterogeneity. In high-quality case-control studies, PD risk was increased by exposure to any-type pesticides, herbicides, and solvents. Exposure to paraquat or maneb/mancozeb was associated with about a 2-fold increase in risk. In high-quality case-control studies including an appreciable number of cases (>200), heterogeneity remained significantly high (>40%) only for insecticides, organochlorines, organophosphates, and farming; also, the risk associated with rural living was found to be significant. The literature supports the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides or solvents is a risk factor for PD. Further prospective and high-quality case-control studies are required to substantiate a cause-effect relationship. The studies should also focus on specific chemical agents.

  9. Quantifying exposure of wild bumblebees to mixtures of agrochemicals in agricultural and urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botías, Cristina; David, Arthur; Hill, Elizabeth M; Goulson, Dave

    2017-03-01

    The increased use of pesticides has caused concern over the possible direct association of exposure to combinations of these compounds with bee health problems. There is growing proof that bees are regularly exposed to mixtures of agrochemicals, but most research has been focused on managed bees living in farmland, whereas little is known about exposure of wild bees, both in farmland and urban habitats. To determine exposure of wild bumblebees to pesticides in agricultural and urban environments through the season, specimens of five different species were collected from farms and ornamental urban gardens in three sampling periods. Five neonicotinoid insecticides, thirteen fungicides and a pesticide synergist were analysed in each of the specimens collected. In total, 61% of the 150 individuals tested had detectable levels of at least one of the compounds, with boscalid being the most frequently detected (35%), followed by tebuconazole (27%), spiroxamine (19%), carbendazim (11%), epoxiconazole (8%), imidacloprid (7%), metconazole (7%) and thiamethoxam (6%). Quantifiable concentrations ranged from 0.17 to 54.4 ng/g (bee body weight) for individual pesticides. From all the bees where pesticides were detected, the majority (71%) had more than one compound, with a maximum of seven pesticides detected in one specimen. Concentrations and detection frequencies were higher in bees collected from farmland compared to urban sites, and pesticide concentrations decreased through the season. Overall, our results show that wild bumblebees are exposed to multiple pesticides when foraging in agricultural and urban landscapes. Such mixtures are detected in bee tissues not just during the crop flowering period, but also later in the season. Therefore, contact with these combinations of active compounds might be more prolonged in time and widespread in the environment than previously assumed. These findings may help to direct future research and pesticide regulation strategies to

  10. Factors predicting organochlorine pesticide levels in pregnant Latina women living in a United States agricultural area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradman, Asa; Schwartz, Jackie M.; Fenster, Laura; Barr, Dana B.; Holland, Nina T.; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide use was restricted starting in the 1970s in developed countries and the 1980s and 1990s in developing countries. Current exposure to OC pesticides – DDT, lindane (99% pure gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH)), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) – occurs on a limited basis. We measured p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, HCB, beta (β)-HCH (the most persistent isomer of technical-grade HCH) and γ-HCH in serum from 426 low-income pregnant Latina women living in an agricultural community in California. Detection frequencies were 94-100%. Median levels (ng/g-lipid) of p,p′-DDE (1,052), p,p′-DDT (13), β-HCH (37) and HCB (65) were significantly higher than U.S. population levels. Multivariate analyses of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, o,p′-DDT, β-HCH and HCB indicate that time spent living outside the United States and birthplace in an area of Mexico with recent use of OC pesticides were significant predictors of exposure. Time spent living in the United States was associated with increased serum levels of p,p′-DDE and β-HCH, but the increase for each year lived in the United States was lower than for each year lived outside the United States. There was no difference between the increase of HCB levels over time spent in or outside the United States, suggesting current and thus preventable exposure routes. However, we observed no associations between serum levels of any OC compound and current intake of saturated fat or agricultural take-home exposure risk factors. Lactation history and recent weight gain were negatively associated with serum levels of some, but not all OC compounds studied. Smoking history was borderline associated with elevated HCB levels. We observed no significant associations with body mass index. Although the weight of evidence from this study indicates that most exposure occurred prior to moving to the United States, the results for HCB indicate the possibility of ongoing exposure in this country. PMID:17033681

  11. Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Wright, Geraldine A

    2013-05-15

    Pesticides are important agricultural tools often used in combination to avoid resistance in target pest species, but there is growing concern that their widespread use contributes to the decline of pollinator populations. Pollinators perform sophisticated behaviours while foraging that require them to learn and remember floral traits associated with food, but we know relatively little about the way that combined exposure to multiple pesticides affects neural function and behaviour. The experiments reported here show that prolonged exposure to field-realistic concentrations of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the organophosphate acetylcholinesterase inhibitor coumaphos and their combination impairs olfactory learning and memory formation in the honeybee. Using a method for classical conditioning of proboscis extension, honeybees were trained in either a massed or spaced conditioning protocol to examine how these pesticides affected performance during learning and short- and long-term memory tasks. We found that bees exposed to imidacloprid, coumaphos, or a combination of these compounds, were less likely to express conditioned proboscis extension towards an odor associated with reward. Bees exposed to imidacloprid were less likely to form a long-term memory, whereas bees exposed to coumaphos were only less likely to respond during the short-term memory test after massed conditioning. Imidacloprid, coumaphos and a combination of the two compounds impaired the bees' ability to differentiate the conditioned odour from a novel odour during the memory test. Our results demonstrate that exposure to sublethal doses of combined cholinergic pesticides significantly impairs important behaviours involved in foraging, implying that pollinator population decline could be the result of a failure of neural function of bees exposed to pesticides in agricultural landscapes.

  12. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  13. Influence of exposure to pesticide mixtures on the metabolomic profile in post-metamorphic green frogs (Lithobates clamitans)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide use in agricultural areas requires the application of numerous chemicals to control target organisms, leaving non-target organisms at risk. The present study evaluates the hepatic metabolomic profile of one group of non-target organisms, amphibians, after exposure to a ...

  14. Temporal-spatial patterns of three types of pesticide loadings in a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Cai, Guanqing; Tysklind, Mats; Yang, Wanyin; Hao, Fanghua; Liu, Hongbin

    2017-10-01

    Pesticide loadings to watersheds increase during agricultural development and may vary in accordance with different crop types and seasons. High pesticide loadings can potentially result in polluted stream water. The objective of this study was to determine the pesticide loadings and concentrations of three typical pesticides (atrazine, oxadiazon, and isoprothiolane) in river water from a middle-high latitude agricultural watershed in northern China. During this study, we evaluated the watershed pesticide loss patterns for two crop types over three decades. For this purpose, we integrated data from field investigations, laboratory experiments, and modeling simulations involving a distributed hydrological solute transport model (Soil and Water Assessment Tool, SWAT). SWAT was employed to compare the temporal-spatial fate and behaviors of atrazine, oxadiazon, and isoprothiolane from 1990 to 2014 in a watershed area amounting to 141.5 km 2 . The results showed that the three pesticides could be detected at different locations throughout the watershed, and isoprothiolane was detected at the maximum value of 1.082 μg/L in surface runoff of paddy land. The temporal trend for the yearly loading of atrazine decreased slightly over time, but the trends for oxadiazon and isoprothiolane increased markedly over an 18-year analysis period. In regard to the pesticide concentrations in water, atrazine was associated with the largest value of nearly 1.4 μg/L. July and August were the found to be prime periods for pesticide loss from paddy land, and the biggest monthly loss of atrazine from dryland appeared in June. Under similar usage conditions, isoprothiolane loading from paddy fields ranked as the largest one among the three types of pesticides and reached up to 17 g/ha. Limited monitoring data were useful for validating the model, which yielded valuable temporal-spatial data on the fate of pesticides in this watershed. With the expansion of paddy rice cultivation, risks

  15. Cumulative dietary exposure of the population of Denmark to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bodil Hamborg; Petersen, Annette; Nielsen, Elsa

    2015-01-01

    exposure to the pesticides found in fruit, vegetables and cereals on the Danish market. The HI was below 1 even for consumers who eat more than 550 g of fruit and vegetables per day, corresponding to 1/3 of the population. Choosing Danish-produced commodities whenever possible could reduce the HI...

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL PCB AND PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND RISK OF ENDOMETRIOSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental PCB and Pesticide Exposure and Risk of EndometriosisGermaine M. Buck1, John M. Weiner2, Hebe Greizerstein3, Brian Whitcomb1, Enrique Schisterman1, Paul Kostyniak3, Danelle Lobdell4, Kent Crickard5, and Ralph Sperrazza51Epidemiology Branch, Division o...

  17. Association between organophosphate pesticides exposure and thyroid hormones in floriculture workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-01-01

    The ability of organophosphate pesticides to disturb thyroid gland function has been demonstrated by experimental studies on animal, but evidence of such effects on human remains scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the association between exposure to organophosphate compounds and serum levels of thyroid hormones in floriculture workers. A longitudinal study was conducted on 136 male subjects from the State of Mexico and Morelos, Mexico, occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides, during agricultural periods of high (rainy season) and low (dry season) levels of pesticide application. Using a structured questionnaire, a survey was carried out on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, residential chemical exposure, and occupational history. Urine and blood samples were taken the day after pesticide application to determine urine dialkylphosphate (DAP) levels, serum levels of TSH, total T 3 , total T 4 , serum PON1 activity, and serum p,p'-DEE levels. The analysis of the association between DAP levels and thyroid hormonal profile was carried out using multivariate generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. Our results showed an increase in both TSH and T 4 hormones in serum associated with a increase in total dimethylphosphate levels (ΣDMP) in urine (p-trend 3 serum levels with an increase of ΣDMP levels in the urine (p-trend = 0.053). These results suggest that exposure to organophosphate pesticides may be responsible of increasing TSH and T 4 serum hormone levels and decreasing T 3 serum hormone levels, therefore supporting the hypothesis that organophosphate pesticides act as endocrine disruptors in humans.

  18. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tlili, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.tlili@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); Montuelle, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.montuelle@cemagref.fr [CEMAGREF, UR MAEP, 3 quai Chauveau CP 69336 Lyon Cedex 09 (France); INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France); Berard, Annette, E-mail: annette.berard@avignon.inra.fr [INRA UMR EMMAH 1114, Domaine Saint-Paul-Site Agroparc 84914 Avignon Cedex 9 (France); Bouchez, Agnes, E-mail: agnes.bouchez@thonon.inra.fr [INRA UMR CARRTEL, Laboratoire de Microbiologie Aquatique, BP 511, 74203, Thonon Cedex (France)

    2011-05-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  19. Impact of chronic and acute pesticide exposures on periphyton communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tlili, Ahmed; Montuelle, Bernard; Berard, Annette; Bouchez, Agnes

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic ecosystems face variable exposure to pesticides, especially during floodings which are associated with short bursts of high contaminant concentrations that influence biological systems. A study was undertaken to highlight the impact of the herbicide diuron applied in mixture with the fungicide tebuconazole on natural periphyton during flooding events. Periphyton were grown in two series of two lotic outdoor mesocosms: one series was non-contaminated while the other was exposed to chronic contamination. After 4 weeks, one channel of each series was exposed to three successive pulses, with each pulse followed by one week of recovery. Impacts on periphyton were assessed by using Denaturing Gel Gradient Electrophoresis to characterize eukaryotic community structure. At a functional scale, photosynthetic efficiency was quantified during each pulse, and the induced tolerance to diuron was estimated by performing short-term inhibition tests based on photosynthetic efficiency. Moreover, pesticide concentrations in the water column and periphyton matrix were measured. Diuron was adsorbed in the periphyton during each pulse and desorbed 13 h after pulse end. The different pulses affected the eukaryotic community structures of the control biofilms, but not of the chronically exposed ones. During the first pulse, photosynthetic efficiency was correlated with pesticide concentration in the water phase, and there was no difference between periphyton from chronically contaminated channels and control channels. However, during the second and third pulses, the photosynthetic efficiency of periphyton chronically exposed to pesticides appeared to be less impacted by the acute pulsed exposure of pesticide. These changes were consistent with the acquisition of induced tolerance to diuron since only after the third pulse that periphyton from chronic channel became tolerant to diuron. Our experimental study indicates that the effects of pulsed acute exposures to pesticides on

  20. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacon Aura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the

  1. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Orozco T, Fadya; Pradel, Willy; Suquillo, Jovanny; Mera, Xavier; Chacon, Aura; Prain, Gordon; Wanigaratne, Susitha; Leah, Jessica

    2011-11-08

    The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral 'wicked problem'. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use.Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the Ecuadorian Ministry of Health rolling out pesticide poisoning

  2. Webinar Presentation: Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation, Prenatal Residential Proximity to Agricultural Pesticide Applications and IQ in Children, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series: Brain Health held on Aug. 12, 2015.

  3. Bans of WHO Class I Pesticides in Bangladesh—suicide prevention without hampering agricultural output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Dewan, Gourab; Verma, Vasundhara R; Knipe, Duleeka W; Isha, Ishrat Tahsin; Faiz, M Abul; Gunnell, David J; Eddleston, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. Methods We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000. We assessed contemporaneous trends in other risk factors, pesticide usage and agricultural production in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2014. Results Mortality in hospital from pesticide poisoning fell after the 2000 ban: 15.1% vs 9.5%, relative reduction 37.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.4 to 38.8%]. The pesticide poisoning suicide rate fell from 6.3/100 000 in 1996 to 2.2/100 000 in 2014, a 65.1% (52.0 to 76.7%) decline. There was a modest simultaneous increase in hanging suicides [20.0% (8.4 to 36.9%) increase] but the overall incidence of unnatural deaths fell from 14.0/100 000 to 10.5/100 000 [25.0% (18.1 to 33.0%) decline]. There were 35 071 (95% CI 25 959 to 45 666) fewer pesticide suicides in 2001 to 2014 compared with the number predicted based on trends between 1996 to 2000. This reduction in rate of pesticide suicides occurred despite increased pesticide use and no change in admissions for pesticide poisoning, with no apparent influence on agricultural output. Conclusions Strengthening pesticide regulation and banning WHO Class I toxicity HHPs in Bangladesh were associated with major reductions in deaths and hospital mortality, without any apparent effect on agricultural output. Our data indicate that removing HHPs from agriculture can rapidly reduce suicides without imposing substantial agricultural costs. PMID:29024951

  4. Bans of WHO Class I Pesticides in Bangladesh-suicide prevention without hampering agricultural output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Fazle Rabbi; Dewan, Gourab; Verma, Vasundhara R; Knipe, Duleeka W; Isha, Ishrat Tahsin; Faiz, M Abul; Gunnell, David J; Eddleston, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Pesticide self-poisoning is a major problem in Bangladesh. Over the past 20-years, the Bangladesh government has introduced pesticide legislation and banned highly hazardous pesticides (HHPs) from agricultural use. We aimed to assess the impacts of pesticide bans on suicide and on agricultural production. We obtained data on unnatural deaths from the Statistics Division of Bangladesh Police, and used negative binomial regression to quantify changes in pesticide suicides and unnatural deaths following removal of WHO Class I toxicity HHPs from agriculture in 2000. We assessed contemporaneous trends in other risk factors, pesticide usage and agricultural production in Bangladesh from 1996 to 2014. Mortality in hospital from pesticide poisoning fell after the 2000 ban: 15.1% vs 9.5%, relative reduction 37.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 35.4 to 38.8%]. The pesticide poisoning suicide rate fell from 6.3/100 000 in 1996 to 2.2/100 000 in 2014, a 65.1% (52.0 to 76.7%) decline. There was a modest simultaneous increase in hanging suicides [20.0% (8.4 to 36.9%) increase] but the overall incidence of unnatural deaths fell from 14.0/100 000 to 10.5/100 000 [25.0% (18.1 to 33.0%) decline]. There were 35 071 (95% CI 25 959 to 45 666) fewer pesticide suicides in 2001 to 2014 compared with the number predicted based on trends between 1996 to 2000. This reduction in rate of pesticide suicides occurred despite increased pesticide use and no change in admissions for pesticide poisoning, with no apparent influence on agricultural output. Strengthening pesticide regulation and banning WHO Class I toxicity HHPs in Bangladesh were associated with major reductions in deaths and hospital mortality, without any apparent effect on agricultural output. Our data indicate that removing HHPs from agriculture can rapidly reduce suicides without imposing substantial agricultural costs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International

  5. A screening framework for pesticide substitution in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steingrímsdóttir, María Magnea; Petersen, Annette; Fantke, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Farmers lack science-based tools to flexibly and rapidly identify more sustainable pesticides. To address this gap, we present a screening-level substitution framework to compare and rank pesticides using a consistent set of indicators including registration, pest resistance, human toxicity...... substitution list, performed worst. Total costs across considered pesticides range from 23 to 302 €/ha. Our framework constitutes an operational starting point for identifying sustainable pesticides by farmers and other stakeholders and highlights (a) the need to consider various relevant aspects influencing...... and aquatic ecotoxicity impact potentials, and market price. Toxicity-related damage costs and application costs were combined with application dosages to yield total costs per pesticide. We applied and tested our framework in a case study on pesticides applied to lettuce in Denmark. Our results indicate...

  6. Multiresidual determination of pesticides in agricultural soil sample using Quechers extraction methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Garcia, Consuelo del Pilar

    2011-01-01

    To achieve a sustainable agricultural production there are used different organic and inorganic products, among them we found the fertilizers and pesticides. When they are applied most of the product falls to the ground, generating significant sources of pollution in the areas near the application and depending on the mobility of the pesticide, it can reach more remote areas. That is why it is important to determine the pesticide residues in soil after their application, being the selection of the extraction method crucial for the subsequent traces detection. In the present work there was evaluated the QUECHERS extraction technique, a method used in food but modified for a different and complex matrix like soil in order to achieve acceptable efficiencies multi-residue extraction of 20 pesticides and their subsequent determination by gas chromatography with electron capture and mass detection. The method was applied for the determination of pesticides in three soil samples from an agricultural site with different slopes between them. The Results indicated that 75% of the pesticides tested had acceptable efficiencies, thus meeting the objective of achieving multiresidue determination of pesticides in agricultural soil samples by extraction methodology QUECHERS. Besides, the presence of the fungicide penconazole was only detected in the three samples, being the highest concentration of pesticide found in the area with less slope (V_A_B_A_J_O) (author)

  7. Low-level exposure to organophosphate pesticides leads to restrictive lung dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiris-John, Roshini Janet; Ruberu, Dawala Kusuma; Wickremasinghe, Ananda Rajitha; van-der-Hoek, Wim

    2005-10-01

    Apart from symptomology, there are very few reports on lung function following exposure to low levels of organophosphate (OP) pesticides in man. Twenty-five occupationally exposed farmers and 22 environmentally exposed freshwater fishermen were evaluated between and during OP spray seasons. Forty marine fishermen living away from agricultural areas were recruited as a control group. Forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV(1)) were measured by spirometry. Haemoglobin corrected erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) levels were measured during and between (baseline estimation) spray seasons using a portable WHO-approved Test-mate system (EQM Research, Ohio). FVC ratio was lower in the farmers as compared to the controls (P<0.001) between exposure seasons. In the farmers, FVC ratio decreased further during the exposure season (P=0.023). FEV(1) was lower in the farmers as compared to the controls in both periods (P<0.05). In the fishermen, the decrease in ratios of FVC and FEV(1) following exposure to pesticides was not significant. FEV(1)/FVC ratios were similar in the three groups between (P=0.988) and during (P=0.159) exposure periods. Following exposure to OPs, AChE levels dropped 12.75% in the farmers (P<0.001) and 5.62% in the freshwater fishermen (P=0.001). Occupational exposure to OP results in restrictive lung dysfunction, a phenomenon not observed following environmental exposure.

  8. [An experimental proficiency test for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumura, Yukari; Ishimitsu, Susumu; Otaki, Kayo; Uchimi, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Nobuyuki; Daba, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsu; Ukyo, Masaho; Tonogai, Yasuhide

    2003-10-01

    An experimental proficiency test program for ability to screen 104 residual pesticides in agricultural products has been conducted. Eight Japanese laboratories joined the program. Items tested in the present study were limit of detection, internal proficiency test (self spike) and external proficiency test (blind spike). All 104 pesticides were well detected and recovered from agricultural foods in the internal proficiency test. However, the results of the external proficiency test did not completely agree with those of the internal proficiency tests. After 5 rounds of the blind spike test, the ratio of the number of correctly detected pesticides to that of actually contained ones (49 total) ranged from 65% to 100% among laboratories. The numbers of mistakenly detected pesticides by a laboratory were 0 to 15. Thus, there was a great difference among the laboratories in the ability to screen multiresidual pesticides.

  9. Climate change, agricultural insecticide exposure, and risk for freshwater communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattwinkel, Mira; Kühne, Jan-Valentin; Foit, Kaarina; Liess, Matthias

    2011-09-01

    Climate change exerts direct effects on ecosystems but has additional indirect effects due to changes in agricultural practice. These include the increased use of pesticides, changes in the areas that are cultivated, and changes in the crops cultivated. It is well known that pesticides, and in particular insecticides, affect aquatic ecosystems adversely. To implement effective mitigation measures it is necessary to identify areas that are affected currently and those that will be affected in the future. As a consequence, we predicted potential exposure to insecticide (insecticide runoff potential, RP) under current conditions (1990) and under a model scenario of future climate and land use (2090) using a spatially explicit model on a continental scale, with a focus on Europe. Space-for-time substitution was used to predict future levels of insecticide application, intensity of agricultural land use, and cultivated crops. To assess the indirect effects of climate change, evaluation of the risk of insecticide exposure was based on a trait-based, climate-insensitive indicator system (SPEAR, SPEcies At Risk). To this end, RP and landscape characteristics that are relevant for the recovery of affected populations were combined to estimate the ecological risk (ER) of insecticides for freshwater communities. We predicted a strong increase in the application of, and aquatic exposure to, insecticides under the future scenario, especially in central and northern Europe. This, in turn, will result in a severe increase in ER in these regions. Hence, the proportion of stream sites adjacent to arable land that do not meet the requirements for good ecological status as defined by the EU Water Framework Directive will increase (from 33% to 39% for the EU-25 countries), in particular in the Scandinavian and Baltic countries (from 6% to 19%). Such spatially explicit mapping of risk enables the planning of adaptation and mitigation strategies including vegetated buffer strips and

  10. Pesticides and Parkinson’s disease: A potential hazard in agricultural communities

    OpenAIRE

    Smathorn Thakolwiboon; Parunyou Julayanont; Doungporn Ruthirago

    2017-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder. Its pathogenesis is related to both genetic and environmental factors. Current evidence suggests that pesticide exposure is one of the risk factors of PD. In this review, we summarize four molecular mechanisms of pesticide-induced PD with supportive evidences from both laboratory and epidemiological studies. Rotenone is the first pesticide reported to be associated with PD by inhibiting complex I of mitochondri...

  11. Interaction between organophosphate pesticide exposure and PON1 activity on thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacasana, Marina; Lopez-Flores, Inmaculada; Rodriguez-Barranco, Miguel; Aguilar-Garduno, Clemente; Blanco-Munoz, Julia; Perez-Mendez, Oscar; Gamboa, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Alzaga, Beatriz; Bassol, Susana; Cebrian, Mariano E.

    2010-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides are widely used in agricultural purposes. Recently, a few studies have demonstrated the ability of these chemicals to alter the function of the thyroid gland in human. Moreover, the paraoxonase-1 enzyme (PON1) plays an important role in the toxicity of some organophosphate pesticides, with low PON1 activity being associated with higher pesticide sensitivity. This study evaluates the interaction between exposure to organophosphate compounds and PON1 enzyme activity on serum levels of TSH and thyroid hormones in a population of workers occupationally exposed to pesticides. A longitudinal study was conducted on a population of floriculture workers from Mexico, during two periods of high and low-intensity levels of pesticide application. A structured questionnaire was completed by workers containing questions on sociodemographic characteristics and other variables of interest. Urine and blood samples were taken, and biomarkers of exposure (dialkylphosphates), susceptibility (PON1 polymorphisms and activity) and effect (thyroid hormone levels) were determined. Interaction between dialkylphosphates and PON1 polymorphisms or PON1 activity on hormone levels was evaluated by generalized estimating equation (GEE) models. A significant interaction was found between serum diazoxonase activity and total dialkylphosphates (ΣDAP) on TSH levels. Thus, when PON1 activity was increased we observed a decrease in the percentage of variation of TSH level for each increment in one logarithmic unit of the ΣDAP levels. This interaction was also observed with the PON1 192 RR genotype. These results suggest a stronger association between organophosphate pesticides and thyroid function in individuals with lower PON1 activity.

  12. New insights into agricultural pesticide pollution through a complete and continuous pesticide screening during one growing season in five small Swiss streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangold, Simon; Doppler, Tobias; Spycher, Simon; Langer, Miriam; Junghans, Marion; Kunz, Manuel; Stamm, Christian; Singer, Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Agricultural pesticides are regularly found in many surface waters draining agricultural areas. Due to large fluctuations in concentration over time and the potentially high number of pesticides, it is difficult to obtain a complete overview of the real pollution level. This collaborative project between research, federal and cantonal authorities in Switzerland aimed for a comprehensive assessment of pesticide pollution in five small agricultural streams to tackle this knowledge gap. The five streams are located in catchments (1.5 to 9 km2) with intensive agriculture covering a wide range of crops including vegetables, vineyards and orchards. Twelve-hour composite samples were collected continuously from March until the end of August 2015 with automatic sampling devices, yielding 360 samples per site. Using precipitation and water level data, we differentiated between discharge events and low-flow periods. Samples from discharge events where measured individually whereas samples taken during dry weather were pooled for the analysis. This procedure resulted in a complete concentration profile over the entire monitoring period covered by 34 - 60 samples per site. The analysis, using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry involved a target screening of about 220 pesticides. The measured concentrations were compared to chronic and acute environmental quality standards (EQS values) resulting in risk quotients RQs, which are the ratios between measured concentrations and the respective EQS values. Despite the small size of the catchments, we observed a large pesticide diversity in all of them with 68 to 103 detected compounds per study area. At all sites, chronic EQS values were exceeded. However, the exposure levels varied substantially among catchments. Maximum chronic RQs per site ranged between 1.1 and 48.8 and the duration of EQS exceedance varied between 2 weeks and 5.5 months. Additionally, the data reveal (very) high concentration

  13. Buffer strip width and agricultural pesticide contamination in Danish lowland streams: Implications for stream and riparian management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    Non-point source contamination with agricultural pesticides is widely acknowledged as one of the greatest sources of pollution in stream ecosystems, and surface runoff is an important transport route. Consequently, maximum pesticide concentrations occur briefly during heavy precipitation events......) of agricultural pesticides originating from normal agricultural practices. We link the findings to a predictive model for pesticide surface runoff (RP) and evaluate the potential impact of pesticides on benthic macroinvertebrates. Furthermore, we apply detailed land-use data and field characteristics to identify...

  14. Genetic susceptibility loci, pesticide exposure and prostate cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Koutros

    Full Text Available Uncovering SNP (single nucleotide polymorphisms-environment interactions can generate new hypotheses about the function of poorly characterized genetic variants and environmental factors, like pesticides. We evaluated SNP-environment interactions between 30 confirmed prostate cancer susceptibility loci and 45 pesticides and prostate cancer risk in 776 cases and 1,444 controls in the Agricultural Health Study. We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP-pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. After correction for multiple tests using the False Discovery Rate method, two interactions remained noteworthy. Among men carrying two T alleles at rs2710647 in EH domain binding protein 1 (EHBP1 SNP, the risk of prostate cancer in those with high malathion use was 3.43 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.44-8.15 (P-interaction= 0.003. Among men carrying two A alleles at rs7679673 in TET2, the risk of prostate cancer associated with high aldrin use was 3.67 times those with no use (95% CI: 1.43, 9.41 (P-interaction= 0.006. In contrast, associations were null for other genotypes. Although additional studies are needed and the exact mechanisms are unknown, this study suggests known genetic susceptibility loci may modify the risk between pesticide use and prostate cancer.

  15. Development of a fieldable rapid pesticide exposure analysis sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kevin M.; Clauson, Susan L.; Spencer, Sarah A.; Sylvia, James M.; Vallejos, Quirina M.; Quandt, Sara A.; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recent interest in organically grown foods, most agricultural crops use multiple pesticides to optimize yield. There are many persons whose health may be affected by the spraying; there is the active applicator and the passive neighbors. In between these extremes are the farm workers who pick the crops anywhere from days to weeks after application. How much pesticide residue are these workers exposed to during a workday and how much is transferred back to the residence? Despite the low vapor pressures, what is the true concentration of pesticides surrounding a person when pesticides adsorbed to particulate matter are included? What is the relationship between the concentration around an individual and the amount adsorbed/ingested? To answer these questions on a statistically significant scale in actual field conditions, a portable, fast, inexpensive measurement device is required. We present herein results obtained using Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) that demonstrate the capability to detect issue of potential interferences will also be discussed.

  16. Occupational exposure to pesticides as a possible risk factor for the development of chronic diseases in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangemi, Silvia; Miozzi, Edoardo; Teodoro, Michele; Briguglio, Giusi; De Luca, Annamaria; Alibrando, Carmela; Polito, Irene; Libra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that pesticides are widely used compounds. In fact, their use in agriculture, forestry, fishery and the food industry has granted a huge improvement in terms of productive efficiency. However, a great number of epidemiological surveys have demonstrated that these toxic compounds can interact and exert negative effects not only with their targets (pests, herbs and fungi), but also with the rest of the environment, including humans. This is particularly relevant in the case of workers involved in the production, transportation, preparation and application of these toxicants. Accordingly, a growing body of evidence has demonstrated the correlation between occupational exposure to pesticides and the development of a wide spectrum of pathologies, ranging from eczema to neurological diseases and cancer. Pesticide exposure is often quite difficult to establish, as many currently used modules do not take into account all of the many variables that can occur in a diverse environment, such as the agricultural sector, and the assessment of the real risk for every single worker is problematic. Indeed, the use of personal protection equipment is necessary while handling these toxic compounds, but education of workers can be even more important: personal contamination with pesticides may occur even in apparently harmless situations. This review summarises the most recent findings describing the association between pesticide occupational exposure and the development of chronic diseases. PMID:27748877

  17. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrema, Ezra Jonathan; Ngowi, Aiwerasia Vera; Kishinhi, Stephen Simon; Mamuya, Simon Henry

    2017-01-01

    Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF CHLORPYRIFOS EXPOSURE BY PASSIVE DOSIMETRY AND BIOMONITORING IN PESTICIDE WORKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has the authority to regulate the use of pesticides to prevent unreasonable adverse human health effects associated with pesticide exposure. Accordingly, the EPA...

  19. Advective and diffusive dermal processes for estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Question/Methods Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Historically, evaluation of pesticide risk to both amphibians and reptiles has been achieved by comparing ingestion and inhalat...

  20. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  1. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Idalia Jazmin Castañeda-Yslas; María Evarista Arellano-García; Marco Antonio García-Zarate; Balam Ruíz-Ruíz; María Guadalupe Zavala-Cerna; Olivia Torres-Bugarín

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormali...

  2. Pesticide use and application: An Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Nandita

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural development continues to remain the most important objective of Indian planning and policy. In the process of development of agriculture, pesticides have become an important tool as a plant protection agent for boosting food production. Further, pesticides play a significant role by keeping many dreadful diseases. However, exposure to pesticides both occupationally and environmentally causes a range of human health problems. It has been observed that the pesticides exposures are increasingly linked to immune suppression, hormone disruption, diminished intelligence, reproductive abnormalities and cancer. Currently, India is the largest producer of pesticides in Asia and ranks twelfth in the world for the use of pesticides. A vast majority of the population in India is engaged in agriculture and is therefore exposed to the pesticides used in agriculture. Although Indian average consumption of pesticide is far lower than many other developed economies, the problem of pesticide residue is very high in India. Pesticide residue in several crops has also affected the export of agricultural commodities in the last few years. In this context, pesticide safety, regulation of pesticide use, proper application technologies, and integrated pest management are some of the key strategies for minimizing human exposure to pesticides. There is a dearth of studies related to these issues in India. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the technology of application of pesticides in India and recommend future strategies for the rational use of pesticides and minimizing the problems related to health and environment.

  3. Pesticides in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas in the Tuolumne River basin in the vicinity of Modesto, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzer, Charles R.

