WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural pest control

  1. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  2. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  3. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  4. Spatially optimal habitat management for enhancing natural control of an invasive agricultural pest: soybean aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    By their direct effects on private profitability, invasive agricultural pests create special incentives for management that set them apart from other categories of invasive species. One attractive nonchemical management approach for agricultural pests relies upon biological control by natural enemie

  5. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  6. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  7. Biorational agents--mechanism and importance in IPM and IRM programs for controlling agricultural pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaaya, I; Kontsedalov, S; Mazirov, D; Horowitz, A R

    2001-01-01

    Among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. In addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the GABA receptors (avermectins), the salivary glands of sucking pests (pymetrozine) and others. Among the most recent novel insecticides with selective properties are novaluron, thiamethoxam, emamectin and spinosad. Novaluron (Rimon) is a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor that acts by both ingestion and contact. It is a powerful suppressor of lepidopteran larvae such as Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera (by ingestion) and of whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (by contact). Thiamethoxam (Actarn), a novel neonicotinoid acts specifically on aphids and whiteflies. Emamectin (Proclaim), an avermectin derivative acts on GABA receptor affecting diversity of insects such as mites, lepidopterans and thrips. Spinosad (Tracer) seems to act on both acetylcholine and GABA receptors affecting diversity of insect species and is considered an important agent for controlling the western flower thrips.

  8. Atoms for pest control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindquist, D.A. (Joint FAO/IAEA Div. of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy for Food and Agricultural Development, Vienna (Austria)) (and others)

    1984-06-01

    Insects cause losses estimated at between 8% and 20% of total production of crops and livestock throughout the world. With the aim of developing technologies which can reduce such losses, the Insect and Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division actively sponsors projects and conducts research through the Entomology Section of the Agricultural Biotechnology Laboratory at Seibersdorf. In its work, the Section has placed considerable emphasis on the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). This technique involves the sterilization and release of large numbers of insects of the target species into the area where control is to be achieved. There, the sterile insects mate with the fertile wild insects, which produce no progeny: the technique is thus a highly specific form of ''birth control''. It is being used against a number of pest species in several countries.

  9. Cell-Penetrating Recombinant Peptides for Potential Use in Agricultural Pest Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis. One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  10. Cell-penetrating recombinant peptides for potential use in agricultural pest control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2012-09-28

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  11. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified.

  12. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  13. [Bacillus thuringiensis: general aspects. An approach to its use in the biological control of lepidopteran insects behaving as agricultural pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauka, Diego H; Benintende, Graciela B

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most widely applied biological pesticide used to control insects that affect agriculture and forestry and which transmit human and animal pathogens. During the past decades B. thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of their pesticidal crystal proteins. As a result, a coherent picture of these relationships has emerged. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins and their performance in agricultural and other natural settings. With this knowledge as background and the help of biotechnological tools, researchers are now reporting promising results in the development of more useful toxins, recombinant bacteria, new formulations and transgenic plants that express pesticidal activity, in order to assure that these products are utilized with the best efficiency and benefit. This article is an attempt to integrate all these recent developments in the study of B. thuringiensis into a context of biological control of lepidopteran insect pest of agricultural importance.

  14. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  15. The role of allelopathy in agricultural pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, Muhammad; Jabran, Khawar; Cheema, Zahid A; Wahid, Abdul; Siddique, Kadambot H M

    2011-05-01

    Allelopathy is a naturally occurring ecological phenomenon of interference among organisms that may be employed for managing weeds, insect pests and diseases in field crops. In field crops, allelopathy can be used following rotation, using cover crops, mulching and plant extracts for natural pest management. Application of allelopathic plant extracts can effectively control weeds and insect pests. However, mixtures of allelopathic water extracts are more effective than the application of single-plant extract in this regard. Combined application of allelopathic extract and reduced herbicide dose (up to half the standard dose) give as much weed control as the standard herbicide dose in several field crops. Lower doses of herbicides may help to reduce the development of herbicide resistance in weed ecotypes. Allelopathy thus offers an attractive environmentally friendly alternative to pesticides in agricultural pest management. In this review, application of allelopathy for natural pest management, particularly in small-farm intensive agricultural systems, is discussed.

  16. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    research activities carried out by national or international agricultural research programs in Africa focus on classical biological control and host plant resistance breeding. With the exception of classical biological control of the cassava mealybug, research results have not been widely adopted. This could be due to African farmers facing heterogeneous conditions, not needing fixed prescriptions or one ideal variety but a number of options and genotypes to choose from. Indigenous pest management knowledge is site-specific and should be the basis for developing integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. Farmers often lack the biological and ecological information necessary to develop better pest management through experimentation. Formal research should be instrumental in providing the input necessary to facilitate participatory technology development such as that done by Farmer Field Schools, an approach now emerging in different parts of Africa.

  17. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  18. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the

  19. Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Ming; Lin Zhen-Quan; Ke Jian-Hong

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates.A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth,and it may fragment into two smaller ones.The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory.For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k)= Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i,j)= L,we find that the total number M0A(t)and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t)both increase exponentially with time if L≠0.Furthermore,we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation.In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k)= J1k,it is found that only when I pests be killed off.Otherwise,the pest aggregates can survive.In the model of pest control with a natural enemy,a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one.For this system,we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning,pests will be eliminated by them eventually.

  20. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages, ...

  1. Phylogenetic Relations of Bacillus thuringiensis: Implications for Risks Associated to Its Use as a Microbiological Pest Control Agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, N. B.; Hansen, B. M.

    1998-01-01

    6th European Meeting Microbial Control of Pests in Sustainable Agriculture, Copenhagen, (Denmark), 10-15 August 1997.......6th European Meeting Microbial Control of Pests in Sustainable Agriculture, Copenhagen, (Denmark), 10-15 August 1997....

  2. Potential use of a serpin from Arabidopsis for pest control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alvarez-Alfageme

    Full Text Available Although genetically modified (GM plants expressing toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt protect agricultural crops against lepidopteran and coleopteran pests, field-evolved resistance to Bt toxins has been reported for populations of several lepidopteran species. Moreover, some important agricultural pests, like phloem-feeding insects, are not susceptible to Bt crops. Complementary pest control strategies are therefore necessary to assure that the benefits provided by those insect-resistant transgenic plants are not compromised and to target those pests that are not susceptible. Experimental GM plants producing plant protease inhibitors have been shown to confer resistance against a wide range of agricultural pests. In this study we assessed the potential of AtSerpin1, a serpin from Arabidopsis thaliana (L. Heynh., for pest control. In vitro assays were conducted with a wide range of pests that rely mainly on either serine or cysteine proteases for digestion and also with three non-target organisms occurring in agricultural crops. AtSerpin1 inhibited proteases from all pest and non-target species assayed. Subsequently, the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis Boisduval and the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris were fed on artificial diets containing AtSerpin1, and S. littoralis was also fed on transgenic Arabidopsis plants overproducing AtSerpin1. AtSerpin1 supplied in the artificial diet or by transgenic plants reduced the growth of S. littoralis larvae by 65% and 38%, respectively, relative to controls. Nymphs of A. pisum exposed to diets containing AtSerpin1 suffered high mortality levels (LC(50 = 637 µg ml(-1. The results indicate that AtSerpin1 is a good candidate for exploitation in pest control.

  3. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  4. Boundaries of sustainability in simple and elaborate models of agricultural pest control with a pesticide and a non-toxic refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed-Awel, Jemal; Ringland, John; Bantle, John; Festinger, Aaron; Jo, Hee-Joon; Klafehn, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In two models of pest control using a pesticidal crop along with a non-pesticidal refuge to prevent the development of resistance, we numerically compute the bifurcations that bound the region in parameter space where control is sustainable indefinitely. An exact formula for one of the bifurcation surfaces in one of the models is also found. One model is conceptual and as simple as possible. The other is realistic and very detailed. Despite the great differences in the models, we find the same distinctive bifurcation structure. We focus on the parameters that determine: (i) the restriction of pest exchange between the crop and the refuge, which we call 'screening' the refuge, and (ii) the recessiveness of the resistance trait. The screened refuge technique is seen to work in the models up to quite high values of fitness of resistant heterozygotes, that is, even when resistance is not strongly recessive.

  5. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  6. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  7. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  8. Redirect research to control coffee pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coff...

  9. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣

    2012-01-01

    Chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect-pests in farmlands cause a series of serious problems including residue effects, environmental pollution, etc. Bio-pesticides and bio-controls are, on the other hand, slowly effective, high cost, and, always with certain targets. Integrated, high-efficient and environment-friendly disease and insect-pest control measures are in increasing demand today. Landscape ecological research has shown that the populations of pathogenic bacteria, pests and their natural enemies are largely affected by landscape patterns. This has provided a new insight into plant disease and insect-pest control. Rational planning of agro-landscape patterns at landscape scale and reasonable arrangement of planting structures and farming activities constituted a beneficial control of agricultural diseases and insect-pests in farmlands. This paper discussed control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests from the point of view of agro-landscape at the landscape, field and farm management levels. At the landscape level, control measures of plant diseases and insect-pests included increasing area portions of semi-natural habitats, enriching semi-natural and farm crop habitats and enhancing heterogeneity of landscape structures. It was also necessary to keep the degree of connections among landscapes so as to maintain a balanced migration of natural enemies and prevention of the spread of plant diseases and insect-pests. Low-quality semi-natural habitat plaques also needed to be unproved. At the field level, original farmland boundaries needed to be preserved. Also building of new farmland buffers were needed to control plant diseases and insect-pests in adjacent farmlands. Constructed farmland buffers needed to be integrated into original semi-natural habitat and farmland boundaries. Furthermore, it was important that farmland buffers were rationally configured for plant species, weeding,fertilization, spray pesticide and

  10. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  11. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A. Martin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1 the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2 the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the

  12. Pest control of aphids depends on landscape complexity and natural enemy interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Emily A; Reineking, Björn; Seo, Bumsuk; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2015-01-01

    Aphids are a major concern in agricultural crops worldwide, and control by natural enemies is an essential component of the ecological intensification of agriculture. Although the complexity of agricultural landscapes is known to influence natural enemies of pests, few studies have measured the degree of pest control by different enemy guilds across gradients in landscape complexity. Here, we use multiple natural-enemy exclosures replicated in 18 fields across a gradient in landscape complexity to investigate (1) the strength of natural pest control across landscapes, measured as the difference between pest pressure in the presence and in the absence of natural enemies; (2) the differential contributions of natural enemy guilds to pest control, and the nature of their interactions across landscapes. We show that natural pest control of aphids increased up to six-fold from simple to complex landscapes. In the absence of pest control, aphid population growth was higher in complex than simple landscapes, but was reduced by natural enemies to similar growth rates across all landscapes. The effects of enemy guilds were landscape-dependent. Particularly in complex landscapes, total pest control was supplied by the combined contribution of flying insects and ground-dwellers. Birds had little overall impact on aphid control. Despite evidence for intraguild predation of flying insects by ground-dwellers and birds, the overall effect of enemy guilds on aphid control was complementary. Understanding pest control services at large spatial scales is critical to increase the success of ecological intensification schemes. Our results suggest that, where aphids are the main pest of concern, interactions between natural enemies are largely complementary and lead to a strongly positive effect of landscape complexity on pest control. Increasing the availability of seminatural habitats in agricultural landscapes may thus benefit not only natural enemies, but also the effectiveness of

  13. 农业景观害虫控制生境管理及植物配置方法%Habitat management and plant configuration for biological pest control in agricultural landscapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴漂漂; 张旭珠; 肖晨子; 张鑫; 宇振荣; 刘云慧

    2015-01-01

    集约化农业生产过程中,化学农药所带来的大量环境问题日益引起关注。为减少农药的投入及其所产生的环境负效应,生物防治害虫的方法在国内外得到了更多的关注与发展。生境管理是一种有利于天敌群落发展,而不利于害虫种群增长的保护性生物防治方法,其实质是通过为自然天敌提供诸如花蜜、替代猎物或寄主、躲避不利干扰的庇护所等资源,将农业景观中天敌的害虫控制服务和功能最大化,或者通过构建不适宜害虫取食和繁殖的环境条件起到抑制或阻碍害虫发展的作用。本文在参阅国内外文献的基础上,阐述了生境管理控制害虫的机理,并总结国外生物防治的实践经验以及近些年国内外的相关研究,概括提出田间尺度上害虫生物防治的非作物生境及作物生境的建设和植物配置方法,为通过生境管理提升农业景观中害虫生物防治生态系统服务提供参考。%The negative environmental effect of massive applications of chemical pesticides in intensive agricultural production practices has been a significant global concern. Therefore the rapid development of biological pest control in recent years is directed towards alleviating the negative impacts of intensified modern agricultural practices on the environment. Habitat management is an important conservation biological control approach that creates habitat conditions favorable to natural enemies but unfavorable to agricultural pests. Essentially, habitat management aims to maximize the function of biological control by providing natural enemies with resources (such as additional foods like nectar, alternative preys/hosts, and shelter from adverse conditions), or to suppress pests by making their habitats unfavorable. The appropriate selection and sound configuration of plants in agricultural landscapes are critical to successful habitat management. In this manuscript, we

  14. Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

  15. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  16. Prospects for repellent in pest control: current developments and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The overall interest for environmentally safe pest control methods and the increased frequency of insecticide resistance in pest populations have stimulated research on insect repellents in the recent decades in medical and agricultural entomology. However, there remains a great deal of work to be ...

  17. Research Progress of Ap-plication of Insect Mi-crosporidia in Biological Control of Agricultural Pests%微孢子虫在害虫生物防治中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉强

    2015-01-01

    昆虫微孢子虫能引起昆虫的流行病,是一种很有应用潜力的微生物杀虫剂。综述昆虫微孢子虫在防治蝗虫、红火蚁、棉铃虫、玉米螟、云南松毛虫等农业害虫上的研究进展,并对目前存在的问题及其应用前景进行了展望。%The insect microsporidia may cause epizootics of insects, they are the potential microbial insecticides. The research progress of insect microsporidia controlling agricultural pests, such as grasshopper, red fire ant, cotton boll-worm, corn borer, Yunnan pine caterpil-lar were summarized, the current prob-lems and theirs application prospect were also described.

  18. Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

  19. Optimal Control Policies of Pests for Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We improve the traditional integrated pest management (IPM control strategies and formulate three specific management strategies, which can be described by hybrid dynamical systems. These strategies can not only effectively control pests but also reduce the abuse of pesticides and protect the natural enemies. The aim of this work is to study how the factors, such as natural enemies optimum choice in the two kinds of different pests, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications, and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies, can affect the success of IPM control programmes. The results indicate that the pests outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the optimal selective feeding of the natural enemy between one of the pests and the control tactics. Ultimately, we obtain the only pest needs to be controlled below a certain threshold while not supervising pest .

  20. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization of biological pest control with impulsive dynamics in soybean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rodrigo T N; da Cruz, André R; Wanner, Elizabeth F; Takahashi, Ricardo H C

    2009-08-01

    The biological pest control in agriculture, an environment-friendly practice, maintains the density of pests below an economic injury level by releasing a suitable quantity of their natural enemies. This work proposes a multi-objective numerical solution to biological pest control for soybean crops, considering both the cost of application of the control action and the cost of economic damages. The system model is nonlinear with impulsive control dynamics, in order to cope more effectively with the actual control action to be applied, which should be performed in a finite number of discrete time instants. The dynamic optimization problem is solved using the NSGA-II, a fast and trustworthy multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results suggest a dual pest control policy, in which the relative price of control action versus the associated additional harvest yield determines the usage of either a low control action strategy or a higher one.

  1. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective for all insect herbivores. Here, I propose that these strategies may only be effective for a subset of pests and geographic regions because most insect pests have complex evolutionary histories that make them difficult to manage. I discuss how crop domestication and human-mediated migration are major evolutionary events that shape the geography of interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. Insect herbivores can evolve to be pests through three major modes: 1 herbivores associated with the crop wild ancestor may shift onto the domesticated crop, 2 herbivores may host-shift from native host plants onto an introduced crop, or 3 human-mediated migration can introduce insect pests into new cropping regions. The resulting geographic structure can influence the success of pest management by altering ecological factors such as: species distributions, patterns of biodiversity, community structure, and natural enemy attack rates. I discuss how the different modes of insect pest evolution structure a set of relevant questions and approaches for ecological pest management. By acknowledging how agricultural history and geography shape the ecology and evolution of insect pests, we may collectively develop a better capacity to identify where and how ecological pest management approaches can be most broadly effective.

  2. Microbial control of arthropod pests of tropical tree fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinski, Claudia; Lacey, Lawrence A

    2007-01-01

    A multitude of insects and mites attack fruit crops throughout the tropics. The traditional method for controlling most of these pests is the application of chemical pesticides. Growing concern on the negative environmental effects has encouraged the development of alternatives. Inundatively and inoculatively applied microbial control agents (virus, bacteria, fungi, and entomopathogenic nematodes) have been developed as alternative control methods of a wide variety of arthropods including tropical fruit pests. The majority of the research and applications in tropical fruit agroecosystems has been conducted in citrus, banana, coconut, and mango. Successful microbial control initiatives of citrus pests and mites have been reported. Microbial control of arthropod pests of banana includes banana weevil, Cosmopolites sordidus Germar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (with EPNs and fungi) among others Oryctes rhinoceros (L.) is one of the most important pests of coconut and one of the most successful uses of non-occluded virus for classical biological control. Key pests of mango that have been controlled with microbial control agents include fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) (with EPNs and fungi), and other pests. Also successful is the microbial control of arthropod pests of guava, papaya and pineapple. The challenge towards a broader application of entomopathogens is the development of successful combinations of entomopathogens, predators, and parasitoids along with other interventions to produce effective and sustainable pest management.

  3. Applying weather index insurance to agricultural pest and disease risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norton, Michael; Sprundel, van Gert Jan; Turvey, Calum G.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of weather index insurance to plant pest and disease management strategies using two distinct models: (1) insuring crop loss due to disease incidence (“Crop Insurance”) and (2) insuring the use of pesticides (“Pesticide Insurance”). We find that despite t

  4. DEFENSINAS DE PLANTAS Y SU USO POTENCIAL COMO CONTROLADORES DE PLAGAS EN LA AGRICULTURA Plant Defensins and Their Potential Use as Pest Control in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CAROLINA ROJAS ARIAS

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Las plantas, al igual que todos los organismos de la naturaleza, poseen elaborados sistemas de defensa contra patógenos, que pueden ser físicos y químicos, y producirse de forma constitutiva e inducida. Dentro de las barreras químicas inducidas se encuentra el grupo de proteínas de bajo peso molecular denominadas péptidos antimicrobianos (AMPs, al cual pertenecen las defensinas, péptidos con peso molecular entre 5 a 7 kDa, punto isoeléctrico de 9, y longitud de 45 a 55 aminoácidos; que tienen la capacidad de inhibir efectivamente el crecimiento de microorganismos fitopatógenos, en su mayoría hongos, y además, generan resistencia a condiciones abióticas de estrés en plantas. Este texto pretende realizar una descripción clara y actual de las características e investigaciones recientes con relación a las defensinas de plantas y sus más destacados usos en el control de patógenos en cultivos de importancia económica. Se plantea además la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento de dichas proteínas para su uso en estrategias de control tales como la producción de plantas y microorganismos transgénicos.ABSTRACT Plants, as all organisms in nature, have elaborate systems of defense against pathogens; which can be physical or chemical and produced in a constitutive and induced way. Among the induced chemical barriers, there is a group of low molecular weight proteins, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. These peptides include defensins, which are peptides with a molecular weight about 5 to 7 kDa, isoelectric point of 9, and length of about 45 to 55 amino acids. Likewise, they have the ability to avoid the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms, mainly funguses. Moreover, these peptides create resistance to abiotic conditions of stress in plants. This manuscript seeks to make a clear and current description about the recent characteristics and researches related to plant defensins and their most significant uses in

  5. Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation is effective against all arthropod pests at various life stages tested. Nine insect pests at various life stages and bulb mites were subjected to nitric oxide fumigation treatments under ultralow oxygen conditions of =50 ppm O2 in 1.9L glass jars as fumigation chambers. The ...

  6. Optimal Application Timing of Pest Control Tactics in Nonautonomous Pest Growth Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the effects of the living environment on growth of populations, it is unrealistic to assume that the growth rates of predator and prey are all constants in the models with integrated pest management (IPM strategies. Therefore, a nonautonomous predator-prey system with impulsive effect is developed and investigated in the present work. In order to determine the optimal application timing of IPM tactics, the threshold value which guarantees the stability of pest-free periodic solution has been obtained firstly. The analytical formula of optimal application timings within a given period for different cases has been obtained such that the threshold value is the smallest, which is the most effective in successful pest control. Moreover, extensively numerical investigations have also been confirmed our main results and the biological implications have been discussed in more detail. The main results can guide the farmer to design the optimal pest control strategies.

  7. 农业害虫专家系统信息化平台的构建%Construction of Expert System Information Platform of Agricultural Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵路欢; 张玉波

    2016-01-01

    Based on the summarization of agricultural pests knowledge and the experience of experts ,the design thought was put forward for the establishment of agricultural pests consulting expert system based on the network .The main bodies of this platform were agricultural pests diagno-sis database and agricultural pests control measure database.This system designed a relatively complete system function of identification,enquiry, prevention,cure and medical instruction of agriculture pests,which realized the network diagnosis and inquiry function of agricultural pests,and provided expert decision-making system of the scientific prevention and control measures and the comprehensive control of agricultural pests .%在总结农业害虫知识和专家经验的基础上,提出了建立基于网络的农业害虫专家系统设计思路。该平台主体为农业害虫诊断数据库和农业害虫防治措施数据库,系统设计了农业害虫识别、查询、防治和用药指导等较为完整功能体系,可以实现农业害虫的网络诊断和查询功能,可以提供科学防治措施和综合治理农业害虫的专家决策体系。

  8. Companion and refuge plants to control insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and aphids are major pests of crops in the southeast USA. An environmentally-friendly management strategy is “push-pull” technology which combines the use of repellent (“push”) and trap crops (“pull”) for insect pest control. The repellent crop,...

  9. Agriculture pest and disease risk maps considering MSG satellite data and land surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, J. R.; Damásio, C. V.; Sousa, A. M. O.; Bugalho, L.; Pessanha, L.; Quaresma, P.

    2015-06-01

    Pest risk maps for agricultural use are usually constructed from data obtained from in-situ meteorological weather stations, which are relatively sparsely distributed and are often quite expensive to install and difficult to maintain. This leads to the creation of maps with relatively low spatial resolution, which are very much dependent on interpolation methodologies. Considering that agricultural applications typically require a more detailed scale analysis than has traditionally been available, remote sensing technology can offer better monitoring at increasing spatial and temporal resolutions, thereby, improving pest management results and reducing costs. This article uses ground temperature, or land surface temperature (LST), data distributed by EUMETSAT/LSASAF (with a spatial resolution of 3 × 3 km (nadir resolution) and a revisiting time of 15 min) to generate one of the most commonly used parameters in pest modeling and monitoring: "thermal integral over air temperature (accumulated degree-days)". The results show a clear association between the accumulated LST values over a threshold and the accumulated values computed from meteorological stations over the same threshold (specific to a particular tomato pest). The results are very promising and enable the production of risk maps for agricultural pests with a degree of spatial and temporal detail that is difficult to achieve using in-situ meteorological stations.

  10. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Paul C. J.; Wäckers, Felix L.

    2016-01-01

    In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to elimina

  11. Nectar accessibility determines fitness, flower choice and abundance of hoverflies that provide natural pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, P.C.J.; Wäckers, F.L.

    2016-01-01

    1. In modern agricultural landscapes, many organisms providing ecosystem services such as pollination and natural pest control are likely constrained by shortage of nectar and/or pollen required for adult nutrition. More and more flower-rich field margin strips and other habitats are created to elim

  12. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  13. Genomic approaches for veterinary pest control and eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthropod pests of veterinary importance remain a threat to the health of livestock herds in the United States (US) and contribute to global food insecurity because they impact animal agriculture productivity directly through their parasitic habits and indirectly, in specific cases, due to the disea...

  14. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Nyamukondiwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  15. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidawanyika, Frank; Mudavanhu, Pride; Nyamukondiwa, Casper

    2012-11-09

    The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  16. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  17. EVALUATION OF FOUR INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT PACKAGES FOR CONTROLLING MAIN PESTS OF COTTON IN RAINFED FIELDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurindah Nurindah

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cotton production nationally is low due to various constraints, including pests. Two main pests commonly found in cotton plantation in rain fed fields are cotton leafhopper (Amrasca biguttula and cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera. The study aimed to evaluate four packages of integrated pest management (IPM techniques to control cotton leafhopper and cotton bollworm in rain fed fields. The experiment was conducted in farmers’ fields at Asembagus, East Java, between January and July 2012. Four packages of IPM evaluated were cotton varieties, i.e. Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13, and seed treatment with synthetic insecticide (imidacloprid before sowing or spraying molasses (10 ml L-1 water as food for natural enemies. The cotton plants were intercropped with groundnut and sprayed with neem seed extract (NSE at the action threshold level for pest control. These packages were compared among themselves and also with the methods usually used by farmers, i.e. planting cotton variety Kanesia 8 intercropped with groundnut and pest control using synthetic chemical insecticides. Twenty five plants were sampled randomly per plot and measured for their growth, leafhopper and  bollworm populations, as well as cotton seed yield per plot. Observations were made weekly, starting at 30 days after planting (DAP until 120 DAP. The results showed that the use of Kanesia 10 or Kanesia 13 intercropped with groundnut and spraying molasses to conserve natural enemies was the best  pest management practice and superior to farmers’ practices. Conserving natural enemies is not only profitable (saving production cost of IDR1,150,000 to IDR1,500,000 ha-1 season-1, but also safe for the environment (no need to spray chemical insecticides.

  18. A PRINCIPAL-AGENT MODEL FOR REGIONAL PEST CONTROL ADOPTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahouissoussi, Nicolas B.C.

    1995-01-01

    Investigating the underlying producer characteristics associated with regional pest control adoption revealed an interesting proposition. Early adopting producers of firm-specific techniques with characteristics including higher education, more specialized operations, and larger sized business units are dissatisfied with a regional pest control technique. This study provides an explanation of the proposition based on a principal-agent model. Empirical support for the proposition is also prese...

  19. Integrated flora management and pest control in short rotation coppice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sage, R.; Tucker, K. [Game Conservancy Trust (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    Weeds and insect pests can reduce yields and hence the profitability of short rotation coppice crops. Control becomes prudent when the cost of controlling the pests is exceeded by the yield loss (the economic threshold). This frequently happens when establishing the crop because of weed competition. Economic yield losses due to insect pest damage and weed competition in established SRC plots are less obvious but probably still occur. Traditional methods of control using pesticides is often logistically difficult and expensive. However there may be opportunities for controlling pest populations through cultural practices as part of an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategy. Insect pests have a range of natural enemy species that could be encouraged through habitat and crop manipulations while the occurrence of weeds could be reduced by providing a ground cover of other less competitive plants. These cultural practices can lead to environmental benefits by reducing chemical applications and mechanical movements and increasing floral diversity, wildlife use and the landscape and amenity value of the crop. (Author)

  20. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  1. Biological control of pests and insects. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the use of biological agents to control insects and pests. Radiation, genetic breeding, bacteria, fungi, viruses, and pheromones are discussed as alternatives to pesticidal management. Methods for monitoring the effectiveness and environmental impact of these agents are reviewed. Population control of fruit flies, spruce sawflies, flies, mosquitoes, cockroaches, gypsy moths, and other agriculturally-important insects is also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 190 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service stored-grain areawide integrated pest management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Paul W; Hagstrum, David W; Reed, Carl; Phillips, Tom W

    2003-01-01

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) funded a demonstration project (1998-2002) for areawide IPM for stored wheat in Kansas and Oklahoma. This project was a collaboration of researchers at the ARS Grain Marketing and Production Research Center in Manhattan, Kansas, Kansas State University, and Oklahoma State University. The project utilized two elevator networks, one in each state, for a total of 28 grain elevators. These elevators stored approximately 31 million bushels of wheat, which is approximately 1.2% of the annual national production. Stored wheat was followed as it moved from farm to the country elevator and finally to the terminal elevator. During this study, thousands of grain samples were taken in concrete elevator silos. Wheat stored at elevators was frequently infested by several insect species, which sometimes reached high numbers and damaged the grain. Fumigation using aluminum phosphide pellets was the main method for managing these insect pests in elevators in the USA. Fumigation decisions tended to be based on past experience with controlling stored-grain insects, or were calendar based. Integrated pest management (IPM) requires sampling and risk benefit analysis. We found that the best sampling method for estimating insect density, without turning the grain from one bin to another, was the vacuum probe sampler. Decision support software, Stored Grain Advisor Pro (SGA Pro) was developed that interprets insect sampling data, and provides grain managers with a risk analysis report detailing which bins are at low, moderate or high risk for insect-caused economic losses. Insect density was predicted up to three months in the future based on current insect density, grain temperature and moisture. Because sampling costs money, there is a trade-off between frequency of sampling and the cost of fumigation. The insect growth model in SGA Pro reduces the need to sample as often, thereby making the program more cost-effective. SGA Pro was validated

  3. Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species.

  4. Nanosilica-from medicine to pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barik, T K; Sahu, B; Swain, V

    2008-07-01

    Nanotechnology is a broad interdisciplinary area of research, development, and industrial activity that has been growing rapidly worldwide for the past decade. More ambitious uses of nanoparticles are bioremediation of contaminated environments, controlled release of fragrances, biocides, and antifungals on textiles. Silica nanocomposites have received much attention because of its thermal degradation behavior and applications in chromatography, medicine, optics, etc. Nanobiotech takes agriculture from the battleground of genetically modified organisms to the brave new world of atomically modified organisms where rice has been modified atomically. Silica has been widely applied in various industries. Application of gold-coated silica has been used in the treatment for benign and malignant tumor. Surface-modified hydrophobic as well as lipophilic nanosilica could be effectively used as novel drugs for treatment of chicken malaria and nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV), a scourge in silkworm industry. Here, the authors attempt to provide a review to explain the impact of nanosilica on basic biology, medicine, agro-nanoproducts, and use of amorphous nanosilica as biopesticide.

  5. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of “land sharing” (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. “land sparing” (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  6. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system.

  7. New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks.

  8. 全球气候变化与农业有害生物控制科学问题刍议%A Brief Discussion on Basic Aspects of Agricultural Pest Control under Global Climate Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金道超; 高光澜

    2012-01-01

    全球气候变化对人类生产生活的影响日益显现,农业有害生物控制亦面临全球气候变化带来的挑战.本文概述了全球气候变暖的现状及其“日因说”、“自律说”、“碳因说”、“牛因说”等观点.同时讨论了气候变化对农业有害生物的趋利和不利影响,认为在全球气候变化背景下,从长时间尺度的战略角度,度重视探索有害生物的群落结构响应、适应机制、扩散机制、致灾预测等基础性科学课题,从短时间尺度上生产实际需要的角度,则应针对具体农业环境、作物对象、有害物种研究防控策略和技术,因时因势而进,因时因势而变.%The impacts of global climate change on the production activities of human being have been increasingly revealed, and bring new challenges in fighting against plant pest. The status of global warming is discussed and the hypothesises of carbon blamed theory, earth' s autonomisation theory, sun blamed theory, and cattle' s blamed theory are summarised in this paper. It is suggested that the mechanisms in response of community structures, adoption and dispersal, and methods of risk prediction are new topics and strategies for long temporal scales based on the discussion. Moreover, for short time scales, the tactics and techniques of pest control should updated by continuing studies with the changes in agro - environment, crops and pests.

  9. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  10. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental...... treatment by Tsh. 504 989 and Tsh. 891 297 in cashew and mango plantations. The dominance and MRRanalyses shows that if cashew and mango growers change from conventional agricultural practices to weaver ants, they would earn MRR of 1621% which is above minimum acceptable rate of return (MARR) of 100%. The t...

  11. Role of plants and plant based products towards the control of insect pests and vectors:A novel review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elumalai Kuppusamy; Saranya Jayakumar

    2016-01-01

    Insect pests bear harmful effects causing great loss to the agricultural crops, stored agricultural products and vector mosquitoes can cause diseases to human. Plants possess an array of vast repository of phytochemicals and have been used to cure many diseases and to control the infestation of insect pests from time immemorial. Plants are easily biodegradable and ecologically safe for treating on the stored or on the field crops against pests to prevent from further damage or loss of stored products or preventing human from mosquito bites, thus preventing the spreading of dreadful diseases such as chikungunya and malaria. Hence, this review can give a clear insecticidal, pesticidal and mosquitocidal property of several plants against the insect pests and vectors.

  12. Parasitoids as biological control agents of thrips pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Hymenoptera, Ceranisus menes, Ceranisus americensis, biological controlThe thesis presented here is the result of a joint European Research project "Biological Control of Thrips Pests". Specific aims of the project were to collect, evaluate, mass p

  13. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  14. Multi-State Dependent Impulsive Control for Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidong Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the integrated pest management strategies, we propose a model for pest control which adopts different control methods at different thresholds. By using differential equation geometry theory and the method of successor functions, we prove the existence of order one periodic solution of such system, and further, the attractiveness of the order one periodic solution by sequence convergence rules and qualitative analysis. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the feasibility of our main results. Our results show that our method used in this paper is more efficient and easier than the existing ones for proving the existence of order one periodic solution.

  15. Delivery of Nucleic Acids through Embryo Microinjection in the Worldwide Agricultural Pest Insect, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrieli, Paolo; Scolari, Francesca

    2016-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is a pest species with extremely high agricultural relevance. This is due to its reproductive behavior: females damage the external surface of fruits and vegetables when they lay eggs and the hatched larvae feed on their pulp. Wild C. capitata populations are traditionally controlled through insecticide spraying and/or eco-friendly approaches, the most successful being the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). The SIT relies on mass-rearing, radiation-based sterilization and field release of males that retain their capacity to mate but are not able to generate fertile progeny. The advent and the subsequent rapid development of biotechnological tools, together with the availability of the medfly genome sequence, has greatly boosted our understanding of the biology of this species. This favored the proliferation of new strategies for genome manipulation, which can be applied to population control. In this context, embryo microinjection plays a dual role in expanding the toolbox for medfly control. The ability to interfere with the function of genes that regulate key biological processes, indeed, expands our understanding of the molecular machinery underlying medfly invasiveness. Furthermore, the ability to achieve germ-line transformation facilitates the production of multiple transgenic strains that can be tested for future field applications in novel SIT settings. Indeed, genetic manipulation can be used to confer desirable traits that can, for example, be used to monitor sterile male performance in the field, or that can result in early life-stage lethality. Here we describe a method to microinject nucleic acids into medfly embryos to achieve these two main goals.

  16. Compatibility of Two Systematic Neonicotinoids, Imidacloprid and Thiamethoxam with various Natural Enemies of Agricultural Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of a number of insect pests in cotton, vegetables, and citrus. We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods including four parasitoid species, Aphytis melinus Gonatocerus ashmeadi, ...

  17. The bioeconomics of controlling an African rodent pest species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skonhoft, Anders; Leirs, Herwig; Andreassen, Harry P;

    2006-01-01

    The paper treats the economy of controlling an African pest rodent, the multimammate rat, causing major damage in maize production. An ecological population model is presented and used as a basis for the economic analyses carried out at the village level using data from Tanzania. This model...

  18. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effectiv

  19. Advances in developing alternative treatments for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA-ARS made two significant advances in the last 10 years in the development of alternative treatments for postharvest pest control: oxygenated phosphine fumigation and nitric oxide fumigation. Oxygenated phosphine is phosphine fumigation in an oxygen enriched atmosphere. It is significantly more...

  20. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  1. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  2. Biological control through intraguild predation: case studies in pest control, invasive species and range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampfylde, C J; Lewis, M A

    2007-04-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP), the interaction between species that eat each other and compete for shared resources, is ubiquitous in nature. We document its occurrence across a wide range of taxonomic groups and ecosystems with particular reference to non-indigenous species and agricultural pests. The consequences of IGP are complex and difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to provide a modelling framework for the analysis of IGP in a spatial context. We start by considering a spatially homogeneous system and find the conditions for predator and prey to exclude each other, to coexist and for alternative stable states. Management alternatives for the control of invasive or pest species through IGP are presented for the spatially homogeneous system. We extend the model to include movement of predator and prey. In this spatial context, it is possible to switch between alternative stable steady states through local perturbations that give rise to travelling waves of extinction or control. The direction of the travelling wave depends on the details of the nonlinear intraguild interactions, but can be calculated explicitly. This spatial phenomenon suggests means by which invasions succeed or fail, and yields new methods for spatial biological control. Freshwater case studies are used to illustrate the outcomes.