    1998-01-01

    The occurrence, concentrations, and loads of dissolved pesticides in storm runoff were compared for two contrasting land uses in the Tuolumne River Basin, California, during two different winter storms: agricultural areas (February 1994) and the Modesto urban area (February 1995). Both storms followed the main application period of pesticides on dormant almond orchards. Eight samples of runoff from agricultural areas were collected from a Tuolumne River site, and 10 samples of runoff from urban areas were collected from five storm drains. All samples were analyzed for 46 pesticides. Six pesticides were detected in runoff from agricultural areas, and 15 pesticides were detected in runoff from urban areas. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dacthal (DCPA), metolachlor, and simazine were detected in almost every sample. Median concentrations were higher in the runoff from urban areas for all pesticides except napropamide and simazine. The greater occurrence and concentrations in storm drains is partly attributed to dilution of agricultural runoff by nonstorm base-flow in the Tuolumne River and by storm runoff from nonagricultural and nonurban land. In most cases, the occurrence and relative concentrations of pesticides found in storm runoff from agricultural and urban areas were related to reported pesticide application. Pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas were more variable during the storm hydrograph than were concentrations in runoff from urban areas. All peak pesticide concentrations in runoff from agricultural areas occurred during the rising limb of the storm hydrograph, whereas peak concentrations in the storm drains occurred at varying times during the storm hydrograph. Transport of pesticides from agricultural areas during the February 1994 storm exceeded transport from urban areas during the February 1995 storm for chlorpyrifos, diazinon, metolachlor, napropamide, and simazine. Transport of DCPA was about the same from agricultural and urban

  4. Modulatory role of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in Punjabi agricultural workers exposed to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Meenakshi; Kaur, Anupam

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione S-transferases are important detoxification enzymes involved in the metabolism of endogenous as well as exogenous compounds. Individuals differ in metabolic capacity due to inherited genetic variations. Due to the polymorphism exhibited by GSTT1 and GSTM1 that results in the complete loss of function, the present study was aimed towards the determination of the frequency distribution of GSTT1 and GSTM1 in agricultural workers in Punjab, India. The study aimed to investigate their contribution in susceptibility to increased disease risk. A total of 513 subjects were included in this study, out of which 250 were agriculture workers and 263 were non-exposed occupationally. GSTT1 and GSTM1 null-genotype distribution was analyzed through multiplex-PCR method. Complete gene deletion in either of the genes was strongly associated with an increased risk (OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3-2.6; p < 0.0008) of DNA/cytogenetic damage, cancer, infertility, and many other serious health effects. Therefore, homozygous deletion in GSTT1 or GSTM1 could play a modulatory role in health of workers with long-term exposure to pesticides.

  5. Combined exposure to low doses of pesticides causes decreased birth weights in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Christiansen, Sofie; Petersen, Marta Axelstad

    2017-01-01

    Decreased birth weight is a common effect of many pesticides in reproductive toxicity studies, but there are no empirical data on how pesticides act in combination on this endpoint. We hypothesized that a mixture of six pesticides (cyromazine, MCPB, pirimicarb, quinoclamine, thiram, and ziram) wo...... to avoid potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on prenatal development and pregnancy in humans....

  6. Transgenerational interactions between pesticide exposure and warming in a vector mosquito

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Tam T.; Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh, Khuong Van

    2018-01-01

    of single and combined exposure to warming (4°C increase) and the pesticide chlorpyrifos on life history traits of the vector mosquito Culex pipiens. Parental exposure to a single stressor, either warming or the pesticide, had negative effects on the offspring: both parental exposure to warming...

  7. How to Report a Pesticide Incident Involving Exposures to People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides incidents must be reported by pesticide registrants. Others, such as members of the public and environmental professionals, would like to report pesticide incidents. This website will facilitate such incident reporting.

  8. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  9. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Controlled release pesticide formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollner, L.

    1991-01-01

    At the request of the Government of Indonesia, an IAEA expert undertook a two weeks (of one month) mission from 2 to 15 April 1991 to the Center for Application of Isotopes and Radiation (CAIR) of BATAN in Jakarta. Expert held a seminar, discussed and carried out experiments on Controlled Release Formulations (CRF). Discussed further experiments, cleaned and reinstalled an ECD of the Shimadzu gas chromatograph and optimized the analytical conditions for chlorinated pesticides. He also developed a project for possible submission to the Government of Germany, to allow the staff of CAIR to undertake a more intensive research and to be able to set up training facilities in his research center in Munich/Germany. He furthermore assessed needs for supply of instruments, accessories and radiolabelled pesticides. An agreement for continuing the scientific and technical mission was obtained with the staff of CAIR, in connection with the DDT-RCM at the end of November 1991, provided approval by IAEA

  10. Using species sensitivity distribution approach to assess the risks of commonly detected agricultural pesticides to Australia's tropical freshwater ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathiratne, Asoka; Kroon, Frederieke J

    2016-02-01

    To assess the potential impacts of agricultural pesticides on tropical freshwater ecosystems, the present study developed temperature-specific, freshwater species protection concentrations (i.e., ecotoxicity threshold values) for 8 pesticides commonly detected in Australia's tropical freshwaters. Because relevant toxicity data for native tropical freshwater species to assess the ecological risks were mostly absent, scientifically robust toxicity data obtained at ≥20 °C were used for ecologically relevant taxonomic groups representing primary producers and consumers. Species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves were subsequently generated for predicted chronic exposure using Burrlioz 2.0 software with mixed chronic and converted acute data relevant to exposure conditions at ≥20 °C. Ecotoxicity threshold values for tropical freshwater ecosystem protection were generated for ametryn, atrazine, diuron, metolachlor, and imidacloprid (all moderate reliability), as well as simazine, hexazinone, and tebuthiuron (all low reliability). Using these SSD curves, the retrospective risk assessments for recently reported pesticide concentrations highlight that the herbicides ametryn, atrazine, and diuron are of major concern for ecological health in Australia's tropical freshwater ecosystems. The insecticide imidacloprid also appears to pose an emerging threat to the most sensitive species in tropical freshwater ecosystems. The exposed temperature-specific approach may be applied to develop water quality guideline values for other environmental contaminants detected in tropical freshwater ecosystems until reliable and relevant toxicity data are generated using representative native species. © 2015 SETAC.

  11. Biomonitoring of agricultural workers exposed to pesticide mixtures in Guerrero state, Mexico, with comet assay and micronucleus test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajal-López, Yolanda; Gómez-Arroyo, Sandra; Villalobos-Pietrini, Rafael; Calderón-Segura, María Elena; Martínez-Arroyo, Amparo

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effect of pesticides in exfoliated buccal cells of workers occupationally exposed in Guerrero, Mexico, using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. The study compared 111 agricultural workers in three rural communities (Arcelia 62, Ajuchitlan 13, and Tlapehuala 36), with 60 non-exposed individuals. All the participants were males. The presence of DNA damage was investigated in the exfoliated buccal cells of study participants with the comet assay and the micronucleus (MN) test; comet tail length was evaluated in 100 nuclei and 3000 epithelial cells of each individual, respectively; other nuclear anomalies such as nuclear buds, karyolysis, karyorrhexis, and binucleate cells were also evaluated. Study results revealed that the tail migration of DNA and the frequency of MN increased significantly in the exposed group, which also showed nuclear anomalies associated with cytotoxic or genotoxic effect. No positive correlation was noted between exposure time and tail length and micronuclei frequencies. No significant effect on genetic damage was observed as a result of age, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The MN and comet assay in exfoliated buccal cells are useful and minimally invasive methods for monitoring genetic damage in individuals exposed to pesticides. This study provided valuable data for establishing the possible risk to human health associated with pesticide exposure.

  12. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  13. Can rice (Oryza sativa) mitigate pesticides and nutrients in agricultural runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation of nutrients and pesticides in runoff is a growing conservation effort, particularly in agriculturally intensive areas such as the lower Mississippi River Valley. In the current study, rice (Oryza sativa) was examined for its mitigation capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, diazinon, a...

  14. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  15. Concern with the rural environment: urban views on the use of agricultural pesticides and chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve Jacob; A. E. Luloff

    1995-01-01

    This paper explores the dimensions of agricultural chemical and pesticide concern, and its correlates. Concern was found to be broad, and not limited to food safety, environmentalism, or altruism. Social bases were found to be the best predictors of concern, followed by rural beliefs and attitudes, and rural visitation behavior.

  16. Valuing Environmental and health risk in Agriculture: A choice experiment approach to pesticides in Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Travisi, C.M.; Nijkamp, P.

    2008-01-01

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture shows a complex ramification of multiple negative externalities, ranging from food safety-related effects to the deterioration of farmland ecosystems. Recent research has demonstrated that the assessment of the economic implications of such negative

  17. A Pilot Study Comparing Observational and Questionnaire Surrogate Measures of Pesticide Exposure Among Residents Impacted by the Ecuadorian Flower Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Alexis J; McGough-Maduena, Alison; Páez, Maritza; Skipper, Betty; Rowland, Andrew S; Fenske, Richard A; Harlow, Siobán D

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported measures of residential pesticide exposure are commonly used in epidemiological studies, especially when financial and logistical resources are limited. However, self-reporting is prone to misclassification bias. This pilot study assesses the agreement between self-report of residential pesticide exposure with direct observation measures, in an agricultural region of Ecuador, as a cross-validation method in 26 participants (16 rose workers and 10 controls), with percent agreement and kappa statistics calculated. Proximity of homes to nearby flower farms was found to have only fair agreement (kappa =.35). The use of discarded plastics (kappa =.06) and wood (kappa =.13) were found to have little agreement. Results indicate that direct observation or measurement may provide more accurate appraisals of residential exposures, such as proximity to industrial farmland and the use of discarded materials obtained from the flower farms.

  18. The stable isotope fingerprinting technique for agricultural pesticide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, N.; Kawashima, H.

    2014-12-01

    The compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) is nowadays an important and powerful tool in geochemical, environmental, and forensics field. In particular, the stable isotope ratio of pesticide is applied to biological process and reaction in the soil and distribution channel as forensics science. The aim of this study is to measure the stable isotope ratios of pesticide using various analytical methodologies, GC/IRMS, EA/IRMS, and LC/IRMS under high accuracy and precision. Therefore, these methods seemed to be important knowledge as geological field. In particular case, we present the method to measure carbon isotope ratio of nine malathion emulsion pesticides using GC/IRMS with cryo-focusing system to identify the source. In December 2013, food poisoning occurred after eating frozen dumplings (i.e., pizza and chicken nuggets) in Japan. There was a very high concentration, maximum value 15,000ppm, of malathion (diethyl (dimethoxythiophosphorylthio) succinate) in products. This incident was caused by an employee of process, and threatened the food safety. We analyzed the δ13C of malathion ranged from -30.63‰ to -29.54‰ (S.D. 0.10‰), the differences less than 1.0‰. All malathion emulsion sold in Japan are imported from Cheminova India Lat., Denmark to Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., Japan. After that, Japanese each manufacture buy from Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd. And blended malathion and organic solvent (ethylbenzene and xylene). Therefore, ethylbenzene and xylene may be important tool as source identification. We measured the δ13C of ethylbenzene and m-,p-xylene, too. As the results, the δ13C of ethylbenzene and m-,p-xylene ranged from -28.20‰ to -20.84‰ (S.D. 0.16‰), -28.69‰ to -25.15‰ (S.D. 0.13‰), respectively. The δ13C of ethylbenzene and m-,p-xylene can be identified manufacture, although the δ13C of malathion indicated same value. In addition, we measured five pesticides (acephate, acetamiprid, glufosinate, glyphosate, and oxamyl) using

  19. Bringing Work Home: Take-Home Pesticide Exposure Among Farm Families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curwin, B.D.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis take-home pesticide exposure among farm families, with an emphasis on herbicides, was investigated. Take-home exposure occurs when a worker unwittingly brings home a substance on his or her clothing or shoes, thereby potentially exposing his or her family. The pesticides investigated

  20. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M.

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections

  1. Effects of agricultural pesticides on the immune system of Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christin, M.S.; Menard, L.; Gendron, A.D.; Ruby, S.; Cyr, D.; Marcogliese, D.J.; Rollins-Smith, L.; Fournier, M

    2004-03-30

    Over the last 30 years, there have been mass declines in diverse geographic locations among amphibian populations. Multiple causes have been suggested to explain this decline. Among these, environmental pollution is gaining attention. Indeed, some chemicals of environmental concern are known to alter the immune system. Given that amphibians are frequently exposed to agricultural pesticides, it is possible that these pollutants alter their immune system and render them more susceptible to different pathogens. In this study, we exposed two frog species, Xenopus laevis and Rana pipiens, for a short period of time to a mixture of pesticides (atrazine, metribuzine, endosulfan, lindane, aldicarb and dieldrin) representative in terms of composition and concentrations to what it is found in the environment of the southwest region of the province of Quebec. The pesticides were known to be present in surface water of many tributaries of the St. Lawrence River (Quebec, Canada). Our results demonstrate that the mixture of pesticides could alter the cellularity and phagocytic activity of X. laevis and the lymphocyte proliferation of R. pipiens. Taken together, these results indicate that agricultural pesticides can alter some aspects of the immune response in frogs and could contribute to their global decline by rendering them more susceptible to certain infections.

  2. Determining the probability of pesticide exposures among migrant farmworkers: results from a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, M H; Prince, J R; Stewart, P A; Zahm, S H

    2001-11-01

    Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are exposed to pesticides through their work with crops and livestock. Because workers are usually unaware of the pesticides applied, specific pesticide exposures cannot be determined by interviews. We conducted a study to determine the feasibility of identifying probable pesticide exposures based on work histories. The study included 162 farm workers in seven states. Interviewers obtained a lifetime work history including the crops, tasks, months, and locations worked. We investigated the availability of survey data on pesticide use for crops and livestock in the seven pilot states. Probabilities of use for pesticide types (herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, etc.) and specific chemicals were calculated from the available data for two farm workers. The work histories were chosen to illustrate how the quality of the pesticide use information varied across crops, states, and years. For most vegetable and fruit crops there were regional pesticide use data in the late 1970s, no data in the 1980s, and state-specific data every other year in the 1990s. Annual use surveys for cotton and potatoes began in the late 1980s. For a few crops, including asparagus, broccoli, lettuce, strawberries, plums, and Christmas trees, there were no federal data or data from the seven states before the 1990s. We conclude that identifying probable pesticide exposures is feasible in some locations. However, the lack of pesticide use data before the 1990s for many crops will limit the quality of historic exposure assessment for most workers. Published 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Exposure to a heat wave under food limitation makes an agricultural insecticide lethal: a mechanistic laboratory experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinh, Khuong Van; Janssens, Lizanne; Stoks, Robby

    2016-01-01

    Extreme temperatures and exposure to agricultural pesticides are becoming more frequent and intense under global change. Their combination may be especially problematic when animals suffer food limitation. We exposed Coenagrion puella damselfly larvae to a simulated heat wave combined with food...... limitation and subsequently to a widespread agricultural pesticide (chlorpyrifos) in an indoor laboratory experiment designed to obtain mechanistic insights in the direct effects of these stressors in isolation and when combined. The heat wave reduced immune function (activity of phenoloxidase, PO...... variables. While the immediate effects of the heat wave were subtle, our results indicate the importance of delayed effects in shaping the total fitness impact of a heat wave when followed by pesticide exposure. Firstly, the combination of delayed negative effects of the heat wave and starvation...

  4. Considering human exposure to pesticides in food products: Importance of dissipation dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie; Jolliet, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    The general public is continuously concerned about effects from pesticide exposure via residues in food crops. However, impacts from pesticide exposure are mostly neglected in food product-related LCAs. Time-to-harvest and dissipation from crops mainly drive residue dynamics with dissipation...... as most uncertain aspect in characterization modeling. We analyzed measured half-lives (n=4513) with 95% falling between 0.6 and 29 days. With ~500 pesticides authorized alone in the EU for several hundred crops, however, experimental stud-ies only cover few possible pesticide-crop combinations. Therefore......, we estimated dissipation from measured data and provide reference half-lives for 333 pesticides applied at 20°C under field conditions. Our framework allows for detailed explorations of dietary choices in LCA with respect to human health impacts from pesticide exposure via crop consumption. The next...

  5. The Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) Study: Rationale, Design, Methods, and Participant Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Beane Freeman, Laura E; Lynch, Charles F; Andreotti, Gabriella; Thomas, Kent W; Sandler, Dale P; Savage, Sharon A; Alavanja, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural exposures including pesticides, endotoxin, and allergens have been associated with risk of various cancers and other chronic diseases, although the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are generally unclear. To facilitate future molecular epidemiologic investigations, in 2010 the study of Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Agriculture (BEEA) was initiated within the Agricultural Health Study, a large prospective cohort in Iowa and North Carolina. Here the design and methodology of BEEA are described and preliminary frequencies for participant characteristics and current agricultural exposures are reported. At least 1,600 male farmers over 50 years of age will be enrolled in the BEEA study. During a home visit, participants are asked to complete a detailed interview about recent agricultural exposures and provide samples of blood, urine, and (since 2013) house dust. As of mid-September 2014, in total, 1,233 participants have enrolled. Most of these participants (83%) were still farming at the time of interview. Among those still farming, the most commonly reported crops were corn (81%) and soybeans (74%), and the most frequently noted animals were beef cattle (35%) and hogs (13%). There were 861 (70%) participants who reported occupational pesticide use in the 12 months prior to interview; among these participants, the most frequently noted herbicides were glyphosate (83%) and 2,4-D (72%), and most commonly reported insecticides were malathion (21%), cyfluthrin (13%), and permethrin (12%). Molecular epidemiologic investigations within BEEA have the potential to yield important new insights into the biological mechanisms through which these or other agricultural exposures influence disease risk.

  6. Distribution of pesticides and PCBs in sediments of agricultural drains in the Culiacan Valley, Sinaloa, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-de la Parra, Luz María; Cervantes-Mojica, L Juleny; González-Valdivia, Carolina; Martínez-Cordero, Francisco J; Aguilar-Zárate, Gabriela; Bastidas-Bastidas, Pedro; Betancourt-Lozano, Miguel

    2012-10-01

    Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in Sinaloa, Mexico. The Culiacan Valley is an extensive agricultural region characterized by a variety of crops with high-yield productions. In this study, concentrations of organochlorine (OCPs) and organophosphorus (OPs) pesticides and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were determined in sediments of the agricultural drainage system of Culiacan Valley. Overall, 32 compounds were detected, with concentrations widely ranging from 0.03 to 1 294 ng g(-1) dry weight. OCP concentrations (15) ranged from 0.1 to 20.19 ng g(-1) dw. OP concentrations (8) ranged from 0.03 to 1294 ng g(-1) dw, and diazinon was the compound with the highest concentration. PCB concentrations were also determined and varied from 0.05 to 3.29 ng g(-1) dw. Other compounds detected included permethrin, triadimefon, and fipronil. The central zone registered the higher concentrations and the greatest number of compounds, which could be related to the occurrence of horticultural fields in this zone. According to sediment quality guidelines, the compounds exceeding the probable effect level were γ-HCH, p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE, while the pesticides above the maximum permissible concentration were endosulfan, azinphos methyl, diazinon, dichlorvos, and permethrin. Although Sinaloa is an important agricultural crop producer in northwest Mexico, there are not many studies dealing with pesticide distribution in agricultural areas.

  7. Matrix of occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents and pesticides in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Jorge; Partanen, Timo; Wesseling, Catharina; Chaverri, Fabio; Monge, Patricia; Ruepert, Clemens; Guardado, Jorge; Aragon, Aurora; Kauppinen, Timo

    2004-01-01

    The European data system CAREX converts national numbers of workers in 55 sectors and estimated proportions of workers exposed to carcinogenic agents into numbers of workers exposed to each agent. CAREX is applied and modified in Costa Rica (TICAREX) for the first time outside Europe. 27 carcinogenic agents and 7 groups of pesticides were included. Numbers of exposed were estimated separately for men and women. The most frequent agents in the 1.3 million labor force of Costa Rica were solar radiation (333,000 workers); diesel engine emissions (278,000); paraquat and diquat (175,000); environmental tobacco smoke (71,000); chromium (VI) compounds (55,000); benzene (52,000); mancozeb, maneb and zineb (49,000); chlorothalonil (38,000); wood dust (32,000); silica dust (27,000); benomyl (19,000); lead and its inorganic compounds (19,000); tetrachloroethylene (18,000); and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (17,000). Owing to the different occupational distribution between the genders, formaldehyde, radon and methylene chloride were more frequent than pesticides, chromium (VI), wood dust, and silica dust in women. Agriculture, construction, personal and domestic services, land and water transport and allied services, pottery and similar industries, manufacture of wood products, mining, forestry, fishing, manufacture of electric products, and bars and restaurants were sectors with frequent exposures. Substantial reduction of occupational and environmental exposures to these agents would improve considerably public and occupational health. Reduction of occupational exposures is usually also followed by improvement of environmental quality. Monitoring of exposures and health of workers and the general public is essential in the control of environmental contamination and human exposures. This report presents details of the exposures matrix, which is the basis of TICAREX. (author) [es

  8. Progress in pesticide exposure assessment : The case of Parkinson's Disease in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/344726908

    2018-01-01

    Pesticides are extensively used in agriculture and numerous chemical active ingredients and product formulations have been marketed since the 1950ies. Human populations can be exposed to pesticides via multiple routes, such as application of these substances in occupational settings, or via

  9. Children's residential exposures to flame retardants, pesticides and pesticide degradation products, and the relationship of pesticides with autonomic nervous system functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Quiros Alcala, Lesliam

    2010-01-01

    Protecting children's environmental health is a significant public health challenge given children's unique exposure pathways and special vulnerabilities to environmental contaminants compared to adults. This dissertation focused on topics surrounding children's environmental health research with an emphasis on exposure assessment and application in an epidemiologic investigation. The environmental contaminants that this work focused on included pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ether ...

  10. STORAGE STABILITY OF PESTICIDES IN EXTRACT SOLVENTS AND SAMPLING MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  11. Using meta-regression models to systematically evaluate data in the published literature: relative contributions of agricultural drift, para-occupational, and residential use exposure pathways to house dust pesticide concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Data reported in the published literature have been used qualitatively to aid exposure assessment activities in epidemiologic studies. Analyzing these data in computational models presents statistical challenges because these data are often reported as summary statist...

  12. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Zadjali, Said [Ministry of Environment and Climate Affairs, P O Box 321 Muscat 100 (Oman); Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan [Centre for Environmental Strategy, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7JH (United Kingdom); Deadman, Mike, E-mail: mikedeadman59@gmail.com [Department of Crop Sciences, College of Agricultural and Marine Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, P O Box 34, Al Khod 123 (Oman)

    2013-10-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  13. Disposal of pesticide waste from agricultural production in the Al-Batinah region of Northern Oman

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Zadjali, Said; Morse, Stephen; Chenoweth, Jonathan; Deadman, Mike

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades Oman has experienced rapid economic development but this has been accompanied by environmental problems. Manufacturing and agricultural output have increased substantially but initially this was not balanced with sufficient environmental management. Although agriculture in Oman is not usually considered a major component of the economy, government policy has been directed towards diversification of national income and as a result there has been an increasing emphasis on revenue from agriculture and an enhancement of production via the use of irrigation, machinery and inputs such as pesticides. In recent years this has been tempered with a range of interventions to encourage more sustainable production. Certain pesticides have been prohibited; there has been a promotion of organic agriculture and an emphasis on education and awareness programs for farmers. The last point is of especial relevance given the nature of the farm labour market in Oman and a reliance on expatriate and often untrained labour. The research, through a detailed stratified survey, explores the state of knowledge at farm-level regarding the safe disposal of pesticide waste and what factors could enhance or indeed operate against the spread and implementation of that knowledge. Members of the recently constituted Farmers Association expressed greater environmental awareness than their non-member counterparts in that they identified a more diverse range of potential risks associated with pesticide use and disposed of pesticide waste more in accordance with government policy, albeit government policy with gaps. Workers on farms belonging to Association members were also more likely to adhere to government policy in terms of waste disposal. The Farmers Association appears to be an effective conduit for the diffusion of knowledge about pesticide legislation and general awareness, apparently usurping the state agricultural extension service. - Highlights: • Recent

  14. Linking Pesticide Exposure with Pediatric Leukemia: Potential Underlying Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Hernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Leukemia is the most common cancer in children, representing 30% of all childhood cancers. The disease arises from recurrent genetic insults that block differentiation of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSPCs and drives uncontrolled proliferation and survival of the differentiation-blocked clone. Pediatric leukemia is phenotypically and genetically heterogeneous with an obscure etiology. The interaction between genetic factors and environmental agents represents a potential etiological driver. Although information is limited, the principal toxic mechanisms of potential leukemogenic agents (e.g., etoposide, benzene metabolites, bioflavonoids and some pesticides include topoisomerase II inhibition and/or excessive generation of free radicals, which may induce DNA single- and double-strand breaks (DNA-DSBs in early HSPCs. Chromosomal rearrangements (duplications, deletions and translocations may occur if these lesions are not properly repaired. The initiating hit usually occurs in utero and commonly leads to the expression of oncogenic fusion proteins. Subsequent cooperating hits define the disease latency and occur after birth and may be of a genetic, epigenetic or immune nature (i.e., delayed infection-mediated immune deregulation. Here, we review the available experimental and epidemiological evidence linking pesticide exposure to infant and childhood leukemia and provide a mechanistic basis to support the association, focusing on early initiating molecular events.

  15. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Indonesian farmers regarding the use of personal protective equipment against pesticide exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuantari, M.G.C.; van Gestel, C.A.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Widianarko, B.; Sunoko, H.R.; Shobib, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of synthetic pesticides in tropical countries has increased over the years, following the intensification of agriculture. However, awareness among farmers of the importance of protecting themselves from hazards associated with pesticide application is still lacking, especially in Indonesia.

  16. Case Control Study of Impulsivity, Aggression, Pesticide Exposure and Suicide Attempts Using Pesticides among Farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Chun Ping; Pei, Jian Ru; Beseler, L Cheryl; Li, Yu Ling; Li, Jian Hui; Ren, Ming; Stallones, Lorann; Ren, Shu Ping

    2018-03-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate associations between organophosphate pesticide (OP) exposure, aggression, impulsivity, and attempted suicide. Questionnaires were used to collect information; impulsivity and aggression were measured by the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Aggression Inventory (AI). A greater number of OP symptoms was associated with an increased odds of a suicide attempt after adjusting for marital status and income (OR = 1.45; CI 1.14-1.86). Attempted suicide was significantly associated with high impulsivity scores (means: 72.4 vs. 60.6, P controls and scored higher on scales of impulsivity and aggression. Copyright © 2018 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  17. Prácticas de utilización de plaguicidas en agricultores Pesticide application practices in agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. García

    2002-06-01

    los estudios epidemiológicos de los efectos de los plaguicidas sobre la salud en trabajadores agrícolas.Objective: We describe the sociodemographic characteristics and determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers applying pesticides. Methods: The workers selected were included in a case-control study carried out in the Autonomous Community of Valencia in Spain. Contact was made by telephone and individuals who had been involved in agricultural work during the relevant period of exposure were interviewed face-to-face to gain information on the following determinants of pesticide exposure: crops and periods worked, mixing of products, treatment equipment, participation in the washing of equipment, use of personal protection during the treatments and knowledge of the risks of pesticide exposure. Results: Eighty-nine workers, aged between 16 and 46 years old, were included. Most of the interviewees had primary education or less. Pesticide treatments were mostly applied on high crops (82%, with manual equipment (61% and throughout the year (45%. Workers frequently performed tasks involving additional exposure to pesticides (mixing chemicals, 66%, or washing equipment, 60%. Sixty-five percent of the workers used no personal protection or used it defectively. No differences were found in personal protection use according to age, family income or education. Most of the workers (90% reported knowledge of the health risks of pesticide exposure and 21% of them rated the risk as null. Conclusions: Workers involved in pesticide application use personal protection measures very defectively. There is a clear need to develop specific prevention programs for these workers. The determinants of pesticide exposure in agricultural workers described in this study should be properly assessed in epidemiological studies of the health effects of pesticides on agricultural workers.

  18. Development of an agricultural job-exposure matrix for British Columbia, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, David; Astrakianakis, George; Lang, Barbara; Le, Nhu; Bert, Joel

    2002-09-01

    Farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada have been shown to have unexplained elevated proportional mortality rates for several cancers. Because agricultural exposures have never been documented systematically in BC, a quantitative agricultural Job-exposure matrix (JEM) was developed containing exposure assessments from 1950 to 1998. This JEM was developed to document historical exposures and to facilitate future epidemiological studies. Available information regarding BC farming practices was compiled and checklists of potential exposures were produced for each crop. Exposures identified included chemical, biological, and physical agents. Interviews with farmers and agricultural experts were conducted using the checklists as a starting point. This allowed the creation of an initial or 'potential' JEM based on three axes: exposure agent, 'type of work' and time. The 'type of work' axis was determined by combining several variables: region, crop, job title and task. This allowed for a complete description of exposures. Exposure assessments were made quantitatively, where data allowed, or by a dichotomous variable (exposed/unexposed). Quantitative calculations were divided into re-entry and application scenarios. 'Re-entry' exposures were quantified using a standard exposure model with some modification while application exposure estimates were derived using data from the North American Pesticide Handlers Exposure Database (PHED). As expected, exposures differed between crops and job titles both quantitatively and qualitatively. Of the 290 agents included in the exposure axis; 180 were pesticides. Over 3000 estimates of exposure were conducted; 50% of these were quantitative. Each quantitative estimate was at the daily absorbed dose level. Exposure estimates were then rated as high, medium, or low based on comparing them with their respective oral chemical reference dose (RfD) or Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI). This data was mainly obtained from the US Environmental

  19. Inadvertent exposure to organochlorine pesticides DDT and derivatives in people from the Canary Islands (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumbado, Manuel; Goethals, Muriel; Alvarez-Leon, Eva E.; Luzardo, Octavio P.; Cabrera, Felix; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dominguez-Boada, Luis

    2005-01-01

    In 1998, one of the largest determinations of organochlorine pesticides in a representative sample of a Spanish population (682 serum samples from the Canary Islands) was made in the context of the 'Canary Islands Nutrition Survey' (ENCA). In the Canary Islands, extensive farming areas have been developed in these last decades, with greenhouses dedicated to intensive cultivation using DDT in huge amounts. In Spain, similarly to other European countries, DDT was banned in the late 1970s. The pesticide residues in human serum are indicative of past and present exposure to them. Our objective is to point out the differences of pesticide contamination between islands; and together with this, if a connection could be established with gender, age, or habitat of subjects. Concentration of selected persistent organochlorine pollutants (p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDD, and o,p'-DDD) was measured with gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Almost all of the samples (99.3%) presented detectable levels of some DDT-derivatives, being p,p'-DDE the most frequently detected organochlorine. The median concentration of total DDT body burden, expressed in ng/g fat, present in the Canary Islands (370 ng/g fat) was similar to that found in other European countries, although it was noteworthy that a fourth of the population showed a total DDT body burden higher than 715 ng/g. Interestingly, statistical significant differences were found in serum levels of organochlorine pesticides between islands, being these levels higher in people from Tenerife and Gran Canaria (415 and 612 ng/g fat, respectively), the islands that present both highest population and highest surface devoted to intensive agriculture. As expected, serum levels of both total DDT body burden and p,p'-DDE increased with age. Statistically significant differences were also found in relation to gender, women showing higher levels of these organochlorine pesticides than men. One of the most relevant

  20. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  1. Influence of agricultural land-use and pesticides on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in an agricultural river basin in southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Egler

    Full Text Available Land-use alterations and pesticide run-offs are among the main causes for impairment in agricultural areas. We evaluated the influence of different land-uses (forest, pasture and intensive agriculture on the water quality and on benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages on three occasions: in the dry season, wet season and at the end of the wet season. Macroinvertebrates responded to this gradient of impairment: agricultural sites had significantly lower richness numbers than forested and pasture sites, and all major invertebrate groups were significantly affected. Most taxa found in forested sites were found in pasture sites, but often with lower densities. In this case, the loss of habitats due to sedimentation and the lower complexity of substrates seem to be the disruptive force for the macroinvertebrate fauna.

  2. Assessment of herbicides and organochlorine pesticides contamination in agricultural soils using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wan-Hong; Wang, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Hong

    2008-01-01

    A rapid multi-residue method for the simultaneous analysis of 3 herbicides and 8 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in agricultural soils has been developed, using ultrasonic solvent extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The recoveries ranged from 81% to 117% with a relative standard deviation (R.S.D) lower than 15%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.03 to 1.06 microg x kg(-1) dry weight for different pesticides studied. The proposed method has been applied to investigate the 11 pesticide residues in agricultural soils collected from Liaoning Province, northeast of China. 3 OCPs and 3 herbicides were identified. Acetochlor, atrazine, butachtor were measured in the relatively high level with values ranging from 0.53 to 203.18 microg x kg(-1), 0.14 to 21.20 microg x kg(-1), pesticides in this study was compared with the date of other countries reported and the corresponding limiting values used in Netherland, USA, Canada, Vietnam and Thailand. Among the herbicide residues, there was a significant relativity between soil utilizing types and their residue concentration. It seems that the monitoring action for soil contamination caused by commonly-used herbicides should be enhanced according to soil utilizing types, especially acetochlor in maize field.

  3. Assessing Pesticide Contamination to Fresh Water in Some Agricultural Sites, Close to Oaxaca City, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas, G.

    2002-12-01

    This study presents the results of a survey on pesticides in fresh water in shallow aquifers, rivers and dams in Zaachila, Tlacolula and Etla and agricultural valleys close to Oaxaca City, SW of Mexico. In the study zones, there are generalized uses of pesticides and the impact on the water resources by inadequate use of agricultural activities. Water is used for irrigation and drinking. Surveying criteria was to sample the aquifer (production wells), its water table (dig wells) and a regional water collector (Plan Benito Juarez Yuayapan dam). A total of 14 samples were analyzed for the identification and quantification of organochlorine and organophosphorous pesticides. Method was 508-EPA. Gas chromatographer was a 5890 series II Hewlett Packard, calibrated with several patterns. Results: 10 samples are contaminated with some pesticide of the used patterns; Dieldrin, Chlordano, Malathion, Mirex were not found; Traces of organophosphorus compounds were found in 8 samples, mainly Merphos, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton ; There was detected traces of world-forbidden insecticides as Metoxychlor, Parathion Ethylic and Disulfoton; and In one sample (Cuilapam well #1) DDT exceeds, the Mexican maximum limit for potable water (1 mg/l),

  4. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva [Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, PPGBioSaúde and PPGGTA, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Silva, Juliana da, E-mail: juliana.silva@ulbra.br [Laboratory of Genetic Toxicology, PPGBioSaúde and PPGGTA, Lutheran University of Brazil (ULBRA), Canoas, RS (Brazil); Rabaioli da Silva, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.silva@unilasalle.edu.br [Master’s Degree in Environmental Impact Evaluation, Centro Universitário La Salle, Canoas, RS (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields is related to shorten telomere length. • The molecular mechanism of pesticide on telomere length is not fully understood. • Pesticides inhibit ubiquitin proteasome system. • Nicotine activates ubiquitin proteasome system. • Pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. - Abstract: Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity.

  5. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; Silva, Juliana da; Rabaioli da Silva, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exposure to pesticides in tobacco fields is related to shorten telomere length. • The molecular mechanism of pesticide on telomere length is not fully understood. • Pesticides inhibit ubiquitin proteasome system. • Nicotine activates ubiquitin proteasome system. • Pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. - Abstract: Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity.

  6. Probabilistic acute risk assessment of cumulative exposure to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides from dietary vegetables and fruits in Shanghai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Yuan, Yaqun; Meng, Pai; Wu, Min; Li, Shuguang; Chen, Bo

    2017-05-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and carbamate pesticides (CPs) are among the most widely used pesticides in China, playing a major role in protecting agricultural commodities. In this study, we determined the cumulative acute exposure to OPs and CPs of Shanghai residents from vegetables and fruits (VFs). The food consumption data were obtained from the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey (SHFCS) of 2012-14 including a total of 1973 participants aged 2-90 years. The pesticide residue data were obtained from the Shanghai monitoring programme during 2008-11 with 34 organophosphates and 11 carbamates analysed in a total of 5335 samples of VFs. A probabilistic approach was performed as recommended by the EFSA, using the optimistic model with non-detects set as zero and with processing factors (PFs) being used and the pessimistic model with non-detects replaced by limit of detection (LOD) and without PFs. We used the relative potency factor (RPF) method to normalise the various pesticides to the index compound (IC) of methamidophos and chlorpyrifos separately. Only in the pessimistic model using methamidophos as the IC was there was small risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD (3 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in the populations of preschool children (0.029%), school-age children (0.022%) and adults (0.002%). There were no risk of exposure exceeding the ARfD of methamidophos in the optimistic model and of chlorpyrifos (100 µg kg - 1 bw day - 1 ) in both optimistic and pessimistic models in all three populations. Considering the Chinese habits of overwhelmingly eating processed food (vegetables being cooked, and fruits being washed or peeled), we conclude that little acute risk was found for the exposure to VF-sourced OPs and CPs in Shanghai.

  7. Occupational exposure to pesticides and endotoxin and Parkinson disease in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Mark, Marianne; Vermeulen, Roel; Nijssen, Peter C G; Mulleners, Wim M; Sas, Antonetta M G; van Laar, Teus; Brouwer, Maartje; Huss, Anke; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that occupational exposure to pesticides and possibly airborne endotoxin may increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). We studied the associations of PD with occupational exposure to pesticides, specifically to the functional subclasses insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and to airborne endotoxin. In addition we evaluated specific pesticides (active ingredients) previously associated with PD. We used data from a hospital-based case-control study, including 444 patients with PD and 876 age and sex matched controls. Exposures to pesticides from application and re-entry work were estimated with the ALOHA+job-exposure matrix and with an exposure algorithm based on self-reported information on pesticide use. To assess exposure to specific active ingredients a crop-exposure matrix was developed. Endotoxin exposure was estimated with the DOM job-exposure matrix. The results showed almost no significant associations. However, ORs were elevated in the higher exposure categories for pesticides in general, insecticides, herbicides and fungicides, and below unity for endotoxin exposure. The analyses on specific active ingredients showed a significant association of PD risk with the fungicide benomyl. This study did not provide evidence for a relation between pesticide exposure and PD. However, the consistently elevated ORs in the higher exposure categories suggest that a positive association may exist. The possible association with the active ingredient benomyl requires follow-up in other studies. This study did not provide support for a possible association between endotoxin exposure and PD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. PESTICIDE EXPOSURE AND POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS IN YOUNG CHILDREN ALONG THE U.S. - MEXICO BORDER

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the Pesticides in Young Children - Border States Program is to assess the relationship between health status in children living along the United States and Mexico border and repeated pesticide exposures via multiple sources and pathways. Children's health has bee...

  9. Pesticide Exposure and Health Problems Among Female Horticulture Workers in Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezra Jonathan Mrema

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization of horticulture farming, expansion of farms, and the practice of monoculture favor the proliferation of pests, which in turn increases the need for pesticides. Increased exposure to pesticides is associated with inadequate knowledge on the hazardous nature of pesticides, poor hygiene practices, lack of availability of washing facilities, and insufficient adherence to precautionary instructions on pesticide labels. Mitigating the risks posed by pesticides is considered a less compelling interest than alleviating poverty. Women working in horticulture in Tanzania usually have low levels of education and income and lack decision-making power even on matters relating to their own health. This contributes to pesticide exposure and other health challenges. Because of multiple factors, some of which act as study confounders, few studies on exposure to pesticides and health effects have been conducted among women. This review identified factors that contribute to the increased health effects among women working in the horticultural industry and how these effects relate to pesticide exposure.

  10. Wastewater-based epidemiology to assess pan-European pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousis, Nikolaos I.; Gracia-Lor, Emma; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-01-01

    human exposure to pesticides in eight cities across Europe. 24 h-composite wastewater samples were collected from the main wastewater treatment plants and analyzed for urinary metabolites of three classes of pesticides, namely triazines, organophosphates and pyrethroids, by liquid chromatography...

  11. The agricultural impact of pesticides on Physalaemus cuvieri tadpoles (Amphibia: Anura ascertained by comet assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macks W. Gonçalves

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Amphibians inhabiting agricultural areas are constantly exposed to large amounts of chemicals, which reach the aquatic environment during the rainy season through runoff, drainage, and leaching. We performed a comet assay on the erythrocytes of tadpoles found in the surroundings of agricultural fields (soybean and corn crops, where there is an intense release of several kinds of pesticides in different quantities. We aimed to detect differences in the genotoxic parameters between populations collected from soybeans and cornfields, and between them and tadpoles sampled from non-agricultural areas (control group. Tadpoles collected from ponds located at soybean fields had significantly more DNA damage, followed by tadpoles collected from cornfields. In contrast, animals sampled from non-agricultural areas had the lowest incidence of DNA damage. In addition, we found a negative correlation between the parameters of the comet assay and the area of the ponds surrounding soybean. This correlation indicates a possible dilution effect in the concentration of pesticides. Finally, Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 seems to be a good bioindicator for detecting the genotoxic effects of field agricultural insecticides; therefore, we suggest that this species should be used in environmental biomonitoring studies, since it is common and abundant where it occurs.

  12. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  13. Chemical pesticides and human health: The urgent need for a new concept in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken.

  14. Pesticides in rain in four agricultural watersheds in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, J.R.; Majewski, M.S.; Capel, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    Rainfall samples were collected during the 2003 and 2004 growing seasons at four agricultural locales across the USA in Maryland, Indiana, Nebraska, and California. The samples were analyzed for 21 insecticides, 18 herbicides, three fungicides, and 40 pesticide degradates. Data from all sites combined show that 7 of the 10 most frequently detected pesticides were herbicides, with atrazine (70%) and metolachlor (83%) detected at every site. Dacthal, acetochlor, simazine, alachlor, and pendimethalin were detected in more than 50% of the samples. Chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, and diazinon were the only insecticides among the 10 most frequently detected compounds. Of the remaining pesticide parent compounds, 18 were detected in fewer than 30% of the samples, and 13 were not detected. The most frequently detected degradates were deethylatrazine; the oxygen analogs (OAs) of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion; and 1-napthol (degradate of carbaryl). Deethylatrazine was detected in nearly 70% of the samples collected in Maryland, Indiana, and Nebraska but was detected only once in California. The OAs of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were detected primarily in California. Degradates of the acetanilide herbicides were rarely detected in rain, indicating that they are not formed in the atmosphere or readily volatilized from soils. Herbicides accounted for 91 to 98% of the total pesticide mass deposited by rain except in California, where insecticides accounted for 61% in 2004. The mass of pesticides deposited by rainfall was estimated to be less than 2% of the total applied in these agricultural areas. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of exposure to pesticides on telomere length in tobacco farmers: A biology system approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Vivian Francília Silva; da Silva, Juliana; da Silva, Fernanda Rabaioli

    Various pesticides in the form of mixtures must be used to keep tobacco crops pest-free. Recent studies have shown a link between occupational exposure to pesticides in tobacco crops and increased damage to the DNA, mononuclei, nuclear buds and binucleated cells in buccal cells as well as micronuclei in lymphocytes. Furthermore, pesticides used specifically for tobacco crops shorten telomere length (TL) significantly. However, the molecular mechanism of pesticide action on telomere length is not fully understood. Our study evaluated the interaction between a complex mixture of chemical compounds (tobacco cultivation pesticides plus nicotine) and proteins associated with maintaining TL, as well as the biological processes involved in this exposure by System Biology tools to provide insight regarding the influence of pesticide exposure on TL maintenance in tobacco farmers. Our analysis showed that one cluster was associated with TL proteins that act in bioprocesses such as (i) telomere maintenance via telomere lengthening; (ii) senescence; (iii) age-dependent telomere shortening; (iv) DNA repair (v) cellular response to stress and (vi) regulation of proteasome ubiquitin-dependent protein catabolic process. We also describe how pesticides and nicotine regulate telomere length. In addition, pesticides inhibit the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and consequently increase proteins of the shelterin complex, avoiding the access of telomerase in telomere and, nicotine activates UPS mechanisms and promotes the degradation of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), decreasing telomerase activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Predation Risk versus Pesticide Exposure: Consequences of Fear and Loathing in the Life of Stream Shredders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestana, J. T.; Baird, D. J.; Soares, A. M.

    2005-05-01

    Stream invertebrates are exposed to complex stressor regimes including both biotic and abiotic factors. Species living in streams in agricultural landscapes are often subjected to episodic or continuous exposures to low levels of agrochemicals, which may approach or exceed specific substance guidelines. Sublethal effects of pesticides may result in direct effects on organisms (e.g. reduced physiological performance), which may in turn contribute to indirect effects relating to survival (e.g. increased predation risk). Here, we investigate the possibility that predator-release kairomones can act additively with low-level pesticide exposure to reduce physiological performance and survival of stream invertebrates in previously unforeseen ways. Feeding, metabolic and behavioural responses of two shredder insects, the North American stonefly Pteronarcys comstockii and the European caddisfly Sericostoma vittatum were measured under exposure to the insecticide imidacloprid at different levels of indirect predation stress using predator-release kairomones from Brown Trout (Salmo trutta). Pteronarcys feeding was measured in terms of mass of naturally conditioned alder leaf discs consumed over a 6-day and 10 -day period in animals held in cages in stream mesocosms. Pteronarcys feeding was impaired at 1 ppb in the 6-day trial and at 0,5 ppb in the 10-day trial relatively to unexposed controls. Metabolic rate was measured in the lab in terms of oxygen consumption of Pteronarcys. Animals exposed to 0.5 and 1 ppb imidacloprid showed elevated respiratory rates compared to controls. Laboratory experiments with Sericostoma, currently in progress, are examining the separate and combined effects of imidacloprid and predator kairomone on similar endpoints. These preliminary results are discussed in relation to the development of the Mechanistic Unifying Stressor Effects (MUSE) model which can be used to predict combined ecological effects of multiple stressors at the population level.

  17. Continuous exposure of pesticides in an aquifer changes microbial biomass, diversity and degradation potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lipthay, J. R.; Johnsen, K.; Aamand, J.

    2000-01-01

    We studied in situ effects of pesticide exposure on microbial degradation potential and community structure of aquifer sediments. Sediment samples pre-exposed to pesticides were significantly different to non-exposed control samples. Pre-exposed sediment showed an increased degradation potential ...... towards phenoxyalcanoic acid herbicides as well as impact on microbial diversity was observed. Furthermore, bacterial biomass was changed, e.g. increased numbers of phenoxyalcanoic acid degraders in pesticide exposed sediment.......We studied in situ effects of pesticide exposure on microbial degradation potential and community structure of aquifer sediments. Sediment samples pre-exposed to pesticides were significantly different to non-exposed control samples. Pre-exposed sediment showed an increased degradation potential...

  18. Exposure to pesticides and diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelou, Evangelos; Ntritsos, Georgios; Chondrogiorgi, Maria; Kavvoura, Fotini K; Hernández, Antonio F; Ntzani, Evangelia E; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus has a multifactorial pathogenesis with a strong genetic component as well as many environmental and lifestyle influences. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental contaminants, including pesticides, might play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that assessed the association between exposure to pesticides and diabetes and we examined the presence of heterogeneity and biases across available studies. A comprehensive literature search of peer-reviewed original research pertaining to pesticide exposure and diabetes, published until 30st May 2015, with no language restriction, was conducted. Eligible studies were those that investigated potential associations between pesticides and diabetes without restrictions on diabetes type. We included cohort studies, case-control studies and cross-sectional studies. We extracted information on study characteristics, type of pesticide assessed, exposure assessment, outcome definition, effect estimate and sample size. We identified 22 studies assessing the association between pesticides and diabetes. The summary OR for the association of top vs. bottom tertile of exposure to any type of pesticide and diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.32-1.90, p=1.21×10(-6)), with large heterogeneity (I(2)=66.8%). Studies evaluating Type 2 diabetes in particular (n=13 studies), showed a similar summary effect comparing top vs. bottom tertiles of exposure: 1.61 (95% CI 1.37-1.88, p=3.51×10(-9)) with no heterogeneity (I(2)=0%). Analysis by type of pesticide yielded an increased risk of diabetes for DDE, heptachlor, HCB, DDT, and trans-nonachlor or chlordane. The epidemiological evidence, supported by mechanistic studies, suggests an association between exposure to organochlorine pesticides and Type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tabares L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  20. Hydrodynamic and geochemical constraints on pesticide concentrations in the groundwater of an agricultural catchment (Brevilles, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, N. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)]. E-mail: n.baran@brgm.fr; Mouvet, C. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Negrel, Ph. [BRGM, 3 avenue Claude Guillemin, BP 6009, 45060 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

    2007-08-15

    The monitoring of a spring and seven piezometers in the 3 km{sup 2} Brevilles agricultural catchment (France) over five and a half years revealed considerable spatial and temporal variability in the concentrations of atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine (both systematically quantified at the outlet spring): maximum 0.97 and 2.72 {mu}g L{sup -1}, mean 0.19 and 0.59 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. Isoproturon, the pesticide applied in the greatest amount, was detected in only 10 of the 133 samples. These observations can only partly be explained by land use and intrinsic pesticide properties. Geochemical measurements and tritium dating showed the importance of the stratification of the sandy saturated zone and the buffer function of the unsaturated limestone. Principal component analysis on 39 monthly data series of atrazine, deethylatrazine, nitrate, chloride and piezometric levels revealed a temporal structuring of the data possibly reflecting the existence within the aquifer of two different reservoirs with time-variable contributions. - We present an integrated approach combining geochemistry and hydrogeology that leads to a better understanding of the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the pesticide concentrations in groundwater of a pilot agricultural catchment.

  1. Pesticide exposure and risk of Alzheimer’s disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dandan; Zhang, Yunjian; Liu, Liegang; Yan, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Evidence suggests that lifelong cumulative exposure to pesticides may generate lasting toxic effects on the central nervous system and contribute to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A number of reports indicate a potential association between long-term/low-dose pesticide exposure and AD, but the results are inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to clarify this association. Relevant studies were identified according to inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed-effects models. A total of seven studies were included in our meta-analysis. A positive association was observed between pesticide exposure and AD (OR = 1.34 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.67; n = 7). The summary ORs with 95% CIs from the crude and adjusted effect size studies were 1.14 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.38; n = 7) and 1.37 (95% CI = 1.09, 1.71; n = 5), respectively. The sensitivity analyses of the present meta-analysis did not substantially modify the association between pesticide exposure and AD. Subgroup analyses revealed that high-quality studies tended to show significant relationships. The present meta-analysis suggested a positive association between pesticide exposure and AD, confirming the hypothesis that pesticide exposure is a risk factor for AD. Further high-quality cohort and case-control studies are required to validate a causal relationship.

  2. Male Reproduction and Pesticides. Work related and dietary exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Solveig B.; Bonde, Jens Peter; Juhler, René K.

    We found no difference in semen quality and male fecundity between traditional and organic farmers. Pesticide use by Danish farmers did not influence the different semen parameters Ø a spraying season. The dietary pesticide intake in the study group did not entail a risk of measurable reduced sem...

  3. Exposure to pesticides of fruit growers and effects on reproduction : an epidemiological approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cock, de J.S.

    1995-01-01

    In this thesis the exposure to pesticides of fruit growers in The Netherlands was studied as well as its relation to reproductive health effects. The most commonly used fungicide, captan, was used as a marker for exposure. Several exposure studies were carried out during application of

  4. Epidemiologic studies of occupational pesticide exposure and cancer: regulatory risk assessments and biologic plausibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquavella, John; Doe, John; Tomenson, John; Chester, Graham; Cowell, John; Bloemen, Louis

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies frequently show associations between self-reported use of specific pesticides and human cancers. These findings have engendered debate largely on methodologic grounds. However, biologic plausibility is a more fundamental issue that has received only superficial attention. The purpose of this commentary is to review briefly the toxicology and exposure data that are developed as part of the pesticide regulatory process and to discuss the applicability of this data to epidemiologic research. The authors also provide a generic example of how worker pesticide exposures might be estimated and compared to relevant toxicologic dose levels. This example provides guidance for better characterization of exposure and for consideration of biologic plausibility in epidemiologic studies of pesticides.

  5. Spatially distributed pesticide exposure assessment in the Central Valley, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Field runoff is an important transport mechanism by which pesticides move into the hydrologic environment of intensive agricultural regions such as California's Central Valley. This study presents a spatially explicit modeling approach to extend Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), a field-scale pesticide transport model, into basin level. The approach was applied to simulate chlorpyrifos use in the Central Valley during 2003-2007. The average value of loading as percent of use (LAPU) is 0.031%. Results of this study provide strong evidence that surface runoff generation and pesticide application timing are the two influencing factors on the spatial and temporal variability of chlorpyrifos sources from agricultural fields. This is one of the first studies in coupling GIS and field-scale models and providing simulations for the dynamics of pesticides over an agriculturally dominated landscape. The demonstrated modeling approach may be useful for implementations of best management practice (BMP) and total maximum daily load (TMDL). - Runoff generation and application timing are governing factors on spatiotemporal variability of pesticide sources.

  6. Spatially distributed pesticide exposure assessment in the Central Valley, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yuzhou; Zhang Minghua

    2010-01-01

    Field runoff is an important transport mechanism by which pesticides move into the hydrologic environment of intensive agricultural regions such as California's Central Valley. This study presents a spatially explicit modeling approach to extend Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), a field-scale pesticide transport model, into basin level. The approach was applied to simulate chlorpyrifos use in the Central Valley during 2003-2007. The average value of loading as percent of use (LAPU) is 0.031%. Results of this study provide strong evidence that surface runoff generation and pesticide application timing are the two influencing factors on the spatial and temporal variability of chlorpyrifos sources from agricultural fields. This is one of the first studies in coupling GIS and field-scale models and providing simulations for the dynamics of pesticides over an agriculturally dominated landscape. The demonstrated modeling approach may be useful for implementations of best management practice (BMP) and total maximum daily load (TMDL). - Runoff generation and application timing are governing factors on spatiotemporal variability of pesticide sources.

  7. Occupational exposure to pesticides and occurrence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18 among farmers in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bara’a M. Qaqish

    Full Text Available Background: An increased incidence of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL has been reported in farmers and other occupational groups working with pesticides. In these individuals, an increased prevalence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18(q32;q21, one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities in NHL, has been detected in peripheral blood lymphocytes. This translocation juxtaposes the antiapoptotic BCL2 protein to the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene locus (IGH leading to overexpression of BCL2. This causes an increase in cell survival, paving the way for malignant transformation. Aim of the study: The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the occurrence of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18 and occupational exposure to pesticides among a group of Jordanian farmers. Methods: A total of 192 male subjects including 96 agricultural workers and 96 control subjects participated in this study. BCL2-IGH t(14;18 fusions were detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay targeting the major breakpoint region (MBR. Results: We found that occupational exposure to pesticides in open-field farming and insecticide used on animals increased the frequency of the chromosomal translocation t(14;18. Farmers occupationally exposed to pesticides and insecticide were 13.5 times more likely to harbor t(14;18. 63.5% (61 of 96 of farmers compared to 11.5% (11 of 96 of controls carried the translocation (odds ratio: 13.5; 95% confidence interval (CI = 6.3–28.6. We ruled out the influence of possible confounding factors such as age, duration of sun exposure, alcohol intake, smoking, and use of personal protective equipment. Conclusion: Our results indicate that pesticides increased the frequency of chromosomal translocation in the 14q32 region. Accordingly, the presented data agrees with previous suggestions from the literature that pesticides might be involved in the development of NHL through the t(14;18 pathway. Keywords

  8. [Relationship between pesticide exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes among reproductive couples in rural areas of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Y M; Chen, S; Li, J J; Jin, R R; Pan, H; Jiang, Y

    2017-06-10

    Objective: To analyze the association between pesticide exposure and adverse pregnancy outcomes in women from the rural areas of China. Methods: Data of "National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP)" from January 2010 to December 2012 was used for analysis. A total of 248 501 families that were planning to deliver a baby in the next 6 months were enrolled. Data on paternal exposure to pesticides before or during pregnancy was collected through questionnaires, with related outcomes on pregnancy recorded by doctors. Results: Among all the 248 501 participants, 1 806 (0.74 % ) women and 2 653 (1.09 % ) men reported to have been exposed to pesticide before pregnancy, with 505 (0.21 % ) reported of having been exposed to pesticide during the period of pregnancy. Maternal exposure to pesticide was found a risk factor related to stillbirth ( OR =3.37, 95 %CI : 2.05-5.55), peculiar smell pregnancy ( OR =3.17, 95 %CI :1.18-8.55) and low birth weight ( OR =7.56, 95 % CI : 5.36-10.66). Paternal exposure to pesticide was also found related to miscarriage ( OR =1.37, 95 % CI : 1.03-1.80), low birth weight ( OR =3.65, 95 % CI :1.51-8.84), or giant infant ( OR =0.64, 95 %CI : 0.44-0.93). Maternal exposure to pesticide during pregnancy appeared a risk factor on miscarriage ( OR =4.65, 95 % CI : 3.47-6.24). Other adverse outcomes on pregnancy would include premature birth and high birth weight. Conclusion: Parental pesticide exposure appeared a risk factor on stillbirth, peculiar smell pregnancy, low birth weight and miscarriage.

  9. Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter: Association with Nonaccidental and Cardiovascular Mortality in the Agricultural Health Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Weichenthal, Scott; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Burnett, Richard T.; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Martin, Randall V.; Jones, Rena R.; DellaValle, Curt T.; Sandler, Dale P.; Ward, Mary H.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Few studies have examined the relationship between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and nonaccidental mortality in rural populations. Objective: We examined the relationship between PM2.5 and nonaccidental and cardiovascular mortality in the U.S. Agricultural Health Study cohort. Methods: The cohort (n = 83,378) included farmers, their spouses, and commercial pesticide applicators residing primarily in Iowa and North Carolina. Deaths occurring between ...

  10. Blood cholinesterases as human biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, H N; Knaak, J B

    2000-01-01

    The organophosphorus pesticides of this review were discovered in 1936 during the search for a replacement for nicotine for cockroach control. The basic biochemical characteristics of RBC AChE and BChE were determined in the 1940s. The mechanism of inhibition of both enzymes and other serine esterases was known in the 1940s and, in general, defined in the 1950s. In 1949, the death of a parathion mixer-loader dictated blood enzyme monitoring to prevent acute illness from organophosphorus pesticide intoxication. However, many of the chemical and biochemical steps for serine enzyme inhibition by OP compounds remain unknown today. The possible mechanisms of this inhibition are presented kinetically beginning with simple (by comparison) Michaelis-Menten substrate enzyme interaction kinetics. As complicated as the inhibition kinetics appear here, PBPK model kinetics will be more complex. The determination of inter- and intraindividual variation in RBC ChE and BChE was recognized early as critical knowledge for a blood esterase monitoring program. Because of the relatively constant production of RBCs, variation in RBC AChE was determined by about 1970. The source of plasma (or serum) BChE was shown to be the liver in the 1960s with the change in BChE phenotype to the donor in liver transplant patients. BChE activity was more variable than RBC AChE, and only in the 1990s have BChE individual variation questions been answered. We have reviewed the chemistry, metabolism, and toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides along with their inhibitory action toward tissue acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterases. On the basis of the review, a monitoring program for individuals mixing-loading and applying OP pesticides for commercial applicators was recommended. Approximately 41 OPs are currently registered for use by USEPA in the United States. Under agricultural working conditions, OPs primarily are absorbed through the skin. Liver P-450 isozymes catalyze the desulfurization of

  11. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asayah

    Received 6 April, 2015; Accepted 10 July, 2015. In areas where ... the Kintampo Health and Demographic Surveillance System area of Ghana to estimate the prevalence of pesticide .... A cross-sectional survey was conducted among heads of.

  12. Multiple exposure routes of a pesticide exacerbate effects on a grazing mayfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pristed, Mathias Joachim Skov; Bundschuh, Mirco; Rasmussen, Jes Jessen

    2016-09-01

    Hydrophobic pesticides such as pyrethroid insecticides tend to occur in their soluble form mainly as transient pulses in streams. In addition, they are regularly detected in significant quantities adsorbed to stream sediments and other organic in-stream structures. Consequently, stream biota is likely subjected to pesticide exposure via multiple routes. In this study we aimed at investigating the influence of exposure routes for the pyrethroid insecticide lambda-cyhalothrin on the grazing mayfly Heptagenia sulphurea. Therefore, H. sulphurea was exposed to lambda-cyhalothrin via single- (water or biofilm) or biphasic exposure (water and biofilm) at environmentally realistic concentrations (0, 0.1, 1μgL(-1)) and exposure duration (2h) in a full factorial design (n=5). Mortality, moulting frequency, and biofilm accrual (proxy for feeding rate) were recorded subsequent to a 7 d post exposure period. Mortality significantly increased and moulting frequency significantly decreased with increasing concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin in the water phase whereas exposure via biofilm prompted no significant effects on these endpoints (α=0.05). Effect predictions systematically underestimated and overestimated effects for mortality and moulting frequency, respectively. Similarly, mayfly feeding rate was significantly reduced by water phase exposure whereas pre-exposed biofilm did not significantly affect this variable. However, we found a significant but non-systematic interaction between water phase and biofilm exposure on mayfly feeding rate. Our results show that exposure to the same pesticide via multiple exposure routes may increase the magnitude of effects beyond the level predicted from single phase exposures which has clear implications for the aquatic risk assessment of hydrophobic pesticides. However, our results additionally reveal that interactions between pesticide exposure routes may vary between selected dependent variables. We emphasize that unravelling the

  13. Silicone Wristband Passive Samplers Yield Highly Individualized Pesticide Residue Exposure Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Joly, Laure; Szternfeld, Philippe; Tsilikas, Khariklia; De Cremer, Koen; Castelain, Philippe; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Van Orshoven, Jos; Somers, Ben; Hendrickx, Marijke; Andjelkovic, Mirjana; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An

    2018-01-02

    Monitoring human exposure to pesticides and pesticide residues (PRs) remains crucial for informing public health policies, despite strict regulation of plant protection product and biocide use. We used 72 low-cost silicone wristbands as noninvasive passive samplers to assess cumulative 5-day exposure of 30 individuals to polar PRs. Ethyl acetate extraction and LC-MS/MS analysis were used for the identification of PRs. Thirty-one PRs were detected of which 15 PRs (48%) were detected only in worn wristbands, not in environmental controls. The PRs included 16 fungicides (52%), 8 insecticides (26%), 2 herbicides (6%), 3 pesticide derivatives (10%), 1 insect repellent (3%), and 1 pesticide synergist (3%). Five detected pesticides were not approved for plant protection use in the EU. Smoking and dietary habits that favor vegetable consumption were associated with higher numbers and higher cumulative concentrations of PRs in wristbands. Wristbands featured unique PR combinations. Our results suggest both environment and diet contributed to PR exposure in our study group. Silicone wristbands could serve as sensitive passive samplers to screen population-wide cumulative dietary and environmental exposure to authorized, unauthorized and banned pesticides.