  3. Improving spatio-temporal benefit transfers for pest control by generalist predators in cotton in the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; McCracken, Gary F.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Semmens, Darius J.; Russell, Amy L.; Sansone, Chris; LaSharr, Kelsie; Cryan, Paul; Reynoso, Claudia; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Given rapid changes in agricultural practice, it is critical to understand how alterations in ecological, technological, and economic conditions over time and space impact ecosystem services in agroecosystems. Here, we present a benefit transfer approach to quantify cotton pest-control services provided by a generalist predator, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), in the southwestern United States. We show that pest-control estimates derived using (1) a compound spatial–temporal model – which incorporates spatial and temporal variability in crop pest-control service values – are likely to exhibit less error than those derived using (2) a simple-spatial model (i.e., a model that extrapolates values derived for one area directly, without adjustment, to other areas) or (3) a simple-temporal model (i.e., a model that extrapolates data from a few points in time over longer time periods). Using our compound spatial–temporal approach, the annualized pest-control value was \\$12.2 million, in contrast to an estimate of \\$70.1 million (5.7 times greater), obtained from the simple-spatial approach. Using estimates from one year (simple-temporal approach) revealed large value differences (0.4 times smaller to 2 times greater). Finally, we present a detailed protocol for valuing pest-control services, which can be used to develop robust pest-control transfer functions for generalist predators in agroecosystems.

  4. Construction of ice nucleation active Enterobacter cloacae for control of insect pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria are the most potent heterogeneous ice nuclei in nature, which have become an important biological resource for diverse applications. Many researches have proved that INA bacteria can raise the supercooling points (SCPs) of insect pests, then reduce their cold hardiness. However, INA bacteria's inefficient colonization on the surface or in the guts of insects, and the high incidence of frost injury induced by their release hampered the application of INA bacteria in controlling insect pests in agricultural fields. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid mob-Tn5-iceA with the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of the ina gene of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition. In addition, Ent. cloacae strains stably carrying iceA and expressing high ice nucleation activity (INA), even in the absence of antibiotic pressure, were constructed through conjugal mobilization and Tn5 transposition. Ent. cloacae strains have been reported to be able to efficiently colonize in the guts of insects, but have weak plant epiphytic ability. Therefore, these transgenic Ent. cloacae may be promising candidates for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  5. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  6. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management.

  7. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... from becoming soiled, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests, and odors. Dirt floors,...

  8. 9 CFR 3.11 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.11 Section 3.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... contained in the primary enclosures, and to reduce disease hazards, insects, pests and odors. When steam...

  9. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  10. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elumalai Arumugam; Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (S. litura). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990), with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths) S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925); the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  11. A Socio-Institutional Approach to Brighten Complexity under Agricultural Pest Invasion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Romero Manrique de Lara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrates the inherent complexity and uncertainties surrounding the Guatemalan potato moth pest on Tenerife that has affected potato crops for several decades using a Socio-Institutional methodology and a farmers’ focus group. It focuses on detecting major socioeconomic and environmental impacts caused by the pest. It identifies the stakeholders and historical decisions involved as well as systemic uncertainties. This methodology generates socially robust knowledge and introduces new variables into future decision-making processes. The results show that the efforts made so far to control the pest, based on technical and scientific knowledge, have not been commensurate with the enormous complexity of the issue. Novel alternatives to eliminate the plague and new recommendations have emerged after the application of the methodology. These alternatives and recommendations are related to breaking the reproduction cycle of the moth; promoting agro-ecological strategies and participatory processes; and dealing with uncertainties such as climate change or loss of agro-biodiversity on the island.

  12. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

  13. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  14. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  15. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wojciechowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resistance of insects to these insecticides. In order to prevent occurrence of negative effects of insecticides on surroundings, the effects of these compounds should be studied

  16. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  17. Engineered female-specific lethality for control of pest Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Li; Walker, Adam S; Fu, Guoliang; Harvey-Samuel, Timothy; Dafa'alla, Tarig; Miles, Andrea; Marubbi, Thea; Granville, Deborah; Humphrey-Jones, Nerys; O'Connell, Sinead; Morrison, Neil I; Alphey, Luke

    2013-03-15

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a pest control strategy involving the mass release of radiation-sterilized insects, which reduce the target population through nonviable matings. In Lepidoptera, SIT could be more broadly applicable if the deleterious effects of sterilization by irradiation could be avoided. Moreover, male-only release can improve the efficacy of SIT. Adequate methods of male-only production in Lepidoptera are currently lacking, in contrast to some Diptera. We describe a synthetic genetic system that allows male-only moth production for SIT and also replaces radiation sterilization with inherited female-specific lethality. We sequenced and characterized the doublesex (dsx) gene from the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella). Sex-alternate splicing from dsx was used to develop a conditional lethal genetic sexing system in two pest moths: the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) and pink bollworm. This system shows promise for enhancing existing pink bollworm SIT, as well as broadening SIT-type control to diamondback moth and other Lepidoptera.

  18. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  19. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  20. Allee effects in tritrophic food chains: some insights in pest biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel Iskin da S; Dos Anjos, Lucas

    2016-12-01

    Release of natural enemies to control pest populations is a common strategy in biological control. However, its effectiveness is supposed to be impaired, among other factors, by Allee effects in the biological control agent and by the fact that introduced pest natural enemies interact with some native species of the ecosystem. In this work, we devise a tritrophic food chain model where the assumptions previously raised are proved correct when a hyperpredator attacks the introduced pest natural enemy by a functional response type 2 or 3. Moreover, success of pest control is shown to be related to the release of large amounts (i.e., inundative releases) of natural enemies.

  1. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel disc...

  2. THE INSECT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas AND ITS USE FOR PESTS CONTROL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B C ALAVO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides play an important role in the control of plant damage and plant diseases. However, extensive use of these products has led to the disruption of ecosystems because of several reasons such as death of non-target species, accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment and food, and buildup of pesticide resistance in the target species. Biological control is one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides and it can be described as the limitation of the abundance of living organisms and their products by other living organisms. Predators, parasitoids, fungi and other beneficial organisms can be used for the biocontrol of insect pests. The fungus Verticillium lecanii is one of the members of Deuteromycetes and it can be used for crop protection. This paper is a review of the international literature related to V. lecanii for the bio-control of insects of agricultural importance.

  3. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  4. Eco Control of Agro Pests using Imaging, Modelling & Natural Predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Faithpraise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars in their various forms: size, shape, and colour cause significant harm to crops and humans. This paper offers a solution for the detection and control of caterpillars through the use of a sustainable pest control system that does not require the application of chemical pesticides, which damage human health and destroy the naturally beneficial insects within the environment. The proposed system is capable of controlling 80% of the population of caterpillars in less than 65 days by deploying a controlled number of larval parasitoid wasps (Cotesia Flavipes, Cameron into the crop environment. This is made possible by using a continuous time model of the interaction between the caterpillar and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps using a set of simultaneous, non-linear, ordinary differential equations incorporating natural death rates based on the Weibull probability distribution function. A negative binomial distribution is used to model the efficiency and the probability that the wasp will find and parasitize a host larva. The caterpillar is presented in all its life-cycle stages of: egg, larva, pupa and adult and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasp is present as an adult larval parasitoid. Biological control modelling is used to estimate the quantity of the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps that should be introduced into the caterpillar infested environment to suppress its population density to an economically acceptable level within a prescribed number of days.

  5. Manipulating within-orchard and adjacent habitats to provide better pest control in organic orchards. Some elements for modulating “orchard tree-pest-natural enemy” relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, S.; SAUPHANOR, B.; DEFRANCE, H.; Lauri, P.E. (collab.)

    2009-01-01

    The control of pests in organic orchards cannot solely rely on the use of direct control methods. The effect of manipulating the habitat of orchard pests and natural enemies through tree architecture and the increase of plant diversity has been investigated in an experimental organic apple orchard and in a pear orchard, in order to provide information about the potential benefits of these cultural practices. Tree training affected the development of the most detrimental pests of apple trees, ...

  6. Plant tolerance: A unique approach to control hemipteran pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through g...

  7. Industrial - Institutional - Structural and Health Related Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The emphasis of this document is on the identification of wood-destroying pests and the damage caused by them to the structural components of buildings. The pests discussed include termites, carpenter ants, beetles, bees, and wasps and numerous…

  8. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  9. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  10. Establishment of the cytoplasmic incompatibility-inducing Wolbachia strain wMel in an important agricultural pest insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Li, Zheng-Xi

    2016-01-01

    The wMel Wolbachia strain was known for cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI)-induction and blocking the transmission of dengue. However, it is unknown whether it can establish and induce CI in a non-dipteran host insect. Here we artificially transferred wMel from Drosophila melanogaster into the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Fluorescence in situ hybridisation demonstrated that wMel had successfully transfected the new host. Reciprocal crossing was conducted with wMel-transfected and wild-type isofemale lines, indicating that wMel could induce a strong CI without imposing significant cost on host fecundity. We then determined the maternal transmission efficiency of wMel in the offspring generations, showing a fluctuating trend over a period of 12 generations. We thus detected the titre of wMel during different developmental stages and in different generations by using real-time quantitative PCR, revealing a similar fluctuating mode, but it was not significantly correlated with the dynamics of transmission efficiency. These results suggest that wMel can be established in B.tabaci, a distantly related pest insect of agricultural importance; moreover, it can induce a strong CI phenotype in the recipient host insect, suggesting a potential for its use in biological control of B. tabaci. PMID:27982076

  11. Intelligent Monitoring System for Agricultural Pests Based on Internet of Things%基于物联网的农业虫害智能监控系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张恩迪; 张佳锐

    2015-01-01

    〗In order to improve the overall level of China's agricultural pest resistance , precise research of how crop growth environment affects the number of plant pest trends is particularly important .Intelligent monitoring system for Ag-ricultural Pests Based on Internet of Things ( IoT) develops a set of automatic data collection system of farml-and environ-ment information , the number of pests , and it can also set the equipment parameters .Artificial taking pictures of plan-thopper, this system uses k-means clustering algorithm to separate the planthopper from the backgr -ound ,uses an el-lipse fitting based on least square method to get the ellipticity ,which is used to distinguish between insect body and im-purities and add up the pests number .Hardware composition of the system and software design of function modules are in-troduced in detail , which realizes automatic information collection and automated operation and lays the foundation of ef -fective prevention and control of pest .%为提高我国农业抗病虫害的整体水平,精准研究农作物生长环境对虫害数目变化趋势的影响尤为重要。基于物联网的农业虫害智能监控系统研发了一套自动采集农田环境信息、害虫数目,并且可以进行设备参数设置的系统。采用K-means 聚类算法从拍摄图片背景中提取稻飞虱和最小二乘法椭圆拟合,用椭圆率区分虫体和杂质统计稻飞虱数目。同时,详细介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件设计功能模块,实现了虫害等信息的自动采集和自动化运作,为有效防控病虫害奠定基础。

  12. Enabling technologies to improve area-wide integrated pest management programmes for the control of screwworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, A S; Vreysen, M J B; Hendrichs, J; Feldmann, U

    2009-06-01

    The economic devastation caused in the past by the New World screwworm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to the livestock industry in the U.S.A., Mexico and the rest of Central America was staggering. The eradication of this major livestock pest from North and Central America using the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programme was a phenomenal technical and managerial accomplishment with enormous economic implications. The area is maintained screwworm-free by the weekly release of 40 million sterile flies in the Darien Gap in Panama, which prevents migration from screwworm-infested areas in Columbia. However, the species is still a major pest in many areas of the Caribbean and South America and there is considerable interest in extending the eradication programme to these countries. Understanding New World screwworm fly populations in the Caribbean and South America, which represent a continuous threat to the screwworm-free areas of Central America and the U.S.A., is a prerequisite to any future eradication campaigns. The Old World screwworm fly Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (Diptera: Calliphoridae) has a very wide distribution ranging from Southern Africa to Papua New Guinea and, although its economic importance is assumed to be less than that of its New World counterpart, it is a serious pest in extensive livestock production and a constant threat to pest-free areas such as Australia. In the 1980s repeated introductions and an expansion of Old World screwworm populations were reported in the Middle East; in the 1990s it invaded Iraq and since late 2007 it has been reported in Yemen, where a severe outbreak of myiasis occurred in 2008. Small-scale field trials have shown the potential of integrating the SIT in the control of this pest and various international organizations are considering using the release of sterile insects as part of an AW-IPM approach on a much wider scale

  13. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKupferschmied

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/ Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework.

  14. Natural products for pest control: an analysis of their role, value and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerwick, B Clifford; Sparks, Thomas C

    2014-08-01

    Natural products (NPs) have long been used as pesticides and have broadly served as a source of inspiration for a great many commercial synthetic organic fungicides, herbicides and insecticides that are in the market today. In light of the continuing need for new tools to address an ever-changing array of fungal, weed and insect pests, NPs continue to be a source of models and templates for the development of new pest control agents. Interestingly, an examination of the literature suggests that NP models exist for many of the pest control agents that were discovered by other means, suggesting that, had circumstances been different, these NPs could have served as inspiration for the discovery of a great many more of today's pest control agents. Here, an attempt is made to answer questions regarding the existence of an NP model for existing classes of pesticides and what is needed for the discovery of new NPs and NP models for pest control agents.

  15. Basic factors controlling pest in high temperature systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz-Mattuck, J.; Rossetti, M.

    1971-01-01

    The catastrophic disintegration in air at intermediate temperatures of refractory materials which are very resistant to oxidation at high temperatures is known as pest. A study was undertaken to determine whether the mechanism proposed for pest failure in silicides might also be responsible for pest failure in NbAl3. The aim was to correlate oxidation kinetics in the range where disintegration of NbAl3 is observed with delayed failure data obtained under similar conditions. Studies were also undertaken to develop some understanding of deformation mechanisms in both silicides and aluminides.

  16. Investigating levels of ICT access and confidence by Wheat Planters in Hamedan Province for (Eurygaster integriceps Sunn Pest Management and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heshmatullah Saadi

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Varying forms of ICT is used nowadays to disseminate information and innovations among farmers. The present study investigates the level of access and confidence in various information and communication technologies with respect to pest control (e.g. Sunn Pest. A survey was performed over wheat farmers in Hamedan Province. 203 farmers where selected using multi-level, multi-step sampling. The required data was collected using a questionnaire composed of 35 open and two closed questions. Findings demonstrated that Hamedani Farmers have limited access to modern information sources such as computers, e-journals and e-magazines, and agricultural brochures. Organizational institutions and traditional sources of information such as agricultural extension and service centers, TV, neighbors and friends, Agricultural suppliers and such are increasingly available to these farmers. The findings demonstrates that farmers have high confidence in agricultural research center, Hamedan Agricultural Jahad Organization and regional agricultural service and extension. Given the current situation regarding presentation of specialized information on wheat pests and diseases, particularly the Sunn Pest, Agricultual extensions and Service centers that are highly available to the farmers, pose the most viable choice. There seems to be a significant correlation between area planted, level of production and farmers’ access and confidence in ICT. There is a significant, but negative correlation between farmers’ age and their confidence in ICT. Level of access to and confidence in ICT seems to have significant correlation with level of education, social standing and participation in training courses.

  17. Compatibility of two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, with various natural enemies of agricultural pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhaker, Nilima; Castle, Steven J; Naranjo, Steven E; Toscano, Nick C; Morse, Joseph G

    2011-06-01

    Two systemic neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, are widely used for residual control of several insect pests in cotton (Gossypium spp.), vegetables, and citrus (Citrus spp.). We evaluated their impact on six species of beneficial arthropods, including four parasitoid species--Aphytis melinus Debach, Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault, Eretmocerus eremicus Rose & Zolnerowich, and Encarsia formosa Gahan--and two generalist predators--Geocoris punctipes (Say) and Orius insidiosus (Say)--in the laboratory by using a systemic uptake bioassay. Exposure to systemically treated leaves of both neonicotinoids had negative effects on adult survival in all four parasitoids, with higher potency against A. melinus as indicated by a low LC50. Mortality was also high for G. ashmeadi, E. eremicus, and E. formosa after exposure to both compounds but only after 48 h posttreatment. The two predators G. punctipes and O. insidiosus were variably susceptible to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam after 96-h exposure. However, toxicity to these predators may be related to their feeding on foliage and not just contact with surface residues. Our laboratory results contradict suggestions of little impact of these systemic neonicotinoids on parasitoids or predators but field studies will be needed to better quantify the levels of such impacts under natural conditions.

  18. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However, ther

  19. Research on the Application of the Super Capacitor in the Solar LED Pest Control Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tianhua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the energy storage characteristics of the super-capacitor and solar panels, this study selects the super-capacitor as the storage device to design the solar LED pest control light, which is energy saving, environmentally friendly, safe and reliable. The solar LED pest control light is easy to use and there is no need erecting and maintaining wires. However, the current storage battery is weak in charge control due to the instability of the sun light and this unstable charge state may lead to its premature failure or capacity loss, thus causing the service life of pest control light to be below the designed specification.

  20. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P < 0.001) and reduced the occurrence of mating by 93%, compared with three equivalent untreated control plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications.

  1. Review on Application of Electromagnetic Theory and Technology to Forest Pests Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangfeng; QU Zhiwei; LIANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Many domestic and international scholars have done a wide range of researches on electromagnetic theory and technology and have made some achievements. Electromagnetic technology has been used in forest pests control as a convenient and high-efficient physics means. This article summarizes the current study of the electromagnetic biological effect and introduces the application of microwave, pulsed electromagnetic field and electrostatic field to forest pests control. The research direction and prospect of the application of electromagnetic theory and technology to forest pests control are also discussed.

  2. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae, a widespread agricultural pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi, an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1 species prevalence; (2 modelling method; and (3 variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive

  3. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  4. Networking of integrated pest management: A powerful approach to address common challenges in agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Aubertot, J-N; Begg, Graham;

    2016-01-01

    of designing effective pest management strategies, which rely less heavily on the use of conventional pesticides, is another external challenge. Internal challenges include organizational aspects such as decreasing trend in budget allocated to IPM research, increasing scarcity of human expertise, lack...... networking experiences in Europe emphasizing how IPM research, implementation and adoption in Europe may benefit from a broader level networking....

  5. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  6. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia ly

  7. Applicator Training Manual for: Seed Treatment Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeKrony, Dennis M.

    This manual gives general information on seed treatment and type of seeds which can be treated. Also discussed are the problems and pests commonly associated with seed diseases and the fungicides and insecticides used for seed treatment. Information is also given on seed treatment equipment such as dust treaters, slurry treaters, and direct…

  8. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G.; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest’s physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented. PMID:27679643

  9. Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2010-12-01

    diatomeas. La masiva aparición de productos a base de nanomateriales en el mercado ha superado la velocidad a la que se evalúa su potencial impacto, de modo que la aplicación avanza por delante de la regulación para su uso. Esto sugiere la urgente necesidad de investigar los potenciales riesgos que surgen del empleo de estos productos en general, de los nanoinsecticidas en particular y sus efectos sobre organismos no blancos, así como sobre las nuevas tecnologías de aplicación más seguras y eficientes. Los actuales niveles de aplicación de nanopartículas y los desarrollos por venir, sugieren que la nanotecnología tendrá un efecto directo sobre las tendencias de la evolución de la agricultura para el control de plagas.Sustainable agriculture demands new environmentally friendly pesticides that adhere to strict international regulations. Part of the research on new biorational pesticides focuses on natural products such as plant extracts, oils, and inorganic insecticides. Insecticidal dusts represent the oldest group of substances used by men for pest management, and their efficacy is based on physical phenomena. With the advent of synthetic pesticides, insecticidal dusts were used as carriers for other active ingredients in formulated insecticides. Organic dusts made a come-back as insecticides with the discovery of hidrophobic kaolin in the 90's. Recently, the discovery of nanoinsecticides brings new alternatives to expand the spectrum of applications of inorganic dusts. Development and registry of nanomaterials is based on the idea that they are not new materials, although they have different properties than the products with the same chemical structure, given that novel properties emerge from products when they are at the nanoscale. For example, reactivity, specific area, electric charge and quantum effects may differ. These substances with new properties are promising as tools for crop protection and food production, opening new frontiers for

  10. Low levels of mitochondrial DNA and symbiont diversity in the worldwide agricultural pest, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantaidaki, Despoina E; Ovčarenko, Irina; Fytrou, Natasa; Knott, K Emily; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. Little is known about the genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. Here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 T. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. Genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny reconstruction delineated 2 clades characterized by limited sequence divergence: one clade comprised samples only from the Northern hemisphere whereas the other comprised samples from a broader geographical range. The presence of secondary symbionts was determined by PCR using primers specific for Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Fritschea. Most individuals examined harbored at least one secondary endosymbiont, and Arsenophonus was detected in almost all male and female individuals. Wolbachia was present at a much lower frequency, and Cardinium was detected in only a few individuals from Greece. Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Fritschea were not found. Additionally, we set out to further analyze Arsenophonus diversity by multilocus sequence typing analysis; however, the Arsenophonus sequences did not exhibit any polymorphism. Our results revealed remarkably low diversity in both mtDNA and symbionts in this worldwide agricultural pest, contrasting sharply with that of the ecologically similar Bemisia tabaci.

  11. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Warner, Keith; Steggall, John; Jetter, Karen M

    2014-12-23

    Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided "new tools" that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting "legacy pests", even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of "new tools" include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using "new tools" for developing biological control programs for "legacy pests" could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  12. The Trojan female technique: a novel, effective and humane approach for pest population control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemmell, Neil J; Jalilzadeh, Aidin; Didham, Raphael K; Soboleva, Tanya; Tompkins, Daniel M

    2013-12-22

    Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour-intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan female technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control.

  13. Analysis of sustainable pest control using a pesticide and a screened refuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringland, John; George, Prasanth

    2011-05-01

    We describe and analyze a 'screened refuge' technique for indefinitely sustaining control of insect pests using transgenic pesticidal crops or an applied pesticide, even when resistance is not recessive. The screen is a physical barrier that restricts pest movement. In a deterministic discrete-time model of the use of this technique, we obtain asymptotic analytical formulas for the two important equilibria of the system in terms of the refuge size and the pest fitnesses, mutation rates, and mobility out of and into the refuge. One of the equilibria is stable and is the point at which the pest population is controlled. The other is a saddle whose stable manifold bounds the basin of attraction of the former: its location provides a measure of the tolerance of the control mechanism to perturbations in the resistant allele density.

  14. RNA interference: a new strategy in the evolutionary arms race between human control strategies and insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Vilmar; Rodríguez-García, María Juliana; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier; Galan, Jose

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between humans and the insect pests of cultivated plants may be considered to be an indirect coevolutionary process, i.e., an arms race. Over time, humans have developed several strategies to minimize the negative impacts of insects on agricultural production. However, insects have made adaptive responses via the evolution of resistance to insecticides, and more recently against Bacillus thuriengiensis. Thus, we need to continuously invest resources in the development of new strategies for crop protection. Recent advances in genomics have demonstrated the possibility of a new weapon or strategy in this war, i.e., gene silencing, which involves blocking the expression of specific genes via mRNA inactivation. In the last decade, several studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of this strategy in the control of different species of insects. However, several technical difficulties need to be overcome to transform this potential into reality, such as the selection of target genes, the concentration of dsRNA, the nucleotide sequence of the dsRNA, the length of dsRNA, persistence in the insect body, and the life stage of the target species where gene silencing is most efficient. This study analyzes several aspects related to the use of gene silencing in pest control and it includes an overview of the inactivation process, as well as the problems that need to be resolved to transform gene silencing into an effective pest control method.

  15. A New Strategy of Insect Pest Control:Down-regulating Cotton Boliworm Gene Expression by Engineering Plant Double Stranded RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ying-bo; XUE Xue-yi; WANG Ling-jiang; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera ) is an important agricultural pest that causes severeyield loss to crops,particularly to cotton.Transgenic Bt crops have been successful in protectingplants,however,Bt proteins are toxic to all lepidopteran insects but have little effects to sucking pests,such as aphids.Furthermore,the continuous use of Bt crops increases insect resistance.

  16. Dynamics of a Stage Structured Pest Control Model in a Polluted Environment with Pulse Pollution Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using pollution model and impulsive delay differential equation, we formulate a pest control model with stage structure for natural enemy in a polluted environment by introducing a constant periodic pollutant input and killing pest at different fixed moments and investigate the dynamics of such a system. We assume only that the natural enemies are affected by pollution, and we choose the method to kill the pest without harming natural enemies. Sufficient conditions for global attractivity of the natural enemy-extinction periodic solution and permanence of the system are obtained. Numerical simulations are presented to confirm our theoretical results.

  17. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  18. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two...

  19. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-07

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  20. A Stably Transgenic INA Enterobacter cloacae for Control of Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-jian; SUN Fu-zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; DING Ai-yun; TANG Chao-rong

    2003-01-01

    Using the minitransposon pMini-Tn5 and the ice-nucleation active (INA) gene of iceA, a suicide recombinant plasmid pTnice1 was constructed, which has the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition.We used this plasmid to integrate the iceA into chromosomal DNA of Ent. cloacae and obtained the transgentic strain Enc1. 2022ina. In this transgenic Ent. cloacae, iceA would never be transferred elsewhere through transposition, and constantly expressed high ice nucleation activity even in the absence of antibiotic pressure.The transgenic strain was ingested by corn borer larvae. Over the 7 d after ingestion, the mean supercooling points (SCPs) of the larvae was about 10℃ higher than those of larvae treated with distilled water (control).The maintenance of these high SCPs was related to the stable gut colonization of transgenic strain. At 6th day post ingestion, the larva was exposed at - 5 or - 7℃ for 12 h, the percentages of larvae frozen to death were 85and 100%, respectively. In contrast, none or a small proportion of control larvae was frozen to death under the same conditions. Further studies demonstrated that this transgenic strain bore weak epiphytic ability.Therefore, this genetically engineered strain may be a promising candidate for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  1. Welfare aspects of vertebrate pest control and culling: ranking control techniques for humaneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, K; Fisher, P; Beausoleil, N J; Sharp, T

    2014-04-01

    The management of vertebrate pests depends on the use of traps, pesticides, repellents and other methods, each of which can cause varying levels of pain and other negative experiences to animals. Vertebrate pest control is essential for managing the impacts of unwanted or over-abundant animals on human and animal health, ecological balance and economic interests. As the need for this management is unlikely to diminish over time, a framework has been developed for assessing the humaneness of each technique by considering their negative impacts on animal welfare so that these can be included in decision-making about the selection of techniques for a specific control operation. This information can also support evidence-based regulations directed at managing such animal welfare impacts. In this paper, the authors discuss this assessment framework, briefly review two assessments conducted using the framework and discuss ways in which Competent Authorities and others can use it and other means to improve animal welfare in vertebrate pest management.

  2. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Pretty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15 per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3, combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9 compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30% crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  3. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2015-03-05

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4-$19 (€3-15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM's impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  4. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Conservation biological control (CBC) is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina) and the olive moth (Prays oleae). Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  5. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control (CBC is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina and the olive moth (Prays oleae. Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  6. The use of compost for the biological pest control. An alternative for pesticides; Utilizacion de compost en el control biologico de plagas. Una alternativa a los plaguicidas quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, J. A.

    2000-07-01

    Traditional methods of controlling pests and diseases using chemical pesticides can provide highly effective pest control but these methods might be damaging to the environment. Compost or other organic matter added to soil has the potential to control many soil borne plant pathogens, therefore they can be used in the sustainable agriculture. The mechanisms of action of compost are not well defined, being a mix of mycoparasitism, antibiotic production and nutrient competition. Our research is focused on the potential action of compost from municipal wastes in the biological control on pest. The addition of organic waste compost improved the biological control against Pythium furthermore raised the organic matter content of an arid soil. The addition of urban waste to the soil also could act long-term against Pythium, reducing the application times. One of the compost fraction more active in biological control are the humic substances. Nowadays, composts cannot be used by themselves to prevent plant pathogens action, it also is needed some pesticide application, but the use of these pesticides can be considerably reduced with the application of compost. (Author)

  7. Macrophage fusion is controlled by the cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Inmoo; Davidson, Dominique; Souza, Cleiton Martins; Vacher, Jean; Veillette, André

    2013-06-01

    Macrophages can undergo cell-cell fusion, leading to the formation of multinucleated giant cells and osteoclasts. This process is believed to promote the proteolytic activity of macrophages toward pathogens, foreign bodies, and extracellular matrices. Here, we examined the role of PTP-PEST (PTPN12), a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, in macrophage fusion. Using a macrophage-targeted PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we determined that PTP-PEST was not needed for macrophage differentiation or cytokine production. However, it was necessary for interleukin-4-induced macrophage fusion into multinucleated giant cells in vitro. It was also needed for macrophage fusion following implantation of a foreign body in vivo. Moreover, in the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line, PTP-PEST was required for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-triggered macrophage fusion into osteoclasts. PTP-PEST had no impact on expression of fusion mediators such as β-integrins, E-cadherin, and CD47, which enable macrophages to become fusion competent. However, it was needed for polarization of macrophages, migration induced by the chemokine CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), and integrin-induced spreading, three key events in the fusion process. PTP-PEST deficiency resulted in specific hyperphosphorylation of the protein tyrosine kinase Pyk2 and the adaptor paxillin. Moreover, a fusion defect was induced upon treatment of normal macrophages with a Pyk2 inhibitor. Together, these data argue that macrophage fusion is critically dependent on PTP-PEST. This function is seemingly due to the ability of PTP-PEST to control phosphorylation of Pyk2 and paxillin, thereby regulating cell polarization, migration, and spreading.

  8. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  9. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Daniel; Cayuela, Luis; Gurr, Geoff M; Campos, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history), the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard), or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae) in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain) from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  10. Integration of plant defense traits with biological control of arthropod pests: challenges and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Peterson

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Crop plants exhibit a wide diversity of defensive traits and strategies to protect themselves from damage by herbivorous pests and disease. These defensive traits may be naturally occurring or artificially selected through crop breeding, including introduction via genetic engineering. While these traits can have obvious and direct impacts on herbivorous pests, many have profound effects on higher trophic levels, including the natural enemies of herbivores. Multi-trophic effects of host plant resistance have the potential to influence, both positively and negatively, biological control. Plant defense traits can influence both the numerical and functional responses of natural enemies; these interactions can be semiochemically-, plant toxin-, plant nutrient-, and/or physically-mediated. Case studies involving predators, parasitoids, and pathogens of crop pests will be presented and discussed. These diverse groups of natural enemies may respond differently to crop plant traits based on their own unique biology and the ecological niches they fill. Genetically modified crop plants that have been engineered to express transgenic products affecting herbivorous pests are an additional consideration. For the most part, transgenic plant incorporated protectant (PIP traits are compatible with biological control due to their selective toxicity to targeted pests and relatively low non-target impacts, although transgenic crops may have indirect effects on higher trophic levels and arthropod communities mediated by lower host or prey number and/or quality. Host plant resistance and biological control are two of the key pillars of integrated pest management; their potential interactions, whether they are synergistic, complementary, or disruptive, are key in understanding and achieving sustainable and effective pest management.

  11. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests.

  12. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  13. Bifurcation and chaos of a pest-control food chain model with impulsive effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Fengyan [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou Zhejiang 325000 (China) and College of Science, Jimei University, Xiamen Fujian 361021 (China)], E-mail: wangfy68@163.com; Pang Guoping [Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Yulin Normal University, Yulin Guangxi 537000 (China)], E-mail: g.p.pang@163.com; Lu Zhengyi [Department of Mathematics, Wenzhou University, Wenzhou Zhejiang 325000 (China)

    2009-02-28

    According to biological and chemical control strategy for pest control, we investigate the dynamics of a predator-prey food chain with impulsive effect, periodic releasing natural enemies and spraying pesticide at different fixed times, by using impulsive differential equation. Choose pest birth rate r{sub 2} as control parameter, we show that there exists a stable pest-eradication periodic solution when r{sub 2} is less than some critical value r{sub 2}* and the system is permanence when r{sub 2} is larger than the critical value r{sub 2}*. By use of standard techniques of bifurcation theory, we prove that above this threshold there are periodic oscillations in prey, middle-predator and top predator. Furthermore, bifurcation diagrams have shown that there exists complexity for the pulsed system including periodic doubling cascade.

  14. Ecology and control of an invasive pest, the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum, was one of the success stories in classical biological control. In the 1920s, the prickly pear cactus was a serious pest in Australia. The cactus moth was imported from its native habitat in South America and proved so successful in controlling cactus that it ...

  15. Effect of gaseous ozone for control of stored product pests at low and high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Hansen, Peer; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous ozone (O3) has shown potential for control of insects in stored grain. A previous laboratory study determined doses of ozone necessary to control freely exposed and internal stages of eleven stored product pest species at 20 C. In this study the impact of temperature on the effect of ozon...

  16. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed\\ud chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel disc...

  17. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  18. Residue and bio-efficacy evaluation of controlled release formulations of imidacloprid against pests in soybean (Glycine max).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adak, Totan; Kumar, Jitendra; Dey, Debjani; Shakil, N A; Walia, S

    2012-01-01

    Controlled release (CR) formulations of imidacloprid (1-(6 chloro-3-pyridinyl methyl)-N- nitro imidazolidin-2- ylideneamine) were prepared using novel amphiphilic polymers synthesized from polyethylene glycol and aliphatic diacids employing encapsulation technique. The bioefficacy of the prepared CR formulations was evaluated against major pests of soybean, namely stem fly, Melanagromyza sojae Zehntmer and white fly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius along with a commercial formulation at the experimental farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New Delhi during kharif 2009 and 2010. Most of the CR formulations of imidacloprid gave significantly better control of the pests compare to its commercial formulations, however the CR formulations, Poly [poly (oxyethylene-1000)-oxy suberoyl] amphiphilic polymer based formulation performed better over others for controlling of both stem fly incidence and Yellow Mosaic Virus (YMV) infestation transmitted by white fly. Some of the developed CR formulations recorded higher yield over commercial formulation and control. Nodulation pattern of soybean was not affected due to treatment of CR and commercial formulations of imidacloprid. Also the residues of imidacloprid in seed and soil at harvest were not detectable for both CR and commercial formulations.

  19. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  20. Effects of agricultural commercialization on land use and pest management of smallholder upland farms in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Grovermann, Suthathip

    2016-01-01

    Over recent years, economic development, policy changes, new technologies and population growth have been motivating farmers in Thailand to intensify and commercialize their production activities. As part of this agricultural commercialization and intensification process, Thai upland farmers have adapted their farming practices to increase crop production and productivity levels. This thesis clearly demonstrates that there is a positive relationship between land use intensification/commercial...

  1. [Ecological control effects of Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem on litchi pests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Gecheng; Yang, Yueping; Liu, Deguang; Xiong, Jinjun; Huang, Mingdu

    2006-01-01

    An investigation on the community structure and dynamics of litchi pests and their natural enemies in constructed Litchi chinensis-Desmodium intortum complex plant ecosystem and single L. chinensis ecosystem showed that the total amount of litchi pests in the complex plant ecosystem was 61.27% of that in the single ecosystem in whole year, and only 50.45% in May, the key time for fruit development, which suggested that there was an interaction between D. intortum and L. chinensis. D. intortum and L. chinensis had a few common pests, but many common natural enemies. D. intortum florescence in winter provided shelter and substitutive food for the natural enemies of pests to survive in the extreme environmental conditions in winter. L. chinensis florescence was on the heel of D. intortum florescence, which provided better conditions for the natural enemies to survive and multiply. During florescence and fruit development stages of L. chinensis (from March to June), the predator/prey ratio in complex plant system was 4.22, 2.34, 2.2 and 20.63 times of that in single plant system in March, April, May and June, respectively, indicating the good control effect on pests of L. chinensis.

  2. Early pest development and loss of biological control are associated with urban warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2014-11-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees.

  3. The role of transient dynamics in biological pest control: insights from a host-parasitoid community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-01-01

    1. Identifying natural enemies that can maintain pests at low abundances is a priority in biological control. Here, we show that experiments combined with models generate new insights into identifying effective control agents prior to their release in the field. Using a host-parasitoid community (the harlequin bug and its egg parasitoids) as a model system, we report three key findings. 2. The interplay between the host's self-limitation and the parasitoids' saturating functional response causes the long-term (steady-state) outcomes for pest suppression to differ from those of short-term (transient) dynamics. When the bug's self-limitation is moderately strong, the parasitoid with the higher attack rate and conversion efficiency (Ooencyrtus) achieves greater host suppression in the long term, but its longer handling time causes long periods of transient dynamics during which the bug can reach high abundances; when the bug's self-limitation is weak, host fluctuations amplify over time and Ooencyrtus fails at host suppression altogether. In contrast, the parasitoid with the lower attack rate and conversion efficiency but the shorter handling time (Trissolcus) induces only weak transient fluctuations of short duration and can maintain the host at low abundances regardless of the strength of the bug's self-limitation. 3. Release of multiple enemy species can compromise host suppression if an enemy that induces stronger transient fluctuations excludes one that induces weaker fluctuations. For instance, Ooencyrtus excludes Trissolcus despite having a longer handling time because of its higher conversion efficiency. The model correctly predicts the time to exclusion observed in experiments, suggesting that it captures the key biological features of the host-parasitoid interaction. 4. Intraspecific interference reduces long-term pest suppression but improves short-term pest control by reducing the magnitude and duration of transient fluctuations. 5. These results highlight

  4. Towards integrated assessment of natural pest control as part of a set of ecosystem services: the Landscape IMAGES approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossing, W.A.H.; Groot, J.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural pest control is an ecosystem service that appears to be affected by ecosystem characteristics at spatial scales from field to landscape. Changes in land use and land management at the field level to enhance pest control depend on a small number of decision makers. In contrast, changes at the

  5. Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John E.