  14. The exposure of honey bees (Apis mellifera; Hymenoptera: Apidae) to pesticides: Room for improvement in research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benuszak, Johanna; Laurent, Marion; Chauzat, Marie-Pierre

    2017-06-01

    Losses of honey bees have been repeatedly reported from many places worldwide. The widespread use of synthetic pesticides has led to concerns regarding their environmental fate and their effects on pollinators. Based on a standardised review, we report the use of a wide variety of honey bee matrices and sampling methods in the scientific papers studying pesticide exposure. Matrices such as beeswax and beebread were very little analysed despite their capacities for long-term pesticide storage. Moreover, bioavailability and transfer between in-hive matrices were poorly understood and explored. Many pesticides were studied but interactions between molecules or with other stressors were lacking. Sampling methods, targeted matrices and units of measure should have been, to some extent, standardised between publications to ease comparison and cross checking. Data on honey bee exposure to pesticides would have also benefit from the use of commercial formulations in experiments instead of active ingredients, with a special assessment of co-formulants (quantitative exposure and effects). Finally, the air matrix within the colony must be explored in order to complete current knowledge on honey bee pesticide exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Residential exposure to pesticides as risk factor for childhood and young adult brain tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele-Fabry, Geneviève; Gamet-Payrastre, Laurence; Lison, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications. Risk estimates were extracted from 18 case-control studies published between 1979 and 2016 and study quality assessments were performed. Summary odds ratios (mOR) were calculated according to fixed and random-effect meta-analysis models. Separate analyses were conducted after stratification for study quality, critical exposure period, exposure location, specific exposures, pesticide category, application methods, type of pest treated, type of CBT, child's age at diagnosis and geographic location. Statistically significant associations were observed with CBT after combining all studies (mOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.40) without evidence of inconsistency between study results or publication bias. Specifically, increased risks were observed for several groupings and more particularly for gliomas and exposure involving insecticides. Statistical significance was also reached for high quality studies, for all exposure periods, for indoor exposure and, more particularly, during the prenatal period for all stratifications involving insecticides (except for outdoor use), for pet treatments, for flea/tick treatment, for studies from USA/Canada and studies from Europe (borderline) as well as for data from studies including children of up to 10years at diagnosis and of up to 15years. Our findings support an association between residential exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. Although causality cannot be established, these results add to the evidence leading

  16. [Pesticides in the tropical agricultural economy systems: Evaluation of present knowledge of the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A R

    1976-06-01

    Man is an integral part of the ecosystem and any action of his against the environment has an effect against man himself. An Agro-ecosystem is a unit composed of the total complex of organisms in an area under cultivation, plus the totality of the physical environmental conditions and the modifications introduced by man, who manages the agro-ecosystem for his own benefit. The use of pesticides has been necessary for the agricultural development of some tropical areas. Unfortunately, the inadequate use of this input has caused many problems for himself. These include destruction of natural resources; intoxications; pesticide residues in water and foods; secondary pest outbreaks; increase in illnesses transmitted by certain arthropods; loss of foreign exchange; unemployment; malnutrition; disability; high infant mortality and poverty. A better use of agro-ecosystem management techniques can lead to a rational sustained utilization of land resources. Chemical pesticides can be considered as one of the factors in pest management, and not necessarily the only one available.

  17. Genomic analysis of the interaction between pesticide exposure and nutrition in honey bees (Apis mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmehl, Daniel R; Teal, Peter E A; Frazier, James L; Grozinger, Christina M

    2014-12-01

    Populations of pollinators are in decline worldwide. These declines are best documented in honey bees and are due to a combination of stressors. In particular, pesticides have been linked to decreased longevity and performance in honey bees; however, the molecular and physiological pathways mediating sensitivity and resistance to pesticides are not well characterized. We explored the impact of coumaphos and fluvalinate, the two most abundant and frequently detected pesticides in the hive, on genome-wide gene expression patterns of honey bee workers. We found significant changes in 1118 transcripts, including genes involved in detoxification, behavioral maturation, immunity, and nutrition. Since behavioral maturation is regulated by juvenile hormone III (JH), we examined effects of these miticides on hormone titers; while JH titers were unaffected, titers of methyl farnesoate (MF), the precursor to JH, were decreased. We further explored the association between nutrition- and pesticide-regulated gene expression patterns and demonstrated that bees fed a pollen-based diet exhibit reduced sensitivity to a third pesticide, chlorpyrifos. Finally, we demonstrated that expression levels of several of the putative pesticide detoxification genes identified in our study and previous studies are also upregulated in response to pollen feeding, suggesting that these pesticides and components in pollen modulate similar molecular response pathways. Our results demonstrate that pesticide exposure can substantially impact expression of genes involved in several core physiological pathways in honey bee workers. Additionally, there is substantial overlap in responses to pesticides and pollen-containing diets at the transcriptional level, and subsequent analyses demonstrated that pollen-based diets reduce workers' pesticide sensitivity. Thus, providing honey bees and other pollinators with high quality nutrition may improve resistance to pesticides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  18. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  19. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  20. Detection of residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Antonio; Hernández, Sergio; Ramírez, Martha; Ortíz, Irmene

    2014-01-01

    Organochlorine pesticides were intensively used in Mexico from 1950 until their ban and restriction in 1991. However, the presence of these compounds is commonly reported in many regions of the country. The aim of the present study was to identify and quantify residual organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in agricultural soil in Rio Verde region, San Luis Potosi state, which has been identified as possibly polluted by pesticides. Composed samples from 24 zones covering an area of approximately 5,440 ha were analyzed. The most frequently found pesticides were p,p'-DDT followed by ,p,p'-DDE, heptachlor, endosulfan and γ-HCH whose frequency rates were 100, 91, 83 and 54%, respectively. The concentration of p,p'-DDT in the crops grown in these soils was in the following order: chili > maize > tomato > alfalfa. The results obtained in this study show that p,p'-DDT values are lower or similar to those found in other agricultural regions of Mexico. Methyl and ethyl parathion were the most frequent organophosphate pesticide detected in 100% and 62.5% of the samples with average concentrations of 25.20 and 47.48 μg kg(-1), respectively. More research is needed to establish the background levels of pesticides in agricultural soils and their potential ecological and human health effects in this region.

  1. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Barr, Dana B; Debes, Frodi

    2006-03-01

    To examine possible effects on blood pressure, neurological function, and neurobehavioral tests in school-aged children with and without prenatal pesticide exposure in an area where stunting is common. In a community of Northern Ecuador with intensive floriculture and a high female employment rate, we invited 79 children attending the 2 lowest grades of a public school for clinical examinations. In addition to a thorough physical examination, we administered simple reaction time, Santa Ana dexterity test, Stanford-Binet copying, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Digit Spans forward. Maternal interview included detailed assessment of occupational history to determine pesticide exposure during pregnancy. Recent and current pesticide exposure was assessed by erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity and urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites. All eligible children participated in the study, but 7 children were excluded from data analysis due to other disease or age >9 years. A total of 31 of the remaining 72 children were classified as stunted based on their height for age. Maternal occupational history revealed that 37 children had been exposed to pesticides during development. After confounder adjustment, prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure than in the controls. On neurological examination, 14 exposed children and 9 controls showed > or =1 abnormalities. Of 5 neurobehavioral tests, the Stanford-Binet copying test showed a lower drawing score for copying designs in exposed children than in controls. Stunting was associated with a lower score on this test only, and both risk factors remained statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and social confounders. Increased excretion of dimethyl and diethyl metabolites of organophosphates was associated with increased reaction time and no other outcomes. Prenatal pesticide exposure may cause lasting

  2. Organophosphate pesticide exposure in school-aged children living in rice and aquacultural farming regions of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohitrattana, Juthasiri; Siriwong, Wattasit; Tunsaringkarn, Tanasorn; Panuwet, Parinya; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Robson, Mark G; Fiedler, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used in agricultural sectors in Thailand. Previous studies have documented that children residing in agricultural areas have higher exposure to OPs than children living in other residential areas. The objective of this study was to quantify urinary biomarkers of OP exposure and determine the environmental conditions and activities that predict their levels among children living in Central Thailand farming regions. In October 2011, 53 6-8-year-old participants were recruited from Pathum Thani Province, Thailand. Twenty-four lived in rice farming communities at Khlong Luang District where OPs are the pesticides used frequently. Twenty-nine participants, living in aquacultural farming communities at Lum Luk Ka District where OPs are not used, were recruited to serve as controls for pathways of exposure (e.g., residential, dietary) other than occupational/paraoccupational exposures encountered in rice farming. Household environments and participants' activities were assessed using a parental structured interview. Urine samples (first morning voids) were collected from participants for OP urinary metabolite (i.e., dialkylphosphates [DAPs] and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol [TCPy]) measurements. The levels of most urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in participants who lived in a rice farming community than those who lived in an aquacultural farming community (P farms (∑DAP: P = .001; TCPy: P = .001) and living in a rice farming community (∑DAP: P = .009; TCPy: P farm (P = .03), being with parent while working on a farm (P = .02), playing on a farm (P = .03), and the presence of observable dirt accumulated on the child's body (P = .02). In conclusion, OP metabolite levels among children who live in rice farming communities were strongly influenced by farming activity, household environments, and child behaviors, suggesting that these are the primary pathways in which children living in these agricultural

  3. The challenges of predicting pesticide exposure of honey bees at landscape level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Delso, Noa; San Martin, Gilles; Bruneau, Etienne; Delcourt, Christine; Hautier, Louis

    2017-06-19

    To evaluate the risks of pesticides for pollinators, we must not only evaluate their toxicity but also understand how pollinators are exposed to these xenobiotics in the field. We focused on this last point and modeled honey bee exposure to pesticides at the landscape level. Pollen pellet samples (n = 60) from 40 Belgian apiaries were collected from late July to October 2011 and underwent palynological and pesticide residue analyses. Areas of various crops around each apiary were measured at 4 spatial scales. The most frequently detected pesticides were the fungicides boscalid (n = 19, 31.7%) and pyrimethanil (n = 10, 16.7%) and the insecticide dimethoate (n = 10, 16.7%). We were able to predict exposure probability for boscalid and dimethoate by using broad indicators of cropping intensity, but it remained difficult to identify the precise source of contamination (e.g. specific crops in which the use of the pesticide is authorized). For pyrimethanil, we were not able to build any convincing landscape model that could explain the contamination. Our results, combined with the late sampling period, strongly suggest that pesticides applied to crops unattractive to pollinators, and therefore considered of no risk for them, may be sources of exposure through weeds, drift to neighboring plants, or succeeding crops.

  4. Personal samplers of bioavailable pesticides integrated with a hair follicle assay of DNA damage to assess environmental exposures and their associated risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Anderson, Kim A; Chen, Haiying; Anderson, Rebecca; Salvador-Moreno, Naike; Mora, Dana C; Poutasse, Carolyn; Laurienti, Paul J; Daniel, Stephanie S; Arcury, Thomas A

    2017-10-01

    Agriculture in the United States employs youth ages ten and older in work environments with high pesticide levels. Younger children in rural areas may also be affected by indirect pesticide exposures. The long-term effects of pesticides on health and development are difficult to assess and poorly understood. Yet, epidemiologic studies suggest associations with cancer as well as cognitive deficits. We report a practical and cost-effective approach to assess environmental pesticide exposures and their biological consequences in children. Our approach combines silicone wristband personal samplers and DNA damage quantification from hair follicles, and was tested as part of a community-based participatory research (CBPR) project involving ten Latino children from farmworker households in North Carolina. Our study documents high acceptance among Latino children and their caregivers of these noninvasive sampling methods. The personal samplers detected organophosphates, organochlorines, and pyrethroids in the majority of the participants (70%, 90%, 80%, respectively). Pesticides were detected in all participant samplers, with an average of 6.2±2.4 detections/participant sampler. DNA damage in epithelial cells from the sheath and bulb of plucked hairs follicles was quantified by immunostaining 53BP1-labled DNA repair foci. This method is sensitive, as shown by dose response analyses to γ radiations where the lowest dose tested (0.1Gy) led to significant increased 53BP1 foci density. Immunolabeling of DNA repair foci has significant advantages over the comet assay in that specific regions of the follicles can be analyzed. In this cohort of child participants, significant association was found between the number of pesticide detections and DNA damage in the papilla region of the hairs. We anticipate that this monitoring approach of bioavailable pesticides and genotoxicity will enhance our knowledge of the biological effects of pesticides to guide education programs and

  5. Decreasing urinary organophosphate pesticide metabolites among pregnant women and their offspring in Jerusalem: Impact of regulatory restrictions on agricultural organophosphate pesticides use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ein-Mor, Eliana; Ergaz-Shaltiel, Zivanit; Berman, Tamar; Göen, Thomas; Natsheh, Juma; Ben-Chetrit, Avraham; Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit

    2018-06-01

    Maternal urinary levels of dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites of organophosphate pesticides (OP) during pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes in the offspring. Between 2012 and 2014, eighteen active OP ingredients were restricted or banned in Israel for agricultural use. We aimed to study trends of urinary DAP metabolites among pregnant women and their offspring in the era of the new regulations. Pregnant women were recruited at 11-18 weeks of gestation and provided spot urine samples (n = 273). Soon after birth, neonatal urine samples were collected (n = 107). All urine specimens analyzed for DAP metabolites. Trends in DAP metabolites were tested using Mann-Kendall trend statistic (M-K S) and linear regression models were constructed to estimate the association between calendar period and DAP levels between September 2012 and March 2016. Over the study period, median maternal ∑DAP levels decreased from 248 nmol/L to 148 nmol/L. Time of recruitment was associated with a statistically significant decrease in DAP metabolites, which remained significant after multivariate adjustment. Overall, the results for the analysis of before and after June 2014 showed a significant decrease in ∑DAP of -0.198 log10 nmol/L (95%CI: -0.311,-0.084) which corresponds with a decrease of 36.6% in ∑DAP. A similar trend was found for DAP metabolites in neonatal urine. Compared to other studies, pregnant women in Jerusalem had higher ∑DAP levels, even at the end of the study period. We observed significant reductions in maternal and neonatal DAP urinary levels during the period of 2012-2016. Regulations restricting agricultural use of OP seem to be effective in reducing population exposure to OP, in an era when residential use of OP is banned. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The potential anti-androgenic effect of agricultural pesticides used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-10-11

    Oct 11, 2013 ... Pesticides, particularly fungicides, have been shown to competitively ..... Pesticide active ingredients indicated with an asterisk (*) are anti-fungal pesticides. ..... ticide volatility, enhancing degradation time, or enhancing the.

  7. Neurodevelopmental effects in children associated with exposure to organophosphate pesticides: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris A; Barr, Dana B; Steenland, Kyle; Levy, Karen; Ryan, P Barry; Iglesias, Veronica; Alvarado, Sergio; Concha, Carlos; Rojas, Evelyn; Vega, Catalina

    2013-12-01

    Many studies have investigated the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and early childhood exposures to organophosphate (OP) pesticides among children, but they have not been collectively evaluated. The aim of the present article is to synthesize reported evidence over the last decade on OP exposure and neurodevelopmental effects in children. The Data Sources were PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, SciVerse Scopus, SpringerLink, SciELO and DOAJ. The eligibility criteria considered were studies assessing exposure to OP pesticides and neurodevelopmental effects in children from birth to 18 years of age, published between 2002 and 2012 in English or Spanish. Twenty-seven articles met the eligibility criteria. Studies were rated for evidential consideration as high, intermediate, or low based upon the study design, number of participants, exposure measurement, and neurodevelopmental measures. All but one of the 27 studies evaluated showed some negative effects of pesticides on neurobehavioral development. A positive dose-response relationship between OP exposure and neurodevelopmental outcomes was found in all but one of the 12 studies that assessed dose-response. In the ten longitudinal studies that assessed prenatal exposure to OPs, cognitive deficits (related to working memory) were found in children at age 7 years, behavioral deficits (related to attention) seen mainly in toddlers, and motor deficits (abnormal reflexes) seen mainly in neonates. No meta-analysis was possible due to different measurements of exposure assessment and outcomes. Eleven studies (all longitudinal) were rated high, 14 studies were rated intermediate, and two studies were rated low. Evidence of neurological deficits associated with exposure to OP pesticides in children is growing. The studies reviewed collectively support the hypothesis that exposure to OP pesticides induces neurotoxic effects. Further research is needed to understand effects associated with exposure in critical windows of

  8. Pesticide exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease: A family-based case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burton L

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides and correlated lifestyle factors (e.g., exposure to well-water and farming are repeatedly reported risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD, but few family-based studies have examined these relationships. Methods Using 319 cases and 296 relative and other controls, associations of direct pesticide application, well-water consumption, and farming residences/occupations with PD were examined using generalized estimating equations while controlling for age-at-examination, sex, cigarette smoking, and caffeine consumption. Results Overall, individuals with PD were significantly more likely to report direct pesticide application than their unaffected relatives (odds ratio = 1.61; 95% confidence interval, 1.13–2.29. Frequency, duration, and cumulative exposure were also significantly associated with PD in a dose-response pattern (p ≤ 0.013. Associations of direct pesticide application did not vary by sex but were modified by family history of PD, as significant associations were restricted to individuals with no family history. When classifying pesticides by functional type, both insecticides and herbicides were found to significantly increase risk of PD. Two specific insecticide classes, organochlorines and organophosphorus compounds, were significantly associated with PD. Consuming well-water and living/working on a farm were not associated with PD. Conclusion These data corroborate positive associations of broadly defined pesticide exposure with PD in families, particularly for sporadic PD. These data also implicate a few specific classes of pesticides in PD and thus emphasize the need to consider a more narrow definition of pesticides in future studies.

  9. Influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on lymphocytes responses to environment and UV. Report from the EC Project ERBIC 15CT 960300 'Pesticide Effects on Humans'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The report presented studies of the genotoxic influence of occupational exposure to pesticides on human lymphocytes. The susceptibility of the cells to UV-C radiation and repair capacities of DNA damages were examined

  10. Effects of Lifetime Occupational Pesticide Exposure on Postural Control Among Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A; Quandt, Sara A; Laurienti, Paul J; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control.

  11. Pesticide exposure, risk factors and health problems among cutflower farmers: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prado-Lu Jinky

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This was a cross-sectional study which aimed to determine associations between hematologic indices such as red blood cell cholinesterase (RBC and mean corpuscular volume (MCV, with illnesses related to pesticide exposure among cutflower farmers in La Trinidad, Benguet. One hundred two (102 randomly selected cutflower farmers underwent comprehensive, personal physical health and laboratory examinations and answered a questionnaire on work practices and illness. Majority were males (52% and most belonged to the 20–35 age group (45%. Majority of exposed farmers were symptomatic, with most common complaints being headache (48%, easy fatigability (46.1% and cough (40.2%. Analysis showed that RBC cholinesterase levels were positively associated with age (p = 0.02, and selling pesticide containers (p = 0.008. number of years of using pesticides (p = 0.022, use of contaminated cloth (p = 0.033, incorrect mixing of pesticides (p = 0.041, sex (p = 0.002 and illness due to pesticides (p = 0.005 were correlated with abnormal MCV. Significant associations were also found for hemoglobin, hematocrit, RBC, white blood cell (WBC and platelet count. Predictors of RBC cholinesterase were years of pesticide use (p = 0.037 and abnormalities on health (p = 0.029. The findings of the study can be used for information dissemination and pesticide reduction programs for the cutflower farmers.

  12. Pesticide leaching by agricultural drainage in sloping, mid-textured soil conditions - the role of runoff components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajíček, Antonín; Fučík, Petr; Kaplická, Markéta; Liška, Marek; Maxová, Jana; Dobiáš, Jakub

    2018-04-01

    Dynamics of pesticides and their metabolites in drainage waters during baseflow periods and rainfall-runoff events (RREs) were studied from 2014 to 2016 at three small, tile-drained agricultural catchments in Bohemian-Moravian Highlands, Czech Republic. Drainage systems in this region are typically built in slopes with considerable proportion of drainage runoff originating outside the drained area itself. Continuous monitoring was performed by automated samplers, and the event hydrograph was separated using 18 O and 2 H isotopes and drainage water temperature. Results showed that drainage systems represent a significant source for pesticides leaching from agricultural land. Leaching of pesticide metabolites was mainly associated with baseflow and shallow interflow. Water from causal precipitation diluted their concentrations. The prerequisites for the leaching of parental compounds were a rainfall-runoff event occurring shortly after spraying, and the presence of event water in the runoff. When such situations happened consequently, pesticides concentrations in drainage water were high and the pesticide load reached several grams in a few hours. Presented results introduce new insights into the processes of pesticides movement in small, tile-drained catchments and emphasizes the need to incorporate drainage hydrology and flow-triggered sampling into monitoring programmes in larger catchments as well as in environment-conservation policy.

  13. Pesticide exposure in the Czech TIC from 1997 to 2005

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakovcová, H.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Říčařová, B.; Afshari, R.; Ghodsi, E.; Pelclová, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 4 (2007), s. 383-384 ISSN 0731-3810. [European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists International Congress /27./. 01.05.2007-04.05.2007, Athens] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : fungicides * pesticide s Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  14. Pesticide exposures in a malarious and predominantly farming area ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frequent symptoms that were reported after spraying, included cough (32.3%; 336/1040), difficulty in breathing (26.7%; 278/1040) and skin irritation (39.0%; 406/1040). Pesticide use among community members in the Kintampo area of Ghana is common and its potential health impacts warrant further investigation.

  15. Pesticide Exposure and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes: Review of the Epidemiologic and Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Carol J.; McIntosh, Laura J.; Mink, Pamela J.; Jurek, Anne M.; Li, Abby A.

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of whether pesticide exposure is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children can best be addressed with a systematic review of both the human and animal peer-reviewed literature. This review analyzed epidemiologic studies testing the hypothesis that exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and/or early childhood is associated with neurodevelopmental outcomes in children. Studies that directly queried pesticide exposure (e.g., via questionnaire or interview) or measured pesticide or metabolite levels in biological specimens from study participants (e.g., blood, urine, etc.) or their immediate environment (e.g., personal air monitoring, home dust samples, etc.) were eligible for inclusion. Consistency, strength of association, and dose response were key elements of the framework utilized for evaluating epidemiologic studies. As a whole, the epidemiologic studies did not strongly implicate any particular pesticide as being causally related to adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in infants and children. A few associations were unique for a health outcome and specific pesticide, and alternative hypotheses could not be ruled out. Our survey of the in vivo peer-reviewed published mammalian literature focused on effects of the specific active ingredient of pesticides on functional neurodevelopmental endpoints (i.e., behavior, neuropharmacology and neuropathology). In most cases, effects were noted at dose levels within the same order of magnitude or higher compared to the point of departure used for chronic risk assessments in the United States. Thus, although the published animal studies may have characterized potential neurodevelopmental outcomes using endpoints not required by guideline studies, the effects were generally observed at or above effect levels measured in repeated-dose toxicology studies submitted to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Suggestions for improved exposure assessment in epidemiology studies and more effective

  16. Merging Models and Biomonitoring Data to Characterize Sources andPathways of Human Exposure to Organophosphorous Pesticides in the SalinasValley of California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Castorina, Rosemary; Kuwabara, Yu; Harnly,Martha E.; Eskenazi, Brenda; Bradman, Asa

    2006-06-01

    By drawing on human biomonitoring data and limited environmental samples together with outputs from the CalTOX multimedia, multipathway source-to-dose model, we characterize cumulative intake of organophosphorous (OP) pesticides in an agricultural region of California. We assemble regional OP pesticide use, environmental sampling, and biological tissue monitoring data for a large and geographically dispersed population cohort of 592 pregnant Latina women in California (the CHAMACOS cohort). We then use CalTOX with regional pesticide usage data to estimate the magnitude and uncertainty of exposure and intake from local sources. We combine model estimates of intake from local sources with food intake based on national residue data to estimate for the CHAMACOS cohort cumulative median OP intake, which corresponds to expected levels of urinary dialkylphosphate (DAP) metabolite excretion for this cohort. From these results we develop premises about relative contributions from different sources and pathways of exposure. We evaluate these premises by comparing the magnitude and variation of DAPs in the CHAMACOS cohort with the whole U.S. population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey (NHANES). This comparison supports the premise that in both populations diet is the common and dominant exposure pathway. Both the model results and biomarker comparison supports the observation that the CHAMACOS population has a statistically significant higher intake of OP pesticides that appears as an almost constant additional dose among all participants. We attribute the magnitude and small variance of this intake to non-dietary exposure in residences from local sources.

  17. PON1Q192R genetic polymorphism modifies organophosphorous pesticide effects on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers from southern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Herrera, N.; Polanco-Minaya, H.; Salazar-Arredondo, E.; Solis-Heredia, M.J.; Hernandez-Ochoa, I.; Rojas-Garcia, E.; Alvarado-Mejia, J.; Borja-Aburto, V.H.; Quintanilla-Vega, B.

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide exposure, including organophosphorous (OP) insecticides, has been associated with poor semen quality, and paraoxonase (PON1), an enzyme involved in OP deactivation, may have a role on their susceptibility, due to PON1 polymorphisms. Our objective was to evaluate the role of PON1Q192R polymorphism on the susceptibility to OP toxicity on semen quality and DNA integrity in agricultural workers. A cross-sectional study was conducted in farmers with Mayan ascendancy from southeastern Mexico chronically exposed to pesticides; mostly OP. Fifty four agricultural workers (18-55 years old) were included, who provided semen and blood samples. Semen quality was evaluated according to WHO, sperm DNA damage by in situ-nick translation (NT-positive cells), PON1Q192R polymorphism by real-time PCR and serum PON1 activity by using phenylacetate and paraoxon. Two OP exposure indexes were created: at the month of sampling and during 3 months before sampling, representing the exposure to spermatids-spermatozoa and to cells at one spermatogenic cycle, respectively. PON1 192R and 192Q allele frequencies were 0.54 and 0.46, respectively. Significant associations were found between OP exposure at the month of sampling and NT-positive cells and sperm viability in homozygote 192RR subjects, and dose-effect relationships were observed between OP exposure during 3 months before sampling and sperm quality parameters and NT-positive cells in homozygote 192RR farmers. This suggests that cells at all stages of spermatogenesis are target of OP, and that there exists an interaction between OP exposure and PON1Q192R polymorphism on these effects; farmers featuring the 192RR genotype were more susceptible to develop reproductive toxic effects by OP exposure

  18. Time trends in cancer risk and pesticide exposure, a long-term follow-up of Danish gardeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Eva Støttrup; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    Occupational exposure to petrochemical pesticides was high during the first 10-15 years after their introduction in the late 1940s, and, during these years, many cases of intoxication occurred. In the 1960s, the use and marketing of pesticides was regulated to reduce exposure to these substances...

  19. Effects of pesticide exposure and the amphibian chytrid fungus on gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) metamorphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaietto, Kristina M; Rumschlag, Samantha L; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-10-01

    Pesticides are detectable in most aquatic habitats and have the potential to alter host-pathogen interactions. The amphibian chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), has been associated with amphibian declines around the world. However, Bd-associated declines are more prominent in some areas, despite nearly global distribution of Bd, suggesting other factors contribute to disease outbreaks. In a laboratory study, the authors examined the effects of 6 different isolates of Bd in the presence or absence of a pesticide (the insecticide carbaryl or the fungicide copper sulfate) to recently hatched Cope's gray treefrog (Hyla chrysoscelis) tadpoles reared through metamorphosis. The authors found the presence or absence of pesticides differentially altered the mass at metamorphosis of tadpoles exposed to different Bd isolates, suggesting that isolate could influence metamorphosis but not in ways expected based on origin of the isolate. Pesticide exposure had the strongest impact on metamorphosis of all treatment combinations. Whereas copper sulfate exposure reduced the length of the larval period, carbaryl exposure had apparent positive effects by increasing mass at metamorphosis and lengthening larval period, which adds to evidence that carbaryl can stimulate development in counterintuitive ways. The present study provides limited support to the hypothesis that pesticides can alter the response of tadpoles to isolates of Bd and that the insecticide carbaryl can alter developmental decisions. © 2014 SETAC.

  20. Parenteral exposure to pesticides and occurence of congenital malformations: hospital-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueker, Marly Eliane; Silva, Vivianne Monteiro; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Pignati, Wanderley Antonio; Mattos, Ines Echenique; Silva, Ageo Mário Cândido

    2016-08-12

    Most fetal defects are associated with genetic and environmental causes, among them, exposure of pregnant women to intensive pesticide use. Agribusiness is the economic basis of the state of Mato Grosso, the largest consumer of pesticides of all Brazilian states. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between past parental exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of congenital malformations in children in Mato Grosso, Brazil. This hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Cuiabá, the capital of Mato Grosso, from March to October 2011. Data was collected in all public, private, and health plan referral hospitals that provide care for pregnant women in the state of Mato Grosso and were situated in Cuiabá. Cases were children under 5 years of age with congenital malformations classified in Chapter XVIII of the International Classification of Diseases-10 and controls were children within the same age range, without congenital malformations, treated at the same hospitals. Malformation-related data was obtained from the patients' medical records. Socioeconomic data and information about parental exposure to pesticides were obtained in an interview with the mother using a standardized questionnaire. We conducted multivariate logistic regression to assess the relation between parent report of past pesticide use and congenital malformations. We also assessed effect modification to verify whether low maternal education level modified the association between exposure and our outcome. We observed positive effect modification of the association of paternal past exposure to pesticide and congenital malformation in the offspring by maternal education for mothers with low educational level (OR = 8.40, 95 % CI 2.17-32.52), father's work related to farming (OR = 4.65, 95 % CI 1.03-20.98) and paternal past exposure to pesticides (OR = 4.15, 95 % CI 1.24-13.66). These findings provide further evidence that paternal exposure to

  1. Can Rice (Oryza sativa) Mitigate Pesticides and Nutrients in Agricultural Runoff?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M T; Locke, M A

    2018-01-01

    Phytoremediation of nutrients and pesticides in runoff is a growing conservation effort, particularly in agriculturally intensive areas such as the lower Mississippi River Valley. In the current study, rice (Oryza sativa) was examined for its mitigation capacity of nitrogen, phosphorus, diazinon, and permethrin. Twenty-two high density polyethylene circular containers (56 cm x 45 cm) were used as mesocosms, with 12 mesocosms planted with rice and 10 mesocosms remaining unvegetated. Mesocosms were hydraulically connected and arranged in a series of two, with each system providing a 4 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) for a total system retention time of 8 h. Two treatments (RICE/RICE and RICE/BARE) of four replicates each were utilized, with three replicates of controls (BARE/BARE). Systems with RICE/RICE (8 h HRT) significantly reduced diazinon (p = 0.0126), cis-permethrin (p = 0.0442), filtered orthophosphate (p = 0.0058), and total orthophosphate (p = 0.0123) compared to control systems. No significant differences were noted for trans-permethrin, nitrate, or ammonium. Results indicate promise in phytoremediation of agricultural runoff by rice. If further studies reveal contaminants are not transferred into seeds, then rice could potentially serve as both a remediation tool and food source in countries facing agricultural pollution challenges.

  2. Buffer strip width and agricultural pesticide contamination in Danish lowland streams: Implications for stream and riparian management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes J.; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter

    2011-01-01

    According to the European Water Framework Directive, member states are obliged to ensure that all surface water bodies achieve at least good ecological status and to identify major anthropogenic stressors. Non-point source contamination of agricultural pesticides is widely acknowledged as one of ...

  3. Lower tier toxicity risk assessment of agriculture pesticides detected on the Río Madre de Dios watershed, Costa Rica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arias-Andrés, M.; Rämö, R.; Mena Torres, F.; Ugalde, R.; Grandas, L.; Ruepert, C.; Castillo, L.E.; Den Brink, van P.J.; Gunnarsson, J.S.

    2016-01-01

    Costa Rica is a tropical country with one of the highest biodiversity on Earth. It also has an intensive agriculture, and pesticide runoff from banana and pineapple plantations may cause a high toxicity risk to non-target species in rivers downstream the plantations. We performed a first tier

  4. Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, Berhan M.; Hailu, Amare; Wiegant, Daniel A.; Scholten, Bernice S.; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water

  5. Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, Berhan M.; Hailu, Amare; Wiegant, Daniel A.; Scholten, Bernice S.; Brink, van den Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water

  6. Combined exposure to endocrine disrupting pesticides impairs parturition and causes pup mortality in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pernille Reimer; Christiansen, Sofie; Boberg, Julie

    from gestational day 7 to postnatal day (PND)13 with either vehicle (control) or a mixture of the five pesticides at 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% of their individual NOAELs for causing major effects on pregnancy length and pup survival in our earlier studies. The pregnancy length was dose....... Although laboratory animal studies have shown that some endocrine disrupting pesticides can affect reproduction and sexual differentiation, individual pesticides may appear to be present in human tissues at too low levels to cause concern for adverse reproductive effects. However, recent studies in our...... laboratory have shown that combined exposure to endocrine disrupters can cause adverse effects on male sexual development, even though the doses of the single compounds are below their individual NOAELs for anti-androgenic effects. Here, we present results from range finding studies with combined exposure...