    This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

  6. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  7. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  8. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...

  9. LOW TEMPERATURE PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION FOR POSTHARVEST PEST CONTROL ON FRESH VEGETABLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2°C was studied to control western flower t...

  10. ROBUST CONTROL OF OSCILLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn;

    2003-01-01

    for agricultural tractors equiped with hicth and implements. A control strategy is developed to make the implement counteract the movement of the tractor and thereby reducing the pitching oscillation. The control strategy is based on a linear plant model with constant or slowly varying parameters. Using...

  11. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  12. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) could lead to insect death. This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control, and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection. However, there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control, with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA (dsRNA) delivery being two of the major challenges. With respect to target gene selection, at present, the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers. Once the target gene is identified, dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component. However, micro-injection, which is the most common method, can only be used in laboratory experiments. Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects. Hence, RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control, or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies; however, further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary. In this review, we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management. Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures. To accelerate its practical application in crop protection, further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed.

  13. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhang; Hai-Chao Li; Xue-Xia Miao

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi)could lead to insect death.This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control,and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection.However,there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control,with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA(dsRNA)delivery being two of the major challenges.With respect to target gene selection,at present,the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers.Once the target gene is identified,dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component.However,micro-injection,which is the most common method,can only be used in laboratory experiments.Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects.Hence,RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control,or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies;however,further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary.In this review,we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management.Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures.To accelerate its practical application in crop protection,further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed.

  14. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey C. Perkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  15. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C; Adrianos, Sherry L; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-09-19

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  16. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C.; Adrianos, Sherry L.; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs. PMID:27657138

  17. Microbial control of arthropod pests of orchards in temperate climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperate orchards systems have several environmental features that make them conducive to microbial control strategies including adequate soil moisture, shading (protection from harmful UV) and stability. This chapter reviews and analyzes microbial control efforts in temperate orchards, including p...

  18. Genetic Variation and Geographic Differentiation Among Populations of the Nonmigratory Agricultural Pest Oedaleus infernalis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea) in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Dong, Hui; Gao, Yue-Bo; Su, Qian-Fu; Qian, Hai-Tao; Bai, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Zhu-Ting; Cong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    The nonmigratory grasshopper Oedaleus infernalis Saussure (Orthoptera : Acridoidea) is an agricultural pest to crops and forage grasses over a wide natural geographical distribution in China. The genetic diversity and genetic variation among 10 geographically separated populations of O. infernalis was assessed using polymerase chain reaction-based molecular markers, including the intersimple sequence repeat and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase sequences. A high level of genetic diversity was detected among these populations from the intersimple sequence repeat (H: 0.2628, I: 0.4129, Hs: 0.2130) and cytochrome oxidase analyses (Hd: 0.653). There was no obvious geographical structure based on an unweighted pair group method analysis and median-joining network. The values of FST, θII, and Gst estimated in this study are low, and the gene flow is high (Nm > 4). Analysis of the molecular variance suggested that most of the genetic variation occurs within populations, whereas only a small variation takes place between populations. No significant correlation was found between the genetic distance and geographical distance. Overall, our results suggest that the geographical distance plays an unimpeded role in the gene flow among O. infernalis populations. PMID:26496789

  19. Cocos nucifera coir-mediated green synthesis of Pd NPs and its investigation against larvae and agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elango, Ganesh; Mohana Roopan, Selvaraj; Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Irukatla Damodharan, Kasinathan; Elumalai, Kuppuswamy

    2016-12-01

    In recent decades, several scientists focused their process towards nanoparticles synthesis by using various sustainable approaches. Cocos nucifera (C. nucifera) was one of the versatile trees in tropical regions which also can act as a thrust quencher in all over the world. Cocos nucifera coir was one of the waste by-products in all coconut-refining industries and with the help C. nucifera coir, Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were synthesized. Green-synthesized spherical-shape Pd NPs were over layered by secondary metabolites from C. nucifera coir extract and with an average particle size of 62 ± 2 nm, which were confirmed by morphological analysis. Eco-friendly mediated Pd NPs were further subjected to several biological applications like larvicidal against Aedes aegypti (A. aegypti) and anti-feedent, ovicidal, and oviposition deterrent against agricultural pest Callasobruchus maculates (C. maculates) and compared with C. nuciferacoir methanolic extract, which results in LC50 value of 288.88 ppm and LC90 value of 483.06 ppm using LSD-Tukey's test against dengue vector (A. aegypti). Cocos nucifera coir methanolic extract shows significant output while compared with Pd NPs towards anti-feedent assays; ovicidal activity and oviposition deterrent were discussed here.

  20. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential oil obtained from DCM Extracts of Psoralea corylifolia against Agricultural pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity of essential oils obtained from DCM extracts of Psoralea corylifolia (Fabaceae against pupa of Epilachna insect was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Insecticidal activity was determined at 24 ± 4⁰C and 68 ± 5% R.H., in dark conditions. The DCM extracts of the dried seeds of the plants were subjected to Column chromatography and the oil obtained was then subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus. The major components in these essential oils are identified using GC-MS spectroscopy and their insecticidal activity was tested. The predominant components in the oil of Psoralea corylifolia are toluene, alpha-pinene, L-beta-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, Gamma terpinene, terpinolene, alpha santolina alcohol, 4-terpineol, Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethenyl, caryophyllene, alpha caryophyllene, thumbergene. The mortality rate of the agricultural pests was checked against 1%, 5% and 10% conc. of essential oil. The essential oil from Psoralea corylifolia shows strong toxic effect against pupa of Epilachna insect. Finding insecticidal activity is of great importance as using plant extracts as insecticides, are biodegrable and do not leave toxic residues results in better crop and better human health.

  1. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsong; Hallerman, Eric; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-01-01

    Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis), demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field. PMID:27763554

  2. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis, demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field.

  3. Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil I Morrison

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders, a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

  4. Engineered Repressible Lethality for Controlling the Pink Bollworm, a Lepidopteran Pest of Cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Neil I.; Simmons, Gregory S.; Fu, Guoliang; O’Connell, Sinead; Walker, Adam S.; Dafa’alla, Tarig; Walters, Michelle; Claus, John; Tang, Guolei; Jin, Li; Marubbi, Thea; Epton, Matthew J.; Harris, Claire L.; Staten, Robert T.; Miller, Ernest; Miller, Thomas A.; Alphey, Luke

    2012-01-01

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders), a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects’ progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests. PMID:23226548

  5. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration.

  6. Prevention and control of weeds, pests and diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Weed control still requires major investments of money and labour in organic arable farming and field vegetable cultivation. For this reason, current research is focused to a large extent on the development of weed control strategies. These incorporate prevention as well as mechanical methods, and c

  7. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management s

  8. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  9. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape – Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Tom; Bailey, Alison; Garthwaite, David; Harrington, Richard; Potts, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users’ health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0–1 t/ha less). Alternatives for future oilseed rape

  10. The result of bagged Pyrinuron baits for control rodent pest of forests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力; 邓刚; 张蕊

    2000-01-01

    Bagged and dispersed Pyrinuron (a self-formulated rodenticide) were tested for control of Clethrionomus rutilus and Clethrionomus rufocanus in larch plantation, Pingshan area, Heilongjiang Province from Oct. 1998 to Apr. 1999. The results showed that the bagged Pyrinuron has good result for control of the two rodent pests. The density of rodents was reduced by 90.5% after application of bagged Pyrinuron. This application method has characteristics of long residual period, bait not going mould and saving labour force.

  11. Integrated Pest Management of Aphis spiraecola (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in clementines: enhancing its biological control

    OpenAIRE

    GOMEZ MARCO, FRANCESC

    2016-01-01

    [EN] Aphis spiraecola Patch. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a key pest of clementines. Biological control of A. spiraecola is still poorly known and efforts were based on the use and conservation of parasitoids but it did not success. With all this said, the aims of this thesis were: i) to disentangle the reasons behind the low parasitism of A. spiraecola; ii) to determine when and how predators can control A. spiraecola populations; and, finally, iii) to evaluate whether a ground cover of Poaceae...

  12. Advances in postharvest pest control on perishable commodities using ultralow oxygen treatment and low temperature phosphine funigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research in postharvest pest control on fresh fruits and vegetables for export to markets have resulted in promising ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments and low temperature phosphine fumigation treatments for a variety of pests on different commodities. Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri), wes...

  13. Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-09-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests.

  14. Pest control plan Modoc National Wildlife Refuge Alturas California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to receive approval to control both wildlife and domestic animals in order to meet refuge goals and objectives. Refuge objectives were...

  15. Farmers' knowledge and perception of cotton pests and pest control practices in Benin: results of a diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Huis, van A.; Kossou, D.K.; Jiggins, J.L.S.; Vodouhè, S.

    2004-01-01

    Cotton production constraints in Benin as perceived by farmers were studied from May to July 2003. The knowledge, perceptions and practices of farmers growing cotton under different pest management regimes were analysed. The methods used were open and semi-structured interviews with groups and indiv

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis-based Products for Insect Pest Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (or Bt, as it has become generally known) is one of the oldest and widely used biological control agents and has a long history of use. Bt and a number of related bacteria produce a variety of toxins, mostly—but not exclusively- localized in the parasporal crystals, which are,

  17. Mearsurement and control system for agricultural robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Zhang, Fangming; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Automation of agricultural equipments in the near term appears both economically viable and technically feasible. This paper describes measurement and control system for agriculture robot. It consists of a computer, a pair of NIR cameras, one inclinometer, one potentionmeter and two encoders. Inclinometer, potentionmeter and encoders are used to measure obliquity of camera, turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel, respectively. These sensor data are filtered before sending to PC. The test shows that the system can measure turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel accurately whether robot is at stillness state or at motion state.

  18. Alternative food improves the combined effect of an omnivore and a predator on biological pest control. A case study in avocado orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, J J; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; Boyero, J R; Vela, J M; Wong, E; Trigo, M M; Montserrat, M

    2009-10-01

    Ecological communities used in biological pest control are usually represented as three-trophic level food chains with top-down control. However, at least two factors complicate this simple way of characterizing agricultural communities. First, agro-ecosystems are composed of several interacting species forming complicated food webs. Second, the structure of agricultural communities may vary in time. Efficient pest management approaches need to integrate these two factors to generate better predictions for pest control. In this work, we identified the food web components of an avocado agro-ecosystem, and unravelled patterns of co-occurrence and interactions between these components through field and laboratory experiments. This allowed us to predict community changes that would improve the performance of the naturally occurring predators and to test these predictions in field population experiments. Field surveys revealed that the food-web structure and species composition of the avocado community changed in time. In spring, the community was characterized by a linear food chain of Euseius stipulatus, an omnivorous mite, feeding on pollen. In the summer, E. stipulatus and a predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, shared a herbivorous mite prey. Laboratory experiments confirmed these trophic interactions and revealed that N. californicus can feed inside the prey nests, whereas E. stipulatus cannot, which may further reduce competition among predators. Finally, we artificially increased the coexistence of the two communities via addition of the non-herbivore food source (pollen) for the omnivore. This led to an increase in predator numbers and reduced populations of the herbivore. Therefore, the presence of pollen is expected to improve pest control in this system.

  19. The role of bacillus-based biological control agents in integrated pest management systems: plant diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, B J; Zidack, N K; Larson, B J

    2004-11-01

    ABSTRACT Bacillus-based biological control agents (BCAs) have great potential in integrated pest management (IPM) systems; however, relatively little work has been published on integration with other IPM management tools. Unfortunately, most research has focused on BCAs as alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides or bactericides and not as part of an integrated management system. IPM has had many definitions and this review will use the national coalition for IPM definition: "A sustainable approach to managing pests by combining biological, cultural, physical and chemical tools in a way that minimizes economic, health and environmental risks." This review will examine the integrated use of Bacillus-based BCAs with disease management tools, including resistant cultivars, fungicides or bactericides, or other BCAs. This integration is important because the consistency and degree of disease control by Bacillus-based BCAs is rarely equal to the control afforded by the best fungicides or bactericides. In theory, integration of several tools brings stability to disease management programs. Integration of BCAs with other disease management tools often provides broader crop adaptation and both more efficacious and consistent levels of disease control. This review will also discuss the use of Bacillus-based BCAs in fungicide resistance management. Work with Bacillus thuringiensis and insect pest management is the exception to the relative paucity of reports but will not be the focus of this review.

  20. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Bell, James R; Hutchison, William D; van den Bosch, Frank; Mitchell, Paul D; Crowder, David; Parnell, Stephen; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests.

  1. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn.

  2. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumar Bashir

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t. based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water. A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin. Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops.

  3. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Oumar; Lemoyne, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin). Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops. PMID:27761325

  4. Oxygen enhances phosphine toxicity for postharvest pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2011-10-01

    Phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels (oxygenated phosphine fumigations) were significantly more effective than the fumigations under the normal 20.9% atmospheric oxygen level against western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] adults and larvae, leafminer Liriomyza langei Frick pupae, grape mealybug [Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn)] eggs, and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)] eggs and pupae. In 5-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C, mortalities of western flower thrips increased significantly from 79.5 to 97.7% when oxygen was increased from 20.9 to 40% and reached 99.3% under 80% O2. Survivorships of leafminer pupae decreased significantly from 71.2% under 20.9% O2 to 16.2% under 40% O2 and reached 1.1% under 80% O2 in 24-h fumigations with 500 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C. Complete control of leafminer pupae was achieved in 24-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C under 60% O2 or higher. Survivorships of grape mealybug eggs also decreased significantly in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 2 degrees C under 60% O2 compared with the fumigations under 20.9% O2. Indian meal moth egg survivorships decreased significantly from 17.4 to 0.5% in responses to an oxygen level increase from 20.9 to 40% in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and reached 0.2% in fumigations under 80% O2. When the oxygen level was reduced from 20.9 to 15 and 10% in fumigations, survivorships of Indianmeal moth eggs increased significantly from 17.4 to 32.9 and 39.9%, respectively. Increased O2 levels also resulted in significantly lower survival rates of Indianmeal moth pupae in response to 24-h fumigations with 500 and 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and a complete control was achieved in the 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigations under 60% O2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations have marked potential to improve insecticidal efficacy. Advantages and limitations of oxygenated

  5. A national system for monitoring the population of agricultural pests using an integrated approach of remote sensing data from in situ automated traps and satellite images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diofantos, Hadjimitsis G.; Panayiotis, Philimis; Elias, Psimolophitis; Georgiou, George K.; Kyriacos, Themistocleous

    2010-10-01

    A national system for monitoring the population increase of agricultural pest "Lobesia Botrana" (vine moth/fly that attacks grapes) in Cyprus has been developed. The system comprises of automated delta traps with GPS that use wireless(Wi-Fi) camera, automated image analysis for identification of the specific fly species, Wi-Fi technology for transferring the data using mobile telephony network to a central station for result presentation and analysis. A GIS database was developed and included details of the pilot vineyards, environmental conditions and daily data of the number of captured flies from each automated trap. The results were compared with MODIS and LANDSAT satellite thermal images since the appearance of the vine fly is greatly dependent on the microclimate temperatures (degree days). Results showed that satellite data can estimate accurately the appearance of the vine fly. The proposed system can be an important tool for the improvement of a national Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system and it can also be used for monitoring other agricultural pests and insects.

  6. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control.

  7. Response of pest control by generalist predators to local-scale plant diversity: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassou, Anicet Gbèblonoudo; Tixier, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Disentangling the effects of plant diversity on the control of herbivores is important for understanding agricultural sustainability. Recent studies have investigated the relationships between plant diversity and arthropod communities at the landscape scale, but few have done so at the local scale. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 papers containing 175 independent measures of the relationship between plant diversity and arthropod communities. We found that generalist predators had a strong positive response to plant diversity, that is, their abundance increased as plant diversity increased. Herbivores, in contrast, had an overall weak and negative response to plant diversity. However, specialist and generalist herbivores differed in their response to plant diversity, that is, the response was negative for specialists and not significant for generalists. While the effects of scale remain unclear, the response to plant diversity tended to increase for specialist herbivores, but decrease for generalist herbivores as the scale increased. There was no clear effect of scale on the response of generalist predators to plant diversity. Our results suggest that the response of herbivores to plant diversity at the local scale is a balance between habitat and trophic effects that vary according to arthropod specialization and habitat type. Synthesis and applications. Positive effects of plant diversity on generalist predators confirm that, at the local scale, plant diversification of agroecosystems is a credible and promising option for increasing pest regulation. Results from our meta-analysis suggest that natural control in plant-diversified systems is more likely to occur for specialist than for generalist herbivores. In terms of pest management, our results indicate that small-scale plant diversification (via the planting of cover crops or intercrops and reduced weed management) is likely to increase the control of specialist herbivores by generalist predators.

  8. Species and control of insect pests and major diseases of Torreyagrandis Merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhongliang; XU Zhihong; CHEN Xiulong; JIN Guolong; LI Suping; SHEN Yulin; LANG Xuejun; HU Zhongcheng; CHEN Lihong

    2006-01-01

    From January 2001 to December 2004,the investigation on the species of insect pests and diseases in Torreya grandis Merrillii was conducted and integrated control technologies of the main insect pests and diseases were studied in Zhuji,Shaoxin,Shenzhou,Dongyang,and Jiande counties of Zhejiang Province.Via field survey,a system of regular observations,55 species of insectpests belonging to 9 orders and 29 families,and 4 species of diseases were recorded.Among them,Lepteucosma torreyae and Macrolygus torreyae were found to be new species.The biological characteristics of the major insect pests and diseases,such as Rhyncaphytoptus abiesis,Helicobasidium compacum,Erwinia carotovora,Chlorella sp.,Macrolygus torreyae,and Lepteucosma torreyae,were primarily recorded,and their outbreaks and epidemics were researched.The forecasting method for Lepteucosma torreyae was established.Based on strengthening cultivation and management,integrated control measures were put forward including physical,biologic and chemical methods.Medications with higher effect and lower toxicity were screened by comparing the effect of different pesticide treatments.

  9. Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Yao, Ju; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-11-12

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control important lepidopteran pests. However, pests such as aphids not susceptible to Cry proteins may require other integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, including biological control. We fed aphids on Bt and non-Bt plants and analyzed the Bt protein residue in aphids and compared the effects of Bt plants and a pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, on the performance of three natural enemies (predators: Coleomegilla maculata and Eupeodes americanus; parasitoid Aphidius colemani) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. No Bt protein residues in aphids were detected and no significant differences were recorded in the performance of pyrethroid-resistant aphids that fed on Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ab or Cry1C, or on non-Bt broccoli plants treated or not treated with the pyrethroid. This indicated the aphids were not affected by the Cry proteins or the pyrethroid, thus removing any effect of prey quality. Tri-trophic experiments demonstrated that no C. maculata and E. americanus survived consumption of pyrethroid-treated aphids and that ovipositional behavior of A. colemani was impaired when provided with pyrethroid-treated aphids. In contrast, natural enemies were not affected when fed aphids reared on Bt broccoli, thus demonstrating the safety of these Bt plants for IPM.

  10. Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks as pest in agricultural crop of economic interest of the municipalities Abreu and Aguada de Pasajeros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydi Díaz García

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation was developed during six winter and spring seasons in the municipalities of Abreus and Aguada de Pasajeros with the aims to know the preference of Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks and levels of incidence for crops. The data filed were obtained in the Protection Station of Yaguaramas about four the crops in the register of existent areas, stationary fields, journeys of itinerary, reports of seasons and historical territorial registration. It was analyzed the levels of incidence by varieties, sowing times or plantation according to meteorological variables. It was picked up affected crops and frequency of incidence of the mite, percentage of area with presence and level of incidence per crops and season. It is reported the white mite as important pest, with high percent of affected areas in cold and spring season for potato, common bean, cowpea, pepper at fields and greenhouse. This surpassed the Control Economic Threshold in all cultivations sowed or planted; not being this way in common bean that only it happened in two seasons. In February-March, April-May the higher incidences occurred in the fields, without a marked preference for pepper greenhouse. The highest incidences happened to minimum temperature of 18 0C and 94 % of relative humidity. It don not put on in evidence the preference of the mite for some variety of the crops in study; throwing differences among early, intermediate and late season for pepper greenhouse in spring and for common bean and cowpea.

  11. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilai N Keren

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly in wheat (Triticum aestivum systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the

  12. Nonlinear incidence rate of a Pest management SI model with biological and chemical control concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Jian-jun; CHEN Lan-sun

    2007-01-01

    A pest management SI model with impulsive releases of infective pests and spraying pesticides is proposed and investigated. We prove that all solutions of the model are uniformly ultimately bounded. We also obtain the sufficient conditions of globally asymptotic stability periodic solution of pest-extinction and permanence of the model.The approach of combining impulsive releasing infective pests with impulsive spraying pesticides provides reliable tactical basis for the practical pest management.

  13. Lepidopteran HMG-CoA reductase is a potential selective target for pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-mei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the negative impacts on the environment of some insecticides, discovery of eco-friendly insecticides and target has received global attention in recent years. Sequence alignment and structural comparison of the rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR revealed differences between lepidopteran pests and other organisms, which suggested insect HMGR could be a selective insecticide target candidate. Inhibition of JH biosynthesis in vitro confirmed that HMGR inhibitors showed a potent lethal effect on the lepidopteran pest Manduca sexta, whereas there was little effect on JH biosynthesis in Apis mellifera and Diploptera punctata. The pest control application of these inhibitors demonstrated that they can be insecticide candidates with potent ovicidal activity, larvicidal activity and insect growth regulatory effects. The present study has validated that Lepidopteran HMGR can be a potent selective insecticide target, and the HMGR inhibitors (especially type II statins could be selective insecticide candidates and lead compounds. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sequence alignment, homology modeling and structural comparison may be useful for determining potential enzymes or receptors which can be eco-friendly pesticide  targets.

  14. Lepidopteran HMG-CoA reductase is a potential selective target for pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan-mei; Huang, Juan; Tobe, Stephen S.

    2017-01-01

    As a consequence of the negative impacts on the environment of some insecticides, discovery of eco-friendly insecticides and target has received global attention in recent years. Sequence alignment and structural comparison of the rate-limiting enzyme HMG-CoA reductase (HMGR) revealed differences between lepidopteran pests and other organisms, which suggested insect HMGR could be a selective insecticide target candidate. Inhibition of JH biosynthesis in vitro confirmed that HMGR inhibitors showed a potent lethal effect on the lepidopteran pest Manduca sexta, whereas there was little effect on JH biosynthesis in Apis mellifera and Diploptera punctata. The pest control application of these inhibitors demonstrated that they can be insecticide candidates with potent ovicidal activity, larvicidal activity and insect growth regulatory effects. The present study has validated that Lepidopteran HMGR can be a potent selective insecticide target, and the HMGR inhibitors (especially type II statins) could be selective insecticide candidates and lead compounds. Furthermore, we demonstrated that sequence alignment, homology modeling and structural comparison may be useful for determining potential enzymes or receptors which can be eco-friendly pesticide  targets. PMID:28133568

  15. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard

    2007-01-01

    Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biological......, beetles and moths; (2) Preventative treatment of bulk commodities against weevils (Sitophilus spp.) and storage mites; (3) Preventative application of egg-parasitoids against moths in packaged products. Development of methods for biological control and of mass production of natural enemies...

  16. Enhancing the effectiveness of biological control programs of invasive species through a more comprehensive pest management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiTomaso, Joseph M; Van Steenwyk, Robert A; Nowierski, Robert M; Vollmer, Jennifer L; Lane, Eric; Chilton, Earl; Burch, Patrick L; Cowan, Phil E; Zimmerman, Kenneth; Dionigi, Christopher P

    2017-01-01

    Invasive species are one of the greatest economic and ecological threats to agriculture and natural areas in the US and the world. Among the available management tools, biological control provides one of the most economical and long-term effective strategies for managing widespread and damaging invasive species populations of nearly all taxa. However, integrating biological control programs in a more complete integrated pest management approach that utilizes increased information and communication, post-release monitoring, adaptive management practices, long-term stewardship strategies, and new and innovative ecological and genetic technologies can greatly improve the effectiveness of biological control. In addition, expanding partnerships among relevant national, regional, and local agencies, as well as academic scientists and land managers, offers far greater opportunities for long-term success in the suppression of established invasive species. In this paper we direct our recommendations to federal agencies that oversee, fund, conduct research, and develop classical biological control programs for invasive species. By incorporating these recommendations into adaptive management strategies, private and public land managers will have far greater opportunities for long-term success in suppression of established invasive species. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt for the Control of Insect Pests in Stored Tobacco: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanc M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the insect species causing infestations and serious damages to stored commodities, the cigarette beetle, Lasiodermaserricorne (F. and the tobacco moth, Ephestiaelutella (Hübner are the major pests of both raw and manufactured tobacco. Post-harvest tobacco control is achieved through sanitation, insect monitoring, and fumigation with phosphine. However, insect resistance to phosphine and control failures have been reported, and increasing regulatory pressure is being exerted on fumigants. Biological control agents such as Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt appear to be environmentally sound and potentially viable alternatives to chemical control. Bt is a bacterium that produces insecticidal crystal proteins during the sporulation phase and has been, for more than 40 years, the microorganism of choice for the biocontrol of phytophagous insect pests. It produces insecticidal crystal proteins that display specific activity against certain orders of insects and become active upon ingestion by the insect. Our laboratory has conducted extensive research and worldwide surveys to evaluate the presence of Bt in stored tobacco and has confirmed previous findings indicating that Bt may be considered part of the naturally occurring phylloplanemicroflora. Several Bt strains were isolated from tobacco and characterized by DNA and protein profiling. The insecticidal activity of selected strains and of two commercial products against the larvae of L. serricorne was determined by diet incorporation assays. Moreover, the stability of Bt spores and crystal proteins on cured tobacco leaves was assessed over a storage period of time of 30 months. Cigarette prototypes were made with Bt-treated tobacco. Standard cigarette and smoke evaluations did not show any significant difference between the test and control cigarettes. Although the tested Bt strains and products did not yield satisfactory levels of mortality at the required times and doses, the experimental results

  18. Biocontrol of fouling pests: Effect of diversity, identity and density of control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2016-04-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, using native natural enemies, has been suggested as a promising tool to control marine biofouling pests on artificial structures. However, there are still important knowledge gaps to be addressed before biocontrol can be considered as a management tool. In a field experiment on floating marine structures we examined intra- and interspecific consumer interactions among biocontrol agents on different surface orientations. We tested the effect of identity, density and diversity of three invertebrates (the 11-arm seastar Coscinasterias muricata, the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus and the gastropod Cook's turban Cookia sulcata) to reduce established biofouling and to prevent fouling growth on defouled surfaces. High densities of biocontrol agents were not more effective at fouling control (cover and biomass) than low densities. Nor did multi-species treatments function more effectively than mono-specific ones. However, biocontrol agent identity was important, with the 11-arm seastar and Cook's turban being the most effective at fouling reduction and prevention, respectively. Surface orientation had a strong effect on the effectiveness of control agents, with the best results obtained on vertical compared to diagonal and underside surfaces. This study confirmed the potential of biocontrol as a management tool for marine pest, indicating that identity is more important than richness and density of control agents. It also highlighted the limitations of this approach on diagonal and underside surfaces, where control agents have limited retention ability.

  19. Conservation biological control of pests in the molecular era: new opportunities to address old constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurr eGeoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBiological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular – particularly DNA-related – techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and now – in turn – are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS- based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate the plant defence mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles.

  20. Ecological Control Effects on Pest, Pathogen and Weed of Multiple Species Coexistence in Paddy Fields in Traditional Agricultural Regions%传统农业区稻田多个物种共存对病虫草害的生态控制效应——以贵州省从江县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 成升魁; 杨海龙; 何露; 焦雯珺; 刘珊; 闵庆文

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has flourished in China since time immemorial. One of the legacies of the time-honored agricultural development in China has been varied farming practices that adapt well to different natural conditions. Value of these traditional practices or models is rediscovered and cherished today when the so-called modem agriculture fails to be sustainable due to a variety of ecological and health problems and risks introduced by modern systems. Among plenty of traditional agricultural practices or models, some ecological principles were revealed, but significant philosophies of other traditional agricultural systems remain unknown. However, the area of traditional agriculture in China is rapidly shrinking. To that end, it is critical to investigating traditional agricultural practices and models. Understanding the role of agrobiodiversity as a contributor to sustainable agriculture, evaluation of its functions was performed in this study.Agrobiodiversity is most likely to enhance ecosystem stability and productivity when a unique or complementary effect is added to the ecosystem. Performing a semi-experiment combined with the random sampling investigation technique, modern and traditional rice varieties in different farming systems were investigated, i.e., 1) rice monoculture (R); 2) rice-fish culture (R-F); and 3)rice-fish-duck culture (R-F-D). Results show that the glutinous rice in every farming system had a lower weed density than that of the hybrid ones. There was no significant difference in the density of rice planthoppers, spider, rice leave roller (Cnaphalocrocis medialis Guenee) between glutinous rice and hybrid ones. The hybrid rice in every farming system had a lower incidence of Blast disease than that of the glutinous ones. Concerning the farming systems, under R-F-D, the weed density in paddy fields decreased significantly, and the control effects on weed species such as Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.), Rotala indica (Willd.) Koehne were 100

  1. Dynamic Analysis of General Integrated Pest Management Model with Double Impulsive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingke Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A general predator-prey model with disease in the prey and double impulsive control is proposed and investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. By using the Floquet theory, the comparison theorem of impulsive differential equations, and the persistence theory of dynamical systems, we obtain that if threshold value R01, then the model is permanent. The numerical examples not only illustrate the theoretical results, but also show that when the model is permanent, then it may possess a unique globally attractive T-periodic solution.

  2. Introduced agricultural pests, plant and animals diseases and vectors in the Dutch Caribbean, with an alert species list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Most information on invasive alien pests is available for the leeward Dutch islands while the least is known for the windward Dutch islands. The principal means of entry is the importation of unsterilized soil and plant material through container shipment, import of ornamental plants and air traffic

  3. Pheromone-based pest management in china: past, present and future prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologi...

  4. Combining pest control and resistance management: synergy of engineered insects with Bt crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alphey, Nina; Bonsall, Michael B; Alphey, Luke

    2009-04-01

    Transgenic crops producing insecticidal toxins are widely used to control insect pests. Their benefits would be lost if resistance to the toxins became widespread in pest populations. The most widely used resistance management method is the high-dose/refuge strategy. This requires toxin-free host plants as refuges near insecticidal crops, and toxin doses intended to be sufficiently high to kill insects heterozygous for a resistant allele, thereby rendering resistance functionally recessive. We have previously shown by mathematical modeling that mass-release of harmless susceptible (toxin-sensitive) insects engineered with repressible female-specific lethality using release of insects carrying a dominant lethal ([RIDL] Oxitec Limited, United Kingdom) technology could substantially delay or reverse the spread of resistance and reduce refuge sizes. Here, we explore this proposal in depth, studying a wide range of scenarios, considering impacts on population dynamics as well as evolution of allele frequencies, comparing with releases of natural fertile susceptible insects, and examining the effect of seasonality. We investigate the outcome for pest control for which the plant-incorporated toxins are not necessarily at a high dose (i.e., they might not kill all homozygous susceptible and all heterozygous insects). We demonstrate that a RIDL-based approach could form an effective component of a resistance management strategy in a wide range of genetic and ecological circumstances. Because there are significant threshold effects for several variables, we expect that a margin of error would be advisable in setting release ratios and refuge sizes, especially as the frequency and properties of resistant alleles may be difficult to measure accurately in the field.

  5. The discovery of pyridalyl: a novel insecticidal agent for controlling lepidopterous pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Noriyasu; Saito, Shigeru; Hirose, Taro; Suzuki, Masaya; Matsuo, Sanshiro; Izumi, Keiichi; Nagatomi, Toshio; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Umeda, Kimitoshi; Tsushima, Kazunori; Matsuo, Noritada

    2004-01-01

    Synthesis of analogues of two compounds with known insecticidal activity, both of which contain a 3,3-dichloro-2-propenyloxy group, produced 2-(trifluoromethyl)-4-phenoxyphenyl 3,3-dichloro-2-propenyl ether, which had weak activity against lepidopterous larvae. Structural modifications around this lead compound led to the development of pyridalyl [Pleo, S-1812; 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridyloxy]propyl ether], which belongs to a new class of insecticides. Pyridalyl gives very good control of various lepidopterous and thysanopterous pests on cotton and vegetables, without phytotoxicity. It controls populations of Heliothis virescens F and Plutella xylostella (L) which are resistant to various currently used insecticides. It also produces unique insecticidal symptoms, so it may have a different mode of action from other existing insecticides. Pyridalyl is also less harmful than existing insecticides to various beneficial arthropods, so it should provide an important tool in IPM and insecticidal management programmes for the control of lepidopterous and thysanopterous pests. The first market introduction is expected in Japan and some Asian countries in the years between 2004 and 2005.

  6. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  7. Science Letters: Radio frequency heating: a potential method for post-harvest pest control in nuts and dry products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShao-jin; TANGJu-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-billion dollar US tree nut industries rely heavily on methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest insect control and are facing a major challenge with the mandated cessation by 2005 of its use for most applications. There is an urgent need to develop effective and economically viable alternative treatments to replace current phytosanitary and quarantine practices in order to maintain the competitiveness of US agriculture in domestic and international markets. With the reliable heating block system, the thermal death kinetics for fifth-instar codling moth, lndianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm were determined at a heating rate of 18℃/min. A practical process protocol was developed to control the most heat resistant insect pest, fifth-instar navel orangeworm, in in-shell walnuts using a 27MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF) system. RF heating to 55℃ and holding in hot air for at least 5min resulted in 100% mortality of the fifth-instar navel orangeworm. Rancidity, sensory qualities and shell characteristics were not affected by the treatments. If this method can be economically integrated into the handling process, it should have excellent potential as a disinfestation method for in-shell walnuts.

  8. Radio frequency heating:a potential method for post-harvest pest control in nuts and dry products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-jin; TANG Ju-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-billion dollar US tree nut industries rely heavily on methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest insect control and are facing a major challenge with the mandated cessation by 2005 of its use for most applications. There is an urgent need to develop effective and economically viable alternative treatments to replace current phytosanitary and quarantine practices in order to maintain the competitiveness of US agriculture in domestic and international markets. With the reliable heating block system, the thermal death kinetics for fifth-instar codling moth, Indianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm were determined at a heating rate of 18℃/min. A practical process protocol was developed to control the most heat resistant insect pest, fifth-instar navel orangeworm, in in-shell walnuts using a 27 MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF)system. RF heating to 55℃ and holding in hot air for at least 5 min resulted in 100% mortality of the fifth-instar navel orangeworm. Rancidity, sensory qualities and shell characteristics were not affected by the treatments. If this method can be economically integrated into the handling process, it should have excellent potential as a disinfestation method for in-shell walnuts.

  9. The impact of climate change on the potential distribution of agricultural pests: the case of the coffee white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus P.) in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutywayo, Dumisani; Chemura, Abel; Kusena, Winmore; Chidoko, Pardon; Mahoya, Caleb

    2013-01-01

    The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB), Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT) and Generalized Linear Models (GLM) was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence) collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha) increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.

  10. The impact of climate change on the potential distribution of agricultural pests: the case of the coffee white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus P. in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Kutywayo

    Full Text Available The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB, Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT and Generalized Linear Models (GLM was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 319.56-5 Section 319.56-5 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-5 Pest-free areas. As... provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  12. Biological monitoring of pyrethroid exposure of pest control workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Kamijima, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kameda, Yohei; Asai, Kazumi; Okamura, Ai; Naito, Hisao; Ueyama, Jun; Saito, Isao; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Eiji; Kondo, Takaaki; Takagi, Kenji; Takagi, Kenzo; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, which are usually used in pest control operations, are metabolized to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and excreted in urine. Though 3-PBA can be used to assess exposure to pyrethroids, there are few reports describing urinary 3-PBA levels in Japan. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal variation of the exposure levels of pyrethroids and the concentration of urinary 3-PBA among pest control operators (PCOs) in Japan. The study subjects were 78 and 66 PCOs who underwent a health examination in December 2004 and in August 2005, respectively. 3-PBA was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentration of urinary 3-PBA in winter (3.9 microg/g creatinine) was significantly lower than in summer (12.2 microg/g creatinine) (p0.05), respectively. A significant association of 3-PBA levels and pyrethroid spraying was thus observed only in winter. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that the exposure level of pyrethroids among PCOs in Japan assessed by monitoring urinary 3-PBA was higher than that reported in the UK but comparable to that in Germany. Further research should be accumulated to establish an occupational reference value in Japan.