  7. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  8. Long-Term Persistence of Pesticides and TPs in Archived Agricultural Soil Samples and Comparison with Pesticide Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaia-Hernandez, Aurea C; Keller, Armin; Wächter, Daniel; Steinlin, Christine; Camenzuli, Louise; Hollender, Juliane; Krauss, Martin

    2017-09-19

    For polar and more degradable pesticides, not many data on long-term persistence in soil under field conditions and real application practices exist. To assess the persistence of pesticides in soil, a multiple-compound screening method (log K ow 1.7-5.5) was developed based on pressurized liquid extraction, QuEChERS and LC-HRMS. The method was applied to study 80 polar pesticides and >90 transformation products (TPs) in archived topsoil samples from the Swiss Soil Monitoring Network (NABO) from 1995 to 2008 with known pesticide application patterns. The results reveal large variations between crop type and field sites. For the majority of the sites 10-15 pesticides were identified with a detection rate of 45% at concentrations between 1 and 330 μg/kg dw in soil. Furthermore, TPs were detected in 47% of the cases where the "parent-compound" was applied. Overall, residues of about 80% of all applied pesticides could be detected with half of these found as TPs with a persistence of more than a decade.

  9. Breast milk intake and mother to infant pesticide transfer measured by deuterium oxide dilution in agricultural and urban areas of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon-Miro, Ana Teresa; Aldana-Madrid, Maria Lourdes; Alvarez-Hernandez, Gerardo; Antunez-Roman, Lesley Evelyn; Rodriguez-Olibarria, Guillermo; Valencia Juillerat, Mauro E

    2017-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have increased pesticide use in urban areas (UA) and agricultural areas (AA) in Mexico. Breast milk can be contaminated by pesticide exposure. The objective of the study was to measure breast milk intake by deuterium oxide dilution as well as organochlorine and pyrethroid transfer from mother to infant in AA and UA of Sonora, Mexico. Human milk intake was determined by the 'dose-to-mother' technique using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) dilution. Mothers' body composition was also assessed by this technique and the intercept method. Pyrethroids (deltamethrin, cypermethrin and cyhalothrin) and organochlorine pesticide residues (p,p'- DDT, p,p'- DDE, p,p'- DDD) in breast milk samples were measured by gas chromatography. Sixty-two lactating women and their infants participated in the study, 32 lived in the UA and 30 lived in the AA. Breast milk intake was approximately 100 mL higher in the AA than in the UA 799 ± 193 and 707 ± 201 mL/day, respectively (p pesticides studied surpassed the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) in milk for humans according to EPA and FAO/WHO. In conclusion, breast milk intake was higher in the AA compared to the UA. The p,p'- DDT and cypermethrin levels in breast milk were higher in the UA compared to the AA. Since pesticide levels in human milk did not exceed the ADI, breastfeeding is still a safe practice and should be encouraged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bee honey as an environmental bioindicator of pesticides' occurrence in six agricultural areas of Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balayiannis, George; Balayiannis, Panos

    2008-10-01

    The pollution of six agricultural areas of Greece (north, central, south) by insecticides used in crop protection has been investigated utilizing, as a bioindicator, bee honey produced in those areas. Honey samples collected randomly from apiaries located in those areas were analyzed for pesticide residues with a multianalytical method, able to determine simultaneously up to 10 organophosphorous insecticides from the same honey extract. Findings concerning the acaricide coumaphos were also included, even though it is not used in crop protection. Coumaphos is used to control the mite Varroa destructor, an external parasite of the honeybee. The above areas are cultivated in large extent with citrus trees or cotton or sunflower crops, which are good forages for honeybees. The main pests of those crops are insects; hence, insecticides are used on a large scale for crop protection. The most contaminated samples originated from citrus groves; 16 out of 19 had pesticide residues: 4 samples had chlorfenvinphos (21.05%), 10 had chlorpyrifos (52.63%) and 2 had phorate (10.53%). Out of 17 samples from cotton fields, residues were found in 8, phorate in 6 (35.29%), chlorfenvinphos in 1 (5.88%), and chlorpyrifos in 1 (5.88%). Out of nine samples from fields of sunflower, four had phorate residues (44.44%). In brief, from the 50 analyzed samples, residues of chlorfenvinphos were detected in 5 samples (10%), residues of chlorpyrifos in 11 samples (22%), and residues of phorate in 12 samples (24%). Their levels ranged between 0.70 and 0.89 microg/kg. Coumaphos residues ranged from 0.10 up to 4.80 microg/kg and were derived exclusively from beehives treated with Perizin (the commercial formulation of coumaphos) for Varroa control. This study indicates that in agricultural areas with developed apiculture, useful information about the occurrence and the distribution of pesticide residues due to crop protection treatments can be derived from the analysis of randomly collected honey

  11. Agricultural Exposures, Multiple Myeloma Etiology: Profile of Jonathan Hofmann

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenure-track investigator Jonathan Hofmann, Ph.D., M.P.H., has established a research program in the Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology Branch focused on the role of agricultural exposures in the etiology of multiple myeloma and other cancers, and on understanding the biological mechanisms that influence the development and progression of multiple myeloma.

  12. Wastewater use in urban agriculture: an exposure and risk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater use in urban agriculture: an exposure and risk assessment in Accra, ... to pose the key risk to farmers due to hand-to mouth events (10 events/day). ... awareness of health risk, consumers did not prioritize health indicators when ...

  13. Concentration patterns of agricultural pesticides and urban biocides in surface waters of a catchment of mixed land use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, C.; Wittmer, I.; Bader, H.-P.; Scheidegger, R.; Alder, A.; Lück, A.; Hanke, I.; Singer, H.

    2009-04-01

    Organic pesticides and biocides that are found in surface waters, can originate from agricultural and urban sources. For a long time, agricultural pesticides have received substantially more attention than biocidal compounds from urban use like material protection or in-can preservatives (cosmetics etc.). Recent studies however revealed that the amounts of urban biocides used may exceed those of agricultural pesticides. This study aims at comparing the input of several important pesticides and biocides into a small Swiss stream with a special focus on loss events triggered by rainfall. A set of 16 substances was selected to represent urban and agricultural sources. The selected substances are either only used as biocides (irgarol, isothiazolinones, IPBC), as pesticides (atrazine, sulcotrione, dichlofluanid, tolylfluanid) or have a mixed use (isoproturon, terbutryn, terbutylazine, mecoprop, diazinon, carbendazim) The study catchment has an area of 25 km2 and is inhabited by about 12'000 people. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a wastewater treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. The results, based on more than 500 analyzed samples, revealed distinct concentration patterns for different compounds and sources. Agricultural pesticides exhibited a strong seasonality as expected based on the application periods. During the first one or two rain events after application the concentrations reached up to several thousand ng/l during peak flow (atrazine, isoproturon). The temporal patterns of urban biocides were more diverse. Some compounds obviously stem from permanent sources independent of rainfall because they were found mostly in the outlet of the wastewater

  14. CAN FLU-LIKE ILLNESS BE AN INDICATION OF RECENT ORGANOPHOSPHATE PESTICIDE EXPOSURE IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can flu-like illness be an indication of recent organophosphate pesticide exposure in preschool children? P Mendola*, D Barr, D Walsh, S Hern, S Rhoney, L Needham, E Hilborn, M Gonzales, C Carty, G Robertson, J Creason (US EPA, ORD, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711)<...

  15. Monitoring colony-level effects of sublethal pesticide exposure on honey bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of sublethal pesticide exposure to honey bee colonies may be significant but difficult to detect in the field using standard visual assessment methods. Here we describe methods to measure the quantities of adult bees, brood and food resources by weighing hives and hive parts, by photogra...

  16. Effect of chronic pesticide exposure in farm workers of a Mexico community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán-Rentería, Rolando; Garibay-Chávez, Guadalupe; Rangel-Ascencio, Raul; Preciado-Martínez, Veronica; Muñoz-Islas, Laura; Beltrán-Miranda, Claudia; Mena-Munguía, Salvador; Jave-Suárez, Luis; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are frequently used substances worldwide, even when the use of some of them is forbidden due to the recognized adverse effect they have on the health of not only the people who apply the pesticides, but also of those that consume the contaminated products. The objectives of this study were to know the health issues of farm workers chronically exposed to pesticides, to evaluate possible damage at genetic level, as well as to explore some hepatic, renal, and hematological alterations. A transversal comparative study was performed between 2 groups, one composed of 25 farm workers engaged in pesticide spraying, and a control group of 21 workers not exposed to pesticides; both groups belonged to the Nextipac community in Jalisco, Mexico. Each member of both groups underwent a full medical history. Blood samples were taken from all farm workers in order to obtain a complete blood count and chemistry, clinical chemistry, lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte cholinesterase quantification, lipid peroxidation profile, and free DNA fragment quantification. For the information analysis, central tendency and dispersion measurements were registered. In order to know the differences between groups, a cluster multivariate method was used, as well as prevalence reasons. The most used pesticides were mainly organophosphates, triazines and organochlorine compounds. The exposed group showed acute poisoning (20% of the cases) and diverse alterations of the digestive, neurological, respiratory, circulatory, dermatological, renal, and reproductive system probably associated to pesticide exposure. More importantly, they presented free DNA fragments in plasma (90.8 vs 49.05 ng/mL) as well as a higher level of lipid peroxidation (41.85 vs. 31.91 nmol/mL) in comparison with those data from unexposed farm workers. These results suggest that there exist health hazards for those farm workers exposed to pesticides, at organic and cellular levels.

  17. Erosion rills offset the efficacy of vegetated buffer strips to mitigate pesticide exposure in surface waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehle, Sebastian; Dabrowski, James Michael; Bangert, Uli; Schulz, Ralf

    2016-03-01

    Regulatory risk assessment considers vegetated buffer strips as effective risk mitigation measures for the reduction of runoff-related pesticide exposure of surface waters. However, apart from buffer strip widths, further characteristics such as vegetation density or the presence of erosion rills are generally neglected in the determination of buffer strip mitigation efficacies. This study conducted a field survey of fruit orchards (average slope 3.1-12.2%) of the Lourens River catchment, South Africa, which specifically focused on the characteristics and attributes of buffer strips separating orchard areas from tributary streams. In addition, in-stream and erosion rill water samples were collected during three runoff events and GIS-based modeling was employed to predict losses of pesticides associated with runoff. The results show that erosion rills are common in buffer strips (on average 13 to 24 m wide) of the tributaries (up to 6.5 erosion rills per km flow length) and that erosion rills represent concentrated entry pathways of pesticide runoff into the tributaries during rainfall events. Exposure modeling shows that measured pesticide surface water concentrations correlated significantly (R(2)=0.626; pregulatory risk assessment procedures conducted for pesticide authorization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects on metabolic parameters in young rats born with low birth weight after exposure to a mixture of pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svingen, Terje; Ramhøj, Louise; Egebjerg, Karen Mandrup

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during fetal life can lead to low birth weight and is commonly observed in reproductive toxicology studies. Associations have also been found in low birth weight babies born from pesticide-exposed gardeners. Since low birth weight is also linked to metabolic disorders, it can...... be speculated that early life exposure to pesticides could increase the risk of becoming obese or developing diabetes later in life. We have analyzed potential long-term effects of gestational and lactational exposure to a low dose mixture of six pesticides that individually can cause low birth weight....... Our results suggest that early-life exposure to pesticides may contribute to the development of metabolic disorders later in life....

  19. Parameterization Models for Pesticide Exposure via Crop Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Wieland, Peter; Juraske, Ronnie

    2012-01-01

    harvest, degradation half-lives in crops and on crop surfaces, overall residence times in soil, and substance molecular weight. Partition coefficients also play an important role for fruit trees and tomato (Kow), potato (Koc), and lettuce (Kaw, Kow). Focusing on these parameters, we develop crop...... correspond well with results from the complex framework for 1540 substance-crop combinations with total deviations between a factor 4 (potato) and a factor 66 (lettuce). Predicted residues also correspond well with experimental data previously used to evaluate the complex framework. Pesticide mass in harvest...

  20. Fact Sheet in English and Spanish: What Residents in Agricultural Communities Should Know About Soil Fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about fumigant gas from treated fields (often covered with plastic tarps), some chemical and trade names of these agricultural products, signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure, and how to avoid or report or treat pesticide illness.

  1. Prevalence of pesticide exposure in young males (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panwalkar Amit

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evidence implicating pesticides as causative agents of prostate cancer is controversial, and specifically, data in young adults is lacking. Hence, we performed a preliminary study evaluating the relationship between pesticide exposure and prostate cancer in young males. After approval from the University of North Dakota Institutional Review Board and Human Subjects Committee, a retrospective study was performed on all young males (Pesticide risk assessment interviews were performed by a single member of the team, for consistency, via telephone on the basis of a pre-determined questionnaire investigating occupations and hobbies with special emphasis on: Duration of exposure. An exposure index was calculated for each interviewed subject according to the following formula: hours/day × days/year × years. Patients with an exposure index >2400 hours were considered as 'exposed.' The 2400 hour cut-off value was chosen on the basis of previous reports indicating that this figure represents heavy exposure to genotoxic agents. Statistical analysis was obtained using SPSS-10®. Between 1991 and 2001, 61 young males with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were identified, of whom 56 patients with a mean age of 47 years (range: 40–49 had complete records of treatment and could be contacted for completion of the questionnaire. The most common stage at presentation was Stage III and the mean Gleason's score was 7.5 (range 5–9. Interestingly, almost a third (16/56, 28.6% of patients had stage IV disease at presentation. 37/56 (66.1% patients had 'significant' exposure in our study. In addition, interestingly, the mean survival in the subgroup of patients with pesticide exposure was 11.3 months (SD: +/- 2

  2. Neonicotinoid pesticides in drinking water in agricultural regions of southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Tamanna; Murray, Craig; Kleywegt, Sonya; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2018-07-01

    Because of the persistence and solubility of neonicotinoid insecticides (NNIs), there is concern that these compounds may contaminate sources of drinking water. The objective of this project was to evaluate the distribution of NNIs in raw and treated drinking water from selected municipalities that draw their water from the lower Great Lakes in areas of southern Ontario, Canada where there is high intensity agriculture. Sites were monitored using Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Samplers (POCIS) and by collecting grab samples at six drinking water treatment plants. Thiamethoxam, clothianidin and imidacloprid were detected in both POCIS and grab samples of raw water. The frequency of detection of NNIs was much lower in treated drinking water, but some compounds were still detected at estimated concentrations in the low ng L -1 range. Thiamethoxam was detected in one grab sample of raw drinking water at a mean concentration of 0.28 μg L -1 , which is above the guidelines for drinking water recommended in some jurisdictions, including the European Union directive on pesticide levels water intended for human consumption. Further work is required to determine whether contamination of sources of drinking water with this class of insecticides is a global problem in agricultural regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of relevant factors and relationships concerning human dermal exposure to pesticides in greenhouse applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Vidal, Jose L; Egea González, Francisco J; Garrido Frenich, Antonia; Martínez Galera, María; Aguilera, Pedro A; López Carrique, Enrique

    2002-08-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the gas chromatographic data obtained from 23 different greenhouse trials. This was used to establish which factors, including application technique (very small, small, medium and large drop-size), crop characteristics (short/tall, thin/dense) and pattern application of the operator (walking towards or away from the treated area) are relevant to the dermal exposure levels of greenhouse applicators. The results showed that the highest exposure by pesticides during field applications in greenhouses, in the climatic conditions and in the crop conditions typical of a southern European country, occurs on the lower legs and front thighs of the applicators. Similar results were obtained by hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Drop-size seems to be very important in determining total exposure, while height and density of crops have little influence on total exposure under the conditions of the present study. No pesticide type is a major factor in total exposure. The application of multiple regression analysis (MRA) allowed assessment of the relationships between the pesticide exposure of the less affected parts of the body with the most affected parts.

  4. A study on some enzymes in rice field fish as biomarkers for pesticide exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juzu Hayati Arshad; Mazlina Muhammad; Salmijah Surif; Abdul Manan Mat Jais

    2002-01-01

    A study was carried out on three enzymes in rice field fish which can be used as possible biomarkers for pesticide exposure. The results obtained showed that the activity of the enzyme EROD (ethoxyresorufin-o-deethylase) increased between 1.5-2.2 fold in snakehead or haruan (Channa striata) sampled from the pesticide polluted areas, particularly the recycled areas and only a slight increase in EROD activity in climbing perch or puyu (Anabas testudineus). Increase in the activity of carboxylesterase was also noted. The percentage inhibition of acety1cholinesterase ranges from 18.4%-57.4% and 2.5%-34.2% for Channa striata and Anabas testudineus, respectively. Generally, a higher percentage of acety1cholinesterase inhibition was noted for those fish sampled from the recycled areas. The noted changes in the activity of these enzymes suggest exposure of rice field fish to foreign compounds, possibly pesticides, which are known to induce EROD activity and inhibit acety1cholinesterase activity. Therefore it may be possible to use these enzymes as biomarkers for pesticide exposure. (Author)

  5. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Virginia C.; Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L.; Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K.; Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E.; McMahen, Rebecca L.; Strynar, Mark J.; Herr, David W.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  6. Assessment of serum biomarkers in rats after exposure to pesticides of different chemical classes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Virginia C., E-mail: Moser.ginger@epa.gov [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Stewart, Nicholas; Freeborn, Danielle L. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Crooks, James; MacMillan, Denise K. [Analytical Chemistry Research Core/Research Cores Unit, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Hedge, Joan M.; Wood, Charles E. [Integrated Systems Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); McMahen, Rebecca L. [ORISE fellow, Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Strynar, Mark J. [Human Exposure and Atmospheric Sciences Division, National Exposure Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States); Herr, David W. [Neurotoxicology Branch/Toxicity Assessment Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of biomarkers of adverse outcomes in safety assessment and translational research. We evaluated serum biomarkers and targeted metabolite profiles after exposure to pesticides (permethrin, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, carbaryl, triadimefon, fipronil) with different neurotoxic actions. Adult male Long–Evans rats were evaluated after single exposure to vehicle or one of two doses of each pesticide at the time of peak effect. The doses were selected to produce similar magnitude of behavioral effects across chemicals. Serum or plasma was analyzed using commercial cytokine/protein panels and targeted metabolomics. Additional studies of fipronil used lower doses (lacking behavioral effects), singly or for 14 days, and included additional markers of exposure and biological activity. Biomarker profiles varied in the number of altered analytes and patterns of change across pesticide classes, and discriminant analysis could separate treatment groups from control. Low doses of fipronil produced greater effects when given for 14 days compared to a single dose. Changes in thyroid hormones and relative amounts of fipronil and its sulfone metabolite also differed between the dosing regimens. Most cytokine changes reflected alterations in inflammatory responses, hormone levels, and products of phospholipid, fatty acid, and amino acid metabolism. These findings demonstrate distinct blood-based analyte profiles across pesticide classes, dose levels, and exposure duration. These results show promise for detailed analyses of these biomarkers and their linkages to biological pathways. - Highlights: • Pesticides typical of different classes produced distinct patterns of change in biomarker panels. • Based on the panels used, alterations suggest impacts on immune, metabolism, and homeostasis functions. • Some changes may reflect actions on neurotransmitter systems involved in immune modulation. • Fipronil effects on thyroid and kinetics

  7. Control Path of Pesticide Residual Under the System of Agricultural Products Supervision:A Case Study of A Village in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Wen-fang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is relation between the pesticide application and quality of agricultural products. The paper explored the causes and ways to deal with it from the view of agricultural development on the case study of pesticide management and use in a village, Zhejiang Province on the basis of investigation of local government, agriculture technology service station and farmers. The paper pointed out that lack of supervi-sion in the pesticide use and result was only external; the true reasons were high supervise cost and limited service of agriculture technology service station. So the paper drew the conclusions that multifunction agriculture development, superior agriculture produce service system and the change of village committee's role and responsibility were the best answers to the agricultural products safety problem.

  8. Assessment of consumer exposure related to improper use of pesticides in the region of southeastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpyrka, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Plant protection products are widely used throughout the world in order to prevent a reduction in yield. Although the protection of plants brings many benefits, pesticides are toxic to the environment and to humans. To protect human health, pesticide residue risk assessment should be carried out. The aim of the study was to assess acute risk related to the improper use of pesticides. In 2010-2013, 878 crop samples: 382 fruits, 399 vegetables, 82 cereals and their products, 11 herbs and 4 seeds were tested. Pesticide residues were found in 240 samples (27.3%). Pesticide residues were found most frequently in: fruits (41.6% fruit samples), seed (25.0%), vegetables (19.3%) and herbs (9.1%), and least frequently in cereals and their products (2.4%). Improper pesticide use was determined for 49 samples, mainly for vegetables (24 samples) and fruits (22). Most irregularities associated with the use of plant protection products involved application of a substance not recommended for a given crop (36 samples). In nine samples, applications of plant protection products that were withdrawn from the market were found, and in seven samples, violations of maximum residue levels were determined. Despite there being cases of improper use of plant protection products, no hazard to consumer health was determined. The highest values of short-term exposure were obtained in the case of consumption of blackcurrants with iprodione-a substance not recommended in Poland for protection of blackcurrants (4.3% acceptable daily intake (ADI), adults; 6.8% ADI, children). Since potential consumer risk caused by pesticide residues could not be ruled out, inspections should be carried out continuously.

  9. Early childhood adversity potentiates the adverse association between prenatal organophosphate pesticide exposure and child IQ: The CHAMACOS cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Lauren J; Gunier, Robert B; Harley, Kim; Kogut, Katherine; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have observed an adverse association between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticide (OPs) and child cognition, but few studies consider the potential role of social stressors in modifying this relationship. We seek to explore the potential role of early social adversities in modifying the relationship between OPs and child IQ in an agricultural Mexican American population. Participants from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a prospective longitudinal pre-birth cohort study, include 329 singleton infants and their mothers followed from pregnancy through age 7. Dialkyl phosphate metabolite concentrations (DAPs), a biomarker of organophosphate pesticide exposure, were measured in maternal urine collected twice during pregnancy and averaged. Child cognitive ability was assessed at 7 years using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - Fourth Edition. Demographic characteristics and adversity information were collected during interviews and home visits at numerous time points from pregnancy until age 7. Among low-income Latina mothers and their children in the Salinas Valley, total adversity and specific domains of adversity including poor learning environment and adverse parent-child relationships were negatively associated with child cognition. Adverse associations between DAP concentrations and IQ were stronger in children experiencing greater adversity; these associations varied by child sex. For example, the association between prenatal OP exposure and Full-Scale IQ is potentiated among boys who experienced high adversity in the learning environment (β=-13.3; p-value child IQ differently among male and female children. These findings emphasize the need to consider plausible interactive pathways between social adversities and environmental exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial and temporal trends and flow dynamics of glyphosate and other pesticides within an agricultural watershed in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Débora J; Okada, Elena; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Menone, Mirta L; Aparicio, Virginia C; Costa, José L

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we evaluated the spatial and temporal trends of current-use pesticides in surface water and sediments as well as their relationship with hydrological stream dynamics within the agricultural watershed of El Crespo stream (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina). We sampled 2 contrasting sites: site 1 (upstream), surrounded by agricultural lands, and site 2 (downstream), surrounded by natural grasslands. Most of the applied pesticides (glyphosate, 2,4-D, atrazine, tebuconazole, and imidacloprid) were detected at high frequencies in surface water samples at both sites. However, only glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) were present at high concentrations and had a significant spatial-temporal trend. The highest concentrations were found during spring 2014 at site 1, in association with the intense rains that occurred in that season. The fact that glyphosate and AMPA concentrations were higher than the rest of the studied compounds is closely related to the land use within the watershed, as glyphosate was the most applied herbicide during the fallow period of glyphosate-resistant crops (soybean, maize). The pesticide mixture had a significant spatial-temporal trend, reaching the highest levels during storm flow events in spring 2014. The intensive rains in spring 2014 could be the main factor influencing stream hydrology and pesticide behavior at El Crespo watershed. The estimated annual pesticide losses were 3.11 g/ha at site 1 and 0.72 g/ha at site 2. This result indicates that an attenuation process could be decreasing pesticide loads during downstream transport from site 1 to site 2. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:3206-3216. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  11. Rapid multi-residue method for the determination of pesticide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exposure to pesticides can represent a potential risk to humans. Agricultural workers are at risk of chronic toxicity. Hence, the evaluation of pesticide residues in their blood gives an indication about the extent of exposure and help in assessing adverse health effects. The aim of our study was to develop analytical method for ...

  12. Comparison of Four Probabilistic Models (CARES, Calendex, ConsEspo, SHEDS) to Estimate Aggregate Residential Exposures to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two deterministic models (US EPA’s Office of Pesticide Programs Residential Standard Operating Procedures (OPP Residential SOPs) and Draft Protocol for Measuring Children’s Non-Occupational Exposure to Pesticides by all Relevant Pathways (Draft Protocol)) and four probabilistic mo...

  13. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennana, M.; Sacchettini, G.; Panzone, L.; Butler-Ellis, M.C.; Capri, E.; Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E.; Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Machera, K.; Spanoghe, P; Glass, R.; Marchis, A.; Doanngoc, K.; Hart, A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with

  14. Routes of pesticide exposure in solitary, cavity-nesting bees

    Science.gov (United States)

    The declines of pollinator health and populations are a current commercial and ecological concern. In particular, challenges related to maintaining healthy commercial honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) populations continue. Agricultural practices, such as the use of agrochemicals, are among factors that ...

  15. Agricultural diffuse pollution in a chalk aquifer (Trois Fontaines, France): Influence of pesticide properties and hydrodynamic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, N.; Lepiller, M.; Mouvet, C.

    2008-08-01

    SummaryThe characterization of the transfer of pesticides to and in groundwater is essential for effective water resource management. Intensive monitoring, from October 1989 to May 2006, of a weakly karstified chalk aquifer system in a 50 km 2 agricultural catchment, enabled the characterization of the temporal variability of pesticide concentrations in the groundwater of the main outlet. Atrazine and its metabolite deethylatrazine were quantified 394 and 393 times in 476 samples with concentrations ranging from the quantification limit (0.025 μg L -1) to 5.3 and 1.86 μg L -1, respectively. This common presence, compared to the rare detections of isoproturon (in 108 of 476 samples), the pesticide most widely used in the catchment during at least the past decade, highlighted the significant effect of pesticide properties in the time series of concentrations observed in the groundwater. The use of geochemical tracers (nitrate, chloride) analysed in the groundwater and the hydrodynamic monitoring of the system (discharge, water levels) enabled identification of various infiltration mechanisms governing the functioning of the system. The hydrodynamic study showing that the relative contribution of the infiltration mechanisms varies with time, made it possible to explain major variations observed in the pesticide-concentration time series recorded at the spring.

  16. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda-Yslas, Idalia Jazmin; Arellano-García, María Evarista; García-Zarate, Marco Antonio; Ruíz-Ruíz, Balam; Zavala-Cerna, María Guadalupe; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc) and nuclear abnormalities (NA) in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n = 144), divided in four groups: (1) farmers (n = 37), (2) unexposed (n = 35), (3) farmers' children (n = 34), and (4) unexposed children (n = 38). We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p < 0.0001), CC (p = 0.3376), and PN (p < 0.0001). With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p < 0.0001), LN (p < 0.0001), CC (p < 0.0001), and PN (p < 0.004) when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  17. Biomonitoring with Micronuclei Test in Buccal Cells of Female Farmers and Children Exposed to Pesticides of Maneadero Agricultural Valley, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idalia Jazmin Castañeda-Yslas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Feminization of the agricultural labor is common in Mexico; these women and their families are vulnerable to several health risks including genotoxicity. Previous papers have presented contradictory information with respect to indirect exposure to pesticides and DNA damage. We aimed to evaluate the genotoxic effect in buccal mucosa from female farmers and children, working in the agricultural valley of Maneadero, Baja California. Frequencies of micronucleated cells (MNc and nuclear abnormalities (NA in 2000 cells were obtained from the buccal mucosa of the study population (n=144, divided in four groups: (1 farmers (n=37, (2 unexposed (n=35, (3 farmers’ children (n=34, and (4 unexposed children (n=38. We compared frequencies of MNc and NA and fitted generalized linear models to investigate the interaction between these variables and exposition to pesticides. Differences were found between farmers and unexposed women in MNc (p<0.0001, CC (p=0.3376, and PN (p<0.0001. With respect to exposed children, we found higher significant frequencies in MNc (p<0.0001, LN (p<0.0001, CC (p<0.0001, and PN (p<0.004 when compared to unexposed children. Therefore working as a farmer is a risk for genotoxic damage; more importantly indirectly exposed children were found to have genotoxic damage, which is of concern, since it could aid in future disturbances of their health.

  18. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed......, and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing...... chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems....