  13. Damage by insect pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluate its extent and suggest a proper control strategy, a detailed survey was performed inside the Mosque complex and in its immediate surroundings. The entomological inspection, performed in the dry-cold season, allowed to detect signs of insect damage in most of the wooden elements, even in the recently replaced beams, but also in walls, pillars and the precious decorated panels. Damages in the wood elements could be attributed to Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae, Bostrychoplites zycheli Marseuli (Bostrichidae and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae, which were collected alive on site. Injures in the walls and decorated panels appeared to be performed by hymenopterans such as “plasterer bees” (Colletidae and Sphecidae. From the evaluation of the type and extent of damage in relation to the architecture and materials used in its construction and decoration, the most serious pest and the worse threat for the mosque is represented by termites. Control and preventive measures, in the view of a sustainable, long-lasting integrated management are suggested.

  14. Late pest control in determinate tomato cultivars Controle de pragas tardias em cultivares de tomateiro de crescimento determinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of insecticidal plants and others insect resistant varieties can be strong allies to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM, being able to reduce the number of insecticides applications and to minimize its effect to the man and the environment.The following control techniques were compared in field conditions, investigating the late pest control of two determinate tomato cultivars: a Conventional - sprayings of metamidophos, buprofezin, acephate, cipermetrin, abamectin, permetrin, teflubenzuron and lufenuron, applied every three to six days; b IPM - action threshold of each pest to the spraying of imidacloprid, triflumuron, lufenuron and abamectin; c IPM - Azadirachta indica (neem - Action threshold of each pest to the spraying of the nim oil (1.2% of azadirachtin at a concentration of 0.5%. The IPM and IPM - Neem control techniques were efficient controlling the late pest of the tomato cultivar, not differing from the conventional treatment that presented the lowest levels of infestation. The conventional control technique, IPM and IPM-neem promoted bigger tomato production with increasements of up to 74%. The number of sprayings was reduced up to 77% with the IPM and IPM - neem techniques, when compared to the conventional method. The neem product may be a promising alternative to the late pest control in the tomato field that adjusts to the IPM.O uso de plantas inseticidas e de variedades pode ser forte aliado ao Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP, podendo reduzir o número de aplicações de inseticidas e minimizar seus efeitos ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Em condições de campo, visando o controle de pragas tardias do tomateiro em duas cultivares de crescimento determinado, compararam-se as seguintes táticas de controle: a Convencional - pulverizações com os produtos metamidofós, buprofezin, acefato, cipermetrina, abamectina, permetrina, teflubenzuron e lufenuron, aplicados em intervalos de três a seis dias; b MIP - nível de a

  15. Impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna living in bird nests built in nestboxes in pear and apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Lise; Bouvier, Jean-Charles; Lavigne, Claire; Galès, Mathieu; Buronfosse, Thierry

    2013-08-01

    Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (≥10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.

  16. Theoretical study and control optimization of an integrated pest management predator-prey model with power growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaibiao; Zhang, Tonghua; Tian, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a pest control predator-prey model, where rate of change in prey density follows a scaling law with exponent less than one and the control is by an integrated management strategy. The aim is to investigate the change in system dynamics and determine a pest control level with minimum control price. First, the dynamics of the proposed model without control is investigated by taking the exponent as an index parameter. And then, to determine the frequency of spraying chemical pesticide and yield releases of the predator, the existence of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system is discussed in cases. Furthermore, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted control, i.e., for an inaccurately detected species density or a deviation, the control system could be stabilized at the order-1 periodic orbit, the stability of the order-1 periodic orbit is verified by an stability criterion for a general semi-continuous dynamical system. In addition, to minimize the total cost input in pest control, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum pest control level is obtained. At last, the numerical simulations with a specific model are carried out to complement the theoretical results.

  17. New Concept of Biological Control:Bio-control Plants Used for Management of Arthropod Pests%害虫生物防治新概念--生物防治植物及创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英方; 毛润乾; 万方浩

    2013-01-01

      在现代农业,特别是有机农业的害虫防治系统中,除有益生物(主要指节肢动物)在害虫防治中发挥关键作用外,一些植物本身也发挥了重要的作用。这些植物包括抗虫植物、诱集植物、拒避植物、杀虫植物、载体植物、养虫植物以及显花(虫媒)植物等,它们是害虫生物防治的重要组成部分,并在害虫生物防治中起着越来越重要的作用。本文根据目前国内外的研究情况,提出一个害虫生物防治植物或简称生防植物(bio-control plant)新概念,并对不同生物防治植物应用及作用机理进行阐述,分析不同生物防治植物未来的发展前景和面临的挑战。%The modern organic agriculture has increasingly become a hot topic worldwide. In general, organic agriculture is complied with organic standards set by national governments and international organizations. The rule does not involve modern synthetic inputs such as synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers. With the growing emphasis on the environment and the food safety, the discovery and development of effective biological control approaches, especially in botanically based techniques, such as botanically derived pesticides to manage arthropod pest populations is facing a new challenge. This review is intended to discuss bio-control plants and provide insights of these plants used for potential biological control of arthropod pests in the field of crop protection. As all known, all crops or plants are always attacked by their enemies, i.e. arthropod pests. In most cases, the plant species or diversities within crop ecosystem provide an excellent opportunities for manage pests in organic agricultural production. Under certain circumstances, these crops or plants can rely on their own defense strategies, such as plant physiological and biochemical merits, against arthropod pest population. These plant defense strategies are playing key role in

  18. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamury, M.; Manivannan, N.; Al-Raweshidy, H.; Balachandran, W.

    2015-10-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to design the induction electrodes to achieve maximum charge transfer onto the fan spray liquid film resulting in achieving the desired charge/mass ratio of the spray. The charged spray nozzle was operated on short duration pulsed spray mode. Image analysis was employed to investigate the spray deposition on improvised insect targets on an artificial plant.

  19. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  20. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  1. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  2. Cost-benefit analysis of an area-wide pest management program to control Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito), which limit outdoor activities. We conducted a cost-benefit analysis for an AWPM in Mercer and Monmouth counties, New Jersey, as part of a controlled design with matched area...

  3. Dynamic Analysis of a Predator-Prey (Pest Model with Disease in Prey and Involving an Impulsive Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviors of a predator-prey (pest model with disease in prey and involving an impulsive control strategy to release infected prey at fixed times are investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. Mathematical theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of the local asymptotical stability and global attractivity for the semitrivial periodic solution and population persistent, which depicts the threshold expression of some critical parameters for carrying out integrated pest management. Numerical analysis indicates that the impulsive control strategy has a strong effect on the dynamical complexity and population persistent using bifurcation diagrams and power spectra diagrams. These results show that if the release amount of infective prey can satisfy some critical conditions, then all biological populations will coexist. All these results are expected to be of use in the study of the dynamic complexity of ecosystems.

  4. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  5. Spider-venom peptides: structure, pharmacology, and potential for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Glenn F; Hardy, Margaret C

    2013-01-01

    Spider venoms are an incredibly rich source of disulfide-rich insecticidal peptides that have been tuned over millions of years to target a wide range of receptors and ion channels in the insect nervous system. These peptides can act individually, or as part of larger toxin cabals, to rapidly immobilize envenomated prey owing to their debilitating effects on nervous system function. Most of these peptides contain a unique arrangement of disulfide bonds that provides them with extreme resistance to proteases. As a result, these peptides are highly stable in the insect gut and hemolymph and many of them are orally active. Thus, spider-venom peptides can be used as stand-alone bioinsecticides, or transgenes encoding these peptides can be used to engineer insect-resistant crops or enhanced entomopathogens. We critically review the potential of spider-venom peptides to control insect pests and highlight their advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional chemical insecticides.

  6. Conservation Biological Control and Pest Performance in Lawn Turf: Does Mowing Height Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Emily K.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2014-03-01

    With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control.

  7. NASA's Contributions to Controlled Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    It may come as a surprise, but NASA has been a long-standing sponsor of controlled environment agriculture (CEA) research. This is based on the potential for using plants (crops) for life support systems in space. Through photosynthesis, crops could produce food and oxygen for humans, while removing CO2. In addition, plant transpiration could help purify waste water. NASAs interest in bioregenerative life support dates back to the late 1950s. At that time, much of the testing focused on algae, but over the years moved toward higher plants as CEA techniques improved. Throughout the 1980s and 90s, extensive testing was carried out at different universities to gather horticultural data for a range of crops, including wheat, soybean, lettuce, potato, sweet potato, cowpea, rice and more. These studies examined different electric light sources, mineral nutrition, recirculating hydroponics, effects of CO2, temperature, photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), and photoperiod on the crops, and identified cultivars that would be useful for space. Findings from these studies were then used to conduct large scale (20 sq m), closed atmosphere tests at Kennedy Space Center, and later at NASA Johnson Space Center, where plant growth chambers were linked to human habitats. Results showed that with high light input and careful horticultural management, about 20-25 sq m of crops under continuous cultivation could produce the O2 for one person, and about 40-50 sq m could produce enough dietary calories. The ability to sustain these production levels and accurately assess system costs and failures needs further study. In all likelihood, the use of plants for life support will evolve, where for early missions like the International Space Station, crops will be grown in small chambers to provide supplemental fresh foods. As mission durations and distances increase, the systems could expand to assume more of the life support burden. But the constraints of space travel require that these

  8. Control Effects of Two-Batch-Duck Raising with Rice Framing on Rice Diseases, Insect Pests and Weeds in Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-ming Liang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice-duck farming system is one of the means of organic rice farming, in which the weeds, diseases and insects could be effectively controlled with minimal or no pesticide and herbicide application. Whereas in conventional rice-duck farming system the controlling effect on diseases, insect pests and weeds was slowly disappeared after the rice heading stage at which ducks were driven out of the paddy field. To fill up the blank period of pasture activities of ducks, this study put forward two new rice-duck farming systems innovated from the conventional rice-duck farming system, in these new systems, two batches of ducks were raised with rice within one rice planting season. The results revealed that the overall controlling effect of ducks on rice diseases, insect pest and weeds was significantly enhanced in the two new rice-duck farming systems without agrochemicals application. It might be suggested that these two new systems have potential application as biocontrol agent for the organic rice agriculture.

  9. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolari, Francesca; Gomulski, Ludvik M; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Malacrida, Anna R

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unravel several aspects of the medfly reproductive biology and behaviour, opening new opportunities for comparative genomics and barcoding for species identification. New genes, promotors and regulatory sequences are becoming available for the development/improvement of highly competitive sexing strains, for the monitoring of sterile males released in the field and for determining the mating status of wild females. The tools developed in this species have been transferred to other tephritids that are also the subject of SIT programmes.

  10. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifone D'Addabbo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally occurring in plants as products of the secondary metabolism. Groups of plant secondary metabolites most promising for the development of pesticidal formulations are glucosinolates, saponins, and more generally terpenoid phytoconstituents, such as essential oil and their constituents. Glucosinolates are thioglucosidic secondary metabolites occurring mainly in the Brassicaceae and, at a less extent, in Capparidaceae families. The incorporation of glucosinolate- containing plant material into the soil results in degradation products highly toxic to soilborne pest, pathogens and weeds. This practice, known as biofumigation, may be considered as an ecological alternative to soil toxic fumigants. Plant-derived saponins are triterpene glycosides present in top and root tissues of plant species of the families Leguminosae, Alliaceae, Asteraceae, Polygalaceae and Agavaceae. Saponins and saponin-rich plant materials have been also reported for a biocidal activity on phytoparasites and soilborne plant pathogens. Essential oils are volatile, natural, heterogeneous mixtures of single substances, mainly terpenes and phenolics, formed as secondary metabolites by aromatic plants belonging to several botanical families. Among terpenes, limonoid triterpenes have been demonstrated to possess interesting insecticidal, nematicidal and antifungal properties. Occurrence of these compounds is mainly limited to Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Alkaloids, phenolics, cyanogenic glucosides

  11. RESEARCH REGARDING INTEGRATED DISEASES AND PESTS CONTROL IN APPLE TREE CULTIVATION IN THE CÂRCINOV-ARGES FRUIT GROWING BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şt. Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In tree culture technologies, regardless the species and varieties in culture, cessation and control of disease and pest attack represent important and necessary sequence, which influence the quantity and mainly the quality of fruit production, especially the biological potential transmitted for the next 2 -3 years.

  12. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  13. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and ...

  14. Economic evaluation of area-wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Area-wide pest management (AWPM) is recommended to control urban mosquitoes, such as Aedes albopictus, which limit outdoor activities. While several evaluations of effectiveness exist, information on costs is lacking. Economic evaluation of such a program is important to help inform policy makers an...

  15. Nitric oxide as a fumigant for postharvest pest control and its safety to postharvest quality of fresh products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation under ultralow oxygen atmospheres was discovered recently to be effective for pest control. It is effective against all life stages of insects and mites and against both external and internal feeders. Nitric oxide fumigation comes with additional but acceptable costs associ...

  16. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  17. 粉虱类害虫综合防治途径的研究现状%Current Status of Whitefly Control Using Integrated Pest Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋飞飞; 苏德伟

    2013-01-01

      粉虱类害虫是我国主要经济害虫之一,寄主范围广,主要危害蔬菜和柑橘等经济作物。本文综述了粉虱的综合防治途径如农业防治、物理防治和生物防治等,并重点论述了如何利用昆虫病原真菌进行粉虱的生物防治,旨在为粉虱的更好治理提供参考。%Whiteflies is one of major economic pests in China, which have wide host ranges and mainly do harm to vegetables and citrus etc. This paper reviewed on integrated pest managements of whiteflies including agricultural, physical and biological control, especially focused on biocontrol of whitefly using entomopathogenic fungi, so as to provide a base for better control of whiteflies.

  18. Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  19. Biological control of thrips pests (Thysanoptera: Thripidae in a commercial greenhouse in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Péter

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyphagous thrips, like western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis and onion thrips Thrips tabaci, are major pests in various ornamental and vegetable crops in greenhouses throughout the world. In Hungary, both of these polyphagous thrips species frequently cause severe damage in many greenhouse crops, especially in commercial sweet pepper. Chemical control is not always feasible because of certain ecological characteristics of these thrips species. The commercially available phytoseiid predatory mites like Amblyseius swirskii and anthocorid flower bugs like Orius laevigatus are often used simultaneously for the biological control of severe thrips infestation in sweet pepper cultivation in Hungary. Our observations demonstrated that the polyphagous thrips assemblages were effectively controlled by the combined release of natural enemies, despite the fact that the establishment of O. laevigatus did not seem to be successful in the first year. Overall, the thrips population density remained below the economic threshold in both years. However, the low infestation level of thrips suggests that a single predator release strategy could be applied effectively and still maintain the thrips below the damage threshold in greenhouse sweet pepper.

  20. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to

  1. Predators exert top-down control of soybean aphid across a gradient of agricultural management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Alejandro C; Landis, Douglas A

    2006-08-01

    The discovery of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matusumura, in North America in 2000 provided the opportunity to investigate the relative strength of top-down and bottom-up forces in regulating populations of this new invasive herbivore. At the Kellogg Biological Station Long Term Ecological Research site in agroecology, we contrasted A. glycines establishment and population growth under three agricultural production systems that differed markedly in disturbance and fertility regimes. Agricultural treatments consisted of a conventional-tillage high-input system, a no-tillage high-input system, and a zero-chemical-input system under conventional tillage. By selectively restricting or allowing predator access we simultaneously determined aphid response to top-down and bottom-up influences. Irrespective of predator exclusion, our agricultural manipulations did not result in bottom-up control of A. glycines intrinsic rate of increase or realized population growth. In contrast, we observed strong evidence for top-down control of A. glycines establishment and overall population growth in all production systems. Abundant predators, including Harmonia axyridis, Coccinella septempunctata, Orius insidiosus, and various predaceous fly larvae, significantly reduced A. glycines establishment and population increase in all trials. In contrast to other systems in which bottom-up forces control herbivore populations, we conclude that A. glycines is primarily controlled via top-down influences of generalist predators under a wide range of agricultural management systems. Understanding the role of top-down and bottom-up forces in this context allows agricultural managers to focus on effective strategies for control of this invasive pest.

  2. Fuzzy Control for Food Agricultural Robotics of a Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepeng Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the fuzzy control for food agricultural robotics of a degree. Weeding robots can replace humans weeding activities, since the control system with nonlinear, robustness and a series of complex time-varying characteristics of the traditional PID control of the food agricultural robot end of the operation control effect cannot achieve the desired results, therefore, the design for the traditional use of classical PID control algorithm to control the food agricultural robot end of the operation of a series of drawbacks, combining cutting-edge control theory, fuzzy rule-based adaptive PID control strategy to control the entire system, so as to achieve the desired control effect. Experimental results show that the fuzzy adaptive PID control method for robot end postural control has better adaptability and track-ability.

  3. The phosphatase PTP-PEST/PTPN12 regulates endothelial cell migration and adhesion, but not permeability, and controls vascular development and embryonic viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cleiton Martins; Davidson, Dominique; Rhee, Inmoo; Gratton, Jean-Philippe; Davis, Elaine C; Veillette, André

    2012-12-14

    Protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP)-PEST (PTPN12) is ubiquitously expressed. It is essential for normal embryonic development and embryonic viability in mice. Herein we addressed the involvement of PTP-PEST in endothelial cell functions using a combination of genetic and biochemical approaches. By generating primary endothelial cells from an inducible PTP-PEST-deficient mouse, we found that PTP-PEST is not needed for endothelial cell differentiation and proliferation or for the control of endothelial cell permeability. Nevertheless, it is required for integrin-mediated adhesion and migration of endothelial cells. PTP-PEST-deficient endothelial cells displayed increased tyrosine phosphorylation of Cas, paxillin, and Pyk2, which were previously also implicated in integrin functions. By eliminating PTP-PEST in endothelial cells in vivo, we obtained evidence that expression of PTP-PEST in endothelial cells is required for normal vascular development and embryonic viability. Therefore, PTP-PEST is a key regulator of integrin-mediated functions in endothelial cells seemingly through its capacity to control Cas, paxillin, and Pyk2. This function explains at least in part the essential role of PTP-PEST in embryonic development and viability.

  4. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  5. Using energy budget data to assess the most damaging life-stage of an agricultural pest Mocis latipes (Guenèe, 1982 (Lepidoptera - Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJT. Assunção-Albuquerque

    Full Text Available There is much evidence to support that Mocis latipes larvae (Guenèe, 1852 are the most dangerous pasture pest and usually cause large environmental losses. However, no studies have been carried out to identify the instars during which this moth causes the most damage to the environment. Here we calculate M. latipes larval energy budget to assess its consumption across all instars and estimate the consumption/amount of plant biomass required to complete its larval development. Assimilation, respiration, consumption, excretion, gross growth efficiency and net growth efficiency were calculated. Pearson correlations were used to identify the best predictors that influenced larval growth and weight. Across all instars consumption increased exponentially, especially during the last phase. M. latipes larvae consumed ca 13.8% of total food from the first to the fifth instar, whereas during the sixth instars these larvae consumed ca 72.6%. Results also show that the best gross growth and net growth efficiency were obtained when larvae reached the fifth instar. The results also show that one larva of Mocis latipes consumes 1.02 g (dry weight of Paspalum maritimum (Trin in 19 days. Overall, our results indentified the sixth instar as the most destructive instar of this insect. Thus, once we know the most destructive instars of this pest, measures can be taken to disable M. latipes larval development and consequently stop their increase in plant consumption, reducing ecological and economic damage. This knowledge may eventually lead to reduced agricultural damage and contribute to sustainable farming strategies.

  6. Noncrop flowering plants restore top-down herbivore control in agricultural fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmer, Oliver; Pfiffner, Lukas; Schied, Johannes; Willareth, Martin; Leimgruber, Andrea; Luka, Henryk; Traugott, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Herbivore populations are regulated by bottom-up control through food availability and quality and by top-down control through natural enemies. Intensive agricultural monocultures provide abundant food to specialized herbivores and at the same time negatively impact natural enemies because monocultures are depauperate in carbohydrate food sources required by many natural enemies. As a consequence, herbivores are released from both types of control. Diversifying intensive cropping systems with flowering plants that provide nutritional resources to natural enemies may enhance top-down control and contribute to natural herbivore regulation. We analyzed how noncrop flowering plants planted as "companion plants" inside cabbage (Brassica oleracea) fields and as margins along the fields affect the plant-herbivore-parasitoid-predator food web. We combined molecular analyses quantifying parasitism of herbivore eggs and larvae with molecular predator gut content analysis and a comprehensive predator community assessment. Planting cornflowers (Centaurea cynanus), which have been shown to attract and selectively benefit Microplitis mediator, a larval parasitoid of the cabbage moth Mamestra brassicae, between the cabbage heads shifted the balance between trophic levels. Companion plants significantly increased parasitism of herbivores by larval parasitoids and predation on herbivore eggs. They furthermore significantly affected predator species richness. These effects were present despite the different treatments being close relative to the parasitoids' mobility. These findings demonstrate that habitat manipulation can restore top-down herbivore control in intensive crops if the right resources are added. This is important because increased natural control reduces the need for pesticide input in intensive agricultural settings, with cascading positive effects on general biodiversity and the environment. Companion plants thus increase biodiversity both directly, by introducing

  7. Pest control and resistance management through release of insects carrying a male-selecting transgene

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Development and evaluation of new insect pest management tools is critical for overcoming over-reliance upon, and growing resistance to, synthetic, biological and plant-expressed insecticides. For transgenic crops expressing insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (‘Bt crops’) emergence of resistance is slowed by maintaining a proportion of the crop as non-Bt varieties, which produce pest insects unselected for resistance. While this strategy has been largel...

  8. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  9. Knockdown of genes in the Toll pathway reveals new lethal RNA interference targets for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingsohn, L; Knorr, E; Billion, A; Narva, K E; Vilcinskas, A

    2017-02-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising alternative strategy for ecologically friendly pest management. However, the identification of RNAi candidate genes is challenging owing to the absence of laboratory strains and the seasonality of most pest species. Tribolium castaneum is a well-established model, with a strong and robust RNAi response, which can be used as a high-throughput screening platform to identify potential RNAi target genes. Recently, the cactus gene was identified as a sensitive RNAi target for pest control. To explore whether the spectrum of promising RNAi targets can be expanded beyond those found by random large-scale screening, to encompass others identified using targeted knowledge-based approaches, we constructed a Cactus interaction network. We tested nine genes in this network and found that the delivery of double-stranded RNA corresponding to fusilli and cactin showed lethal effects. The silencing of cactin resulted in 100% lethality at every developmental stage from the larva to the adult. The knockdown of pelle, Dorsal-related immunity factor and short gastrulation reduced or even prevented egg hatching in the next generation. The combination of such targets with lethal and parental RNAi effects can now be tested against different pest species in field studies.

  10. PESTS CONTROL IN BIRDS STORED FOOD WITH LAVANDER ESSENTIAL OIL VOLATILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Knochl Novokmet

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal efficiency of aromatic herb Lavandula officinalis Ch. was confirmed on two species of stored pests Plodia interpunctella Hübner and Tribolium castaneum Herbst by conducting the experiments. The oil was applied in two doses (0,5 i 1 ml/kg on three kinds of food for birds. Under winter storage conditions, the 100% mortality of P. interpunctella was obtained after 40 days of exposure to the dose of 1ml/kg. Under summer storage conditions, by applying the same dose, 68 days of exposure were necessary to generate 100% mortality of P. interpunctella. During the winter season, the application of 1 ml oil per kg of food generated a 100% mortality of T. castaneum after 44 days of exposure to the treated food. During the summer storage period, the same doses caused 100% mortality of T. castaneum after 68 days of exposure to the treated food. To achieve the same level of control of test insects in treated food at lower dose (0,5ml/kg, the exposure period of insects to treated food was generally longer for 4 to 8 days.

  11. Review of research on the insect pests of kenaf and their control in the Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldin, N S; El-Amin, E M

    1981-01-01

    Kenaf, Hibiscus cannabinus L., is grown in many parts of the Sudan as a fibre plant. During its various stages of growth, 17 different species of insects were detected, out of which only the cotton flea beetle Podagrica puncticollis Weise is of economic importance. The attack by this pest is most serious in the seedling stage; late sowings coupled with early light showers suffer the heaviest damage. In the leaves the beetles eat out round holes ('shot-hole effect'). The entire life cycle takes about 4 to 5 weeks, and about five generations are completed on the plant depending on the weather conditions. Cultural practices incorporating early sowing and eradication of the main host plants, Hibiscus esculentus and Abutilon spp., considerably reduce the size of the initial infestation. Chemicals tested as seed-dressing or sprays for the control of the beetle failed to give good results. However, granular insecticides showed a better performance and longer residual effect. Disyston 5G was effective for six weeks and also improved the general condition of the plants.

  12. The Red Queen in a potato field: integrated pest management versus chemical dependency in Colorado potato beetle control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyokhin, Andrei; Mota-Sanchez, David; Baker, Mitchell; Snyder, William E; Menasha, Sandra; Whalon, Mark; Dively, Galen; Moarsi, Wassem F

    2015-03-01

    Originally designed to reconcile insecticide applications with biological control, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) developed into the systems-based judicious and coordinated use of multiple control techniques aimed at reducing pest damage to economically tolerable levels. Chemical control, with scheduled treatments, was the starting point for most management systems in the 1950s. Although chemical control is philosophically compatible with IPM practices as a whole, reduction in pesticide use has been historically one of the main goals of IPM practitioners. In the absence of IPM, excessive reliance on pesticides has led to repeated control failures due to the evolution of resistance by pest populations. This creates the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new compounds, known as the 'insecticide treadmill'. In evolutionary biology, a similar phenomenon is known as the Red Queen principle - continuing change is needed for a population to persevere because its competitors undergo constant evolutionary adaptation. The Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say), is an insect defoliator of potatoes that is notorious for its ability to develop insecticide resistance. In the present article, a review is given of four case studies from across the United States to demonstrate the importance of using IPM for sustainable management of a highly adaptable insect pest. Excessive reliance on often indiscriminate insecticide applications and inadequate use of alternative control methods, such as crop rotation, appear to expedite evolution of insecticide resistance in its populations. Resistance to IPM would involve synchronized adaptations to multiple unfavorable factors, requiring statistically unlikely genetic changes. Therefore, integrating different techniques is likely to reduce the need for constant replacement of failed chemicals with new ones.

  13. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J

    2015-04-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  14. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrea Dutka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm2 soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  16. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutka, Alexandrea; McNulty, Alison; Williamson, Sally M

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm(2) soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment.

  17. Pest Locations, Plant disease and insect pest survey data aggregated to county level., Published in 2009, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pest Locations dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is described as...

  18. Market Forces and Technological Substitutes Cause Fluctuations in the Value of Bat Pest-Control Services for Cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Laura López-Hoffman; Ruscena Wiederholt; Chris Sansone; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Paul Cryan; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Joshua Goldstein; Kelsie Lasharr; John Loomis; Gary McCracken; Rodrigo A. Medellín; Amy Russell; Darius Semmens

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the south...

  19. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Kohl, Jurgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C.; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initi

  20. Prey-Predator Model with Two-Stage Infection in Prey: Concerning Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapan Kumar Nandi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A prey-predator model system is developed; specifically the disease is considered into the prey population. Here the prey population is taken as pest and the predators consume the selected pest. Moreover, we assume that the prey species is infected with a viral disease forming into susceptible and two-stage infected classes, and the early stage of infected prey is more vulnerable to predation by the predator. Also, it is assumed that the later stage of infected pests is not eaten by the predator. Different equilibria of the system are investigated and their stability analysis and Hopf bifurcation of the system around the interior equilibriums are discussed. A modified model has been constructed by considering some alternative source of food for the predator population and the dynamical behavior of the modified model has been investigated. We have demonstrated the analytical results by numerical analysis by taking some simulated set of parameter values.

  1. Selection of entomopathogenic nematodes for enhanced responsiveness to a volatile root signal helps to control a major root pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Baroni, Mariane; Toepfer, Stefan; Kuhlmann, Ulrich; Turlings, Ted C J

    2010-07-15

    The efficacy of natural enemies as biological control agents against insect pests can theoretically be enhanced by artificial selection for high responsiveness to foraging cues. The recent discovery that maize roots damaged by the western corn rootworm (WCR) emit a key attractant for insect-killing nematodes has opened the way to explore whether a selection strategy can improve the control of root pests. The compound in question, (E)-beta-caryophyllene, is only weakly attractive to Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, one of the most infectious nematodes against WCR. To overcome this drawback, we used a six-arm below-ground olfactometer to select for a strain of H. bacteriophora that is more readily attracted to (E)-beta-caryophyllene. After six generations of selection, the selected strain responded considerably better and moved twice as rapidly towards a (E)-beta-caryophyllene source than the original strain. There was a minor trade-off between this enhanced responsiveness and nematode infectiveness. Yet, in subsequent field tests, the selected strain was significantly more effective than the original strain in reducing WCR populations in plots with a maize variety that releases (E)-beta-caryophyllene, but not in plots with a maize variety that does not emit this root signal. These results illustrate the great potential of manipulating natural enemies of herbivores to improve biological pest control.

  2. On-farm evaluation of integrated pest management of thrips and whiteflies in herb cuttings in Ethiopia : report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management reduces the use of chemicals and therewith the impact of greenhouse horticulture on the environment. It improves working conditions and enables access of Ethiopian products on the world market. In response to such concerns the Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters Organization (EPHEA) has taken the initiative to develop a Code of Practice, of which Integrated Pest Management forms an integral part. The development of this Integrated Pest Management approach...

  3. Practical Pest Management Strategies to Reduce Pesticide Runoff for Argentine Ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Les; Rust, Michael K; Richards, Jaben; Wu, Xiaoqin; Kabashima, John; Wilen, Cheryl; Gan, Jay; Choe, Dong-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to involve pest management professionals in the design of application techniques and strategies that would be efficacious and also reduce insecticide runoff. Our study involved measuring both the efficacy of treatments for the Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr), and the concurrent runoff of fipronil and pyrethroids. Two collaborating companies used low-impact protocols for controlling ants while minimizing runoff. Protocol 1 involved bimonthly treatments, while Protocol 2 was monthly. Both protocols involved an initial treatment with a fipronil spray around the foundation. At the garage door-driveway interface, the fipronil application was done as a pin stream for Protocol 1, and as a crack and crevice application in the expansion joint near the garage for Protocol 2. Protocol 1 replaced most pyrethroid sprays with bifenthrin granules placed around bushes and away from the driveway. For the next treatment on day 63, Protocol 1 also included cyfluthrin spray treatments around the house foundation and crack and crevice applications around the edge of the driveway. For the first treatment in Protocol 2, the fipronil spray was supplemented with spot treatments of cyfluthrin. For subsequent Protocol 2 treatments, botanical insecticides were applied. For weeks 1 and 2 posttreatment combined, Protocol 1 had significantly higher reductions in ant numbers compared with Protocol 2. Thereafter there were no significant differences between the protocols. Runoff of bifenthrin from the granules used with Protocol 1 was much lower than in previous trials involving bifenthrin sprays. Day 1 fipronil runoff for Protocol 2 was significantly lower than that for Protocol 1. This difference may be because of the crack and crevice application applied in Protocol 2. Cyfluthrin runoff was minimal for Protocol 2, which involved spot treatments to supplement the fipronil on day 1, or the botanical insecticides for subsequent treatments. Protocol 1 had a

  4. Sustainable Pest Management : Achievements and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: (a) review World Bank's pest management activities during 1999-2004; (b) assess those in view of the changes in the external and internal contexts; (c) identify appropriate opportunities of engagement on pest and pesticide issues; and (d) suggest means to further promote sound pest management in the World Bank operations. The importance of sound pest management for sustainable agricultural production is being recognized by many developing countries. Many cou...

  5. RNA interference technology to control pest sea lampreys--a proof-of-concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Heath

    Full Text Available The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0-fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species.

  6. Quaternary IPM (integrated pest management)--concept for the control of powdery mildew in sugar beets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, P F J; Verreet, A

    2008-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Erysiphe betae (Vanha) Weltzien, may be assumed as an important leaf disease in sugar beet growing areas of central Europe. Although the causal agent is mainly adapted to arid climatic zones, the disease is appearing every year, where the extent of infection is mainly dependent on weather conditions and susceptibility of cultivar. The losses caused by powdery mildew seldom exceed 10% of sugar yield; moreover, losses are likely only under the condition that the epidemic onset occurs before end-August. Nevertheless, the epidemic onset varies in a wide range, as there are years with high incidence followed by growing periods without severe infection. Therefore, in order to have a flexible control of the disease, where the use of fungicides could be minimised to an essential amount, a quaternary IPM (Integrated Pest Management) -concept was developed. The development is based on epidemiological field studies (Germany, 1993-2004, n = 76) of sugar beet leaf diseases under variation of year, site and cultivar. Efficacy of fungicide treatment timing was assessed in relation to the epidemic development. Comparison of treatments comprised fungicide sprays carried out from disease initiation till later stages of the epidemic. Additionally, the assessments were performed in relation to an untreated and a healthy control--the latter was three times treated according to a treatment regime with three to four week intervals. The effect of different application timings was measured by the potential of disease and yield loss control. The quaternary concept combines the advantages of four elements in order to compensate the constraints of the single tools: The period without disease risk is determined by a so-called negative-prognosis (i). First symptoms appear in the period from mid-July till the beginning of September. If disease initiation cannot be excluded, field observations by a sample of 100 leaves are advised. The disease scores enable the appliance

  7. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  8. Gene disruption technologies have the potential to transform stored product insect pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, ...

  9. Integrated sensor-based monitoring system for pest and disease control in greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciu, Laura; Sumălan, R; Moga, D

    2012-01-01

    Diseases and pests are a problem even in greenhouse crops, problem which has to be solved without threatening the plant. Crop protection requires frequent updates in information and therefore sensor networks that are real time monitoring systems are the ones that can deliver such information. The purpose of this paper is to present a way of preventing the appearance of diseases and pests in a greenhouse by using a monitoring system composed of an integrated sensor network. Our sensor system is doing a real time monitoring of the following parameters in the greenhouse: light intensity, soil moisture and temperature, air temperature and humidity and air temperature at canopy level; all of the data being stored using a software made by "Tedelco". A real time monitoring camera is also used for pest and disease detection. A pot experiment, using beans, was established inside the greenhouse to test the applicability of the system. In order to assure the optimal conditions for the inhibition of pests, the greenhouse is also equipped with an artificial lighting system specially designed for greenhouses, an irrigation system and an artificial fog system. Sensor systems are the ideal support for preventive monitoring and at the same time it offers all the support data necessary for decision making regarding crops development.

  10. Use of psyllid genomes RNA interference for novel pest control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomics has changed the strategies used to manage insects and diseases. The ability to effect a change in proteins, and transcripts, through RNA-interference, RNAi, has produced a rush towards the development of the most state-of-the-art pest suppression strategies available. To rapidly advance the...

  11. From Asian curiosity to eruptive American pest: Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) and prospects for biological control

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug or bean plataspid, Megacopta cribraria (Fabricius), is native to Asia where it appears to be widely distributed (although the taxonomy is not entirely clear), but is infrequently a pest of legumes. This bug appeared in 2009 in the southeastern United States, where it is closely associa...

  12. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  13. Bioplastic made from corn starch as an effective biological delivery vehicle for control of agricultural pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, increasing consumer sensitivity to environmental sustainability and favorable legislation has resulted in a rising demand for renewable and bio-based products, including biodegradable plastic. A recent market research report has projected a 15% annual increase in the demand of biode...

  14. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – Major Pest in Apple Production: an Overview of its Biology, Resistance, Genetic Structure and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pajač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM (Linnaeus is a key pest in pome fruit production with a preference for apple. The pest is very adaptable to different climatic conditions and is known for developing resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides. Because of these reasons, the populations of codling moth are differentiated in many ecotypes of various biological and physiological development requirements. The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about: morphology, biology, dispersal, damages, resistance to insecticides, population genetic structure and genetic control of this pest.

  15. Transgenic plants for insect pest control: a forward looking scientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Gatehouse, J; Capell, T; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M R

    2006-02-01

    One of the first successes of plant biotechnology has been the creation and commercialisation of transgenic crops exhibiting resistance to major insect pests. First generation products encompassed plants with single insecticidal Bt genes with resistance against major pests of corn and cotton. Modelling studies predicted that usefulness of these resistant plants would be short-lived, as a result of the ability of insects to develop resistance against single insecticidal gene products. However, despite such dire predictions no such collapse has taken place and the acreage of transgenic insect resistance crops has been increasing at a steady rate over the 9 years since the deployment of the first transgenic insect resistant plant. However, in order to assure durability and sustainability of resistance, novel strategies have been contemplated and are being developed. This perspective addresses a number of potentially useful strategies to assure the longevity of second and third generation insect resistant plants.

  16. Hanford site integrated pest management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, R.F.

    1996-04-09

    The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

  17. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site.

  18. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  19. Forestation Measures and Forest Pest Control%营林措施与森林害虫的控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李镇宇

    2012-01-01

    The harm of local important pests such as Dendrolimus and poplar stem-borers was serious. The forestation measures and control mechanization on the effective prevention of Dendrolimus and poplar stem-borers was summarized.%松毛虫、杨树蛀干害虫等本土重大有害生物的危害严重。从营林措施的角度总结松毛虫、杨树蛀干天牛灾害的防治。

  20. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  1. Developmental Status Quo and Trends of Low-carbon Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming; CAO; Xiaohua; PAN; Maobai; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production,this paper has discussed the developmental trends of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture,improving the efficiency of fertilizer utilization,scientific use of pesticides,water-saving irrigation,ecological control of pests and diseases,as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.

  2. Effects of agricultural intensification on ability of natural enemies to control aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Hui, Cang; He, Da-Han; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-01-26

    Agricultural intensification through increasing fertilization input and cropland expansion has caused rapid loss of semi-natural habitats and the subsequent loss of natural enemies of agricultural pests. It is however extremely difficult to disentangle the effects of agricultural intensification on arthropod communities at multiple spatial scales. Based on a two-year study of seventeen 1500 m-radius sites, we analyzed the relative importance of nitrogen input and cropland expansion on cereal aphids and their natural enemies. Both the input of nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion benefited cereal aphids more than primary parasitoids and leaf-dwelling predators, while suppressing ground-dwelling predators, leading to an disturbance of the interspecific relationship. The responses of natural enemies to cropland expansion were asymmetric and species-specific, with an increase of primary parasitism but a decline of predator/pest ratio with the increasing nitrogen input. As such, agricultural intensification (increasing nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion) can destabilize the interspecific relationship and lead to biodiversity loss. To this end, sustainable pest management needs to balance the benefit and cost of agricultural intensification and restore biocontrol service through proliferating the role of natural enemies at multiple scales.

  3. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  4. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura López-Hoffman

    Full Text Available Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  5. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Goldstein, Joshua; Lasharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  6. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  7. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides.

  8. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-09-03

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

  9. Mechanisms of dsRNA uptake in insects and potential of RNAi for pest control: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huvenne, Hanneke; Smagghe, Guy

    2010-03-01

    RNA interference already proved its usefulness in functional genomic research on insects, but it also has considerable potential for the control of pest insects. For this purpose, the insect should be able to autonomously take up the dsRNA, for example through feeding and digestion in its midgut. In this review we bring together current knowledge on the uptake mechanisms of dsRNA in insects and the potential of RNAi to affect pest insects. At least two pathways for dsRNA uptake in insects are described: the transmembrane channel-mediated uptake mechanism based on Caenorhabditis elegans' SID-1 protein and an 'alternative' endocytosis-mediated uptake mechanism. In the second part of the review dsRNA feeding experiments on insects are brought together for the first time, highlighting the achievement of implementing RNAi in insect control with the first successful experiments in transgenic plants and the diversity of successfully tested insect orders/species and target genes. We conclude with points of discussion and concerns regarding further research on dsRNA uptake mechanisms and the promising application possibilities for RNAi in insect control.

  10. Impact of aphid alarm pheromone release on virus transmission efficiency: When pest control strategy could induce higher virus dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Jing; Bosquée, Emilie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ju-Lian; Yong, Liu; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been demonstrated to be efficient to repel aphids and as attract beneficials, making it a potential tool to control aphid pests. Considering aphids also as virus vectors, changes of their behavior could also interfere with the virus acquisition and transmission process. Here, a combination of two aphid species and two potato virus models were selected to test the influence of EβF release on aphid and virus dispersion under laboratory conditions. EβF release was found to significantly decrease the population of Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae around the infochemical releaser but simultaneously also increasing the dispersal of Potato Virus Y (PVY). At the opposite, no significant difference for Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) transmission efficiency was observed with similar aphid alarm pheromone releases for none of the aphid species. These results provide some support to carefully consider infochemical releasers not only for push-pull strategy and pest control but also to include viral disease in a the plant protection to aphids as they are also efficient virus vectors. Impact of aphid kinds and transmission mechanisms will be discussed according to the large variation found between persistent and non persistent potato viruses and interactions with aphids and related infochemicals.

  11. Biopolymers in controlled release devices for agricultural applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biopolymers such as starch for agricultural applications including controlled release devices is growing due the environmental benefits. Recently, concerns have grown about the worldwide spread of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) that infect colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). ...

  12. What can systems and control theory do for agricultural science?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straten, van G.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: While many professionals with a background in agricultural and bio-resource sciences work with models, only few have been exposed to systems and control theory. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate a selection of methods from systems theory that can be beneficial to quantitative agric

  13. PTP-PEST targets a novel tyrosine site in p120 catenin to control epithelial cell motility and Rho GTPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, Rosario; Jeng, Yowjiun; Paulucci-Holthauzen, Adriana; Rengifo-Cam, William; Honkus, Krysta; Anastasiadis, Panos Z; Sastry, Sarita K

    2014-02-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is implicated in regulating the adherens junction protein, p120 catenin (p120), however, the mechanisms are not well defined. Here, we show, using substrate trapping, that p120 is a direct target of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, PTP-PEST, in epithelial cells. Stable shRNA knockdown of PTP-PEST in colon carcinoma cells results in an increased cytosolic pool of p120 concomitant with its enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation and decreased association with E-cadherin. Consistent with this, PTP-PEST knockdown cells exhibit increased motility, enhanced Rac1 and decreased RhoA activity on a collagen substrate. Furthermore, p120 localization is enhanced at actin-rich protrusions and lamellipodia and has an increased association with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor, VAV2, and cortactin. Exchange factor activity of VAV2 is enhanced by PTP-PEST knockdown whereas overexpression of a VAV2 C-terminal domain or DH domain mutant blocks cell motility. Analysis of point mutations identified tyrosine 335 in the N-terminal domain of p120 as the site of PTP-PEST dephosphorylation. A Y335F mutant of p120 failed to induce the 'p120 phenotype', interact with VAV2, stimulate cell motility or activate Rac1. Together, these data suggest that PTP-PEST affects epithelial cell motility by controlling the distribution and phosphorylation of p120 and its availability to control Rho GTPase activity.

  14. Economic Thresholds in Soybean-Integrated Pest Management: Old Concepts, Current Adoption, and Adequacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, A F; Paula-Moraes, S V; Gazzoni, D L; Pomari, A F

    2013-10-01

    Increasing global demands for food underline the need for higher crop yields. The relatively low costs of the most commonly used insecticides in combination with increasing soybean market prices led growers and technical advisors to debate the adequacy of recommended economic thresholds (ETs). The adoption of ETs and pest sampling has diminished in Brazil, leading to excessive pesticide use on soybean. The reduced efficacy of natural biological control, faster pest resurgence, and environment contamination are among the side-effects of pesticide abuse. To address these problems and maximize agricultural production, pest control programs must be guided by a proper integrated pest management (IPM) approach, including the ET concept. Therefore, the most appropriate time to initiate insecticide spraying in soybean is indicated by the available ETs which are supported by experiments over the last 40 years in different edapho-climatic conditions and regions with distinct soybean cultivars. Published scientific data indicate that preventive insecticide use is an expensive and harmful use of chemicals that increases the negative impact of pesticides in agroecosystems. However, the established ETs are for a limited number of species (key pests), and they only address the use of chemicals. There is a lack of information regarding secondary pests and other control strategies in addition to insecticides. It is clear then that much progress is still needed to improve ETs for pest management decisions. Nevertheless, using the current ETs provides a basis for reducing the use of chemicals in agriculture without reducing yields and overall production, thereby improving sustainability.

  15. The integrated control concept and its relevance to current integrated pest management in California fresh market grapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Walter J

    2009-12-01

    The foundation of an integrated pest management program involves valid treatment thresholds, accurate and simple monitoring methods, effective natural controls, selective pesticides and trained individuals who can implement the concept. The Integrated Control Concept written by Stern, Smith, van den Bosch and Hagen elucidated each of these points in an alfalfa ecosystem. Alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa L.) has a low per acre value, requires little hand labor and is primarily marketed in the USA. In contrast, fresh market table grape (Vitis vinifera L.) has a high per acre value, requires frequent hand labor operations, suffers unacceptable cosmetic damage and is marketed throughout both the USA and the world. Each of the components of a working IPM program is present in table grape production. Marketing grapes to foreign countries presents special problems with pests considered invasive and where residue tolerances for some selective insecticides are lacking. However, fresh market grape farmers are still able to deal with these special problems and utilize an IPM program that has resulted in a 42% reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use from 1995 to 2007.

  16. 7 CFR 318.13-5 - Pest-free areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pest-free areas. 318.13-5 Section 318.13-5 Agriculture... and the Territories § 318.13-5 Pest-free areas. Certain fruits or vegetables may be moved interstate provided that the fruits or vegetables originate from an area that is free of a specific pest or pests....

  17. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  18. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  19. Advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for assessing welfare impacts associated with vertebrate pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, N J; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Many pest control activities have the potential to impact negatively on the welfare of animals, and animal welfare is an important consideration in the development, implementation and evaluation of ethically defensible vertebrate pest control. Thus, reliable and accurate methods for assessing welfare impacts are required. The Five Domains model provides a systematic method for identifying potential or actual welfare impacts associated with an event or situation in four physical or functional domains (nutrition, environment, health or functional status, behaviour) and one mental domain (overall mental or affective state). Here we evaluate the advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for this purpose and illustrate them using specific examples from a recent assessment of the welfare impacts of poisons used to lethally control possums in New Zealand. The model has a number of advantages which include the following: the systematic identification of a wide range of impacts associated with a variety of control tools; the production of relative rankings of tools in terms of their welfare impacts; the easy incorporation of new information into assessments; and the highlighting of additional information needed. For example, a recent analysis of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) poisoning in possums revealed the need for more information on the period from the onset of clinical signs to the point at which consciousness is lost, as well as on the level of consciousness during or after the occurrence of muscle spasms and seizures. The model is also valuable because it clearly separates physical or functional and affective impacts, encourages more comprehensive consideration of negative affective experiences than has occurred in the past, and allows development and evaluation of targeted mitigation strategies. Caution must be used in interpreting and applying the outputs of the model, most importantly because relative rankings or grades are fundamentally qualitative in

  20. Utah Home Orchard Pest Management Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Marion; Alston, Diane; Nischwitz, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is the practice of combining knowledge of the pest and host plant with multiple tactics for long-term, safe pest control. The goal of IPM is pesticide reduction by using cultural, mechanical, and biological controls before the last option, pesticides.

  1. Protecting Plants against Pests and Pathogens with Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyser, Chad Alton

    is an increasingly important area of research. Efforts to maximize agricultural output are significantly dependent on reliable means for pest suppression. Biological control, or the use of living organisms to suppress a pest population, is a leading alternative to traditional chemical-based pesticides for crop...... protection. The fungal genus Metarhizium is one of the most intensely researched groups of entomopathogenic fungi and several isolates have been successfully employed as biopesticides for crop protection; however, inconsistent field reliability has limited wider implementation. Research emphasizing...... of variability with in the species. The results of these studies further clarify the important role Metarhizium spp. play in the natural environment and highlight their vast potential to be implemented as biological control agents of important pest insects....

  2. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  3. Quantifying secondary pest outbreaks in cotton and their monetary cost with causal-inference statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Kevin; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2011-10-01

    Secondary pest outbreaks occur when the use of a pesticide to reduce densities of an unwanted target pest species triggers subsequent outbreaks of other pest species. Although secondary pest outbreaks are thought to be familiar in agriculture, their rigorous documentation is made difficult by the challenges of performing randomized experiments at suitable scales. Here, we quantify the frequency and monetary cost of secondary pest outbreaks elicited by early-season applications of broad-spectrum insecticides to control the plant bug Lygus spp. (primarily L. hesperus) in cotton grown in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA. We do so by analyzing pest-control management practices for 969 cotton fields spanning nine years and 11 private ranches. Our analysis uses statistical methods to draw formal causal inferences from nonexperimental data that have become popular in public health and economics, but that are not yet widely known in ecology or agriculture. We find that, in fields that received an early-season broad-spectrum insecticide treatment for Lygus, 20.2% +/- 4.4% (mean +/- SE) of late-season pesticide costs were attributable to secondary pest outbreaks elicited by the early-season insecticide application for Lygus. In 2010 U.S. dollars, this equates to an additional $6.00 +/- $1.30 (mean +/- SE) per acre in management costs. To the extent that secondary pest outbreaks may be driven by eliminating pests' natural enemies, these figures place a lower bound on the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by native communities of arthropod predators and parasitoids in this agricultural system.

  4. Non-Agricultural Databases and Thesauri: Retrieval of Subject Headings and Non-Controlled Terms in Relation to Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartol, Tomaz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to assess the utility of non-agriculture-specific information systems, databases, and respective controlled vocabularies (thesauri) in organising and retrieving agricultural information. The purpose is to identify thesaurus-linked tree structures, controlled subject headings/terms (heading words, descriptors), and principal…

  5. 7 CFR 330.206 - Permits for plant pest movement associated with National Defense projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Permits for plant pest movement associated with... (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FEDERAL PLANT PEST REGULATIONS; GENERAL; PLANT PESTS; SOIL, STONE, AND QUARRY PRODUCTS; GARBAGE Movement of Plant Pests §...

  6. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.

  7. Classification of agricultural pests based on compressed sensing theory%基于压缩感知理论的农业害虫分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩安太; 郭小华; 廖忠; 陈志强; 韩建强

    2011-01-01

    为提高现有害虫分类方法的分类效果,该文分析了现有害虫分类方法的局限性,在此基础上,提出一种基于压缩感知理论的害虫分类新方法.该方法利用害虫训练样本构造训练样本矩阵,通过求解l1范数意义下的最优化问题实现害虫测试样本的稀疏分解,由于稀疏分解结果中包含了明确的分类信息,可直接用于害虫分类.利用该方法对12类储粮害虫和110类常见害虫进行分类,在4种不同试验条件下,分类准确率分别达到92.9418%、98.2877%、78.8651%和61.5938%,证实了压缩感知理论用于害虫分类是合理可行的.%In order to improve the effectiveness of the existing classification methods of pests, a novel classification method of pests was presented by using compressed sensing theory. In the proposed method, a large number of the representative training samples of pests were used to construct the training samples matrix, and then the sparse decomposition representation of the testing samples of pests was obtained by solving the //-norm optimization problem, which had distinct class information and could be used for the different species of pest classification directly. The 12 species of stored-grain pests and the 110 species of common pests were separately classified by the proposed method, and the classification precision reached around 92.9418%、 98.2877%、 78.8651% and 61.5938% respectively under 4 kinds of different experimental conditions. The experimental results indicated that the application of compressed sensing theory in the classification of pests was practical and feasible.

  8. Evolutional development of controlling software for agricultural vehicles and robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakanishi, Tsuneo; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Griepentrog, Hans-Werner

    Agricultural vehicles and robots expand their controlling software in size and complexity for their increasing functions. Due to repeated, ad hoc addition and modification, software gets structurally corrupted and becomes low performing, resource consuming and unreliable. This paper presents...... of the autonomous tractor, that applies XDDP initially for addition and modification of functions, accumulates core assets and cultivates a global view of the system through iterated development with XDDP, and finally shifts to SPL development....

  9. On-farm evaluation of integrated pest management of thrips and whiteflies in herb cuttings in Ethiopia : report to the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, den E.; Elings, A.

    2010-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management reduces the use of chemicals and therewith the impact of greenhouse horticulture on the environment. It improves working conditions and enables access of Ethiopian products on the world market. In response to such concerns the Ethiopian Horticulture Producers and Exporters

  10. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  11. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics.

  12. Analysis on pest control by landscape techniques%园林技术措施控制病虫害探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑会玲; 吴祥春; 于颖; 丁世民

    2012-01-01

      结合园林工作实际,将园林技术措施控制病虫害的实现途径进行多角度、多层次的探析,即统筹协调“园林植物—病虫害—环境”所组成的生态系统的关系,建设生态园林,实现园林绿地与花木生产基地病虫害的可持续控制%  This paper analyzed widely the realization ways of pest control measurements by using landscape techniques combined with landscape work practice. This is to coordinate the ecosystem relations among landscape plants, plant pest diseases and environment to build an ecosystem landscape and realize a continuous control to the plant pest diseases in landscape green land, flowers and trees planting bases.

  13. Electric Agricultural Robot with Multi-Layer-Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, Hans W.; Jæger-Hansen, Claes Lund; Dühring, Karina

    Research within agricultural technology focuses mainly on increasing the efficiency of crop production. Electric powered machines have several advantages. The machine control is much easier in terms of sensor integration, active navigation and task application compared with traditional machine...... types. Furthermore, low machine weights and the use of renewable energy to provide the necessary energy contribute to soil protection and low emission performance. The aim of the paper was to describe the design, the control and the renewable energy supply for a small electric powered robot for outdoor...

  14. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  16. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  17. Disease and Insect Pest Control Technical of Rosa roxburghii Tratt%刺梨病虫害防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶光伟; 李淼; 王德敏

    2014-01-01

    介绍了刺梨的形态特征和生物学特性,并针对其病虫害,包括白粉病、褐斑病、烟煤病、梨小食心虫、食叶害虫、月季长管蚜、白粉虱等分别总结防治技术,以期为刺梨高产栽培提供参考。%Morphological characteristics and biological characteristics of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were introduced.Disease and pest control techniques of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were summarized,including powdery mildew,brown blotch,dark mildew,oriental fruit moth,defoliator,Macrosiphum rosirvorum Zhang and Trialeurodes vaporariorum,so as to provide the reference for the high-yield cultivation of Rosa roxburghii Tratt.

  18. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.

  19. Thevetia peruviana (Family: Apocynaceae in the control of slug and snail pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panigrahi

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available An aqueous extract prepared from Kernels of the fruit of Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Schumann (Family : Apocynaceae was found under experimental conditions, to be toxic ti the slug Laevicaulis alte (Férussac and the snail Achatina fulica Bowdich, the important agrihorticultural pests of Indo-Pacific countries. Concentrations as low as 1% (w/v killed all the slugs exposed in less than 981.00 (± SD 22.76 min, and 2% of the extract killed 100% of the slugs L. alte and 50%, 50% and 30% of the snail A. fulica in between 92.34 (± SD 6.63 - 321.33 (± SD 4.14 and 271.20 (± SD 17.54 - 298.26 (± SD 16.69 min respectively. The most effective concentration of the extract was 20%; it killed 100% of exposed slugs and snails within a short time (40-50 and 90-1440 min respectively when the extract was exposed on the soil in experimental trays or when it was applied to potato slices offered as food to the gastropods.

  20. A mathematical equation for quantifying control functionality in agricultural tractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakopoulos, D; Mann, D D

    2008-10-01

    The overall accessibility of controls is one of the most important issues to consider when designing a control layout. Well-arranged controls, whose operational characteristics are based on both design guidelines and on human factors considerations, allow the operator to efficiently interact with the system in question. The objective of this article is to introduce a numerical index, referred to as the "index of functionality", capable of comparing, on a mathematical basis, different control arrangements in agricultural tractors. The model is based on information that has been gleaned from the published literature, with input from both professional ergonomists and experienced agricultural tractor operators. The numerical index may take any value between 0 and +1, with +1 being defined as an optimum value in terms of the functionality of a workstation. Data were collected from six old (pre-1982) and six modern (post-2003) tractor workstations to determine whether the model would recognize improvements that have occurred in the ergonomic design of tractor control layouts over the past 20 years. An average score of 0.19 +/- 0.07 was calculated for the pre-1982 tractor workstations. By contrast, an average score of 0.63 +/- 0.10 was calculated for the post-2003 tractor workstations. A number of limitations have been identified with the current model; despite these limitations, the index of functionality clearly recognized the ergonomic improvements in tractor workstations that have occurred over the past 20 years.

  1. Competition between honeydew producers in an ant-hemipteran interaction may enhance biological control of an invasive pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tena, A; Hoddle, C D; Hoddle, M S

    2013-12-01

    Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is an invasive citrus pest in southern California, which secretes honeydew and has the potential to spread a lethal bacterial disease, huanglongbing, of citrus. In urban citrus, Argentine ant, Linepithema humile (Mayr) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), also an invasive pest, tends honeydew-producing hemipterans. We used field data to determine whether the mutualistic relationship between L. humile and six established species of honeydew producers may hinder or favor the establishment of D. citri and its biological control with Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in citrus via competition or mutualism for ants, respectively. In the field, L. humile and D. citri are engaged in a mutualistic relationship. Ants harvest solid honeydew secreted by psyllid nymphs and tended more than 55% of observed D. citri colonies. Linepithema humile displayed a preference hierarchy when tending honeydew producers infesting citrus. It responded equally or less intensively to D. citri than to other honeydew-producing species. Consequently, the mutualism between L. humile and D. citri was affected by the presence of other honeydew-producing species, and the percentage of D. citri colonies tended by L. humile. The number of ants per D. citri colony also decreased as the number of other honeydew producers increased. Diaphorina citri density was also affected by the presence of other honeydew producers. Both colony size and the number of D. citri nymphs counted per tree decreased as the number of other honeydew producers increased. Our results indicate that competition between honeydew producers for the mutualist ant L. humile may hinder the establishment of D. citri by possibly facilitating increased biological control.

  2. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkenda, Prisila; Mwanauta, Regina; Stevenson, Philip C; Ndakidemi, Patrick; Mtei, Kelvin; Belmain, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders). Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin) and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A). Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides.

  3. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisila Mkenda

    Full Text Available Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders. Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A. Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides.

  4. 农作物病虫害绿色防控技术应用概况%Advances in the applications of green crop pest control techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵中华; 尹哲; 杨普云

    2011-01-01

    Since the concept of public and green plant protection was proposed at the National Plant Protection Conference in 2006, the development and application of green crop pest control techniques have made significant achievements in China. According to national statistics in 2009, the total application area of green crop pest control techniques was 51 million hm2 times, accounting for 10.4% of the total crop pest control areas in China. In this review, major green pest control techniques including physical control, the application of insect pheromones,natural enemies, bio-pesticides, antibiotics, insect repellents and ecological control were reviewed, and recommendations on the application of green crop pest control techniques were put forward.%自2006年全国植保工作会上提出"公共植保、绿色植保"理念以来,我国农作物病虫害绿色防控技术的研发与应用取得了显著成效.据2009年底初步统计,各种绿色防控技术应用面积累计达5100万h㎡次,约占全国农作物病虫害防治总面积的10.4%.本文就当前生产上主要的物理诱控、昆虫信息素诱控、天敌昆虫、生物农药、农用抗生素、驱避剂、生态控制等绿色防控技术应用情况进行了概述,并提出了绿色防控技术推广应用的建议.

  5. Main forest pests on pines in Anxi County and its integrated control measures%安溪县松树主要有害生物及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长士

    2011-01-01

    总结了近10年安溪县松树6种主要有害生物(松突圆蚧、松墨天牛、马尾松毛虫、松大蚜、松针褐斑病、棕鼯鼠)的发生特点与分布情况,提出了各主要有害生物的综合防治措施。%The distribution,harm and main characteristics of the six main forest pests species on pines in Anxi County,including Hemiberlesia pitysophila,Monochamus alternatus,Dendrolimus punctatus,Cinara pinitabulaeformis,Lecanosticta acicola and Bursaphelenchus xylophilus were dealt with by nearly 10 years of field studies.Integrated control measures were introduced according to local climate and forest pests characteristics,and could decrease the suffering rate caused by forest pests to less than 1.5‰.

  6. Chrysomelids American diabroticines Hosts and natural enemies. Biology-feasibility for control of pest species (Crisomelidos Diabroticinos americanos Hospederos y enemigos naturales Biologia y factibili manejo especies plagas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chrysomelids in the Diabroticites include some of the most important pest species of the American continent. The chemical and management techniques used to date to control them are: crop rotation to prevent re-infection of host crops, especially in the species that display an egg diapause; insec...

  7. Effectiveness of the area wide pest management program to control asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey: evidence from a household survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquito species. Beginning in 2009, an area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Ae. Albopictus was implemented in 6 areas in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. Including other activities, the project focused on increa...

  8. Effectiveness of the Area-wide Pest Management Program to Control Asian Tiger Mosquito in New Jersey: Evidence from a Household Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Households’ behaviors can both mitigate and measure the spread of urban mosquitos. Beginning in 2009, a comprehensive area-wide pest management (AWPM) project to control Aedes albopictus was implemented in 4 areas in Monmouth and Mercer Counties, New Jersey. Including other activities, the project f...

  9. Control of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in agricultural species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, D J; Benedictus, G

    2001-04-01

    Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease is a chronic intestinal disease caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which continues to spread in agricultural species. Control of paratuberculosis is challenging and should not be underestimated. Due to the long incubation period of the infection, disease is largely subclinical in domesticated livestock. Hence, direct effects on animal productivity and welfare are often masked and may appear insufficient to justify large investments in control programmes by individual farmers, livestock industries or governments. Furthermore, in some countries the main effects of the disease are indirect, resulting from the impact of market discrimination against herds and flocks known to be infected, or from the control measures enforced to reduce transmission. In such circumstances, producers may be unwilling to co-operate with surveillance that may detect infection in herds or flocks. As control programmes are rarely successful in eliminating the infection from a herd or flock in the short term without an aggressive and costly programme, financial and community support assists producers to deal with the challenge. Successful prevention and control depends on animal health authorities and livestock industries acquiring a good understanding of the nature and epidemiology of infection, and of the application of tools for diagnosis and control. Building support for control programmes under the leadership of the affected livestock industries is critical, as programmes are unlikely to be successful without ongoing political will, supported by funding for research, surveillance and control.

  10. A quest for ecologically based pest management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, M. A.; Martin, P. B.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The article presents a holistic approach to studying and applying crop protection in agricultural systems A theoretical framework of integrated pest management (IPM) is presented that allows an understanding of pest population processes on a whole-agroecological-system basis The need for and emergence of holistic research on agroecosystems is discussed, as are the current trends in ecological theory and pest management

  11. Pest control and quarantine supervise system of New Zealand exported apple%新西兰出口苹果的有害生物监控及检疫监管体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁三寅; 卢广

    2012-01-01

    新西兰苹果出口到欧盟、亚洲、美洲和中东等65个国家和地区,其国内水果生产建立了较完善的出口苹果有害生物监控及检疫监管体系,通过介绍新西兰苹果出口的监管体系、有害生物监控防治、出口检验检疫等,供国内检验检疫部门和农业生产部门借鉴和参考。%New Zealand apple exports to 65 countries and regions,such as the EU,Asia,America and the Middle East.For apple export,New Zealand has established a complete pest controlling and quarantine supervision system in fruit production,In this paper,New Zealand apple export regulatory system,pest monitoring and controlling,export inspection and quarantine are introduced,and these offer some reference for domestic inspection and quarantine departments and agricultural production sector.

  12. Suitability of the pest-plant system Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)-tomato for Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitoids and insights for biological control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chailleux, Anaïs; Biondi, Antonio; Han, Peng; Tabone, Elisabeth; Desneux, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    The South American tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), is a major pest that has recently invaded Afro-Eurasia. Biological control, especially by Trichogramma parasitoids, is considered to be promising as a management tool for this pest. However, further development of Trichogramma-based biocontrol strategies would benefit from assessing the impact of released parasitoid offspring on the pest. Under laboratory conditions, we 1) compared the parasitism of five Trichogramma species-strains on the pest-plant system T. absoluta-tomato, and 2) assessed various biological traits of parasitoids, mass-reared on a factitious host (Ephestia kuehniella Zeller), when developing on T. absoluta. In addition, we evaluated the overall efficiency of two specific Trichogramma species when released under greenhouse conditions in combination with a common natural enemy in tomato crop, the predator Macrolophus pygmaeus Rambur. Parasitoids emerging from T. absoluta on tomato showed lower parasitism rates and poor biological traits, for example, wing deformations, reduced longevity, when compared with the control reared on the factitious host. Under greenhouse conditions, the parasitoids that developed on T. absoluta after initial releases contributed little to biological control of T. absoluta, and parasitism tended to be lower when the predator was present. However, a slightly higher T. absoluta control level was achieved by combining the predator and release of the parasitoid Trichogramma achaeae Nagaraja and Nagarkatti. This study shows that Trichogramma parasitoids may not build up populations on the T. absoluta-tomato system, but that Trichogramma parasitoids can be used in combination with M. pygmaeus to enhance biological control of the pest in tomato crops.

  13. Habitat eradication and cropland intensification may reduce parasitoid diversity and natural pest control services in annual crop fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah K. Letourneau

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract California’s central coast differs from many agricultural areas in the U.S., which feature large tracts of monoculture production fields and relatively simple landscapes. Known as the nations salad bowl, and producing up to 90% of U.S. production of lettuces, broccoli and Brussels sprouts, this region is a mosaic of fresh vegetable fields, coastal meadow, chaparral shrubs, riparian and woodland habitat. We tested for relationships between the percent cover of crops, riparian and other natural landscape vegetation and the species richness of parasitic wasps and flies foraging in crops, such as broccoli, kale and cauliflower, and interpreted our results with respect to the decrease in natural habitat and increase in cropland cover prompted by a local microbial contamination event in 2006. Our key results are that: (1 as cropland cover in the landscape increased, fewer species of parasitoids were captured in the crop field, (2 parasitoid richness overall was positively associated with the amount of riparian and other natural vegetation in the surrounding 500m, (3 different groups of parasitoids were associated with unique types of natural vegetation, and (4 parasitism rates of sentinel cabbage aphid and cabbage looper pests were correlated with landscape vegetation features according to which parasitoids caused the mortality. Although individual species of parasitoids may thrive in landscapes that are predominantly short season crops, the robust associations found in this study across specialist and generalist parasitoids and different taxa (tachinid flies, ichneumon wasps, braconid wasps shows that recent food safety practices targeting removal of natural vegetation around vegetable fields in an attempt to eliminate wildlife may harm natural enemy communities and reduce ecosystem services. We argue that enhancing biological diversity is a key goal for transforming agroecosystems for future productivity, sustainability and public health.

  14. Effects of crop species richness on pest-natural enemy systems based on an experimental model system using a microlandscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, ZiHua; Shi, PeiJian; Men, XingYuan; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between crop richness and predator-prey interactions as they relate to pest-natural enemy systems is a very important topic in ecology and greatly affects biological control services. The effects of crop arrangement on predator-prey interactions have received much attention as the basis for pest population management. To explore the internal mechanisms and factors driving the relationship between crop richness and pest population management, we designed an experimental model system of a microlandscape that included 50 plots and five treatments. Each treatment had 10 repetitions in each year from 2007 to 2010. The results showed that the biomass of pests and their natural enemies increased with increasing crop biomass and decreased with decreasing crop biomass; however, the effects of plant biomass on the pest and natural enemy biomass were not significant. The relationship between adjacent trophic levels was significant (such as pests and their natural enemies or crops and pests), whereas non-adjacent trophic levels (crops and natural enemies) did not significantly interact with each other. The ratio of natural enemy/pest biomass was the highest in the areas of four crop species that had the best biological control service. Having either low or high crop species richness did not enhance the pest population management service and lead to loss of biological control. Although the resource concentration hypothesis was not well supported by our results, high crop species richness could suppress the pest population, indicating that crop species richness could enhance biological control services. These results could be applied in habitat management aimed at biological control, provide the theoretical basis for agricultural landscape design, and also suggest new methods for integrated pest management.

  15. 75 FR 38958 - Declaration of Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 152 Declaration of Prion as a Pest under FIFRA and Amendment of EPA's Regulatory Definition of Pests to Include Prion; Notification to the Secretaries of Agriculture and Health and Human...). The draft rule proposes to declare a prion (i.e., proteinaceous infectious particle) a ``pest''...

  16. Selection of nectar plants for use in ecological engineering to promote biological control of rice pests by the predatory bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis, (Heteroptera: Miridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pingyang; Lu, Zhongxian; Heong, Kongluen; Chen, Guihua; Zheng, Xusong; Xu, Hongxing; Yang, Yajun; Nicol, Helen I; Gurr, Geoff M

    2014-01-01

    Ecological engineering for pest management involves the identification of optimal forms of botanical diversity to incorporate into a farming system to suppress pests, by promoting their natural enemies. Whilst this approach has been extensively researched in many temperate crop systems, much less has been done for rice. This paper reports the influence of various plant species on the performance of a key natural enemy of rice planthopper pests, the predatory mirid bug, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis. Survival of adult males and females was increased by the presence of flowering Tagetes erecta, Trida procumbens, Emilia sonchifolia (Compositae), and Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae) compared with water or nil controls. All flower treatments resulted in increased consumption of brown plant hopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and for female C. lividipennis, S. indicum was the most favorable. A separate study with a wider range of plant species and varying densities of prey eggs showed that S. indicum most strongly promoted predation by C. lividipennis. Reflecting this, S. indicum gave a relatively high rate of prey search and low prey handling time. On this basis, S. indicum was selected for more detailed studies to check if its potential incorporation into the farming system would not inadvertently benefit Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and Marasmia patnalis, serious Lepidoptera pests of rice. Adult longevity and fecundity of both pests was comparable for S. indicum and water treatments and significantly lower than the honey solution treatment. Findings indicate that S. indicumis well suited for use as an ecological engineering plant in the margins of rice crops. Sesame indicum can be a valuable crop as well as providing benefits to C. lividipennis whilst denying benefit to key pests.

  17. Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Bingham, Dennis N.; Svoboda, John M.; Hess, J. Richard

    2003-07-08

    Systems and methods for autonomously controlling agricultural machinery such as a grain combine. The operation components of a combine that function to harvest the grain have characteristics that are measured by sensors. For example, the combine speed, the fan speed, and the like can be measured. An important sensor is the grain loss sensor, which may be used to quantify the amount of grain expelled out of the combine. The grain loss sensor utilizes the fluorescence properties of the grain kernels and the plant residue to identify when the expelled plant material contains grain kernels. The sensor data, in combination with historical and current data stored in a database, is used to identify optimum operating conditions that will result in increased crop yield. After the optimum operating conditions are identified, an on-board computer can generate control signals that will adjust the operation of the components identified in the optimum operating conditions. The changes result in less grain loss and improved grain yield. Also, because new data is continually generated by the sensor, the system has the ability to continually learn such that the efficiency of the agricultural machinery is continually improved.

  18. Analysis of 1,3-Dichloropropene for Control of Meloidogyne spp. in a Tobacco Pest Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortnum, B A; Johnson, A W; Lewis, S A

    2001-12-01

    1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) and nonfumigant nematicides were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne spp. and soil and foliar insects in a tobacco pest management system. In a field with a high Meloidogyne spp. population density (root gall index 4.0 to 4.5 on a 0 to 10 scale in untreated controls), tobacco yields and crop values increased (482 kg/ha and $1,784/ha for 1, 3-D; 326 kg/ha and $1,206/ha for fenamiphos; 252 kg/ha and $933/ha for ethoprop) with nematicide application over an untreated control. In fields with a low population density of Meloidogyne arenaria or M. incognita (root gall index 2.3 to 2.5 in untreated controls), yields ranged from 1,714 to 2,027 kg/ha and were not altered by fumigant or nonfumigant nematicide application. Carbofuran, a soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticide, reduced the number of foliar insecticide applications required to keep insect populations below treatment threshold (3.8 vs. 4.5, respectively, for treated vs. untreated). Carbofuran reduced the cost ($23/ha) of foliar insecticide treatments when compared to an untreated control. Although nonfumigant nematicides provided some soil and foliar insect control, the cost of using a fumigant plus a lower insecticidal rate of a soil insecticide/nematicide was comparable to the least expensive non-fumigant nematicide when the cost of foliar insecticide applications was included in the cost estimates. Savings in foliar insecticide cost by use of soil-applied nonfumigant nematicide/insecticides were small ($23/ha) in comparison to potential value reductions by root-knot nematodes when the nonfumigant nematicides fenamiphos or ethoprop ($578/ha and $851/ha, respectively) were used instead of 1,3-D.