  19. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  20. Pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years in Texas, 2000-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Amber B; Forrester, Mathias B; Han, Daikwon; Shipp, Eva M; Cizmas, Leslie H

    2016-11-01

    Although national poison center data show that pesticides were the 8th most commonly reported substance category (3.27%) for children aged ≤5 years in 2014, there is limited information on childhood and adolescent pesticide exposures. This study assessed pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years from 2000-2013 in Texas to characterize the potential burden of pesticides. Pesticide-related poison center exposures among children and adolescents aged ≤19 years reported to Texas poison centers were identified. The distribution of exposures was estimated by gender, age category, medical outcome, management site, exposure route, and pesticide category. From 2000 to 2013, there were 61,147 pesticide-related poison center exposures in children and adolescents aged ≤19 years. The prevalence was highest among males at 864.24 per 100,000 population. The prevalence of unintentional exposures was highest among children aged ≤5 years at 2310.69 per 100,000 population, whereas the prevalence of intentional exposures was highest among adolescents aged 13-19 years at 13.82 per 100,000 population. A majority of medical outcomes reported were classified as having no effect (30.24%) and not followed, but minimal clinical effects possible (42.74%). Of all the exposures, 81.24% were managed on site. However, 57% of intentional exposures were referred to or treated at a health-care facility. The most common routes of exposure were ingestion (80.83%) and dermal (17.21%). The most common pesticide categories included rodenticides (30.02%), pyrethrins/pyrethroids (20.69%), and other and unspecified insecticides (18.14%). The study found differences in the frequency of exposures by intent for sex and age categories, and identified the most common medical outcomes, management site, exposure route, and pesticide category. Through characterizing pesticide-related poison center exposures, future interventions can be designed to address groups

  1. Pesticides in ground water in selected agricultural land-use areas and hydrogeologic settings in Pennsylvania, 2003-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Breen, Kevin J.; Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Clune, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This report was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture (PDA) as part of the Pennsylvania Pesticides and Ground Water Strategy (PPGWS). Monitoring data and extensive quality-assurance data on the occurrence of pesticides in ground water during 2003–07 are presented and evaluated; decreases in the land area used for agriculture and corresponding changes in the use of pesticides also are documented. In the Pennsylvania ground waters assessed since 2003, concentrations of pesticides did not exceed any maximum contaminant or health advisory levels established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency; PPGWS actions are invoked by the PDA at fractions of these levels and were needed only in areas designated by the PDA for special ground-water protection. Previous investigations through 1998 of pesticides in Pennsylvania ground water identified land use, as a surrogate for pesticide use, and rock type of the aquifer combined with physiography as key hydrogeologic setting variables for understanding aquifer vulnerability to contamination and the common occurrence of atrazine and metolachlor in ground water. Of 20 major hydrogeologic settings in a framework established in 1999 for pesticide monitoring in Pennsylvania, 9 were identified as priorities for data collection in order to change the monitoring status from "inadequate" to "adequate" for the PPGWS. Agricultural and forested land-use areas are decreasing because of urban and suburban growth. In the nine hydrogeologic settings evaluated using 1992 and 2001 data, decreases of up to 12 percent for agricultural land and 10 percent for forested land corresponded to increases of up to 11 percent for urban land. Changes in agricultural pesticide use were computed from crop data. For example, from 1996 to 2004–05, atrazine use declined by about 15 percent to 1,314,000 lb/yr (pounds per year) and metolachlor use increased by about 20 percent to 895

  2. Exposure to pesticide as a risk factor for depression: A population-based longitudinal study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Tae Hui; Min, Seongho; Lee, Kyungsuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Choi, Jung Ran

    2017-09-01

    Exposure to pesticides is associated with mental disorders, including depression, especially among occupationally exposed populations, such as farmers. The results of experimental studies ascribed the negative effects of pesticides on mental health to their neurotoxic and endocrine-disrupting activities. This study aimed to investigate the association between the risk of depression and high- or low-level exposure to pesticides in a rural population. This longitudinal study was performed in 2005-2008 (baseline) and 2008-2012 (follow-up) to evaluate the risk of depression among 2151 Korean adults. A standardized questionnaire was used to obtain information on depression upon self-reported exposure to pesticide based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between pesticide exposure and depression. We adjusted the data for age, cigarette smoking status, current alcohol use, monthly income, educational level, marriage status, and religion. Among the individuals who reported depression, the number of participants who used pesticides was significantly higher than that who did not (N=61 [7.2%] vs. N=54 [4.2%], P=0.003). A positive association was noted between >20-year period of pesticide use and depression (odds ratio [OR], 2.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-3.88). Individuals who reported depression showed greater odds of being exposed to higher pesticide concentrations (OR, 2.33; 95% CI, 1.40-3.88) and experiencing pesticide poisoning (OR, 5.83; 95% CI, 1.80-18.86) than those who did not. Exposure to pesticides at a high concentration was found to be associated with depressive symptoms among Korean adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational exposure to pesticides are associated with fixed airflow obstruction in middle-age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alif, Sheikh M; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Benke, Geza; Dennekamp, Martine; Burgess, John A; Perret, Jennifer L; Lodge, Caroline J; Morrison, Stephen; Johns, David Peter; Giles, Graham G; Gurrin, Lyle C; Thomas, Paul S; Hopper, John Llewelyn; Wood-Baker, Richard; Thompson, Bruce R; Feather, Iain H; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Walters, E Haydn; Abramson, Michael J; Matheson, Melanie Claire

    2017-11-01

    Population-based studies have found evidence of a relationship between occupational exposures and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), but these studies are limited by the use of prebronchodilator spirometry. Establishing this link using postbronchodilator is critical, because occupational exposures are a modifiable risk factor for COPD. To investigate the associations between occupational exposures and fixed airflow obstruction using postbronchodilator spirometry. One thousand three hundred and thirty-five participants were included from 2002 to 2008 follow-up of the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS). Spirometry was performed and lifetime work history calendars were used to collect occupational history. ALOHA plus Job Exposure Matrix was used to assign occupational exposure, and defined as ever exposed and cumulative exposure unit (EU)-years. Fixed airflow obstruction was defined by postbronchodilator FEV 1 /FVC biological dust (relative risk (RR)=1.58, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.48), pesticides (RR=1.74,95% CI 1.00 to 3.07) and herbicides (RR=2.09,95% CI 1.18 to 3.70) were associated with fixed airflow obstruction. Cumulative EU-years to all pesticides (RR=1.11,95% CI 1.00 to 1.25) and herbicides (RR=1.15,95% CI 1.00 to 1.32) were also associated with fixed airflow obstruction. In addition, all pesticides exposure was consistently associated with chronic bronchitis and symptoms that are consistent with airflow obstruction. Ever exposure to mineral dust, gases/fumes and vapours, gases, dust or fumes were only associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics only. Pesticides and herbicides exposures were associated with fixed airflow obstruction and chronic bronchitis. Biological dust exposure was also associated with fixed airflow obstruction in non-asthmatics. Minimising occupational exposure to these agents may help to reduce the burden of COPD. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  4. Hair analysis for the biomonitoring of pesticide exposure: comparison with blood and urine in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appenzeller, Brice M R; Hardy, Emilie M; Grova, Nathalie; Chata, Caroline; Faÿs, François; Briand, Olivier; Schroeder, Henri; Duca, Radu-Corneliu

    2017-08-01

    Urine and plasma have been used to date for the biomonitoring of exposure to pollutants and are still the preferred fluids for this purpose; however, these fluids mainly provide information on the short term and may present a high level of variability regarding pesticide concentrations, especially for nonpersistent compounds. Hair analysis may provide information about chronic exposure that is averaged over several months; therefore, this method has been proposed as an alternative to solely relying on these fluids. Although the possibility of detecting pesticides in hair has been demonstrated over the past few years, the unknown linkage between exposure and pesticides concentration in hair has limited the recognition of this matrix as a relevant tool for assessing human exposure. Based on a rat model in which there was controlled exposure to a mixture of pesticides composed of lindane, β-hexachlorocyclohexane, β-endosulfan, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, dieldrin, pentachlorophenol, diazinon, chlorpyrifos, cyhalothrin, permethrin, cypermethrin, propiconazole, fipronil, oxadiazon, diflufenican, trifluralin, carbofuran, and propoxur, the current work demonstrates the association between exposure intensity and resulting pesticide concentration in hair. We also compared the results obtained from a hair analysis to urine and plasma collected from the same rats. Hair, blood, and urine were collected from rats submitted to 90-day exposure by gavage to the aforementioned mixture of common pesticides at different levels. We observed a linear relationship between exposure intensity and the concentration of pesticides in the rats' hair (R Pearson 0.453-0.978, p pesticide concentrations in the matrix. Therefore, this study strongly supports hair analysis as a reliable tool to be used during epidemiological studies to investigate exposure-associated adverse health effects.

  5. Endangered Species: Pesticide Restrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to protect threatened and endangered species and their habitats, without placing unnecessary burden on agriculture and pesticide users. Pesticide limitations are developed to ensure safe use of pesticides in order to meet this goal.

  6. Pretreatment of agriculture field water for improving membrane flux during pesticide removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Romil; Saha, N. K.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pretreatment of feed water to improve membrane flux during filtration of agriculture field water containing substituted phenyl urea pesticide diuron has been reported. Laboratory-made reverse osmosis membrane was used for filtration. Preliminary experiments were conducted with model solution containing natural organic matter extracted from commercial humic acids, divalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+. Membrane fouling was characterized by pure water flux decline, change in membrane hydrophilicity and infrared spectroscopy. Natural organic matter present in field water causes severe membrane fouling. The presence of divalent cations further aggravated fouling. Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and polyacrylic acids (PAA) in feed resulted in the decrease in membrane fouling. Pretreatment of field water is a must if it is contaminated with micro-organism having membrane fouling potential. Feed water pretreatment and use of PAA restricted membrane fouling to 16 % after 60 h of filtration. Membrane permeate flux decline was maximum at the first 12 h and thereafter remained steady at around 45-46 lm-2h-1 till the end of 60 h. Diuron rejection remained consistently greater than 93 % throughout the experiment. Diuron rejection was found to be unaffected by membrane fouling.

  7. Pesticide acute toxicity is a better correlate of U.S. grassland bird declines than agricultural intensification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Mineau

    Full Text Available Common agricultural birds are in decline, both in Europe and in North America. Evidence from Europe suggests that agricultural intensification and, for some species, the indirect effects of pesticides mediated through a loss of insect food resource is in part responsible. On a state-by-state basis for the conterminous Unites States (U.S., we looked at several agronomic variables to predict the number of grassland species increasing or declining according to breeding bird surveys conducted between 1980 and 2003. Best predictors of species declines were the lethal risk from insecticide use modeled from pesticide impact studies, followed by the loss of cropped pasture. Loss of permanent pasture or simple measures of agricultural intensification such as the proportion of land under crop or the proportion of farmland treated with herbicides did not explain bird declines as well. Because the proportion of farmland treated with insecticides, and more particularly the lethal risk to birds from the use of current insecticides feature so prominently in the best models, this suggests that, in the U.S. at least, pesticide toxicity to birds should be considered as an important factor in grassland bird declines.

  8. Identification and isolation of bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticide diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mobarakpoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Organophosphorus insecticide diazinon has been widely used in agriculture and has the ability to transfer and accumulate in soil, water and animal tissues, and to induce toxicity in plants, animals and humans. In humans, diazinon inhibits nerve transmission by inactivating acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The present study was carried out to identify bacteria containing OPH enzyme for biodegradation of diazinon from contaminated agricultural soil. Methods: In this study, 8 contaminated agricultural soil samples that were exposed to pesticides, especially diazinon in the last two decades, were collected from the farms of Hamedan province. After preparing the media, for isolation of several bacterial strains containing OPH enzyme that are capable of biodegrading organophosphorus pesticides by diazinon enzymatic hydrolysis, bacterial genomic DNA extraction, plasmid product sequencing, phylogenetic sequence processing and phylogenetic tree drawing were carried out. Results: Eight bacterial strains, capable of secreting OPH enzyme, were isolated from soil samples, one of which named BS-1 with 86% similarity to Bacillus safensis displayed the highest organophosphate-hydrolyzing capability and can be used as a source of carbon and phosphorus. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the isolated bacterial strain identified in this study with OPH enzyme secretion has the potential for biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides, especially diazinon in invitro conditions. Also, further studies such as the environmental stability and interaction, production strategies, safety, cost-benefit, environmental destructive parameters, and, toxicological, genetic and biochemical aspects are recommended prior to the application of bacterial strains in the field-scale bioremediation.

  9. Cholinesterase activity in blood and pesticide presence in sweat as biomarkers of children`s environmental exposure to crop protection chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak

    2015-09-01

    Altogether, the study indicated that cholinesterase activity is a sensitive marker of the children’s environmental exposure to pesticides, whereas sweat patches are useful devices for collecting samples to be analysed for the presence of the pesticides.

  10. Honey Bee Gut Microbiome Is Altered by In-Hive Pesticide Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakumanu, Madhavi L; Reeves, Alison M; Anderson, Troy D; Rodrigues, Richard R; Williams, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are the primary pollinators of major horticultural crops. Over the last few decades, a substantial decline in honey bees and their colonies have been reported. While a plethora of factors could contribute to the putative decline, pathogens, and pesticides are common concerns that draw attention. In addition to potential direct effects on honey bees, indirect pesticide effects could include alteration of essential gut microbial communities and symbionts that are important to honey bee health (e.g., immune system). The primary objective of this study was to determine the microbiome associated with honey bees exposed to commonly used in-hive pesticides: coumaphos, tau-fluvalinate, and chlorothalonil. Treatments were replicated at three independent locations near Blacksburg Virginia, and included a no-pesticide amended control at each location. The microbiome was characterized through pyrosequencing of V2-V3 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS region. Pesticide exposure significantly affected the structure of bacterial but not fungal communities. The bee bacteriome, similar to other studies, was dominated by sequences derived from Bacilli, Actinobacteria, α-, β-, γ-proteobacteria. The fungal community sequences were dominated by Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes. The Multi-response permutation procedures (MRPP) and subsequent Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt) analysis indicated that chlorothalonil caused significant change to the structure and functional potential of the honey bee gut bacterial community relative to control. Putative genes for oxidative phosphorylation, for example, increased while sugar metabolism and peptidase potential declined in the microbiome of chlorothalonil exposed bees. The results of this field-based study suggest the potential for pesticide induced changes to the honey bee gut microbiome that warrant further investigation.

  11. Sex Steroid Hormone Gene Variants, Pesticide Use and the Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Nested Case-Control Study within the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol H Christensen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimental and epidemiologic investigations suggest that certain pesticides may alter sex steroid hormone synthesis, metabolism or regulation and the risk of hormone-related cancers. Here we evaluated whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs involved in hormone homeostasis alter the effect of pesticide exposure on prostate cancer risk. We evaluated pesticide–SNP interactions between 39 pesticides and SNPs with respect to prostate cancer among 776 cases and 1444 controls nested in the Agricultural Health Study cohort. In these interactions, we included candidate SNPs involved in hormone synthesis, metabolism and regulation (N=1100, as well as SNPs associated with circulating sex steroid concentrations as identified by genome-wide association studies (N=17. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Multiplicative SNP–pesticide interactions were calculated using a likelihood ratio test. We translated p-values for interaction into q-values, which reflected the false discovery rate, to account for multiple comparisons. We observed a significant interaction, which was robust to multiple comparison testing, between the herbicide dicamba and rs8192166 in the testosterone metabolizing gene SRD5A1 (p-interaction=4.0x10-5; q-value=0.03, such that men with two copies of the wild-type genotype CC had a reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with low use of dicamba (OR=0.62 95% CI: 0.41, 0.93, and high use of dicamba (OR=0.44, 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68, compared to those who reported no use of dicamba; in contrast, there was no significant association between dicamba and prostate cancer among those carrying one or two copies of the variant T allele at rs8192166. In addition, interactions between two organophosphate insecticides and SNPs related to estradiol metabolism were observed to result in an increased risk of prostate cancer. While replication is needed, these data suggest both

  12. Occupational health and safety for agricultural workers in Thailand: gaps and recommendations, with a focus on pesticide use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Kongtip, Pornpimol; Woskie, Susan

    2015-05-01

    Over 16.7 million workers in Thailand (42 percent of the working population) are engaged in agriculture, disproportionately from the lower socioeconomic strata of Thai society. Most agricultural workers (over 93 percent) work in the informal sector without the protections of regulations or enforcement of labor or health and safety laws or enrollment in a social security system. Although Thailand's use of herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides is growing, there is little regulation of the sale, use, or application of these potentially toxic chemicals. This paper summarizes the research to date on occupational health and safety for Thai agricultural workers, identifies gaps in pesticide regulations and the current systems for occupational health and safety and social support for Thai agricultural workers, and makes recommendations for future policy and research initiatives to fill the identified gaps. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  13. Spatial and temporal patterns of pesticide concentrations in streamflow, drainage and runoff in a small Swedish agricultural catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandin, Maria; Piikki, Kristin; Jarvis, Nicholas; Larsbo, Mats; Bishop, Kevin; Kreuger, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    A better understanding of the dominant source areas and transport pathways of pesticide losses to surface water is needed for targeting mitigation efforts in a more cost-effective way. To this end, we monitored pesticides in surface water in an agricultural catchment typical of one of the main crop production regions in Sweden. Three small sub-catchments (88-242ha) were selected for water sampling based on a high-resolution digital soil map developed from proximal sensing methods and soil sampling; one sub-catchment had a high proportion of clay soils, another was dominated by coarse sandy soils while the third comprised a mix of soil types. Samples were collected from the stream, from field drains discharging into the stream and from within-field surface runoff during spring and early summer in three consecutive years. These samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS for 99 compounds, including most of the polar and semi-polar pesticides frequently used in Swedish agriculture. Information on pesticide applications (products, doses and timing) was obtained from annual interviews with the farmers. There were clear and consistent differences in pesticide occurrence in the stream between the three sub-catchments, with both the numbers of detected compounds and concentrations being the largest in the area with a high proportion of clay soils and with very few detections in the sandy sub-catchment. Macropore flow to drains was most likely the dominant loss pathway in the studied area. Many of the compounds that were detected in drainage and stream water samples had not been applied for several years. This suggests that despite the predominant role of fast flow pathways in determining losses to the stream, long-term storage along the transport pathways also occurs, presumably in subsoil horizons where degradation is slow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matamoros, Víctor, E-mail: victor.matamoros@idaea.csic.es; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L{sup −1} of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  15. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The effect of microalgae on the removal of pesticides has been evaluated. • Continuous feeding operational mode is more efficient for removing pesticides. • Microalgae increased the removal of some pesticides. • Pesticide TPs confirmed that biodegradation was relevant. - Abstract: Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2 L batch reactors and 5 L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L"−"1 of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology’s effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  16. Exposure assessment of traditional and IPM farmers on using pesticides: A case study at Bang Rieng Sub District, Khuan Nieng District, Songkhla Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viris Jirachaiyabhas

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire was developed to quantitatively evaluate the exposure to pesticides and to gauge the concentration of organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos and methyl-parathion while the farmers of Bang Rieng were spraying these pesticides. The results were applied to the exposure assessment and to compare the quantity of exposure to these pesticides between 33 traditional and 40 integrated pest management (IPM farmers of Bang Rieng. There was a significant difference in the level of exposure between the traditional farmers, who had the average pesticide exposure scores of 58.30 points and the IPM farmers, whose average scores were 53.50 points, (p < 0.015. Concentrations of organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and methyl-parathion were measured. Thirty-three air samples were collected by personal sampling during the period of pesticide spraying. Traditional farmers were exposed to higher levels of the pesticide(s with a mean concentration of 0.1865 mg/m compared to the IPM farmers who were exposed to a mean pesticide concentration of 0.037 mg/m3. It was estimated that the farmers of Bang Rieng would be exposed to 186-19,616.6 mg of the organophosphatepesticide(s via inhalation throughout their lifetime (65 years. Moreover, according to the exposure assessment, the traditional farmers exposed to a greater amount of the pesticide(s via inhalation compared to the IPM farmers.

  17. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  18. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    London Leslie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  19. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Leslie; Coggon, David; Moretto, Angelo; Westerholm, Peter; Wilks, Martin F; Colosio, Claudio

    2010-08-18

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter.

  20. The ethics of human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides: unanswered dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The controversy about the use of data from human volunteer studies involving experimental exposure to pesticides as part of regulatory risk assessment has been widely discussed, but the complex and interrelated scientific and ethical issues remain largely unresolved. This discussion paper, generated by authors who comprised a workgroup of the ICOH Scientific Committee on Rural Health, reviews the use of human experimental studies in regulatory risk assessment for pesticides with a view to advancing the debate as to when, if ever, such studies might be ethically justifiable. The discussion is based on three elements: (a) a review of discussion papers on the topic of human testing of pesticides and the positions adopted by regulatory agencies in developed countries; (b) an analysis of published and unpublished studies involving human testing with pesticides, both in the peer-reviewed literature and in the JMPR database; and (c) application of an ethical analysis to the problem. The paper identifies areas of agreement which include general principles that may provide a starting point on which to base criteria for judgements as to the ethical acceptability of such studies. However, the paper also highlights ongoing unresolved differences of opinion inherent in ethical analysis of contentious issues, which we propose should form a starting point for further debate and the development of guidelines to achieve better resolution of this matter. PMID:20718963

  1. [Solar radiation exposure in agriculture: an underestimated risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F

    2012-01-01

    Solar Radiation (SR) is a major occupational risk in agriculture, mainly related to its ultraviolet (UV) component. Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in agriculture. The role of the Occupational Physician in prevention is fundamental.

  2. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1C: Agricultural Crop Disease Control. CS-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyvall, Robert F.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. It summarizes the economically important diseases of field and forage crops such as corn, soybeans and alfalfa. Special attention is given to pesticide application methods and safety. (CS)

  3. Examining impacts of current-use pesticides in Southern Ontario using in situ exposures of the amphipod Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Adrienne J; Struger, John; Grapentine, Lee C; Palace, Vince P

    2016-05-01

    In situ exposures with Hyalella azteca were used to assess impacts of current-use pesticides in Southern Ontario, Canada. Exposures were conducted over 2 growing seasons within areas of high pesticide use: 1 site on Prudhomme Creek and 3 sites on Twenty Mile Creek. Three sites on Spencer Creek, an area of low pesticide use, were added in the second season. Surface water samples were collected every 2 wk to 3 wk and analyzed for a suite of pesticides. Hyalella were exposed in situ for 1 wk every 4 wk to 6 wk, and survival and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were measured. Pesticides in surface waters reflected seasonal use patterns: lower concentrations in spring and fall and higher concentrations during summer months. Organophosphate insecticides (chlorpyrifos, azinphos methyl, diazinon) and acid herbicides (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D], mecoprop) were routinely detected in Prudhomme Creek, whereas neutral herbicides (atrazine, metolachlor) dominated the pesticide signature of Twenty Mile Creek. Spencer Creek contained fewer pesticides, which were measured at lower concentrations. In situ effects also followed seasonal patterns: higher survival and AChE activity in spring and fall, and lower survival and AChE activity during summer months. The highest toxicity was observed at Prudhomme Creek and was primarily associated with organophosphates. The present study demonstrated that current-use pesticides in Southern Ontario were linked to in situ effects and identified sites of concern requiring further investigation. © 2015 Crown in the Right of Canada.

  4. Paraquat Exposure of Pregnant Women and Neonates in Agricultural Areas in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajaree Konthonbut

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess paraquat concentrations in the urine of women at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum and in the meconium of neonates. In all, 79 pregnant women were recruited from three hospitals located in agricultural areas in Thailand. The subjects were interviewed about personal characteristics, agricultural activities and pesticide use patterns. Paraquat was analyzed in urine and meconium using high performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. The geometric mean (GSD of urinary paraquat concentrations at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum were 2.04 (4.22, 2.06 (5.04 and 2.42 (5.33 ng/mL, respectively. The urinary paraquat concentrations at 28 weeks of pregnancy, delivery and 2 months postpartum between agriculturist and non-agriculturist were not significantly different (p = 0.632, p = 0.915, p = 0.57 respectively. The geometric mean (GSD of paraquat concentration in the meconium was 33.31 (4.59 ng/g. The factors predicting paraquat exposures among pregnant women and neonates included working outside, living near farmland, having family members who work on a farm, drinking well water and using herbicides or paraquat.

  5. Pesticide residues in leafy vegetables and human health risk assessment in North Central agricultural areas of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgueta, Sebastian; Moyano, Stella; Sepúlveda, Paulina; Quiroz, Carlos; Correa, Arturo

    2017-06-01

    To investigate pesticide residue concentrations and potential human health risk, a study was conducted in 118 leafy vegetable samples collected in 2014-2015 from the North Central agricultural areas of Chile. The pesticide residues were determined using the multiresidue QuEChERS method by gas chromatography as well as high-performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that 27% of the total samples contained pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits of each active ingredient. The maximum estimated daily intake obtained for carbon disulphide (CS 2 ), methamidophos, azoxystrobin and cypermethrin were 0.57, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.05 mg kg -1 , respectively, which was higher than their acceptable daily intake. It is concluded that inhabitants of the North Central agricultural area of Chile are not exposed to health risks through the consumption of leafy vegetables with the exception of methamidophos. Nevertheless, the high levels of methamidophos detected in leafy vegetables could be considered a potential chronic health risk.

  6. Identifying the cause of sediment toxicity in agricultural sediments: the role of pyrethroids and nine seldom-measured hydrophobic pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Donald P; Ding, Yuping; Zhang, Minghua; Lydy, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Few currently used agricultural pesticides are routinely monitored for in the environment. Even if concentrations are known, sediment LC(50) values are often lacking for common sediment toxicity testing species. To help fill this data gap, sediments in California's Central Valley were tested for nine hydrophobic pesticides seldom analyzed: abamectin, diazinon, dicofol, fenpropathrin, indoxacarb, methyl parathion, oxyfluorfen, propargite, and pyraclostrobin. Most were detected, but rarely at concentrations acutely toxic to Hyalella azteca or Chironomus dilutus. Only abamectin, fenpropathrin, and methyl parathion were found at concentrations of potential concern, and only in one or two samples. One-quarter of over 100 samples from agriculture-affected waterways exhibited toxicity, and in three-fourths of the toxic samples, pyrethroids exceeded concentrations expected to cause toxicity. The pyrethroid Bi-fen-thrin in particular, as well as lambda-cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, esfenvalerate, permethrin, and the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, were primarily responsible for the observed toxicity, rather than the more novel analytes, despite the fact that much of the sampling targeted areas of greatest use of the novel pesticides. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flora Mayhoub

    Full Text Available The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]. Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002 and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]. Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively. Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively. The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  8. Self-reported parental exposure to pesticide during pregnancy and birth outcomes: the MecoExpo cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhoub, Flora; Berton, Thierry; Bach, Véronique; Tack, Karine; Deguines, Caroline; Floch-Barneaud, Adeline; Desmots, Sophie; Stéphan-Blanchard, Erwan; Chardon, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The MecoExpo study was performed in the Picardy region of northern France, in order to investigate the putative relationship between parental exposures to pesticides (as reported by the mother) on one hand and neonatal parameters on the other. The cohort comprised 993 mother-newborn pairs. Each mother completed a questionnaire that probed occupational, domestic, environmental and dietary sources of parental exposure to pesticides during her pregnancy. Multivariate regression analyses were then used to test for associations between the characteristics of parental pesticide exposure during pregnancy and the corresponding birth outcomes. Maternal occupational exposure was associated with an elevated risk of low birth weight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval]: 4.2 [1.2, 15.4]). Paternal occupational exposure to pesticides was associated with a lower than average gestational age at birth (-0.7 weeks; p = 0.0002) and an elevated risk of prematurity (OR: 3.7 [1.4, 9.7]). Levels of domestic exposure to veterinary antiparasitics and to pesticides for indoor plants were both associated with a low birth weight (-70 g; p = 0.02 and -160 g; p = 0.005, respectively). Babies born to women living in urban areas had a lower birth length and a higher risk of low birth length (-0.4 cm, p = 0.006 and OR: 2.9 [1.5, 5.5], respectively). The present study results mainly demonstrate a negative correlation between fetal development on one hand and parental occupational and domestic exposure to pesticides on the other. Our study highlights the need to perform a global and detailed screening of all potential physiological effects when assessing in utero exposure to pesticides.

  9. Collateral damage: rapid exposure-induced evolution of pesticide resistance leads to increased susceptibility to parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Stoks, Robby; Coors, Anja; van Doorslaer, Wendy; de Meester, Luc

    2011-09-01

    Although natural populations may evolve resistance to anthropogenic stressors such as pollutants, this evolved resistance may carry costs. Using an experimental evolution approach, we exposed different Daphnia magna populations in outdoor containers to the carbamate pesticide carbaryl and control conditions, and assessed the resulting populations for both their resistance to carbaryl as well as their susceptibility to infection by the widespread bacterial microparasite Pasteuria ramosa. Our results show that carbaryl selection led to rapid evolution of carbaryl resistance with seemingly no cost when assessed in a benign environment. However, carbaryl-resistant populations were more susceptible to parasite infection than control populations. Exposure to both stressors reveals a synergistic effect on sterilization rate by P. ramosa, but this synergism did not evolve under pesticide selection. Assessing costs of rapid adaptive evolution to anthropogenic stress in a semi-natural context may be crucial to avoid too optimistic predictions for the fitness of the evolving populations. © 2011 The Author(s).

  10. Radiation exposure due to agricultural uses of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.M.; AL-Sewaidan, H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Radiological impacts of phosphate rocks mining and manufacture could be significant due to the elevated radioactivity contents of the naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), such as 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K, in some phosphate deposits. Over the last decades, the land reclamation and agriculture activities in Saudi Arabia and other countries have been widely expanded. Therefore, the usage of chemical fertilizers is increased. Selected phosphate fertilizers samples were collected and the specific activities of NORM were measured using a gamma ray spectrometer based on a hyper pure germanium detector and alpha spectrometer based on surface barrier detector. The obtained results show remarkable wide variations in the radioactivity contents of the different phosphate fertilizer samples. The mean (ranges) of specific activities for 226 Ra, 210 Po, 232 Th and 40 K, and radium equivalent activity are 75 (3-283), 25 (0.5-110), 23 (2-74), 2818 (9-6501) Bq/kg and 283 (7-589) Bq/kg, respectively. Based on dose calculations, the increment of the public radiation exposure due to the regular agricultural usage of phosphate fertilizers is negligible. Its average value 1 m above the ground is about 0.12 nGy/h where the world average value due to the NORM in soil is 51 nGy/h. Direct radiation exposures of the farmers due to phosphate fertilizers application was not considered in our study

  11. Correlation between pesticide use in agriculture and adverse birth outcomes in Brazil: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Siqueira, Marília Teixeira; Braga, Cynthia; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Augusto, Lia Giraldo da Silva; Figueiroa, José Natal; Souza, Ariani Impieri

    2010-06-01

    This ecological study analyzed the association between pesticide use and prematurity, low weight and congenital abnormality at birth, infant death by congenital abnormality, and fetal death in Brazil in 2001. Simple linear regression analysis has determined a positive association between pesticide use and prematurity, low birth weight, and congenital abnormality. The association between pesticide use and low birth weight (p = 0.045) and, congenital abnormality (p = 0.004) and infant death rate by congenital abnormality (p = 0.039) remained after the adjustment made by the proportion of pregnant women with a low number of prenatal care visits.

  12. Organophosphate Exposure: A Preliminary Assessment on the use of Pesticide Intensity Score to Evaluate Exposure among Fruit Growers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku Hanidza T.I.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of work hours, personal protective equipment use, and pesticide ingestion on the amount of urinary metabolites among fruit growers applying organophosphate pesticide. Thirty nine urine samples were collected from seven applicators before and after organophosphate applications. All dimethyl metabolites were present in day 1 morning urine samples for all workers. The arithmetic means for day 1 ranged from 21.5-94.17 μg/L DMP, 6.25-81.25 μg/L DMTP, and < LOQ-153.17 μg/L DMDTP. Day 2 urine samples had the highest amount of metabolites. The arithmetic means ranged from 25.8-558 μg/L DMP, 15.75-398 μg/L DMTP, 21.5-568.57 μg/L DMDTP, and < LOQ-17.67 μg/L DEP. The arithmetic means for day 4 ranges from 19.2-182 μg/L DMP, 13.33-138 μg/L DMTP, 22.75-157.83 μg/L DMDTP, and < LOQ-26 μg/L DEP. From the questionnaire, the exposure algorithm based on duration of hours worked, PPE use and pesticide ingestion showed poor relationship with urine concentration (r=0.1847. The linear relationship is not established due to variability within and between applicators.

  13. Testing of leachability and persistence of sixteen pesticides in three agricultural soils of a semiarid Mediterranean region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrido, I.; Vela, N.; Fenoll, J.; Navarro, G.; Pérez-Lucas, G.; Navarro, S.

    2015-07-01

    Leaching, the movement of water and chemicals into deeper soil layers and groundwater is a subject of worldwide interest because a high percentage of drinking water is extracted from groundwater. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential leaching and persistence of sixteen pesticides (one fungicide, three nematicides/insecticides, and twelve herbicides) for three Mediterranean agricultural soils with similar texture (clay loam) but different organic matter content (1.2-3.1%). Adsorption was studied in batch experiments and leaching was tested using disturbed soil columns (40 cm length × 4 cm i.d.). Degradation studies were carried out during 120 days under laboratory conditions. Mobility experiments showed that pesticides can be grouped according to their potential leaching. Thus, pesticides showing medium leachability were included in group 1 (referred as G1) while those with high leachability were termed as G2. The differences observed in the leachability can be attributed to the different organic carbon (OC) content in the soils (0.7-1.8%). Values of log KOC were higher in the order: soil C > soil B > soil A, which agrees with the OC content in each soil. The calculated half-lives ranged from 4.2 days for carbofuran in soil A to 330 days for prometon in soil C. As a general rule, when higher OC content in the soil the greater persistence of the pesticide was observed as a consequence of the increased adsorption. The first order kinetics model satisfactorily explains the disappearance of the studied pesticides in the soil. (Author)

  14. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, Marie L.; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC 50 of 5 μg l -1 for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 μg l -1 azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment

  15. Dermal Exposure Assessment to Pesticides in Farming Systems in Developing Countries: Comparison of Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Lesmes Fabian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the field of occupational hygiene, researchers have been working on developing appropriate methods to estimate human exposure to pesticides in order to assess the risk and therefore to take the due decisions to improve the pesticide management process and reduce the health risks. This paper evaluates dermal exposure models to find the most appropriate. Eight models (i.e., COSHH, DERM, DREAM, EASE, PHED, RISKOFDERM, STOFFENMANAGER and PFAM were evaluated according to a multi-criteria analysis and from these results five models (i.e., DERM, DREAM, PHED, RISKOFDERM and PFAM were selected for the assessment of dermal exposure in the case study of the potato farming system in the Andean highlands of Vereda La Hoya, Colombia. The results show that the models provide different dermal exposure estimations which are not comparable. However, because of the simplicity of the algorithm and the specificity of the determinants, the DERM, DREAM and PFAM models were found to be the most appropriate although their estimations might be more accurate if specific determinants are included for the case studies in developing countries.

  16. Characterisation of esterases as potential biomarkers of pesticide exposure in the lugworm Arenicola marina (Annelida: Polychaeta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannam, Marie L. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)], E-mail: marie.hannam@plymouth.ac.uk; Hagger, Josephine A.; Jones, Malcolm B.; Galloway, Tamara S. [Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2008-03-15

    Here, we identify and characterise cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities in the body tissues of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina. Exposure to the organophosphorus pesticide azamethiphos yielded an in vitro IC{sub 50} of 5 {mu}g l{sup -1} for propionylcholinesterase (PChE). PChE was significantly inhibited in vivo after a 10 day exposure to 100 {mu}g l{sup -1} azamethiphos, equivalent to the recommended aquatic application rate (ANOVA; F = 2.75, P = 0.033). To determine sensitivity to environmental conditions, A. marina were exposed for 10 days to field collected sediments. PChE activity was significantly lower in worms exposed to sediments from an estuary classified to be at high risk from point source pollution by the UK Environment Agency (ANOVA; F = 15.33, P < 0.001). Whilst causality cannot be directly attributed from these latter exposures, they provide an important illustration of the potential utility of esterase activity as a biomarker of environmental quality in this ecologically relevant sentinel species. - This paper provides a preliminary characterisation of esterase enzyme activities in the tissues and body fluids of the sediment dwelling worm Arenicola marina and explores their potential use as biomarkers of organophosphorus pesticide exposure in the marine environment.