  19. Identifying obstacles and ranking common biological control research priorities for Europe to manage most economically important pests in arable, vegetable and perennial crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Jay Ram; Bischoff-Schaefer, Monika; Bluemel, Sylvia; Dachbrodt-Saaydeh, Silke; Dreux, Laure; Jansen, Jean-Pierre; Kiss, Jozsef; Köhl, Jürgen; Kudsk, Per; Malausa, Thibaut; Messéan, Antoine; Nicot, Philippe C; Ricci, Pierre; Thibierge, Jérôme; Villeneuve, François

    2017-01-01

    EU agriculture is currently in transition from conventional crop protection to integrated pest management (IPM). Because biocontrol is a key component of IPM, many European countries recently have intensified their national efforts on biocontrol research and innovation (R&I), although such initiatives are often fragmented. The operational outputs of national efforts would benefit from closer collaboration among stakeholders via transnationally coordinated approaches, as most economically important pests are similar across Europe. This paper proposes a common European framework on biocontrol R&I. It identifies generic R&I bottlenecks and needs as well as priorities for three crop types (arable, vegetable and perennial crops). The existing gap between the market offers of biocontrol solutions and the demand of growers, the lengthy and expensive registration process for biocontrol solutions and their varying effectiveness due to variable climatic conditions and site-specific factors across Europe are key obstacles hindering the development and adoption of biocontrol solutions in Europe. Considering arable, vegetable and perennial crops, a dozen common target pests are identified for each type of crop and ranked by order of importance at European level. Such a ranked list indicates numerous topics on which future joint transnational efforts would be justified. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Green Control Techniques of Diseases and Insect Pests of Citrus%柑橘病虫害绿色防控技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕辉; 彭昌家; 苟建华; 李鸿韬

    2014-01-01

    Introduced the quarantine control (including the strict implementation of quarantine mea⁃sures,new citrus orchard location need to consult thelocal station of plant protection or plant quarantine station quarantine shall consult opinions,establish the risk of harmful biological monitoring,timely sam⁃pling inspection,do a good job of citrus canker blockade control),agricultural control and prevention (in⁃cluding choosing superior resistant rootstock varieties and virus-free seedling,science and pruning,improv⁃ing ventilation condition,big fruit fly on early removal of tangerine trees fruit,winter, spring gar⁃den,cleaning tillage,conservation and utilization of natural enemies,strengthen the cultivation and man⁃agement,fruit bagging,trunk white-washed,suitable harvest),physical prevention and control (includ⁃ing light trapping,artificial to kill), physical and chemical induced control (including the yellow board trap,sexual trapping agent booby trap,food trapping agent) the scope of application of green control tech⁃niques and various technical and scientific medication and other citrus pests etc.%介绍了检疫控制(包括严格执行检疫措施、新柑橘园选址须征询当地植保植检站或植物检疫站意见、建立检疫性和外来危险性有害生物监测点,及时抽样送检、切实搞好柑橘溃疡病的封锁控制)、农业防控(包括选用优良抗性砧木品种和无病毒苗木、科学修剪,改善通风条件、及早摘除橘树上大实蝇有虫果、冬、春清园、翻耕、保护利用天敌、加强栽培管理、果实套袋、主干刷白、适期采收)、物理防控(包括灯光诱杀、人工捕杀)、理化诱控(包括黄板诱杀、性诱剂诱杀、食诱剂诱杀)和科学用药等柑橘病虫害绿色防控技术及各项技术的适用范围。

  1. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  2. Comparing strategies for controlling an African pest rodent: an empirically based theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Leirs, Herwig; Mercelis, Saskia

    2001-01-01

    . This model incorporated three functional age categories (juveniles, subadults and adults) of both sexes and used density-dependent and density-independent factors, the latter represented by rainfall.3. The model was used to analyse the effect of rodent control on the population dynamics and resulting number...... of rats. Control measures affecting survival as well as reproduction were considered.4. The model showed that control measures reducing survival will only have long-term effects on population size if they are also applied when rodent densities are low. Control measures applied only when rodent densities...... are high will not have persistent effects, even at high mortality rates.5. The model demonstrated that control measures reducing reproduction are likely to prevent Mastomys outbreaks, but will keep densities low over a long period only when the contraceptive effect is strong (> 75% reduction).6. Provided...

  3. Common Virulence Factors and Tissue Targets of Entomopathogenic Bacteria for Biological Control of Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaïs Castagnola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on common insecticidal virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria with special emphasis on two insect pathogenic bacteria Photorhabdus (Proteobacteria: Enterobacteriaceae and Bacillus (Firmicutes: Bacillaceae. Insect pathogenic bacteria of diverse taxonomic groups and phylogenetic origin have been shown to have striking similarities in the virulence factors they produce. It has been suggested that the detection of phage elements surrounding toxin genes, horizontal and lateral gene transfer events, and plasmid shuffling occurrences may be some of the reasons that virulence factor genes have so many analogs throughout the bacterial kingdom. Comparison of virulence factors of Photorhabdus, and Bacillus, two bacteria with dissimilar life styles opens the possibility of re-examining newly discovered toxins for novel tissue targets. For example, nematodes residing in the hemolymph may release bacteria with virulence factors targeting neurons or neuromuscular junctions. The first section of this review focuses on toxins and their context in agriculture. The second describes the mode of action of toxins from common entomopathogens and the third draws comparisons between Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. The fourth section reviews the implications of the nervous system in biocontrol.

  4. Delivery of Nucleic Acids and Proteins from Grafted Rootstocks for Pathogen and Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor eHaroldsen

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has been used in agriculture for over two thousand years. With modern advances in biotechnology, new options for utilizing this proven horticultural technique are emerging. Specifically, trans-grafting, the combination of a genetically engineered (GE rootstock with a wild-type (WT scion, has the potential to provide biotic and abiotic stress tolerance or to increase plant vigor and productivity. Yet, it is unclear whether nucleic acids and proteins will be transmitted across a graft and, if so, whether this movement may affect the efficacy of the trans-grafting approach and/or regulatory oversight of the WT scion and its products. There are reports of the movement of organellar DNA and cellular mRNAs and proteins across graft unions, but to what extent these molecules affect performance of the scion is not clear. Strategies that can be used to limit or enhance nucleic acid or protein movement in order to maximize trans-grafting benefits have not been defined. This paper reviews, using specific examples, the transport of nucleic acids and proteins between rootstock and scion with the objectives of increasing the benefits grafting, particularly for pathogen resistance and defining how use of GE rootstocks effectively extends the horticultural utility of grafting.

  5. Pest Locations, washoe county vector control data, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Washoe County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pest Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2006. It is described as...

  6. Groundwater head controls nitrate export from an agricultural lowland catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musolff, Andreas; Schmidt, Christian; Rode, Michael; Lischeid, Gunnar; Weise, Stephan M.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.

    2016-10-01

    Solute concentration variability is of fundamental importance for the chemical and ecological state of streams. It is often closely related to discharge variability and can be characterized in terms of a solute export regime. Previous studies, especially in lowland catchments, report that nitrate is often exported with an accretion pattern of increasing concentrations with increasing discharge. Several modeling approaches exist to predict the export regime of solutes from the spatial relationship of discharge generating zones with solute availability in the catchment. For a small agriculturally managed lowland catchment in central Germany, we show that this relationship is controlled by the depth to groundwater table and its temporal dynamics. Principal component analysis of groundwater level time series from wells distributed throughout the catchment allowed derivation of a representative groundwater level time series that explained most of the discharge variability. Groundwater sampling revealed consistently decreasing nitrate concentrations with an increasing thickness of the unsaturated zone. The relationships of depth to groundwater table to discharge and to nitrate concentration were parameterized and integrated to successfully model catchment discharge and nitrate export on the basis of groundwater level variations alone. This study shows that intensive and uniform agricultural land use likely results in a clear and consistent concentration-depth relationship of nitrate, which can be utilized in simple approaches to predict stream nitrate export dynamics at the catchment scale.

  7. RNAi efficiency, systemic properties, and novel delivery methods for pest insect control : what we know so far

    OpenAIRE

    Joga, Mallikarjuna; Zotti, Moises J.; Smagghe, Guy; Christiaens, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of ...

  8. RNAi efficiency, systemic properties and novel delivery methods for pest insect control: what we know so far.

    OpenAIRE

    Mallikarjuna Reddy Joga; Moises João Zotti; Guy Smagghe; Olivier Christiaens

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches towards insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of...

  9. Formulation to Enhance the Insecticidal Activity of Entomopathogenic Nematodes for Control of Insect Pests of Orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extended shelf life and rapid dispersion of entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) infective juveniles (IJs) in spray suspensions were the principal objectives of earlier EPN formulation development. Subsequently, formulation of EPNs for enhanced insecticidal control in greenhouses and field has been inves...

  10. Explicit Solution of the Average-Cost Optimality Equation for a Pest-Control Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epaminondas G. Kyriakidis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a Markov decision process in continuous time for the optimal control of a simple symmetrical immigration-emigration process by the introduction of total catastrophes. It is proved that a particular control-limit policy is average cost optimal within the class of all stationary policies by verifying that the relative values of this policy are the solution of the corresponding optimality equation.

  11. 7 CFR 205.271 - Facility pest management practice standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility pest management practice standard. 205.271 Section 205.271 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS...

  12. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  13. 莫桑比克腰果病虫害种类及其防治%Diseases and Insect Pests of Cashew in Mozambique and Their Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁李宏; 张中润; Americo Uaciquete; 黄海杰

    2011-01-01

    The category and damage of diseases and insect pests of cashew in Nampula, Inhambane, Gaza and Maputo provinces in Mozambique were studied, 8 species of diseases and 39 species of insect pests were identified. The major diseases were powdery mildew and anthracnose, and the major insect pests were tea mosquito bug (Helopeltis schoutedeni Reuter and Helopeltis anacardii Miller), coconut bug (Pseudothe rap tits wayi Brown), cashew weevil (Mecocorynus loripes Chevrolat) and red-banded thrip (Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Ciard)). Control measures for major diseases and insect pests of cashew in Mozambique were also given in this paper.%在莫桑比克楠普拉省、伊尼扬巴内省、加扎省和马普托省对腰果病虫害进行了系统的调查,发现为害腰果的病害8种,害虫39种.其中主要病害有白粉病和炭疽病,主要害虫有棉角盲蝽、安氏角盲蝽、椰缘蝽、腰果鹰嘴象甲和红带蓟马.并对莫桑比克主要腰果病虫害提出了相应的防治措施.

  14. Occurrence Investigation and Control Measures of Rhododendron Pests in Quanzhou City%泉州市杜鹃花害虫发生调查与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑月琼; 陈达嵩

    2011-01-01

    The occurrences of rhododendron pests in Quanzhou city were investigated.The results showed that the main pests of rhododendron were leaf pests,including stephanitis pyriodes,Trialeurodes vaporariorum,rhododendron sawfly,snail,thrips and aphid.Among which,S.pyriodes,T.vaporariorum and rhododendron sawfly occurred widely and seriously,and the occurrences of snail,thrips and aphid were sporadic.This paper described the occurrence characteristic of the main pests mentioned above,and then summarized a set of effective control measures.%对泉州市杜鹃花发生情况进行调查,结果表明:目前泉州市杜鹃花害虫以叶部害虫为主,有杜鹃冠网蝽、温室白粉虱、杜鹃叶蜂、蜗牛、蓟马与蚜虫,其中杜鹃冠网蝽、温室白粉虱与杜鹃叶蜂发生普遍且严重,其次是蜗牛,蓟马与蚜虫则零星发生。该文描述了以上主要害虫的发生特点,并总结出一系列有效防治方法。

  15. Use of a regulatory mechanism of sex determination in pest insect control

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tarig Dafa'alla; Gouliang Fu; Luke Alphey

    2010-09-01

    The sexual development of an insect is defined through a hierarchical control of several sex determining genes. Of these genes, transformer (tra) and doublesex (dsx) are well characterized and functionally conserved, especially dsx. Both genes are regulated at the transcriptional level through sex-specific alternative splicing. Incorporation of a genetically engineered sex-specific splicing module derived from these genes in transgenic systems, such as RIDL (release of insects carrying a dominant lethal), would allow the production of male-only insects for control programmes without any physical intervention.

  16. Potential of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and the oxadiazine indoxacarb for controlling five coleopteran pests of stored grain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gregory J. Daglish; Manoj K. Nayak

    2012-01-01

    The potential for using imidacloprid (a neonicotinoid) and indoxacarb (an oxadiazine) as grain protectants was investigated in bioassays against resistant strains of five stored grain beetles.The species investigated were Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (the lesser grain borer),Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (the rice weevil),Tribolium castaneum (Herbst)(the rust-red flour beetle),Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (the saw tooth flour beetle),and Cryptolestesferrugineus (Stephens) (the flat grain beetle).Each of these species has developed resistance to one or more protectants,including organophosphorus insecticides,synthetic pyrethroids and the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene.Mortality and reproduction after a 2-week exposure of adults to treated wheat depended on species,dose and insecticide.Imidacloprid had no effect on S.oryzae at any dose,but none of the other species produced any live progeny at 10 mg/kg.Indoxacarb had no effect on T.castaneum at any dose,but none of the other species produced any live progeny at 5 mg/kg.The results show that although both imidacloprid and indoxacarb can control at least four of the five key pests tested at doses comparable to those used for organophosphorus protectants,more potent neonicotinoid or oxadiazine insecticides would be needed than either of these to provide broad spectrum protection of stored grain.

  17. Do differences in food web structure between organic and conventional farms affect the ecosystem service of pest control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Gibson, Rachel; Polaszek, Andrew; Morris, Rebecca J; Craze, Paul G; Planqué, Robert; Symondson, William O C; Memmott, Jane

    2009-03-01

    While many studies have demonstrated that organic farms support greater levels of biodiversity, it is not known whether this translates into better provision of ecosystem services. Here we use a food-web approach to analyse the community structure and function at the whole-farm scale. Quantitative food webs from 10 replicate pairs of organic and conventional farms showed that organic farms have significantly more species at three trophic levels (plant, herbivore and parasitoid) and significantly different network structure. Herbivores on organic farms were attacked by more parasitoid species on organic farms than on conventional farms. However, differences in network structure did not translate into differences in robustness to simulated species loss and we found no difference in percentage parasitism (natural pest control) across a variety of host species. Furthermore, a manipulative field experiment demonstrated that the higher species richness of parasitoids on the organic farms did not increase mortality of a novel herbivore used to bioassay ecosystem service. The explanation for these differences is likely to include inherent differences in management strategies and landscape structure between the two farming systems.

  18. White grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) associated with Nepalese agriculture and their control with the indigenous entomopathogenic fungus "Metarhizium anisopliae" (Metsch.) Sorokin

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    White grubs became increasingly difficult pests in Nepal for the last few years. Their infestation has been reported throughout the country and magnitude of the problem has been widespread over the past years. In majority of the farming situation, control of these pests are largely abandoning because of the lack of control over their damages. In general, the management strategy depends primarily on the use of highly poisonous poor graded chemical pesticides. The use of bio-control agents in g...

  19. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawadee Chamnan

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon. The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass provided the highest effectiveness tocontrol aphids (Aphis craccivora Koch. Control of A. craccivora was not significantly different between the synthetic insecticide and plant crude extracts, except methamidophos. Pod damage caused by pod borer (Maruca testulalis Geyer and yields were also not significantly different among treatments. However, the highest yield of 1,224.7 kg/rai was recorded in plots treated with neem seed extracts and the synthetic insecticide, carbosulfan. In untreated plots, the lowest yield of 587.3 kg/rai was collected.

  20. Application of some insecticides and plant crude extracts for controlling insect pests in yard long bean

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Tests on plant crude extracts of neem seeds, galanga and citronella grass at the rates of 200 ml/20 L of water together with synthetic insecticides, cypermethrin, methamidophos, carbosulfan and carbofuran, at the recommended rates showed that none of the treatments was effective in controlling plant damage caused by adult of bean fly (Ophiomyia phaseoli Tryon). The application of the synthetic insecticide, methamidophos, and plant crude extracts of neem seeds + galanga + citronella grass prov...

  1. Recent Advances in Biological Control of Pest Insects by Using Viruses in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-lian SUN; Hui-yin PENG

    2007-01-01

    Insect viruses are attractive as biological control agents and could be a feasible alternative to chemical insecticides in the management of insect infestations. This review describes recent advances in the development of wild-type and genetically modified viruses as insecticides. A new strategy of application of insect viruses in China is reviewed. Also, the assessment of biosafety of genetically modified Helicoverpa armigera Nucleopolyhedovirus (HearNPV) is emphasized as a case-study.

  2. Generation of phosphine gas for the control of grain storage pests

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, B.X.

    2010-01-01

    The phosphine generator is a device for rapid production of phosphine (PH₃) gas to be introduced into grain storage. The aluminum phosphide (ALP) tablets are used as raw material and its effective constituent is 56%. When the aluminum phosphide and water are brought into contact a hydrolyzation reaction takes place to produce the phosphine gas. Controlling the reaction temperature, reaction pressure and the dosage of aluminum phosphide immersed in the water, the hydrolyzation reaction can be ...

  3. Precision robotic control of agricultural vehicles on realistic farm trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Thomas

    High-precision "autofarming", or precise agricultural vehicle guidance, is rapidly becoming a reality thanks to increasing computing power and carrier-phase differential GPS ("CPDGPS") position and attitude sensors. Realistic farm trajectories will include not only rows but also arcs created by smoothly joining rows or path-planning algorithms, spirals for farming center-pivot irrigated fields, and curved trajectories dictated by nonlinear field boundaries. In addition, fields are often sloped, and accurate control may be required either on linear trajectories or on curved contours. A three-dimensional vehicle model which adapts to changing vehicle and ground conditions was created, and a low-order model for controller synthesis was extracted based on nominal conditions. The model was extended to include a towed implement. Experimentation showed that an extended Kalman filter could identify the vehicle's state in real-time. An approximation was derived for the additional positional uncertainty introduced by the noisy "lever-arm correction" necessary to translate the GPS position measurement at the roof antenna to the vehicle's control point on the ground; this approximation was then used to support the assertion that attitude measurement accuracy was as important to control point position measurement as the original position measurement accuracy at the GPS antenna. The low-order vehicle control model was transformed to polar coordinates for control on arcs and spirals. Experimental data showed that the tractor's control, point tracked an arc to within a -0.3 cm mean and a 3.4 cm standard deviation and a spiral to within a -0.2 cm mean and a 5.3 cm standard deviation. Cubic splines were used to describe curve trajectories, and a general expression for the time-rate-of-change of curve-related parameters was derived. Four vehicle control algorithms were derived for curve tracking: linear local-error control based on linearizing the vehicle about the curve's radius of

  4. The use of phytochemicals as fumigants for the control of stored product insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Shaaya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates, as compared to a new isothyiocyanate (ITC isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket as fumigants for the control of stored product insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH3I, carbon disulphide (CS2, benzaldehyde (C7H6O and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored product insects. ITCs are known to have high toxicity and only very low concentrations are needed for the control of stored product insects. Eruca sativa is used worldwide as a food supplement. Methylthio butyl ITC, the main bioactive component in this plant has high toxicity against insects, but lower mammalian toxicity as compared to other active ITCs. This makes this compound a potential candidate for insect control. Comparative studies with CH3I, CS2 and C7H6O showed that the first was the most active compound against stored product insects followed by the second and third. C7H6O was found active, but very sorptive; therefore it was less effective against insects. The activity of a large number of essential oils (EOs isolated from aromatic plants was also evaluated.

  5. 7 CFR 330.210 - Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packing materials and containers for plant pest... Packing materials and containers for plant pest movement; host materials. Plant pests moved into or... packing materials are to be employed in the shipment of plant pests. Approved packing materials for...

  6. Host-Symbiont Interactions for Potentially Managing Heteropteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Souza Prado

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insects in the suborder Heteroptera, the so-called true bugs, include over 40,000 species worldwide. This insect group includes many important agricultural pests and disease vectors, which often have bacterial symbionts associated with them. Some symbionts have coevolved with their hosts to the extent that host fitness is compromised with the removal or alteration of their symbiont. The first bug/microbial interactions were discovered over 50 years ago. Only recently, mainly due to advances in molecular techniques, has the nature of these associations become clearer. Some researchers have pursued the genetic modification (paratransgenesis of symbionts for disease control or pest management. With the increasing interest and understanding of the bug/symbiont associations and their ecological and physiological features, it will only be a matter of time before pest/vector control programs utilize this information and technique. This paper will focus on recent discoveries of the major symbiotic systems in Heteroptera, highlighting how the understanding of the evolutionary and biological aspects of these relationships may lead to the development of alternative techniques for efficient heteropteran pest control and suppression of diseases vectored by Heteroptera.

  7. Classical biological control of an invasive forest pest: a world perspective of the management of Sirex noctilio using the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides (Hymenoptera: Ibaliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, D; Corley, J C

    2015-02-01

    Classical biological control is a key method for managing populations of pests in long-lived crops such as plantation forestry. The execution of biological control programmes in general, as the evaluation of potential natural enemies remains, to a large extent, an empirical endeavour. Thus, characterizing specific cases to determine patterns that may lead to more accurate predictions of success is an important goal of the much applied ecological research. We review the history of introduction, ecology and behaviour of the parasitoid Ibalia leucospoides. The species is a natural enemy of Sirex noctilio, one of the most important pests of pine afforestation worldwide. We use an invasion ecology perspective given the analogy between the main stages involved in classical biological control and the biological invasion processes. We conclude that success in the establishment, a common reason of failure in biocontrol, is not a limiting factor of success by I. leucospoides. A mismatch between the spread capacity of the parasitoid and that of its host could nevertheless affect control at a regional scale. In addition, we suggest that given its known life history traits, this natural enemy may be a better regulator than suppressor of the host population. Moreover, spatial and temporal refuges of the host population that may favour the local persistence of the interaction probably reduce the degree to which S. noctilio population is suppressed by the parasitoid. We emphasize the fact that some of the biological attributes that promote establishment may negatively affect suppression levels achieved. Studies on established non-native pest-parasitoid interactions may contribute to defining selection criteria for classical biological control which may prove especially useful in integrated pest management IPM programmes of invasive forest insects.

  8. The use of phytochemicals as fumigants for the control of stored product insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Shaaya; Moshe Kostyukovsky

    2011-01-01

    The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates, as compared to a new isothyiocyanate (ITC) isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket) as fumigants for the control of stored product insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH3I), carbon disulphide (CS2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O) and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored product insects. ITCs are kn...

  9. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, J.

    2010-01-01

    Important green house gases (GHG) attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), though carbon dioxide (CO2) contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellul...

  10. 基于限时脉冲控制害虫策略的Gompertz模型%Time-limited Pest Impulsive Control Strategy based on Gompertz Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐为坚; 陈时东

    2011-01-01

    基于在限定时间内控制害虫的策略,建立具有Gompertz增长的脉冲微分方程模型,得到该模型的边值解存在的条件,给出计算最大脉冲周期的方法,解决在限定时间内将害虫密度控制在经济阈值之下的问题.%Based on the time-limited pest control strategy,we construct the model of impulsive differential equation with Gompertz growth,and obtain the existence condition of the solution to the boundary value problem of the model.Furthermore,we present the method that can be used to calculate the maximum impulsive period,and solve the problem about how to control the pest density within the economic threshold in a given time.

  11. 引入注目的储粮害虫防治进展述评%A REVIEW OF CONSPICUOUS RESEARCH PROGRESS IN STORED GRAIN PEST CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    粱权

    2001-01-01

    作者根据所掌握的新近国际储粮害虫防治领域的科学研究与应用技术的动态和发展,结合我国情况,在熏蒸剂磷化氢和惰性粉类杀虫剂方面,择其主要的作了扼要介绍,并提出了看法和建议。%This paper reviews recent world - wide noticeable research achievements of the application of phosphine fumigation for control of stored grain pests and stressed the significance of applicator' s and environmental safe protection. The author also introduced the present status of using diatomaceous earth(DE) in controlling stored grain pests in some developed countries. The necessity of the development of DE in China is also proposed.

  12. Pests and Diseases Damaged Banana in Yunnan and Their Control%云南香蕉病虫害危害现状及防治策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾莉; 郭志祥; 番华彩; 杨佩文; 李迅东; 刘树芳

    2011-01-01

    It reports the current state of pests diseases occurred in banana of Yunnan province through investigation.Suggestion and control methods are hereby present.%通过调查研究,报道云南香蕉病虫害种类、危害现状和当前病虫防治工作中存在问题,提出防治策略和建议。

  13. 卫生城市病媒生物防治视角下的PCO%The pest control operation of health cities vector-biological control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐宏亮

    2013-01-01

    基于有害生物防治业(PCO)的兴起与蓬勃发展,从卫生城市角度总结回顾PCO产业的发展与现状,探讨存在的不足,分析PCO在我国的市场前景及趋势,并提出相应对策.%Based on the booming pest control operation (PCO),the article reviews the history and status of the PCO from the health city perspective,and explore the problems.At the same time,the prospects and trends of PCO in our country are analyzed.Finally,the corresponding strategies are put forward.

  14. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Rebaudo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM combining social (diffusion theory and biological (pest population dynamics models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  15. Coupled information diffusion--pest dynamics models predict delayed benefits of farmer cooperation in pest management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebaudo, François; Dangles, Olivier

    2011-10-01

    Worldwide, the theory and practice of agricultural extension system have been dominated for almost half a century by Rogers' "diffusion of innovation theory". In particular, the success of integrated pest management (IPM) extension programs depends on the effectiveness of IPM information diffusion from trained farmers to other farmers, an important assumption which underpins funding from development organizations. Here we developed an innovative approach through an agent-based model (ABM) combining social (diffusion theory) and biological (pest population dynamics) models to study the role of cooperation among small-scale farmers to share IPM information for controlling an invasive pest. The model was implemented with field data, including learning processes and control efficiency, from large scale surveys in the Ecuadorian Andes. Our results predict that although cooperation had short-term costs for individual farmers, it paid in the long run as it decreased pest infestation at the community scale. However, the slow learning process placed restrictions on the knowledge that could be generated within farmer communities over time, giving rise to natural lags in IPM diffusion and applications. We further showed that if individuals learn from others about the benefits of early prevention of new pests, then educational effort may have a sustainable long-run impact. Consistent with models of information diffusion theory, our results demonstrate how an integrated approach combining ecological and social systems would help better predict the success of IPM programs. This approach has potential beyond pest management as it could be applied to any resource management program seeking to spread innovations across populations.

  16. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald S Shepard

    Full Text Available Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY. The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008 and the intervention years (2009-2011 declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  17. Economic evaluation of an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Donald S; Halasa, Yara A; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean P; Gaugler, Randy; Bartlett-Healy, Kristen; Strickman, Daniel A; Clark, Gary G

    2014-01-01

    Aedes albopictus is the most invasive mosquito in the world, an important disease vector, and a biting nuisance that limits outdoor activities. Area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) is the recommended control strategy. We conducted an economic evaluation of the AW-IPM project in Mercer and Monmouth Counties, New Jersey with a controlled design (AW-IPM vs. control) from 2009 through 2011. The study analyzed financial documents and staff time for AW-IPM and surveyed an average of 415 randomly chosen households in AW-IPM and control areas each fall from 2008 through 2011. Hours lost from yard and porch activities were calculated as differences between actual and potential hours of these activities in an average summer week if there had been no mosquito concerns. Net estimated benefits of AW-IPM were based on cross-over and difference-in-difference analyses. Reductions in hours lost were valued based on respondents' willingness to pay for a hypothetical extra hour free of mosquitoes spent on yard or porch activities and literature on valuation of a quality adjusted life year (QALY). The incremental cost of AW-IPM per adult was $41.18 per year. Number of hours lost due to mosquitoes in AW-IPM areas between the base year (2008) and the intervention years (2009-2011) declined by 3.30 hours per summer week in AW-IPM areas compared to control areas. Survey respondents valued this improvement at $27.37 per adult per summer week. Over the 13-week summer, an average adult resident gained 42.96 hours of yard and porch time, worth $355.82. The net benefit over the summer was $314.63. With an average of 0.0027 QALYs gained per adult per year, AW-IPM was cost effective at $15,300 per QALY gained. The benefit-cost ratio from hours gained was 8.64, indicating that each $1 spent on AW-IPM gave adults additional porch and yard time worth over $8.

  18. Application of radiation in agriculture in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masrizal; Sumanggono, Riyanti; Kuswadi, Ahmad Nasroh; Arifin, Muchson; Gandanegara, Soertini [National Nuclear Energy Agency of Indonesia (BATAN), Research and Development Center for Isotopes and Radiation Technology, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2001-03-01

    Radiation has been used in agriculture research and development in Indonesia since several decades ago, especially in fields of mutation breeding, pest control, plant nutrition, and animal health. Mutation breeding using gamma radiation has contributed several crop varieties, namely seven varieties of rice, three of soybean, and two of mungbean to national agriculture. Besides, hundreds of promising mutant lines of rice, soybean, mungbean, peanut, sorghum, horticultural crops, and industrial plants which are ready for multi-location trials. Radiation is also used for the control of insect pests, either field or storage pests. Storage pests are eradicated by lethal dosage for direct killing, while the population of field pests (especially fruit flies) is eliminated by the release of radiosterilized insects in the program of sterile insects technique (SIT). A pilot scale trial of SIT to control fruit fly is being conducted in East Java province. Lethal dosage of gamma irradiation is used as post-harvest treatment for food of such as dried spices, fresh fruits, and packed foods. Gamma radiation has been also used to sterilize culture media of Bradyrhizobium, a nitrogen fixative bacteria that is the symbiont of soybean to be used in yield improvement. In animal health, gamma radiation can be used directly or indirectly to eliminate, decrease diseases. Disease control can use irradiation to develop vaccines, and to produce the diagnostic reagent kits. Vaccines for Coccidiosis (chick) diseases have been produced and disseminated in Indonesia. (author)

  19. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony C. Bonning

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera, which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

  20. Toxins for transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chougule, Nanasaheb P; Bonning, Bryony C

    2012-06-01

    The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera), which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

  1. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  2. Pyrethroid use-malaria control and individual applications by households for other pests and home garden use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feo, Maria Luisa; Eljarrat, Ethel; Manaca, Maria N; Dobaño, Carlota; Barcelo, Damia; Sunyer, Jordi; Alonso, Pedro L; Menendez, Clara; Grimalt, Joan O

    2012-01-01

    Presence of pyrethroid insecticides in human breast milk and in thatch wall material of dwellings from Southern Africa subtropical area (Manhiça, Mozambique) was investigated to assess potential pyrethroid route of human exposure. Human breast milk samples were collected during 2002 when pyrethroids were widely used as insecticides for mosquito bed nets in Mozambique for malaria control. The median concentration value of total pyrethroids ranged between 87 and 1200ng/glw, with λ-cyhalothrin being the most predominant pyrethroid in human breast milk contributing for 35% of the total amount. Moreover, and for the first time, an isomer-specific enrichment was found in human breast milk, showing a selective isomeric accumulation or metabolism in the human body. Based on the calculated pyrethroid concentrations in human breast milk, the daily ingestion rate of pyrethroid was estimated. The nursing infant dietary intake ranged from 0.67 to 9.0μg(kg of body weight)(-1)day(-1). In addition, thatch materials collected after the reintegration of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethene (DDT) as insecticide residual spraying (IRS) in Mozambique, showed the presence of pyrethroids with concentration values ranging between 6.9 and 700ng/gdw. In thatch material as well as in human breast milk, pyrethroid contamination was mainly attributed to the agriculture usage of this insecticide knowing that agriculture represent the 80% of the economy in Mozambique. However, a possible usage of this insecticide as IRS in Mozambique cannot be excluded despite their low efficiency for malaria control. The continued use of these compounds (both for agriculture and malaria prevention) and the ingestion rates calculated from the breast milk concentrations indicate that these insecticides cannot be overlooked for the assessment of the lactation risks of breastfeeding infants from the Manhiça region.

  3. Sole-Source Lighting for Controlled-Environment Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell.Cary; Stutte, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    Since plants on Earth evolved under broad-spectrum solar radiation, anytime they are grown exclusively under electric lighting that does not contain all wavelengths in similar proportion to those in sunlight, plant appearance and size could be uniquely different. Nevertheless, plants have been grown for decades under fluorescent (FL) (1) + incandescent (IN) (2) lamps as a sole source of lighting (SSL), and researchers have become comfortable that, in certain proportions of FL + IN for a given species, plants can appear "normal" relative to their growth outdoors. The problem with using such traditional SSLs for commercial production typically is short lamp lifespans and not obtaining enough photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) when desired. These limitations led to supplementation of FL + IN lamp outputs with longer-lived, high-intensity discharge (HID) lamps in growth chambers (3). As researchers became comfortable that mixes of orange-biased high-pressure sodium (HPS) and blue-biased metal halide (MH) HIDs together also could give normal plant growth at higher intensities, growth chambers and phytotrons subsequently were equipped mainly with HID lamps, with their intense thermal output filtered out by ventilated light caps or thermal-controlled water barriers. For the most part, IN and HID lamps have found a home in commercial protected horticulture, usually for night-break photoperiod lighting (IN) or for seasonal supplemental lighting (mostly HPS) in greenhouses. However, lack of economically viable options for SSL have held back aspects of year-round indoor agriculture from taking off commercially.

  4. Crop protection in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional tomat

  5. Impact of combining planting date and chemical control to reduce larval densities of stem-infesting pests of sunflower in the central plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, Laurence D; Aiken, Robert M; Meyer, Ron F; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa

    2007-08-01

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and Dectes texanus texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). The incidence of a root boring moth, Pelochrista womonana (Kearfott) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), also has increased. Experiments were conducted in three locations in Colorado and Kansas during 2001-2003 to investigate the potential of combining planting date and foliar and seed treatment insecticide applications to lower insect stalk densities of these three pests. The impact of these strategies on weevil larval parasitoids also was studied. Eight sunflower stem weevil larval parasitoid species were identified. All were Hymenoptera and included the following (relative composition in parentheses): Nealiolus curculionis (Fitch) (42.6%), Nealiolus collaris (Brues) (3.2%) (Braconidae), Quadrastichus ainsliei Gahan (4.2%) (Eulophidae), Eurytoma tylodermatis Ashmead (13.1%) (Eurytomidae), Neocatolaccus tylodermae (Ashmead) (33.7%), Chlorocytus sp. (1.6%), Pteromalus sp. (0.5%) (Pteromalidae), and Eupelmus sp. (1.0%) (Eupelmidae). The results from this 3-yr study revealed that chemical control was often reliable in protecting the sunflower crop from stem pests and was relatively insensitive to application timing. Although results in some cases were mixed, overall, delayed planting can be a reliable and effective management tool for growers in the central Plains to use in reducing stem-infesting pest densities in sunflower stalks. Chemical control and planting date were compatible with natural mortality contributed by C. adspersus larval parasitoids.

  6. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  7. 利用声测报技术检测农产品害虫的新方法%A new method detection pests in agricultural products by acoustical signals detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    介绍了一种检测农产品害虫的新方法——害虫声检测法 .与传统的农产品害虫检测方法相比,此方法具有快速、准确、灵敏度高、价廉等优点.近 年来,在微电子设备及计算机技术的推动下,害虫声检测技术得到了迅速发展,进入实用阶 段,已建立了水果害虫和储粮害虫声信号微机实时监测系统.综述了声检测技术的发展历程 、最新进展及存在问题.%This paper introduces a new method to detect the pes ts in agricultural post-harvest commodities?——?acoustical signal detection method. Compared with traditional inspection method, this method has the advantage of rapid, accurate, high-sensitivity and low-price. In recent years, with microelectronics equipm ent and computer technique much progress in this field has been made. An automat ed computer-based system has been developed to provide continuous monitoring th e acoustical signal of pests in fruit and stored grain. This paper reviews the d evelopment history and unsolved problems in detection sound signal of pests in a gricultural products.

  8. Towards integrated pest management in red clover seed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundin, Ola; Rundlöf, Maj; Smith, Henrik G; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2012-10-01

    The development of integrated pest management is hampered by lack of information on how insect pest abundances relate to yield losses, and how pests are affected by control measures. In this study, we develop integrated pest management tactics for Apion spp. weevils (Coleoptera: Brentidae) in seed production of red clover, Trifolium pratense L. We tested a method to forecast pest damage, quantified the relationship between pest abundance and yield, and evaluated chemical and biological pest control in 29 Swedish red clover fields in 2008 and 2011. Pest inflorescence abundance, which had a highly negative effect on yield, could be predicted with pan trap catches of adult pests. In 2008, chemical control with typically one application of pyrethroids was ineffective both in decreasing pest abundances and in increasing yields. In 2011, when chemical control included applications of the neonicotinoid thiacloprid, pest abundances decreased and yields increased considerably in treated field zones. A post hoc analysis indicated that using pyrethroids in addition to thiacloprid was largely redundant. Infestation rates by parasitoids was higher and reached average levels of around 40% in insecticide treated field zones in 2011, which is a level of interest for biological pest control. Based on the data presented, an economic threshold for chemical control is developed, and guidelines are provided on minimum effective chemical pest control.