  17. Is plasma β-glucuronidase a novel human biomarker for monitoring anticholinesterase pesticides exposure? A Malaysian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inayat-Hussain, Salmaan H.; Lubis, Syarif Husin; Sakian, Noor Ibrahim Mohamed; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi; Ali, Noor Suhailah; El Sersi, Magdi; Toong, Lee Mun; Zainal, Awang Mat; Hashim, Suhaimi; Ghazali, Mohd Shariman; Saidin, Mohd Nazri; Rahman, Ab Razak Ab; Rafaai, Mohd Jamil Mohd; Omar, Sollahudin; Rapiai, Rafiah; Othman, Radziah; Chan, Lee Tiong; Johari, Amran; Soon, Wong Hing; Salleh, Abdul Rahim; Satoh, Tetsuo

    2007-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate the effects of acute and chronic pesticide exposure on the plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity among five patients of acute pesticide poisoning in Tengku Ampuan Rahimah Hospital, Klang, 230 farmers in the MADA area, Kedah and 49 fishermen in Setiu, Terengganu. The duration of pesticide exposure among the patients was unknown, but the plasma samples from patients were collected on day one in the hospital. The duration of pesticide exposure among the farmers was between 1 and 45 years. The β-glucuronidase activity was compared with plasma cholinesterase activity in the same individual. The plasma cholinesterase activity was measured using Cholinesterase (PTC) Reagent set kit (Teco Diagnostics, UK) based on colorimetric method, while the plasma β-glucuronidase activity was measured fluorometrically based on β-glucuronidase assay. The plasma cholinesterase activity was significantly reduced (p 0.05). The plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers was significantly elevated (p 0.05). The plasma cholinesterase activity was positively correlated with the plasma β-glucuronidase activity among the farmers (r = 0.205, p 0.05). Thus, plasma β-glucuronidase enzyme activity can be measured as a biomarker for the chronic exposure of pesticide. However, further studies need to be performed to confirm whether plasma β-glucuronidase can be a sensitive biomarker for anticholinesterase pesticide poisoning

  18. The influence of study species selection on estimates of pesticide exposure in free-ranging birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Shannon L.; Vyas, Nimish B.; Christman, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    Field studies of pesticide effects on birds often utilize indicator species with the purpose 16 of extrapolating to other avian taxa. Little guidance exists for choosing indicator species to 17 monitor the presence and/or effects of contaminants that are labile in the environment or body, 18 but are acutely toxic, such as anticholinesterase (anti-ChE) insecticides. Use of an indicator 19 species that does not represent maximum exposure and/or effects could lead to inaccurate risk 20 estimates. Our objective was to test the relevance of a priori selection of indicator species for a 21 study on pesticide exposure to birds inhabiting fruit orchards. We used total plasma 22 cholinesterase (ChE) activity and ChE reactivation to describe the variability in anti-ChE exposure among avian species in two conventionally managed fruit orchards. Of seven 24 species included in statistical analyses, the less common species, chipping sparrow (Spizella 25 passerina), showed the greatest percentage of exposed individuals and the greatest ChE 26 depression, whereas the two most common species, American robins (Turdus migratorius) and 27 grey catbirds (Dumatella carolinensis), did not show significant exposure. Due to their lower 28 abundance, chipping sparrows would have been an unlikely choice for study. Our results show 29 that selection of indicator species using traditionally accepted criteria such as abundance and 30 ease of collection may not identify species that are at greatest risk. Our efforts also demonstrate 31 the usefulness of conducting multiple-species pilot studies prior to initiating detailed studies on 32 pesticide effects. A study such as ours can help focus research and resources on study species 33 that are most appropriate.

  19. Assessment of human exposure to pesticides by hair analysis: The case of vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Edouard; Oltramare, Christelle; Nfon Dibié, Jean-Jacques; Konaté, Yacouba; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe

    2018-02-01

    The present work assesses human exposure to pesticides in vegetable-producing areas in Burkina Faso, using hair as an indicator. The study design includes a comparison between operators who are occupationally exposed while working in the fields and a reference population (i.e. not occupationally exposed) to evaluate both occupational and indirect exposures. Hair samples from volunteers (n=101) were positive for 17 pesticides (38 analyzed). Acetamiprid, desethylatrazine, carbofuran, and deltamethrin were detected for the first time in field samples. With a maximum of 9 residues per sample, pesticide exposure was ubiquitous in both populations. Contamination by acetamiprid, cypermethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (used in vegetable production) prevailed in operator samples. For other pesticides, such as imidacloprid and deltamethrin, no significant difference was found. This indicates a potentially large environmental exposure (dietary intake or atmospheric contamination) or the prevalence of other contamination sources. The present findings are concerning, as detected levels are globally higher than those previously reported, and indicate exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals and probable carcinogens. Hair was found to be a suitable matrix for biomonitoring human exposure to pesticides and assessing dominant factors (i.e. sex, age, and protective equipment) in subgroups, as well as identifying geographical contamination patterns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Organophosphorus and Organochlorine Pesticides Bioaccumulation by Eichhornia crassipes in Irrigation Canals in an Urban Agricultural System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Borrayo, B M; Cram Heydrich, Silke; Pérez, Irma Rosas; Hernández Quiroz, Manuel; De León Hill, Claudia Ponce

    2015-01-01

    A natural wetland in Mexico City Metropolitan Area is one of the main suppliers of crops and flowers, and in consequence its canals hold a high concentration of organochlorine (OC) and organophosphorus (OP) pesticides. There is also an extensive population of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), which is considered a plague; but literature suggests water hyacinth may be used as a phytoremediator. This study demonstrates bioaccumulation difference for the OC in vivo suggesting their bioaccumulation is ruled by their log K(ow), while all the OP showed bioaccumulation regardless of their log K(ow). The higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of the accumulated OC pesticides cannot be explained by their log K(ow), suggesting that the OC pesticides may also be transported passively into the plant. Translocation ratios showed that water hyacinth is an accumulating plant with phytoremediation potential for all organophosphorus pesticides studied and some organochlorine pesticides. An equation for free water surface wetlands with floating macrophytes, commonly used for the construction of water-cleaning wetlands, showed removal of the pesticides by the wetland with room for improvement with appropriate management.

  1. Understanding Pesticide Risks: Toxicity and Formulation

    OpenAIRE

    Muntz, Helen; Miller, Rhonda; Alston, Diane

    2016-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information about pesticide risks to human health, primary means of pesticide exposure, standardized measures of pesticide toxicity, pesticide signal words and type of pesticide formulations.

  2. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Sacchettini, G. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Panzone, L. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Butler-Ellis, M.C. [Silsoe Spray Applications Unit, NIAB, Building 42, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HP (United Kingdom); Capri, E. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G. [TNO Innovation for Life, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands); Machera, K. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Spanoghe, P. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Glass, R. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Marchis, A. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Doanngoc, K. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hart, A. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Frewer, L.J., E-mail: Lynn.Frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  3. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M.; Sacchettini, G.; Panzone, L.; Butler-Ellis, M.C.; Capri, E.; Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E.; Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Machera, K.; Spanoghe, P.; Glass, R.; Marchis, A.; Doanngoc, K.; Hart, A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  4. Occurrence of pesticides in groundwater and sediments and mineralogy of sediments and grain coatings underlying the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Hladik, Michelle; Boehlke, Adam R.; Fishman, Neil S.; Battaglin, William A.; Kuivila, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from June through October 2007 from seven plots at the Rutgers Agricultural Research and Extension Center in Upper Deerfield, New Jersey, and analyzed for a suite of pesticides (including fungicides) and other physical and chemical parameters (including sediment mineralogy) by the U.S. Geological Survey. Plots were selected for inclusion in this study on the basis of the crops grown and the pesticides used. Forty-one pesticides were detected in 14 water samples; these include 5 fungicides, 13 herbicides, 1 insecticide, and 22 pesticide degradates. The following pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected in 50 percent or more of the groundwater samples: 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil, alachlor sulfonic acid, metolachlor oxanilic acid, metolachlor sulfonic acid, metalaxyl, and simazine. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 36 micrograms per liter (for metolachlor sulfonic acid, a degradate of the herbicide metolachlor). The total number of pesticides found in groundwater samples ranged from 0 to 29. Fourteen pesticides were detected in sediment samples from continuous cores collected within each of the seven sampled plots; these include 4 fungicides, 2 herbicides, and 7 pesticide degradates. Pesticide concentrations in sediment samples ranged from below their instrumental limit of detection to 34.2 nanograms per gram (for azoxystrobin). The total number of pesticides found in sediment samples ranged from 0 to 8. Quantitative whole-rock and grain-coating mineralogy of sediment samples were determined by x-ray diffraction. Whole-rock analysis indicated that sediments were predominantly composed of quartz. The materials coating the quartz grains were removed to allow quantification of the trace mineral phases present.

  5. Sun Exposure, Vitamin D Receptor Genetic Variants, and Risk of Breast Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satagopan, Jaya; Sima, Camelia S.; Orlow, Irene; Mujumdar, Urvi; Coble, Joseph; Roy, Pampa; Yoo, Sarah; Sandler, Dale P.; Alavanja, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Epidemiologic evidence suggests a negative relation between sunlight exposure and breast cancer risk. The hypothesized mechanism is sunlight-induced cutaneous synthesis of vitamin D. Objectives: Our goal was to examine sun exposure and its interaction with vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene variants on breast cancer risk. Methods: We examined sun exposure and breast cancer incidence among 31,021 private pesticide applicators’ wives, including 578 cases, enrolled in the prospective Agricultural Health Study cohort and followed 8.6 years on average. We estimated interactions between sun exposure, VDR variants, and breast cancer in a nested case–control study comprising 293 cases and 586 matched controls. Information on sun exposure was obtained by questionnaire at cohort enrollment. Relative risks were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression for the cohort data and conditional logistic regression for the nested case–control data. Results: We observed a small decrease in breast cancer risk in association with usual sun exposure of ≥ 1 hr/day (versus sun exposure may be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer, but we did not find clear evidence of modification by VDR variants. Larger studies are warranted, particularly among populations in whom low levels of usual sun exposure can be more precisely characterized. Citation: Engel LS, Satagopan J, Sima CS, Orlow I, Mujumdar U, Coble J, Roy P, Yoo S, Sandler DP, Alavanja MC. 2014. Sun exposure, vitamin D receptor genetic variants, and risk of breast cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. Environ Health Perspect 122:165–171; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1206274 PMID:24252436

  6. Evaluation and Use of Water Monitoring Data in Pesticide Aquatic Exposure Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Office of Pesticide Programs uses a tiered approach to risk assessment. The tiered approach screens out low-risk pesticides and focuses refined assessments and resources on pesticides most likely to pose a risk of concern.

  7. Pesticide Exposure and Cholinesterase Levels in Migrant Farm Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yenjai, Pornthip; Jaidee, Wanlop; Jaidee, Patchana; Sriprapat, Poonsak

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of pesticides in migrant farm workers from Cambodia after workplace exposure on fruit plantations in eastern Thailand. We studied 891 migrant farm workers employed on pineapple, durian, and rambutan plantations in Thailand. Data were collected via a detailed questionnaire survey and measurements of serum cholinesterase level (SChE). The majority of subjects was male (57.7%), with an average age of 30.3 years. Most subjects (76.8%) were moderately aware of good industrial hygiene practices. SChE level was divided into four groups based on the results. Only 4.4% had normal levels of cholinesterase activity, 20.5% had slightly reduced levels, 58.5% had markedly reduced levels and were "at risk," and 16.6% who had highest levels of cholinesterase inhibition were deemed to be in an "unsafe" range. SChE was classified into two groups, SChE value of 87.5 was "normal" and 39 acres, use a backpack sprayer, or have a low level of compliance with accepted industrial hygiene practices. These three classes of workers are at increased risk of chemical exposures and developing acute or chronic illness from pesticide exposures.

  8. Pesticides in agricultural headwater streams in southwestern Germany and effects on macroinvertebrate populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Gero; Christmann, Nicole; Thiery, Ann-Cathrin; Martens, Dieter; Kubiniok, Jochen

    2018-04-01

    Pesticides are a major burden for stream ecosystems in the central European cultivated landscape. The objective of the present study was to investigate the applicability of ecological indicator methods in relation to toxicity of pesticides under the specific hydro-morphological conditions in small water bodies. Thus, an association of toxicity evaluating methods with different ecological indicators was to be attempted. Based on three random samples taken within the 2016 vegetation period, 23 headwater areas in the Saarland were investigated to test for pesticides and their metabolites. The macroinvertebrate population was also surveyed in 16 of these streams. Evidence was found of 41 substances in total. Most dominant substances include atrazine, isoproturone, quinmerac and tebuconazol as well as metabolites of dimethenamid, chloridazon and metazachlor. At 9 of the 23 sampling points, over 10 plant protection products and metabolites were found. Only 17% of the water bodies investigated contained fewer than 5 substances. Around half of the bodies of water investigated show noticeably high concentrations of metabolites of plant protection products. Maximum concentrations exceeding environmental quality standards or the Health-oriented Guideline Values were measured for 13 substances at individual sampling points. Analysis of the biological data for only 4 of the water bodies investigated resulted in the Ecological Status Class (ESC) "good". All others fell short of the quality target, although they were classified as "good" or "very good" according to the Saprobic index. SPEAR pesticides as a measurement of the sensitivity of the biocoenosis to pesticides shows their influence in a few water bodies. Likewise, high toxic unit values have also been calculated, indicating the presence of toxic substances at relevant concentrations. However, an actual correlation between SPEAR pesticides and toxic unit could not be derived. Clearly in these very headwater streams other

  9. Exposure to organophosphate pesticides and male hormone profile in floriculturist of the state of Morelos, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Muñoz, Julia; Morales, Magally Mayanin; Lacasaña, Marina; Aguilar-Garduño, Clemente; Bassol, Susana; Cebrián, Mariano E

    2010-07-01

    Studies on experimental animals have found that organophosphate (OP) pesticides may act as endocrine disruptors; however, their effects on the human hormonal profile have not yet been adequately characterized. We evaluate the association between exposure to OP pesticides, measured through dialkyl phosphate (DAP) metabolites urinary levels, and the male hormone profile. A cross-sectional study was performed in 104 floriculturists of Morelos, Mexico. A structured questionnaire was applied to get information on sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometry, clinical history, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and work history. DAP metabolites [dimethylphosphate (DMP), dimethylthiophosphate, dimethyldithiophosphate, diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and diethyldithiophosphate] were determined using gas-liquid chromatography. Serum levels of FSH, LH, prolactin, testosterone, inhibin B and estradiol were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Multiple linear regression was used to study the association between DAP metabolite levels and male hormonal profile. Data were adjusted by p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene serum levels and other potential confounders. There was a negative association between inhibin B and urinary levels of DMP, DEP, DETP and total DAP metabolites. DEP levels were negatively associated with serum FSH concentrations, but marginally and positively associated with those of testosterone. DETP was marginally associated with lower LH serum levels. There were no other significant associations among OP metabolites and serum hormone levels. Inhibin B and FSH vary according to levels of DAP metabolites in men occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. These results suggest that OP pesticides could act as endocrine disruptors in humans; however, most hormonal values fell within the wide normal range and associations were small. There is, therefore, a need for further investigation to elucidate their biological and clinical

  10. Pesticide risk assessment: A study on inhalation and dermal exposure to 2,4-D and paraquat among Malaysian paddy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Mohd Rafee B; Sahid, Ismail B; Noor, Mohamad Azhar B Mohd; Sulaiman, Norela; Othman, Fadzil

    2011-01-01

    A cross-section analytical study was conducted to evaluate the risk of pesticide exposure to those applying the Class II pesticides 2,4-D and paraquat in the paddy-growing areas of Kerian, Perak, Malaysia. It investigated the influence of weather on exposure as well as documented health problems commonly related to pesticide exposure. Potential inhalation and dermal exposure for 140 paddy farmers (handlers of pesticides) were assessed. Results showed that while temperature and humidity affected exposure, windspeed had the strongest impact on pesticide exposure via inhalation. However, the degree of exposure to both herbicides via inhalation was below the permissible exposure limits set by United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Dermal Exposure Assessment Method (DREAM) readings showed that dermal exposure with manual spraying ranged from moderate to high. With motorized sprayers, however, the level of dermal exposure ranged from low to moderate. Dermal exposure was significantly negatively correlated with the usage of protective clothing. Various types of deleterious health effects were detected among users of manual knapsack sprayers. Long-term spraying activities were positively correlated with increasing levels of the gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) liver enzyme. The type of spraying equipment, usage of proper protective clothing and adherence to correct spraying practices were found to be the most important factors influencing the degree of pesticide exposure among those applying pesticides.

  11. Response of the bacterial community in an on-farm biopurification system, to which diverse pesticides are introduced over an agricultural season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmsgaard, Peter N; Dealtry, Simone; Dunon, Vincent; Heuer, Holger; Hansen, Lars H; Springael, Dirk; Smalla, Kornelia; Riber, Leise; Sørensen, Søren J

    2017-10-01

    A biopurification system (BPS) is used on-farm to clean pesticide-contaminated wastewater. Due to high pesticide loads, a BPS represents a hot spot for the proliferation and selection as well as the genetic adaptation of discrete pesticide degrading microorganisms. However, while considerable knowledge exists on the biodegradation of specific pesticides in BPSs, the bacterial community composition of these systems has hardly been explored. In this work, the Shannon diversity, the richness and the composition of the bacterial community within an operational BPS receiving wastewater contaminated with various pesticides was, for the first time, elucidated over the course of an agricultural season, using DGGE profiling and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA. During the agricultural season, an increase in the concentration of pesticides in the BPS was observed along with the detection of significant community changes including a decrease in microbial diversity. Additionally, a significant increase in the relative abundance of Proteobacteria, mainly the Gammaproteobacteria, was found, and OTUs (operational taxonomic units) affiliated to Pseudomonas responded positively during the course of the season. Furthermore, a banding-pattern analysis of 16S rRNA gene-based DGGE fingerprinting, targeting the Alpha- and Betaproteobacteria as well as the Actinobacteria, indicated that the Betaproteobacteria might play an important role. Interestingly, a decrease of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was observed, indicating their selective disadvantage in a BPS, to which pesticides have been introduced. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  13. Dermal exposure assessment of pesticide use: The case of sprayers in potato farms in the Colombian highlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo, E-mail: camilo.lesmes@geographie.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Geography, University of Munich, Luisenstrasse 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Institute for Systems Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, Karl-Franzens University of Graz, Merangase 18/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Garcia-Santos, Glenda [Department of Geography, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, 8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Leuenberger, Fanny [Institute of Geology, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Sonneggstrasse 5, 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Nuyttens, David [Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research, Technology and Food Science Unit, Agricultural Engineering, Burg. van Gansberghelaan 115 bus 1, 9820 Merelbeke (Belgium); Binder, Claudia R. [Department of Geography, University of Munich, Luisenstrasse 37, D-80333 Munich (Germany); Institute for Systems Science, Innovation and Sustainability Research, Karl-Franzens University of Graz, Merangase 18/I, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2012-07-15

    Quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides in farming systems in developing countries is of special interest for the estimation of potential health risks, especially when there is a lack of occupational hygiene regulations. In this paper we present the results of a dermal exposure assessment for the potato farming system in the highlands of Colombia, where farmers apply pesticides with hand pressure sprayers without any personal protective equipment. The fractioning of the pesticide, in terms of potential and actual dermal exposure, was determined via the whole-body dosimetry methodology, using the tracer uranine as pesticide surrogate, and luminescence spectrometry as analytical method. We assessed the three activities involved in pesticide management: preparation, application, and cleaning; analyzed three types of nozzles: one with a standard discharge and two modified by farmers to increase the discharge; and derived the protection factor given by work clothing. Our results suggest that to reduce the health risk, three aspects have to be considered: (i) avoiding the modification of nozzles, which affects the droplet size spectrum and increases the level of dermal exposure; (ii) using adequate work clothing made of thick fabrics, especially on the upper body parts; and (iii) cleaning properly the tank sprayer before the application activity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We assessed dermal exposure to pesticides in the potato farming system in Colombia. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High potential exposure was found in lower body parts during the application. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High actual exposure was found in arms and back due to inadequate protection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a high health risk of using Metamidophos under current working conditions.

  14. Dermal exposure assessment of pesticide use: The case of sprayers in potato farms in the Colombian highlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; García-Santos, Glenda; Leuenberger, Fanny; Nuyttens, David; Binder, Claudia R.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides in farming systems in developing countries is of special interest for the estimation of potential health risks, especially when there is a lack of occupational hygiene regulations. In this paper we present the results of a dermal exposure assessment for the potato farming system in the highlands of Colombia, where farmers apply pesticides with hand pressure sprayers without any personal protective equipment. The fractioning of the pesticide, in terms of potential and actual dermal exposure, was determined via the whole-body dosimetry methodology, using the tracer uranine as pesticide surrogate, and luminescence spectrometry as analytical method. We assessed the three activities involved in pesticide management: preparation, application, and cleaning; analyzed three types of nozzles: one with a standard discharge and two modified by farmers to increase the discharge; and derived the protection factor given by work clothing. Our results suggest that to reduce the health risk, three aspects have to be considered: (i) avoiding the modification of nozzles, which affects the droplet size spectrum and increases the level of dermal exposure; (ii) using adequate work clothing made of thick fabrics, especially on the upper body parts; and (iii) cleaning properly the tank sprayer before the application activity. - Highlights: ► We assessed dermal exposure to pesticides in the potato farming system in Colombia. ► High potential exposure was found in lower body parts during the application. ► High actual exposure was found in arms and back due to inadequate protection. ► There is a high health risk of using Metamidophos under current working conditions.

  15. Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A

    2014-09-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human exposures. We investigate sampling methodologies using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling device to measure cumulative monthly airborne concentrations of OP pesticides chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs. Passive sampling rates (m(3)d(-1)) were determined using calculations using chemical properties, loss of depuration compounds, and calibration with side-by-side active air sampling in a dynamic laboratory exposure chamber and in the field. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity on outdoor sampling rates were examined at 23 sites in Yakima Valley, Washington. Indoor sampling rates were significantly lower than outdoors. Outdoor rates significantly increased with average wind velocity, with high rates (>4m(3)d(-1)) observed above 8ms(-1). In exposure chamber studies, very little oxygen analog was observed on the PUF-PAS, yet substantial amounts chlorpyrifos-oxon and azinphos methyl oxon were measured in outdoor samples. PUF-PAS is a practical and useful alternative to AAS because it results in little artificial transformation to the oxygen analog during sampling, it provides cumulative exposure estimates, and the measured sampling rates were comparable to rates for other SVOCs. It is ideal for community based participatory research due to low subject burden and simple deployment in remote areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long term exposure to low dose neurotoxic pesticides affects hatching, viability and cholinesterase activity of Artemia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambardella, Chiara; Nichino, Daniela; Iacometti, Camillo; Ferrando, Sara; Falugi, Carla; Faimali, Marco

    2018-03-01

    The brine shrimp Artemia was used as a model organism to test toxicity of several neuroactive pesticides (chlorpyrifos (CLP), chlorpyrifos oxon (CLP ox), diazinon (DZN), carbaryl (CBR)) following exposure to far below than lethal doses. Cysts were exposed to the pesticides in order to test a scenario similar to actual coastal environment contamination, by analyzing different responses. Cysts were rehydrated in water containing the pesticides at concentrations ranging from 10 -11 to 10 -5  M, for 72, 96 and 192 h, respectively. For these exposure times, morpho-functional and biochemical parameters, such as hatching speed and viability were investigated in the larvae together with cholinesterase (ChE) activity quantification and histochemical localization. Finally, ChE inhibition was also compared with conventional selective ChE inhibitors. Results showed that CLP ox and CBR caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in hatching speed, followed by high percentages of larval death, while CLP and DZN were responsible for irregular hatching patterns. In addition, the pesticides mostly caused larval death some days post-hatching, whereas this effect was negligible for the specific ChE inhibitors, suggesting that part of pesticide toxicity may be due to molecules other than the primary target. ChE activity was observed in the protocerebrum lobes, linked to the development of pair eyes. Such activity was inhibited in larvae exposed to all pesticides. When compared to conventional selective inhibitors of ChE activities, this inhibition demonstrated that the selected pesticides mainly affect acetylcholinesterase and, to a lesser extent, pseudocholinesterases. In conclusion, the brine shrimp is a good model to test the environmental toxicity of long term exposure to cholinergic pesticides, since changes in hatching speed, viability and ChE activity were observed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhanced Tolerance of House Mosquito to Different Insecticides due to Agricultural and Household Pesticides in Sewage System of Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Vatandoost, L Ezeddinloo, A H Mahvi, M R Abai, EB Kia, I Mobedi

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Different insecticides are being used for household and agricultural pest control in the capital city of Iran, Tehran. An investigation was carried out in order to evaluate the susceptibility level of laboratory and field collected mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatusin to different insecticides. Field strain was collected from sewage system of the city. Adult females were subjected to the diagnostic dose of different insecticides as recommended by WHO. Results showed that laboratory strains only exhibit resistant to DDT 4%, and susceptible to other insecticides. By using WHO criteria, field strain is resistant to DDT 4%, bendiocarb 0.1%, and tolerant to malathion 5%, permethrin 0.75%, deltamethrin 0.05%, lambdacyhalothrin 0.05% and etofenprox 5%. The field strain is still susceptible to cyfluthrin 0.15%.This findings indicate that routine use of pesticides in household and agricultural pest control may cause resistant in the wastewater mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus.

  18. Dermal exposure assessment of pesticide use: the case of sprayers in potato farms in the Colombian highlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; García-Santos, Glenda; Leuenberger, Fanny; Nuyttens, David; Binder, Claudia R

    2012-07-15

    Quantifying dermal exposure to pesticides in farming systems in developing countries is of special interest for the estimation of potential health risks, especially when there is a lack of occupational hygiene regulations. In this paper we present the results of a dermal exposure assessment for the potato farming system in the highlands of Colombia, where farmers apply pesticides with hand pressure sprayers without any personal protective equipment. The fractioning of the pesticide, in terms of potential and actual dermal exposure, was determined via the whole-body dosimetry methodology, using the tracer uranine as pesticide surrogate, and luminescence spectrometry as analytical method. We assessed the three activities involved in pesticide management: preparation, application, and cleaning; analyzed three types of nozzles: one with a standard discharge and two modified by farmers to increase the discharge; and derived the protection factor given by work clothing. Our results suggest that to reduce the health risk, three aspects have to be considered: (i) avoiding the modification of nozzles, which affects the droplet size spectrum and increases the level of dermal exposure; (ii) using adequate work clothing made of thick fabrics, especially on the upper body parts; and (iii) cleaning properly the tank sprayer before the application activity. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. 77 FR 42433 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... characteristics of difenoconazole. Further information regarding EPA drinking water models used in pesticide... exposures for which there is reliable information.'' This includes exposure through drinking water and in... States Department of Agriculture (USDA) 1994-1996 and 1998 Nationwide Continuing Surveys of Food Intake...

  20. Xeno-oestrogenic activity in serum as marker of occupational pesticide exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    2007-01-01

    -oestrogenic activity in serum was statistically significant for women who had been at work within the last week, while no association was observed for women who had not been at work during the most recent week. Conclusions: The study illustrates the usefulness of this biomarker for qualitative assessment...... with oestrogen-like properties in an occupational setting. Methods: Serum samples were obtained from two separate cohorts representing non-pregnant and pregnant female greenhouse workers in Denmark. Serum samples from 270 non-pregnant women and 173 pregnant women were analysed for xeno-oestrogenic activity......, medium or high based on information collected by detailed interviews of the women and the employers. Results: In both cohorts, an exposure-associated increase in the xeno-oestrogenic activity in serum was demonstrated. Among the pregnant women, the association between pesticide exposure and xeno...

  1. Distribution and Predictors of Pesticides in the Umbilical Cord Blood of Chinese Newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica K. Silver

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Rates of pesticide use in Chinese agriculture are five times greater than the global average, leading to high exposure via the diet. Many are neurotoxic, making prenatal pesticide exposure a concern. Previous studies of prenatal exposure in China focused almost entirely on organochlorines. Here the study goals were to characterize the exposure of Chinese newborns to all classes of pesticides and identify predictors of those exposures. Eighty-four pesticides and 12 metabolites were measured in the umbilical cord plasma of 336 infants. Composite variables were created for totals detected overall and by class. Individual pesticides were analyzed as dichotomous or continuous, based on detection rates. Relationships between demographic characteristics and pesticides were evaluated using generalized linear regression. Seventy-five pesticides were detected. The mean number of detects per sample was 15.3. Increased pesticide detects were found in the cord blood of infants born in the summer (β = 2.2, p = 0.01, particularly in July (β = 4.0, p = 0.03. Similar trends were observed for individual insecticide classes. Thus, a summer birth was the strongest predictor of pesticide evidence in cord blood. Associations were more striking for overall pesticide exposure than for individual pesticides, highlighting the importance of considering exposure to mixtures of pesticides, rather than individual agents or classes.

  2. Metabolic syndrome is associated with exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Anniston, AL, United States☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Weinstock, Ruth S.; Silverstone, Allen E.; Sjödin, Andreas; Pavuk, Marian

    2017-01-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study, was undertaken in 2005–2007 to study environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and health outcomes among residents of Anniston, AL, United States. The examination of potential risks between these pollutants and metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia) was the focus of this analysis. Participants were 548 adults who completed the survey and a clinic visit, were free of diabetes, and had a serum sample for clinical laboratory parameters as well as PCB and OC pesticide concentrations. Associations between summed concentrations of 35 PCB congeners and 9 individual pesticides and metabolic syndrome were examined using generalized linear modeling and logistic regression; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Pollutants were evaluated as quintiles and as log transformations of continuous serum concentrations. Participants were mostly female (68%) with a mean age (SD) of 53.6 (16.2) years. The racial distribution was 56% white and 44% African American; 49% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In unadjusted logistic regression, statistically significant and positive associations across the majority of quintiles were noted for seven individually modeled pesticides (p,p′-DDT, p,p′-DDE, HCB, β-HCCH, oxychlor, tNONA, Mirex). Following adjustment for covariables (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, positive family history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, liver disease, BMI), significant elevations in risk were noted for p,p′-DDT across multiple quintiles (range of ORs 1.61 to 2.36), for tNONA (range of ORs 1.62–2.80) and for p,p′-DDE [OR (95% CI)] of 2.73 (1.09–6.88) in the highest quintile relative to the first. Significant trends were observed in adjusted logistic models for log

  3. Metabolic syndrome is associated with exposure to organochlorine pesticides in Anniston, AL, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Paula F; Weinstock, Ruth S; Silverstone, Allen E; Sjödin, Andreas; Pavuk, Marian

    2017-11-01

    The Anniston Community Health Survey, a cross-sectional study, was undertaken in 2005-2007 to study environmental exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and organochlorine (OC) pesticides and health outcomes among residents of Anniston, AL, United States. The examination of potential risks between these pollutants and metabolic syndrome, a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., hypertension, central obesity, dyslipidemia and dysglycemia) was the focus of this analysis. Participants were 548 adults who completed the survey and a clinic visit, were free of diabetes, and had a serum sample for clinical laboratory parameters as well as PCB and OC pesticide concentrations. Associations between summed concentrations of 35 PCB congeners and 9 individual pesticides and metabolic syndrome were examined using generalized linear modeling and logistic regression; odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Pollutants were evaluated as quintiles and as log transformations of continuous serum concentrations. Participants were mostly female (68%) with a mean age (SD) of 53.6 (16.2) years. The racial distribution was 56% white and 44% African American; 49% met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. In unadjusted logistic regression, statistically significant and positive associations across the majority of quintiles were noted for seven individually modeled pesticides (p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, HCB, β-HCCH, oxychlor, tNONA, Mirex). Following adjustment for covariables (i.e., age, sex, race, education, marital status, current smoking, alcohol consumption, positive family history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease, liver disease, BMI), significant elevations in risk were noted for p,p'-DDT across multiple quintiles (range of ORs 1.61 to 2.36), for tNONA (range of ORs 1.62-2.80) and for p,p'-DDE [OR (95% CI)] of 2.73 (1.09-6.88) in the highest quintile relative to the first. Significant trends were observed in adjusted logistic models for log 10 HCB [OR=6

  4. Modelling pesticide emission patterns in agricultural life cycle inventories using a modular approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mila i Canals, Llorenc; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky; Domenech, Xavier

    outside the boundaries of the field or below the ploughing zone. To determine emissions of pesticide ingredients, we need to model their fate in the field system in order to quantify the fractions which cross its boundaries entering into the ecosphere. A modular framework for the calculation of organic...

  5. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1A: Agricultural Weed Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Vivan M.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. Weeds, their effects, and control in relation to crop production are presented. Pre- and post-emergence treatments are discussed for row crops such as corn and soybeans. Problems with herbicide application to grass pastures, small grains, and…

  6. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 1B: Agricultural Insect Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J.; Ryan, Stephen O.

    This guide provides basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the control of economic insect pests on field and forage crops, especially corn, soybeans, and alfalfa. Full color photographs of the more destructive pests are provided to aid in identification of problems. Precautions and…

  7. Impacts of pesticides and natural stressors on leaf litter decomposition in agricultural streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    shredding activity was governed by the density of shredders, and the density of shredders was not correlated to pesticide contamination mainly due to high abundances of the amphipod Gammarus pulex at all sites. Our study provides the ¿rst ¿eld based results on the importance of multiple stressors...

  8. Overall and class-specific scores of pesticide residues from fruits and vegetables as a tool to rank intake of pesticide residues in United States: A validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Chiu, Yu-Han; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge; Sun, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables are among the primary sources of pesticide exposure through diet, but the lack of adequate measurements hinder the research on health effects of pesticide residues. Pesticide Residue Burden Score (PRBS) for estimating overall dietary pesticide intake, organochlorine pesticide score (OC-PRBS) and organophosphate pesticide score (OP-PRBS) for estimating organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides-specific intake, respectively, were derived using U.S. Department of Agriculture Pesticide Data Program data and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) food frequency questionnaire data. We evaluated the performance of these scores by validating the scores against pesticide metabolites measured in urine or serum among 3,679 participants in NHANES using generalized linear regression. The PRBS was positively associated with a score summarizing the ranks of all pesticide metabolites in a linear fashion (p for linear trend trend trend 0.07) for the OC-PRBS. The PRBS and OP-PRBS had similar performance when they were derived from fruits and vegetables with high vs. low pesticide residues, respectively (p for trend trend 0.07) than from less contaminated Fruits and vegetables (p for trend 0.63), although neither of the associations achieved statistical significance. The PRBS and the class-specific scores for two major types of pesticides were significantly associated with pesticide biomarkers. These scores can reasonably rank study participants by their pesticide residue exposures from fruits and vegetables in large-scale environmental epidemiological studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a new categorization system for pesticides exposure to support harmonized reporting between EU Member States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settimi, Laura; Orford, Rob; Davanzo, Franca; Hague, Charlotte; Desel, Herbert; Pelclova, Daniela; Dragelyte, Gabija; Mathieu-Nolf, Monique; Adams, Richard; Duarte-Davidson, Raquel

    2016-05-01

    European legislation requires reporting from Member States on acute poisoning incidents involving pesticides. However, standard rules for data collection and reporting have not yet been set out. The new categorization system presented in this paper is aimed at enabling Member States to gather comparable data and provide standard reporting on pesticide poisoning exposures. European Regulations providing separate official categorization of biocidal and plant protection pesticides, were used as a basis to build up a unified pesticide categorization and coding system. Data on selected pesticide exposures collected by Poison Control Centres in six EU countries were reviewed, categorized and reported according to the proposed system. The resulting pesticide categorization system has two dimensions. The first part identifies the main category of use, i.e. biocide/plant protection pesticide/unknown, and the secondary category of use, e.g. Rodenticides, Insecticides and acaricides. The second part of the system is organized into two levels: level one identifies chemical grouping, e.g. Coumarins, Pyrethrins/pyrethroids, while level two identifies the active compound by using its Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number. The system was used to provide a unified categorization to compare exposures to plant protection and biocidal Rodenticides and Pyrethrins/pyrethroids Insecticides and acaricides identified by six EU member states. The developed pesticide categorization system was successfully applied to data extracted from different databases and was able to make the required information comparable. The data reported filling in common templates containing a pre-ordinate list of active compounds categorized according the proposed system, highlighted different capabilities in data collection and recording, showing that some of the collaborating centres were not able to distinguish between main categories of pesticide products or provide information on active compounds. The

  10. 76 FR 22044 - Data Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-20

    ... Agriculture and Health and Human Services AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human Services. SUMMARY: This document notifies the public that the Administrator of EPA has forwarded to the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of...

  11. Exposure of amateur gardeners to pesticides via the non-gloved skin per day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beránková, Martina; Hojerová, Jarmila; Melegová, Linda

    2017-10-01

    To predict a risk to gardeners not wearing protective gloves, the dermal absorption of three active insecticides was assessed in vitro using porcine ear-skin simulating 1-h handling of diluted plant protection products. Acetamiprid and Pirimicarb were found in the receptor fluid immediately after 1-h skin exposure, whereas Chlorpyrifos-methyl absorbed in the skin was not released into the receptor fluid even after 23 hours. The Estimated Gardener Exposure Level (EGEL) at 23 hours after 1-h exposure for two worst-case scenarios (i) non-gloved hands; (ii) non-gloved hands/uncovered forearms, was (i) 0.002, 0.042, and 0.057; (ii) 0.006, 0.101, and 0.135 mg/kg bw/day for Acetamiprid, Pirimicarb, and Chlorpyrifos-methyl, respectively, although the systemically available Chlorpyrifos-methyl amount, due to retention in the skin, is probably lower than determined. The Gardener Exposure Risk (GER), as a ratio of Acceptable Operator Exposure Level (databased values) to EGEL, for Acetamiprid was (i) 35 and 12-fold higher than the limit 1, so the risk via the skin is assumed to be low. Based on the GER values of (i) 0.83 and 0.18; (ii) 0.34 and 0.07 (i.e.health risk to gardeners handling pesticide products without skin protection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Mikael; Hardell, Lennart; Carlberg, Michael; Akerman, Måns

    2008-10-01

    We report a population based case-control study of exposure to pesticides as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Male and female subjects aged 18-74 years living in Sweden were included during December 1, 1999, to April 30, 2002. Controls were selected from the national population registry. Exposure to different agents was assessed by questionnaire. In total 910 (91 %) cases and 1016 (92%) controls participated. Exposure to herbicides gave odds ratio (OR) 1.72, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18-2.51. Regarding phenoxyacetic acids highest risk was calculated for MCPA; OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.27-6.22, all these cases had a latency period >10 years. Exposure to glyphosate gave OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.71 and with >10 years latency period OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.16-4.40. Insecticides overall gave OR 1.28, 95% CI 0.96-1.72 and impregnating agents OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.07-2.30. Results are also presented for different entities of NHL. In conclusion our study confirmed an association between exposure to phenoxyacetic acids and NHL and the association with glyphosate was considerably strengthened.

  13. Contamination of phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in agricultural soils from the Yangtze River Delta of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianteng; Pan, Lili; Zhan, Yu; Lu, Hainan; Tsang, Daniel C W; Liu, Wenxin; Wang, Xilong; Li, Xiangdong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-02-15

    To reveal the pollution status associated with rapid urbanization and economic growth, extensive areas of agricultural soils (approximately 45,800 km(2)) in the Yangtze River Delta of China were investigated with respect to selected endocrine disruptor compounds (EDCs), including phthalate esters (PAEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The residues of sum of 15 PAEs, sum of 15 OCPs and sum of 13 PBDEs were in the range of 167-9370 ng/g, 1.0-3520 ng/g, and usage and recent input. Agricultural plastic film was considered to be an important source of PAEs. Discharge from furniture industry was potential major source of PBDEs in this region. The selected pollutants showed quite different spatial distributions within the studied region. It is worth noting that much higher concentrations of the EDCs were found on the borders between Shanghai and the two neighboring provinces, where agriculture and industry developed rapidly in recent years. Contaminants from both agricultural and industrial activities made this area a pollution hotspot, which should arouse more stringent regulation to safeguard the environment and food security. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoundou, K; Brennan, M; Sacchettini, G; Panzone, L; Butler-Ellis, M C; Capri, E; Charistou, A; Chaideftou, E; Gerritsen-Ebben, M G; Machera, K; Spanoghe, P; Glass, R; Marchis, A; Doanngoc, K; Hart, A; Frewer, L J

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Exposure to persistent and non-persistent pesticides in a non-occupationally exposed population in Tenerife Island (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Luzardo, Octavio P; García, Carlos Pérez; Zumbado, Manuel; Yanes, Carmen; Trujillo-Martín, María del Mar; Boada Fernández del Campo, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an "environmental obesogen", was detected in 82%, and "endocrine disrupter" pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Household exposure to pesticides and bladder exstrophy in a newborn baby boy: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Marlene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Bladder exstrophy is a rare urogenital abnormality. Other urogenital malformations have been associated with exposure to hormonal pesticide disruptors during critical developmental periods. This is the first report in the literature to associate household exposure to pesticides with bladder exstrophy. Case presentation We describe the pediatric environmental history of a newborn baby boy with isolated bladder exstrophy. In this case the pediatric environmental history includes the constitutional, genealogical, genetic and environmental factors related to bladder exstrophy, which revealed a cockroach infestation in the parents' home and the daily use of bug spray to kill them. The mother used one bottle of spray every 2 days (1000cc and more in the summer, when the problem was worse. During gestational weeks 0-12, the mother intensively used a domestic pesticide consisting of a mixture of pyrethroids (cyfenothrin 0.5%, and tetramethrin 0.31% and pyriproxyfen (0.01%. She described repeated episodes of mild to moderate poisoning that are associated with the use of household pesticides. The mother is a housewife and the father works as a fumigator of fruit fields and he reported gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the use of occupational pesticides. However, he did not believe he carried traces of these products into the home and his wife washed his work clothes separately. The pyrethroids and pyriproxyfen were detected in a urine sample obtained from the child 4 months after he was born. No other risk factors were identified. Conclusions A detailed and carefully conducted pediatric environmental history, which includes information about home pesticide use, should be carried out for all children with bladder exstrophy. Domestic exposure to pesticides during critical developmental periods may have deleterious effects for the fetus.

  17. Current-use pesticides in stream water and suspended particles following runoff: exposure, effects, and mitigation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereswill, Renja; Streloke, Martin; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-06-01

    The European Union's directive for sustainable use of pesticides requires implementing risk mitigation measures at streams threatened by pesticide entries. The need for mitigation measures was investigated at 10 stream sites within an intensively used arable region in central Germany by characterizing pesticide exposure following edge-of-field runoff and effects on the aquatic macroinvertebrates. Moreover, the influence of riparian buffer strip width (as a mitigation measure) at the sampling sites was considered. Generally, invertebrate fauna was dominated by pesticide-tolerant species, suggesting a high pesticide exposure at almost all sites. This result is also reflected by the elevated levels of suspended particle contamination in terms of toxic units (logTUMax  > -2), corresponding to one-hundredth of the median lethal concentration (LC50) to Daphnia magna. At two sites that received high aqueous-phase entries of the pyrethroid lambda-cyhalothrin (logTUMax  > -0.6), the abundance and number of sensitive species in terms of the species at risk index decreased during the pesticide application period. In contrast, no acute significant negative effects on macroinvertebrates were observed at sites characterised by low water-phase toxicity (logTUMax  < -3.5). An influence of riparian buffer strip width on pesticide exposure was not observed, supposedly because of the presence of erosion rills and ephemeral ditches. In conclusion, results show that mitigation measures (such as the improvement of currently present riparian buffer strips) are needed in the study area. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF YOUNG CHILDREN'S POTENTIAL PESTICIDE EXPOSURE FOLLOWING A RESIDENTIAL PESTICIDE APPLICATION - PART I. STUDY DESIGN: EXPOSURE OF CHILDREN AND TOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semi-volatile pesticides such as chlorpyrifos can be dynamic in nature; once applied, they can migrate spatially and concentrations can build-up in and on objects and surfaces. Such pesticides are frequently used in U.S. households. Children within these homes may be exposed ...

  19. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Ana; Cerrillo, Isabel; Granada, Alicia; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2007-01-01

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p < 0.045) and red meat (p < 0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p < 0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p < 0.038) and poultry (p < 0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p < 0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p < 0.001), red meat (p < 0.001) and white and oily fish (p < 0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p < 0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health

  20. Pesticide exposure of two age groups of women and its relationship with their diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Ana [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Cerrillo, Isabel [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Granada, Alicia [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain); Olea-Serrano, Fatima [Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: folea@ugr.es

    2007-08-15

    The widespread presence of organochlorine (OC) pesticides in human samples may be explained by the environmental exposure of the population. Foods are considered a constant source of exposure, despite compliance with maximum permitted residue levels. This study aimed to examine the relationship between nutritional habits of women in Southeast Spain and their serum concentrations of OCs. A semi-quantitative questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency of consumption of foods by two age groups of women, pre-menopausal (Pre-M) and post-menopausal (Post-M), and their serum pesticide levels were measured by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector and confirmed by GC and mass spectrometry. The Pre-M group showed significantly higher serum concentrations of all OCs studied with the exception of DDE. The groups significantly differed in consumption of all food groups with the exception of fruit. In the Pre-M group, the mean serum p,p-DDT concentration was significantly associated with milk/yoghurt (p < 0.045) and red meat (p < 0.023), serum o,p-DDT with red meat (p < 0.049), serum aldrin with eggs (p < 0.038) and poultry (p < 0.024), and serum DDE with eggs (p < 0.025). In the Post-M group, serum lindane was associated with fresh and cured cheese (p < 0.001), red meat (p < 0.001) and white and oily fish (p < 0.001), and both serum DDE and dieldrin were associated with fresh cheese, cured cheese, red meat, and white and oily fish (p < 0.001). These results confirm foods as a source of human exposure to persistent organic molecules. Consideration should be given to the reduction of permitted residue levels to minimize this threat to human and animal health.

  1. Pesticide Residues on Three Cut Flower Species and Potential Exposure of Florists in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaoula Toumi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the prevalence of pesticide contamination and the risk of florists’ exposure when handling cut flowers, sampling and analysis of 90 bouquets of the most commonly sold cut flowers in Belgium (50 bouquets of roses; 20 of gerberas, and 20 of chrysanthemums were carried out. The bouquets were collected from 50 florists located in the seven largest cities of Belgium (Antwerp, Brussels, Charleroi, Ghent, Leuven, Liege, and Namur and from five supermarkets located in the different regions. To have a better understanding of the route of exposure and professional practices a questionnaire was also addressed to a group of 25 florists who volunteered to take part in the survey. All florists were interviewed individually when collecting the questionnaire. The residual pesticide deposit values on cut flowers were determined in an accredited laboratory using a multi-residue (QuEChERS Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe method and a combination of gas chromatography (GC and liquid chormatograhphy (LC analysis. A total of 107 active substances were detected from all samples; i.e., an average of about 10 active substances per bouquet. The most severely contaminated bouquet accumulated a total concentration of residues up to 97 mg/kg. Results show that roses are the most contaminated cut flowers; with an average of 14 substances detected per sample and a total concentration per rose sample of 26 mg/kg. Some active substances present an acute toxicity (acephate, methiocarb, monocrotophos, methomyl, deltamethrin, etc. and exposure can generate a direct effect on the nervous system of florists. Nevertheless, fungicides (dodemorph, propamocarb, and procymidone were the most frequently detected in samples and had the highest maximum concentrations out of all the active substances analysed. Dodemorph was the most frequently detected substance with the highest maximum concentration (41.9 mg/kg measured in the rose samples. It appears from the

  2. Valuing health risk in agriculture: a choice experiment approach to pesticide use in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jianjun; Wang, Wenyu; He, Rui; Gong, Haozhou

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a choice experiment approach to investigate farmers' valuations for health risk changes associated with pesticide use in Anqiu County, China. An empirical comparison on the disparity between farmers' willingness to pay (WTP) for a health risk reduction and willingness to accept (WTA) for the same risk increase is also conducted. Respondents were randomly assigned into the WTP group or the WTA group. Four attributes (health consequence, baseline risk, risk change size, and price) were identified and included. The results show that cancer consequence due to pesticide use decreases the utility of the farmer. A higher baseline risk has a higher WTP to reduce the risk and a higher probability of receiving compensation. If the health risk change size is bigger, it will result in a higher WTP and higher compensation. Household income, education, and age have significant and positive impacts on farmers' WTP. Farmers who are more educated or female are more likely to accept the compensation scheme if health risks increase. The marginal WTA for the same risk change is about two times higher than the marginal WTP. The findings of this study can contribute to the literature comparing people's WTP and WTA in a discrete choice experiment on valuing health risk changes associated with pesticide use.

  3. Memory impairment due to fipronil pesticide exposure occurs at the GABAA receptor level, in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Antonio Francisco; de Oliveira Souza, Ana Carolina; Carvalho, Caio Cristóvão; Horta, Daniel França; De Fraia, Daniel; Anselmo, Fabio; Chaguri, João Leandro; Faria, Caique Aparecido

    2016-10-15

    Fipronil (F) a pesticide considered of second generation cause various toxic effects in target and non-target organisms including humans in which provoke neurotoxicity, having the antagonism of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) as their main mechanism for toxic action. GABAergic system has been involved in processes related to the memory formation and consolidation. The present work studied the importance of GABA to the mechanisms involved in the very early development of fipronil-induced memory impairment in rats. Memory behavior was assessed using new object recognition task (ORT) and eight radial arm maze task (8-RAM) to study effects on cognitive and spatial memory. Locomotor behavior was assessed using open field task (OF). The dose of fipronil utilized was studied through a pilot experiment. The GABA antagonist picrotoxin (P) was used to enhance fipronil effects on GABAergic system. Fipronil or picrotoxin decrease memory studied in ORT and 8-RAM tasks. Additionally, F and P co-exposure enhanced effects on memory compared to controls, F, and P, suggesting strongly a GABAergic effect. Weight gain modulation and fipronil in blood were utilized as animal's intoxication indicators. In conclusion, here we report that second-generation pesticides, such as fipronil, can have toxic interactions with the CNS of mammals and lead to memory impairment by modulating the GABAergic system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Honey bee-collected pollen in agro-ecosystems reveals diet diversity, diet quality, and pesticide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Megan J; Williams, Geoffrey R; Evans, Rodger C; Shutler, Dave

    2017-09-01

    European honey bees Apis mellifera are important commercial pollinators that have suffered greater than normal overwintering losses since 2007 in North America and Europe. Contributing factors likely include a combination of parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition. We examined diet diversity, diet nutritional quality, and pesticides in honey bee-collected pollen from commercial colonies in the Canadian Maritime Provinces in spring and summer 2011. We sampled pollen collected by honey bees at colonies in four site types: apple orchards, blueberry fields, cranberry bogs, and fallow fields. Proportion of honey bee-collected pollen from crop versus noncrop flowers was high in apple, very low in blueberry, and low in cranberry sites. Pollen nutritional value tended to be relatively good from apple and cranberry sites and poor from blueberry and fallow sites. Floral surveys ranked, from highest to lowest in diversity, fallow, cranberry, apple, and blueberry sites. Pesticide diversity in honey bee-collected pollen was high from apple and blueberry sites and low from cranberry and fallow sites. Four different neonicotinoid pesticides were detected, but neither these nor any other pesticides were at or above LD 50 levels. Pollen hazard quotients were highest in apple and blueberry sites and lowest in fallow sites. Pollen hazard quotients were also negatively correlated with the number of flower taxa detected in surveys. Results reveal differences among site types in diet diversity, diet quality, and pesticide exposure that are informative for improving honey bee and land agro-ecosystem management.

  5. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  6. Assessment of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. Producers’ Exposure Level to Pesticides, in Kouka and Toussiana (Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diakalia Son

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess producers’ exposure level to pesticides in vegetable production in Burkina Faso, a study was carried out in 2016 and 2017 among 30 tomato producers in the municipalities of Kouka and Toussiana. Eighteen (18 commercial formulations were identified, with more than 50% of pesticides destined for cotton production. Eleven active substances have been identified and the most frequently used are λ-cyhalothrin (35%, acetamiprid (22% and profenofos (13%. The most commonly used chemical families are pyrethroids (28% and organophosphates (18%. The study revealed a low level of training for producers, a high use of pesticides according to the Frequency Treatment Indicator, and a very low level of protection used by producers. The Health Risk Index shows that active substances such as methomyl, λ-cyhalothrin and profenofos present very high risk to operators’ health. Based on the UK-POEM model, the predictive exposure levels obtained varied from 0.0105 mg/kg body weight/day to 1.7855 mg/kg body weight/day, which is several times higher than the Acceptable Operator Exposure Level. However, the study also shows that exposure can be greatly reduced if the required Personal Protective Equipment is worn. Producers’ awareness and training on integrated pest management are necessary to reduce the risks linked to the pesticides use in Burkina Faso.

  7. Adverse effects on sexual development in rat offspring after low dose exposure to a mixture of endocrine disrupting pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hass, Ulla; Boberg, Julie; Christiansen, Sofie

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a mixture of low doses of five environmentally relevant endocrine disrupting pesticides, epoxiconazole, mancozeb, prochloraz, tebuconazole and procymidone, would cause adverse developmental toxicity effects in rats. In rat dams, a significant increase...... and cumulative intake, because of the potentially serious impact of mixed exposure on development and reproduction in humans....

  8. Occupational pesticide exposure in early pregnancy associated with sex-specific neurobehavioral deficits in the children at school age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Debes, Frodi; Wohlfahrt-Veje, Christine

    2015-01-01

    categorized as occupationally exposed to pesticides were moved to unexposed work functions or went on paid leave, while women without any exposure were considered unexposed controls. Of the resulting birth cohort of 203 children, 133 (65%) were examined at age 6 to 11years together with 44 newly recruited...

  9. Data on application frequency of pesticide for risk assessment purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drooge, H.L. van; Groeneveld, C.N.; Schipper, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    In risk assessment, information from toxicity studies is combined with information on worker exposure. In general, agricultural practice implies long-term intermittent exposure to various pesticides. This issue can only be addressed when sufficient information exist, on exposure regimes. Patterns of

  10. Evolution determines how global warming and pesticide exposure will shape predator-prey interactions with vector mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tam T; Janssens, Lizanne; Dinh, Khuong V; Op de Beeck, Lin; Stoks, Robby

    2016-07-01

    How evolution may mitigate the effects of global warming and pesticide exposure on predator-prey interactions is directly relevant for vector control. Using a space-for-time substitution approach, we addressed how 4°C warming and exposure to the pesticide endosulfan shape the predation on Culex pipiens mosquitoes by damselfly predators from replicated low- and high-latitude populations. Although warming was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates on these prey. Possibly, under warming escape speeds of the mosquitoes increased more than the attack efficiency of the predators. Endosulfan imposed mortality and induced behavioral changes (including increased filtering and thrashing and a positional shift away from the bottom) in mosquito larvae. Although the pesticide was only lethal for the mosquitoes, it reduced predation rates by the low-latitude predators. This can be explained by the combination of the evolution of a faster life history and associated higher vulnerabilities to the pesticide (in terms of growth rate and lowered foraging activity) in the low-latitude predators and pesticide-induced survival selection in the mosquitoes. Our results suggest that predation rates on mosquitoes at the high latitude will be reduced under warming unless predators evolve toward the current low-latitude phenotype or low-latitude predators move poleward.

  11. Impacts of nutrients and pesticides from small- and large-scale agriculture on the water quality of Lake Ziway, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Berhan M; Hailu, Amare; Wiegant, Daniel A; Scholten, Bernice S; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2018-05-01

    The area around Lake Ziway in Ethiopia is going through a major agricultural transformation with both small-scale farmers and large horticultural companies using pesticides and fertilisers at an increased rate. To be able to understand how this influences the water quality of Lake Ziway, water quality data was gathered to study the dynamics of pesticide concentrations and physicochemical parameters for the years from 2009 to 2015. Results indicate that for some physicochemical parameters, including pH, potassium and iron, over 50 % of the values were above the maximum permissible limit of the Ethiopian standard for drinking water. The fungicide spiroxamine poses a high chronic risk when the water is used for drinking water, while the estimated intake of diazinon was approximately 50 % of the acceptable daily intake. Higher-tier risk assessment indicated that the fungicide spiroxamine poses a high acute risk to aquatic organisms, while possible acute risks were indicated for the insecticides deltamethrin and endosulfan. Longer-term monitoring needs to be established to show the water quality changes across time and space, and the current study can be used as a baseline measurement for further research in the area as well as an example for other surface water systems in Ethiopia and Africa.

  12. Stream habitat structure influences macroinvertebrate response to pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural pesticide contamination in surface waters is increasingly threatening to impair the surface water ecosystems. Agricultural streams are furthermore often heavily maintained to optimise the transport of water away from fields. The physical habitat degradation that result from heavy...... stream maintenance probably introduce additional stress that may act in concert with pesticide stress. We surveyed pesticide contamination and macroinvertebrate community structure in 14 streams along a gradient of expected pesticide exposure. A paired-reach approach was applied to differentiate...... the effects of pesticides between sites with degraded and more undisturbed physical properties. The effect of pesticides on macroinvertebrate communities (measured as the relative abundance of SPEcies At Risk) was increased at stream sites with degraded physical habitats primarily due to the absence...

  13. Political Ecologies of Global Health: Pesticide Exposure in Southwestern Ecuador's Banana Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbois, Ben Wesley; Harris, Leila; Spiegel, Jerry M

    2018-01-01

    Pesticide exposure in Ecuador's banana industry reflects political economic and ecological processes that interact across scales to affect human health. We use this case study to illustrate opportunities for applying political ecology of health scholarship in the burgeoning field of global health. Drawing on an historical literature review and ethnographic data collected in Ecuador's El Oro province, we present three main areas where a political ecological approach can enrich global health scholarship: perceptive characterization of multi-scalar and ecologically entangled pathways to health outcomes; critical analysis of discursive dynamics such as competing scalar narratives; and appreciation of the environment-linked subjectivities and emotions of people experiencing globalized health impacts. Rapprochement between these fields may also provide political ecologists with access to valuable empirical data on health outcomes, venues for engaged scholarship, and opportunities to synthesize numerous insightful case studies and discern broader patterns.

  14. Dietary exposure to a low dose of pesticides alone or as a mixture: the biological metabolic fingerprint and impact on hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demur, C; Métais, B; Canlet, C; Tremblay-Franco, M; Gautier, R; Blas-Y-Estrada, F; Sommer, C; Gamet-Payrastre, L

    2013-06-07

    Consumers are exposed to a mixture of pesticides through their food intake. These compounds are considered risk factors for human health, and the impact of dietary exposure to low doses of pesticide mixtures remains poorly understood. For this study we developed a mouse model to mimic consumer exposure in order to compare the effect of pesticides both alone or combined at doses corresponding to their Acceptable Daily Intake value. Female mice were exposed to pesticides throughout gestation and lactation. After weaning pups were fed the same pesticide-enriched diet their mothers had received for an additional 11 weeks. A metabonomic approach using (1)H NMR-based analysis of plasma showed that exposure to each pesticide produced a specific metabolic fingerprint in adult offspring. Discriminant metabolites between groups were glucose or lactate, choline, glycerophosphocholine and phosphocholine. Interestingly, metabolite differences were observed as early as weaned animals that had not yet been directly exposed themselves. Studies of the hematopoietic system revealed that dietary exposure to one particular pesticide, endosulfan, produced a significant decrease in red blood cell and hemoglobin levels, consistent with hemolytic anemia. Moreover, cell signaling profiles of bone marrow progenitors were also clearly affected. Expression of cell signaling proteins such as P35, CDC27, FAK, P38 MAP kinase, calcineurin and caspase as well as proteins involved in the stability or structure of the cytoskeleton (vinculin, MAP2) was changed upon dietary exposure to pesticides. Finally, we found that dietary exposure to a mixture of pesticides had effects that differed and were often lesser or equal to that of the most efficient pesticide (endosulfan), suggesting that the effect of pesticide mixtures cannot always be predicted from the combined effects of their constituent compounds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid clothianidin impaired olfactory learning acquisition in honeybees, leading to potential impacts on colony fitness, but not in bumblebees. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae slightly impaired learning in honeybees, but no interactive effects were observed. Nosema did not infect bumblebees (3% infection success). Nevertheless, Nosema-treated bumblebees had a slightly lower rate of learning than controls, but faster learning in combination with neonicotinoid exposure. This highlights the potential for complex interactive effects of stressors on learning. Our results underline that one cannot readily extrapolate findings from one bee species to others. This has important implications for regulatory risk assessments which generally use honeybees as a model for all bees. PMID:27053744

  16. Chronic neonicotinoid pesticide exposure and parasite stress differentially affects learning in honeybees and bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piiroinen, Saija; Goulson, Dave

    2016-04-13

    Learning and memory are crucial functions which enable insect pollinators to efficiently locate and extract floral rewards. Exposure to pesticides or infection by parasites may cause subtle but ecologically important changes in cognitive functions of pollinators. The potential interactive effects of these stressors on learning and memory have not yet been explored. Furthermore, sensitivity to stressors may differ between species, but few studies have compared responses in different species. Here, we show that chronic exposure to field-realistic levels of the neonicotinoid clothianidin impaired olfactory learning acquisition in honeybees, leading to potential impacts on colony fitness, but not in bumblebees. Infection by the microsporidian parasite Nosema ceranae slightly impaired learning in honeybees, but no interactive effects were observed. Nosema did not infect bumblebees (3% infection success). Nevertheless, Nosema-treated bumblebees had a slightly lower rate of learning than controls, but faster learning in combination with neonicotinoid exposure. This highlights the potential for complex interactive effects of stressors on learning. Our results underline that one cannot readily extrapolate findings from one bee species to others. This has important implications for regulatory risk assessments which generally use honeybees as a model for all bees. © 2016 The Author(s).

  17. Sources of exposure to and public health implications of organophosphate pesticides Fuentes de exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados e implicaciones para la salud pública

    OpenAIRE

    Kushik Jaga; Chandrabhan Dharmani

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the public health significance of organophosphate pesticide exposure in the United States of America. Since the situation of high organophosphate pesticide exposure and the concomitant health risks in the developing countries of the world is well known, this article seeks to highlight the public health significance of organophosphate exposure in the United States, where it is less common than in many other nations. Looking at the situation in the United States would serve...

  18. Effect of the submergence, the bed form geometry, and the speed of the surface water flow on the mitigation of pesticides in agricultural ditches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutron, Olivier; Margoum, Christelle; Chovelon, Jean-Marc; Guillemain, CéLine; Gouy, VéRonique

    2011-08-01

    Pesticides, which have been extensively used in agriculture, have become a major environmental issue, especially regarding surface and groundwater contamination. Of particular importance are vegetated farm drainage ditches, which can play an important role in the mitigation of pesticide contamination by adsorption onto ditch bed substrates. This role is, however, poorly understood, especially regarding the influence of hydrodynamic parameters, which make it difficult to promote best management practice of these systems. We have assessed the influence of three of these parameters (speed of the surface water flow, submergence, and geometrical characteristics of the bed forms) on the transfer and adsorption of selected pesticides (isoproturon, diuron, tebuconazole, and azoxystrobin) into the bed substrate by performing experiments with a tilted experimental flume, using hemp fibers as a standard of natural organic substrates that are found at the bottom of agricultural ditches. Results show the transfer of pesticides from surface water flow into bed substrate is favored, both regarding the amounts transferred into the bed substrate and the kinetics of the transfer, when the surfac