  9. A Study of Agricultural Tridimension Pollution and Discussion on Its Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jian; CAI Dian-xiong; WANG Xiao-bin; ZHANG Jian-jun; JIN Ke

    2005-01-01

    The paper outlines the background of the research on control of agriculture tridimensional pollution and its tendency.The new concept of "agricultural tridimension pollution (ATriP)" with its control theory is initially proposed as a result of continuously increased agricultural pollution within the systems of hydrosphere, pedosphere, biosphere and atmosphere due to improper use of agricultural management measures. Furthermore, the high priority of the next 5-10 years' national research domains and areas, and techniques for strengthening of "ATriP" prevention and control is discussed.

  10. Rodents: food or pests in Neolithic Orkney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Andrzej A; Shepherd, Alexandra N; Clarke, David V; Sheridan, Alison J; Fraser, Sheena; Bartosiewicz, László; Herman, Jeremy S

    2016-10-01

    Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have formed a part of the recent diet. Here we compare the accumulation pattern of rodent remains from four locations within and adjacent to the renowned Neolithic site of Skara Brae, Orkney, showing that those within the settlement itself were the result of deliberate human activity. The accumulation and nature of burnt bones, incorporated over an extended period within deposits of household waste, indicate that rodents were used as a nutritional resource and may have been the subject of early pest control. We, therefore, provide the first evidence for the exploitation or control of rodents by the Neolithic inhabitants of Europe.

  11. Efficacy of Intercropping as a Management Tool for the Control on Insect Pests of Cabbage in Ghana 1H m 2m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timbilla, JA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of intercropping cabbage with other vegetables and herbs as a management tool in migitating insect pests problems of cabbage was investigated in the field at Kwadaso, Kumasi during a three season period in the forest region of Ghana. The results showed that Plutella xylostella could be effectively controlled when cabbage is intercropped with onion, spearmint and tomato. However, there is the need to control Hellula undalis in endemie areas with pesticides up to six weeks after transplanting. Both Karate (cyhalothrin and Dipel 2X (the biopesticide Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kurstaki were effective in mitigating the problem of H. undalis in the intercropping experiments and both are recommended.

  12. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  13. Effect of supplementary feeding of Oecophylla longinoda on their abundance and predatory activities against cashew insect pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rashid Abdulla, Nassor; Rwegasira, Gration; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have shown the efficiency of using weaver ants (Oecophylla species) as natural bio-control agents against agricultural pests. Supplementary feeding could promote fast growth of this ant's population and discourage them from moving away. However, such artificial feeding might slow dow...

  14. RNAi Efficiency, Systemic Properties, and Novel Delivery Methods for Pest Insect Control: What We Know So Far.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joga, Mallikarjuna R; Zotti, Moises J; Smagghe, Guy; Christiaens, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of dsRNA through non-transformative methods. We discuss factors influencing the RNAi mechanism in insects and systemic properties of dsRNA. Finally, novel strategies to deliver dsRNA are discussed, including delivery by symbionts, plant viruses, trunk injections, root soaking, and transplastomic plants.

  15. RNAi Efficiency, Systemic Properties, and Novel Delivery Methods for Pest Insect Control: What We Know So Far

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joga, Mallikarjuna R.; Zotti, Moises J.; Smagghe, Guy; Christiaens, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the research on the potential of using RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress crop pests has made an outstanding growth. However, given the variability of RNAi efficiency that is observed in many insects, the development of novel approaches toward insect pest management using RNAi requires first to unravel factors behind the efficiency of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this review, we explore essential implications and possibilities to increase RNAi efficiency by delivery of dsRNA through non-transformative methods. We discuss factors influencing the RNAi mechanism in insects and systemic properties of dsRNA. Finally, novel strategies to deliver dsRNA are discussed, including delivery by symbionts, plant viruses, trunk injections, root soaking, and transplastomic plants. PMID:27909411

  16. Real-time progressive hyperspectral remote sensing detection methods for crop pest and diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Taixia; Zhang, Lifu; Peng, Bo; Zhang, Hongming; Chen, Zhengfu; Gao, Min

    2016-05-01

    Crop pests and diseases is one of major agricultural disasters, which have caused heavy losses in agricultural production each year. Hyperspectral remote sensing technology is one of the most advanced and effective method for monitoring crop pests and diseases. However, Hyperspectral facing serial problems such as low degree of automation of data processing and poor timeliness of information extraction. It resulting we cannot respond quickly to crop pests and diseases in a critical period, and missed the best time for quantitative spraying control on a fixed point. In this study, we take the crop pests and diseases as research point and breakthrough, using a self-development line scanning VNIR field imaging spectrometer. Take the advantage of the progressive obtain image characteristics of the push-broom hyperspectral remote sensor, a synchronous real-time progressive hyperspectral algorithms and models will development. Namely, the object's information will get row by row just after the data obtained. It will greatly improve operating time and efficiency under the same detection accuracy. This may solve the poor timeliness problem when we using hyperspectral remote sensing for crop pests and diseases detection. Furthermore, this method will provide a common way for time-sensitive industrial applications, such as environment, disaster. It may providing methods and technical reserves for the development of real-time detection satellite technology.

  17. Peste des petits ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, S; Muniraju, M; Mahapatra, M; Muthuchelvan, D; Buczkowski, H; Banyard, A C

    2015-12-14

    Peste des petits ruminants virus causes a highly infectious disease of small ruminants that is endemic across Africa, the Middle East and large regions of Asia. The virus is considered to be a major obstacle to the development of sustainable agriculture across the developing world and has recently been targeted by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) for eradication with the aim of global elimination of the disease by 2030. Fundamentally, the vaccines required to successfully achieve this goal are currently available, but the availability of novel vaccine preparations to also fulfill the requisite for differentiation between infected and vaccinated animals (DIVA) may reduce the time taken and the financial costs of serological surveillance in the later stages of any eradication campaign. Here, we overview what is currently known about the virus, with reference to its origin, updated global circulation, molecular evolution, diagnostic tools and vaccines currently available to combat the disease. Further, we comment on recent developments in our knowledge of various recombinant vaccines and on the potential for the development of novel multivalent vaccines for small ruminants.

  18. Transgenic plants as vital components of integrated pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Martine; van Loon, Joop J A; Dicke, Marcel; Vet, Louise E M

    2009-11-01

    Although integrated pest management (IPM) strategies have been developed worldwide, further improvement of IPM effectiveness is required. The use of transgenic technology to create insect-resistant plants can offer a solution to the limited availability of highly insect-resistant cultivars. Commercially available insect-resistant transgenic crops show clear benefits for agriculture and there are many exciting new developments such as transgenic plants that enhance biological control. Effective evaluation tools are needed to ascertain that transgenic plants do not result in undesired non-target effects. If these conditions are met, there will be ample opportunities for transgenic plants to become key components of environmentally benign and durable pest management systems. Here we discuss the potential and challenges for incorporating transgenic plants in IPM.

  19. Green House Gas Control and Agricultural Biomass for Sustainable Animal Agriculture in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Takahashi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Important green house gases (GHG attributed to animal agriculture are methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O, though carbon dioxide (CO2 contributes almost half of total greenhouse effect. Rumen CH4 production in an enteric fermentation can be accounted as the biggest anthropogenic source. Some of prebiotics and probiotics have been innovated to mitigate rumen CH4 emission. The possible use of agricultural biomass consisted of non-edible parts of crop plants such as cellulose and hemi cellulose and animal wastes was proposed as a renewable energy and nitrogen sources. The ammonia stripping from digested slurry of animal manure in biogas plant applied three options of nitrogen recycling to mitigate nitrous oxide emission. In the first option of the ammonia stripping, the effect of ammonolysis on feed value of cellulose biomass was evaluated on digestibility, energy metabolism and protein utilization. Saccharification of the NH3 treated cellulose biomass was confirmed in strictly anaerobic incubation with rumen cellulolytic bacteria, Ruminoccous flavefaciens, to produce bio-ethanol as the second option of ammonia stripping. In an attempt of NH3 fuel cell, the reformed hydrogen from the NH3 stripped from 20 liter of digested slurry in thermophilic biogas plant could generate 0.12 W electricity with proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM as the third option.

  20. Multiple runoff processes and multiple thresholds control agricultural runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffarpour, Shabnam; Western, Andrew W.; Adams, Russell; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.

    2016-11-01

    Thresholds and hydrologic connectivity associated with runoff processes are a critical concept for understanding catchment hydrologic response at the event timescale. To date, most attention has focused on single runoff response types, and the role of multiple thresholds and flow path connectivities has not been made explicit. Here we first summarise existing knowledge on the interplay between thresholds, connectivity and runoff processes at the hillslope-small catchment scale into a single figure and use it in examining how runoff response and the catchment threshold response to rainfall affect a suite of runoff generation mechanisms in a small agricultural catchment. A 1.37 ha catchment in the Lang Lang River catchment, Victoria, Australia, was instrumented and hourly data of rainfall, runoff, shallow groundwater level and isotope water samples were collected. The rainfall, runoff and antecedent soil moisture data together with water levels at several shallow piezometers are used to identify runoff processes in the study site. We use isotope and major ion results to further support the findings of the hydrometric data. We analyse 60 rainfall events that produced 38 runoff events over two runoff seasons. Our results show that the catchment hydrologic response was typically controlled by the Antecedent Soil Moisture Index and rainfall characteristics. There was a strong seasonal effect in the antecedent moisture conditions that led to marked seasonal-scale changes in runoff response. Analysis of shallow well data revealed that streamflows early in the runoff season were dominated primarily by saturation excess overland flow from the riparian area. As the runoff season progressed, the catchment soil water storage increased and the hillslopes connected to the riparian area. The hillslopes transferred a significant amount of water to the riparian zone during and following events. Then, during a particularly wet period, this connectivity to the riparian zone, and

  1. Coupled Human-Environment Dynamics of Forest Pest Spread and Control in a Multi-Patch, Stochastic Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qasim Ali

    Full Text Available The transportation of camp firewood infested by non-native forest pests such as Asian long-horned beetle (ALB and emerald ash borer (EAB has severe impacts on North American forests. Once invasive forest pests are established, it can be difficult to eradicate them. Hence, preventing the long-distance transport of firewood by individuals is crucial.Here we develop a stochastic simulation model that captures the interaction between forest pest infestations and human decisions regarding firewood transportation. The population of trees is distributed across 10 patches (parks comprising a "low volume" partition of 5 patches that experience a low volume of park visitors, and a "high volume" partition of 5 patches experiencing a high visitor volume. The infestation spreads within a patch--and also between patches--according to the probability of between-patch firewood transportation. Individuals decide to transport firewood or buy it locally based on the costs of locally purchased versus transported firewood, social norms, social learning, and level of concern for observed infestations.We find that the average time until a patch becomes infested depends nonlinearly on many model parameters. In particular, modest increases in the tree removal rate, modest increases in public concern for infestation, and modest decreases in the cost of locally purchased firewood, relative to baseline (current values, cause very large increases in the average time until a patch becomes infested due to firewood transport from other patches, thereby better preventing long-distance spread. Patches that experience lower visitor volumes benefit more from firewood movement restrictions than patches that experience higher visitor volumes. Also, cross-patch infestations not only seed new infestations, they can also worsen existing infestations to a surprising extent: long-term infestations are more intense in the high volume patches than the low volume patches, even when

  2. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  3. Sentinel-1 Sar Imagery for Finnish Agricultural Subsidy Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torma, Markus; Munck, Anders; Mattila, Olli-Pekka; Harma, Pekka; Arslan, Nadir

    2016-08-01

    Agricultural parcels were classified to six general plant groups (winter cereals, spring cereals, peas, potato, rapeseed and grasses) using Sentinel-1 Interferometric Wide swath SAR imagery. The results were encouraging; the best overall accuracy was about 95%. The division of parcels to ploughed or non-ploughed parcels was possible if images were available after snow melt and before greening.

  4. Pest repelling properties of ant pheromones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offenberg, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Ants control pests via predation and physical deterrence; however, ant communication is based on chemical cues which may serve as warning signals to potential prey and other intruders. The presence of ant pheromones may, thus, be sufficient to repel pests from ant territories. This mini...

  5. DoD Pest Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-29

    Medicine shall provide program administration and data support services, including permanent archiving for all Military Services, in accordance with...minor nuisance pest problems. Quarters and housing occupants are responsible for controlling pests, such as cockroaches , household infesting ants... cockroach and ant baits and/or traps, mouse traps, glue boards, and ready-to-use aerosol pesticides. The office designated to manage the

  6. PEST Analysis and Promotion Strategies on the Agricultural Products Trade of Guangxi-ASEAN%广西与东盟农产品贸易的PEST分析及提升策略选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖林萍

    2014-01-01

    With the further development of construction and closer cooperation of China-ASEAN Free Trade Area,the trade volume between Guangxi and ASEAN keeps growing prosperously which leads to the effective enhancement in the agricultural development of Guangxi. In this paper,we give in-depth perspective by means of PEST analysis on the existing problems and restricting factors so as to work out the existence of advantages and disadvantages on the Guangxi-ASEAN trade of agricultural products in the future. And then the feasible promotion strategies will be provided from the aspects of political,economic,social and technological factors.%随着中国-东盟自由贸易区建设的逐年推进和双方合作的纵深发展,广西与东盟国家的农产品贸易额保持着相当喜人的正增长,广西农业发展的内涵框架也因此得到有效提升。本文应用PEST分析法对广西与东盟农产品贸易现存的主要问题及制约因素进行深入剖析,判断和解读中国与东盟农产品贸易的未来优劣走势,并从政治、经济、社会及技术因素层面提出应对策略。

  7. Occurrence and Control of Diseases and Pests on Cucumis melo L. Postharvest%甜瓜采后病虫害的发生与防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建丽

    2015-01-01

    甜瓜采后腐烂变质一直是甜瓜生产和远途运输销售的最大问题。腐烂变质的根本原因是病原真菌的侵染。介绍了甜瓜采后主要病虫害侵染和发病特征,概述了化学防治、物理防治以及生物防治等在甜瓜采后病虫害防治上的研究与应用。%The biggest problem of Cucumis melo L. production and transport sale is postharvest rot.Pathogenic fungus infection resulted in postharvest rot. Occurrence and epidemiological characteristics of diseases and pest of the Cucumis melo L. postharvest were summarized. Research and application of diseases and pest control of Cucumis melo L. postharvest from chemical control,physical control and biological control were overviewed.

  8. Quarantine Pest- Bruchus rufimanus and Integrated Control Measures%检疫性害虫-蚕豆象及综合防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴建红; 白双桂; 陈旭雯

    2012-01-01

    The morphological features and biological characteristics of quarantine pest-Bruchus rufimanus were introduced as to grasp the law, to use coordinately labor, physical and chemical control measures reduce insect population base effectively to a minimum threshold.%介绍了检疫性害虫-蚕豆象的形态特征和生物特性,掌握其发生规律,协调运用人工、物理和化学等综合防治措施有效降低虫口基数,将危害减少到最低阈值。

  9. Test of“Baolin Preparation”Inject Control Pests of Landscape Trees Pests in Nanchang City%“保林制剂”注杆防治南昌市园林树木害虫试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁文金; 揭建林; 高璜; 吴宁刚; 邓玉华; 黄文超

    2013-01-01

    The landscape trees pests in Nanchang were used for test of“Baolin preparation”inject control, such as:Anoplophora glabripennis, Aromia bungii, Clostera anachoreta, Latoia sinica, Thosea sinensis, Eriococcus legerstroemiae, etc. The test results showed that the “Baolin preparation”has a good control effect on Clostera anachoreta, Latoia sinica, Thosea sinensis, and the drug dose in 6.0~10.0 mL/10 cm DBH, its control effect can reach more than 90%. It has fast control effect, long duration of efficacy, convenient medication, no pollution, no impact on the surrounding environment and other advantages.%对南昌市园林绿化树种害虫:光肩星天牛、桃红颈天牛、杨扇舟蛾、绿刺蛾、扁刺蛾、紫薇绒蚧等进行“保林制剂”注杆防治试验,结果表明“保林制剂”对杨扇舟蛾、扁刺蛾和绿刺蛾具有很好的防治效果,且药物剂量在6.0-10.0 mL/10 cm胸径时,其防治效果能达到了90%以上。防治效果快、药效持续时间长,用药方便、没污染、对周边环境无影响等优点。

  10. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety: A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianqi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and doctors to provide real-time technical services so as to control the abuse of drugs; thirdly, realizes the supervision of local veterinary drugs and diseases. Thus the quality of animal products is guaranteed, and the model is worthy to be popularized.

  11. Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. in agricultural fields of South Brandenburg: using an indicator to monitor infestation and the success of control measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schweers, Wilko

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Parts of South Brandenburg are heavily infested with ragweed. Agricultural fields under integrated pest management and ecological farming were monitored 2014-2015. The aim was to assess the performance of chemical and other control measures against ragweed under farming conditions of the region. Number of weeds per m², plant height, and BBCH were recorded. These parameters were ranked and, by way of multiplication, merged into one single value, which can be expressed as degree of a defined intense infestation level. Such approach is considered to be useful to track recuperation efforts and estimate control efficiency by comparing pre and post measure infestation status. The index is applied to results of the 2014 growing season, which is illustrated by some examples.

  12. Technical Regulation of Diseases and Insect Pests Controlling on the Use Reduction of Pesticides in Protected-cultivation Tomatoes along Chaohu Area%沿巢湖地区设施番茄减量使用农药病虫防治技术规程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江涛; 章东方; 高同春; 张海珊; 夏必文; 杨学文; 周维平

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to reduce agricultural non-point source pollution, to control the influence of pesticide pollution on the water quality of Chaohu Lake from the source of agricultural production and to push the standardization production of use reduction of pesticide along Chaolu area. [Method]The major diseases and insect pests were controlled by the applictions of control techniques measures. [Result] By the application of agricultural practices, physical control, biological control, chemical control measures and their combinations, the . diseases and insect pests of protected-cultivation tomatoes such as gray moid, drooping, epidemic disease, root rot, virus disease, aphid, whitefly were effectively controlled. [Conclusion]This technical regulation could reach the reduction of pesticide use, high yield and high quality purposes of protected-cultivation tomatoes production.%[目的]减少农业面源污染,从农业生产的源头控制农药时巢湖水质的影响,大力推进沿巢湖地区减量化使用农药标准化生产.[方法]应用病虫防治技术措施,对设施番茄主要病虫害进行防治.[结果]通过农业措施、物理防治、生物防治、药剂防治等措施或组合措施,可有效防治番茄灰霉病、立枯病、疫病、根腐病、病毒病、蚜虫、白粉虱等.[结论]该技术规程可使设施番茄生产达到减量使用农药、高产、优质的目的.

  13. Feasibility study on a portable field pest classification system design based on DSP and 3G wireless communication technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ruizhen; He, Yong; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP), which uses a digital signal processor (DSP) as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP). The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests' pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture.

  14. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL... Garbage § 305.40 Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. (a) T415-a, heat...

  15. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  16. Non-Parametric Statistical Methods and Data Transformations in Agricultural Pest Population Studies Métodos Estadísticos no Paramétricos y Transformaciones de Datos en Estudios de Poblaciones de Plagas Agrícolas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Cabrera Campos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing data from agricultural pest populations regularly detects that they do not fulfill the theoretical requirements to implement classical ANOVA. Box-Cox transformations and nonparametric statistical methods are commonly used as alternatives to solve this problem. In this paper, we describe the results of applying these techniques to data from Thrips palmi Karny sampled in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. plantations. The X² test was used for the goodness-of-fit of negative binomial distribution and as a test of independence to investigate the relationship between plant strata and insect stages. Seven data transformations were also applied to meet the requirements of classical ANOVA, which failed to eliminate the relationship between mean and variance. Given this negative result, comparisons between insect population densities were made using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test. Results from this analysis allowed selecting the insect larval stage and plant middle stratum as keys to design pest sampling plans.Al analizar datos provenientes de poblaciones de plagas agrícolas, regularmente se detecta que no cumplen los requerimientos teóricos para la aplicación del ANDEVA clásico. El uso de transformaciones Box-Cox y de métodos estadísticos no paramétricos resulta la alternativa más utilizada para resolver este inconveniente. En el presente trabajo se exponen los resultados de la aplicación de estas técnicas a datos provenientes de Thrips palmi Karny muestreadas en plantaciones de papa (Solanum tuberosum L. en el período de incidencia de la plaga. Se utilizó la dócima X² para la bondad de ajuste a la distribución binomial negativa y de independencia para investigar la relación entre los estratos de las plantas y los estados del insecto, se aplicaron siete transformaciones a los datos para satisfacer el cumplimiento de los supuestos básicos del ANDEVA, con las cuales no se logró eliminar la relación entre la media y la

  17. Insecticide Resistance: Challenge to Pest Management and Basic Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brattsten, L. B.; Holyoke, C. W.; Leeper, J. R.; Raffa, K. F.

    1986-03-01

    The agricultural use of synthetic insecticides usually protects crops but imposes strong selection pressures that can result in the development of resistance. The most important resistance mechanisms are enhancement of the capacity to metabolically detoxify insecticides and alterations in target sites that prevent insecticides from binding to them. Insect control methods must incorporate strategies to minimize resistance development and preserve the utility of the insecticides. The most promising approach, integrated pest management, includes the use of chemical insecticides in combination with improved cultural and biologically based techniques.

  18. The utility of microsatellite DNA markers for the evaluation of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT for the fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), control programs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aketarawong, Nidchaya; Chinvinijkul, Suksom; Orankanok, Watchreeporn; Guglielmino, Carmela Rosalba; Franz, Gerald; Malacrida, Anna Rodolfa; Thanaphum, Sujinda

    2011-01-01

    The oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), is a key pest that causes reduction of the crop yield within the international fruit market. Fruit flies have been suppressed by two Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management programs in Thailand using Sterile Insect Technique (AW-IPM-SIT) since the late 1980s and the early 2000s. The projects' planning and evaluation usually rely on information from pest status, distribution, and fruit infestation. However, the collected data sometimes does not provide enough detail to answer management queries and public concerns, such as the long term sterilization efficacy of the released fruit fly, skepticism about insect migration or gene flow across the buffer zone, and the re-colonisation possibility of the fruit fly population within the core area. Established microsatellite DNA markers were used to generate population genetic data for the analysis of the fruit fly sampling from several control areas, and non-target areas, as well as the mass-rearing facility. The results suggested limited gene flow (m flies in the control areas and flies captured outside. In addition, no genetic admixture was revealed from the mass-reared colony flies from the flies within the control area, which supports the effectiveness of SIT. The control pests were suppressed to low density and showed weak bottleneck footprints although they still acquired a high degree of genetic variation. Potential pest resurgence from fragmented micro-habitats in mixed fruit orchards rather than pest incursion across the buffer zone has been proposed. Therefore, a suitable pest control effort, such as the SIT program, should concentrate on the hidden refuges within the target area.

  19. Integrated pest management model and optimization control%害虫综合治理模型与最优控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers optimization control of integrated pest management. Crops to passive absorbing due to spaying pesticides, the effects of the pesticides gradually decrease, this process of the absorption, distribution and elimination would be analogous to taking medicine of the human being. So in this paper we try to establish the models of the crops pesticide effect by pharmacokinetics theory. First of all, the impulsive models of the pest management consisting of the spaying pesticides and releasing natural enemies of pests along with crops pesticide effect are established and analyzed. Then, making use of the optimal control theory to solve the optimum dose of the pesticides and the time intervals of spaying pesticides. Thus, given an optimal pest management strategy of the integrated pest management, which make pesticide residuals in the crops and the total dose of the spraying pesticides least, also make the maximum value of the pest population is larger then the given Economic Threshold. Finally, the simulation result shows the strategy is viable and effectively.%针对农作物害虫综合治理问题,提出一个对农作物危害最小的最优方案.由于喷洒杀虫剂,农作物被迫吸收农药,药效随时间下降,其吸收、分布和消除过程与人类用药类似,作者大胆尝试利用药物动力学理论研究建立农作物药效模型.首先根据脉冲微分方程理论,将农作物药效模型与害虫-天敌动态模型结合起来,建立农作物药效模型和喷洒杀虫剂及释放天敌的脉冲控制模型;然后根据脉冲控制理论分析上述模型的稳定性,利用最优控制理论,求出最适杀虫剂药量和喷洒时间间隔,使得杀虫剂药量在农作物的残留和喷洒农药量最少,同时使害虫数量控制在经济危害阈值以下,给出综合治理农业害虫的最佳方案;最后,通过数值模拟解释这一方案的执行.结果表明,该策略行之有效.

  20. Potential of the Bacillus thuringiensis toxin reservoir for the control of Lobesia botrana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), a major pest of grape plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Estela, Anna; Escriche, Baltasar; Caballero, Primitivo

    2007-01-01

    The potential of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins to control the grape pest Lobesia botrana was explored by testing first-instar larvae with Cry proteins belonging to the Cry1, Cry2, and Cry9 groups selected for their documented activities against Lepidoptera. Cry9Ca, a toxin from B. thuringiensis, was the protein most toxic to L. botrana larvae, followed in decreasing order by Cry2Ab, Cry1Ab, Cry2Aa, and Cry1Ia7, with 50% lethal concentration values of 0.09, 0.1, 1.4, 3.2, and 8.5 microg/ml of diet, respectively. In contrast, Cry1Fa and Cry1JA were not active at the assayed concentration (100 microg/ml). In vitro binding and competition experiments showed that none of the toxins tested (Cry1Ia, Cry2Aa, Cry2Ab, and Cry9C) shared binding sites with Cry1Ab. We conclude that either Cry1Ia or Cry9C could be used in combination with Cry1Ab to control this pest, either as the active components of B. thuringiensis sprays or expressed together in transgenic plants.

  1. Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria against Stored Product Pests

    OpenAIRE

    Sevim, Ali; Sevim, Elif; Demirci, Meryem

    2015-01-01

    Virulence of Entomopathogenic Fungi and Bacteria against Stored Product PestsEntomopathogenic microorganisms such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, nematodes and protozoa play an important role for regulation of insect pest populations and, this leads to use these microorganisms as biological control agents against pest species as an alternative to chemicals insecticides. In this study, we tested different bacteria originated from stored product pests and fungi isolated from different sources agai...

  2. The Use of Weed Control Robot (WCR for Achieve to the Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behzad Sani

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, weeds control is very difficult because they are resistant to the herbicide due to excessive use of chemical herbicides in agriculture. Many studies have shown that mechanical and biological control of weeds can be much less damage to the environment of chemical herbicides. Develop of biological herbicides in agriculture was slow due to high prices and this subject the researchers to move toward the elimination of agricultural weed mechanically. This work was originally done by a many number of workers because and workers' rights didn’t work was ultimately economic value. Now solve this subject by the use of robotic technology in agriculture has been studied and a many number of agricultural researchers with the help of computer scientists move towards making robots to remove the weeds. Of course this is difficult due to excessive weeds similar to the plants, but the final results will help to increase crop and save the environment by eliminating chemical herbicides.

  3. Prospects for the use of entomopathogenic fungi for control of stored-product pests%利用昆虫病原真菌防治贮粮害虫展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杰夫· 劳尔德

    2007-01-01

    Only two fungus species,Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae,have been given serious attention as possible microbial controls for stored-product pests.Their host ranges are broad, but their potency for the various target insects varies greatly,and some of the most important pests such as the red flour beetle are very tolerant of fungi.Accordingly, strategies are needed to improve the fungal performance.One such strategy is combination with other environmentally benign treatments such as controlled desiccant dusts and controlled atmospheres. Ironically the relatively dryness of stored-product environments favors fungal efficacy.Desiccation stress renders some insects more vulnerable to fungi.The longevity of fungus spores is also best under dry conditions.The prospects of fungi for control of stored-product pests can be improved by taking advantage of these phenomena and judicious selection of use venues and application strategies.

  4. Pheromone-Based Pest Management in China: Past, Present, and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Gen Zhong; Zhu, Junwei Jerry

    2016-07-01

    Semiochemical-based pest management technology has been widely used to monitor and control insect pests in agricultural, forestry, and public health sectors in the western world. It became a popular tool in the early 1970s with tremendous efforts in developing environment-friendly control technologies for the integrated pest management. However, in China, similar research lagged 15 to 20 years and was not initiated until the late 1980s. In this review, we present the early history of pheromone research that has led to the current practical applications in China, particularly in the development of pheromone-based pest management products. We also provide information regarding the current status of pheromone-based product manufacturing, marketing, and regulatory issues related to local semiochemical industries, which may be useful to other international companies interested in pursuing business in China. In addition, we share some research topics that represent new directions of the present pheromone research to explore novel tools for advancing semiochemical-based pest management in China.

  5. Budding trends in integrated pest management using advanced micro- and nano-materials: Challenges and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Neha; Barbole, Ranjit S; Banerjee, Shashwat S; Chate, Govind P; Biradar, Ankush V; Khandare, Jayant J; Giri, Ashok P

    2016-12-15

    One of the most vital supports to sustain human life on the planet earth is the agriculture system that has been constantly challenged in terms of yield. Crop losses due to insect pest attack even after excessive use of chemical pesticides, are major concerns for humanity and environment protection. By the virtue of unique properties possessed by micro and nano-structures, their implementation in Agri-biotechnology is largely anticipated. Hence, traditional pest management strategies are now forestalling the potential of micro and nanotechnology as an effective and viable approach to alleviate problems pertaining to pest control. These technological innovations hold promise to contribute enhanced productivity by providing novel agrochemical agents and delivery systems. Application of these systems engages to achieve: i) control release of agrochemicals, ii) site-targeted delivery of active ingredients to manage specific pests, iii) reduced pesticide use, iv) detection of chemical residues, v) pesticide degradation, vi) nucleic acid delivery and vii) to mitigate post-harvest damage. Applications of micro and nano-technology are still marginal owing to the perception of low economic returns, stringent regulatory issues involving safety assessment and public awareness over their uses. In this review, we highlight the potential application of micro and nano-materials with a major focus on effective pest management strategies including safe handling of pesticides.

  6. Pest control: A modelling approach. Comment on “Multiscale approach to pest insect monitoring: Random walks, pattern formation, synchronization, and networks” by S. Petrovskii, N. Petrovskaya and D. Bearup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Rebecca C.

    2014-09-01

    Successful food production results in the delivery to market of beautiful produce, free of damage from insects. All of that produce however, is an excellent and plentiful food source, and nature has evolved a multitude of insects that compete with humans for access. There exist a number of management strategies to combat pests, including traditional crop rotation and companion planting techniques, as well as more sophisticated techniques including mating disruption using pheromones and the application of chemical sprays. Chemical sprays are extremely effective, and are in widespread use around the globe [1,12,20]. Indeed, pesticides are the dominant form of pest management in current use [10,20].

  7. Domestic cats and dogs create a landscape of fear for pest rodents around rural homesteads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahlaba, Themb’alilahlwa A. M.; Monadjem, Ara; McCleery, Robert; Belmain, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Using domestic predators such as cats to control rodent pest problems around farms and homesteads is common across the world. However, practical scientific evidence on the impact of such biological control in agricultural settings is often lacking. We tested whether the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs in rural homesteads would affect the foraging behaviour of pest rodents. We estimated giving up densities (GUDs) from established feeding patches and estimated relative rodent activity using tracking tiles at 40 homesteads across four agricultural communities. We found that the presence of cats and dogs at the same homestead significantly reduced activity and increased GUDs (i.e. increased perception of foraging cost) of pest rodent species. However, if only cats or dogs alone were present at the homestead there was no observed difference in rodent foraging activity in comparison to homesteads with no cats or dogs. Our results suggest that pest rodent activity can be discouraged through the presence of domestic predators. When different types of predator are present together they likely create a heightened landscape of fear for foraging rodents. PMID:28158266

  8. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cladera, Jorge L; Vilardi, Juan C; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in different fly control situations. One part is under a programme using the sterile insect technique (SIT) for the eradication of C. capitata, because A. fraterculus is not present in this area. The application of the SIT to control C. capitata north of the present line with the possibility of A. fraterculus occupying the niche left vacant by C. capitata becomes a cause of much concern. Only initial steps have been taken to investigate the genetics and biology of A. fraterculus. Consequently, only fragmentary information has been recorded in the literature regarding the use of SIT to control this species. For these reasons, the research to develop a SIT protocol to control A. fraterculus is greatly needed. In recent years, research groups have been building a network in Argentina in order to address particular aspects of the development of the SIT for Anastrepha fraterculus. The problems being addressed by these groups include improvement of artificial diets, facilitation of insect mass rearing, radiation doses and conditions for insect sterilisation, basic knowledge supporting the development of males-only strains, reduction of male maturation time to facilitate releases, identification and isolation of chemical communication signals, and a good deal of population genetic studies. This paper is the product of a concerted effort to gather all this knowledge scattered in numerous and often hard-to-access reports and papers and summarize their basic conclusions in a single publication.

  9. Benefits of collaborative learning for environmental management: applying the integrated systems for knowledge management approach to support animal pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W; Bosch, O; Kilvington, M; Oliver, J; Gilbert, M

    2001-02-01

    Resource management issues continually change over time in response to coevolving social, economic, and ecological systems. Under these conditions adaptive management, or "learning by doing," offers an opportunity for more proactive and collaborative approaches to resolving environmental problems. In turn, this will require the implementation of learning-based extension approaches alongside more traditional linear technology transfer approaches within the area of environmental extension. In this paper the Integrated Systems for Knowledge Management (ISKM) approach is presented to illustrate how such learning-based approaches can be used to help communities develop, apply, and refine technical information within a larger context of shared understanding. To outline how this works in practice, we use a case study involving pest management. Particular attention is paid to the issues that emerge as a result of multiple stakeholder involvement within environmental problem situations. Finally, the potential role of the Internet in supporting and disseminating the experience gained through ongoing adaptive management processes is examined.

  10. 7 CFR 330.210a - Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Administrative instructions listing approved packing... Pests § 330.210a Administrative instructions listing approved packing materials for plant pests. (a) The following materials are approved as packing materials for use with any shipment of plant pests in...

  11. 7 CFR 319.40-11 - Plant pest risk assessment standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... analysis to determine the plant pest risks associated with each requested importation in order to determine... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Plant pest risk assessment standards. 319.40-11... Unmanufactured Wood Articles § 319.40-11 Plant pest risk assessment standards. When evaluating a request...

  12. Study on sustainable control of the diseases and pests in garden plant in Weifang%山东潍坊市园林植物病虫害可持续控制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万磊; 朱松元; 丁长年

    2014-01-01

    对潍坊园林植物主要病虫害进行调查,分析其发生特点,并提出相应对策:强调以生态学为基础,以生物防治为主导,综合采用植物检疫、栽培管理、化学防治等方法,达到对病虫害可持续控制的目的。%This article introduces the main diseases and pests of garden plant in Weifang city, analyses the occurrence characteristics, and put forward sustainable control tactics for diseases and pests. Taking ecology as the foundation and giving priority to the biological control, the method of plant quarantine, cultivation management and chemical pesticides should be adopted to sustainable control of diseases and pests.

  13. Green pests and diseases-controlling techniques and efficacy of broccoli%花椰菜病虫害绿色防控技术及其效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明真

    2012-01-01

    福建省云霄县佳州村“佳田农民专业合作社”蔬菜生产基地推广实施花椰菜病虫害绿色防控技术,取得显著成效。该文介绍了绿色防控技术的示范效果及主要措施。%Green pests and diseases-controlling techniques of broccoli were popularized and applied to vegetable production bases of Jia tian farmers' professional co-operatives in Jia zhou village, Yunxiao county, Fujian province. This demonstration obtained significant effect. This paper introduced the demonstration effect and main measures of green controlling techniques.

  14. A Practical Guide to Management of Common Pests in Schools. Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This 3-part manual is designed to assist school officials understand the principles of Integrated Pest Management and aid them in implementing those principles into a comprehensive pest control program in their facilities. Developed for Illinois, this guide can be applied in part or in total to other areas of the country. Part 1 explains what an…

  15. Calibration of hydrological model with programme PEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilly, Mitja; Vidmar, Andrej; Kryžanowski, Andrej; Bezak, Nejc; Šraj, Mojca

    2016-04-01

    PEST is tool based on minimization of an objective function related to the root mean square error between the model output and the measurement. We use "singular value decomposition", section of the PEST control file, and Tikhonov regularization method for successfully estimation of model parameters. The PEST sometimes failed if inverse problems were ill-posed, but (SVD) ensures that PEST maintains numerical stability. The choice of the initial guess for the initial parameter values is an important issue in the PEST and need expert knowledge. The flexible nature of the PEST software and its ability to be applied to whole catchments at once give results of calibration performed extremely well across high number of sub catchments. Use of parallel computing version of PEST called BeoPEST was successfully useful to speed up calibration process. BeoPEST employs smart slaves and point-to-point communications to transfer data between the master and slaves computers. The HBV-light model is a simple multi-tank-type model for simulating precipitation-runoff. It is conceptual balance model of catchment hydrology which simulates discharge using rainfall, temperature and estimates of potential evaporation. Version of HBV-light-CLI allows the user to run HBV-light from the command line. Input and results files are in XML form. This allows to easily connecting it with other applications such as pre and post-processing utilities and PEST itself. The procedure was applied on hydrological model of Savinja catchment (1852 km2) and consists of twenty one sub-catchments. Data are temporary processed on hourly basis.

  16. The local view on the role of plant protection in sustainable agriculture in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraj, S; Rabindra, R J

    1993-01-01

    Indiscriminate use of chemical insecticides has affected humans and their environment and contributed significantly to reduced productivity of crops. With the increasing realization of the importance of sustainable agriculture, the concept of integrated pest management (IPM) for sustainable agriculture has emerged. In the recent past entomologists and the farmers have identified methods of pest management that are ecologically non-disruptive and stable. Concurrently indigenous crop varieties with resistance to pests and diseases have been developed and cultivated. According to the principle of 'organic farming', several non-chemical methods have become popular among the local farmers. Simple cultural practices like increasing the seed rate to compensate for pest damage, adjusting the time of sowing to avoid pest damage, mulching, intercropping, trap cropping and crop rotation have been found to provide adequate protection from pest damage with no additional cost and without harmful effects on the environment. The age-old method of catch and kill is still being practised by farmers, particularly for cotton. Mechanical methods like the bow trap for control of rats and provision of tin sheets around coconut tree trunks to prevent rats damaging the nuts are still being adopted. The use of botanical materials such as the neem products for pest management has been well received almost all over the world. Biological control using the natural enemies of insect pests has become very popular among the farmers in the 1980s. The farmers who clamoured for chemical pesticides in the 1960s and 1970s are now disillusioned with these poisonous eco-destabilizing substances; they want sensible, biologically rational methods of IPM. Pest surveillance and monitoring play an important role in IPM for sustainable agriculture.

  17. A Pest of Importance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato cyst nematodes (PCN), G. rostochiensis and G. pallida, are internationally-recognized quarantine pests and considered the most devastating pests of potatoes worldwide. PCNs continue to spread throughout North America and were recently detected in Idaho (G. pallida) and Quebec and Alberta, Can...

  18. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  19. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  20. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  1. A systematic review of rodent pest research in Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming systems: Are we asking the right questions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Corrie M.; Brown, Peter R.; Eiseb, Seth J.; Goodman, Steven M.; Keith, Mark; Kirsten, Frikkie; Leirs, Herwig; Mahlaba, Themb’alilahlwa A. M.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Malebane, Phanuel; von Maltitz, Emil F.; Massawe, Apia W.; Monadjem, Ara; Mulungu, Loth S.; Singleton, Grant R.; Taylor, Peter J.; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Belmain, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Rodent pests are especially problematic in terms of agriculture and public health since they can inflict considerable economic damage associated with their abundance, diversity, generalist feeding habits and high reproductive rates. To quantify rodent pest impacts and identify trends in rodent pest research impacting on small-holder agriculture in the Afro-Malagasy region we did a systematic review of research outputs from 1910 to 2015, by developing an a priori defined set of criteria to allow for replication of the review process. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We reviewed 162 publications, and while rodent pest research was spatially distributed across Africa (32 countries, including Madagascar), there was a disparity in number of studies per country with research biased towards four countries (Tanzania [25%], Nigeria [9%], Ethiopia [9%], Kenya [8%]) accounting for 51% of all rodent pest research in the Afro-Malagasy region. There was a disparity in the research themes addressed by Tanzanian publications compared to publications from the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region where research in Tanzania had a much more applied focus (50%) compared to a more basic research approach (92%) in the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region. We found that pest rodents have a significant negative effect on the Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming communities. Crop losses varied between cropping stages, storage and crops and the highest losses occurred during early cropping stages (46% median loss during seedling stage) and the mature stage (15% median loss). There was a scarcity of studies investigating the effectiveness of various management actions on rodent pest damage and population abundance. Our analysis highlights that there are inadequate empirical studies focused on developing sustainable control methods for rodent pests and rodent pests in the Africa-Malagasy context is generally ignored as a research topic. PMID

  2. Common Pests and Diseases of Moringa oleifera in Xishuangbanna and Their Control%西双版纳辣木常见病虫害及其防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋桂芝; 杨焱; 龙继明; 刘昌芬

    2011-01-01

    简述辣木田间常见的落叶病、嫩梢萎蔫病、枝条溃疡病、豆荚褐腐病,以及夜蛾、小菜蛾、红蜘蛛、蚜虫等害虫的发生规律和防治方法。%In this paper,it gives a brief introduction to the common diseases occurred in Moringa oleifera,including defoliate disease,shoot wilt,switch canker,pod brown rot and some pests like Prodenia litura Fabricius,Plutella xylostella Linnaeus,Tetranychus cinnabarinus Boisd and Aphididae sp.,as well as the control methods.

  3. Post cultivation management and pests and diseases control for olive tree%橄榄树栽后管理及病虫害防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶倩倩

    2015-01-01

    Olive,as the subtropical fruit,own huge economic value,and mainly distributes in southern coastal area of China including Hainan,Fujian,etc. In this study,the cultivation technique of olive after grafting and colonization and well as the control of pests and diseases was summarized.%橄榄是亚热带水果,主要分布在我国海南、福建等南方沿海地区,有巨大的经济开发利用价值。该文总结了橄榄树嫁接定植后管理和病虫害防治技术。

  4. Control of vegetable pests in Benin - Farmers' preferences for eco-friendly nets as an alternative to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidogbéna, Faustin; Adégbidi, Anselme; Tossou, Rigobert; Assogba-Komlan, Françoise; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Martin, Thibaut; Simon, Serge; Parrot, Laurent; Zander, Kerstin K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if eco-friendly nets (EFNs) are a viable and acceptable alternative to extremely high levels of insecticide use in vegetable production. Using a choice experiment, we found that vegetable producing farmers in Benin preferred all of the characteristics of EFNs except the higher labor requirements. The nets had been distributed in a trial phase for free but in the long run farmers would need to purchase the EFNs. The break-even point for investing in nets was found to vary with the lifespan of EFNs, their purchase price and potential health benefits from avoiding large quantities of insecticides. To break even the nets need to be used for at least two production cycles. To overcome risk-averse farmer's reluctance to adopt EFNs we propose a credit and warranty scheme along with the purchase of the nets. The study's findings can guide the implementation of EFNs in other African countries as part of integrated pest management with global benefits for the environment and human health.

  5. PRODUCTION OF HOMOLOGOUS LIVE ATTENUATED CELL CULTURE VACCINE FOR THE CONTROL OF PESTE DES PETITS RUMINANTS IN SMALL RUMINANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ASIM, A. RASHID, A. H. CHAUDHARY AND M. S. NOOR

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibody response of a live-attenuated Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR cell culture vaccine was studied at Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Pakistan. For this purpose, one group of five sheep and 5 goats each was vaccinated subcutaneously with 1 ml reconstituted PPR vaccine and second group of five sheep and 5 goats was inoculated with 1 ml saline solution. Blood samples were collected before and after vaccination, sera were obtained and analyzed for antibodies against PPR by competitive ELISA (cELISA. Findings suggested that antibody titres at day zero, 21 and 45 were 24.762 ± 2.69, 65.467 ± 2.29 and 83.012 ± 2.11 in sheep and 18.723 ± 2.27, 59.162 ± 1.53 and 72.176 ± 2.93 in goats, respectively. No untoward reactions were observed following vaccination. All vaccinated animals developed high titre of antibodies (PI>50.

  6. Path tracking control of autonomous agricultural mobile robots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In a tractor automatic navigation system, path planning plays a significant role in improving operation efficiency. This study aims to create a suboptimal reference course for headland turning of a robot tractor and design a path-tracking controller to guide the robot tractor along the reference course. A time-minimum suboptimal control method was used to generate the reference turning course based on the mechanical parameters of the test tractor. A path-tracking controller consisting of both feedforward and feedback component elements was also proposed. The feedforward component was directly determined by the desired steering angle of the current navigation point on the reference course, whereas the feedback component was derived from the designed optimal controller. Computer simulation and field tests were performed to validate the path-tracking performance. Field test results indicated that the robot tractor followed the reference courses precisely on flat meadow, with average and standard lateral deviations being 0.031 m and 0.086 m, respectively. However, the tracking error increased while operating on sloping meadow due to the employed vehicle kinematic model.

  7. Feasibility Study on a Portable Field Pest Classification System Design Based on DSP and 3G Wireless Communication Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Liu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a feasibility study on a real-time in field pest classification system design based on Blackfin DSP and 3G wireless communication technology. This prototype system is composed of remote on-line classification platform (ROCP, which uses a digital signal processor (DSP as a core CPU, and a host control platform (HCP. The ROCP is in charge of acquiring the pest image, extracting image features and detecting the class of pest using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN classifier. It sends the image data, which is encoded using JPEG 2000 in DSP, to the HCP through the 3G network at the same time for further identification. The image transmission and communication are accomplished using 3G technology. Our system transmits the data via a commercial base station. The system can work properly based on the effective coverage of base stations, no matter the distance from the ROCP to the HCP. In the HCP, the image data is decoded and the pest image displayed in real-time for further identification. Authentication and performance tests of the prototype system were conducted. The authentication test showed that the image data were transmitted correctly. Based on the performance test results on six classes of pests, the average accuracy is 82%. Considering the different live pests’ pose and different field lighting conditions, the result is satisfactory. The proposed technique is well suited for implementation in field pest classification on-line for precision agriculture.

  8. Laboratory tests to assess optimal agricultural residue traits for an abrasive weed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the biggest challenges to organic agricultural production and herbicide resistant crops in industrialized countries today is the non-chemical control of weed plants. Studies of new tools and methods for weed control have been motivated by an increased consumer demand for organic produce and c...

  9. Controlling Agricultural Nonpoint Pollution through Developing Organic Agriculture%发展有机农业 控制农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纪兵; 席运官; 肖兴基

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the current status of agricultural nonpoint pollution in China, the feasibility of controlling agricultural nonpoint pollution through developing organic agriculture was evaluated. Several countermeasures were suggested to promote the environmental strategy of developing organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, including making up national action plan of development of organic agriculture, enacting economic policies to extend organic agriculture, reinforcing scientific research on organic agriculture to control agricultural nonpoint pollution, creating key organic agricultural production technology relying on innovation of science and technology, boosting organic agriculture development through rural environment protection projects, and strengthening domestic market of organic food.%文章针对我国农业面源污染的现状,分析了发展有机农业,控制农业面源污染的可行性,并提出了推动有机农业控制农业面源污染的环境战略,包括制订有机农业发展的国家行动计划;建立激励有机农业发展的经济机制;加大对有机农业控制农业面源污染的科学研究;依靠科技创新建立有机农业生产关键技术;以农村环境保护工作为突破口,推动有机农业的发展;加大对国内有机食品市场的培育等。

  10. Scientific preventing and control of peste des Petits Ruminants%小反刍兽疫的科学防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 华泽军; 于长泳; 张秀萍; 王岩; 谷志大; 杨国丽; 郑洪玲; 何利昆; 崔基贤; 张雅为; 王克才; 段亚良

    2014-01-01

    Peste des Petits Ruminants(PPR) is a kind of infection disease contained much charac-teristics, such as acute, touching and hypso-fatal and so on. The disease has been in world for 70 years and the prevlant sphere is unceasingly enlarging. It’s pathogeny is peste des petits rumi-nants virus which has intimate genetic relationship with Cattle plague virus antigen. Goat and sheep is natural host of the PPR, many kinds of small rumination livestock also may contract the disease and display symptom. The infected goat or sheep is infection sources. Healthy goat would get infected by immediate contact with sick goat or sheep through respiratory tract infection or mediate contact. The disease mainly takes place in rainy season and dry and chilly season. The symptoms of PPR displayed heat, more eye and nasal discharge, severe diarrhoea and anabrotic stoma-titis. The oral cavity was necrosis and anabrotic, the mucous membrane of nose was necrosis, it has bronchial pneumonia and apex pulmonis pneumonia, alimentary tract hemorrhage, rectal pathologi-cal changes showed zebra shape, enlarged spleen and necrosis. The effective preventions are rein-force supervising and monitoring the cross province input, reinforce breeding administration. And vaccine should be used when necessary.%小反刍兽疫是危害山羊和绵羊及“生小反刍兽的一种急性或亚急性、接触性、高致死性传染病。本病在世界范围内的流行已有70余年的历史,流行范围不断扩大。该病的病原是小反刍兽疫病毒(PPRV),与牛瘟病毒抗原性和亲缘关系密切相关。山羊和绵羊是本病的自然宿主,多种小反刍兽也可感染发病。感染和发病羊是传染源,健康羊与发病羊直接接触通过呼吸道感染,间接接触也能感染,本病在多雨季节和干燥寒冷季节多发。病羊表现出发热、眼、口、鼻分泌物增多、严重腹泻、糜烂性口炎等症状。剖检发现口腔坏死、糜烂,鼻

  11. 森林病虫害发生特点及可持续控制对策的探讨%Discussion on Occurrence Characteristics and Sustainable Control of Forest Pests and Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蓬

    2011-01-01

    森林痛虫害是影响林业生产的重要因素之一.以河北省为例,对森林病虫害发生特点、发生原因进行分析,并从森林可持续发展的角度,提出了河北省森林病虫害可持续控制对策.%Forest pests and diseases are important factors affecting forestry production.In this paper, the occurrence characteristics and reasons of forest diseases and insect pests in Hebei province were analyzed and tactics of sustainable forest pest and disease control were provided from the view of forestry sustainable development.

  12. [Identification of the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Hua-ping; Sun, Qing-fang; Wang, Liang; Zhu, Lin; Feng, Jin-fei; Bian, Xin-min

    2010-04-01

    The characteristics such as wide area, dispersion and randomness of agricultural and rural pollution make it difficult to seize the key to pollution control in rural areas. On the scale of township, using inventory analysis, accounting for emissions and emission intensity of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in Changshu, Jiangsu Province, which exists in a total of 4 classes and 6 kinds of agricultural and rural sources such as farmland cultivation (chemical fertilizer application and crop straw abandoned), animal breeding, aquaculture, rural life (domestic sewage and human waste, solid waste), using cluster analysis, identify the prior regions and the prior pollution sources for agricultural and rural pollution control by the sensitivity evaluation, and make agricultural and rural pollution control and management measures more focused. It shows that: in 2007, COD, TN and TP emissions of agricultural and rural pollution sources were 5496.07, 4161.03, and 647.54 t x a(-1), and the emission intensity of COD, TN and TP was 48.84, 36.98, and 5.75 kg x hm(-2). The main pollution source of COD was rural life and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 75%; the main pollution source of TN and TP was agricultural cultivation and aquaculture, and the contribution rate was more than 80%. The sensitivity evaluation identified that the town of Guli and Shajiabang were the prior regions for agricultural and rural pollution control in Changshu; farmland cultivation and aquaculture were the prior pollution sources in the two areas.

  13. Farmers' information on sweet potato production and millipede infestation in north-eastern Uganda. II. Pest incidence and indigenous control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) is an important staple food for the people of north-eastern Uganda. Crop yields per unit area are low partly because of biological constraints, including pests like millipedes. The objective of this study was to generate information on pest incidence and cont

  14. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton production rely heavily on the application of synthetic pesticides. The recurrent use of synthetic pesticides has large consequences for the environment (air, water, fauna, and flora) and human health. In cott...

  15. NASA's Controlled Environment Agriculture Testing for Space Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA and other space agencies have an interest in using plants for human life support in space. The plants could provide food and O2 for the humans, while removing CO2 and helping purify wastewater. Studies to date have shown that a wide range of crops can be grown in controlled environment conditions envisioned for space. Light is a critical factor both for crop productivity and system power costs, and recent improvements in LEDs make them a preferred lighting option for space. Because space systems would be tightly closed, issues such as ethylene build-up and management must be considered. Ultimately, the costs and reliability of biological life support options must be compared with more conventional life support approaches. Findings to date suggest that about 20-25 sq. meters of crops could supply the O2 for one human, while about 50 sq. meters would be required for food (dietary calories).

  16. Long-term organic farming fosters below and aboveground biota: Implications for soil quality, biological control and productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkhofer, K.; Bezemer, T.M.; Bloem, J.; Bonkowski, M.; Christensen, S.; Dubois, D.; Ekelund, F.; Fliessbach, A.; Gunst, L.; Hedlund, K.; Mäder, P.; Mikola, J.; Robin, C.; Setälä, H.; Tatin-Froux, F.; Putten, van der W.H.; Scheu, S.

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming may contribute substantially to future agricultural production worldwide by improving soil quality and pest control, thereby reducing environmental impacts of conventional farming. We investigated in a comprehensive way soil chemical, as well as below and aboveground biological param

  17. Pest Management Specialist (AFSC 56650).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air Univ., Gunter AFS, Ala. Extension Course Inst.

    This eight-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for pest management specialists. Covered in the individual volumes are civil engineering; pest management (entomology, pest management planning and coordination, and safety and protective equipment); pest management chemicals and…

  18. PEST Analysis of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Stosic; Drasko Nikolic; Aleksandar Zdravkovic

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the current Serbian macro-environment on the businesses through the implementation of PEST analysis as a framework for assessing general or macro environment in which companies are operating. The authors argue the elements in presented PEST analysis indicate that the current macro-environment is characterized by the dominance of threats and weaknesses with few opportunities and strengths. Consequently, there is a strong need for faste...

  19. 药剂拌种处理对大麻病虫害的防治%Seed Dressing with Chemicals to Control Diseases and Pests of Hemp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋宪友

    2012-01-01

    The method of controlling the diseases and pests of hemp by treating seeds with some fungicide and chemicals was studied comprehensively in this paper. Firstly, two combinations were selected, which performed better on the seedling emergence, survival seedlings rate, harvested plants, stalk and fiber yields, and cotrol efficiency. Secondly, a comparison experiment was made between the two combinations, the results showed that the combination of 10% metalaxyl, 48% mancozeb and 75% carbofuran per hectare could have effects by 71.4%, 80%, 75.0% and 583% respectively on controlling flea beetle, borer, stalk rot and botrytis cinerea accordingly, and the combination of 10% metalaxyl, 48% mancozeb and 75% carbofuran per hectare could have effects by 57.1%, 60.0%, 100% and 75.0% respectively on controlling the aboved diseases and pests.%本文研究了利用药剂拌种方法,对大麻病虫害进行综合防治.首先通过药剂筛选试验,选出对大麻出苗率、保苗率、收获株数提高和原茎、纤维增产及防病虫效果优异的药剂组合两个;然后再进行比较试验,对这两个药剂组合防治大麻病虫害效果进行研究.研究结果表明:每公顷用10%甲霜灵(0.75kg)+48%代森锰锌(0.9kg)+75%克百威(1.0kg)拌种,对大麻虫害跳甲、螟虫和病害茎腐病、灰霉病的防治效果分别达71.4%、80%和75.0%、58.3%;每公顷用15%多菌灵(1.0kg) +75%克百威(1.0kg)+10%福美双(1.2kg),对大麻虫害跳甲、螟虫和病害茎腐病、灰霉病的防治效果分别达57.1%、60.0%和100%、75.0%.

  20. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Field and Forage Crops. Circular 899.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of field crop pests. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests in field corn, alfalfa and clover, small grains, soybeans and grain sorghum. (CS)

  1. Solar energy controlled-environment agriculture in the United States and in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luft, W.; Froechtenigt, J.

    1981-11-01

    Greenhouse designs proposed for use in hot climates to reduce the temperature by essentially passive means are illustrated. The project plans of the SOLERAS, solar powered, controlled environment agriculture are outlined. The water desalination technology being evaluated is reverse osmosis. The solar collection technologies include flat plate thermal collectors, solar ponds, photovoltaics and wind turbines.

  2. 频振式杀虫灯在烟草害虫防治中的应用研究%The Application Research of Frequency Trembler Lamp in Control of Tobacco Insect Pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔凡全; 朱列书

    2012-01-01

    为了探索云南烟叶生产中害虫防治的有效方法,在火木龙现代烟草示范区利用频振式杀虫灯开展了烟草主要害虫防治示范试验,结果表明:该杀虫灯把杀虫工作日常化,能有效防止爆发大面积虫害;对蚜茧蜂、食蚜、蝇草蛉等天敌有一定的保护作用,对烟青虫、斜纹夜蛾、金龟子等害虫防效显著;投入成本低,控制面积大,操作简便;通过物理方法诱杀害虫,大大减少农药用量,同时不会使害虫产生抗药性,降低了烟叶农药残留,提高烟叶品质,减少对环境的污染,避免人畜中毒事件发生.这说明频振式杀虫灯具有较好的经济效益、社会效益和生态效益,可在烟草害虫防治中大面积推广使用.%In order to find effective method for controlling insect pests during production of tobacco leaves, a demonstrating experiment for controlling insect pests of tobacco by using frequency trembler lamp were conducted in Huomulong modern tobacco test area. The results showed that this frequency trembler lamp makes the killing insect pests to be routinized, and it can prevent the occurrence of large scale insect pests efficiently. The lamp has certain protection effect for the natural enemy of tobacco insect pests, such as Aphid, Syrphidae and Chrysopidae; meanwhile, it has significant control effect on tobacco insect pests, such as Heliothis assulta Guenee, Prodenia litura and Cheirotonus. The lamp has lots of good characteristics, such as low input and cost, large controlling area, easy use, etc. Using this frequency trembler lamp is a physical way to trapping and killing insect pests, so it will help to reduce pesticide consumption and pesticide residue greatly, and the insects would not have drug resistance, therefore, it can improve tobacco quality, reduce contamination on environment, and avoid poisoning of human and livestock. Therefore, the frequency trembler lamp can be popularized in a large scale for it has good

  3. Ocorrência e controle de lesmas do gênero Omalonyx (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pragas de capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae em Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas Occurrence and control of Omalonyx slugs (Gastropoda, Succineidae, pests of the elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae in Rio Preto da Eva, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vinicius Bastos Garcia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lesmas do gênero Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 são hermafroditas, herbívoras, de distribuição neotropical e vivem em plantas aquáticas, nas demais vegetações adjacentes e em solo úmido próximo a ambientes de água doce. No presente trabalho reporta-se a ocorrência atípica de O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 e de Omalonyx sp. em área de terra firme, distante de ambiente aquático. Estas espécies aqui reportadas são simpátricas e devido à alta densidade populacional e prejuízos causados às folhas do capim-elefante Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, são caracterizadas como pragas agrícolas. No período da noite as lesmas se alimentavam das folhas do capim elefante e durante o dia permaneciam escondidas na base do caule, próximo a superfície úmida do solo. A aplicação de cal hidratada sobre agregados de indivíduos de Omalonyx spp foi um método efetivo para o controle das populações. As alterações ambientais dos ecossistemas amazônicos para uso agrícola e/ou urbanização tem promovido o aumento populacional de espécies que se adaptam a novos habitats e geralmente se tornam pragas de difícil controle.Slugs of the genus Omalonyx d'Orbigny, 1837 are hermaphrodites, herbivorous, distributed on Neotropical regions, living on aquatic plants, moist soil and terrestrial vegetation close to freshwater systems. The present paper reports the atypical occurrence of O. pattersonae Tillier, 1981 and Omalonyx sp. in an upland area far from any aquatic environment. Both species reported here are sympatric and due to the high populations density and damages caused on leaves of elephant-grass Pennisetum purpureum Schumach, they are recognized as agricultural pests. During the night, the slugs feed on the grass leaves and at the daylight they stayed hidden in the base of stems, near the moist soil surface. The use of hydrated lime distributed over the aggregations of Omalonyx spp. showed to be an effective method to control the populations. The

  4. Status of Urban Bed Bug Infestations in Southern China: An Analysis of Pest Control Service Records in Shenzhen in 2012 and Dongguan in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Cai, Xuquan; Xu, Yijuan

    2015-01-01

    The recent resurgence of bed bugs (Cimex spp.) in many developed countries has drawn increasing attention worldwide. The status of urban bed bug infestations were investigated in Shenzhen and Dongguan, two major cities in southern Guangdong Province of southern China, based on pest control service records from two different companies (one during 2012 and another during 2013). The results showed that Shenzhen and Dongguan have a severe problem with bed bug infestations: the control of bed bugs is a constant concern, except during the winter. In Shenzhen, a similar number of premises were treated for bed bugs in central business districts and suburban districts. However, in Dongguan, more premises were treated for bed bugs in suburban districts than in central business districts. The treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses in Shenzhen was 53.8, 43.0, 1.9, and 1.3%, respectively. The percentage of treated rooms was 56.1% for worker sleeping quarters and 91.1% for apartments. In Dongguan, the treatment rate for worker sleeping quarters, apartments, hotel, and private houses was 90.0, 10.0, 0.0, and 0.0%, respectively.

  5. Willingness-to-pay for an area-wide integrated pest management program to control the Asian tiger mosquito in New Jersey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Yara A; Shepard, Donald S; Wittenberg, Eve; Fonseca, Dina M; Farajollahi, Ary; Healy, Sean; Gaugler, Randy; Strickman, Daniel; Clark, Gary G

    2012-09-01

    Using contingent valuation we estimated the perceived value of an area-wide integrated pest management program for the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, implemented in Monmouth and Mercer counties, NJ. We estimated residents' maximum willingness-to-pay and perceived monetary benefits (willingness-to-pay excluding residents who protested all types of payments) and payment modality through a telephone survey of 51 randomly selected households. The mean (+/- SE) perceived monetary benefits for an enhanced mosquito abatement program was $9.54 +/- 2.90 per capita per year. Most respondents would have been willing to pay through taxes (35%) or charitable donations (6%) starting then, or through one of these approaches in the future (43%), whereas 16% were completely unwilling to pay any additional costs whatsoever. We projected that the perceived monetary benefits to the counties' 1.01 million residents for an enhanced mosquito control program would be $9.61 million annually. Thus, collectively residents perceived monetary benefits of 3.67 times the combined 2008 annual operating costs of the counties' existing mosquito control programs of $2.61 million.

  6. Effects of landscape fabrics on pest control in a raised-bed trough system for strawberry production without fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscape fabrics are geotextiles that have been used to control weeds. The objective of this study was to determine the performance of landscape fabrics for the control of nematodes and fungal pathogens for strawberry fruit production. Four different commercially available landscape fabrics were us...

  7. Agriculture, pesticides, food security and food safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: carvalho@itn.pt

    2006-11-15

    Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.

  8. Potential Use of Entomopathogenic Virus Native to Sumatra Island as Biological Control Agent of Setora nitens L. (Lepidoptera:Limacodidae, the Main Pest of Oilpalm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparman Suparman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Slug caterpillars Setora nitens, have been appearing to be more serious insect pest of oil palm as it might cause frond damages up to 90%. Many effort had been made to control the caterpillars using insecticides but the insects are still existing and causing significant damages to the palm. Microbial insecticide, especially the one developed from indigenous entomopathogenic virus, is a promising method of controlling the insect since its toxicity to non target animals and humans is extremely low. A conventional way of controlling S. nitens using crude sap of infected larvae has been applied in several oil palm plantations in Sumatra Island, but various improvements are required to make the method more effective, efficient, widely acceptable and scientifically justified. A research on the potential use of entomopathogenic virus native to Sumatra Island as biological control agent of slug caterpillar was conducted to comprehend the pathogenicity and virulence of the entomopathogenic virus and to reveal the morphological identify of its particle. The results showed that the use of virus infecting caterpillars to control the insect was quite successful in term of increasing the number of infected caterpillars and reducing the rate of population development in the field. The use of homogenized infected caterpillars to orally infect healty S. nitens caterpillars resulted in the symptoms characteristics to viral infections appeared in all treated caterpillars with various extent of symptom developments. Some caterpillars could spine cocons but failed to release adult moth. Purification of the virus particles from infected caterpillars resulted in the apperarance of white band in the sucrose gradient indicated the presence of viral RNA. Electron microscopic observation showed that the white band in the sucrose gradient contained sphericle shape of virus particles justifying that the agent infecting S. nitens caterpillars is a virus which still need

  9. 害虫遗传防治的研究历史与现状%History and status of the genetic control of insect pest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严盈; 万方浩

    2015-01-01

    作为防治或根除重大害虫最为有效的手段之一,害虫遗传防治在世界范围内被广泛采用并取得了巨大成功。本文综述了不育昆虫技术、雌性致死系统和昆虫显性致死技术等经典害虫遗传防治策略的发展历史、技术特点和应用情况。近年来,许多新的分子生物手段被不断提出并整合到害虫遗传防治策略中,包括归巢核酸内切酶基因、锌指核酸酶、转录激活因子样效应因子核酸酶、CRISPR/Cas9系统、Medea元件、Killer-Rescue系统、Wolbachia-细胞质不亲和性系统等。基于这些新的工具手段,许多国家已经在不同程度上启动了下一代害虫遗传防治项目。而我国在该领域的研究相对薄弱,需要在借鉴国外成功经验的同时,进一步加强害虫遗传防治的基础和应用研究,从而实现本地有害生物的可持续治理和外来入侵生物的有效狙击,确保我国未来的粮食和生态安全。%Genetic pest management ( GPM) is one of the most efficient methods to control or eradicate insect pests and has been carried out worldwide with notable successes. Some classic GPM strategies including the sterile insect technology ( SIT) , female kill-ing system ( FKS) and release of insects carrying dominant lethality ( RIDL) are reviewed here. The development history, technical characters and application of SIT, FKS and RIDL technologies are introduced. In recent years, many new molecular or biological tools like the homing endonuclease gene, zinc-finger nucleases, transcription activator-like effector nucleases, CRISPR/Cas9 sys-tem, medea element, the killer-rescue system and the Wolbachia-cytoplasmic incompatibility system were proposed to improve GPM efficiency. Some new tools were already used in control programs as next generation GPM strategies in some countries. The GPM practice in China is limited, and both basic and applied research on GPM should be enhanced, as the GPM

  10. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control; La Tecnica del Insecto Esteril como metodo de lucha contra plagas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argiles Herrero, R.

    2011-07-01

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  11. Quantification of parameters controlling the carbon stocks in German agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cora; Don, Axel; Freibauer, Annette; Heidkamp, Arne; Prietz, Roland

    2016-04-01

    Within the framework of UNFCCC, Germany is obligated to report on its greenhouse gas emissions from soils. This also includes the emissions in the agricultural sector. Changes in soil carbon stocks are a major source of CO2 that need to be reported. Until now there are only regional inventories of the soil carbon stocks in the agricultural sector while for the forestry sector a repeated national inventory exists. In order to report on changes in soil carbon stocks in agricultural soils, a consistent, representative and quantitative dataset of agricultural soil properties, especially on carbon stocks and management data is necessary. In the course of the German Agricultural Soil Inventory 3109 agricultural sites are examined. Up to January 2016, 2450 sites were sampled. The sites are sampled in five depth increments and all samples are analyzed in the same laboratory. Of the sampled sites the laboratory analyses are completed for 1312 sites. The samples of all depth increments were analyzed for their texture, bulk density, pH, electric conductivity, stone and root content, organic and inorganic carbon content and nitrogen content. The data are coupled with management data covering the past ten years and with climate data. They are analyzed with multivariate statistical techniques (e.g. mixed effects models, additive models, random forest) to quantify the parameters that control the carbon stocks in German agricultural soils. First descriptive results show that the mean soil carbon stocks down to a depth of 100 cm are 126.1 t ha-1 (range 8.9-1158.9 t ha-1). The mean stocks only for croplands are 102.6 t ha-1 (range 8.9-1158.9 t ha-1), while for grasslands the mean stock is 184.1 t ha-1 (range 19.4-937.8 t ha-1). In total the soil scientists found a surprisingly high proportion of disturbed and unusual soil profiles, indicating intensive human modifications of agricultural soils through e.g. deep ploughing. The data set of the German Agricultural Soil Inventory is the

  12. Design and Implementation of Fuzzy Logic Controller for Online Computer Controlled Steering System for Navigation of a Teleoperated Agricultural Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prema Kannan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes design, modeling, simulation, control, and implementation of teleoperated agricultural vehicle using intelligent technique. This vehicle can be used for ploughing, sowing, and soil moisture sensing. Online computer controlled steering system for a vehicle utilizing two independent drive wheels can be used to avoid obstacles and to improve the ability to resist external side forces. To control the steer angles of the nondriven wheels, the mathematical relationships between the drive wheel speeds and the steer angles of the nondriven wheels are used. A fuzzy logic controller is designed to change the drive wheel speeds and to achieve the desired steer angles. Online control of the agricultural vehicle is achieved from a remote place by means of Web Publishing Tool in LabVIEW. IR sensors in the vehicle are used to detect and to avoid the obstacles around. The developed steering angle control algorithm and fuzzy logic controller have been implemented in an agricultural vehicle which depicts that the vehicle performs its operation efficiently and reduces the manpower and becomes advantageous.

  13. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk.... SUMMARY: We are advising the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks... will be sufficient to mitigate the risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious...

  14. 75 FR 32900 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Sweet Limes From Mexico...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk... have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the importation of sweet... application of one or more designated phytosanitary measures will be sufficient to mitigate the pest risk....

  15. Lutte biologique pour l’agriculture et l’environnement américains Biological Control for American Agriculture and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The European Biological Control Laboratory (EBCL), located on the Agropolis Campus, is operated by the United States Department of Agriculture to conduct research on biological control of invasive arthropods and plants. Many of the target species originated in Europe, Asia or Africa, so we explore ...

  16. Control of an Autonomous Vehicle for Registration of Weed and Crop in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard; Andersen, Palle; Pedersen, Tom Søndergaard

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the development of an autonomous electrical vehicle to be used for weed mapping in precision agriculture with special focus on the conceptual framework of the control system. The lowest layer of the control system is the propulsion and steering control, the second layer...... coordinates the movements of the wheel units, the third layer is path execution and perception and the upper layer performs planning and reasoning. The control system is implemented on an autonomous vehicle. The vehicle has been tested for path following and position accuracy. Based on the results a new...... vehicle is under construction....

  17. Exploitation of insect vibrational signals reveals a new method of pest management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Eriksson

    Full Text Available Food production is considered to be the main source of human impact on the environment and the concerns about detrimental effects of pesticides on biodiversity and human health are likely to lead to an increasingly restricted use of chemicals in agriculture. Since the first successful field trial, pheromone based mating disruption enabled sustainable insect control, which resulted in reduced levels of pesticide use. Organic farming is one of the fastest growing segments of agriculture and with the continuously growing public concern about use of pesticides, the main remaining challenge in increasing the safety of the global food production is to identify appropriate alternative mating disruption approaches for the numerous insect pests that do not rely on chemical communication. In the present study, we show for the first time that effective mating disruption based on substrate-borne vibrational signals can be achieved in the field. When disruptive vibrational signals were applied to grapevine plants through a supporting wire, mating frequency of the leafhopper pest Scaphoideus titanus dropped to 9 % in semi-field conditions and to 4 % in a mature vineyard. The underlying mechanism of this environmentally friendly pest-control tactic is a masking of the vibrational signals used in mate recognition and location. Because vibrational communication is widespread in insects, mating disruption using substrate vibrations can transform many open field and greenhouse based farming systems.

  18. 砂梨病虫种群动态及其无公害防控技术%Disease and Pest Population Dynamics of Pyrus in Wuhan and the Non-polluted Control Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘先琴; 秦仲麒; 李先明; 涂俊凡; 杨夫臣; 关金菊

    2009-01-01

    The investigation showed that pear psylla,lace-bug,stinkbug,leaf eriophyid.the oriental fruit moth,Dasyneura pyri, fruit sawfly, phylloxera, Janus piri, ring rot, rust, black spot were the important disease and pest population in the pear orchards. They had high density, occurrenced in high frequency and seriously. The artificial control technique such as turning, scraping, clearance, luring and bagging were adopted. Natural enemies ladybird, lacewing, Syrphid flies, predatory bugs, spiders in the field were used for biological control. Chemical control time was standardized by the control criteria. The diseases and pests which reached the control criteria were sprayed the suitable pesticide in time. The damage of diseases and pests can be controlled effectively by the measures.%调查表明,梨木虱、网蝽、蝽象、叶瘿螨、梨小食心虫、瘿蚊、实蜂、蚜虫、梨茎蜂、轮纹病、锈病、黑斑病是武昌梨园的重要病虫种群,其发生频次高,密度大,危害重.采用"翻、刮、清、诱、套"进行人工防控;利用田间自然天敌进行生物防控;严格按照防治指标进行药荆防控,能较好地防止砂梨病虫的危害.

  19. Integrated pest management: theoretical insights from a threshold policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Michel I. da Silveira [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: michel@lncc.br; Faria, Lucas del B. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia. Setor de Ecologia], e-mail: lucasdbf@gmail.com

    2010-01-15

    An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration. (author)

  20. Integrated pest management: theoretical insights from a threshold policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Michel I da Silveira; Faria, Lucas Del B

    2010-01-01

    An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration.