WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural pest control

  1. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Manual 93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides for the agricultural plant pest control category. The text discusses the insect pests including caterpillars, beetles, and soil inhabiting insects; diseases and nematodes; and weeds. Consideration is given…

  2. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Manual 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agricultural animal pest control category. The text discusses pesticide hazards, application techniques, and pests of livestock such as mosquitoes, flies, grubs and lice. (CS)

  3. Agricultural Animal Pest Control. Bulletin 767.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Maxcy P., Jr.

    Included in this training manual are descriptions and pictures of the following agricultural animal pests: mosquitoes, stable flies, horse flies and deer or yellow flies, house flies, horn flies, wound-infesting larvae, lice, mites, ticks, and bots and grubs. Information is given on the life-cycle and breeding habits of the pests. Methods of…

  4. Agricultural Plant Pest Control. Bulletin 763.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, John C.; And Others

    This manual gives general information on plant pests and pesticides. First, the life-cycle and habits of some common insect pests are given. These include caterpillars, beetles and beetle larvae, and sucking insects. Next, plant diseases such as leaf diseases, wilts, root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and seedling diseases, and…

  5. Biological pest control in beetle agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aanen, Duur K; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2009-05-01

    Bark beetles are among the most destructive tree pests on the planet. Their symbiosis with fungi has consequently been studied extensively for more than a century. A recent study has identified actinomycete bacteria that are associated with the southern pine beetle and produce specific antibiotics against an antagonist of the beetles' mutualistic fungus. In addition to highlighting the ecological complexity of bark-beetle-microbial symbioses, this work reveals a potential source of novel antibiotics.

  6. A theoretical approach on controlling agricultural pest by biological controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Soovoojeet; Kar, T K

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose and analyze a prey-predator type dynamical system for pest control where prey population is treated as the pest. We consider two classes for the pest namely susceptible pest and infected pest and the predator population is the natural enemy of the pest. We also consider average delay for both the predation rate i.e. predation to the susceptible pest and infected pest. Considering a subsystem of original system in the absence of infection, we analyze the existence of all possible non-negative equilibria and their stability criteria for both the subsystem as well as the original system. We present the conditions for transcritical bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the disease free system. The theoretical evaluations are demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  7. Spatially optimal habitat management for enhancing natural control of an invasive agricultural pest: soybean aphid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, W.; Werf, van der W.; Swinton, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    By their direct effects on private profitability, invasive agricultural pests create special incentives for management that set them apart from other categories of invasive species. One attractive nonchemical management approach for agricultural pests relies upon biological control by natural enemie

  8. Using Pesticides: Commercial Applicator Manual, Texas. Agricultural Pest Control - Field Crop Pest Control, Fruit and Vegetable Pest Control, Weed and Brush Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Texas Agricultural Extension Service.

    This document is designed to provide commercial pesticide applicators with practical information and regulations required by the Texas Department of Agriculture. The manual includes two major sections. The first section discusses labels and labeling, pesticides, aerial application, ground application, pesticide safety, pests and pest damage,…

  9. Pesticide Applicator Certification Training, Manual No. 1a: Agricultural Pest Control. a. Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, W. A.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet the minimum standards for certification as an applicator of pesticides in the agricultural plant pest control category. Adapted for the State of Virginia, the text discusses: (1) the basics of insecticides; (2) insect pests; (3) selection and calibration of applicator equipment; and (4) the proper…

  10. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Agricultural Pest Control -- Animal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with the common pests of agricultural animals such as flies, ticks, bots, lice and mites. Methods for controlling these pests and appropriate pesticides are discussed. (CS)

  11. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2015-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest control options in Italian maize production and Canadian forestry to illustrate the principles of applying alternatives to neonicotinoids under an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy. An IPM approach considers all relevant and available information to make informed management decisions, providing pest control options based on actual need. We explore the benefits and challenges of several options for management of three insect pests in maize crops and an invasive insect pest in forests, including diversifying crop rotations, altering the timing of planting, tillage and irrigation, using less sensitive crops in infested areas, applying biological control agents, and turning to alternative reduced risk insecticides. Continued research into alternatives is warranted, but equally pressing is the need for information transfer and training for farmers and pest managers and the need for policies and regulations to encourage the adoption of IPM strategies and their alternative pest control options.

  12. The role of nuclear techniques in the control of agricultural pests and stored grains insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peaceful applications of nuclear techniques in agriculture in general, and pest control specifically, are very numerous. Although this field of science is over a century old, its rapid developments occurred only in the last few decades. In fact, the contribution of nuclear techniques to insect pest control during the last half century is one of the most important developments in this science. This article is devoted to discuss the most important and widely used applications of nuclear techniques, particularly ionizing radiation, in insect pest control. In particular, it deals with the subject of sterilizing insects for the purpose of insect pest control and/or eradication in the field and storage, irradiation disinfestation of sorted products, particularly cereals and pulses, facilitating international trade by avoiding quarantine barriers and its role in biological control of insect pests. (author)

  13. Use of Nuclear Techniques in Food, Agriculture and Pest Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called Nuclear Techniques used in agriculture are of two distinct types but both based on the special characteristics of radio-isotopes which give off radiation or on isotopes which are heavier than the normal element. One type of application uses the radiation given off by isotopes to enable the detection of individual atoms in infinitely small amounts of matter. With this technique we can e.g. follow the travels of fertilizer elements in the soil, into and throughout the crop plant or the travels of animal nutrient atoms throughout the animal and their deposition in milk and meat. This has resulted in enormous advances in crop and livestock research. Very minute traces of pesticides and their residues can be detected in food, in plants and animals and in the environment enabling the development of measures to reduce harmful effects

  14. Biorational agents--mechanism and importance in IPM and IRM programs for controlling agricultural pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaaya, I; Kontsedalov, S; Mazirov, D; Horowitz, A R

    2001-01-01

    Among the new approaches for controlling agricultural pests is the development of novel compounds affecting specific processes in insects such as chitin synthesis inhibitors, juvenile hormone mimics and ecdysone agonists. In addition, efforts have been made to develop compounds acting selectively on groups of insects by inhibiting or enhancing biochemical sites such as respiration (diafenthiuron), the nicotinyl acetylcholine receptors (imidacloprid and acetamiprid), the GABA receptors (avermectins), the salivary glands of sucking pests (pymetrozine) and others. Among the most recent novel insecticides with selective properties are novaluron, thiamethoxam, emamectin and spinosad. Novaluron (Rimon) is a novel chitin synthesis inhibitor that acts by both ingestion and contact. It is a powerful suppressor of lepidopteran larvae such as Spodoptera littoralis and Helicoverpa armigera (by ingestion) and of whiteflies such as Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (by contact). Thiamethoxam (Actarn), a novel neonicotinoid acts specifically on aphids and whiteflies. Emamectin (Proclaim), an avermectin derivative acts on GABA receptor affecting diversity of insects such as mites, lepidopterans and thrips. Spinosad (Tracer) seems to act on both acetylcholine and GABA receptors affecting diversity of insect species and is considered an important agent for controlling the western flower thrips.

  15. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Insect ecology studies and insect pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reviews the activities of the Pest Control Research Group in Indonesia. Pests under study are the diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella), the rice stem borer (Chilo suppressalis), the sugar cane borer (Chilo auricilius), bean flies (Agromyza spp.), tobacco insects (Heliothis armigera and Spodoptera litura) and cotton insects, especially the pink bollworm

  16. Self-control of insect pests: a nuclear application that is friendly to the environment in the field of combat and eradicate of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For decades, insect control methods depend primarily on insecticides, and the world consumption of insecticides is increasing by about 5% every year. Unfortunately, however, these chemicals pollute the environment, leave residues on agricultural products, and kill beneficial organisms leading to secondary pest problems and insecticide resistance. Ecological and environmental concerns have lead to new tactics in insect pest control. These tactics put more emphasis on cultural, physical and biological control methods including autocidal control where insects are used to destroy their own natural population. This article discusses the subject of autocidal control, its history, philosophy, basics, advantages, how to use it and where. It also gives an idea about its current use and future outlook. (author)

  17. Cell-penetrating recombinant peptides for potential use in agricultural pest control applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen R; Dowd, Patrick F; Johnson, Eric T

    2012-09-28

    Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs) are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX) from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis). One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  18. Cell-Penetrating Recombinant Peptides for Potential Use in Agricultural Pest Control Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Johnson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Several important areas of interest intersect in a class of peptides characterized by their highly cationic and partly hydrophobic structure. These molecules have been called cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs because they possess the ability to translocate across cell membranes. This ability makes these peptides attractive candidates for delivery of therapeutic compounds, especially to the interior of cells. Compounds with characteristics similar to CPPs and that, in addition, have antimicrobial properties are being investigated as antibiotics with a reduced risk of causing resistance. These CPP-like membrane-acting antimicrobial peptides (MAMPs are α-helical amphipathic peptides that interact with and perturb cell membranes to produce their antimicrobial effects. One source of MAMPs is spider venom. Because these compounds are toxic to insects, they also show promise for development as biological agents for control of insecticide-resistant agricultural pests. Spider venom is a potential source of novel insect-specific peptide toxins. One example is the small amphipathic α-helical peptide lycotoxin-1 (Lyt-1 or LCTX from the wolf spider (Lycosa carolinensis. One side of the α-helix has mostly hydrophilic and the other mainly hydrophobic amino acid residues. The positive charge of the hydrophilic side interacts with negatively charged prokaryotic membranes and the hydrophobic side associates with the membrane lipid bilayer to permeabilize it. Because the surface of the exoskeleton, or cuticle, of an insect is highly hydrophobic, to repel water and dirt, it would be expected that amphipathic compounds could permeabilize it. Mutagenized lycotoxin 1 peptides were produced and expressed in yeast cultures that were fed to fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda larvae to identify the most lethal mutants. Transgenic expression of spider venom toxins such as lycotoxin-1 in plants could provide durable insect resistance.

  19. Integrated pest management: the push-pull approach for controlling insect pests and weeds of cereals, and its potential for other agricultural systems including animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanali, Ahmed; Herren, Hans; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A; Woodcock, Christine M

    2008-02-12

    This paper describes the 'push-pull' or 'stimulo-deterrent diversionary' strategy in relation to current and potential examples from our own experiences. The push-pull effect is established by exploiting semiochemicals to repel insect pests from the crop ('push') and to attract them into trap crops ('pull'). The systems exemplified here have been developed for subsistence farming in Africa and delivery of the semiochemicals is entirely by companion cropping, i.e. intercropping for the push and trap cropping for the pull. The main target was a series of lepidopterous pests attacking maize and other cereals. Although the area given to the cereal crop itself is reduced under the push-pull system, higher yields are produced per unit area. An important spin-off from the project is that the companion crops are valuable forage for farm animals. Leguminous intercrops also provide advantages with regard to plant nutrition and some of the trap crops help with water retention and in reducing land erosion. A major benefit is that certain intercrop plants provide dramatic control of the African witchweed (striga). Animal husbandry forms an essential part of intensive subsistence agriculture in Africa and developments using analogous push-pull control strategies for insect pests of cattle are exemplified.

  20. Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, M. S.; Hoffman, W. M.

    This manual is designed for those who seek certification as pesticide applicators for industrial, institutional, structural, and health-related pest control. It is divided into six sections covering general pest control, wood-destroying organisms, bird control, fumigation, rodent control, and industrial weed control. The manual gives information…

  1. Ozone-mist spray sterilization for pest control in agricultural management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Kenji; Mitsugi, Fumiaki; Ikegami, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Norihito; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yamashita, Yoshitaka; Baba, Seiji; Stryczewska, Henryka D.; Pawlat, Joanna; Teii, Shinriki; Sung, Ta-Lun

    2013-02-01

    We developed a portable ozone-mist sterilization system to exterminate pests (harmful insects) in agricultural field and greenhouse. The system is composed of an ozone generator, an ozone-mist spray and a small container of ozone gas. The ozone generator can supply highly concentrated ozone using the surface dielectric barrier discharge. Ozone-mist is produced using a developed nozzle system. We studied the effects of ozone-mist spray sterilization on insects and agricultural plants. The sterilization conditions are estimated by monitoring the behavior of aphids and observing the damage of the plants. It was shown that aphids were exterminated in 30 s without noticeable damages of the plant leaves. The reactive radicals with strong oxidation potential such as hydroxyl radical (*OH), hydroperoxide radical (*HO2), the superoxide ion radical (*O2‒) and ozonide radical ion (*O3‒) can increase the sterilization rate for aphids. Contribution to the Topical Issue "13th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (Hakone XIII)", Edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Henryca Danuta Stryczewska and Yvan Ségui.

  2. Training for Certification: Demonstration & Research Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on agricultural pest control, this publication includes a full range of topics from uses of pesticides for agricultural animal pest control to the toxicity of common pesticides to fish and bees.…

  3. The use of gamma radiation to control two serious pests of Brazilian agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the application of nuclear techniques to control two of the most important Lepidopteran insects pests in Brazil: Diatraea saccharalis, the sugarcane borer, and Spodoptera frugiperda, the fall armyworm. All experiments had the objective of finding the dose of gamma radiation capable of causing sterility in the first and second generations by irradiating the parental generation. For D. saccharalis, five day-old pupae were irradiated with doses of 100, 125 and 150 Gy. Fertility was reduced to 15% when moths were treated with 100 Gy and no egg hatch was recorded at 125 and 150 Gy. Fertility was 4.3% and 10.9% in the F1 generation and was 9.5% and 25.5% in the F2 generation, when treated males were mated to normal females and treated females were mated to normal males, respectively. The results of our research suggest a possible alternative tactic to control or even eradicate sugarcane borer from Brazil. For S. frugiperda, five day-old pupae were treated with doses of 50, 100, 125, 150 and 175Gy. Moths of the F1 and F2 generations were obtained only from parents treated at 50Gy. When higher doses were used, only the crosses where irradiated males were mated to normal (untreated) females produced moths of the F1 and F2 generations. Irradiation of the parental generation induced different sterility levels in the offspring. Female fall armyworm were more radiosensitive than males, and substerilizing doses of gamma radiation did not affect the life cycle of the first and second filial generations in this species. The level of sterility in the F1 and F2 generations was higher than the sterility of the parents irradiated at the same dose. These results are encouraging and indicate that inherited sterility might be used for control of this insect in Brazil. Large field experiments should be conducted to confirm the laboratory findings. (author)

  4. Biological pest control in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trevor; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C; Rodríguez-del-Bosque, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Mexico is a megadiverse country that forms part of the Mesoamerican biological corridor that connects North and South America. Mexico's biogeographical situation places it at risk from invasive exotic insect pests that enter from the United States, Central America, or the Caribbean. In this review we analyze the factors that contributed to some highly successful past programs involving classical biological control and/or the sterile insect technique (SIT). The present situation is then examined with reference to biological control, including SIT programs, targeted at seven major pests, with varying degrees of success. Finally, we analyze the current threats facing Mexico's agriculture industry from invasive pests that have recently entered the country or are about to do so. We conclude that despite a number of shortcomings, Mexico is better set to develop biological control-based pest control programs, particularly on an area-wide basis, than many other Latin American countries are. Classical and augmentative biological control and SIT-based programs are likely to provide effective and sustainable options for control of native and exotic pests, particularly when integrated into technology packages that meet farmers' needs across the great diversity of production systems in Mexico.

  5. Public Health Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Univ., Tucson. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This manual supplies information helpful to individuals wishing to become certified in public health pest control. It is designed as a technical reference for vector control workers and as preparatory material for structural applicators of restricted use pesticides to meet the General Standards of Competency required of commercial applicators. The…

  6. Pest management strategies in traditional agriculture: an African perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abate, T; van Huis, A; Ampofo, J K

    2000-01-01

    research activities carried out by national or international agricultural research programs in Africa focus on classical biological control and host plant resistance breeding. With the exception of classical biological control of the cassava mealybug, research results have not been widely adopted. This could be due to African farmers facing heterogeneous conditions, not needing fixed prescriptions or one ideal variety but a number of options and genotypes to choose from. Indigenous pest management knowledge is site-specific and should be the basis for developing integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. Farmers often lack the biological and ecological information necessary to develop better pest management through experimentation. Formal research should be instrumental in providing the input necessary to facilitate participatory technology development such as that done by Farmer Field Schools, an approach now emerging in different parts of Africa.

  7. Plant defensins and their potential use as pest control in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plants, as all organisms in nature, have elaborate systems of defense against pathogens; which can be physical or chemical and produced in a constitutive and induced way. Among the induced chemical barriers, there is a group of low molecular weight proteins, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). These peptides include defensins, which are peptides with a molecular weight about 5 to 7 KDa, isoelectric point of 9, and length of about 45 to 55 amino acids. Likewise, they have the ability to avoid the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms, mainly funguses. Moreover, these peptides create resistance to abiotic conditions of stress in plants. This manuscript seeks to make a clear and current description about the recent characteristics and researches related to plant defensins and their most significant uses in pathogens management in crops of economical relevance. It also intends to go deep into the study of such proteins in order to use them as a control strategy, such as production of transgenic plants and microorganisms.

  8. Almond growers rely on pest control advisers for integrated pest management

    OpenAIRE

    Brodt, Sonja; Zalom, Frank; Krebill-Prather, Rose; Bentley, Walt; Pickel, Carolyn; Connell, Joseph; Wilhoit, Larry; Gibbs, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of full-time almond growers in the three primary almond-producing regions of California showed that growers rely substantially on pest control advisers (PCAs) for pest management decision-making. Independent PCAs communicated more frequently with growers than PCAs who are employed by agricultural product suppliers. Growers who use independent PCAs tend to feel more knowledgeable about integrated pest management (IPM) and report the use of more complex pest-monitoring te...

  9. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  10. Aquatic Pest Control. Sale Publication 4071.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    The information in this manual applies to control of aquatic pests in recreational waters, agricultural reservoirs, ornamental ponds, coastal bays, estuaries and channels, and drinking water reservoirs. Mechanical, cultural, biological, and chemical control methods are discussed. The majority of the material is devoted to weed control in static…

  11. Monthly forecasting of agricultural pests in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Samietz, J.; Calanca, P.; Weigel, A. P.; Fischer, A. M.; Rotach, M. W.

    2012-04-01

    Given the repercussions of pests and diseases on agricultural production, detailed forecasting tools have been developed to simulate the degree of infestation depending on actual weather conditions. The life cycle of pests is most successfully predicted if the micro-climate of the immediate environment (habitat) of the causative organisms can be simulated. Sub-seasonal pest forecasts therefore require weather information for the relevant habitats and the appropriate time scale. The pest forecasting system SOPRA (www.sopra.info) currently in operation in Switzerland relies on such detailed weather information, using hourly weather observations up to the day the forecast is issued, but only a climatology for the forecasting period. Here, we aim at improving the skill of SOPRA forecasts by transforming the weekly information provided by ECMWF monthly forecasts (MOFCs) into hourly weather series as required for the prediction of upcoming life phases of the codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. Due to the probabilistic nature of operational monthly forecasts and the limited spatial and temporal resolution, their information needs to be post-processed for use in a pest model. In this study, we developed a statistical downscaling approach for MOFCs that includes the following steps: (i) application of a stochastic weather generator to generate a large pool of daily weather series consistent with the climate at a specific location, (ii) a subsequent re-sampling of weather series from this pool to optimally represent the evolution of the weekly MOFC anomalies, and (iii) a final extension to hourly weather series suitable for the pest forecasting model. Results show a clear improvement in the forecast skill of occurrences of upcoming codling moth life phases when incorporating MOFCs as compared to the operational pest forecasting system. This is true both in terms of root mean squared errors and of the continuous rank probability scores of the

  12. Facility Agriculture Development and Vegetables Pest control Strategies%设施农业发展与蔬菜病虫害防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘光明

    2015-01-01

    设施农业能有效提高土地的农业经营效益,但农业设施也为农业病虫害提供了生存条件.因此,在设施农业生产中,要科学选择优良品种,合理使用肥料和农药,注重病虫害防治时机,特别是不能滥用农药.同时,不可过度注重农作物产量,还应注重产品质量,以促进设施农业健康、快速发展.%Facility agriculture can effectively improve agricultural economic benefits,however,it also provide survival condition for pests.Therefore,in the process of facility agriculture production,it is important to choose proper species,use fertilizers and pesticides reasonably and pay attention to pest control time.Meanwhile,not only should crop yield be emphasized, but also products quality should be taken seriously to facilitate agricultural development.

  13. Pest control in postharvest nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter discusses the impact of insect infestations on the quality of postharvest nuts. The chapter first reviews the biology of key field pests that may be found in harvested nuts, and pests found in nut storage and processing facilities. The chapter then reviews current and developing control...

  14. Dynamic models of pest propagation and pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin Ming; Lin Zhen-Quan; Ke Jian-Hong

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a pest propagation model to investigate the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates.A pest aggregate grows by self-monomer birth,and it may fragment into two smaller ones.The kinetic evolution behaviours of pest aggregates are investigated by the rate equation approach based on the mean-field theory.For a system with a self-birth rate kernel I(k)= Ik and a fragmentation rate kernel L(i,j)= L,we find that the total number M0A(t)and the total mass of the pest aggregates M1A(t)both increase exponentially with time if L≠0.Furthermore,we introduce two catalysis-driven monomer death mechanisms for the former pest propagation model to study the evolution behaviours of pest aggregates under pesticide and natural enemy controlled pest propagation.In the pesticide controlled model with a catalyzed monomer death rate kernel J1(k)= J1k,it is found that only when I pests be killed off.Otherwise,the pest aggregates can survive.In the model of pest control with a natural enemy,a pest aggregate loses one of its individuals and the number of natural enemies increases by one.For this system,we find that no matter how many natural enemies there are at the beginning,pests will be eliminated by them eventually.

  15. Forest Pest Control. Manual 94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in forest pest control. The text discusses disease problems, insects, and herbicide use in both established forests and nurseries. (CS)

  16. Vertebrate Pest Control. Sale Publication 4077.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W.; Clark, Dell O.

    This guide gives descriptions of common vertebrate pests and guidelines for using some common pesticides. The pests discussed are rats, mice, bats, moles, muskrats, ground squirrels, and gophers. Information is given for each pest on the type of damage the pest can do, the habitat and biology of the pest, and the most effective control methods.…

  17. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 70, January 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  18. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 71, July 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  19. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 66, January 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  20. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 68, January 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  1. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 67, July 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  2. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 69, July 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  3. Insect pest control newsletter, No. 72, January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation projects, research coordination meetings and training courses offered on insect pest control, as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

  4. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Eusebio Nava Pérez; Cipriano García Gutiérrez; Jesús Ricardo Camacho Báez; Elva Lorena Vázquez Montoya

    2012-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also...

  5. Aquatic Pest Control. Manual 99.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the aquatic pest control category. The text discusses various water use situations; aquatic weed identification; herbicide use and effects; and aquatic insects and their control. (CS)

  6. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deal with invasions of exotic Lepidoptera is the cactus moth, Cactoblastis cactorum (Pyralidae). Once the best example of successful classical biological control of weeds, solving a major cactus problem in Australia, it invaded Florida in 1989 and has been spreading along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. There is grave concern that this pest will eventually reach the cactus-rich Western U.S.A., Mexico, and Central America, threatening the biodiversity of the Opuntia-based native ecosystems and adversely impacting the important food and fodder Opuntia industry. Currently, the pheromone is being developed as a monitoring tool, mass rearing methods are being refined in South Africa and the radiation biology of the cactus moth is being studied to determine the optimum dose of radiation. An SIT programme is being considered to prevent further geographical expansion of this moth, but the use F1 sterility is also being assessed as a tool to determine the eventual host and geographical range and to study the rate of spread of this invading insect. To raise awareness of this major environmental threat and the potential of SIT to address alien species, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division recently hosted a planning and coordination meeting, that included representatives of some environmental organizations, to assess the role SIT/F1 Sterility can play in addressing the cactus moth invasion as a model of invasive pests affecting not only agriculture, but that are also of environmental concern (see report of a cactus moth Consultants Meeting on page 28). We foresee an increased role in developing SIT for potential alien invasive species to help FAO and IAEA Member States deal with incipient outbreaks of such pest species

  7. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 62

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The year 2003 has again been a very intense period for all of us working at the Insect Pest Control Sub-programme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Agriculture Programme. This issue reports normative activities, and the application of area-wide control and SIT. One that stands out during 2003 is the recent publication of 'Trapping Guidelines for Area-wide Fruit Fly Programmes', which responds to the request by Member States to harmonize internationally trapping procedures for Tephritid fruit flies of economic importance. These pest insects have a major impact on the international trade of fresh fruits and vegetables, and the guidelines provide strategic guidance and direction to NPPOs, RPPOs and industry on where and how to implement fruit fl y surveys. Using these guidelines in the implementation of surveys will support FAO and IAEA Member States in obtaining international recognition of their fruit fly control and quarantine activities. A new project is a world-directory of fruit fly workers. A tremendous amount of information is made available each year on Tephritid fruit flies: new technologies developed, new information on their biology and ecology; new control methods made available, new species identified, new outbreaks recorded and new operational control programmes launched. This site will attempt to collate this information and allow Tephritid fruit fly workers worldwide to keep up-to-date on the most recent developments. Another activity has been the development of more scientific methods for determining when an area achieves a pest-free status. A consultants meeting focused on this topic and a generic procedure has been developed for declaring an area to be 'pest-free' following an eradication campaign against an insect pest. This involves a probability model to deal with null trapping results and also a growth model to help verify that pest specimen were not present when control was stopped. Other normative and promotional activities under development include

  8. General Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 95.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general pest control category. The text discusses general, parasitic and miscellaneous pests such as ants, ticks, and spiders; fabric, wood-destroying, and grain pests such as beetles, termites, and…

  9. Forest Pest Control. Sale Publication 4072.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimmann, M. W., Ed.

    The forest pests discussed in this guide are weeds, insects, diseases, and vertebrates. The guide gives information about types of forests, characteristics of common forest pests, pest control methods, pesticides and application equipment used in forestry, and environmental and human hazards. (Author/BB)

  10. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 78, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IPC Newsletter is prepared twice per year by the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Contents: To Our Readers; Staff; Forthcoming Events; Past Events; Technical Cooperation Projects; Coordinated Research Projects and Research Coordination Meetings; Developments at the Insect Pest Control Laboratory; Reports; Announcements; In Memoriam; Other News; Relevant Published Articles; Papers in Peer Reviewed Journals; Priced and Unpriced Publications

  11. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of aquatic pest control meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Aquatic Pest Control Guide served as a basis for this manual. The six sections presented describe: (1) Aquatic pest control; (2)…

  12. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Regulatory Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesecher, Robert

    This manual is designed to assist regulatory pest control applicators to meet the requirements of the Michigan Department of Agriculture for certification. The guide discusses: (1) Factors influencing introduction and spread of pests and their population dynamics; (2) Methods and techniques used to suppress, control, or eradicate pests of…

  13. Pest Control and Related Orchard Practices in Commercial Fruit Plantings. Circular 1151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, S. M.; And Others

    This circular brings together suggestions from the Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station and the Illinois State Natural History Survey relating to orchard practices and pest control. It provides some basic steps in pest control and discusses some specific orchard pests such as grasshoppers, mites, mice, and rabbits. In addition, it gives some…

  14. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 64

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October 2004 the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture celebrated 40 years of existence. The creation in October 1964 of this Division, which includes the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme, marked the beginning of what is certainly a unique and arguably the best example of inter-agency cooperation within the whole UN family. The goal was to join the talents and resources of both organizations to obtain better cooperation and less duplication of efforts in assisting their Member States in applying nuclear techniques for providing people with more, better and safer food and other agricultural products, while sustaining the natural resources base. The complete press release is included under 'Special News and Reports'

  15. Ecology and management of crop pollination and pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Lundin, Ola

    2013-01-01

    The agricultural landscape has gone through large changes to meet increasing demands for food. This has led to major biodiversity declines, while effects on ecosystem services that support agricultural productivity, such as pollination and pest control, remain less studied. This thesis examines temporal trends, impacts, and management for functionally important insects in agriculture using red clover seed production as a model system. Red clover is pollinated by bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and ...

  16. Training for Certification: Ornamental & Turf Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Univ., State College. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on ornamental and turf plant pest control, this publication examines the control of plant diseases, insects, and weeds. The contents are divided into a section on ornamental pest control and one on…

  17. Pest Control Section Biochemical Group, Progress Report 1982-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reserch efforts in the Pest Control Section, BARC, a continuator of insect sterilization and pest control section of the erstwhile Biology and Agriculture Division, were continued to develop integrated management practices for the control of important insect pests of agricultural and medical importance. Insect pests chosen are, ubiquitous potato tuberworm, a serious pest of potatoes, cotton bollworms with particular reference to spotted bollworms and a mosquito (Culex fatigans), a vector of filariasis. Keeping these insects as targets, research activities have been concentrated in the fields of biological control with parasities, pathogens and sterile insects, sex pheromones and insect plant interaction with a view to integrate pest management programme. Besides, the research activity also encompasses investigations of basic nature in the fields of insect sex pheromones, insect pathology and insect plant interaction. Studies on insect pheromones relate to the modifying influence of abiotic and biotic factors of the environment on pheromone production and perception and the possibility of insect developing resistance to pheromones. Studies in the field of insect plant interaction are directed towards identifying weak links in the insect plant relationship with a view to exploit them for developing control. Basic studies in the field of insect pathology relate to isolation and identification of entomopathogens, source of their pathogenecity, improvement in their virulence and formulation of cheaper and potent microbial insecticides. This report pertains to the period 1982-86. (Orig.). 11 tables, 5 figures

  18. Perceived damage and areas of needed research for wildlife pests of California agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Roger A; Salmon, Terrell P; Schmidt, Robert H; Timm, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Many wildlife species cause extensive damage to a variety of agricultural commodities in California, with estimates of damage in the hundreds of millions annually. Given the limited availability of resources to solve all human-wildlife conflicts, we should focus management efforts on issues that provide the greatest benefit to agricultural commodities in California. This survey provides quantitative data on research needs to better guide future efforts in developing more effective, practical and appropriate methods for managing these species. We found that ground squirrels, pocket gophers, birds, wild pigs, coyotes and voles were the most common agricultural wildlife pest species in California. The damage caused by these species could be quite high, but varied by agricultural commodity. For most species, common forms of damage included loss of crop production and direct death of the plant, although livestock depredation was the greatest concern for coyotes. Control methods used most frequently and those deemed most effective varied by pest species, although greater advancements in control methods were listed as a top research priority for all species. Collectively, the use of toxicants, biocontrol and trapping were the most preferred methods for control, but this varied by species. In general, integrated pest management practices were used to control wildlife pests, with a special preference for those approaches that were efficacious and quick and inexpensive to apply. This information and survey design should be useful in establishing research and management priorities for wildlife pest species in California and other similar regions. PMID:24952967

  19. MAMMALS AND BIRDS AS AGRICULTURAL PESTS: A GLOBAL SITUATION

    OpenAIRE

    S.M. GOVORUSHKO

    2014-01-01

    On the globe there are approximately 7 thousand species of pests injuring agricultural crops. Because of pests’ activity from 33 % (D. Geinrikh et al., 2003) to 40 % (D. Pimentel et al., 1999) of world agricultural products are lost with annual financial losses estimated at $ 244 billion (D. Pimentel et al., 1997). In spite of the fact that the consequences of plant diseases and harmful insects for plant growing and forage production are discussed more often, economic loss caused by mammals a...

  20. Training for Certification: Forest Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Robert C., Comp.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial pesticide applicators. Focusing on forest pest control, this publication examines plant and animal pest control practices for southern tree species. Contents include: (1) identification of insects, diseases, and weed tree species;…

  1. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  2. LABORATORY TEST METHOD OF EXPOSURE BY ORAL AND INTRAVENOUS ROUTES OF MICORBIAL PEST CONTROL AGENTS TO NON TARGET AVIAN SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) are microorganisms applied to the environment to control the proliferation and spread of agricultural or silvicultural insect, arthropod. and plant pests. hen used in this manner, the micrporganisms are classified as pesticides and are subjec...

  3. Termite Pest Control - Industrial. Manual 96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the termite pest control category. The text discusses general pests, especially ants, and wood-destroying organisms such as termites, beetles, and fungi. (CS)

  4. Public Health Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. It presents pest control guidelines for those organisms of public health significance. Fact sheets with line drawings discuss pests such as cockroaches, bedbugs, lice, ants, beetles, bats, birds, and rodents. (CS)

  5. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control. Bulletin 764.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, Timothy H.; And Others

    This manual gives descriptions of and methods for control of diseases and insect pests of ornamental plants, weeds, and diseases and insect pests of turf plants. Included are diseases caused by fungi such as cankers, leaf galls, and rust; diseases caused by bacteria such as bacterial blight and crown gall; and diseases caused by nematodes and…

  6. History and Use of Heat in Pest Control: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review describes the history and use of heat in controlling a wide range of agricultural and structural pests. Definitions and concepts used in heat treatments are discussed as well as possible mechanisms of thermal lethality. Factors used in determining treatments are availability, costs, co...

  7. The Coleopteran gut and targets for pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of high throughput sequencing and proteomic technologies, new strategies are now available for the design of new control approaches for the most problematic pests. While beetles constitute the most diverse order of insects and are well-represented in the list of agriculturally-import...

  8. Biopesticides: An option for the biological pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusebio Nava Pérez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate use of synthetic pesticides and the problems that its cause to human health, agriculture and the environment is comment, this paper also present general aspects about of biopesticides, and their uses in the biological pest control. By the nature these can be safely used in a sustainable agriculture. An example is the use of botanical pesticides whose active ingredient are the terpenes, alkaloids and phenolics, these have insecticide effects for many agriculture pests; also its are less expensive, are biodegradable and safe for humans and the environment, however havelittle residuality. Microbial pesticides are being introduced successfully to pests control in important crops such as; coffee, sugar cane, beans and corn. These products contain bacteria, fungi, viruses or nematodes. However, few entomopathogenic agents have been developed as effective biocontrol agents, one of them is the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier for control of armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E Smith covering about 74% of the market,fungus 10% , viruses 5% and 11% others. Other upstanding case is the use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamoagainst bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say. Biopesticides have shown that when are used properly in the biological pest control its favor the practice of a sustainable agriculture, with less dependence of chemical insecticides.

  9. APHIS’ Plant Inspection Stations: Protecting American Agriculture From Foreign Pests and Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department fo Agriculture; Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service

    2007-01-01

    In today’s global marketplace, the volume of international trade brings increased potential for the introduction of foreign pests, diseases, and noxious weeds that could threaten the safety of American agriculture. The results of such introductions can have a devastating effect on the U.S. food supply, damage our natural resources, and cost hundreds of millions of dollars in eradication and control measures that ultimately result in higher priced agricultural products for the consumer.

  10. Forest Pest Control. Bulletin 759.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, V. Rodney

    This manual describes the major forest types, the major species, seed orchards, and tree nurseries. Methods of identifying forest insect pests and diseases are given. The most common types of insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides are described. Both sprayer and granular applicator methods are discussed. Environmental considerations are…

  11. Industrial and Institutional Pest Control. Sale Publication 4073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information needed to meet Environmental Protection Agency standards on industrial and institutional pest control, and to help prepare for certification. It gives descriptions and pictures of general insect pests, parasitic pests of man, occasional invaders, wood-destroying pests, stored product pests, vertebrates, and weeds. The…

  12. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣

    2012-01-01

    Chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect-pests in farmlands cause a series of serious problems including residue effects, environmental pollution, etc. Bio-pesticides and bio-controls are, on the other hand, slowly effective, high cost, and, always with certain targets. Integrated, high-efficient and environment-friendly disease and insect-pest control measures are in increasing demand today. Landscape ecological research has shown that the populations of pathogenic bacteria, pests and their natural enemies are largely affected by landscape patterns. This has provided a new insight into plant disease and insect-pest control. Rational planning of agro-landscape patterns at landscape scale and reasonable arrangement of planting structures and farming activities constituted a beneficial control of agricultural diseases and insect-pests in farmlands. This paper discussed control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests from the point of view of agro-landscape at the landscape, field and farm management levels. At the landscape level, control measures of plant diseases and insect-pests included increasing area portions of semi-natural habitats, enriching semi-natural and farm crop habitats and enhancing heterogeneity of landscape structures. It was also necessary to keep the degree of connections among landscapes so as to maintain a balanced migration of natural enemies and prevention of the spread of plant diseases and insect-pests. Low-quality semi-natural habitat plaques also needed to be unproved. At the field level, original farmland boundaries needed to be preserved. Also building of new farmland buffers were needed to control plant diseases and insect-pests in adjacent farmlands. Constructed farmland buffers needed to be integrated into original semi-natural habitat and farmland boundaries. Furthermore, it was important that farmland buffers were rationally configured for plant species, weeding,fertilization, spray pesticide and

  13. Agricultural disease and insect-pest control via agro-ecological landscape construction%以病虫害控制为中心的农业生态景观建设

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段美春; 刘云慧; 张鑫; 曾为刚; 宇振荣

    2012-01-01

    Chemical pesticides for controlling plant diseases and insect-pests in farmlands cause a series of serious problems including residue effects, environmental pollution, etc. Bio-pesticides and bio-controls are, on the other hand, slowly effective, high cost, and, always with certain targets. Integrated, high-efficient and environment-friendly disease and insect-pest control measures are in increasing demand today. Landscape ecological research has shown that the populations of pathogenic bacteria, pests and their natural enemies are largely affected by landscape patterns. This has provided a new insight into plant disease and insect-pest control. Rational planning of agro-landscape patterns at landscape scale and reasonable arrangement of planting structures and farming activities constituted a beneficial control of agricultural diseases and insect-pests in farmlands. This paper discussed control measures of agricultural diseases and insect-pests from the point of view of agro-landscape at the landscape, field and farm management levels. At the landscape level, control measures of plant diseases and insect-pests included increasing area portions of semi-natural habitats, enriching semi-natural and farm crop habitats and enhancing heterogeneity of landscape structures. It was also necessary to keep the degree of connections among landscapes so as to maintain a balanced migration of natural enemies and prevention of the spread of plant diseases and insect-pests. Low-quality semi-natural habitat plaques also needed to be unproved. At the field level, original farmland boundaries needed to be preserved. Also building of new farmland buffers were needed to control plant diseases and insect-pests in adjacent farmlands. Constructed farmland buffers needed to be integrated into original semi-natural habitat and farmland boundaries. Furthermore, it was important that farmland buffers were rationally configured for plant species, weeding,fertilization, spray pesticide and

  14. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter. No. 46

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This newsletter lists the FAO/IAEA meetings in the field of pest control held between September 1990 and February 1991 and provides very brief summaries of their contents. It also features a special report on the New World Screwworm in North Africa. An eradication programme, organized by the IAEA and the FAO and based on the sterile insect technique, was implemented, and as a result it is expected that the area will be declared free of the pest during autumn 1991

  15. Training for Certification: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This Cooperative Extension Service publication from Mississippi State University is a training guide for commercial applicators. Weed control, vertebrate pest control, and environmental considerations and restrictions are the three major parts of the document. The weed control section discusses non-pesticide, mechanical, and biological control as…

  16. Radioisotopes and Radiation in Animal and Plant Insect Pest Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crop-pest control is of major economic importance and demands the aid of the latest advances in science. Radioisotopes and radiation are being employed to increase the efficiency of existing insect pest control. They are extremely valuable, since improvements to existing methods depend on having detailed data on the bioecology, toxicology, and so on. Radioactive labelling of insects has been extremely promising in bioecology; the labelling of grain pests (Eurygaster integriceps Put., Hadena sordida Skh.) and grain-pest parasites (Meniscus agnatus Crow, Pseudogonia cinerascens Rond.) has provided information about their areas of migration, habitats, sizes of population and the feeding habits. The same technique was used to determine the rate of propagation of the Colorado beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineota Say), which is subject to quarantine controls; subsequently an extermination programme was carried out on the basis of the data obtained. It also provides a valuable means of studying the extremely complex problems of parasitism and predaceousness, in particular intermediate feeding cycles and chemotaxis. The feeding areas of field rodents have been mapped out with the help of a self-labelling, radioactive-bait technique. Pesticides synthesized with radioisotopes have been used in conjunction with radiochromatography, fluorimetry and other techniques to study the highly complex biochemical processes caused to toxicants in plants and insects. It has also been possible to determine the rate of hydrolysis of organic-phosphorus insecticide compounds of the thiphos and metaphos type as a function of the degree of development and the physiological state of plants as well as of environmental conditions. Data have been obtained on the length of time residual quantities of toxicants are retained in agriculture products following different periods of chemical treatment. Radioisotope techniques have yielded information on various metabolic processes exhibiting different

  17. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    OpenAIRE

    María Berenice González Maldonado; Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-01-01

    In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (...

  18. Control of Vertebrate Pests of Forest Trees, Ornamentals, and Turf. Revised Copy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingard, Robert G.; Studholme, Clinton R.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University discusses the control of vertebrate pests of urban and suburban ornamentals and turf. Specific pests described are blackbirds, chipmunks, moles, rabbits, and European starlings. Identification, habits, economic importance, and control methods ranging from poisoning…

  19. Radiation and Radioisotopes Applied to Insects of Agricultural Importance. Proceedings of the Symposium on the Use and Application of Radioisotopes and Radiation in the Control of Plant and Animal Insect Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the pioneer work of the United States Department of Agriculture in the application of radiation and radioisotopes in the control of insect pests to cattle, many countries and organizations have pursued the advantages which might be gained in this field. Two years ago the IAEA organized the first international symposium in Bombay to study this problem, since when a considerable amount of basic research on the application of nuclear science in entomology and insect pest control has been undertaken. The potential gain of these studies, which would be in the form of an increased output of better food, is obvious to all Governments; hence the extensive international interest in the subject of this present Symposium, which was attended by 100 participants from 26 countries and 5 international organizations. The proceedings consist of 37 papers presented by experts from 10 countries, together with a record of the discussions, and cover the use of radioisotopes in the study of the ecology of insects, such as their dispersal, migration and life-cycle. The application of radioisotopes to insecticides covers such subjects as labelling, application, uptake, translocation, metabolism, mode of action, and the determination' of residues in plants and animals. The present position on the effects of radiation on insects is dealt with, including mutation, sterilization and the use of the sterile-male technique for the control and eradication of insect pests, and the need is emphasized for integration of chemical, biological, radiation and other methods of insect control. The emphasis of this Symposium has been mainly on aspects of crop protection and it is hoped that the next symposium will also deal with aspects of livestock protection.

  20. Agricultural Control of Insect Pest in Rice in Liaoning Province%辽宁省水稻病虫害的农业防治效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘培斌; 陈晓云; 于凤泉; 李志强; 田春晖

    2005-01-01

    病虫害的农业防治(Agricultural control)也称栽培防治(Cultural control),是指结合作物栽培操作有意识地开展病虫害防治。农业防治是综合防治的基础。在无公害生产中,农业防治是优良农事操作(GAP Good agriculture practice)的一类,寓病虫害防治于作物栽培管理之中,具有省工省力、无毒副作用和持续效果强等优点,但农业防治只能作为病虫害综合防治中的基础或补充措施。

  1. Economic Benefits of Sustainable Agricultural Production: The Case of Integrated Pest Management in Cabbage Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mad Nasir Shamsudin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection is a basic element of sustainable agricultural development. Agricultural production practices, however, can cause negative externalities. One main concern of the externality is the negative effects of pesticide use. This has motivated the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM program. This study attempts to evaluate the economic benefits of IPM to address the widespread misuse of pesticides in cabbage production. IPM application in cabbage production includes initiatives on the optimal use of pesticides, complementary weed control strategies, and alternative cultural and biological controls. Results of this study showed that the programme would generate economic benefits which include improvements in water quality, food safety, pesticide application safety, and long term sustainability of pest management systems. Thus there is justification for public investment of resources in training and educational programs to increase awareness about IPM and promote IPM adoption.

  2. Susceptibility of natural enemies of pests of agriculture to commonly applied insecticides in Honduras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insecticides are commonly used by Honduran farmers to control pest insects in agricultural crops such as corn, melons and tomatoes. However, the insecticides have the potential for toxicity to the natural enemies of the pest insects also. Therefore, efforts are being made to identify insecticides which, when used within the Inegerated Pest Management (IPM) programme, are selectively more toxic to the pest insects than their natural enemies. A number of selected chemical insecticides and a biological insecticide (NPV) were tested in three different tests to determine toxicity to two beneficial insects: Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) and Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). All insecticides were toxic to T. remus which suffered high mortality. There was no significant difference in mortality of the insect due to the method of exposure to the insecticides. There were some differences in the toxicity of the insecticides to C. carnea, and abamectin, bifenthrin, cypermethrin, diafenthiuron, imidacloprid and fenpropathrin were relatively less toxic and could be used in IPM for the control of pest insects. (author)

  3. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  4. Right Of Way Pest Control. Manual 88.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the right-of-way pest control category. The text discusses types of vegetation, the nature of herbicides, application methods, use for specific situations, and safety precautions. (CS)

  5. Demonstration and Research Pest Control. Manual 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the demonstration and research pest control category. The text discusses pesticide-organism interactions such as penetration, transport, accumulation, and biological magnification. Integrating pesticides…

  6. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 55

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  7. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 53

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  8. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  9. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  10. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 52

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  11. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Newsletter announces research coordination meetings, status of existing research coordinated research programmes on the use of nuclear applications such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) in insect and pest control. Training courses as well as new coordinated research programmes in the pipeline are also highlighted

  12. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AW-IPM) is defined as IPM applied against an entire pest population within a delimited geographic area. Area-wide intervention strategies require more planning and ecological understanding, longer-term commitment, a minimum infrastructure and a coordinated implementation by farmers and all other stakeholders. The spatial distribution of the pest population has to be considered not only in surrounding cultivated areas, but also in non-cultivated areas. It also involves considering the temporal distribution of the pest to determine the periods when the pest is most susceptible to preventive, rather than remedial, interventions. In 1998 FAO and the Agency sponsored the First International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques' in Penang, Malaysia. This Conference greatly increased the interest and awareness concerning the AW-IPM approach to insect pest control. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced; a better regulatory framework is being developed to encourage the involvement of the private sector, and more FAO and Agency Member States are integrating insect pest control methods on an areawide basis. Over the past months we have been heavily involved in preparing for the Second FAO/IAEA International Conference on 'Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests: Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and Other Techniques', which was held from 9-13 May in Vienna. The response and interest of scientists and governments, as well as the private sector and sponsors were once more very encouraging. The conference took place with the participation of over 300 delegates from 86 countries, nine international organization, and eight exhibitors. It covered the area-wide approach again in a very broad sense, including the development and integration of many non-SIT technologies, as well as genetic research on cytoplasmic

  13. Development and Integration of Alternative Management Strategies Using Inherited Sterility and Natural Enemies to Control Lepidopteran Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepidopteran pests such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea, fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, are often the most destructive pests of field crops in the United States. Insecticide resistance, increasing concern over pesticide pollution, and the desire to effectively manage lepidopteran pests on an area-wide basis have motivated scientists to identify and develop new pest management tactics that are compatible with current IPM practices. IPM-based systems, including genetic methods and biological control, offer the best long-term solutions to pesticide reduction and the management of destructive agricultural pests. F1 sterility has emerged as a promising control strategy for lepidopteran pests.

  14. Research Progress of Ap-plication of Insect Mi-crosporidia in Biological Control of Agricultural Pests%微孢子虫在害虫生物防治中的应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉强

    2015-01-01

    The insect microsporidia may cause epizootics of insects, they are the potential microbial insecticides. The research progress of insect microsporidia controlling agricultural pests, such as grasshopper, red fire ant, cotton boll-worm, corn borer, Yunnan pine caterpil-lar were summarized, the current prob-lems and theirs application prospect were also described.%昆虫微孢子虫能引起昆虫的流行病,是一种很有应用潜力的微生物杀虫剂。综述昆虫微孢子虫在防治蝗虫、红火蚁、棉铃虫、玉米螟、云南松毛虫等农业害虫上的研究进展,并对目前存在的问题及其应用前景进行了展望。

  15. Nonchemical pest control in China rice: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Shiwen; Wang, Ling; Liu, Lianmeng; Fu, Qian; Zhu, Defeng

    2014-01-01

    Major pests such as blast, sheath blight, bacterial blight, plant hoppers, leaf folder, and stem borers occur in rice paddy fields. These pests cause high damage to the grain and straw yield. The application of high N fertilizer loads increases the predisposition of rice crops to be infected by pests. Many agrochemicals used to control pests lead to pest adaptation and resistance, loss of soil fertility and organic carbon, soil erosion, decreasing biodiversity, and desertification. Chemical f...

  16. Pest Control on the "Fly"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    FlyCracker(R), a non-toxic and environmentally safe pesticide, can be used to treat and control fly problems in closed environments such as milking sheds, cattle barns and hutches, equine stables, swine pens, poultry plants, food-packing plants, and even restaurants, as well as in some outdoor animal husbandry environments. The product can be applied safely in the presence of animals and humans, and was recently permitted for use on organic farms as livestock production aids. FlyCracker's carbohydrate technology kills fly larvae within 24 hours. By killing larvae before they reach the adult stages, FlyCracker eradicates another potential breeding population. Because the process is physical-not chemical-flies and other insects never develop resistance to the treatment, giving way to unlimited use of product, while still keeping the same powerful effect.

  17. Optimal Control Policies of Pests for Hybrid Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolin Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We improve the traditional integrated pest management (IPM control strategies and formulate three specific management strategies, which can be described by hybrid dynamical systems. These strategies can not only effectively control pests but also reduce the abuse of pesticides and protect the natural enemies. The aim of this work is to study how the factors, such as natural enemies optimum choice in the two kinds of different pests, timings of natural enemy releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications, and instantaneous killing rates of pesticides on both pests and natural enemies, can affect the success of IPM control programmes. The results indicate that the pests outbreak period or frequency largely depends on the optimal selective feeding of the natural enemy between one of the pests and the control tactics. Ultimately, we obtain the only pest needs to be controlled below a certain threshold while not supervising pest .

  18. Agricultural pests under future climate conditions: downscaling of regional climate scenarios with a stochastic weather generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Stöckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Rotach, M. W.; Calanca, P.; Samietz, J.

    2010-09-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously unaffected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests have been developed, which model the infestation depending on actual weather conditions. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages therefore requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. In particular, pest forecast models are often not based on screen temperature and precipitation alone (i.e., the most generally projected climate variables), but might require input variables such as soil temperature, in-canopy net radiation or leaf wetness. Here, we use a stochastic weather and a re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather data from regional climate change scenarios for 2050 in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios were derived from multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly temperature, precipitation and radiation data were produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather time series were then used for modeling important phases in the lifecycle of codling moth, the major insect pest in apple orchards worldwide. First results indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of phases relevant for pest disease control for projected as compared to current climate (e.g. the flight of the codling moth starts about ten days earlier in future climate), continuing an already observed trend towards more favorable conditions for this insect during the last 20 years.

  19. Pest Control in the Presence of Pest Suppression by Natural Enemies

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wei; Swinton, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    The control of pests by their natural enemies represents an important ecosystem service that maintains the stability of agroecosystems and has the potential to mitigate pest control costs both to private producers and to society. Extending the "economic threshold" concept, this paper proposes an "ecological economic threshold" for pesticide use that takes into account the implicit cost of injury to natural enemies. By explicitly accounting for natural pest suppression, the ecological economic...

  20. United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service research in application technology for pest management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L A; Thomson, S J

    2003-01-01

    A research summary is presented that emphasizes ARS achievements in application technology over the past 2-3 years. Research focused on the improvement of agricultural pesticide application is important from the standpoint of crop protection as well as environmental safety. Application technology research is being actively pursued within the ARS, with a primary focus on application system development, drift management, efficacy enhancement and remote sensing. Research on application systems has included sensor-controlled hooded sprayers, new approaches to direct chemical injection, and aerial electrostatic sprayers. For aerial application, great improvements in on-board flow controllers permit accurate field application of chemicals. Aircraft parameters such as boom position and spray release height are being altered to determine their effect on drift. Other drift management research has focused on testing of low-drift nozzles, evaluation of pulsed spray technologies and evaluation of drift control adjuvants. Research on the use of air curtain sprayers in orchards, air-assist sprayers for row crops and vegetables, and air deflectors on aircraft has documented improvements in application efficacy. Research has shown that the fate of applied chemicals is influenced by soil properties, and this has implications for herbicide efficacy and dissipation in the environment. Remote sensing systems are being used to target areas in the field where pests are present so that spray can be directed to only those areas. Soil and crop conditions influence propensity for weeds and insects to proliferate in any given field area. Research has indicated distinct field patterns favorable for weed growth and insect concentration, which can provide further assistance for targeted spraying. PMID:12846320

  1. Modelling approach for biological control of insect pest by releasing infected pest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan Yuanshun [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing Jiaotong University, Chongqing 400074 (China); Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Liaoning 116024 (China)], E-mail: ystan625@yahoo.com.cn; Chen Lansun [Department of Applied Mathematics, Dalian University of Technology, Liaoning 116024 (China); Minnan Science and Technology Institute, Fujian Normal University, 362332 Fujian (China)

    2009-01-15

    Models of biological control have a long history of theoretical development that have focused on the interactions between a predator and a prey. Here we have extended the classical epidemic model to include a continuous and impulsive pest control strategies by releasing the infected pests bred in laboratory. For the continuous model, the results imply that the susceptible pest goes to extinct if the threshold condition R{sub 0} < 1. While R{sub 0} > 1, the positive equilibrium of continuous model is globally asymptotically stable. Similarly, the threshold condition which guarantees the global stability of the susceptible pest-eradication periodic solution is obtained for the model with impulsive control strategy. Consequently, based on the results obtained in this paper, the control strategies which maintain the pests below an acceptably low level are discussed by controlling the release rate and impulsive period. Finally, the biological implications of the results and the efficiency of two control strategies are also discussed.

  2. The ABCs of Non-Toxic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Susan

    1990-01-01

    Although chemical-intensive pest control methods have proven reasonably effective, a growing awareness of health and environmental risks associated with pesticides has sharpened public interest in safer alternatives. An integrated pest management approach reduces risks from pests while minimizing human exposure and reducing the toxicity of applied…

  3. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization of biological pest control with impulsive dynamics in soybean crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Rodrigo T N; da Cruz, André R; Wanner, Elizabeth F; Takahashi, Ricardo H C

    2009-08-01

    The biological pest control in agriculture, an environment-friendly practice, maintains the density of pests below an economic injury level by releasing a suitable quantity of their natural enemies. This work proposes a multi-objective numerical solution to biological pest control for soybean crops, considering both the cost of application of the control action and the cost of economic damages. The system model is nonlinear with impulsive control dynamics, in order to cope more effectively with the actual control action to be applied, which should be performed in a finite number of discrete time instants. The dynamic optimization problem is solved using the NSGA-II, a fast and trustworthy multi-objective genetic algorithm. The results suggest a dual pest control policy, in which the relative price of control action versus the associated additional harvest yield determines the usage of either a low control action strategy or a higher one.

  4. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 61

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past years it has often been pointed out that the name of the Insect and Pest Control Subprogramme of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, and the name of this newsletter (Insect and Pest Control Newsletter) create confusion and expectations for control of rats, birds, weeds and other non-insect pests but which are not within our mandate. All work within the Subprogramme has been on insect pests, and in 1999 an external review recommended a change to Insect Pest Control Subprogramme since this is simpler, reduces confusion and retains the good recognition and high reputation that already exists. The IAEA management implemented this recommendation and consequently, as of this issue this newsletter is entitled Insect Pest Control Newsletter. There was a very constructive consultant's meeting recently held in Vienna on the development of genetic sexing strains for the codling moth, for which the demand for SIT application is significantly increasing. Based on the discussions during this meeting a real opportunity seems now to exist to move the field of Lepidoptera genetic sexing forward. The possibility of using an allele of a dominant lethal mutation, such as the temperature sensitive Notch, in the development of a genetic sexing system for codling moth is very exciting. As emerged during the meeting, if an appropriate allele of this mutation can be inserted onto the female determining chromosome of codling moth, through transformation, then it may be possible to kill female embryos with a cold temperature treatment. Another approach could be to translocate an autosomal insertion of the gene onto the female determining chromosome. If the insert of the dominant lethal mutation also included a gene expressing a fluorescent protein then the strain would also have a visible marker for the sexing procedure. This latter is very important for any use of a sexing strain in mass rearing. There appear to be few technical constraints to demonstrating 'proof of principle' for

  5. Reducing losses inflicted by insect pests on cashew, using weaver ants as a biological control agent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anato, Florence; Wargui, Rosine; Sinzogan, Antonio;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cashew (Anacardium occidentale Linnaeus) is the largest agricultural export product in Benin. However, yields and quality are lost due to inefficient pest control. Weaver ants (Oecophylla spp.) may control pests in this crop as they eat and deter pests. In Benin, cashew pest damages......, nut quality and yield were compared among: (i) trees with weaver ant (Oecophylla longinoda Latreille), (ii) trees where weaver ants were fed sugar, (iii) IPM trees with weaver ants combined with GF-120 (a natural insecticide), and (iv) control trees receiving no control measures. RESULTS: Thrips...... damages on nuts were higher than other damage symptoms and significantly lower on control trees compared to other treatments. Percentage of first quality nuts was higher in the control compared to ants treatments, but not different from the IPM-treatment. However, compared to the control treatment, ants...

  6. A review and Extension of Economic Pest Control Model Incorporating Multi-Pest Species and Insect Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Rex

    1996-01-01

    Most pest control models are extensions of classical production theory which states that a producer will increase the use of a variable input to the point where the marginal cost of the input is equal to the marginal benefit. There have been several useful and sophisticated extensions of this model that incorporate complexities of agricultural production such as pesticide externalities, insect resistance and multiple­ insect species. These extensions have generally been developed incrementall...

  7. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda H. Chen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective for all insect herbivores. Here, I propose that these strategies may only be effective for a subset of pests and geographic regions because most insect pests have complex evolutionary histories that make them difficult to manage. I discuss how crop domestication and human-mediated migration are major evolutionary events that shape the geography of interactions between plants, herbivores, and natural enemies. Insect herbivores can evolve to be pests through three major modes: 1 herbivores associated with the crop wild ancestor may shift onto the domesticated crop, 2 herbivores may host-shift from native host plants onto an introduced crop, or 3 human-mediated migration can introduce insect pests into new cropping regions. The resulting geographic structure can influence the success of pest management by altering ecological factors such as: species distributions, patterns of biodiversity, community structure, and natural enemy attack rates. I discuss how the different modes of insect pest evolution structure a set of relevant questions and approaches for ecological pest management. By acknowledging how agricultural history and geography shape the ecology and evolution of insect pests, we may collectively develop a better capacity to identify where and how ecological pest management approaches can be most broadly effective.

  8. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 58

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter announces the development of a draft international standard to facilitate the transboundary shipment of sterile insects stands out. This was developed in response to requests from Member States and the private sector for regulation of the shipping of sterile insects. The draft standard will be considered, reviewed and hopefully endorsed over the next years by the Interim Commission on Phytosanitary Measures (ICPM), the governing body of the International Plant protection Convention (IPPC). Also of significance are the Fruit Fly Trapping Guidelines that have been developed to support the harmonization of monitoring procedures for these pest insects in view of the increasing fruit fly related transboundary interactions resulting from the rapidly growing trade in agricultural commodities, as well as travel, transport and tourism. An upcoming event also in the normative area is an FAO/IAEA Expert Meeting on 'Risk Assessment of Transgenic Arthropods' to be held at FAO, Rome from 8-12 April, 2002. The objective of the meeting are to a) assess current status of transgenesis in pest arthropods; b) to assess biosafety concerns for transgenic arthropod release; c) to provide guidance for future risk assessment protocols for case by case analysis; and d) to assess the possibility of establishing a working group under IPPC for setting guidelines for development and use of transgenic insect technology. An important event at the end of 2001 was the Resolution on the Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC) adopted by the FAO Conference held in Rome, 2-13 November 2001 (for the full text of the resolution see page 39).. The resolution acknowledges the severity of the trypanosomosis problem in sub-Saharan Africa, and the potential benefits of tsetse elimination, and calls upon affected member nations to include tsetse eradication in their Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers and for the FAO to support them in their efforts to

  9. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nian-Feng Wan; Xiang-Yun Ji; Jie-Xian Jiang; Bo Li

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially ap...

  10. Economics of area-wide pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Area-wide pest management is commonly practised throughout the world, probably much more so than is generally recognised (Lindquist 2000, Klassen 2000). Apart from highly publicised area-wide schemes such as the sterile insect technique (SIT) for fruit flies, pheromone disruption for cotton bollworms and classical biological control, there are many examples of actions such as concerted host plant eradication, enforced closed crop seasons, organised pesticide rotation for resistance management, coordination of resistant crop genotypes, etc., some going back several centuries, which should also be considered as area-wide practices. Each of these is faced with many of the economic issues generally associated with area-wide management which will be discussed below. In general, there are to be four major questions to answer in devising an area-wide pest management programme: 1) Should a particular pest be controlled locally or area-wide? 2) What is an appropriate area over which management should be attempted? 3) Within that area what form of control is most efficient? 4) What level of organisation should be used to get the job done? It should be noted that apart from clearly objective measures such as technical effectiveness (say, mortality) or cost efficiency (mortality per dollar), there are many subjective measures that come into the evaluation of area-wide control due to the element of risk (for example, in quarantine and eradication), the boundaries of externalities (for example, variable probabilities of pesticide drift under different conditions or target organism sensitivities) and time preferences for returns on capital investments (such as insect rearing facilities or research to develop pheromone technologies). As a result of these subjective components, it may sometimes be difficult to reach clearly agreed decisions based on objective economic analyses, even with a consensus on the data used. There are three general classes of economic problems in comparing

  11. THE CONTROL OF PESTS IN ECOSYSTEMS BY UNCHEMICAL METHODS

    OpenAIRE

    H BUNESCU; I GHIZDAVU; G MIHAI; I OLTEAN; M PORCA; BODIŞ, I.

    2003-01-01

    The most important way to control the pests is to not use chemicals, preventing the environmental pollution in the different ecosystems. We proposed to study and apply the unchemical methods according to ecological pest management, to control some pesticide resistant pests. The research has been oriented to the physical methods: the use of the light radiation reflected by different materials (supports), directly applied on the hostplant leaves or on the ground, which remove the insects from t...

  12. DEFENSINAS DE PLANTAS Y SU USO POTENCIAL COMO CONTROLADORES DE PLAGAS EN LA AGRICULTURA Plant Defensins and Their Potential Use as Pest Control in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA CAROLINA ROJAS ARIAS

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Las plantas, al igual que todos los organismos de la naturaleza, poseen elaborados sistemas de defensa contra patógenos, que pueden ser físicos y químicos, y producirse de forma constitutiva e inducida. Dentro de las barreras químicas inducidas se encuentra el grupo de proteínas de bajo peso molecular denominadas péptidos antimicrobianos (AMPs, al cual pertenecen las defensinas, péptidos con peso molecular entre 5 a 7 kDa, punto isoeléctrico de 9, y longitud de 45 a 55 aminoácidos; que tienen la capacidad de inhibir efectivamente el crecimiento de microorganismos fitopatógenos, en su mayoría hongos, y además, generan resistencia a condiciones abióticas de estrés en plantas. Este texto pretende realizar una descripción clara y actual de las características e investigaciones recientes con relación a las defensinas de plantas y sus más destacados usos en el control de patógenos en cultivos de importancia económica. Se plantea además la necesidad de profundizar en el conocimiento de dichas proteínas para su uso en estrategias de control tales como la producción de plantas y microorganismos transgénicos.ABSTRACT Plants, as all organisms in nature, have elaborate systems of defense against pathogens; which can be physical or chemical and produced in a constitutive and induced way. Among the induced chemical barriers, there is a group of low molecular weight proteins, known as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs. These peptides include defensins, which are peptides with a molecular weight about 5 to 7 kDa, isoelectric point of 9, and length of about 45 to 55 amino acids. Likewise, they have the ability to avoid the growth of phytopathogenic microorganisms, mainly funguses. Moreover, these peptides create resistance to abiotic conditions of stress in plants. This manuscript seeks to make a clear and current description about the recent characteristics and researches related to plant defensins and their most significant uses in

  13. Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation is effective against all arthropod pests at various life stages tested. Nine insect pests at various life stages and bulb mites were subjected to nitric oxide fumigation treatments under ultralow oxygen conditions of =50 ppm O2 in 1.9L glass jars as fumigation chambers. The ...

  14. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 73, July 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue of the Newsletter reports on status of technical cooperation field projects, coordinated research projects and research coordination meetings, developments at the Entomology Unit Seibersdorf, training courses offered on insect pest control as well as news items on other activities of the Insect Pest Control Section

  15. Applying weather index insurance to agricultural pest and disease risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norton, Michael; Sprundel, van Gert Jan; Turvey, Calum G.; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the application of weather index insurance to plant pest and disease management strategies using two distinct models: (1) insuring crop loss due to disease incidence (“Crop Insurance”) and (2) insuring the use of pesticides (“Pesticide Insurance”). We find that despite t

  16. Chemical environment manipulation for pest insects control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, J. A.; Lewis, W. J.

    1983-01-01

    The chemical environment of pest species may be considered a habitat susceptible to management Management may be by means of manipulation of the environment of the pest for population suppression or for enhancement of natural enemies Examples of each are reviewed here Chemical stimuli influencing the behavior of phytophagous insects include host plant originated stimuli and pheromones The latter, especially sex pheromones, have proved most successful as tools for manipulation of pest population dynamics Factors influencing search behavior of natural enemies include habitat characteristics such as crop, associated plants and plant assemblages, host plant characteristics, influence of associated organisms, and characteristics of the searching entomophage Recent studies have shown potential for simultaneous management of a pest species and enhancement of natural enemies using pest pheromones

  17. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is basically a novel twentieth century approach to insect birth control. It is species specific and exploits the mate seeking behaviour of the insect. The basic principle is simple. Insects are mass reared in 'factories' and sexually sterilized by gamma rays from a 60Co source. The sterile insects are then released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produced no progeny. If enough of these matings take place, reproduction of the pest population decreases. With continued release, the pest population can be controlled and in some cases eradicated. In the light of the many important applications of the SIT worldwide and the great potential that SIT concepts hold for insect and pest control in developing countries, two special benefits should be stressed. Of greatest significance is the fact that the SIT permits suppression and eradication of insect pests in an environmentally harmless manner. It combines nuclear techniques with genetic approaches and, in effect, replaces intensive use of chemicals in pest control. Although chemicals are used sparingly at the outset in some SIT programmes to reduce the size of the pest population before releases of sterilized insects are started, the total amount of chemicals used in an SIT programme is a mere fraction of what would be used without the SIT. It is also of great importance that the SIT is not designed strictly for the eradication of pest species but can readily be used in the suppression of insect populations. In fact, the SIT is ideally suited for use in conjunction with other agricultural pest control practices such as the use of parasites and predators, attractants and cultural controls (e.g. ploughing under or destruction of crop residues) in integrated pest management programmes to achieve control at the lowest possible price and with a minimum of chemical contamination of the environment

  18. Innovative Solutions to New Invaders: Managing Agricultural Pests, Diseases and Weeds Under Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholls, Trevor; Norgrove, Lindsey; Masters, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Global agriculture is struggling to keep pace with increasing demands for food as human population increases and food preferences alter. Changes in temperature, greenhouse gas concentrations, precipitation patterns and radiation further challenge farmers. Insect and nematode pests, plant diseases and weeds are major constraints to crop production. Developing models to project the potential distribution and abundance of a pest species under various climate change scenarios is essential, and th...

  19. An Empirical Study on Farmers' Satisfaction with Agricultural Social Service Based on Principal-Agent Theory——A Case of Regional Pest Control Program in China%基于委托—代理视角的农业社会化服务满意度评价研究——以病虫害统防统治为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐斌; 应瑞瑶

    2015-01-01

    农户满意是推行农作物病虫害统防统治服务并使其长期进行下去的重要条件. 本文基于委托-代理( Principal-Agent)理论实证分析了农户对农作物病虫害统防统治服务满意度评价机制. 研究结果表明,农户采纳农作物病虫害统防统治服务后,农作物的亩产量和病虫害防治成本变化是影响农户满意度的显著变量;农户的种植规模越大,其对病虫害统防统治服务满意度的评价越低;农户放弃病虫害自防自治而采纳病虫害统防统治服务的转换成本对农户满意度的影响在经济发展水平不同的村庄存在明显差异. 在上述分析基础上,本文提出强化对植保部门的财政投入,不断提升病虫害防治效果,要根据经济发展水平实施差异化补贴等政策建议.%Farmers' satisfaction is an important prerequisite for carrying on Regional Pest Control program for a long time. Based on Principal-Agent theory,this paper conducted an empirical analysis of farmers' satisfaction evaluation on Regional Pest Control program. The results show that the changes of yields and pest control costs have apparent relationship with farmers' satisfaction with Regional Pest Control program; Farmers' satisfaction with Regional Pest Control program will decrease with growing planting scale. The effect of the switching cost for farmers' adopting Regional Pest Control program on farmers' satisfaction the program among different villages is different. Based on the above analysis,this paper suggests that it is necessary to strengthen fiscal support for Regional Pest Control program in agriculture. It is recommended that the fiscal subsidies for Regional Pest Control program should be implemented according to the regional economic development level.

  20. Companion and refuge plants to control insect pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci and aphids are major pests of crops in the southeast USA. An environmentally-friendly management strategy is “push-pull” technology which combines the use of repellent (“push”) and trap crops (“pull”) for insect pest control. The repellent crop,...

  1. Mechanisms of using mutations in pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditional chemically based methods for insect control have been shown to have serious limitations, and many alternative approaches have been developed and evaluated, including those based on the use of different types of mutation. The mutagenic action of ionizing radiation was well known in the field of genetics long before it was realized by entomologists that it might be used to induce dominant lethal mutations in insects, which, when released, could sterilize wild female insects. The use of radiation to induce dominant lethal mutations in the sterile insect technique is now a major component of many large and successful programs for pest suppression and eradication. Specific types of mutations can also be used to make improvements to the sterile insect technique, especially for the development of strains for the production of only male insects for sterilization and release. These strains utilize male translocations and a variety of selectable mutations, either conditional or visible, so that at some stages of development, the males can be separated from the females. (author)

  2. Ribonucleic acid interference (RNAi) and control of citrus pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribonucleic acid interference, RNAi, applications and function are described for the non-scientist to bring a better understanding of how this emerging technology is providing environmentally friendly, non-transgenic, insect pest control. ...

  3. Insect pest control newsletter. No. 63

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Second International Conference on Areawide Insect Pest Control sponsored by FAO and IAEA will be held from 9 to 13 May, 2005 in Vienna, Austria. This conference will provide a forum for the presentation of scientific papers dealing with areawide insect management programmes, including those applying the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and will include significant time for plenary discussion. The framework of the conference is being developed and the announcement with details of the Conference can be found under http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/Meetings/Meetings2005.asp. It is planned to hold several Research Coordination Meetings in conjunction with this meeting. The Interregional Training Course on The Use of the Sterile Insect and Related Techniques for the Integrated Areawide Management of Insect Pests, was held from 4 May to 1 June 2004 in Gainesville, Florida, USA. This is a unique course that provides participants with a complete overview of all aspects related to areawide and SIT operational programmes. Both USA and external lecturers participated with an adequate balance between theory and practical laboratory and field exercises. Third, the SIT programme in Madeira is in negotiations with a private company regarding some type of partnership to ensure sustainability of the programme when EC funding comes to an end. These developments have been followed very closely by the sub-programme and we have been involved in providing advice, developing collaborative links and interacting at the R and D and technology transfer levels. There will be ample scope for further collaboration when these initiatives become fully realized. The fifth meeting of the Working Group on Fruit Flies of the Western Hemisphere (WGFFWH) took place in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, from 16 to 21 May 2004 and more than 200 participants attended. The meeting has a very unique format where scientists, action programme managers and the industry interact, greatly encouraging discussions and

  4. Use of biorational for the vegetable pest control in the north of Sinaloa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Berenice González Maldonado

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Sinaloa the vegetable and cucurbits production are important agricultural activities, so each year a high volume of chemicalinsecticides are applied to pest control that attack these crops. This paper present the main pests insects in the region, as wellas an analysis about effects of biorational insecticides on these pests. Was found that for control of Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is used Neem oil 0.2%., for kill nymphs of Bactericera cockerelli Sulc. (Homoptera: Psyllidae soursop Annona muricata L. (Annonales: Annonaceae at doses of 2500-5000 mg/L., for Liriomyza trifolii Burgess (Diptera: Agromyzidae neem seeds 2%., to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae rapeseed oil at doses 920 g/L (2% v/v., to Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae spinosad (Conserve® 48-60 mg/L., and for Phthorimaea operculella Zeller (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae granular viruses (105 OBs/mL combined with neem (DalNeem TM emulsifiable oil and NeemAzal TM -T/S at doses of 8 mg/L, everyone. The use of these products and the dose depends on the type of pest and crop. In general these products cause insect mortality greater than 95%, besides having low toxicity on natural enemies, so that these can be used individually or in combination in integrated pest control schemes against vegetable pests, and also for disease vectors insects in the northern of Sinaloa.

  5. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effective use of these wasps against target pests. The main aim of this thesis is to investigate criteria and methods for identification and selection of Trichogramma species/strains for biological control...

  6. Low Energy Technology. A Unit of Instruction in Florida Agriculture. Crop Protection with Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences.

    This unit of instruction on integrated pest management was designed for use by agribusiness and natural resources teachers in Florida high schools and by agricultural extension agents as they work with adults and students. It is one of a series of 11 instructional units (see note) written to help teachers and agents to educate their students and…

  7. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  8. Biologically Based Methods for Pest Management in Agriculture under Changing Climates: Challenges and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casper Nyamukondiwa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The current changes in global climatic regimes present a significant societal challenge, affecting in all likelihood insect physiology, biochemistry, biogeography and population dynamics. With the increasing resistance of many insect pest species to chemical insecticides and an increasing organic food market, pest control strategies are slowly shifting towards more sustainable, ecologically sound and economically viable options. Biologically based pest management strategies present such opportunities through predation or parasitism of pests and plant direct or indirect defense mechanisms that can all be important components of sustainable integrated pest management programs. Inevitably, the efficacy of biological control systems is highly dependent on natural enemy-prey interactions, which will likely be modified by changing climates. Therefore, knowledge of how insect pests and their natural enemies respond to climate variation is of fundamental importance in understanding biological insect pest management under global climate change. Here, we discuss biological control, its challenges under climate change scenarios and how increased global temperatures will require adaptive management strategies to cope with changing status of insects and their natural enemies.

  9. 9 CFR 3.84 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and pest control. 3.84 Section 3.84 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... controlled so as to facilitate cleaning of the premises and pest control. (d) Pest control. An...

  10. Review of nonchemical methods for controlling stored products pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumigation of stored products with methyl bromide has been an important means of limiting the loss of quality and quantity of these commodities that are subject to attack by cosmopolitan stored product pests. Methyl bromide was identified as a substance depleting ozone, and is expected to be withdrawn from production, importation, and use in Poland and other countries soon after 2000. Based on the current knowledge, most of alternatives to methyl bromide (controlled atmospheres, heat, cold, irradiation, biotechnical methods, inert dusts, biological methods, sanitation) have researchable gaps or other constraints. None of these alternatives used alone will replace methyl bromide. Successful pest control in the absence of methyl bromide will require the development of sophisticated pest monitoring and decision support systems to enable the use of integrated pest management strategies. (author)

  11. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 86, January 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2015 we concluded the six-year Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on “Resolution of Cryptic Species Complexes of Tephritid Pests to Overcome Constraints to SIT Application and International Trade”. The objective of the CRP was to undertake targeted research into the systematics and diagnostics of taxonomically challenging fruit fly groups of economic importance. Close to 50 researchers from over 20 countries participated in the CRP, conducting coordinated, multidisciplinary research to address, with an integrative taxonomic framework, cryptic species complexes of major tephritid pests. One of the scientific outputs of the CRP was the accurate alignment of some biological species with taxonomic names. The resolution of some of these controversial issues has important applied implications for FAO and IAEA Member States, both in overcoming technical constraints to the application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) against pest fruit flies and in facilitating international agricultural trade

  12. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 74, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I would like to thank all our collaborators in many parts of the world, as well as our staff and colleagues in Vienna and Seibersdorf for a fruitful year 2009. Besides our participation and support to many events and interesting research, field, and knowledge management activities, the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme has been involved in a number of external reviews and is undergoing change as part of a major reform process at FAO and also important restructurings and new leadership at IAEA. It is now 45 years ago that FAO and IAEA joined forces in a partnership through a Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, the oldest example of institutionalized interagency cooperation in the United Nations system. The Joint Division has been developing and is building on the synergies that exist between the mandates of FAO, as the lead agency in food security, agriculture and rural development, and the IAEA, as the global forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nevertheless, during the past two years, as a result of the above reform process, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been subject to a period of much uncertainty about the future of this partnership. I am now very pleased to be able to inform that following an exchange of formal notes between the senior management of FAO and IAEA in mid 2009, the Arrangements between the Directors General of FAO and IAEA for the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture remain in force. This is a confirmation of the strong support that has been received from Member States of both FAO and IAEA during the last two years requesting the continuation of the successful partnership between both organizations

  13. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 84, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 29 September 2014, a ceremony was held in Seibersdorf, Austria to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, as well as the ground-breaking for the renovation of the IAEA’s Nuclear Sciences and Applications laboratories at Seibersdorf – including the FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratories. The enormous contributions of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division during the past 50 years were also honoured, serving stakeholders worldwide to meet the changing needs of Member States through the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies based on the shared goals of our two parent organizations and the five strategic objectives of FAO. Established on 1 October 1964, this FAO/IAEA partnership still remains unique, with its key strengths based on interagency cooperation within the United Nations family. It is a tangible joint organizational entity with a fusion of complementary mandates, common targets, a joint programme, co-funding and coordinated management geared to demand- driven and results-based services to its Members and to the international community at large. The mission of the Joint Division has proactively evolved to address new challenges in Member States and nuclear applications continue to provide added value to conventional approaches in addressing a range of agricultural problems and issues, including food safety, animal production and health, crop improvement, insect pest control and sustainable use of finite natural resources. Over the past 50 years, this partnership has brought countless successes with distinct socio-economic impact at country, regional and global levels in Member States. The 50 year anniversary was taken as an opportunity to highlight examples of tangible, sustainable results derived out of this unique partnership – beneficial to Member States of both parent organizations – and to share these with our many stakeholders around the world

  14. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 57

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsetse and trypanosomosis are at the root of low agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa and the removal of this factor would be a major contributor for large- scale poverty reduction in this region. Whilst removal of the disease would allow other constraining issues to become priorities such as the presence of other disease, lack of feed, poor husbandry skills and lack of markets for dairy products, without the removal of the threat of trypanosomosis there can be no progress, and for many in this region, no way out of staying hungry. Significantly though, during the past five years there has been an increasing awareness that the final elimination of the tsetse fly from areas can be achieved through the integrated use of the sterile insect technique (SIT). Reduction of tsetse fly populations has always been achievable but not sustainable. The area-wide application of SIT offers a realistic, affordable and environmentally acceptable way to complete the task by eliminating the final remaining flies. Although the effective use of SIT for fly elimination requires a reduction of fly populations by around 95%, this has often been achieved but not sustained due to the recurrent cost and logistics of fly control. The fact that use of SIT can achieve final eradication of the fly and hence the disease has been dramatically demonstrated on the island of Zanzibar. Recognizing this fact and in response to the increasing problem of African trypanosomosis, the Heads of African States and Governments, at their 36th Summit Meeting in Lome, Togo, 10-12 July 2000, adopted a Decision on Proposal for Eradication of Tsetse Flies on the African Continent. In this decision, AHG/Dec.156 (XXXVI), the Assembly of countries that have initiated the application of the SIT for their pioneering effort, and invited the OAU to lead the establishment of a Pan- African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign (PATTEC). The Programme Against African Trypanosomosis (PAAT), which is a

  15. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system.

  16. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of “land sharing” (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. “land sparing” (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  17. Effects of land use on bird populations and pest control services on coffee farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Railsback, Steven F; Johnson, Matthew D

    2014-04-22

    Global increases in both agriculture and biodiversity awareness raise a key question: Should cropland and biodiversity habitat be separated, or integrated in mixed land uses? Ecosystem services by wildlife make this question more complex. For example, birds benefit agriculture by preying on pest insects, but other habitat is needed to maintain the birds. Resulting land use questions include what areas and arrangements of habitat support sufficient birds to control pests, whether this pest control offsets the reduced cropland, and the comparative benefits of "land sharing" (i.e., mixed cropland and habitat) vs. "land sparing" (i.e., separate areas of intensive agriculture and habitat). Such questions are difficult to answer using field studies alone, so we use a simulation model of Jamaican coffee farms, where songbirds suppress the coffee berry borer (CBB). Simulated birds select habitat and prey in five habitat types: intact forest, trees (including forest fragments), shade coffee, sun coffee, and unsuitable habitat. The trees habitat type appears to be especially important, providing efficient foraging and roosting sites near coffee plots. Small areas of trees (but not forest alone) could support a sufficient number of birds to suppress CBB in sun coffee; the degree to which trees are dispersed within coffee had little effect. In simulations without trees, shade coffee supported sufficient birds to offset its lower yield. High areas of both trees and shade coffee reduced pest control because CBB was less often profitable prey. Because of the pest control service provided by birds, land sharing was predicted to be more beneficial than land sparing in this system. PMID:24711377

  18. Control of insect pests with electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of electron beams with an energy of 2.5 MeV on insect pests were slightly smaller than those of gamma-rays. Electron beams at 400 Gy inactivated all the pests for cut flowers tested; spider mite (Tetraychus urticae), mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki), leaf miner (Liriomyza trifolii), thrips (Thrips palmi, and Thrips tabaci), cutworm (Spodoptera litura) and aphid (Myzus persicae). Carnation, alstromeria, gladiolus, tulip, statice, stock, dendrobium, prairie gentian, oncidium, campanula, gloriosa, fern, gypsophila, freesia, lobelia, triteleia and gerbera were tolerant to electron beams at 400-600 Gy, while chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, antherium, sweet pea and iris were intolerant. Radiation-induced deterioration of chrysanthemum could be prevented by post-irradiation treatment with commercial preservative solutions or sugar solutions. Soft-electrons at 60 keV effectively inactivated eggs, larvae and pupae of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella) and eggs of adzuki bean weevil (Callosobruchus chinensis) at a dose of 1 kGy. The adults of T. castaneum and P. interpunctella were inactivated by electron treatment at 5.0 kGy and 7.5 kGy, respectively. Adults of C. chinensis survived at 7.5 kGy, but were inactivated having lost ability to walk at 2.5 kGy. Soft-electrons at 60 keV could not completely inactivate the larvae of C. chinensis and smaller larvae (2nd instar) of maize weevil (Stiophilus zeamais) inside beans and grains, because the electrons with low penetration did not reach the larvae due to the shield of beans or grains. However, soft-electrons at 60 keV inactivated eggs, larger larvae (4th instar) and pupae of S. zeamais in rice grains, which indicated that S. zeamais was exposed to electrons even inside the grains. (author)

  19. 基于 Logit模型的农户病虫害专业化防治意愿及影响因素分析--以镇江市为例%Farmers’ Willingness to Accept Specialized Control against Agricultural Diseases and Pests and Its Influencing Factors Based on Logit Model:A Case Study of Zhenjiang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱友理; 邱晓红; 吴小美; 何东兵

    2015-01-01

    Based on the field survey data of farmers in Zhenjiang city , the author analyzed farmers ’ willingness to accept spe-cialized control against agricultural diseases and pests as well as its influencing factors by using polynomial Logit model .It was found that:the native place and age of farmers had no significant influences on their willingness to accept specialized control against agri -cultural diseases and pests;the educated level of farmers had significant ( P<0.1) negative influences on their selection of “control-ling agricultural diseases and pests for farmers” and “undertaking the whole field management for farmers”;the farming population in household had significant negative influences on farmer ’ s selection of “controlling agricultural diseases and pests for farmers” and“undertaking the whole field management for farmers” at 1%and 5%level respectively;the cultivated area of farmers had signifi-cant ( P<0.01) positive influences on their selection .%基于对镇江市农户的实地调查数据,利用多项Logit模型分析了农户病虫害专业化防治意愿及其影响因素。发现:籍贯和年龄对农户专业化防治意愿无显著影响;受教育程度对农户选择“代防代治”和“全程承包”在10%水平上有显著负向影响;家庭务农人数对农户选择“代防代治”和“全程承包”分别在1%和5%水平上有显著负向影响;种植面积对农户选择“代防代治”和“全程承包”均在1%水平上有显著正向影响。

  20. Intercropping as cultural pest control: Prospects and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Stephen J.

    1983-01-01

    Agriculturalists have been intercropping (simultaneously growing several crops in the same field) for centuries, and the use of polycultures continues as an important form of agriculture among indigenous peoples in the New and Old World tropics and subtropics One demonstrated advantage of intercropping is a reduction in insect pest populations, explained by higher numbers of natural insect enemies in the intercrop and/or reduced herbivore colonization and tenure time in the intercrop A review of 150 published field studies in which 198 herbivore species were studied shows that 53% of the pest species were less abundant in the intercrop, 18% were more abundant in the intercrop, 9% showed no difference, and 20% showed a variable response Two major problems of the published studies are 1) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating that reduced pest numbers in the intercrop resulted in higher yield, and 2) lack of experimental evidence demonstrating the ecological mechanisms responsible for the intercrop effect There is some theoretical and empirical work suggesting that herbivore movement patterns, rather than natural insect enemies, are often more important in accounting for reduced pest abundance in an intercrop Several examples from the author's work are presented that demonstrate ways of studying the ecological mechanisms underlying pest suppression in intercrops. The successful design of new intercropping systems to reduce pests will require a better theoretical understanding of such ecological mechanisms It is emphasized that intercropping has potential in both developed and developing countries and that many of the impediments to incorporating appropriate strategies of diversification are social rather than technological

  1. Mechanisms for flowering plants to benefit arthropod natural enemies of insect pests: prospects for enhanced use in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhong-Xian; Zhu, Ping-Yang; Gurr, Geoff M; Zheng, Xu-Song; Read, Donna M Y; Heong, Kong-Luen; Yang, Ya-Jun; Xu, Hong-Xing

    2014-02-01

    Reduction of noncrop habitats, intensive use of pesticides and high levels of disturbance associated with intensive crop production simplify the farming landscape and bring about a sharp decline of biodiversity. This, in turn, weakens the biological control ecosystem service provided by arthropod natural enemies. Strategic use of flowering plants to enhance plant biodiversity in a well-targeted manner can provide natural enemies with food sources and shelter to improve biological control and reduce dependence on chemical pesticides. This article reviews the nutritional value of various types of plant-derived food for natural enemies, possible adverse effects on pest management, and the practical application of flowering plants in orchards, vegetables and field crops, agricultural systems where most research has taken place. Prospects for more effective use of flowering plants to maximize biological control of insect pests in agroecosystem are good but depend up on selection of optimal plant species based on information on the ecological mechanisms by which natural enemies are selectively favored over pest species.

  2. Nuke 'Em! Library Pest Control Using a Microwave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezner, Jerome; Luner, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the threats to books and periodicals posed by such insects as book lice, termites, cockroaches, silverfish, firebrats, and beetles; reviews past methods of pest control; and describes a technique for insect control using microwaves. The results of tests of microwave effects on publications are reported, necessary precautions are…

  3. Parasitoids as biological control agents of thrips pests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Thysanoptera, Frankliniella occidentalis, Hymenoptera, Ceranisus menes, Ceranisus americensis, biological controlThe thesis presented here is the result of a joint European Research project "Biological Control of Thrips Pests". Specific aims of the project were to collect, evaluate, mass p

  4. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  5. Multi-State Dependent Impulsive Control for Pest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huidong Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the integrated pest management strategies, we propose a model for pest control which adopts different control methods at different thresholds. By using differential equation geometry theory and the method of successor functions, we prove the existence of order one periodic solution of such system, and further, the attractiveness of the order one periodic solution by sequence convergence rules and qualitative analysis. Numerical simulations are carried out to illustrate the feasibility of our main results. Our results show that our method used in this paper is more efficient and easier than the existing ones for proving the existence of order one periodic solution.

  6. New dispenser types for integrated pest management of agriculturally significant insect pests: an algorithm with specialized searching capacity in electronic data bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, H E; Eisinger, M T; Hein, D F; Breuer, M; Schmid, S; Leithold, G

    2012-01-01

    Pheromone effects discovered some 130 years, but scientifically defined just half a century ago, are a great bonus for basic and applied biology. Specifically, pest management efforts have been advanced in many insect orders, either for purposes or monitoring, mass trapping, or for mating disruption. Finding and applying a new search algorithm, nearly 20,000 entries in the pheromone literature have been counted, a number much higher than originally anticipated. This compilation contains identified and thus synthesizable structures for all major orders of insects. Among them are hundreds of agriculturally significant insect pests whose aggregated damages and costly control measures range in the multibillions of dollars annually. Unfortunately, and despite a lot of effort within the international entomological scene, the number of efficient and cheap engineering solutions for dispensing pheromones under variable field conditions is uncomfortably lagging behind. Some innovative approaches are cited from the relevant literature in an attempt to rectify this situation. Recently, specifically designed electrospun organic nanofibers offer a lot of promise. With their use, the mating communication of vineyard insects like Lobesia botrana (Lep.: Tortricidae) can be disrupted for periods of seven weeks. PMID:23885431

  7. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities.

    OpenAIRE

    Kupferschmied P.; Maurhofer M.; Keel C.

    2013-01-01

    Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficientl...

  8. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kupferschmied, Peter; Maurhofer, Monika; Keel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficientl...

  9. THE CONTROL OF PESTS IN ECOSYSTEMS BY UNCHEMICAL METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H BUNESCU

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The most important way to control the pests is to not use chemicals, preventing the environmental pollution in the different ecosystems. We proposed to study and apply the unchemical methods according to ecological pest management, to control some pesticide resistant pests. The research has been oriented to the physical methods: the use of the light radiation reflected by different materials (supports, directly applied on the hostplant leaves or on the ground, which remove the insects from the damaged zone; the use of visual traps (coloured panels and coloured plates, which attract and capture the insects. The researches were carried out in 2002, with five experiences organised in two ecosystems (orchard and mountain grazing. The both categories of methods were very effective.

  10. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  11. Review of anthraquinone applications for pest management and agricultural crop protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLiberto, Shelagh T; Werner, Scott J

    2016-10-01

    We have reviewed published anthraquinone applications for international pest management and agricultural crop protection from 1943 to 2016. Anthraquinone (AQ) is commonly found in dyes, pigments and many plants and organisms. Avian repellent research with AQ began in the 1940s. In the context of pest management, AQ is currently used as a chemical repellent, perch deterrent, insecticide and feeding deterrent in many wild birds, and in some mammals, insects and fishes. Criteria for evaluation of effective chemical repellents include efficacy, potential for wildlife hazards, phytotoxicity and environmental persistence. As a biopesticide, AQ often meets these criteria of efficacy for the non-lethal management of agricultural depredation caused by wildlife. We summarize published applications of AQ for the protection of newly planted and maturing crops from pest birds. Conventional applications of AQ-based repellents include preplant seed treatments [e.g. corn (Zea mays L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), wheat (Triticum spp.), millet (Panicum spp.), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.), pelletized feed and forest tree species] and foliar applications for rice, sunflower, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), turf, sugar beets (Beta vulgaris L.), soybean (Glycine max L.), sweet corn and nursery, fruit and nut crops. In addition to agricultural repellent applications, AQ has also been used to treat toxicants for the protection of non-target birds. Few studies have demonstrated AQ repellency in mammals, including wild boar (Sus scrofa, L.), thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus, Mitchill), black-tailed prairie dogs (Cyomys ludovicainus, Ord.), common voles (Microtus arvalis, Pallas), house mice (Mus musculus, L.), Tristram's jirds (Meriones tristrami, Thomas) and black rats (Rattus rattus L.). Natural sources of AQ and its derivatives have also been identified as insecticides and insect repellents. As a natural or synthetic biopesticide, AQ

  12. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Home, Institutional, and Structural Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist pest control operators to prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on home, institutional, and structural pest control. The ten sections included describe: (1) Insect control; (2) Rodent control; (3) Special situation pest control; (4)…

  13. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest

    OpenAIRE

    Meynard, Christine N.; Alain Migeon; Maria Navajas

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetr...

  14. Control of stored product pests by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Food irradiation for prevention of food-borne illness and disinfestation of commodities of pests is increasing in a number of countries. The goal of this review is to analyze the literature and current use of irradiation to control stored product pests and suggest research to optimize its potential. Doses to prevent reproduction of stored product pests range from 0.05 kGy for Tenebrio molitor L. to 0.45 kGy for Sitotroga cereallela (Olivier). Small but increasing amounts of grains and pulses are being irradiated in the world today especially in Asia. At least 33 countries permit irradiation of some stored products with 14 countries permitting it for all stored products. Ways in which stored product irradiation research and application may influence other uses of irradiation technology are also discussed. Deactivation of weed seeds might be an area of stored product phytosanitation where irradiation would have an advantage over other measures. (author)

  15. Forest Pest Control and Timber Treatment Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The document is a compilation of pamphlets and circulars which discuss forest management, control of undesirable woody plants, herbicides in forestry, diseases and insect pests, and equipment for pesticide application. (CS)

  16. Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control. Sale Publication 4074.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide gives information for recognition and control of ornamental and turf pests. Included are disease agents, insects and mites, weeds, and vertebrates. Symptoms and causes of phytotoxicity are given, and a discussion is presented of environmental concerns. Application methods and area measurement are also discussed. (BB)

  17. INSECTICIDE CONCENTRATIONS IN AIR AFTER APPLICATION OF PEST CONTROL STRIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contamination of air in homes due to spraying of pesticides is of concern to the public. A pest control strip which kills creeping and crawling insects by contact is one method of reducing the amount of insecticide in the air. Several different insecticides are now available in t...

  18. Identification and evaluation of Trichogramma parasitoids for biological pest control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, I.M.M.S.

    1999-01-01

    Egg parasitoids of the genus Trichogramma are used as biological control agents against lepidopterous pests. From the 180 species described world-wide, only 5 have large scale application. The development of better methods to select other Trichogramma species/strains is necessary for a more effectiv

  19. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  20. Investigating population differentiation in a major African agricultural pest: evidence from geometric morphometrics and connectivity suggests high invasion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, M; Addison, P; Jansen van Vuuren, B; Terblanche, J S

    2016-07-01

    The distribution, spatial pattern and population dynamics of a species can be influenced by differences in the environment across its range. Spatial variation in climatic conditions can cause local populations to undergo disruptive selection and ultimately result in local adaptation. However, local adaptation can be constrained by gene flow and may favour resident individuals over migrants-both are factors critical to the assessment of invasion potential. The Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) is a major agricultural pest in Africa with a history of island invasions, although its range is largely restricted to south east Africa. Across Africa, C. rosa is genetically structured into two clusters (R1 and R2), with these clusters occurring sympatrically in the north of South Africa. The spatial distribution of these genotypic clusters remains unexamined despite their importance for understanding the pest's invasion potential. Here, C. rosa, sampled from 22 South African locations, were genotyped at 11 polymorphic microsatellite loci and assessed morphologically using geometric morphometric wing shape analyses to investigate patterns of population structure and determine connectedness of pest-occupied sites. Our results show little to no intraspecific (population) differentiation, high population connectivity, high effective population sizes and only one morphological type (R2) within South Africa. The absence of the R1 morphotype at sites where it was previously found may be a consequence of differences in thermal niches of the two morphotypes. Overall, our results suggest high invasion potential of this species, that area-wide pest management should be undertaken on a country-wide scale, and that border control is critical to preventing further invasions. PMID:27085997

  1. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  2. Biological control through intraguild predation: case studies in pest control, invasive species and range expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampfylde, C J; Lewis, M A

    2007-04-01

    Intraguild predation (IGP), the interaction between species that eat each other and compete for shared resources, is ubiquitous in nature. We document its occurrence across a wide range of taxonomic groups and ecosystems with particular reference to non-indigenous species and agricultural pests. The consequences of IGP are complex and difficult to interpret. The purpose of this paper is to provide a modelling framework for the analysis of IGP in a spatial context. We start by considering a spatially homogeneous system and find the conditions for predator and prey to exclude each other, to coexist and for alternative stable states. Management alternatives for the control of invasive or pest species through IGP are presented for the spatially homogeneous system. We extend the model to include movement of predator and prey. In this spatial context, it is possible to switch between alternative stable steady states through local perturbations that give rise to travelling waves of extinction or control. The direction of the travelling wave depends on the details of the nonlinear intraguild interactions, but can be calculated explicitly. This spatial phenomenon suggests means by which invasions succeed or fail, and yields new methods for spatial biological control. Freshwater case studies are used to illustrate the outcomes.

  3. Improving spatio-temporal benefit transfers for pest control by generalist predators in cotton in the southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiederholt, Ruscena; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; McCracken, Gary F.; Diffendorfer, Jay E.; Loomis, John B.; Semmens, Darius J.; Russell, Amy L.; Sansone, Chris; LaSharr, Kelsie; Cryan, Paul; Reynoso, Claudia; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Lopez-Hoffman, Laura

    2017-01-01

    Given rapid changes in agricultural practice, it is critical to understand how alterations in ecological, technological, and economic conditions over time and space impact ecosystem services in agroecosystems. Here, we present a benefit transfer approach to quantify cotton pest-control services provided by a generalist predator, the Mexican free-tailed bat (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana), in the southwestern United States. We show that pest-control estimates derived using (1) a compound spatial–temporal model – which incorporates spatial and temporal variability in crop pest-control service values – are likely to exhibit less error than those derived using (2) a simple-spatial model (i.e., a model that extrapolates values derived for one area directly, without adjustment, to other areas) or (3) a simple-temporal model (i.e., a model that extrapolates data from a few points in time over longer time periods). Using our compound spatial–temporal approach, the annualized pest-control value was $12.2 million, in contrast to an estimate of $70.1 million (5.7 times greater), obtained from the simple-spatial approach. Using estimates from one year (simple-temporal approach) revealed large value differences (0.4 times smaller to 2 times greater). Finally, we present a detailed protocol for valuing pest-control services, which can be used to develop robust pest-control transfer functions for generalist predators in agroecosystems.

  4. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 76, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last twelve months the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme hosted an international symposium and co-sponsored another one; organized five research coordination meetings, four regional training courses, three consultants meetings and two workshops; participated in many interesting and successful research activities; provided technical support to over thirty technical cooperation projects in FAO and IAEA Member States, and actively contributed to a number of other international events, panels and advisory committees. In this newsletter you will find information and details about some of the activities enumerated above. These reflect not only our growing commitments and increasing research and normative responsibilities, but also our expanding involvement with additional pest species, although our budget and staff have not increased in proportion. The success of the subprogramme has historically been guaranteed by its focussed approach on a few major pest problems which allowed us to provide our Member States the best support in terms of research, normative assistance and implementation of operational programmes. Despite the continuous demand of FAO and IAEA Member States to expand our support and include more pest insects, we remain conscious that diluting our human and financial resources may jeopardise the high quality service that our Member States deserve

  5. Insect and pest control newsletter. No. 59

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    are located in rural areas, more than 80 percent of the population depends on agricultural production for their livelihood, and half the population suffers from food insecurity

  6. Silicon: Potential to Promote Direct and Indirect Effects on Plant Defense Against Arthropod Pests in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Olivia L; Padula, Matthew P; Zeng, Rensen; Gurr, Geoff M

    2016-01-01

    Silicon has generally not been considered essential for plant growth, although it is well recognized that many plants, particularly Poaceae, have substantial plant tissue concentrations of this element. Recently, however, the International Plant Nutrition Institute [IPNI] (2015), Georgia, USA has listed it as a "beneficial substance". This reflects that numerous studies have now established that silicon may alleviate both biotic and abiotic stress. This paper explores the existing knowledge and recent advances in elucidating the role of silicon in plant defense against biotic stress, particularly against arthropod pests in agriculture and attraction of beneficial insects. Silicon confers resistance to herbivores via two described mechanisms: physical and biochemical/molecular. Until recently, studies have mainly centered on two trophic levels; the herbivore and plant. However, several studies now describe tri-trophic effects involving silicon that operate by attracting predators or parasitoids to plants under herbivore attack. Indeed, it has been demonstrated that silicon-treated, arthropod-attacked plants display increased attractiveness to natural enemies, an effect that was reflected in elevated biological control in the field. The reported relationships between soluble silicon and the jasmonic acid (JA) defense pathway, and JA and herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) suggest that soluble silicon may enhance the production of HIPVs. Further, it is feasible that silicon uptake may affect protein expression (or modify proteins structurally) so that they can produce additional, or modify, the HIPV profile of plants. Ultimately, understanding silicon under plant ecological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular contexts will assist in fully elucidating the mechanisms behind silicon and plant response to biotic stress at both the bi- and tri-trophic levels. PMID:27379104

  7. An overview of the use of isotopes and radiation in pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Sterile Insect Technique and phyto sanitary irradiation treatments protect horticultural markets and livestock of many countries. Furthermore, radiotracers had a very important role in revealing the characteristics and dynamics of several biological systems. The use of sterile insects to control or eradicate pest populations was a revolutionary initiative in entomology conceived at the beginning of the twenty century. In international agricultural markets, the use of radiation as a method for the prevention of quarantine insects represents an important alternative post-harvest pest control, reducing the need for chemical fumigants and other similar toxic products. Radioisotopes allowed the rise of an entire new branch of the study of insects, the radio entomology. Isotopic releases from nuclear operations had demonstrated the utility of radiotracers for studying the dynamics of biological systems. Labeling insects with radiotracers in order to study dispersal, population densities, behavior and food intake became a very popular insect-marking method. (author)

  8. 33 CFR 274.6 - Division/district pest control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Division/district pest control..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.6 Division/district pest control programs. (a) Guides. Referenced technical manuals, and Engineer Circulars...

  9. 50 CFR 35.7 - Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants... MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.7 Control of wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease. To the extent necessary, the Director shall prescribe measures to control wildfires, insects, pest plants, and disease...

  10. Construction of ice nucleation active Enterobacter cloacae for control of insect pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Ice nucleation active (INA) bacteria are the most potent heterogeneous ice nuclei in nature, which have become an important biological resource for diverse applications. Many researches have proved that INA bacteria can raise the supercooling points (SCPs) of insect pests, then reduce their cold hardiness. However, INA bacteria's inefficient colonization on the surface or in the guts of insects, and the high incidence of frost injury induced by their release hampered the application of INA bacteria in controlling insect pests in agricultural fields. In this study, we constructed a recombinant plasmid mob-Tn5-iceA with the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of the ina gene of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition. In addition, Ent. cloacae strains stably carrying iceA and expressing high ice nucleation activity (INA), even in the absence of antibiotic pressure, were constructed through conjugal mobilization and Tn5 transposition. Ent. cloacae strains have been reported to be able to efficiently colonize in the guts of insects, but have weak plant epiphytic ability. Therefore, these transgenic Ent. cloacae may be promising candidates for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  11. A Dynamical Analysis of a Piecewise Smooth Pest Control SI Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Liu, Wanbo; Tao, Fennmei; Kang, Baolin; Cong, Jiguang

    In this paper, we propose a piecewise smooth SI pest control system to model the process of spraying pesticides and releasing infectious pests. We assume that the pest population consists of susceptible pests and infectious pests, and that the disease spreads horizontally between pests. We take the susceptible pest as the control index on whether to implement chemical control and biological control strategies. Based on the theory of Filippov system, the sliding-mode domain and conditions for the existence of real equilibria, virtual equilibria, pseudo-equilibrium and boundary equilibria are given. Further, we show the global stability of real equilibria (or boundary equilibria) and pseudo-equilibrium. Our results can provide theoretical guidance for the problem of pest control.

  12. Control of stored-product pests by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present review deals with the effects of irradiation on some aspects of the biology of major stored-product pests, namely mortality, stages of development, reproductive organs and reproductive potential, histology of the gut, factors influencing irradiation and the synergism of irradiation with other control agents. It also reports on the irradiation effects on stored commodities. Further guidelines for future research have been suggested. (author)

  13. Integrating ecology and technology to create innovative pest control devices

    OpenAIRE

    Blackie, H.; MacMorran, D.; L. Shapiro; Woodhead, I.; Diegel, O.; Murphy, E.; Eason, C. T.

    2011-01-01

    The development of innovative pest management and monitoring tools requires the integration of animal ecology, toxicology and design engineering. Resetting, multi-kill devices offer substantial advantages over current baiting or trapping techniques. This research outlines the development and testing of a longlife, resetting, toxin delivery systems for predator control, which has recently been laboratory and field trialed on stoats (Mustela erminea) and weasels (M. nivalis). Results of laborat...

  14. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Wojciechowska, M.; Stepnowski, P.; Gołębiowski, M.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resi...

  15. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Field Crop Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, M. H.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators to meet the requirements for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on field crop pest control. The five sections presented describe: (1) Field crop pests; (2) Using pesticides in field crops; (3) Weed pests of field crops; (4)…

  16. A genetic perspective on pest control and the future of autocidal control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The benefits and limitations of chemical methods of pest control are acknowledged and the need to find alternatives is recognized at the outset. Genetic methods of control that specifically aim to reduce pest abundance by altering the genetic makeup of individuals in field populations are viewed as one important alternative or adjunct approach to chemical control. There is a tendency to classify methods of pest control according to the predominant discipline involved in the development of the technology. This basis for classification can divert attention from the essentially genetic dimensions of control measures, such as pesticides, synthetic sex pheromones, sterile insect techniques and genetic manipulation, whether by classical cytogenetic methods or recombinant-DNA procedures. By way of contrast, cytoplasmic incompatibility, traditionally viewed as a genetic approach because such phenomena are usually studied by geneticists, is probably more a host/parasite phenomenon. The paper attempts to apply a genetic perspective to the diverse array of control measures currently used by pest managers and examines the prevailing concepts of genetic control of insect pests and whether these have any legitimate claim to becoming practical tools for controlling major insect pests. A serious limitation to the development of genetic methods of pest control has been the absence of sustained genetic studies on important pest species, such as the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) and other pests from the Diptera, Coleoptera and Lepidoptera orders. The application of classical cytogenetic and modern molecular biology techniques offers considerable promise in improving sterile insect techniques and for developing genuinely novel methods of autocidal control. However, these newer techniques are unlikely to realize their full potential if they are not developed hand-in-hand with the more traditional techniques of physiology, biochemistry, behaviour and ecology. 32 refs

  17. Rapid genetic turnover in populations of the insect pest Bemisia tabaci Middle East: Asia Minor 1 in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, A; Schellhorn, N A; De Barro, P; Buckley, Y M; Riginos, C

    2012-10-01

    Organisms differ greatly in dispersal ability, and landscapes differ in amenability to an organism's movement. Thus, landscape structure and heterogeneity can affect genetic composition of populations. While many agricultural pests are known for their ability to disperse rapidly, it is unclear how fast and over what spatial scale insect pests might respond to the temporally dynamic agricultural landscapes they inhabit. We used population genetic analyses of a severe crop pest, a member of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aleyrodoidea: Aleyrodidea) cryptic species complex known as Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (commonly known as biotype B), to estimate spatial and temporal genetic diversity over four months of the 2006-2007 summer growing season. We examined 559 individuals from eight sites, which were scored for eight microsatellite loci. Temporal genetic structure greatly exceeded spatial structure. There was significant temporal change in local genetic composition from the beginning to the end of the season accompanied by heterozygote deficits and inbreeding. This temporal structure suggests entire cohorts of pests can occupy a large and variable agricultural landscape but are rapidly replaced. These rapid genetic fluctuations reinforce the concept that agricultural landscapes are dynamic mosaics in time and space and may contribute to better decisions for pest and insecticide resistance management. PMID:22420748

  18. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 80, January 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On November 28, 2012, with the participation of representatives from Member States and the press, the IAEA commemorated 50 years of IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf, Austria. At a ceremony to mark the anniversary, IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said the Laboratories in Seibersdorf have improved, in the 50 years since they opened, the lives of millions of people through work using nuclear echniques. At the eight nuclear applications laboratories, which include the five FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories, scientists carry out research and development, provide technical services to Member States and host fellows and scientific visitors. He stated that work at the laboratories has made a difference in controlling animal diseases and insect pests in many countries, contributed to more sustainable soil and water management technologies and the development of hardier and more nutritious crops. Scientists at the laboratories have helped communities dentify the best sources of underground water and ensure that this scarce resource is used effectively. They have worked on safe ways to preserve food, and provided vital echnical support for cancer treatment and other medical uses of nuclear technology. New challenges abound in the present and the future, Director General Yukiya Amano said. 'Member States want us to do more in almost all areas of nuclear applications'. He referred to the positive feedback received, reinforcing the critical nature of the services provided by the laboratories, and his announcement to carry out a complete modernization of the Laboratories. His proposal was supported in a resolution of the 56th General Conference, which called upon the IAEA to establish state-of-the-art facilities and equipment at Seibersdorf. The goal, according to the resolution, must be o 'ensure that maximum benefits in terms of capacity-building and technology enhancement are made available to Member States, particularly developing countries.' He pledged

  19. A modelling methodology to assess the effect of insect pest control on agro-ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Nian-Feng; Ji, Xiang-Yun; Jiang, Jie-Xian; Li, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The extensive use of chemical pesticides for pest management in agricultural systems can entail risks to the complex ecosystems consisting of economic, ecological and social subsystems. To analyze the negative and positive effects of external or internal disturbances on complex ecosystems, we proposed an ecological two-sidedness approach which has been applied to the design of pest-controlling strategies for pesticide pollution management. However, catastrophe theory has not been initially applied to this approach. Thus, we used an approach of integrating ecological two-sidedness with a multi-criterion evaluation method of catastrophe theory to analyze the complexity of agro-ecosystems disturbed by the insecticides and screen out the best insect pest-controlling strategy in cabbage production. The results showed that the order of the values of evaluation index (RCC/CP) for three strategies in cabbage production was "applying frequency vibration lamps and environment-friendly insecticides 8 times" (0.80) controlling strategy in cabbage production in Shanghai, China. PMID:25906199

  20. Synergistic interactions of ecosystem services: florivorous pest control boosts crop yield increase through insect pollination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Louis; Albrecht, Matthias

    2016-02-10

    Insect pollination and pest control are pivotal functions sustaining global food production. However, they have mostly been studied in isolation and how they interactively shape crop yield remains largely unexplored. Using controlled field experiments, we found strong synergistic effects of insect pollination and simulated pest control on yield quantity and quality. Their joint effect increased yield by 23%, with synergistic effects contributing 10%, while their single contributions were 7% and 6%, respectively. The potential economic benefit for a farmer from the synergistic effects (12%) was 1.8 times greater than their individual contributions (7% each). We show that the principal underlying mechanism was a pronounced pest-induced reduction in flower lifetime, resulting in a strong reduction in the number of pollinator visits a flower receives during its lifetime. Our findings highlight the importance of non-additive interactions among ecosystem services (ES) when valuating, mapping or predicting them and reveal fundamental implications for ecosystem management and policy aimed at maximizing ES for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26865304

  1. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elumalai Arumugam; Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (S. litura). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990), with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths) S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925); the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  2. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  3. The most important sugar beet pests in Ukraine and integral measures for their control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedorenko Vitaly P.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The report delivers the origins of the insect complex formation on sugar beet fields in Ukraine. Biological, ethological and ecological peculiarities of the most numerous pest species have been shown. Regularities of many-year dynamics of pests, the problems of phytosanitary state of agrocenosis of sugar beet fields and conceptual grounds of pest control in contemporary conditions have been substantiated.

  4. Crop domestication, global human-mediated migration, and the unresolved role of geography in pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yolanda H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Ecological pest management seeks to improve pest control through the manipulation of ecological processes that promote natural enemies and suppress pests. These approaches can involve cultural practices such as reduced tillage, increased use of non-crop plants that provide food and shelter for natural enemies, and intercropping to enhance the abundance and diversity of natural enemies. A major assumption of ecological pest management is that these activities can be equally effective ...

  5. Recent trends on sterile insect technique and area-wide integrated pest management. Economic feasibility, control projects, farmer organization and Bactrocera dorsalis complex control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have invited professional papers from over the world, including Okinawa, for compilation of recent trends on Sterile Insect Techniques and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management to further pursue environment friendly pest insects control measures in agricultural production in the Asia-Pacific region. Pest insects such as the tephritid fruit flies have long been and are still today causing serious damage to agricultural products in the Asia-Pacific region and farmers in the region apply such insecticides that are no longer allowed or being subjected to strict usage control in Japan. This, in return, may endanger the health of the very farmers, food safety and the ecosystem itself. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to clarify keys for technology transfer of so called SIT/AWIPM to potential recipients engaged in agricultural production in the region. This report focused on several topics, which make up important parts for the effective Sterile Insect Technique and Area-Wide Integrated Pest Management: economic feasibility; pest insects control projects; farmers' education; research progress in Bactrocera dorsalis complex issues specific to the Asia-Pacific region. The 12 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Models for integrated pest control and their biological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A

    2008-09-01

    Successful integrated pest management (IPM) control programmes depend on many factors which include host-parasitoid ratios, starting densities, timings of parasitoid releases, dosages and timings of insecticide applications and levels of host-feeding and parasitism. Mathematical models can help us to clarify and predict the effects of such factors on the stability of host-parasitoid systems, which we illustrate here by extending the classical continuous and discrete host-parasitoid models to include an IPM control programme. The results indicate that one of three control methods can maintain the host level below the economic threshold (ET) in relation to different ET levels, initial densities of host and parasitoid populations and host-parasitoid ratios. The effects of host intrinsic growth rate and parasitoid searching efficiency on host mean outbreak period can be calculated numerically from the models presented. The instantaneous pest killing rate of an insecticide application is also estimated from the models. The results imply that the modelling methods described can help in the design of appropriate control strategies and assist management decision-making. The results also indicate that a high initial density of parasitoids (such as in inundative releases) and high parasitoid inter-generational survival rates will lead to more frequent host outbreaks and, therefore, greater economic damage. The biological implications of this counter intuitive result are discussed.

  7. The bioeconomics of controlling an African rodent pest species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skonhoft, Anders; Leirs, Herwig; Andreassen, Harry P;

    2006-01-01

    The paper treats the economy of controlling an African pest rodent, the multimammate rat, causing major damage in maize production. An ecological population model is presented and used as a basis for the economic analyses carried out at the village level using data from Tanzania. This model...... incorporates both density-dependent and density-independent (stochastic) factors. Rodents are controlled by applying poison, and the costs are made up of the cost of poison plus the damage to maize production. We analyse how the present-value costs of maize production are affected by various rodent control...... strategies, by varying the duration and timing of rodenticide application. Our numerical results suggest that it is economically beneficial to control the rodent population. In general, the most cost-effective duration of controlling the rodent population is 3-4 months every year, and especially at the end...

  8. The use of insecticides to control insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Wojciechowska

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used as plants protection products. Among those, insecticides serve as agents to control insects. When incorrectly applied, however these substances may negatively affect people's health and natural environment. Administration routes of insecticides depend on many factors and vary from spraying to fertilizers. These different methods influence how insects prey and how pests develop. Additionally, too frequent use of the same chemicals can lead to development of resistance of insects to these insecticides. In order to prevent occurrence of negative effects of insecticides on surroundings, the effects of these compounds should be studied

  9. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable

  10. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail: azizswabi@gmail.com; Murad, Waheed

    2015-01-15

    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  11. Optimal Application Timing of Pest Control Tactics in Nonautonomous Pest Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    Shujuan Zhang; Juhua Liang; Sanyi Tang

    2014-01-01

    Considering the effects of the living environment on growth of populations, it is unrealistic to assume that the growth rates of predator and prey are all constants in the models with integrated pest management (IPM) strategies. Therefore, a nonautonomous predator-prey system with impulsive effect is developed and investigated in the present work. In order to determine the optimal application timing of IPM tactics, the threshold value which guarantees the stability of pest-free periodic solut...

  12. Evaluation of Atriplex lines for selenium accumulation, salt tolerance and suitability for a key agricultural insect pest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickerman, D.B.; Shannon, M.C.; Banuelos, G.S.; Grieve, C.M.; Trumble, J.T

    2002-12-01

    Five salt tolerant lines of the plant Atriplex were identified which were also resistant to beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. - Thirty Atriplex lines were examined for potential habitat improvement and phytoremediation of selenium (Se) contaminated sites. Studies were conducted to determine the biomass production, Se accumulation, and resistance of each line to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, an agriculturally important insect. Plants were tested using three salinity treatments: (1) control, no Se; (2) NaCl and CaCl{sub 2} salts and 1 mg l{sup -1} Se (12.7 {mu}M) added as sodium selenate; and (3) iso-osmotic to treatment 2 containing high concentrations of sulfate and 1 mg l{sup -1} Se added as sodium selenate. Insect bioassays measured survival, growth, and development. Atriplex patula, A. spongiosa 415862, A. hortensis, A. hortensis 379088 and A. hortensis 379092 were among the top biomass producers and Se accumulators, yet they exhibited significantly reduced insect growth, development, and survival. High background sulfate strongly reduced Se accumulation, suggesting that phytoremediation potential is greatest in saline areas having low to moderate sulfate levels. However, these lines grew well in high salinity soils, indicating possible use as a self-seeding cover crop to improve habitat. All plant lines grown in control and high sulfate salinity treatments are acceptable oviposition sites for S. exigua, indicating that these plants would help reduce populations of this key agricultural pest.

  13. Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulmer, Mark S.; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-01-01

    Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows β(1,3)-glucanase effector activity previously unknown in animal immunity and is a pleiotropic pattern recognition receptor and an antimicrobial effector protein. Termites incorporate this protein into the nest building material, where it functions as a nest-embedded sensor that cleaves and releases pathogenic components, priming termites for improved antimicrobial defense. By means of rational design, we present an inexpensive, nontoxic small molecule glycomimetic that blocks tGNBP-2, thus exposing termites in vivo to accelerated infection and death from specific and opportunistic pathogens. Such a molecule, introduced into building materials and agricultural methods, could protect valuable assets from insect pests. PMID:19506247

  14. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the middle of the last century, mites moved into the focus of attention as pests relevantto agriculture, forestry and landscape horticulture, presumably in direct reactionto the “green revolution” that involved plant cultivation in large-plot monocropping systems,improved methods of cultivation, selection of high-yielding cultivars and intensifieduse of pesticides and mineral fertilizers. Agroecosystems in which phytophagous miteshave become harmful organisms are primarily orchards, vineyards, greenhouses, urbangreeneries, plant nurseries and stored plant products, as well as annual field crops to asomewhat lesser degree. Phytophagous mite species belong to a variety of spider mites(Tetranychidae, false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae, gall and rust mites (Eriophyoidae, tarsonemidmites (Tarsonemidae and acarid mites (Acaridae. Most of these harmful speciesare widespread, some of them having more economic impact than others and being moredetrimental as depending on various specificities of each outdoor agroecosystem in anyparticular climatic region.The first segment of this overview focuses on the most significant mite pests ofagroecosystemsand urban horticultural areas in European countries, our own region andin Serbia today, primarily on species that have caused problems in recent years regardingplant production, and it also discusses various molecular methods available for investigatingdifferent aspects of the biology of phytophagous mites. Also, acaricides are discussedas a method of controlling mite pests in the light of the current situation and trends on pesticidemarkets in Serbia and the European Union member-countries

  15. Use of natural enemies and biorational pest control of corne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cipriano García Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A general analysis of the potential use of natural enemies and biorational insecticides for control of main pests of corn in thestate of Sinaloa is presented. A discuss on their composition, dosage, toxicity and type of effect on beneficial organisms(natural enemies and pollinators is too included. The work revealed that is possible implement the use of these natural enemies and products for the control of neonate larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda fall armyworm (J. E Smith with Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow (Samson; against thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande using the nematodes Steinernema riobravis (Cabanillas and Poinar, S. feltiae (Filipjev and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (Poinar at doses of 10,000 IJ (4x10 ~ IJ/m; against the corn silk fly Euxesta stigmatias (Loew encouraging the natural parasitism of Spalangia sp., while for the cutworm Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel can be with spinosad (soluble concentrate at doses of 0.123 kg a. i, and to the corn earwormHelicoverpa zea (Boddie using the analog of methoxyfenozide molting hormone (24% at 144 mg of a. i/L. The biorational control agents that not affect significantly to the natural enemies were the nucleopoliedrosis virus SfMNPV and SeMNPV; N. rileyi and Isaria fumosorosea (Wize; Bacillus thuringiensis (Berlinier; the azadirachtin (neem and parasitoids. In the case of products of chemical synthesis: Spinosad, oxymatrine and bifenthrin showed high rates of mortality in the control of corn pests, so these are considered as of high and moderate risk to Aphis mellifera (L. bees, the methoxyfenozide presented relatively low toxicity to natural enemies. In general, biorational products have repellent effect on larvae and adults of these insects, inhibit feeding and induce molting, also causing deformities and impede the development and growth, too interfere with sexual intercourse and copulate, reducing the oviposition, as well as cause sterility of adults, so these may also constitute a risk to

  16. Pest control. Full crop protection from an insect pest by expression of long double-stranded RNAs in plastids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang; Khan, Sher Afzal; Hasse, Claudia; Ruf, Stephanie; Heckel, David G; Bock, Ralph

    2015-02-27

    Double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) targeted against essential genes can trigger a lethal RNA interference (RNAi) response in insect pests. The application of this concept in plant protection is hampered by the presence of an endogenous plant RNAi pathway that processes dsRNAs into short interfering RNAs. We found that long dsRNAs can be stably produced in chloroplasts, a cellular compartment that appears to lack an RNAi machinery. When expressed from the chloroplast genome, dsRNAs accumulated to as much as 0.4% of the total cellular RNA. Transplastomic potato plants producing dsRNAs targeted against the β-actin gene of the Colorado potato beetle, a notorious agricultural pest, were protected from herbivory and were lethal to its larvae. Thus, chloroplast expression of long dsRNAs can provide crop protection without chemical pesticides. PMID:25722411

  17. Insect and Pest Control Section newsletter and information circular on radiation techniques and their application to insect pests. No. 39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Information Circular presents preliminary reports of research and development activities in the application of nuclear energy for entomological problems and related aspects. Radiation sterilization and isotope-aided studies are stressed, however, articles relating to practical pest control or eradication are also within the scope of the Information Circular

  18. Advances and Perspectives of the use of the entomopathogenic fungi beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae for the control of arthropod pests in poultry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DGP Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Global poultry production is plagued by a wide variety of arthropods. The problems associated with their chemical control have led to an increasing search for control alternatives, and entomopathogenic fungi seem to be a promising strategy. Despite the large number of insects and mites considered as important pests in animal production, studies on the use of entomopathogenic fungi for their control are still scarce compared with agricultural pests, particularly in Brazil. This article reviews some damages and control aspects of the main arthropod pests that affect Brazilian poultry production, including house flies, lesser mealworms, and feather mites, by the use of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae. Studies published in the last 20 years were reviewed, and the main problems and limitations of that pest-control strategy are discussed.

  19. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel disc...

  20. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators in the area of ornamental and turf pest control prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The three sections presented describe: (1) Ornamentals; (2) Turfgrass; and (3) Pest Control. Section one discusses the diagnostic chart for plant problems, non-pest…

  1. The Insect Ecdysone Receptor is a Good Potential Target for RNAi-based Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment ...

  2. Dynamic complexities in a pest control model with birth pulse and harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A.; Gakkhar, S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, an impulsive model is discussed for an integrated pest management approach comprising of chemical and mechanical controls. The pesticides and harvesting are used to control the stage-structured pest population. The mature pest give birth to immature pest in pulses at regular intervals. The pest is controlled by spraying chemical pesticides affecting immature as well as mature pest. The harvesting of both immature and mature pest further reduce the pest population. The discrete dynamical system obtained from stroboscopic map is analyzed. The threshold conditions for stability of pest-free state as well as non-trivial period-1 solution is obtained. The effect of pesticide spray timing and harvesting on immature as well as mature pest are shown. Finally, by numerical simulation with MATLAB, the dynamical behaviors of the model is found to be complex. Above the threshold level there is a characteristic sequence of bifurcations leading to chaotic dynamics. Route to chaos is found to be period-doubling. Period halving bifurcations are also observed.

  3. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 82, January 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbes have been the dominating forms of life, almost since the birth of our planet about 4.5 billion years ago. Being masters of chemical reactions, they regulate the recycling of all major chemicals relevant to life; manage energy sources and the production of fuels; determine the aerobic conditions of our atmosphere and influence our climate; are the catalytic factors of soil fertility, thus affecting agricultural production; and have also been of paramount importance for the health of ecosystems and of all living organisms including humans. Last, but not least, they have been the driving force of the on-going 'biotechnological revolution', which promises to produce more and healthier food, drugs and 'green' fuels. Because of all their unique metabolic properties, microbes have been driving the evolution of life on earth, either by being free-living or by establishing symbiotic associations with diverse organisms including insects. Insects are the most abundant and species-rich animal group on earth, occupying most available ecological niches. Conservative estimates suggest that about 85% of all described animal species are insects; estimates range between 2-30 million insect species and about 10 quintillion (1018) individual insects being alive at any given time (http://www.si.edu/Encyclopedia_SI/nmnh/ buginfo/bugnos.htm). During recent years it has become evident that the ecological and evolutionarily success of insects greatly depends on the sophisticated symbiotic associations they have established with diverse microorganisms, which influence all aspects of their biology, physiology, ecology and evolution. The few examples presented below aim to underline the importance of these symbiotic associations and indicate that the characterization, exploitation and management of insect-bacterial symbiotic associations can significantly contribute to the support and enhancement of sterile insect technique (SIT) programmes against agricultural pests and disease

  4. THE INSECT PATHOGENIC FUNGUS Verticillium lecanii (Zimm. Viegas AND ITS USE FOR PESTS CONTROL: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiery B C ALAVO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical insecticides play an important role in the control of plant damage and plant diseases. However, extensive use of these products has led to the disruption of ecosystems because of several reasons such as death of non-target species, accumulation of pesticide residues in the environment and food, and buildup of pesticide resistance in the target species. Biological control is one of the alternatives to chemical pesticides and it can be described as the limitation of the abundance of living organisms and their products by other living organisms. Predators, parasitoids, fungi and other beneficial organisms can be used for the biocontrol of insect pests. The fungus Verticillium lecanii is one of the members of Deuteromycetes and it can be used for crop protection. This paper is a review of the international literature related to V. lecanii for the bio-control of insects of agricultural importance.

  5. Control of Pest Infestation of Food by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation techniques being studied for use in the control of pest infestation of post-harvest food are reviewed. Two main techniques are discussed: direct irradiation of the food together with its infestation load and application of the sterile-male technique. The progress made in the radiation entomology of stored-product insects as it relates to the direct irradiation method is discussed. The two variants of the sterile-male technique are discussed, namely, the classical sterile-male technique in which fully sterile males are released, and the inherited partial sterility technique in which substerile males are used. The potentials and relative merits of these methods are also discussed. (author)

  6. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 81, July 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to requests from our readers, this introduction is mainly dedicated to the ongoing efforts to develop alternatives for insect reproductive sterilization and blood sterilization for their use in insect pest control programmes with a sterile insect technique (SIT) component. Radioisotope irradiators that are loaded with either cobalt-60 or caesium-137 producing gamma rays have been routinely used for many decades and have proven to be extremely reliable and safe for these purposes in successful area-wide insect eradication or suppression programmes. These include industrial panoramic-type irradiators in larger programmes, all the way to smaller self-contained irradiators. Nevertheless, the transboundary shipment of self-contained gamma irradiators or radioactive material has become logistically more complex due to security issues. This situation was exacerbated when the production of the Gamma Cell 220 (GC220), the source most commonly used for irradiating insects for sterilization purposes, was discontinued. These events may have created the impression that the use of gamma radiation has become a less viable option, unattainable for insect pest control programmes that want to integrate the SIT. Nevertheless, some of the biggest SIT operational programmes have in recent years been equipped with new self-contained cobalt-60 sources, including the SIT programme against the pink bollworm in Phoenix, Arizona; El Pino Mediterranean fruit fly facility in Guatemala; and the screwworm programme in Panama. Thus these larger and more expensive irradiators, together with panoramic units (that are also costlier than self-contained gamma irradiators) have remained over the years a valid option, especially for larger operational programmes. In addition, the reloading of smaller units with new cobalt or the purchase of refurbished used self-contained irradiators remain viable alternatives

  7. Eco Control of Agro Pests using Imaging, Modelling & Natural Predators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fina Faithpraise

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Caterpillars in their various forms: size, shape, and colour cause significant harm to crops and humans. This paper offers a solution for the detection and control of caterpillars through the use of a sustainable pest control system that does not require the application of chemical pesticides, which damage human health and destroy the naturally beneficial insects within the environment. The proposed system is capable of controlling 80% of the population of caterpillars in less than 65 days by deploying a controlled number of larval parasitoid wasps (Cotesia Flavipes, Cameron into the crop environment. This is made possible by using a continuous time model of the interaction between the caterpillar and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps using a set of simultaneous, non-linear, ordinary differential equations incorporating natural death rates based on the Weibull probability distribution function. A negative binomial distribution is used to model the efficiency and the probability that the wasp will find and parasitize a host larva. The caterpillar is presented in all its life-cycle stages of: egg, larva, pupa and adult and the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasp is present as an adult larval parasitoid. Biological control modelling is used to estimate the quantity of the Cotesia Flavipes (Cameron wasps that should be introduced into the caterpillar infested environment to suppress its population density to an economically acceptable level within a prescribed number of days.

  8. Manipulating within-orchard and adjacent habitats to provide better pest control in organic orchards. Some elements for modulating “orchard tree-pest-natural enemy” relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Simon., S; SAUPHANOR, B.; Defrance, H.; LAURI, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    The control of pests in organic orchards cannot solely rely on the use of direct control methods. The effect of manipulating the habitat of orchard pests and natural enemies through tree architecture and the increase of plant diversity has been investigated in an experimental organic apple orchard and in a pear orchard, in order to provide information about the potential benefits of these cultural practices. Tree training affected the development of the most detrimental pests of apple trees, ...

  9. Industrial - Institutional - Structural and Health Related Pest Control Category Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, James S.; Turmel, Jon P.

    This manual provides information needed to meet the standards for pesticide applicator certification. The emphasis of this document is on the identification of wood-destroying pests and the damage caused by them to the structural components of buildings. The pests discussed include termites, carpenter ants, beetles, bees, and wasps and numerous…

  10. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Fruit Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, J.; And Others

    This manual is intended to assist pesticide applicators prepare for certification under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The primary focus of this publication is on fruit pest control. Sections included are: (1) Causes of fruit diseases; (2) Fruit fungicides and bactericides; (3) Insect and mite pests; (4) Insecticides and miticides;…

  11. Pest control in Albania: an example of collaboration in technical and scientific development in public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enkelejda Velo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In September 2007, a severe cockroach (Blattella germanica infestation was reported on the premises of the Scutari Regional Hospital. The hospital was infested by cockroaches despite regular insecticide treatment by local pest control officers. The failure of treatment required a careful evaluation of the problem. It also created the opportunity for a more complete analysis of pest control in Albania.

  12. Using GPS instruments and GIS techniques in data management for insect pest control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interactive tutorial CD entitled 'Using GPS Instruments and GIS Techniques in Data Management for Insect Pest Control Programs' was developed by Micha silver of the Arava Development Co., Sapir, Israel, and includes step-by-step hands on lessons on the use of GPS/GIS in support of area-wide pest control operations

  13. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Aquatic Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide presents information needed to meet the requirements for pesticide applicator certification. The first part deals with recognition and control of aquatic pests such as aquatic weeds, fish and other vertebrates. Environmental concerns in aquatic pest control are discussed in the second section. (CS)

  14. Analysis of sustainable pest control using a pesticide and a screened refuge

    OpenAIRE

    Ringland, John; George, Prasanth

    2010-01-01

    We describe and analyze a ‘screened refuge’ technique for indefinitely sustaining control of insect pests using transgenic pesticidal crops or an applied pesticide, even when resistance is not recessive. The screen is a physical barrier that restricts pest movement. In a deterministic discrete-time model of the use of this technique, we obtain asymptotic analytical formulas for the two important equilibria of the system in terms of the refuge size and the pest fitnesses, mutation rates, and m...

  15. Recent advances in development of ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest pest control on perishable commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) have been developed for postharvest pest control on different types of perishable products. Complete control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia sp.), twopotted spider mite (Tetranychus u...

  16. Area-wide control of fruit flies and other insect pests. Joint proceedings of the international conference on area-wide control of insect pests and the fifth international symposium on fruit flies of economic importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the world population attaining the six billion mark, the urgency of increasing quality food production and reducing the spread of diseases transmitted by insects, without affecting our fragile environment, will be of paramount importance. Losses currently experienced in agricultural production, due to insect pests and through diseases transmitted by insect vectors, are very high especially in developing and poor countries. Many insect pests and vectors are of economic importance, and several such as fruit flies, mosquitoes and tsetse flies have attracted international concerns. Most pests are traditionally controlled through heavy reliance on pesticides which can cause environmental pollution, pesticide resistance, and pest resurgence. The control, management or eradication of insect pests and vectors with minimal adverse impact on our food quality, environment, health and well-being should be of great concern to many agriculturists, biological and physical scientists as well as to national and international agencies responsible for pest control. Steps taken by the various concerned agencies to improve and implement the area-wide control will hopefully lead us into the next millennium free from major insect pests and vectors while at the same time protect our precarious global environment. This volume is the culmination of proceedings conducted in two recent international meetings, FAO/IAEA International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests, 28 May - 2 June 1998, and the Fifth International Symposium on Fruit Flies of Economic Importance, 1-5 June 1998, held in Penang, Malaysia. Over three hundred papers (both oral contributions and posters) were presented at the two meetings. The manuscripts submitted by authors are divided according to broad topics into eighteen sections originally defined by the organisers as corresponding to the sessions of the meetings. The organisers identified one to several individuals in each of the sessions to deliver an

  17. Promise for plant pest control: root-associated pseudomonads with insecticidal activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eKupferschmied

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects are an important and probably the most challenging pest to control in agriculture, in particular when they feed on belowground parts of plants. The application of synthetic pesticides is problematic owing to side effects on the environment, concerns for public health and the rapid development of resistance. Entomopathogenic bacteria, notably Bacillus thuringiensis and Photorhabdus/ Xenorhabdus species, are promising alternatives to chemical insecticides, for they are able to efficiently kill insects and are considered to be environmentally sound and harmless to mammals. However, they have the handicap of showing limited environmental persistence or of depending on a nematode vector for insect infection. Intriguingly, certain strains of plant root-colonizing Pseudomonas bacteria display insect pathogenicity and thus could be formulated to extend the present range of bioinsecticides for protection of plants against root-feeding insects. These entomopathogenic pseudomonads belong to a group of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria that have the remarkable ability to suppress soil-borne plant pathogens, promote plant growth, and induce systemic plant defenses. Here we review for the first time the current knowledge about the occurrence and the molecular basis of insecticidal activity in pseudomonads with an emphasis on plant-beneficial and prominent pathogenic species. We discuss how this fascinating Pseudomonas trait may be exploited for novel root-based approaches to insect control in an integrated pest management framework.

  18. Feasibility of Mating Disruption for Agricultural Pest Eradication in an Urban Environment: Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soopaya, Rajendra; Woods, Bill; Lacey, Ian; Virdi, Amandip; Mafra-Neto, Agenor; Suckling, David Maxwell

    2015-08-01

    Eradication technologies are needed for urban and suburban situations, but may require different technologies from pest management in agriculture. We investigated mating disruption of a model moth species recently targeted for eradication in Californian cities, by applying dollops of SPLAT releasing a two-component sex pheromone of the light brown apple moth in 2-ha plots in low-density residential Perth, Australia. The pheromone technology was applied manually at ∼1.5 m height to street and garden trees, scrubs, and walls at 500 dollops per hectare of 0.8 g containing ∼80 mg active two-component pheromone. Catches of male moths were similar among all plots before treatment, but in treated areas (six replicates) pheromone trap catches were substantially reduced for up to 29 wk posttreatment, compared with untreated control plot catches (three replicates). The treatment with pheromone reduced catch to virgin females by 86% (P plot catches (P < 0.001). Eradication programs are following an upward trend with globalization and the spread of invasive arthropods, which are often first detected in urban areas. Eradication requires a major increase in the communication distance between individuals, but this can be achieved using sex pheromone-based mating disruption technology, which is very benign and suitable for sensitive environments. The need for new socially acceptable tools for eradication in urban environments is likely to increase because of increasing need for eradications. PMID:26470337

  19. The Sterile Insect Technique as a method of pest control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Valencia community is doing one of the most ambitious project in the field of plant protection at European level: the fight against fruit fly, one of the most damaging pests of citrus and fruit; by Insect Technique Sterile. This technique consists of laboratory breeding and release into the fields of huge quantities of insects of the pest species that have previously been sterilized. Sterile insect looking for wild individuals of the same species to mate with them and the result is a clutch of viable eggs, causing a decrease in pest populations. After three years of application of the technique on an area of 150,000 hectares, the pest populations have been reduced by 90%. Other benefits have been the reduced used of insecticides and improved the quality of exported fruit. (Author)

  20. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Food Processing Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Characteristics, life cycles and habits of pests such as roaches, beetles, flies, ants and rodents are discussed. Additionally, pest control measures, especially by application of aerosols, dusts, baits, fumigants or vapors, is presented. (CS)

  1. Research toward control of key pecan insect pests using biorational pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key pecan insect pests include the pecan weevil, Curculio caryae, black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae, and stink bugs. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of several alternativ...

  2. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However, ther

  3. Research on the Application of the Super Capacitor in the Solar LED Pest Control Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tianhua

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on the energy storage characteristics of the super-capacitor and solar panels, this study selects the super-capacitor as the storage device to design the solar LED pest control light, which is energy saving, environmentally friendly, safe and reliable. The solar LED pest control light is easy to use and there is no need erecting and maintaining wires. However, the current storage battery is weak in charge control due to the instability of the sun light and this unstable charge state may lead to its premature failure or capacity loss, thus causing the service life of pest control light to be below the designed specification.

  4. Control of insect pests using slow release pheromone containing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of slow release devices are being or have been developed and commercialised for the detection of insect pests, in the form of monitoring lures, and for their control, by lure and kill or mating disruption techniques. The devices are based upon matrix-type polymer formulations with pheromone or attractant distributed therein. Release profiles of devices were determined by gas chromatographic analysis of pheromone residing in the devices, as a function of time; release rates were then derived, also as a function of time, and compared with bioefficacy results of field tests. The lower rate limit, consistent with mating disruption, can be determined, and will be appropriate to, and dependent upon the field test conditions eg temperature, wind conditions, point source density, insect pressure, the presence of beneficials, and the influence of other attractants such as plant volatiles. Such an approach has been taken in the development of products for Pectinophora gossypiella (Pink Bollworm), Chilo suppressalis (Rice Stem Borer) Lymantria dispar (Gypsy moth), Ceratitis capitata (Mediterranean Fruit Fly), Rhyacionia buoliana (European Pine Shoot Moth), and Keiferia lycopersicella (Tomato Pinworm). It is essential that the cost of pheromone be minimized in order to maximize the possibility of successful product development. To this end, the metathesis route has been found useful in some cases eg for Pink Bollworm pheromone (50/50) Z,E/Z,Z-7,11-hexadecadienyl acetate. 9 refs, 4 figs

  5. Irradiation as a quarantine treatment of agricultural commodities against arthropod pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of quarantine treatments is to eliminate, as far as possible, the risks of introduction or establishment of exotic pests in countries or regions where they do not already occur. Treatments may be applied to host commodities traded commercially or carried by travellers. Ionizing radiation is very effective when used as a quarantine treatment to disinfest fresh, dried or processed fruits, grains and other plant materials. It is highly effective in killing or inactivating arthropod pests, leaves no residues, and at the low doses required it can be used on most commodities without affecting the quality. The most important single pest group of quarantine importance internationally is arguably fruit flies in fresh fruits and vegetables. More than thirty species of fruit flies are recognized as serious quarantine pests. Dose-mortality studies with irradiation have shown that doses of 75-150 Gy prevent adult emergence. At two Task Force Meetings on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment convened by the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation, a generic dose of 150 Gy was recommended against any fruit, based on extensive research data for these pests. Most fruits are relatively unaffected by quarantine disinfestation treatments of 100-300 Gy but some, for example avocado, appear to be intolerant. Other pests of quarantine importance for which irradiation is an appropriate disinfestation treatment include certain moths (Lepidoptera), beetles (Coleoptera), bugs (Homoptera), flies (Diptera), thrips (Thysanoptera) and mites (Acarina). The Task Force Group also recommended that a generic treatment of 300 Gy, based on the inability to perpetuate the species, would be appropriate for any pest other than fruit fly. This was derived from extensive research on the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), and the mango seed weevil, Sternochaetus mangiferae (Fabricius), with supporting results on eleven other pests from six orders. (author). 54 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Review on Application of Electromagnetic Theory and Technology to Forest Pests Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangfeng; QU Zhiwei; LIANG Jun

    2006-01-01

    Many domestic and international scholars have done a wide range of researches on electromagnetic theory and technology and have made some achievements. Electromagnetic technology has been used in forest pests control as a convenient and high-efficient physics means. This article summarizes the current study of the electromagnetic biological effect and introduces the application of microwave, pulsed electromagnetic field and electrostatic field to forest pests control. The research direction and prospect of the application of electromagnetic theory and technology to forest pests control are also discussed.

  7. Control of Adult Pests by the Irradiation-of-Male Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grosch effect (i.e., of radiation interfering with utilization of nutrients in insects) became applicable to pest control when Galun and Warburg discovered that irradiated ticks fed once would seldom if ever feed again. This lifelong sensation of 'impletion' does not interfere with sexual competitiveness, but it does render harmless a pest that is a pest during the adult stage of its life cycle. It would seem that the general principle of treating adult pests to limit their feeding capacity could be extended to other pests. When insect pests are- living in stored food products, it is a general rule that desirably low levels of radiation can be used to eradicate the pest if sterilizing doses rather than insecticidal doses are used. With the entire population of both males and females being irradiated, the sterilizing dose is often much lower than that which would be desirable when the insects are mass-reared for irradiation and release. Where mass-rearing techniques are not feasible, or where the pestiferousness of adults cannot be overcome by radiation or other treatments, field-irradiation facilities in baited traps can be devised. These have some advantages over similar traps containing chemosterilants. Wherever it can be used, the method of mass-rearing, irradiation, and release is still the most desirable way to control insect pests. (author)

  8. Applicator Training Manual for: Agriculture Plant Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, William W.; And Others

    This manual gives information on insects that damage crops. These fall in two categories: (1) insects with a complete life cycle such as butterflies and moths, boring insects, and beetles; and (2) those with a gradual life cycle. Also included are descriptions of leaf diseases, wilts and root and crown rots, stem cankers, fruit rots, seed and…

  9. Use of controlled release formulations of insecticides for the control of termites as pests of crops and forestry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Termites are major pests of crops and forestry in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa and Asia. Until recently, they were controlled by organochlorine (cyclodiene) insecticides whose persistence protected the crops till harvest and exotic trees through the susceptible seedling stage. These insecticides have been banned or withdrawn from use in agriculture in most countries and existing alternative insecticides lack the persistence to provide protection against termites. Controlled release formulations of some of these short-lived insecticides have been shown to provide protection for trees and crops as good as that provided by the cyclodiene insecticides without the environmental problems. Current formulations are much more expensive than conventional formulations using the same active ingredient and their use is limited to high value crops and forestry. (author). 21 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  10. Genomics of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Implications for Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dihong; Baiocchi, Tiffany; Dillman, Adler R

    2016-08-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) have been used in biological control but improvement is needed to realize their full potential for broader application in agriculture. Some improvements have been gained through selective breeding and the isolation of additional species and populations. Having genomic sequences for at least six EPNs opens the possibility of genetic improvement, either by facilitating the selection of candidate genes for hypothesis-driven studies of gene-trait relations or by genomics-assisted breeding for desirable traits. However, the genomic data will be of limited use without a more mechanistic understanding of the genes underlying traits that are important for biological control. Additionally, molecular tools are required to fully translate the genomic resources into further functional studies and better biological control. PMID:27142565

  11. Semiochemical lures reduce emigration and enhance pest control services in open-field predator augmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augmentation biocontrol is a commercially viable pest management tactic in enclosed glasshouse environments, but is far less effective in open-field agriculture where newly released enemies rapidly disperse from release sites. We tested the potential for behavior-modifying semiochemicals to increase...

  12. Recent advances in fumigation for control of insect pests in dried fruits and nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States agricultural industries are facing, with increasing frequency, environmental and pest-related food safety requirements that are fundamentally difficult to balance. Failure to properly disinfest commodities in trade and marketing channels can result in insect- and microbial-derived dam...

  13. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 85, July 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the amazing progress made in science and technology during the last hundred years, humankind still faces significant challenges in combating pest insects, such as mosquitoes that are the vectors of major pathogens (arboviruses and bacterial as well as eukaryotic microorganisms). These pathogenic microorganisms cause infectious diseases resulting in severe morbidity or lethality. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there are over 200 million cases of malaria resulting in more than 600 000 deaths annually, mainly very young children. The great majority of malaria deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Currently, malaria transmission occurs in about 100 countries putting about 3.4 billion people at risk (World Malaria Report, 2013). Similarly, around 400 million people contract every year a dengue infection of which about 500 000, mainly children require hospitalization; it is estimated that 2.5% of them die. Dengue has spread globally during the last years and currently over 3 billion people are at risk in more than 100 countries in Africa, the Americas, the Eastern Mediterranean, South-east Asia and the Western Pacific. The majority of dengue cases are reported in American, Southeast Asian and the Western Pacific regions. Recently another viral mosquito-borne disease, chikungunya, has been spreading rapidly. It is a disease that causes severe chronic joint pain in patients across the globe. In the absence of effective vaccines and drugs, these mosquito- transmitted diseases pose an enormous economic and social burden worldwide and their incidence has increased drastically in recent years. In addition, the traditional chemical- based vector control strategies are facing serious challenges due to increased resistance of mosquitoes to the used insecticides and increased public concern of insecticide use in urban areas. Based on these facts, novel methods and complementary approaches are required to manage mosquito populations in an effective and more

  14. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Forest Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. Common forest pests and their control are discussed. Special attention is given to the effectiveness of different application techniques and potential human and environmental hazards. (CS)

  15. Beverton-Holt discrete pest management models with pulsed chemical control and evolution of pesticide resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Cheke, Robert A.

    2016-07-01

    Pest resistance to pesticides is usually managed by switching between different types of pesticides. The optimal switching time, which depends on the dynamics of the pest population and on the evolution of the pesticide resistance, is critical. Here we address how the dynamic complexity of the pest population, the development of resistance and the spraying frequency of pulsed chemical control affect optimal switching strategies given different control aims. To do this, we developed novel discrete pest population growth models with both impulsive chemical control and the evolution of pesticide resistance. Strong and weak threshold conditions which guarantee the extinction of the pest population, based on the threshold values of the analytical formula for the optimal switching time, were derived. Further, we addressed switching strategies in the light of chosen economic injury levels. Moreover, the effects of the complex dynamical behaviour of the pest population on the pesticide switching times were also studied. The pesticide application period, the evolution of pesticide resistance and the dynamic complexity of the pest population may result in complex outbreak patterns, with consequent effects on the pesticide switching strategies.

  16. Applicator Training Manual for: Seed Treatment Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TeKrony, Dennis M.

    This manual gives general information on seed treatment and type of seeds which can be treated. Also discussed are the problems and pests commonly associated with seed diseases and the fungicides and insecticides used for seed treatment. Information is also given on seed treatment equipment such as dust treaters, slurry treaters, and direct…

  17. Control of moth pests by mating disruption: Successes and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardé, R.T.; Minks, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    Male moths generally find their mates by following the females' pheromone plume to its source. A formulated copy of this message is used to regulate mating of many important pests, including pink bollworm Pectinophora gossypiella, oriental fruit moth Grapholita molesta and tomato pinworm Keiferia ly

  18. Plant Tolerance: A Unique Approach to Control Hemipteran Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Kyle G.; Chapman, Kaitlin; Louis, Joe; Heng-Moss, Tiffany; Sarath, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    Plant tolerance to insect pests has been indicated to be a unique category of resistance, however, very little information is available on the mechanism of tolerance against insect pests. Tolerance is distinctive in terms of the plant’s ability to withstand or recover from herbivore injury through growth and compensatory physiological processes. Because plant tolerance involves plant compensatory characteristics, the plant is able to harbor large numbers of herbivores without interfering with the insect pest’s physiology or behavior. Some studies have observed that tolerant plants can compensate photosynthetically by avoiding feedback inhibition and impaired electron flow through photosystem II that occurs as a result of insect feeding. Similarly, the up-regulation of peroxidases and other oxidative enzymes during insect feeding, in conjunction with elevated levels of phytohormones can play an important role in providing plant tolerance to insect pests. Hemipteran insects comprise some of the most economically important plant pests (e.g., aphids, whiteflies), due to their ability to achieve high population growth and their potential to transmit plant viruses. In this review, results from studies on plant tolerance to hemipterans are summarized, and potential models to understand tolerance are presented. PMID:27679643

  19. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae, a widespread agricultural pest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi, an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1 species prevalence; (2 modelling method; and (3 variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive

  20. Uncertainties in predicting species distributions under climate change: a case study using Tetranychus evansi (Acari: Tetranychidae), a widespread agricultural pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Christine N; Migeon, Alain; Navajas, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Many species are shifting their distributions due to climate change and to increasing international trade that allows dispersal of individuals across the globe. In the case of agricultural pests, such range shifts may heavily impact agriculture. Species distribution modelling may help to predict potential changes in pest distributions. However, these modelling strategies are subject to large uncertainties coming from different sources. Here we used the case of the tomato red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi), an invasive pest that affects some of the most important agricultural crops worldwide, to show how uncertainty may affect forecasts of the potential range of the species. We explored three aspects of uncertainty: (1) species prevalence; (2) modelling method; and (3) variability in environmental responses between mites belonging to two invasive clades of T. evansi. Consensus techniques were used to forecast the potential range of the species under current and two different climate change scenarios for 2080, and variance between model projections were mapped to identify regions of high uncertainty. We revealed large predictive variations linked to all factors, although prevalence had a greater influence than the statistical model once the best modelling strategies were selected. The major areas threatened under current conditions include tropical countries in South America and Africa, and temperate regions in North America, the Mediterranean basin and Australia. Under future scenarios, the threat shifts towards northern Europe and some other temperate regions in the Americas, whereas tropical regions in Africa present a reduced risk. Analysis of niche overlap suggests that the current differential distribution of mites of the two clades of T. evansi can be partially attributed to environmental niche differentiation. Overall this study shows how consensus strategies and analysis of niche overlap can be used jointly to draw conclusions on invasive threat

  1. Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodoro Stadler

    2010-12-01

    diatomeas. La masiva aparición de productos a base de nanomateriales en el mercado ha superado la velocidad a la que se evalúa su potencial impacto, de modo que la aplicación avanza por delante de la regulación para su uso. Esto sugiere la urgente necesidad de investigar los potenciales riesgos que surgen del empleo de estos productos en general, de los nanoinsecticidas en particular y sus efectos sobre organismos no blancos, así como sobre las nuevas tecnologías de aplicación más seguras y eficientes. Los actuales niveles de aplicación de nanopartículas y los desarrollos por venir, sugieren que la nanotecnología tendrá un efecto directo sobre las tendencias de la evolución de la agricultura para el control de plagas.Sustainable agriculture demands new environmentally friendly pesticides that adhere to strict international regulations. Part of the research on new biorational pesticides focuses on natural products such as plant extracts, oils, and inorganic insecticides. Insecticidal dusts represent the oldest group of substances used by men for pest management, and their efficacy is based on physical phenomena. With the advent of synthetic pesticides, insecticidal dusts were used as carriers for other active ingredients in formulated insecticides. Organic dusts made a come-back as insecticides with the discovery of hidrophobic kaolin in the 90's. Recently, the discovery of nanoinsecticides brings new alternatives to expand the spectrum of applications of inorganic dusts. Development and registry of nanomaterials is based on the idea that they are not new materials, although they have different properties than the products with the same chemical structure, given that novel properties emerge from products when they are at the nanoscale. For example, reactivity, specific area, electric charge and quantum effects may differ. These substances with new properties are promising as tools for crop protection and food production, opening new frontiers for

  2. Ornamental and Turf Pest Control for Commercial Applicators: Pest Control of Ornamental Plants; NCR 12, Lawn Diseases in the Midwest; NCR 26, Lawn Weeds and their Control. Manual 89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, W. S., Comp.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the ornamental and turf pest control category. The text discusses pest control of ornamental plants, lawn diseases, and lawn weeds and their control. (CS)

  3. Biological control of pests in protected cultivation: implementation in Latin America and successes in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, V.H.P.; Lenteren, van, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    The area with greenhouse crops is estimated to be around 40,000 hectares in Latin America, of which approximately 60% is occupied with ornamentals. Several pests are responsible for losses in yield or quality of greenhouse crops production and pest control is still mainly by chemicals. However, there are several stimuli for the adoption of biological control strategies as an IPM component, not only for the export market of products, but also for increased use of sustainable plant protection m...

  4. The Trojan Female Technique: A Novel, Effective and Humane Approach for Pest Population Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full-text: Humankind's ongoing battle with pest species spans millennia. Pests cause or carry disease, damage or consume food crops and other resources, and drive global environmental change. Conventional approaches to pest management usually involve lethal control, but such approaches are costly, of varying efficiency and often have ethical issues. Thus, pest management via control of reproductive output is increasingly considered an optimal solution. One of the most successful such 'fertility control' strategies developed to date is the sterile male technique (SMT), in which large numbers of sterile males are released into a population each generation. However, this approach is time-consuming, labour- intensive and costly. We use mathematical models to test a new twist on the SMT, using maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA) mutations that affect male, but not female reproductive fitness. 'Trojan females' carrying such mutations, and their female descendants, produce 'sterile-male'-equivalents under natural conditions over multiple generations. We find that the Trojan Female Technique (TFT) has the potential to be a novel humane approach for pest control. Single large releases and relatively few small repeat releases of Trojan females both provided effective and persistent control within relatively few generations. Although greatest efficacy was predicted for high-turnover species, the additive nature of multiple releases made the TFT applicable to the full range of life histories modelled. The extensive conservation of mtDNA among eukaryotes suggests this approach could have broad utility for pest control. (author)

  5. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Warner, Keith; Steggall, John; Jetter, Karen M

    2014-12-23

    Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided "new tools" that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting "legacy pests", even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of "new tools" include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using "new tools" for developing biological control programs for "legacy pests" could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  6. Dynamics of a Stage Structured Pest Control Model in a Polluted Environment with Pulse Pollution Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By using pollution model and impulsive delay differential equation, we formulate a pest control model with stage structure for natural enemy in a polluted environment by introducing a constant periodic pollutant input and killing pest at different fixed moments and investigate the dynamics of such a system. We assume only that the natural enemies are affected by pollution, and we choose the method to kill the pest without harming natural enemies. Sufficient conditions for global attractivity of the natural enemy-extinction periodic solution and permanence of the system are obtained. Numerical simulations are presented to confirm our theoretical results.

  7. Integrated pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An effective Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme requires a thorough knowledge of the biology of the target species, namely information on the dispersal, population densities and dynamics as well as the ecology of the natural enemies of the pest. Studies on these can be accomplished by radiolabelling techniques. In the event that conditions prevent the use of radioisotopes the insects can be labelled with either a rare earth or stable isotopes. All insects treated with the rare earths, once captured, are exposed to neutrons which produce radioactivity in the rare earths. There are two other approaches in the practical application of radiation to the problem of insect control: the exposure of insects to lethal doses of radiation and the release of sterile insects. The Insect and Pest Control Section contributes to all aspects of the sterile insect technique (SIT) and it is involved in the Agency's Coordinated Research Programme which permits scientists from the developing countries to meet to discuss agricultural problems and to devise means of solving crop-pest infestation problems by using isotopes and radiation. The success of radiation in insect pest control was underlined and reviewed at the international symposium on the sterile insect technique and the use of radiation in genetic insect control jointly organized by the FAO and the IAEA and held in the FRG in 1981. Another important action is the BICOT programme in Nigeria between the IAEA and the Government of Nigeria on the biological control of tsetse flies by SIT

  8. A New Strategy of Insect Pest Control:Down-regulating Cotton Boliworm Gene Expression by Engineering Plant Double Stranded RNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Ying-bo; XUE Xue-yi; WANG Ling-jiang; CHEN Xiao-ya

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera ) is an important agricultural pest that causes severeyield loss to crops,particularly to cotton.Transgenic Bt crops have been successful in protectingplants,however,Bt proteins are toxic to all lepidopteran insects but have little effects to sucking pests,such as aphids.Furthermore,the continuous use of Bt crops increases insect resistance.

  9. Low levels of mitochondrial DNA and symbiont diversity in the worldwide agricultural pest, the greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapantaidaki, Despoina E; Ovčarenko, Irina; Fytrou, Natasa; Knott, K Emily; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsagkarakou, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Trialeurodes vaporariorum, the greenhouse whitefly, is a cosmopolitan agricultural pest. Little is known about the genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum and the bacterial symbionts associated with this species. Here, we undertook a large phylogeographic study by investigating both the mitochondrial (mt) diversity and the infection status of 38 T. vaporariorum collections from 18 countries around the world. Genetic diversity of T. vaporariorum was studied by analyzing sequence data from the mt cytochrome oxidase I, cytochrome b, and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 genes. Maximum-likelihood (ML) phylogeny reconstruction delineated 2 clades characterized by limited sequence divergence: one clade comprised samples only from the Northern hemisphere whereas the other comprised samples from a broader geographical range. The presence of secondary symbionts was determined by PCR using primers specific for Hamiltonella, Rickettsia, Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Fritschea. Most individuals examined harbored at least one secondary endosymbiont, and Arsenophonus was detected in almost all male and female individuals. Wolbachia was present at a much lower frequency, and Cardinium was detected in only a few individuals from Greece. Rickettsia, Hamiltonella, and Fritschea were not found. Additionally, we set out to further analyze Arsenophonus diversity by multilocus sequence typing analysis; however, the Arsenophonus sequences did not exhibit any polymorphism. Our results revealed remarkably low diversity in both mtDNA and symbionts in this worldwide agricultural pest, contrasting sharply with that of the ecologically similar Bemisia tabaci.

  10. Targeting an antimicrobial effector function in insect immunity as a pest control strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Bulmer, Mark S.; Bachelet, Ido; Raman, Rahul; Rosengaus, Rebeca B.; Sasisekharan, Ram

    2009-01-01

    Insect pests such as termites cause damages to crops and man-made structures estimated at over $30 billion per year, imposing a global challenge for the human economy. Here, we report a strategy for compromising insect immunity that might lead to the development of nontoxic, sustainable pest control methods. Gram-negative bacteria binding proteins (GNBPs) are critical for sensing pathogenic infection and triggering effector responses. We report that termite GNBP-2 (tGNBP-2) shows β(1,3)-gluca...

  11. Economic value of biological control in integrated pest management of managed plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, Steven E; Ellsworth, Peter C; Frisvold, George B

    2015-01-01

    Biological control is an underlying pillar of integrated pest management, yet little focus has been placed on assigning economic value to this key ecosystem service. Setting biological control on a firm economic foundation would help to broaden its utility and adoption for sustainable crop protection. Here we discuss approaches and methods available for valuation of biological control of arthropod pests by arthropod natural enemies and summarize economic evaluations in classical, augmentative, and conservation biological control. Emphasis is placed on valuation of conservation biological control, which has received little attention. We identify some of the challenges of and opportunities for applying economics to biological control to advance integrated pest management. Interaction among diverse scientists and stakeholders will be required to measure the direct and indirect costs and benefits of biological control that will allow farmers and others to internalize the benefits that incentivize and accelerate adoption for private and public good.

  12. Welfare aspects of vertebrate pest control and culling: ranking control techniques for humaneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littin, K; Fisher, P; Beausoleil, N J; Sharp, T

    2014-04-01

    The management of vertebrate pests depends on the use of traps, pesticides, repellents and other methods, each of which can cause varying levels of pain and other negative experiences to animals. Vertebrate pest control is essential for managing the impacts of unwanted or over-abundant animals on human and animal health, ecological balance and economic interests. As the need for this management is unlikely to diminish over time, a framework has been developed for assessing the humaneness of each technique by considering their negative impacts on animal welfare so that these can be included in decision-making about the selection of techniques for a specific control operation. This information can also support evidence-based regulations directed at managing such animal welfare impacts. In this paper, the authors discuss this assessment framework, briefly review two assessments conducted using the framework and discuss ways in which Competent Authorities and others can use it and other means to improve animal welfare in vertebrate pest management.

  13. A Stably Transgenic INA Enterobacter cloacae for Control of Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xin-jian; SUN Fu-zai; ZHAO Ting-chang; DING Ai-yun; TANG Chao-rong

    2003-01-01

    Using the minitransposon pMini-Tn5 and the ice-nucleation active (INA) gene of iceA, a suicide recombinant plasmid pTnice1 was constructed, which has the ability of broad-host-range conjugal mobilization and integration of iceA into chromosomal DNA of many gram-negative bacteria by Tn5 transposition.We used this plasmid to integrate the iceA into chromosomal DNA of Ent. cloacae and obtained the transgentic strain Enc1. 2022ina. In this transgenic Ent. cloacae, iceA would never be transferred elsewhere through transposition, and constantly expressed high ice nucleation activity even in the absence of antibiotic pressure.The transgenic strain was ingested by corn borer larvae. Over the 7 d after ingestion, the mean supercooling points (SCPs) of the larvae was about 10℃ higher than those of larvae treated with distilled water (control).The maintenance of these high SCPs was related to the stable gut colonization of transgenic strain. At 6th day post ingestion, the larva was exposed at - 5 or - 7℃ for 12 h, the percentages of larvae frozen to death were 85and 100%, respectively. In contrast, none or a small proportion of control larvae was frozen to death under the same conditions. Further studies demonstrated that this transgenic strain bore weak epiphytic ability.Therefore, this genetically engineered strain may be a promising candidate for control of insect pests in agricultural fields.

  14. From the ancient times of the agriculture to the biological control in plants: a little of the history

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Margareth Zamboni Pinotti; Julio Cesar Pires Santos

    2013-01-01

    The advancement of technology in agriculture driven by the need to increase efficiency in production transformed agriculture in an eminently anti-ecological activity, with large-scale use of industrialized products. Human beans still live the paradigm of agriculture based on the use of chemical inputs, which often brings harmful consequences to the environment. As an alternative to u the use of pesticides to control pests and diseases, biological control is a practice that has been increasing...

  15. Introduced agricultural pests, plant and animals diseases and vectors in the Dutch Caribbean, with an alert species list

    OpenAIRE

    Buurt, van, G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Most information on invasive alien pests is available for the leeward Dutch islands while the least is known for the windward Dutch islands. The principal means of entry is the importation of unsterilized soil and plant material through container shipment, import of ornamental plants and air traffic. The economic costs, both in terms of damages and control measures, as well as missed opportunities that these species cause, has not been estimated but certainly runs in the millions of dollars a...

  16. Pest Rodent Species Composition, Level of Damage and Mechanism of control in Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kasso

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The assessment on the current information on the species composition of pest rodents and the local communities' perception on their pest status was carried out in Dire Dawa Administration from March 2010 to September 2011. Stratified and multistage random sampling techniques were used to sample representative villages (urban and rural and respondents (n=150. Both qualitative and quantitative data were gathered through trapping, observation, questionnaire and interview. The collected data were tabulated and organized and appropriate statistical analysis like frequency distribution, percentage and chi-square test were used. For the survey of species composition and relative abundance of pest rodents Sherman live-traps and snap traps were set in the selected standardized and variable trapping grids. Five hundred and nine new individual rodents were captured from the trap nights of 986 Sherman live-traps and 130 snap traps. Twelve species of pest rodents were recorded of which eight were trapped and the four were observed in the study grids. The present result revealed as rodents were the most noxious pests causing substantial damage to agricultural crops, household items and human health through different mechanisms like feeding, discomforting, contaminating and mechanical damage and disease transmission. Techniques like using cat, hunting and trapping, rodenticides and field sanitations were frequently used. The present records of high pest rodent species composition not only indicate as the area is highly infested but it also indicates the existence of a high stock of rodent species diversity that requires an immediate development and application of ecological based rodent pest management strategy.

  17. Effect of non-crop vegetation types on conservation biological control of pests in olive groves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Conservation biological control (CBC is an environmentally sound potential alternative to the use of chemical insecticides. It involves modifications of the environment to promote natural enemy activity on pests. Despite many CBC studies increasing abundance of natural enemies, there are far fewer demonstrations of reduced pest density and very little work has been conducted in olive crops. In this study we investigated the effects of four forms of non-crop vegetation on the abundance of two important pests: the olive psyllid (Euphyllura olivina and the olive moth (Prays oleae. Areas of herbaceous vegetation and areas of woody vegetation near olive crops, and smaller patches of woody vegetation within olive groves, decreased pest abundance in the crop. Inter-row ground covers that are known to increase the abundance of some predators and parasitoids had no effect on the pests, possibly as a result of lack of synchrony between pests and natural enemies, lack of specificity or intra-guild predation. This study identifies examples of the right types of diversity for use in conservation biological control in olive production systems.

  18. The biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional agricultural exports in Peru: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study is oriented to explore the general characteristics of agriculture, the biological control as a pest control mechanism and agro export industry. In this context, we try to promote the use of biological control as a strategy to support nontraditional exports related to products such as asparagus and fresh avocados grown in the La Libertad Department (Peru, through an agronomic and management approach. Biological control is the basis of integrated pest management (IPM and contributes to the conservation of agricultural ecosystems allowing to export companies reduce costs, fulfill international phytosanitary measures and supports the preservation of the environment and health. Thus, the Peruvian agro export companies could build a sustainable competitive advantage and seek a positioning as socially responsible firms. We analyze variables such as crop statistics, comparative costs between biological control and chemical control, main destination markets for asparagus and fresh avocados, international standards, among others.

  19. Potential for widespread application of biological control of stored-product pests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard

    2007-01-01

    Biological control of stored product pests has substantial potential in Europe". This is essentially the conclusion of the activities of a European working group funded by the COST system, an intergovernmental networking system. Working group 4 of COST action 842 (2000-2005) focussed on biological...... control of stored-product pests and has considered a number of existing and potential fields for application of biological control. Three situations were identified where biological control would be a valuable component of integrated pest management: (1) Empty room treatment against stored-product mites......, beetles and moths; (2) Preventative treatment of bulk commodities against weevils (Sitophilus spp.) and storage mites; (3) Preventative application of egg-parasitoids against moths in packaged products. Development of methods for biological control and of mass production of natural enemies...

  20. The use of compost for the biological pest control. An alternative for pesticides; Utilizacion de compost en el control biologico de plagas. Una alternativa a los plaguicidas quimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pascual, J. A.

    2000-07-01

    Traditional methods of controlling pests and diseases using chemical pesticides can provide highly effective pest control but these methods might be damaging to the environment. Compost or other organic matter added to soil has the potential to control many soil borne plant pathogens, therefore they can be used in the sustainable agriculture. The mechanisms of action of compost are not well defined, being a mix of mycoparasitism, antibiotic production and nutrient competition. Our research is focused on the potential action of compost from municipal wastes in the biological control on pest. The addition of organic waste compost improved the biological control against Pythium furthermore raised the organic matter content of an arid soil. The addition of urban waste to the soil also could act long-term against Pythium, reducing the application times. One of the compost fraction more active in biological control are the humic substances. Nowadays, composts cannot be used by themselves to prevent plant pathogens action, it also is needed some pesticide application, but the use of these pesticides can be considerably reduced with the application of compost. (Author)

  1. Late pest control in determinate tomato cultivars Controle de pragas tardias em cultivares de tomateiro de crescimento determinado

    OpenAIRE

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior; Marcos Aurélio Anequini Macedo; Adalci Leite Torres; Marina Robles Angelini

    2007-01-01

    The usage of insecticidal plants and others insect resistant varieties can be strong allies to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM), being able to reduce the number of insecticides applications and to minimize its effect to the man and the environment.The following control techniques were compared in field conditions, investigating the late pest control of two determinate tomato cultivars: a) Conventional - sprayings of metamidophos, buprofezin, acephate, cipermetrin, abamectin, permetrin, te...

  2. Time Delayed Stage-Structured Predator-Prey Model with Birth Pulse and Pest Control Tactics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normally, chemical pesticides kill not only pests but also their natural enemies. In order to better control the pests, two-time delayed stage-structured predator-prey models with birth pulse and pest control tactics are proposed and analyzed by using impulsive differential equations in present work. The stability threshold conditions for the mature prey-eradication periodic solutions of two models are derived, respectively. The effects of key parameters including killing efficiency rate, pulse period, the maximum birth effort per unit of time of natural enemy, and maturation time of prey on the threshold values are discussed in more detail. By comparing the two threshold values of mature prey-extinction, we provide the fact that the second control tactic is more effective than the first control method.

  3. Producing bulbs and perennials : sustainable control of diseases, pests and weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Boer

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands every year flower bulbs and perennials are produced representing a value of € 500 m (flower bulbs) and of € 65 m (perennials, 2004). The growers are faced with several threatening pests and diseases during the production. They usually deal with these problems by using pesticides. In 2004 the Ministry of Agriculture and the stakeholders in Agribusiness made an agreement on reducing the environmental impact of pesticides by developing and implementing knowledge on Integrated ...

  4. Mixed cropping systems for biological control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Hans Marten; Schochow, Martin; Ulber, B; Kühne, Stefan; Rahmann, Gerold

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural advantages of mixed cropping are gained by biological effects like light competition, offering weed-suppressing capacities or by diversification of plant covers to break development cycles of pests. In a two-year project on mixed cropping with organic oilseed crops these effects were measured. It was found that weeds can be efficiently suppressed in organic linseed (Linum usitatissivum) in crop combinations with wheat (Triticum aestivum) or false flax (Camelina sativa). But linse...

  5. Mixed cropping systems for control of weeds and pests in organic oilseed crops

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, H. M.; Schochow, M; Ulber, B; Kuhne, S; Rahmann, G

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural advantages of mixed cropping are gained from biological effects like light competition offering weed-suppressing capacities, or by diversification of plant covers to break development cycles of pests. These effects were measured in a two-year project on mixed cropping with organic oilseed crops. It was found that weeds can be efficiently suppressed in organic linseed (Linum usitatissivum) grown in combination with wheat (Triticum aestivum) or false flax (Camelina sativa). Linseed...

  6. Research on the Application of the Super Capacitor in the Solar LED Pest Control Light

    OpenAIRE

    Li Tianhua; Pan Zhengkun

    2014-01-01

    Based on the energy storage characteristics of the super-capacitor and solar panels, this study selects the super-capacitor as the storage device to design the solar LED pest control light, which is energy saving, environmentally friendly, safe and reliable. The solar LED pest control light is easy to use and there is no need erecting and maintaining wires. However, the current storage battery is weak in charge control due to the instability of the sun light and this unstable charge state may...

  7. Is ground cover vegetation an effective biological control enhancement strategy against olive pests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paredes

    Full Text Available Ground cover vegetation is often added or allowed to generate to promote conservation biological control, especially in perennial crops. Nevertheless, there is inconsistent evidence of its effectiveness, with studies reporting positive, nil or negative effects on pest control. This might arise from differences between studies at the local scale (e.g. orchard management and land use history, the landscape context (e.g. presence of patches of natural or semi-natural vegetation near the focal orchard, or regional factors, particularly climate in the year of the study. Here we present the findings from a long-term regional monitoring program conducted on four pest species (Bactrocera oleae, Prays oleae, Euphyllura olivina, Saissetia oleae in 2,528 olive groves in Andalusia (Spain from 2006 to 2012. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to analyze the effect of ground cover on different response variables related to pest abundance, while accounting for variability at the local, landscape and regional scales. There were small and inconsistent effects of ground cover on the abundance of pests whilst local, landscape and regional variability explained a large proportion of the variability in pest response variables. This highlights the importance of local and landscape-related variables in biological control and the potential effects that might emerge from their interaction with practices, such as groundcover vegetation, implemented to promote natural enemy activity. The study points to perennial vegetation close to the focal crop as a promising alternative strategy for conservation biological control that should receive more attention.

  8. 吴茱萸病虫害防治研究进展%RecentAdvances in Integrated Control of Evodia rutaecarpa Diseases and Insect Pests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高丹; 张寿文; 吴波

    2012-01-01

      The paper reviewed the species of Evodia rutaecarpa diseases and pests. Integrated control techniques were introduced in several aspects, such as forecasts, agricultural control techniques, physical control techniques, chemical control techniques and other control techniques. Biological control techniques and genetic engineering were put forward for controlling Evodia rutaecarpa diseases and pests.%  概述了吴茱萸主要病虫害种类,介绍其了预测预报、农业防治、物理防治、化学防治等防治方法,并提出了生物防治技术和基因工程技术在其病虫害研究中的应用前景。

  9. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2015-01-01

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4-$19 (€3-15) per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM's impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3), combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9) compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30%) crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  10. Integrated Pest Management for Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules Pretty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Pest Management (IPM is a leading complement and alternative to synthetic pesticides and a form of sustainable intensification with particular importance for tropical smallholders. Global pesticide use has grown over the past 20 years to 3.5 billion kg/year, amounting to a global market worth $45 billion. The external costs of pesticides are $4–$19 (€3–15 per kg of active ingredient applied, suggesting that IPM approaches that result in lower pesticide use will benefit, not only farmers, but also wider environments and human health. Evidence for IPM’s impacts on pesticide use and yields remains patchy. We contribute an evaluation using data from 85 IPM projects from 24 countries of Asia and Africa implemented over the past twenty years. Analysing outcomes on productivity and reliance on pesticides, we find a mean yield increase across projects and crops of 40.9% (SD 72.3, combined with a decline in pesticide use to 30.7% (SD 34.9 compared with baseline. A total of 35 of 115 (30% crop combinations resulted in a transition to zero pesticide use. We assess successes in four types of IPM projects, and find that at least 50% of pesticide use is not needed in most agroecosystems. Nonetheless, policy support for IPM is relatively rare, counter-interventions from pesticide industry common, and the IPM challenge never done as pests, diseases and weeds evolve and move.

  11. The insect ecdysone receptor is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Rong; Xu, Xinping; Liang, Yongkang; Tian, Honggang; Pan, Zhanqing; Jin, Shouheng; Wang, Na; Zhang, Wenqing

    2014-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has great potential for use in insect pest control. However, some significant challenges must be overcome before RNAi-based pest control can become a reality. One challenge is the proper selection of a good target gene for RNAi. Here, we report that the insect ecdysone receptor (EcR) is a good potential target for RNAi-based pest control in the brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens, a serious insect pest of rice plants. We demonstrated that the use of a 360 bp fragment (NlEcR-c) that is common between NlEcR-A and NlEcR-B for feeding RNAi experiments significantly decreased the relative mRNA expression levels of NlEcR compared with those in the dsGFP control. Feeding RNAi also resulted in a significant reduction in the number of offspring per pair of N. lugens. Consequently, a transgenic rice line expressing NlEcR dsRNA was constructed by Agrobacterium- mediated transformation. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the total copy number of the target gene in all transgenic rice lines was 2. Northern blot analysis showed that the small RNA of the hairpin dsNlEcR-c was successfully expressed in the transgenic rice lines. After newly hatched nymphs of N. lugens fed on the transgenic rice lines, effective RNAi was observed. The NlEcR expression levels in all lines examined were decreased significantly compared with the control. In all lines, the survival rate of the nymphs was nearly 90%, and the average number of offspring per pair in the treated groups was significantly less than that observed in the control, with a decrease of 44.18-66.27%. These findings support an RNAi-based pest control strategy and are also important for the management of rice insect pests. PMID:25516715

  12. Natural biological control of pest mites in Brazilian sun coffee agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoro, Adenir V; Sarmento, Renato A; Rêgo, Adriano S; da Graça S Maciel, Anilde

    2010-06-01

    Coffee is one of the leading commodities in tropical America. Although plantations are usually established under a canopy of trees in most producing countries in the region, Brazilian coffee is mostly produced under full sun conditions. Such simple, single-crop agroecosystems with intensive agrochemical inputs often suffer with pests like mites. Predatory mites of the family Phytoseiidae are the main natural enemies associated with pest mites in the field. However, these beneficial arthropods struggle to survive in intensive agroecosystems such as coffee monocultures due to unfavorable microclimatic conditions, widespread pesticide use, and lack of alternative food (pollen, nectar). Conservation biological control uses a range of management strategies to sustain and enhance populations of indigenous natural enemies such as predatory mites. We discuss here conservation biological control as a strategy to improve biological control of pest mites by native predatory mites in Brazilian coffee monocultures as well as some related patents.

  13. Ionizing energy in food processing and pest control. 1. Wholesomeness of food treated with ionizing energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congressional concerns about the use of ionizing energy for food preservation and to control pests in food products for export and domestic use promoted the preparation of this report by a special task force of the Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST). An overview surveys research conducted on the toxicological safety, nutritional quality, and microbiological safety of foods treated with ionizing energy. Background information is provided on various types of electromagnetic radiation, effects of ionizing energy level and dose, sources of natural background radiation and induced radioactivity, and the nature and safety of various radiolytic products. Objectives, methodologies, and problems associated with feeding studies of toxicological safety are outlined; results of scientific studies, U.S. government wholesomeness studies, and international feeding studies are summarized. Studies on the nutritional value of food products processed using ionized energy have examined the effects of ionizing energy on 1) composite diets, 2) carbohydrates, 3) fats, 4) proteins and amino acids, 5) vitamins (potatoes, onions, fruits, meat, seafood, cereals, vegetables, dairy products, oils), 6) antivitamins, and 7) minerals. The report concludes that currently available scientific evidence indicates that foods exposed to ionizing energy under the conditions proposed for commercial application are 1) wholesome (safe to eat) and 2) comparable in nutritional adequacy to fresh or conventionally processed foods

  14. Economic Efficiency of Agricultural Rodent Control Using

    OpenAIRE

    Kan, Iddo; Motro, Yoav; Horvitz, Nir; Kimhi, Ayal; Leshem, Yossi; Yom-Tov, Yoram; Nathan, Ran

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We develop an empirical framework for evaluating the profitability of the use of barn owls to control rodent populations by locating nesting boxes in agricultural areas. Barn owls’ behavior is incorporated into the analysis by estimated functions that relate agricultural production to the birds’ spatial patterns of hunting and nesting choices. The model was developed based on agricultural and zoological data collected in a kibbutz in northern Israel. Focusing on alfalfa, the presence...

  15. Safe, Effective Use of Pesticides, A Manual for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extension Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed to assist public health pest control officials in meeting the certification required under the Michigan Pesticide Control Act of 1976. The four sections included describe: (1) Insects of public health significance in Michigan; (2) Other arthropods that affect man; (3) Swimmers' itch parasite and snail host; and (4)…

  16. The Integrated Control Measures for Crop Diseases and Pests%农作物病虫害的综合防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑钧; 陈天毅

    2011-01-01

    农业在我国的经济发展中具有举足轻重的作用,对病虫害进行有效防治则是提高农作物品质和产量的关键。病虫害防治需建立一套综合的防治体系,即需将农业防治、生物防治、物理防治和化学防治有效地结合起来。综合防治对于病虫害的防治效果显著,能够显著提高农作物产量和品质,培育安全、无公害的农产品。%Agriculture has an important role in economic development in China.Effective control of pests and diseases is a key for improving crop quality and yield.It is necessary to establish an integrated prevention system for controlling pests and diseases,which is an combination with agriculture control,biological control,physical control and chemical control.Integrated control can control the pest significantly,improve the quality of crops and cultivate green and pollution-free crops.

  17. Entomopathogenic fungi for control of arthropod pests in egg production facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    Beauveria bassiana and other species of entomopathogenic fungi are potential candidates for microbial control of major pests in egg layers, e.g. the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), the housefly (Musca domestica) and the darkling beetle (Alphitobius diaperinus). We have selected an isolate...... of B. bassiana with high efficacy against all target pests in laboratory assays, and will review the existing information on the natural occurrence of these fungi in farms with confined animals and discuss the possibilities and constraints for exploitation of entomopathogenic fungi as control agents...

  18. Classical Biological Control of Invasive Legacy Crop Pests: New Technologies Offer Opportunities to Revisit Old Pest Problems in Perennial Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Hoddle

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Advances in scientific disciplines that support classical biological control have provided “new tools” that could have important applications for biocontrol programs for some long-established invasive arthropod pests. We suggest that these previously unavailable tools should be used in biological control programs targeting “legacy pests”, even if they have been targets of previously unsuccessful biocontrol projects. Examples of “new tools” include molecular analyses to verify species identities and likely geographic area of origin, climate matching and ecological niche modeling, preservation of natural enemy genetic diversity in quarantine, the use of theory from invasion biology to maximize establishment likelihoods for natural enemies, and improved understanding of the interactions between natural enemy and target pest microbiomes. This review suggests that opportunities exist for revisiting old pest problems and funding research programs using “new tools” for developing biological control programs for “legacy pests” could provide permanent suppression of some seemingly intractable pest problems. As a case study, we use citricola scale, Coccus pseudomagnoliarum, an invasive legacy pest of California citrus, to demonstrate the potential of new tools to support a new classical biological control program targeting this insect.

  19. On an integro-differential model for pest control in a heterogeneous environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Insect pests pose a major threat to a balanced ecology as it can threaten local species as well as spread human diseases; thus, making the study of pest control extremely important. In practice, the sterile insect release method (SIRM), where a sterile population is introduced into the wild population with the aim of significantly reducing the growth of the population, has been a popular technique used to control pest invasions. In this work we introduce an integro-differential equation to model the propagation of pests in a heterogeneous environment, where this environment is divided into three regions. In one region SIRM is not used making this environment conducive to propagation of the insects. A second region is the eradication zone where there is an intense release of sterile insects, leading to decay of the population in this region. In the final region we explore two scenarios. In the first case, there is a small release of sterile insects and we prove that if the eradication zone is sufficiently large the pests will not invade. In the second case, when SIRM is not used at all in this region we show that invasions always occur regardless of the size of the eradication zone. Finally, we consider the limiting equation of the integro-differential equation and prove that in this case there is a critical length of the eradication zone which separates propagation from obstruction. Moreover, we provide some upper and lower bound for the critical length. PMID:24819831

  20. Manipulating behaviour with substrate-borne vibrations--potential for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polajnar, Jernej; Eriksson, Anna; Lucchi, Andrea; Anfora, Gianfranco; Virant-Doberlet, Meta; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of the potential use of substrate-borne vibrations for the purpose of achieving insect pest control in the context of integrated pest management. Although the importance of mechanical vibrations in the life of insects has been fairly well established, the effect of substrate-borne vibrations has historically been understudied, in contrast to sound sensu stricto. Consequently, the idea of using substrate-borne vibrations for pest control is still in its infancy. This review therefore focuses on the theoretical background, using it to highlight potential applications in a field environment, and lists the few preliminary studies that have been or are being performed. Conceptual similarities to the use of sound, as well as limitations inherent in this approach, are also noted. PMID:24962656

  1. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants.

  2. Can Coffee Chemical Compounds and Insecticidal Plants Be Harnessed for Control of Major Coffee Pests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Paul W C; Davis, Aaron P; Cossé, Allard A; Vega, Fernando E

    2015-11-01

    Pests and pathogens threaten coffee production worldwide and are difficult to control using conventional methods, such as insecticides. We review the literature on the chemistry of coffee, concentrating on compounds most commonly reported from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora. Differences in chemistry can distinguish coffee species and varieties, and plants grown under different biogeographic conditions exhibit different chemotypes. A number of chemical groups, such as alkaloids and caffeoylquinic acids, are known to be insecticidal, but most studies have investigated their effects on coffee quality and flavor. More research is required to bridge this gap in knowledge, so that coffee can be bred to be more resistant to pests. Furthermore, we report on some pesticidal plants that have been used for control of coffee pests. Locally sourced pesticidal plants have been underutilized and offer a sustainable alternative to conventional insecticides and could be used to augment breeding for resilience of coffee plants. PMID:26458882

  3. High-Quality Draft Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas sp. BRG100, a Strain with Bioherbicidal Properties against Setaria viridis (Green Foxtail) and Other Pests of Agricultural Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Dumonceaux, Tim J.; Town, Jennifer; Links, Matthew G.; Boyetchko, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. BRG100 inhibits the growth of certain agricultural pests and is a potentially useful biopesticide for weeds and plant diseases. We have sequenced the 6.25-Mbp genome of this strain and assembled it into 4 scaffolds. Genome sequence comparisons revealed that this strain may represent a novel species of Pseudomonas.

  4. The Learning Facilitation Role of Agricultural Extension Workers in the Adoption of Integrated Pest Management by Tropical Fruit Growers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsey, Barry; Sirichoti, Kittipong

    2002-01-01

    A sample of 120 Thai fruit growers reported that agricultural extension workers were influential in their adoption of integrated pest management, which balances cultural tradition and progressive practice. Extension workers used discussion and reflection on practical experience, a participatory and collaborative approach to the adoption of…

  5. MAPPING AND SCOUTING CORN PEST INFESTATIONS IN A PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE ENVIRONMENT USING REMOTE SENSING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral imagery was acquired three times during the 2006 agricultural growing season (late July to mid-September) over 35 corn fields in east central Illinois. The imagery was processed with an emphasis on rapid image product development (turnabround time of less than 24 ho...

  6. Early pest development and loss of biological control are associated with urban warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meineke, Emily K; Dunn, Robert R; Frank, Steven D

    2014-11-01

    Climate warming is predicted to cause many changes in ectotherm communities, one of which is phenological mismatch, wherein one species' development advances relative to an associated species or community. Phenological mismatches already lead to loss of pollination services, and we predict that they also cause loss of biological control. Here, we provide evidence that a pest develops earlier due to urban warming but that phenology of its parasitoid community does not similarly advance. This mismatch is associated with greater egg production that likely leads to more pests on trees.

  7. The role of transient dynamics in biological pest control: insights from a host-parasitoid community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-01-01

    1. Identifying natural enemies that can maintain pests at low abundances is a priority in biological control. Here, we show that experiments combined with models generate new insights into identifying effective control agents prior to their release in the field. Using a host-parasitoid community (the harlequin bug and its egg parasitoids) as a model system, we report three key findings. 2. The interplay between the host's self-limitation and the parasitoids' saturating functional response causes the long-term (steady-state) outcomes for pest suppression to differ from those of short-term (transient) dynamics. When the bug's self-limitation is moderately strong, the parasitoid with the higher attack rate and conversion efficiency (Ooencyrtus) achieves greater host suppression in the long term, but its longer handling time causes long periods of transient dynamics during which the bug can reach high abundances; when the bug's self-limitation is weak, host fluctuations amplify over time and Ooencyrtus fails at host suppression altogether. In contrast, the parasitoid with the lower attack rate and conversion efficiency but the shorter handling time (Trissolcus) induces only weak transient fluctuations of short duration and can maintain the host at low abundances regardless of the strength of the bug's self-limitation. 3. Release of multiple enemy species can compromise host suppression if an enemy that induces stronger transient fluctuations excludes one that induces weaker fluctuations. For instance, Ooencyrtus excludes Trissolcus despite having a longer handling time because of its higher conversion efficiency. The model correctly predicts the time to exclusion observed in experiments, suggesting that it captures the key biological features of the host-parasitoid interaction. 4. Intraspecific interference reduces long-term pest suppression but improves short-term pest control by reducing the magnitude and duration of transient fluctuations. 5. These results highlight

  8. The role of transient dynamics in biological pest control: insights from a host-parasitoid community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-01-01

    1. Identifying natural enemies that can maintain pests at low abundances is a priority in biological control. Here, we show that experiments combined with models generate new insights into identifying effective control agents prior to their release in the field. Using a host-parasitoid community (the harlequin bug and its egg parasitoids) as a model system, we report three key findings. 2. The interplay between the host's self-limitation and the parasitoids' saturating functional response causes the long-term (steady-state) outcomes for pest suppression to differ from those of short-term (transient) dynamics. When the bug's self-limitation is moderately strong, the parasitoid with the higher attack rate and conversion efficiency (Ooencyrtus) achieves greater host suppression in the long term, but its longer handling time causes long periods of transient dynamics during which the bug can reach high abundances; when the bug's self-limitation is weak, host fluctuations amplify over time and Ooencyrtus fails at host suppression altogether. In contrast, the parasitoid with the lower attack rate and conversion efficiency but the shorter handling time (Trissolcus) induces only weak transient fluctuations of short duration and can maintain the host at low abundances regardless of the strength of the bug's self-limitation. 3. Release of multiple enemy species can compromise host suppression if an enemy that induces stronger transient fluctuations excludes one that induces weaker fluctuations. For instance, Ooencyrtus excludes Trissolcus despite having a longer handling time because of its higher conversion efficiency. The model correctly predicts the time to exclusion observed in experiments, suggesting that it captures the key biological features of the host-parasitoid interaction. 4. Intraspecific interference reduces long-term pest suppression but improves short-term pest control by reducing the magnitude and duration of transient fluctuations. 5. These results highlight

  9. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 8A: General Public Health Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests such as cockroaches, lice, fleas, and mites, vertebrate pests; and plant pests such as poison ivy and ragweed. A study guide…

  10. Y-Linked markers for improved population control of the tephritid fruit fly pest, Anastrepha suspensa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insect pest control programs incorporating the sterile insect technique (SIT) rely on the mass production and release of sterilized insects to reduce the wild-type population through infertile matings. Most effective programs release only males to avoid any crop damage caused by female fruit flies o...

  11. 9 CFR 3.11 - Cleaning, sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... another dog or cat, or social grouping of dogs or cats. (2) Used primary enclosures and food and water..., sanitization, housekeeping, and pest control. (a) Cleaning of primary enclosures. Excreta and food waste must... prevent an excessive accumulation of feces and food waste, to prevent soiling of the dogs or...

  12. Effects of Surface Seals on Pest Control Efficacy with 1,3-Dichloropropene/Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil fumigation has been used for many years for control of soil-borne pests including parasitic nematodes, disease pathogens, and weeds in high value cropping systems. The phase-out of methyl bromide has resulted in increasing use of alternative fumigants such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and ch...

  13. Predicting methyl iodide emission, soil concentration, and pest control in a two-dimensional chamber system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to ever increasing state and federal regulations, the future use of fumigants is predicted on negative environmental impacts while offering sufficient pest control efficacy. To foster the development of the best management practice (BMP), an integrated tool is needed to simultaneously predict fu...

  14. LOW TEMPERATURE PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION FOR POSTHARVEST PEST CONTROL ON FRESH VEGETABLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2°C was studied to control western flower t...

  15. Biology and Control of Insect and Related Pests of Livestock in Wyoming. MP-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John E.

    This document provides information that a potential insecticide applicator can utilize to safely and effectively control insects and related pests of livestock. The first section of the manual discusses the general methods of preparation and application of insecticides. The second section concerns itself with the recognition of insect problems,…

  16. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Ornamental and Turfgrass Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition and control of ornamental and turfgrass pests such as leaf spot, scab, powdery mildew, galls, grubs and weeds. A section of the text is also devoted to environmental concerns to be considered when undertaking pest…

  17. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Public Health Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet specific standards for pesticide applicators. The text is concerned with recognition of pests and vectors such as lice, fleas, mosquitoes, flies and rodents. There is also discussion on methods of control without pesticides or in combination with pesticide treatment. Sections of the text are devoted to…

  18. Apply Pesticides Correctly, A Guide for Commercial Applicators: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health Related Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Mary Ann, Ed.; Vermeire, Donna M., Ed.

    This guide contains basic information to meet the specific standards for pesticide applicators. The thrust of this document is the recognition and control of common pests. Included are those which directly affect man such as bees, roaches, mites, and mosquitoes; and those which destroy food products and wooden structures. Both mechanical and…

  19. How functional genomics will impact fruit fly pest control: the example of the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata

    OpenAIRE

    Scolari, Francesca; Ludvik M Gomulski; Gabrieli, Paolo; Manni, Mosè; Savini, Grazia; Gasperi, Giuliano; Anna R Malacrida

    2014-01-01

    The highly invasive agricultural insect pest Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae) is the most thoroughly studied tephritid fruit fly at the genetic and molecular levels. It has become a model for the analysis of fruit fly invasions and for the development of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes based on the environmentally-friendly Sterile Insect Technique (SIT). Extensive transcriptome resources and the recently released genome sequence are making it possible to unra...

  20. Cultural and chemical pest control methods alter habitat suitability for biological control agents: An example from Wisconsin commercial cranberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated pest control program requires an in-depth understanding of the compatibility of all control strategies used. In Wisconsin commercial cranberry production, early-season control strategies may include either a broad-spectrum insecticide application or a corresponding spring flood, along ...

  1. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan R Morris; John Vandermeer; Ivette Perfecto

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the...

  2. Important Insect Pests of Fruit - Important Insect Pests of Nuts - Field Crop Insect Pests - Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.; And Others

    This document consists of four agriculture extension service publications from Pennsylvania State University. The titles are: (1) Important Insect Pests of Fruit; (2) Important Insect Pests of Nuts; (3) Field Crop Insect Pests; and (4) Insect Pests of Vegetable Crops. The first publication gives the hosts, injury, and description of 22 insect…

  3. Biological control of alien and invasive species in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural production in Europe faces many challenges including limited availability of water, nitrogen input and fossil fuels. It is necessary, therefore, to identify methods of production and new technologies to increase the efficiency of the primary systems, guaranteeing amount of food, quality, safety and eco-sustainability . One of the most important aspects, though often undervalued in relation to the food chain, is the adversity of biological management of agricultural crops due to pests, pathogens or fitomizi with potential invasive already present in the territory or of recent origin alien. In this context, two main objectives should be implemented at the same time reduce production losses and protect the agro-ecosystem. To meet these expectations, as of January 1, 2015 all farms in the European Union countries are bound to the application of the Integrated Defense principles, as indicated by the Directive on the sustainable use of plant protection products (128/09 / EC) .In response to this and other new entomological emergencies plant health and medical-veterinary entomologist researchers of the Laboratory sustainable management of Agro-Ecosystems in ENEA, have directed their research towards the development of innovative systems for the sustainable control of invasive species of insects is in the agricultural sector that health.

  4. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Hai-Chao; Miao, Xue-Xia

    2013-02-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) could lead to insect death. This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control, and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection. However, there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control, with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA (dsRNA) delivery being two of the major challenges. With respect to target gene selection, at present, the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers. Once the target gene is identified, dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component. However, micro-injection, which is the most common method, can only be used in laboratory experiments. Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects. Hence, RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control, or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies; however, further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary. In this review, we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management. Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures. To accelerate its practical application in crop protection, further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed. PMID:23955822

  5. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Krauss

    Full Text Available Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short

  6. Decreased functional diversity and biological pest control in conventional compared to organic crop fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Jochen; Gallenberger, Iris; Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were treated with insecticides were compared with 10 non-treated conventional fields. Organic fields had five times higher plant species richness and about twenty times higher pollinator species richness compared to conventional fields. Abundance of pollinators was even more than one-hundred times higher on organic fields. In contrast, the abundance of cereal aphids was five times lower in organic fields, while predator abundances were three times higher and predator-prey ratios twenty times higher in organic fields, indicating a significantly higher potential for biological pest control in organic fields. Insecticide treatment in conventional fields had only a short-term effect on aphid densities while later in the season aphid abundances were even higher and predator abundances lower in treated compared to untreated conventional fields. Our data indicate that insecticide treatment kept aphid predators at low abundances throughout the season, thereby significantly reducing top-down control of aphid populations. Plant and pollinator species richness as well as predator abundances and predator-prey ratios were higher at field edges compared to field centres, highlighting the importance of field edges for ecosystem services. In conclusion organic farming increases biodiversity, including important functional groups like plants, pollinators and predators which enhance natural pest control. Preventative insecticide application in conventional fields has only short-term effects on aphid

  7. Feasibility, limitation and possible solutions of RNAi-based technology for insect pest control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Zhang; Hai-Chao Li; Xue-Xia Miao

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that target gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi)could lead to insect death.This phenomenon has been considered as a potential strategy for insect pest control,and it is termed RNAi-mediated crop protection.However,there are many limitations using RNAi-based technology for pest control,with the effectiveness target gene selection and reliable double-strand RNA(dsRNA)delivery being two of the major challenges.With respect to target gene selection,at present,the use of homologous genes and genome-scale high-throughput screening are the main strategies adopted by researchers.Once the target gene is identified,dsRNA can be delivered by micro-injection or by feeding as a dietary component.However,micro-injection,which is the most common method,can only be used in laboratory experiments.Expression of dsRNAs directed against insect genes in transgenic plants and spraying dsRNA reagents have been shown to induce RNAi effects on target insects.Hence,RNAi-mediated crop protection has been considered as a potential new-generation technology for pest control,or as a complementary method of existing pest control strategies;however,further development to improve the efficacy of protection and range of species affected is necessary.In this review,we have summarized current research on RNAi-based technology for pest insect management.Current progress has proven that RNAi technology has the potential to be a tool for designing a new generation of insect control measures.To accelerate its practical application in crop protection,further study on dsRNA uptake mechanisms based on the knowledge of insect physiology and biochemistry is needed.

  8. Cultivar Selection and Pest Control Techniques on Organic White Cabbage Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile V. STOLERU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, as in many other countries, white cabbage is one of the most important vegetable crop species. The experiment was performed in the NE of the country during 2008-2009 in order to measure the impact of cultivar choice and pest control techniques on organic white cabbage [Brassica oleracea (L. var. capitata f. alba (D.C.]. This experiment included early, summer and autumn crops. The early crop compared four cultivars, the summer crop two cultivars, and the autumn crop three cultivars. The effect of various common organic pest control techniques was also measured. These techniques included: treatments with extract from neem (Azadirachta indica, potassium soap, Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki toxins, application of a parasitic wasp (Trichogramma evanescens and covering the crop with an agrotextile. Data were collected regarding the effect of cultivar selection and pest control technique on common local cabbage pests: cabbage flea beetle (Phyllotreta atra, cabbage fly (Delia brassicae, cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae and cabbage butterfly (Pieris brassicae. The highest yields for each respective growing season were obtained using the following combinations: Flavius agrotextile (early crop, Copenhagen Market agrotextile + 4 lha-1 azadirachtin + 12104 wasps/ha (summer crop and Buzau 4 lha-1 azadirachtin (autumn crop.

  9. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, Lindsey C.; Adrianos, Sherry L.; Oppert, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi) may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs. PMID:27657138

  10. Gene Disruption Technologies Have the Potential to Transform Stored Product Insect Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey C. Perkin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stored product insects feed on grains and processed commodities manufactured from grain post-harvest, reducing the nutritional value and contaminating food. Currently, the main defense against stored product insect pests is the pesticide fumigant phosphine. Phosphine is highly toxic to all animals, but is the most effective and economical control method, and thus is used extensively worldwide. However, many insect populations have become resistant to phosphine, in some cases to very high levels. New, environmentally benign and more effective control strategies are needed for stored product pests. RNA interference (RNAi may overcome pesticide resistance by targeting the expression of genes that contribute to resistance in insects. Most data on RNAi in stored product insects is from the coleopteran genetic model, Tribolium castaneum, since it has a strong RNAi response via injection of double stranded RNA (dsRNA in any life stage. Additionally, Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR technology has been suggested as a potential resource for new pest control strategies. In this review we discuss background information on both gene disruption technologies and summarize the advances made in terms of molecular pest management in stored product insects, mainly T. castaneum, as well as complications and future needs.

  11. Adaptive management in crop pest control in the face of climate variability: an agent-based modeling approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Rebaudo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate changes are occurring rapidly at both regional and global scales. Farmers are faced with the challenge of developing new agricultural practices to help them to cope with unpredictable changes in environmental, social, and economic conditions. Under these conditions, adaptive management requires a farmer to learn by monitoring provisional strategies and changing conditions, and then incrementally adjust management practices in light of new information. Exploring adaptive management will increase our understanding of the underlying processes that link farmer societies with their environment across space and time, while accounting for the impacts of an unpredictable climate. Here, we assessed the impacts of temperature and crop price, as surrogates for climate and economic changes, on farmers' adaptive management in crop pest control using an agent-based modeling approach. Our model simulated an artificial society of farmers that relied on field data obtained in the Ecuadorian Andes. Farmers were represented as heterogeneous autonomous agents who interact with and influence each other, and who are capable of adapting to changing environmental conditions. The results of our simulation suggest that variable temperatures led to less effective pest control strategies than those used under stable temperatures. Moreover, farmers used information gained through their own past experience or through interactions with other farmers to initiate an adaptive management approach. At a broader scale, this study generates more than an increased understanding of adaptive management; it highlights how people depend on one another to manage common problems.

  12. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsong Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis, demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field.

  13. Biological control of cultural heritage pest Coleoptera and Lepidoptera with the help of parasitoid Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Schöller

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Natural enemies are known from many cultural heritage pests, but their potential for biological control has been marginally exploited only. In this publication, examples of practical and commercial application of parasitoids of beetles and moths are compiled as well as laboratory research that contributes to the development of guidelines for parasitoid releases. One the one hand there are parasitoids found to occur simultaneously with the pests in buildings, on the other hand there are parasitoids that were never found to be associated with the respective pests but accept them if brought into the cultural heritage environments. An example for the latter is the egg parasitoid Trichogramma evanescens euproctidis, a parasitoid of moth eggs including those of the cloth moth Tineola bisselliella. In semi-field trials it was shown that inundative releases of the egg parasitoids are necessary and that effectiveness is reduced on thick cloth with long strand. Trichogramma release units have to be placed directly on the cloth to be protected. A naturally occuring parasitoid of Anobiid beetles is the pteromalid larval parasitoid Lariophagus distinguendus. This parasitoid was applied against the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum in historic libraries and against spider beetles (Ptininae in historic buildings. A simulation model for the population-dynamics of L. distinguendus and the golden spider beetle Niptus hololeucus is presented. Finally, monitoring of the Braconid larval parasitoid Spathius exarator used for indirect monitoring of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum is described. The future potential of parasitoids to control cultural heritage pests is discussed.

  14. Development of Bt Rice and Bt Maize in China and Their Efficacy in Target Pest Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingsong; Hallerman, Eric; Peng, Yufa; Li, Yunhe

    2016-01-01

    Rice and maize are important cereal crops that serve as staple foods, feed, and industrial material in China. Multiple factors constrain the production of both crops, among which insect pests are an important one. Lepidopteran pests cause enormous yield losses for the crops annually. In order to control these pests, China plays an active role in development and application of genetic engineering (GE) to crops, and dozens of GE rice and GE maize lines expressing insecticidal proteins from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been developed. Many lines have entered environmental release, field testing, and preproduction testing, and laboratory and field experiments have shown that most of the Bt rice and Bt maize lines developed in China exhibited effective control of major target lepidopteran pests on rice (Chilo suppressalis, Scirpophaga incertulas, and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis) and maize (Ostrinia furnacalis), demonstrating bright prospects for application. However, none of these Bt lines has yet been commercially planted through this writing in 2016. Challenges and perspectives for development and application of Bt rice and maize in China are discussed. This article provides a general context for colleagues to learn about research and development of Bt crops in China, and may shed light on future work in this field. PMID:27763554

  15. Engineered repressible lethality for controlling the pink bollworm, a lepidopteran pest of cotton.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil I Morrison

    Full Text Available The sterile insect technique (SIT is an environmentally friendly method of pest control in which insects are mass-produced, irradiated and released to mate with wild counterparts. SIT has been used to control major pest insects including the pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella Saunders, a global pest of cotton. Transgenic technology has the potential to overcome disadvantages associated with the SIT, such as the damaging effects of radiation on released insects. A method called RIDL (Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal is designed to circumvent the need to irradiate insects before release. Premature death of insects' progeny can be engineered to provide an equivalent to sterilisation. Moreover, this trait can be suppressed by the provision of a dietary antidote. In the pink bollworm, we generated transformed strains using different DNA constructs, which showed moderate-to-100% engineered mortality. In permissive conditions, this effect was largely suppressed. Survival data on cotton in field cages indicated that field conditions increase the lethal effect. One strain, called OX3402C, showed highly penetrant and highly repressible lethality, and was tested on host plants where its larvae caused minimal damage before death. These results highlight a potentially valuable insecticide-free tool against pink bollworm, and indicate its potential for development in other lepidopteran pests.

  16. Modeling the integration of parasitoid, insecticide, and transgenic insecticidal crop for the long-term control of an insect pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Liu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Mao; Roush, Rick; Shelton, Anthony M

    2013-06-01

    The tools of insect pest management include host plant resistance, biological control, and insecticides and how they are integrated will influence the durability of each. We created a detailed model of the population dynamics and population genetics of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella L., and its parasitoid, Diadegma insulare (Cresson), to study long-term pest management in broccoli Brassica oleracea L. Given this pest's history of evolving resistance to various toxins, we also evaluated the evolution of resistance to transgenic insecticidal Bt broccoli (expressing Cry1Ac) and two types of insecticides. Simulations demonstrated that parasitism provided the most reliable, long-term control of P. xylostella populations. Use of Bt broccoli with a 10% insecticide-free refuge did not reduce the long-term contribution of parasitism to pest control. Small refuges within Bt broccoli fields can delay evolution of resistance > 30 generations if resistance alleles are rare in the pest population. However, the effectiveness of these refuges can be compromised by insecticide use. Rainfall mortality during the pest's egg and neonate stages significantly influences pest control but especially resistance management. Our model results support the idea that Bt crops and biological control can be integrated in integrated pest management and actually synergistically support each other. However, the planting and maintenance of toxin-free refuges are critical to this integration. PMID:23865173

  17. Pest Control in Corn and Soybeans: Weeds - Insects - Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doersch, R. E.; And Others

    This document gives the characteristics and application rates for herbicides used to control annual weeds in corn, annual and perennial broadleaf weeds in corn, quackgrass and yellow nutsedge in corn, and annual weeds in soybeans. It also gives insecticide use information for corn and soybeans. A brief discussion of disease control in corn and…

  18. "Protected biological control"- Biological pest management in the greenhouse industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pilkington, L.J.; Messelink, G.J.; Lenteren, van J.C.; Mottee, Le K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the foundations and characteristics of biological control in protected cropping and what drivers are behind adoption of this management system within this industry. Examining a brief history of biological control in greenhouses and what makes it a successful management s

  19. Obligate symbiont involved in pest status of host insect

    OpenAIRE

    Hosokawa, Takahiro; Kikuchi, Yoshitomo; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-01-01

    The origin of specific insect genotypes that enable efficient use of agricultural plants is an important subject not only in applied fields like pest control and management but also in basic disciplines like evolutionary biology. Conventionally, it has been presupposed that such pest-related ecological traits are attributed to genes encoded in the insect genomes. Here, however, we report that pest status of an insect is principally determined by symbiont genotype rather than by insect genotyp...

  20. ROBUST CONTROL OF OSCILLATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL TRACTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T. O.; Hansen, M. R.; Conrad, Finn;

    2003-01-01

    for agricultural tractors equiped with hicth and implements. A control strategy is developed to make the implement counteract the movement of the tractor and thereby reducing the pitching oscillation. The control strategy is based on a linear plant model with constant or slowly varying parameters. Using...

  1. Floricultural Insects and Related Pests - Biology and Control, Section I. Florogram - Specialty Manual Issue for Commercial Greenhouse Growers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, A. G.; Scanlon, D. T.

    This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of floricultural crops grown commercially in glass and plastic houses in Massachusetts. The publication consists of two sections. The first section presents a description of the major pests of…

  2. Advances in postharvest pest control on perishable commodities using ultralow oxygen treatment and low temperature phosphine funigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent research in postharvest pest control on fresh fruits and vegetables for export to markets have resulted in promising ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments and low temperature phosphine fumigation treatments for a variety of pests on different commodities. Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri), wes...

  3. Safe Cockroach Control: A Guide to Setting Up an Integrated Pest Management Program within a School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher; And Others

    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a decision-making approach to pest control that has been used successfully on farms, city parks, offices, homes, and schools. IPM programs help individuals decide when treatments are necessary, where treatment would be most helpful, and what combinations of tactics would be most effective, safe, and inexpensive…

  4. Pest control plan Modoc National Wildlife Refuge Alturas California

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this plan is to receive approval to control both wildlife and domestic animals in order to meet refuge goals and objectives. Refuge objectives were...

  5. Stopping the spread of agricultural pests with radiation: Quarantine commodity treatments and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost 60 yr ago, E. F. Knipling, a young U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) entomologist, proposed that it might be economically feasible to eradicate the newly introduced screwworm from Florida if a way could be found to sterilize the males. He believed that the male screwworm fly's strong mating instinct would cause released sterile males to seek out and mate with native screwworm females, interrupting the normal reproductive cycle. Knipling thought this was possible because another USDA scientist, R. C. Bushland, had recently found a way to rear this animal parasite cheaply and in large numbers in the laboratory, making possible the rearing and release of large numbers of sterile male flies into the native population. Some 13 yr would pass before research showed that radiation-induced dominant lethal mutations offered an efficient, practical way to render screwworm flies sterile

  6. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 77, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As reported in some previous newsletters, both FAO and IAEA have been undergoing considerable transformation as a result of a major on-going reform process of FAO that started in 2009 and which is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2013. In addition, the IAEA has seen a complete change of senior management and in January 2011 Mr Daud Mohamad was appointed Deputy Director General Nuclear Sciences and Applications and Head of the Department which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The IAEA has been implementing AIPS, a new IAEA wide Information System for Programme Support, representing a drastic transformation of processes. Until recently there were over 60 different and independent internal information systems and AIPS is replacing most of them with one Oracle product. AIPS also entails the adoption of IPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards, which is used in a majority of international organizations, involving independentlymaintained standards for financial reporting, considered best practice for organizations like ours. AIPS is being introduced in stages or 'plateaus'. The first plateau is devoted to Finance, Procurement, Transportation and the operational parts of Programme and Project Management. This went live in January 2011, in tandem with our adoption of IPSAS. Plateau 2 is scheduled for 2012. In terms of new publications, a special issue of Genetica on 'Molecular Technologies to Improve the Effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique' was recently published. A second publication, 'Rearing Codling Moth for the Sterile Insect Technique' is a text book that was published under the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

  7. Use of Radiation Disinfestation in the Control of Rice Insect Pests during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), red flour beetle (Tribolium castaeneum), saw-toothed grain beetle (Oryzaephilus surinamensis), and flour moth (Ephestia kuehniella) are commonly found in Egyptian stored rice. The aim of this project is to carry out a study of a pilot-scale radiation disinfestation of these rice insect pests in an amount large enough to extrapolate data for later commercial practice. Fumigation treatments with phostoxin, methyl bromide and a combination treatment (methyl bromide + 7.5 krad) were also performed as a comparison to reveal the most effective way to control these rice pests. The most effective of all treatments tested was the 50-krad treatment. Complete sterility for the adults of these pests was obtained after treating rice directly, while complete mortality was reached within 30-60 days. Regarding fumigation treatments — phostoxin, methylbromide and combined treatment (methylbromide + 7.5 krad), the living stages of the four insect pests in rice varied during the storage period. However, the combination treatment gave the best results. Adults of the three Coleopteran species appeared in rice after four months because the 7.5-krad dose was not enough to kill the eggs which might have been laid by young females before being killed by fumigants. (author)

  8. Bt maize and integrated pest management--a European perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissle, Michael; Romeis, Jörg; Bigler, Franz

    2011-09-01

    The European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis), the Mediterranean corn borer (Sesamia nonagrioides) and the western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) are the main arthropod pests in European maize production. Practised pest control includes chemical control, biological control and cultural control such as ploughing and crop rotation. A pest control option that is available since 1996 is maize varieties that are genetically engineered (GE) to produce insecticidal compounds. GE maize varieties available today express one or several genes from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that target corn borers or corn rootworms. Incentives to growing Bt maize are simplified farm operations, high pest control efficiency, improved grain quality and ecological benefits. Limitations include the risk of resistance evolution in target pest populations, risk of secondary pest outbreaks and increased administration to comply with licence agreements. Growers willing to plant Bt maize in the European Union (EU) often face the problem that authorisation is denied. Only one Bt maize transformation event (MON810) is currently authorised for commercial cultivation, and some national authorities have banned cultivation. Spain is the only EU member state where Bt maize adoption levels are currently delivering farm income gains near full potential levels. In an integrated pest management (IPM) context, Bt maize can be regarded as a preventive (host plant resistance) or a responsive pest control measure. In any case, Bt maize is a highly specific tool that efficiently controls the main pests and allows combination with other preventive or responsive measures to solve other agricultural problems including those with secondary pests.

  9. Chemical Composition and Insecticidal Activity of Essential oil obtained from DCM Extracts of Psoralea corylifolia against Agricultural pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Gupta

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal activity of essential oils obtained from DCM extracts of Psoralea corylifolia (Fabaceae against pupa of Epilachna insect was investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Insecticidal activity was determined at 24 ± 4⁰C and 68 ± 5% R.H., in dark conditions. The DCM extracts of the dried seeds of the plants were subjected to Column chromatography and the oil obtained was then subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger type apparatus. The major components in these essential oils are identified using GC-MS spectroscopy and their insecticidal activity was tested. The predominant components in the oil of Psoralea corylifolia are toluene, alpha-pinene, L-beta-pinene, beta-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, Gamma terpinene, terpinolene, alpha santolina alcohol, 4-terpineol, Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methyl ethenyl, caryophyllene, alpha caryophyllene, thumbergene. The mortality rate of the agricultural pests was checked against 1%, 5% and 10% conc. of essential oil. The essential oil from Psoralea corylifolia shows strong toxic effect against pupa of Epilachna insect. Finding insecticidal activity is of great importance as using plant extracts as insecticides, are biodegrable and do not leave toxic residues results in better crop and better human health.

  10. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Control of important stored pest sitophilus granarius with gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to determine susceptibility of Sitophilus granarius (L.) to gamma radiation at all the developmental stages and to evaluate dose level for effective control. During experiment to grain weevils were reaced and maintained on Sivas bread wheat at 26 C and 70 per cent relative humidity. Irradiation was carried out between 0-100 krad doses and totally 22 different radiation doses were applied. (author)

  12. Alternative food improves the combined effect of an omnivore and a predator on biological pest control. A case study in avocado orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, J J; de la Peña, F; Hormaza, J I; Boyero, J R; Vela, J M; Wong, E; Trigo, M M; Montserrat, M

    2009-10-01

    Ecological communities used in biological pest control are usually represented as three-trophic level food chains with top-down control. However, at least two factors complicate this simple way of characterizing agricultural communities. First, agro-ecosystems are composed of several interacting species forming complicated food webs. Second, the structure of agricultural communities may vary in time. Efficient pest management approaches need to integrate these two factors to generate better predictions for pest control. In this work, we identified the food web components of an avocado agro-ecosystem, and unravelled patterns of co-occurrence and interactions between these components through field and laboratory experiments. This allowed us to predict community changes that would improve the performance of the naturally occurring predators and to test these predictions in field population experiments. Field surveys revealed that the food-web structure and species composition of the avocado community changed in time. In spring, the community was characterized by a linear food chain of Euseius stipulatus, an omnivorous mite, feeding on pollen. In the summer, E. stipulatus and a predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus, shared a herbivorous mite prey. Laboratory experiments confirmed these trophic interactions and revealed that N. californicus can feed inside the prey nests, whereas E. stipulatus cannot, which may further reduce competition among predators. Finally, we artificially increased the coexistence of the two communities via addition of the non-herbivore food source (pollen) for the omnivore. This led to an increase in predator numbers and reduced populations of the herbivore. Therefore, the presence of pollen is expected to improve pest control in this system.

  13. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; Stauffer, Christian; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2004-01-01

    Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71–102]. We established Wolbachia-infected lines of the medfly Ceratitis capitata using the infected cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi as donor. Wolbachia induced complete CI in the novel host. Laboratory cage populations were completely suppressed by single releases of infected males, suggesting that Wolbachia-induced CI could be used as a novel environmentally friendly tool for the control of medfly populations. The results also encourage the introduction of Wolbachia into pest and vector species of economic and hygenic relevance to suppress or modify natural populations. PMID:15469918

  14. Supplemental control of lepidopterous pests on Bt transgenic sweet corn with biologically-based spray treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Robert R; Shepard, B Merle; Shapiro, Martin; Hassell, Richard L; Schaffer, Mark L; Smith, Chad M

    2009-01-01

    Biologically-based spray treatments, including nucleopolyhedroviruses, neem, and spinosad, were evaluated as supplemental controls for the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), on transgenic sweet corn, Zea mays (L.) (Poales: Poaceae), expressing a Cry1Ab toxin from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner (Bacillales: Bacillaceae) (Bt). Overall, transgenic corn supported lower densities of both pests than did nontransgenic corn. Control of the fall armyworm was improved in both whorl-stage and tassel-stage corn by the use of either a nucleopolyhedrovirus or neem, but the greatest improvement was seen with spinosad. Only spinosad consistently reduced damage to ears, which was caused by both pest species. In general, efficacy of the spray materials did not differ greatly between transgenic and nontransgenic corn.

  15. The Effect of Farmers' Decisions on Pest Control with Bt Crops: A Billion Dollar Game of Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Alice E; Bell, James R; Hutchison, William D; van den Bosch, Frank; Mitchell, Paul D; Crowder, David; Parnell, Stephen; Whitmore, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    A farmer's decision on whether to control a pest is usually based on the perceived threat of the pest locally and the guidance of commercial advisors. Therefore, farmers in a region are often influenced by similar circumstances, and this can create a coordinated response for pest control that is effective at a landscape scale. This coordinated response is not intentional, but is an emergent property of the system. We propose a framework for understanding the intrinsic feedback mechanisms between the actions of humans and the dynamics of pest populations and demonstrate this framework using the European corn borer, a serious pest in maize crops. We link a model of the European corn borer and a parasite in a landscape with a model that simulates the decisions of individual farmers on what type of maize to grow. Farmers chose whether to grow Bt-maize, which is toxic to the corn borer, or conventional maize for which the seed is cheaper. The problem is akin to the snow-drift problem in game theory; that is to say, if enough farmers choose to grow Bt maize then because the pest is suppressed an individual may benefit from growing conventional maize. We show that the communication network between farmers' and their perceptions of profit and loss affects landscape scale patterns in pest dynamics. We found that although adoption of Bt maize often brings increased financial returns, these rewards oscillate in response to the prevalence of pests.

  16. PLANT PROTEASE INHIBITORS: STRATEGY FOR PEST CONTROL IN CROPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S.DHANDE1 N.J.CHIKHALE2

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors (PIs are naturally occurring proteins in living organisms and are able to inhibit & control the activity of proteases. PIs are a diverse group of proteins that share a common biochemical activity. The role of plant proteinase inhibitors was investigated by Mickel and Standish in 1947 when they observed the insects larvae were unable to develop normally on soybean products. Subsequently, the soybean trypsin inhibitors were found to be lethal to the flour beetle larvae, Tribolium confusum (Lipke et. al., 1954. Now there are diverse examples of protease inhibitors active against many insect species both in vitro (Pannetier et. al., 1997; Koiwa et. al., 1998 and in vivo (Urwin et. al., 1997; Vain et. al., 1998 bioassays.

  17. Wolbachia-induced cytoplasmic incompatibility as a means for insect pest population control

    OpenAIRE

    Zabalou, Sofia; Riegler, Markus; Theodorakopoulou, Marianna; STAUFFER, CHRISTIAN; Savakis, Charalambos; Bourtzis,Kostas

    2004-01-01

    Biological control is the purposeful introduction of parasites, predators, and pathogens to reduce or suppress pest populations. Wolbachia are inherited bacteria of arthropods that have recently attracted attention for their potential as new biocontrol agents. Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction by using several strategies, one of which is cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) [Stouthamer, R., Breeuwer, J. A. J. & Hurst, G. D. D. (1999) Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 53, 71–102]. We established Wolbachi...

  18. Decreased Functional Diversity and Biological Pest Control in Conventional Compared to Organic Crop Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Jochen Krauss; Iris Gallenberger; Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter,

    2011-01-01

    Organic farming is one of the most successful agri-environmental schemes, as humans benefit from high quality food, farmers from higher prices for their products and it often successfully protects biodiversity. However there is little knowledge if organic farming also increases ecosystem services like pest control. We assessed 30 triticale fields (15 organic vs. 15 conventional) and recorded vascular plants, pollinators, aphids and their predators. Further, five conventional fields which were...

  19. Desert locust outbreaks in the Sahel: Resource competition, predation and ecological effects of pest control

    OpenAIRE

    José A Sánchez-Zapata; Donázar, José A.; Delgado, Antonio; Forero, Manuela G.; Ceballos, Olga; Hiraldo, F.

    2007-01-01

    1. The desert locust Schistocerca gregaria has been considered a major pest since ancient times, as locust swarms holding millions of insects move throughout the Sahel, northern Africa, Middle East and southern Mediterranean countries. Most research has focused on the biology of the species and the development of strategies in locust control, but little is known about the place of locust pulses within food webs in which domestic herbivores and European long-distance migratory birds are also i...

  20. Spatial Externalities of Pest Control Decisions in the California Citrus Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Grogan, Kelly A.; Goodhue, Rachael E

    2012-01-01

    Predaceous and parasitic insects provide control of important citrus pests. However, many pesticides are toxic to these beneficials. Using California citrus grower survey data, this article tests whether landscape-level use of pesticides affects the presence of and reliance on Aphytis melinus, an important beneficial insect. Results show that landscape-level pesticide use decreases the presence of A. melinus and increases reliance on insecticides. Pesticide use on non-citrus crops has a signi...

  1. Controlled-release of Bacillus thurigiensis formulations encapsulated in light-resistant colloidosomal microcapsules for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Oumar; Lemoyne, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (B. t.) based formulations have been widely used to control lepidopteran pests in agriculture and forestry. One of their weaknesses is their short residual activity when sprayed in the field. Using Pickering emulsions, mixtures of spores and crystals from three B. t. serovars were successfully encapsulated in colloïdosomal microparticles (50 μm) using innocuous chemicals (acrylic particles, sunflower oil, iron oxide nanoparticles, ethanol and water). A pH trigger mechanism was incorporated within the particles so that B. t. release occurred only at pH > 8.5 which corresponds to the midgut pH of the target pests. Laboratory assays performed on Trichoplusia ni (T. ni) larvae demonstrated that the microencapsulation process did not impair B. t. bioactivity. The best formulations were field-tested on three key lepidopteran pests that attack Brassica crops, i.e., the imported cabbageworm, the cabbage looper and the diamondback moth. After 12 days, the mean number of larvae was significantly lower in microencapsulated formulations than in a commercial B. t. formulation, and the effect of microencapsulated formulations was comparable to a chemical pesticide (lambda-cyhalothrin). Therefore, colloïdosomal microcapsule formulations successfully extend the bioactivity of B. t. for the management of lepidopteran pests of Brassica crops. PMID:27761325

  2. Sterility method of pest control and its potential role in an integrated sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Lee H.; Manion, Patrick J.

    1980-01-01

    The sterility method of pest control could be an effective tool in the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control program in the Great Lakes. Some of the requirements for its successful application have been met. A field study demonstrated that the release of male sea lampreys, sterilized by the injection of 100 mg/kg of P,P-bis(1-aziridinyl)-N-methylphosphinothioic amide (bisazir), will reduce the number of viable larvae produced. The actual reduction in reproductive success that occurred was directly related to the ratio of sterile to normal males in the population. The technique can be used in many ways in an integrated control program and has considerable potential for the more effective control of the sea lamprey. Eradication is a distinct possibility.Key words: sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus; pest control, fish control, sterile-male technique, sterilization, chemosterilants, bisazir, Great Lakes

  3. Systems to advance and enhance exotic pest control: A case study of a global partnership in developing monitoring systems for use in SIT management of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: incidence of introduction of exotic insect pests into pest-free areas of the world, threatening crop and ornamental plant production. The threat of invasion is very pronounced in areas of the world that receive plant and produce shipments from countries with established populations. There are a number of pests identified from these areas that pose a serious threat to global agriculture. This threat is exacerbated by the loss of methyl bromide and other strategies used as quarantine treatments. The continuous threat of exotic pest introduction has mandated that scientists and regulatory agencies initiate proactive efforts to understand the biology and to develop management strategies that will mitigate the threat of exotic insect pest introduction. A critical component is development of detection systems that will provide an early warning of pest presence in pathways vulnerable to pest invasion. This presentation will appraise critically the decade of efforts to develop and implement female-biased trapping system(s) for the Mediterranean fruit fly that is critical to the success of SIT programmes used to control this insect. A historical review of basic and applied research, and implementation of new technologies will be presented, together with a review of the successful partnership at local, national and global levels. The advancement and subsequent enhancement of research related to development and use of female-targeted Mediterranean fruit fly systems in SIT under the stewardship of FAO/IAEA will be presented. (author)

  4. Mearsurement and control system for agricultural robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Zhang, Fangming; Ying, Yibin

    2006-10-01

    Automation of agricultural equipments in the near term appears both economically viable and technically feasible. This paper describes measurement and control system for agriculture robot. It consists of a computer, a pair of NIR cameras, one inclinometer, one potentionmeter and two encoders. Inclinometer, potentionmeter and encoders are used to measure obliquity of camera, turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel, respectively. These sensor data are filtered before sending to PC. The test shows that the system can measure turning angle of front-wheel and velocity of rear wheel accurately whether robot is at stillness state or at motion state.

  5. Essential oils nanoformulations for stored-product pest control - characterization and biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdin González, Jorge Omar; Gutiérrez, María Mercedes; Ferrero, Adriana Alicia; Fernández Band, Beatriz

    2014-04-01

    The lethal and sublethal activity of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) nanoparticles containing essential oils (EO), also the physicochemical characterization, were determined against Tribolium castaneum and Rhizopertha dominica. The 10% ratio EO-PEG nanoparticles showed an average diameter75%; after 6 month of storage their size did not change significantly and the amount of the EOs decreased 25%, approximately. Furthermore, during this period, no chemical derivates were observed. The EOs nanoparticles produced a notable increase of the residual contact toxicity apparently due to the slow and persistent release of the active terpenes. In addition, the nanoformulation enhanced the EO contact toxicity and altered the nutritional physiology of both stored product pest. The results indicated that these novel systems could be used in integrated pest management program for T. castaneum and R. dominica control.

  6. Application of benefit/cost analysis to insect pest control using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before embarking on area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programmes involving eradication, exclusion, or suppression of insect pests using the sterile insect technique (SIT), and/or other area-wide control measures, not only their technical but also their economic feasibility needs to be assessed. They may require significant initial capital investments to achieve long-term returns in subsequent periods, and may raise questions about the distribution of benefits or the justification of public or private pest control efforts. A consistent and transparent system is needed to analyse the benefits and costs of such programmes and to demonstrate their value, or in some cases to assess appropriate contributions to the costs by the various stakeholders who gain the benefits. Benefit/cost analysis (BCA) provides such a framework, and has been applied to many AW-IPM programmes that integrate the SIT, in which it has been used to demonstrate the expected value of area-wide eradication, exclusion or suppression. This chapter outlines the process of BCA in which itemized future costs and benefits are compared in terms of present values. It also provides a review and examples of the application of BCA to the SIT. A checklist of BCA inputs, and some examples of benefit/cost outputs, are also presented. (author)

  7. Species and control of insect pests and major diseases of Torreyagrandis Merrillii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhongliang; XU Zhihong; CHEN Xiulong; JIN Guolong; LI Suping; SHEN Yulin; LANG Xuejun; HU Zhongcheng; CHEN Lihong

    2006-01-01

    From January 2001 to December 2004,the investigation on the species of insect pests and diseases in Torreya grandis Merrillii was conducted and integrated control technologies of the main insect pests and diseases were studied in Zhuji,Shaoxin,Shenzhou,Dongyang,and Jiande counties of Zhejiang Province.Via field survey,a system of regular observations,55 species of insectpests belonging to 9 orders and 29 families,and 4 species of diseases were recorded.Among them,Lepteucosma torreyae and Macrolygus torreyae were found to be new species.The biological characteristics of the major insect pests and diseases,such as Rhyncaphytoptus abiesis,Helicobasidium compacum,Erwinia carotovora,Chlorella sp.,Macrolygus torreyae,and Lepteucosma torreyae,were primarily recorded,and their outbreaks and epidemics were researched.The forecasting method for Lepteucosma torreyae was established.Based on strengthening cultivation and management,integrated control measures were put forward including physical,biologic and chemical methods.Medications with higher effect and lower toxicity were screened by comparing the effect of different pesticide treatments.

  8. Bt crops benefit natural enemies to control non-target pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jun-Ce; Yao, Ju; Long, Li-Ping; Romeis, Jörg; Shelton, Anthony M

    2015-11-12

    Crops producing insecticidal crystal (Cry) proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control important lepidopteran pests. However, pests such as aphids not susceptible to Cry proteins may require other integrated pest management (IPM) tactics, including biological control. We fed aphids on Bt and non-Bt plants and analyzed the Bt protein residue in aphids and compared the effects of Bt plants and a pyrethroid, lambda-cyhalothrin, on the performance of three natural enemies (predators: Coleomegilla maculata and Eupeodes americanus; parasitoid Aphidius colemani) of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. No Bt protein residues in aphids were detected and no significant differences were recorded in the performance of pyrethroid-resistant aphids that fed on Bt broccoli expressing Cry1Ab or Cry1C, or on non-Bt broccoli plants treated or not treated with the pyrethroid. This indicated the aphids were not affected by the Cry proteins or the pyrethroid, thus removing any effect of prey quality. Tri-trophic experiments demonstrated that no C. maculata and E. americanus survived consumption of pyrethroid-treated aphids and that ovipositional behavior of A. colemani was impaired when provided with pyrethroid-treated aphids. In contrast, natural enemies were not affected when fed aphids reared on Bt broccoli, thus demonstrating the safety of these Bt plants for IPM.

  9. Assessment of methods for methyl iodide emission reduction and pest control using a simulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lifang; Ashworth, Daniel J.; Šimunek, Jirka; Xuan, Richeng; Yates, Scott R.

    2013-02-01

    The increasing registration of the fumigant methyl iodide within the USA has led to more concerns about its toxicity to workers and bystanders. Emission mitigation strategies are needed to protect the public and environmental health while providing effective pest control. The effectiveness of various methods on emissions reduction and pest control was assessed using a process-based mathematical model in this study. Firstly, comparisons between the simulated and laboratory measured emission fluxes and cumulative emissions were made for methyl iodide (MeI) under four emission reduction treatments: 1) control, 2) using soil with high organic matter content (HOM), 3) being covered by virtually impermeable film (VIF), and 4) irrigating soil surface following fumigation (Irrigation). Then the model was extended to simulate a broader range of emission reduction strategies for MeI, including 5) being covered by high density polyethylene (HDPE), 6) increasing injection depth from 30 cm to 46 cm (Deep), 7) HDPE + Deep, 8) adding a reagent at soil surface (Reagent), 9) Reagent + Irrigation, and 10) Reagent + HDPE. Furthermore, the survivability of three types of soil-borne pests (citrus nematodes [Tylenchulus semipenetrans], barnyard seeds [Echinochloa crus-galli], fungi [Fusarium oxysporum]) was also estimated for each scenario. Overall, the trend of the measured emission fluxes as well as total emission were reasonably reproduced by the model for treatments 1 through 4. Based on the numerical simulation, the ranking of effectiveness in total emission reduction was VIF (82.4%) > Reagent + HDPE (73.2%) > Reagent + Irrigation (43.0%) > Reagent (23.5%) > Deep + HDPE (19.3%) > HOM (17.6%) > Deep (13.0%) > Irrigation (11.9%) > HDPE (5.8%). The order for pest control efficacy suggests, VIF had the highest pest control efficacy, followed by Deep + HDPE, Irrigation, Reagent + Irrigation, HDPE, Deep, Reagent + HDPE, Reagent, and HOM. Therefore, VIF is the optimal method disregarding

  10. Nonlinear incidence rate of a Pest management SI model with biological and chemical control concern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Jian-jun; CHEN Lan-sun

    2007-01-01

    A pest management SI model with impulsive releases of infective pests and spraying pesticides is proposed and investigated. We prove that all solutions of the model are uniformly ultimately bounded. We also obtain the sufficient conditions of globally asymptotic stability periodic solution of pest-extinction and permanence of the model.The approach of combining impulsive releasing infective pests with impulsive spraying pesticides provides reliable tactical basis for the practical pest management.

  11. Application of the Industrial Hygiene Hierarchy of Controls to Prioritize and Promote Safer Methods of Pest Control: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weinberg, Justine Lew; Bunin, Lisa J.; Das, Rupali

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the California Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Branch (OHB) investigated an incident of pesticide exposure and identified 27 vineyard workers who became ill due to drift of cyfluthrin, a pesticide being applied to a neighboring orange field to control katydids. Another pest, citrus thrips, was also present in the field. We investigated safer alternatives for katydid and thrips control to prevent illness due to pesticide exposure and used the industrial hygiene hierar...

  12. Impact of five insecticides used to control citrus pests on the parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Longvinovskaya (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Rugno, Gabriel Rodrigo; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2016-07-01

    The parasitoid Ageniaspis citricola Longvnovskaya is a main biological control agent of the citrus leafminer Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, an insect pest that causes considerable damage to citrus worldwide. However, the use of pesticides to control arthropod pests can reduce the effectiveness of parasitoids and disrupt integrated pest management in citrus groves. This study evaluated the impact on A. citricola of five insecticides that are used to control arthropod pests in citrus. Our results indicated that imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and β-cyfluthrin were harmful (mortality >89 %) to A. citricola adults; whereas abamectin did not cause significant mortality and was considered harmless to the parasitoid. In addition to causing high mortality, imidacloprid and bifenthrin were considered moderately persistent, because they caused impacts of these insecticides on the A. citricola parasitoid. PMID:27146672

  13. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Mamury, M; Manivannan, N; Al-Raweshidy, H; W. Balachandran

    2015-01-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to...

  14. The toxin and antidote puzzle: new ways to control insect pest populations through manipulating inheritance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, John M

    2011-01-01

    Insects carry out essential ecological functions, such as pollination, but also cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, and transmit human diseases such as malaria and dengue fever. Advances in insect transgenesis are making it increasingly feasible to engineer genes conferring desirable phenotypes, and gene drive systems are required to spread these genes into wild populations. Medea provides one solution, being able to spread into a population from very low initial frequencies through the action of a maternally-expressed toxin linked to a zygotically-expressed antidote. Several other toxin-antidote combinations are imaginable that distort the offspring ratio in favor of a desired transgene, or drive the population towards an all-male crash. We explore two such systems--Semele, which is capable of spreading a desired transgene into an isolated population in a confined manner; and Merea, which is capable of inducing a local population crash when located on the Z chromosome of a Lepidopteron pest. PMID:21876382

  15. Pesticide Applicator Training Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control for New Jersey. A Training Program for the Certification of Commercial Pesticide Applicators, and Study Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Terry L.; Kriner, Ray R.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the general and household pest control category. The text discusses invertebrate pests that effect health, stored products, grain, fabric, or the household; and vertebrate pests such as rats, mice, and…

  16. Biocontrol of fouling pests: Effect of diversity, identity and density of control agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalah, Javier; Newcombe, Emma M; Zaiko, Anastasija

    2016-04-01

    Augmentative biocontrol, using native natural enemies, has been suggested as a promising tool to control marine biofouling pests on artificial structures. However, there are still important knowledge gaps to be addressed before biocontrol can be considered as a management tool. In a field experiment on floating marine structures we examined intra- and interspecific consumer interactions among biocontrol agents on different surface orientations. We tested the effect of identity, density and diversity of three invertebrates (the 11-arm seastar Coscinasterias muricata, the sea urchin Evechinus chloroticus and the gastropod Cook's turban Cookia sulcata) to reduce established biofouling and to prevent fouling growth on defouled surfaces. High densities of biocontrol agents were not more effective at fouling control (cover and biomass) than low densities. Nor did multi-species treatments function more effectively than mono-specific ones. However, biocontrol agent identity was important, with the 11-arm seastar and Cook's turban being the most effective at fouling reduction and prevention, respectively. Surface orientation had a strong effect on the effectiveness of control agents, with the best results obtained on vertical compared to diagonal and underside surfaces. This study confirmed the potential of biocontrol as a management tool for marine pest, indicating that identity is more important than richness and density of control agents. It also highlighted the limitations of this approach on diagonal and underside surfaces, where control agents have limited retention ability. PMID:26845376

  17. Interacting agricultural pests and their effect on crop yield: application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilai N Keren

    Full Text Available Worldwide, the landscape homogeneity of extensive monocultures that characterizes conventional agriculture has resulted in the development of specialized and interacting multitrophic pest complexes. While integrated pest management emphasizes the need to consider the ecological context where multiple species coexist, management recommendations are often based on single-species tactics. This approach may not provide satisfactory solutions when confronted with the complex interactions occurring between organisms at the same or different trophic levels. Replacement of the single-species management model with more sophisticated, multi-species programs requires an understanding of the direct and indirect interactions occurring between the crop and all categories of pests. We evaluated a modeling framework to make multi-pest management decisions taking into account direct and indirect interactions among species belonging to different trophic levels. We adopted a Bayesian decision theory approach in combination with path analysis to evaluate interactions between Bromus tectorum (downy brome, cheatgrass and Cephus cinctus (wheat stem sawfly in wheat (Triticum aestivum systems. We assessed their joint responses to weed management tactics, seeding rates, and cultivar tolerance to insect stem boring or competition. Our results indicated that C. cinctus oviposition behavior varied as a function of B. tectorum pressure. Crop responses were more readily explained by the joint effects of management tactics on both categories of pests and their interactions than just by the direct impact of any particular management scheme on yield. In accordance, a C. cinctus tolerant variety should be planted at a low seeding rate under high insect pressure. However as B. tectorum levels increase, the C. cinctus tolerant variety should be replaced by a competitive and drought tolerant cultivar at high seeding rates despite C. cinctus infestation. This study exemplifies the

  18. Dynamic Analysis of a Predator-Prey (Pest) Model with Disease in Prey and Involving an Impulsive Control Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Min Zhao; Yanzhen Wang; Lansun Chen

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic behaviors of a predator-prey (pest) model with disease in prey and involving an impulsive control strategy to release infected prey at fixed times are investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. Mathematical theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of the local asymptotical stability and global attractivity for the semitrivial periodic solution and population persistent, which depicts the threshold expression of some critical parameters for carrying o...

  19. Conservation biological control of pests in the molecular era: new opportunities to address old constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurr eGeoff

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBiological control has long been considered a potential alternative to pesticidal strategies for pest management but its impact and level of use globally remain modest and inconsistent. A rapidly expanding range of molecular – particularly DNA-related – techniques is currently revolutionizing many life sciences. This review identifies a series of constraints on the development and uptake of conservation biological control and considers the contemporary and likely future influence of molecular methods on these constraints. Molecular approaches are now often used to complement morphological taxonomic methods for the identification and study of biological control agents including microbes. A succession of molecular techniques has been applied to ‘who eats whom’ questions in food-web ecology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR approaches have largely superseded immunological approaches such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and now – in turn – are being overtaken by next generation sequencing (NGS- based approaches that offer unparalleled power at a rapidly diminishing cost. There is scope also to use molecular techniques to manipulate biological control agents, which will be accelerated with the advent of gene editing tools, the CRISPR/Cas9 system in particular. Gene editing tools also offer unparalleled power to both elucidate and manipulate the plant defence mechanisms including those that involve natural enemy attraction to attacked plants. Rapid advances in technology will allow the development of still more novel pest management options for which uptake is likely to be limited chiefly by regulatory hurdles.

  20. A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Guoping; Chen, Lansun; Xu, Weijian; Fu, Gang

    2015-06-01

    A stage structure pest management model with impulsive state feedback control is investigated. We get the sufficient condition for the existence of the order-1 periodic solution by differential equation geometry theory and successor function. Further, we obtain a new judgement method for the stability of the order-1 periodic solution of the semi-continuous systems by referencing the stability analysis for limit cycles of continuous systems, which is different from the previous method of analog of Poincarè criterion. Finally, we analyze numerically the theoretical results obtained.

  1. Efficacy of Controlled Atmosphere Treatments to Manage Arthropod Pests of Dry-Cured Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md Mahbub; Aikins, Michael J; Schilling, Wes; Phillips, Thomas W

    2016-01-01

    Research here explored the use of controlled atmospheres (CA) for managing arthropod pests that infest dry-cured hams. Experiments were conducted with low oxygen (O₂) achieved with low pressure under a vacuum, high carbon dioxide (CO₂), and ozone (O₃). Results showed that both low O₂ and high CO₂ levels required exposures up to 144 h to kill 100% of all stages of red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes (De Geer) (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and ham mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) at 23 °C. In addition, both low O₂ and high CO₂ had no significant mortality against the ham beetle and ham mites at short exposures ranging from 12 to 48 h. Ham beetles were more tolerant than ham mites to an atmosphere of 75.1% CO₂ and low pressure of 25 mm Hg, which imposed an atmosphere estimated at 0.9% O₂. Both low O₂ and high CO₂ trials indicated that the egg stages of both species were more tolerant than other stages tested, but N. rufipes eggs and pupae were more susceptible than larvae and adults to high concentration ozone treatments. The results indicate that O₃ has potential to control ham beetles and ham mites, particularly at ≈166 ppm in just a 24 h exposure period, but O₃ is known from other work to have poor penetration ability, thus it may be more difficult to apply effectively than low O₂ or high CO₂. would be. CA treatment for arthropod pests of dry-cured hams show promise as components of integrated pest management programs after methyl bromide is no longer available for use. PMID:27598209

  2. Mite Pests in Plant Crops – Current Issues, Inovative Approaches and Possibilities for Controlling Them (2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmila Petanović

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Part one discusses some principal mite pests in agroecosystems and urban horticulturein European countries, Serbia and its neighbouring countries focusing primarily on issueswith regard to plant production, novel methods and approaches in applied acaralogy. Parttwo displays some major properties of acaricides inhibiting respiration, growth and developmentand other synthetic substances with acaricide action on the market in the last decadeof the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st century. Also some products of naturalorigin (azadirachtin, oils, micoacaricides are said to be gaining in importance. Issues withregard to the fact that mites can readily develop resistance to acardicides are discussed anda survey on the results of biochemical, physiological and genetical causes of resistance areanalyzed. Some basic principles of biological control of phytophagous mites and modernadvances and approaches are discussed as well as current knowledge on host plant resistanceto mites. Eventually, the possibility of using a combination of selective acaricides andbiological control agents is discussed but also the inclusion of other modes of control (agriculturalpractices and physical measures expected to contribute to an integrated managementof pest populations.

  3. Investigation on occurrence damage and control technology of insect pests in red bayberry from Guiyang region%贵阳地区杨梅害虫发生危害调查及防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德友; 廖国会; 李崇慧; 袁洁; 张斌; 耿坤

    2013-01-01

    [目的]了解贵阳地区杨梅害虫发生种类危害情况,为杨梅生产及害虫防治提供依据.[方法]2010~2011年对贵阳地区杨梅害虫种类进行定点、定时系统调查和收集标样鉴定.[结果]贵阳地区杨梅主要害虫有21种,属昆虫纲的6目、16科,其中发生危害严重害虫3种,次重害虫3种,其他种类为危害轻.[结论]在生产中要针对不同害虫发生特点及危害特性,加强抚育管理,提高杨梅树体抗虫害能力,同时合理采用农业防治、生物防治、诱杀防治、药剂防治等综合防治技术措施,以确保杨梅产业健康持续发展.%[Objective]This study aimed to understand the occurrence and damages of insect pests species in red bay-berry in order to provide basis for pest control in red bayberry production in Guiyang. [ Method ] From 2010 to 2011, fixed-location and fixed-time investigations were conducted on red bayberry insect pests species and collected species samples were identified. [ResultjThere were 21 species of red bayberry insect pests identified in Guiyang region, which belonged to 16 families of 6 insecta orders. Damages from various species of insect pests exhibited different characteristics and degree of injuries. [Conclusion]According to the investigation results, there were 3 species of insect pests causing serious damages and 3 species of insect pests causing secondary serious damages; all other species caused only negligible damages. To control the insect pests species causing serious damages, field comprehensive prevention and control technology were puts forward. During the production process, different insect pests should be controlled according to their corresponding occurrence and damage characteristics, the cultivation and management of red bayberry should be strengthened to improve the pest resistant ability of red bayberry trees. At the same time, reasonably using agricultural prevention methods, biological prevention methods, trapping

  4. Pest Management for Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Helps gardeners reduce their environmental impact while they manage pests by explaining pesticide labels, how to select plants to avoid pest problems, developments in biological control, how to attract bug-eaters, the effect of pesticides and how to choose the right one, beneficial insects, general gardening practices to consider, pest and plant life cycles, and proper identification of pest problems

  5. Ecological Control Effects on Pest, Pathogen and Weed of Multiple Species Coexistence in Paddy Fields in Traditional Agricultural Regions%传统农业区稻田多个物种共存对病虫草害的生态控制效应——以贵州省从江县为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丹; 成升魁; 杨海龙; 何露; 焦雯珺; 刘珊; 闵庆文

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture has flourished in China since time immemorial. One of the legacies of the time-honored agricultural development in China has been varied farming practices that adapt well to different natural conditions. Value of these traditional practices or models is rediscovered and cherished today when the so-called modem agriculture fails to be sustainable due to a variety of ecological and health problems and risks introduced by modern systems. Among plenty of traditional agricultural practices or models, some ecological principles were revealed, but significant philosophies of other traditional agricultural systems remain unknown. However, the area of traditional agriculture in China is rapidly shrinking. To that end, it is critical to investigating traditional agricultural practices and models. Understanding the role of agrobiodiversity as a contributor to sustainable agriculture, evaluation of its functions was performed in this study.Agrobiodiversity is most likely to enhance ecosystem stability and productivity when a unique or complementary effect is added to the ecosystem. Performing a semi-experiment combined with the random sampling investigation technique, modern and traditional rice varieties in different farming systems were investigated, i.e., 1) rice monoculture (R); 2) rice-fish culture (R-F); and 3)rice-fish-duck culture (R-F-D). Results show that the glutinous rice in every farming system had a lower weed density than that of the hybrid ones. There was no significant difference in the density of rice planthoppers, spider, rice leave roller (Cnaphalocrocis medialis Guenee) between glutinous rice and hybrid ones. The hybrid rice in every farming system had a lower incidence of Blast disease than that of the glutinous ones. Concerning the farming systems, under R-F-D, the weed density in paddy fields decreased significantly, and the control effects on weed species such as Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.f.), Rotala indica (Willd.) Koehne were 100

  6. Radio frequency heating:a potential method for post-harvest pest control in nuts and dry products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shao-jin; TANG Ju-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-billion dollar US tree nut industries rely heavily on methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest insect control and are facing a major challenge with the mandated cessation by 2005 of its use for most applications. There is an urgent need to develop effective and economically viable alternative treatments to replace current phytosanitary and quarantine practices in order to maintain the competitiveness of US agriculture in domestic and international markets. With the reliable heating block system, the thermal death kinetics for fifth-instar codling moth, Indianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm were determined at a heating rate of 18℃/min. A practical process protocol was developed to control the most heat resistant insect pest, fifth-instar navel orangeworm, in in-shell walnuts using a 27 MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF)system. RF heating to 55℃ and holding in hot air for at least 5 min resulted in 100% mortality of the fifth-instar navel orangeworm. Rancidity, sensory qualities and shell characteristics were not affected by the treatments. If this method can be economically integrated into the handling process, it should have excellent potential as a disinfestation method for in-shell walnuts.

  7. Science Letters: Radio frequency heating: a potential method for post-harvest pest control in nuts and dry products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShao-jin; TANGJu-ming

    2004-01-01

    The multi-billion dollar US tree nut industries rely heavily on methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest insect control and are facing a major challenge with the mandated cessation by 2005 of its use for most applications. There is an urgent need to develop effective and economically viable alternative treatments to replace current phytosanitary and quarantine practices in order to maintain the competitiveness of US agriculture in domestic and international markets. With the reliable heating block system, the thermal death kinetics for fifth-instar codling moth, lndianmeal moth, and navel orangeworm were determined at a heating rate of 18℃/min. A practical process protocol was developed to control the most heat resistant insect pest, fifth-instar navel orangeworm, in in-shell walnuts using a 27MHz pilot scale radio frequency (RF) system. RF heating to 55℃ and holding in hot air for at least 5min resulted in 100% mortality of the fifth-instar navel orangeworm. Rancidity, sensory qualities and shell characteristics were not affected by the treatments. If this method can be economically integrated into the handling process, it should have excellent potential as a disinfestation method for in-shell walnuts.

  8. Biological monitoring of pyrethroid exposure of pest control workers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong; Kamijima, Michihiro; Imai, Ryota; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Kameda, Yohei; Asai, Kazumi; Okamura, Ai; Naito, Hisao; Ueyama, Jun; Saito, Isao; Nakajima, Tamie; Goto, Masahiro; Shibata, Eiji; Kondo, Takaaki; Takagi, Kenji; Takagi, Kenzo; Wakusawa, Shinya

    2007-11-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids such as cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin, which are usually used in pest control operations, are metabolized to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and excreted in urine. Though 3-PBA can be used to assess exposure to pyrethroids, there are few reports describing urinary 3-PBA levels in Japan. This study aimed to investigate the seasonal variation of the exposure levels of pyrethroids and the concentration of urinary 3-PBA among pest control operators (PCOs) in Japan. The study subjects were 78 and 66 PCOs who underwent a health examination in December 2004 and in August 2005, respectively. 3-PBA was determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The geometric mean concentration of urinary 3-PBA in winter (3.9 microg/g creatinine) was significantly lower than in summer (12.2 microg/g creatinine) (p0.05), respectively. A significant association of 3-PBA levels and pyrethroid spraying was thus observed only in winter. In conclusion, the results of the present study show that the exposure level of pyrethroids among PCOs in Japan assessed by monitoring urinary 3-PBA was higher than that reported in the UK but comparable to that in Germany. Further research should be accumulated to establish an occupational reference value in Japan.

  9. Damage by insect pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maistrello

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluate its extent and suggest a proper control strategy, a detailed survey was performed inside the Mosque complex and in its immediate surroundings. The entomological inspection, performed in the dry-cold season, allowed to detect signs of insect damage in most of the wooden elements, even in the recently replaced beams, but also in walls, pillars and the precious decorated panels. Damages in the wood elements could be attributed to Amitermes evuncifer Silvestri (Termitidae, Bostrychoplites zycheli Marseuli (Bostrichidae and Lyctus africanus Lesne (Lyctidae, which were collected alive on site. Injures in the walls and decorated panels appeared to be performed by hymenopterans such as “plasterer bees” (Colletidae and Sphecidae. From the evaluation of the type and extent of damage in relation to the architecture and materials used in its construction and decoration, the most serious pest and the worse threat for the mosque is represented by termites. Control and preventive measures, in the view of a sustainable, long-lasting integrated management are suggested.

  10. Reduced population control of an insect pest in managed willow monocultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dalin

    improve our ability to predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems.

  11. Reduced Population Control of an Insect Pest in Managed Willow Monocultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, Peter; Kindvall, Oskar; Björkman, Christer

    2009-01-01

    predict insect pest outbreaks and could facilitate the development of sustainable pest control in managed systems. PMID:19424439

  12. Introduced agricultural pests, plant and animals diseases and vectors in the Dutch Caribbean, with an alert species list

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buurt, van G.; Debrot, A.O.

    2012-01-01

    Most information on invasive alien pests is available for the leeward Dutch islands while the least is known for the windward Dutch islands. The principal means of entry is the importation of unsterilized soil and plant material through container shipment, import of ornamental plants and air traffic

  13. Late pest control in determinate tomato cultivars Controle de pragas tardias em cultivares de tomateiro de crescimento determinado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlindo Leal Boiça Júnior

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The usage of insecticidal plants and others insect resistant varieties can be strong allies to the Integrated Pest Management (IPM, being able to reduce the number of insecticides applications and to minimize its effect to the man and the environment.The following control techniques were compared in field conditions, investigating the late pest control of two determinate tomato cultivars: a Conventional - sprayings of metamidophos, buprofezin, acephate, cipermetrin, abamectin, permetrin, teflubenzuron and lufenuron, applied every three to six days; b IPM - action threshold of each pest to the spraying of imidacloprid, triflumuron, lufenuron and abamectin; c IPM - Azadirachta indica (neem - Action threshold of each pest to the spraying of the nim oil (1.2% of azadirachtin at a concentration of 0.5%. The IPM and IPM - Neem control techniques were efficient controlling the late pest of the tomato cultivar, not differing from the conventional treatment that presented the lowest levels of infestation. The conventional control technique, IPM and IPM-neem promoted bigger tomato production with increasements of up to 74%. The number of sprayings was reduced up to 77% with the IPM and IPM - neem techniques, when compared to the conventional method. The neem product may be a promising alternative to the late pest control in the tomato field that adjusts to the IPM.O uso de plantas inseticidas e de variedades pode ser forte aliado ao Manejo Integrado de Pragas (MIP, podendo reduzir o número de aplicações de inseticidas e minimizar seus efeitos ao homem e ao meio ambiente. Em condições de campo, visando o controle de pragas tardias do tomateiro em duas cultivares de crescimento determinado, compararam-se as seguintes táticas de controle: a Convencional - pulverizações com os produtos metamidofós, buprofezin, acefato, cipermetrina, abamectina, permetrina, teflubenzuron e lufenuron, aplicados em intervalos de três a seis dias; b MIP - nível de a

  14. Theoretical study and control optimization of an integrated pest management predator-prey model with power growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Kaibiao; Zhang, Tonghua; Tian, Yuan

    2016-09-01

    This work presents a pest control predator-prey model, where rate of change in prey density follows a scaling law with exponent less than one and the control is by an integrated management strategy. The aim is to investigate the change in system dynamics and determine a pest control level with minimum control price. First, the dynamics of the proposed model without control is investigated by taking the exponent as an index parameter. And then, to determine the frequency of spraying chemical pesticide and yield releases of the predator, the existence of the order-1 periodic orbit of the control system is discussed in cases. Furthermore, to ensure a certain robustness of the adopted control, i.e., for an inaccurately detected species density or a deviation, the control system could be stabilized at the order-1 periodic orbit, the stability of the order-1 periodic orbit is verified by an stability criterion for a general semi-continuous dynamical system. In addition, to minimize the total cost input in pest control, an optimization problem is formulated and the optimum pest control level is obtained. At last, the numerical simulations with a specific model are carried out to complement the theoretical results. PMID:27378223

  15. Restoring a maize root signal that attracts insect-killing nematodes to control a major pest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Jörg; Hiltpold, Ivan; Köllner, Tobias G.; Frey, Monika; Gierl, Alfons; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Hibbard, Bruce E.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Turlings, Ted C. J.

    2009-01-01

    When attacked by herbivorous insects, plants emit volatile compounds that attract natural enemies of the insects. It has been proposed that these volatile signals can be manipulated to improve crop protection. Here, we demonstrate the full potential of this strategy by restoring the emission of a specific belowground signal emitted by insect-damaged maize roots. The western corn rootworm induces the roots of many maize varieties to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene, which attracts entomopathogenic nematodes that infect and kill the voracious root pest. However, most North American maize varieties have lost the ability to emit (E)-β-caryophyllene and may therefore receive little protection from the nematodes. To restore the signal, a nonemitting maize line was transformed with a (E)-β-caryophyllene synthase gene from oregano, resulting in constitutive emissions of this sesquiterpene. In rootworm-infested field plots in which nematodes were released, the (E)-β-caryophyllene-emitting plants suffered significantly less root damage and had 60% fewer adult beetles emerge than untransformed, nonemitting lines. This demonstration that plant volatile emissions can be manipulated to enhance the effectiveness of biological control agents opens the way for novel and ecologically sound strategies to fight a variety of insect pests. PMID:19666594

  16. Evaluation of Plant Extracts from Illicium verum for the Control of Museum Insect Pest Demestes maculatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To assess the insecticidal activity of extracts from Illicium verum against museum insect pest Demestes maculates, mortalities of its larvae and adults under different dose or treatment time were investigated by bioassay methods. Results showed that both extracts (anise oil and (E-anethole were highly toxic to both life stages (larvae and adults of D. maculatus. Furthermore, the insecticidal activity was dependent upon both dose and exposure time. With the increasing of the dose level and the exposure time, higher mortality was obtained. On the other hand, results also indicated that D. maculatus adults were more tolerant against the extracts from I. verum than larvae. At the same time, it was interesting to demonstrate that the toxicity of anise oil was more effective than (E-anethole against D. maculatus under the same experimental condition. The highest mortality 95% was achieved at 72 h with anise oil against larvae at a dose of 32/cm3. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the I. verum extracts described could be useful for managing populations of museum pest D. maculates.

  17. The impact of climate change on the potential distribution of agricultural pests: the case of the coffee white stem borer (Monochamus leuconotus P. in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumisani Kutywayo

    Full Text Available The production of agricultural commodities faces increased risk of pests, diseases and other stresses due to climate change and variability. This study assesses the potential distribution of agricultural pests under projected climatic scenarios using evidence from the African coffee white stem borer (CWB, Monochamus leuconotus (Pascoe (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, an important pest of coffee in Zimbabwe. A species distribution modeling approach utilising Boosted Regression Trees (BRT and Generalized Linear Models (GLM was applied on current and projected climate data obtained from the WorldClim database and occurrence data (presence and absence collected through on-farm biological surveys in Chipinge, Chimanimani, Mutare and Mutasa districts in Zimbabwe. Results from both the BRT and GLM indicate that precipitation-related variables are more important in determining species range for the CWB than temperature related variables. The CWB has extensive potential habitats in all coffee areas with Mutasa district having the largest model average area suitable for CWB under current and projected climatic conditions. Habitat ranges for CWB will increase under future climate scenarios for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutare districts while it will decrease in Mutasa district. The highest percentage change in area suitable for the CWB was for Chimanimani district with a model average of 49.1% (3 906 ha increase in CWB range by 2080. The BRT and GLM predictions gave similar predicted ranges for Chipinge, Chimanimani and Mutasa districts compared to the high variation in current and projected habitat area for CWB in Mutare district. The study concludes that suitable area for CWB will increase significantly in Zimbabwe due to climate change and there is need to develop adaptation mechanisms.

  18. The Feasibility of Using Low-oxygen Atmospheres to Control Insect Pests for Taxidermies in Natural History Museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available To find the environmental friendly alternative methods for control taxidermy pests in natural history museum, six species insect pests at various stages of their development were exposed to a low-oxygen atmosphere of 1.5% for a period of one week. Apart from a 50% survival rate for the larval stage of Anthrenus verbasci, the modified atmosphere was observed to have a lethal effect on all insect stages tested. When the exposure period was extended to periods of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks, respectively 100% mortality was recorded for all insects tested. Evidence from this investigation supports the view that atmospheres reduced in oxygen may represent a viable alternative to chemical control methods. The feasibility of using this technique for the routine control and eradication of insect pests in natural history museums is discussed.

  19. An economic comparison of biological and conventional control strategies for insect pests in cashew and mango plantations in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, William Juma; Hella, Joseph; Esbjerg, Lars;

    2013-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare alternative methods of pest control for insect pests in order to determine which methods has the highest efficacy against insect pests and the least detrimental side effects, while maintaining production and profits. The analysis was based on the experimental...... trials for three treatments: weaver ants, chemical insecticides and control. Data on yields, quantities and prices of inputs and output were collected and analyzed using inferential statistics (t-test), partial budgetary technique and marginal analysis involving dominance analysis. The results of partial...... budget analysis shows that a change from chemical insecticides treatment to weaver ants returned net benefits greater than zero by Tsh. 692 923 and Tsh.1019665 in cashew and mango plantations respectively. Similarly, positive net benefits was obtained when growers change from control to weaver ants...

  20. New Concept of Biological Control:Bio-control Plants Used for Management of Arthropod Pests%害虫生物防治新概念--生物防治植物及创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖英方; 毛润乾; 万方浩

    2013-01-01

      在现代农业,特别是有机农业的害虫防治系统中,除有益生物(主要指节肢动物)在害虫防治中发挥关键作用外,一些植物本身也发挥了重要的作用。这些植物包括抗虫植物、诱集植物、拒避植物、杀虫植物、载体植物、养虫植物以及显花(虫媒)植物等,它们是害虫生物防治的重要组成部分,并在害虫生物防治中起着越来越重要的作用。本文根据目前国内外的研究情况,提出一个害虫生物防治植物或简称生防植物(bio-control plant)新概念,并对不同生物防治植物应用及作用机理进行阐述,分析不同生物防治植物未来的发展前景和面临的挑战。%The modern organic agriculture has increasingly become a hot topic worldwide. In general, organic agriculture is complied with organic standards set by national governments and international organizations. The rule does not involve modern synthetic inputs such as synthetic pesticides and chemical fertilizers. With the growing emphasis on the environment and the food safety, the discovery and development of effective biological control approaches, especially in botanically based techniques, such as botanically derived pesticides to manage arthropod pest populations is facing a new challenge. This review is intended to discuss bio-control plants and provide insights of these plants used for potential biological control of arthropod pests in the field of crop protection. As all known, all crops or plants are always attacked by their enemies, i.e. arthropod pests. In most cases, the plant species or diversities within crop ecosystem provide an excellent opportunities for manage pests in organic agricultural production. Under certain circumstances, these crops or plants can rely on their own defense strategies, such as plant physiological and biochemical merits, against arthropod pest population. These plant defense strategies are playing key role in

  1. Control of sugar beet pests at early season by seed treatment with insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereši Tatjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the period 2001-2004, experiments were conducted in the region of Bačka (northern Serbia to assess the efficiency of insecticide treatment of sugar beet seeds in controlling soil pests (larvae of Elateridae family and reducing the damage caused by beet weevil (Bothynoderes punctiventris G e r m and flea beetle (Chaetocnema tibialis I l l i g. Several insecticides mostly systemic ones (carbofuran, thiamethoxam, fipronil, imidacloprid and clothianidin, and their combinations with pyrethroids in different doses were tested in field conditions. Stand density, percentages of plants damaged by B. punctiventris and C. tibialis, injury level and weight of juvenile plants served as parameters for evaluation of insecticide efficiency. Most of the insecticides applied to seeds provided a significantly better stand density compared with the untreated control. Because of their systemic action, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and their mixtures with pyrethroids provided very good protection of juvenile plants from C. tibialis and in some cases from B. punctiventris.

  2. Mobile robot based electrostatic spray system for controlling pests on cotton plants in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mamury, M.; Manivannan, N.; Al-Raweshidy, H.; Balachandran, W.

    2015-10-01

    A mobile robot based electrostatic spray system was developed to combat pest infestation on cotton plants in Iraq. The system consists of a charged spray nozzle, a CCD camera, a mobile robot (vehicle and arm) and Arduino microcontroller. Arduino microcontroller is used to control the spray nozzle and the robot. Matlab is used to process the image from the CCD camera and to generate the appropriate control signals to the robot and the spray nozzle. COMSOL multi-physics FEM software was used to design the induction electrodes to achieve maximum charge transfer onto the fan spray liquid film resulting in achieving the desired charge/mass ratio of the spray. The charged spray nozzle was operated on short duration pulsed spray mode. Image analysis was employed to investigate the spray deposition on improvised insect targets on an artificial plant.

  3. Egg Parasitoids from Pakistan as possible classical biological control agents of the invasive pest, Bagrada hilaris (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The newly invasive pest stink bug, Bagrada hilaris, threatens the cole crop industry and certain ornamentals in the U.S. Without its co-evolved natural enemies, it is likely to spread from the Southwest U.S. to the east coast, requiring millions more dollars to control it. If key biological control ...

  4. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  5. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan R Morris

    Full Text Available Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82% than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems.

  6. A Keystone Ant Species Provides Robust Biological Control of the Coffee Berry Borer Under Varying Pest Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathan R; Vandermeer, John; Perfecto, Ivette

    2015-01-01

    Species' functional traits are an important part of the ecological complexity that determines the provisioning of ecosystem services. In biological pest control, predator response to pest density variation is a dynamic trait that impacts the provision of this service in agroecosystems. When pest populations fluctuate, farmers relying on biocontrol services need to know how natural enemies respond to these changes. Here we test the effect of variation in coffee berry borer (CBB) density on the biocontrol efficiency of a keystone ant species (Azteca sericeasur) in a coffee agroecosystem. We performed exclosure experiments to measure the infestation rate of CBB released on coffee branches in the presence and absence of ants at four different CBB density levels. We measured infestation rate as the number of CBB bored into fruits after 24 hours, quantified biocontrol efficiency (BCE) as the proportion of infesting CBB removed by ants, and estimated functional response from ant attack rates, measured as the difference in CBB infestation between branches. Infestation rates of CBB on branches with ants were significantly lower (71%-82%) than on those without ants across all density levels. Additionally, biocontrol efficiency was generally high and did not significantly vary across pest density treatments. Furthermore, ant attack rates increased linearly with increasing CBB density, suggesting a Type I functional response. These results demonstrate that ants can provide robust biological control of CBB, despite variation in pest density, and that the response of predators to pest density variation is an important factor in the provision of biocontrol services. Considering how natural enemies respond to changes in pest densities will allow for more accurate biocontrol predictions and better-informed management of this ecosystem service in agroecosystems. PMID:26562676

  7. Ecophysiology and chronobiology applied to rodent pest management in semi-arid agricultural areas in Sub-Saharan West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Bruno; Diarra, W.; Cooper, H. M.

    1999-01-01

    A better understanding of rodent population dynamics and strategies for surviving in various habitats can be gained from combined studies of genetics, ecology, ecophysiology and chronobiology. Each of these disciplines can contribute complementary information to improve rodent pest management (RPM). Field studies of the ecophysiology of several species (#Arvicanthis niloticus$ and #Mastomys huberti$ living in wet habitats ; #Arvicanthis niloticus$ in easily flooded habitats ; #Mastomys erythr...

  8. Development Status Quo and Trend of Low-carbon Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Liming; Pan, Xiaohua; Li, Maobai

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production, this paper has discussed the development trend of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture, improving the use efficiency of fertilizer, scientific use of pesticides, water-saving irrigation, ecological control of pests as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.

  9. Diagnosis and Control Strategies for Peste Des Petits Ruminants Virus: Global and Pakistan Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar*, Samina Ashiq2, Aamir Bin Zahoor1, Muhammad Javed Arshed and Ashley C. Banyard3

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV causes an acute and highly contagious disease and belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and genus Morbillivirus. The control of animal diseases is one of the primary objectives of government livestock departments in Pakistan. Control of any viral disease requires rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic tests and efficacious vaccines. Small ruminants infected with PPRV are routinely diagnosed on the basis of clinical examination, gross pathology, histological findings and laboratory confirmation. A number of serological and molecular diagnostic tests are used for the detection of PPRV. Control of PPRV may be attained using measures including movement control of sheep and goats from affected areas, quarantine of infected animals, removal of potentially infected fomites and a restriction on the importation of sheep and goats from infected areas. The effective way to control PPR in Pakistan is by mass immunization of small ruminants as strict sanitary control measures, including the stamping out policy are not economically viable. Therefore, the control of PPR requires an effective vaccine and for this purpose several vaccines such as homologous and recombinant vaccines have been developed.

  10. Enhancement of biological control agents for use against forest insect pests and diseases through biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavicek, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Research and development efforts in our research group are focused on the generation of more efficacious biological control agents through the techniques of biotechnology for use against forest insect pests and diseases. Effective biological controls for the gypsy moth and for tree fungal wilt pathogens are under development. The successful use of Gypchek, a formulation of the Lymantria dispar nuclear polyhedrosis virus (LdNPV), in gypsy moth control programs has generated considerable interest in that agent. As a consequence of its specificity, LdPNV has negligible adverse ecological impacts compared to most gypsy moth control agents. However, LdNPV is not competitive with other control agents in terms of cost and efficacy. We are investigating several parameters of LdNPV replication and polyhedra production in order to enhance viral potency and efficacy thus mitigating the current disadvantages of LdNPV for gypsy moth control, and have identified LdNPV variants that will facilitate these efforts. Tree endophytic bacteria that synthesize antifungal compounds were identified and an antibiotic compound from one of these bacteria was characterized. The feasibility of developing tree endophytes as biological control agents for tree vascular fungal pathogens is being investigated.

  11. Dynamic Analysis of a Predator-Prey (Pest Model with Disease in Prey and Involving an Impulsive Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic behaviors of a predator-prey (pest model with disease in prey and involving an impulsive control strategy to release infected prey at fixed times are investigated for the purpose of integrated pest management. Mathematical theoretical works have been pursuing the investigation of the local asymptotical stability and global attractivity for the semitrivial periodic solution and population persistent, which depicts the threshold expression of some critical parameters for carrying out integrated pest management. Numerical analysis indicates that the impulsive control strategy has a strong effect on the dynamical complexity and population persistent using bifurcation diagrams and power spectra diagrams. These results show that if the release amount of infective prey can satisfy some critical conditions, then all biological populations will coexist. All these results are expected to be of use in the study of the dynamic complexity of ecosystems.

  12. Spider-venom peptides: structure, pharmacology, and potential for control of insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Glenn F; Hardy, Margaret C

    2013-01-01

    Spider venoms are an incredibly rich source of disulfide-rich insecticidal peptides that have been tuned over millions of years to target a wide range of receptors and ion channels in the insect nervous system. These peptides can act individually, or as part of larger toxin cabals, to rapidly immobilize envenomated prey owing to their debilitating effects on nervous system function. Most of these peptides contain a unique arrangement of disulfide bonds that provides them with extreme resistance to proteases. As a result, these peptides are highly stable in the insect gut and hemolymph and many of them are orally active. Thus, spider-venom peptides can be used as stand-alone bioinsecticides, or transgenes encoding these peptides can be used to engineer insect-resistant crops or enhanced entomopathogens. We critically review the potential of spider-venom peptides to control insect pests and highlight their advantages and disadvantages compared with conventional chemical insecticides.

  13. Conservation Biological Control and Pest Performance in Lawn Turf: Does Mowing Height Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Emily K.; Potter, Daniel A.

    2014-03-01

    With >80 million United States households engaged in lawn and gardening activities, increasing sustainability of lawn care is important. Mowing height is an easily manipulated aspect of lawn management. We tested the hypothesis that elevated mowing of tall fescue lawn grass promotes a larger, more diverse community of arthropod natural enemies which in turn provides stronger biological control services, and the corollary hypothesis that doing so also renders the turf itself less suitable for growth of insect pests. Turf-type tall fescue was mowed low (6.4 cm) or high (10.2 cm) for two growing seasons, natural enemy populations were assessed by vacuum sampling, pitfall traps, and ant baits, and predation and parasitism were evaluated with sentinel prey caterpillars, grubs, and eggs. In addition, foliage-feeding caterpillars and root-feeding scarab grubs were confined in the turf to evaluate their performance. Although some predatory groups (e.g., rove beetles and spiders) were more abundant in high-mowed grass, predation rates were uniformly high because ants, the dominant predators, were similarly abundant regardless of mowing height. Lower canopy temperatures in high-mowed grass were associated with slower growth of grass-feeding caterpillars. Higher lawn mowing reduces fuel consumption and yard waste, and promotes a deep, robust root system that reduces need for water and chemical inputs. Although in this study elevated mowing height did not measurably increase the already-high levels of predation, it did suggest additional ways through which bottom-up effects on insect pest growth might interact with natural enemies to facilitate conservation biological control.

  14. The sterile insect technique in integrated pest management programmes for the control of stable flies and horn flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two large integrated pest management programmes involving the control of horn flies, Haematobia irritans L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans L., have been carried out by U.S. Department of Agriculture scientists. The horn fly project was conducted on the island of Molokai, Hawaii. Its aims were to control the fly population by the insect growth regulator (IGR) methoprene (isopropyl (E,E)-11-methoxy-3,7,11-trimethyl-2,4-dodecadienoate), which was metered into the drinking water of the cattle, and the release of sterile insects. The flies were released daily after exposing the young adults to 2.5 kR. There was excellent survival of the released flies. The release of sterile flies was discontinued after week 21 and no flies were observed on the cattle after week 23. No horn fly larvae could be found in any manure pats in the field after week 16. Horn-fly-infested cattle were moved into the area on week 30 and the fly population increased so the methoprene treatment was terminated on week 39. By week 44 the fly population had returned to normal. The stable fly population was suppressed on the island of St. Croix using sterile insect releases plus conventional control techniques. These included toxic traps, larviciding breeding sites and the release of parasites. The sterile insects, about 1X105/day, were released at 2km intervals over the 218km2 island for an 18-month period. For the last six months of the study more than 99.9% of the wild flies were eliminated from the island. However, a few fertile flies were found throughout the study. These fertile flies either came from small isolated breeding sites in the urban areas were no sterile flies were released, or were carried in by boats or planes with domestic livestock from the other islands in the area. (author)

  15. Control Effects of Two-Batch-Duck Raising with Rice Framing on Rice Diseases, Insect Pests and Weeds in Paddy Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai-ming Liang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice-duck farming system is one of the means of organic rice farming, in which the weeds, diseases and insects could be effectively controlled with minimal or no pesticide and herbicide application. Whereas in conventional rice-duck farming system the controlling effect on diseases, insect pests and weeds was slowly disappeared after the rice heading stage at which ducks were driven out of the paddy field. To fill up the blank period of pasture activities of ducks, this study put forward two new rice-duck farming systems innovated from the conventional rice-duck farming system, in these new systems, two batches of ducks were raised with rice within one rice planting season. The results revealed that the overall controlling effect of ducks on rice diseases, insect pest and weeds was significantly enhanced in the two new rice-duck farming systems without agrochemicals application. It might be suggested that these two new systems have potential application as biocontrol agent for the organic rice agriculture.

  16. Chemical control of main diseases and insect pests of vegetable pests protection%保护地蔬菜主要病虫害的化学防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤新

    2013-01-01

    Combined with the author’s own work practice,control technology,the current status of protection of main diseases and insect pests of vegetables and lead to improved plant diseases and insect pests,pest control technology of inadequate pest control technology and the main insect pests were discussed summary of chemical control techniques,and hope to provide some useful reference for protection vegetable pest management aspects of colleagues.%  本文作者结合自身工作实践,就目前保护地蔬菜主要病虫害的防治技术现状、引发病虫害防治技术不足的成因、病虫害防治技术的改进和主要的病虫害化学防治技术进行了探讨总结,希望能为从事保护地蔬菜病虫害治理方面的各位同行提供一些有益的参考与借鉴。

  17. The Feasibility of Using Low-oxygen Atmospheres to Control Insect Pests for Taxidermies in Natural History Museums

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    To find the environmental friendly alternative methods for control taxidermy pests in natural history museum, six species insect pests at various stages of their development were exposed to a low-oxygen atmosphere of 1.5% for a period of one week. Apart from a 50% survival rate for the larval stage of Anthrenus verbasci, the modified atmosphere was observed to have a lethal effect on all insect stages tested. When the exposure period was extended to periods of 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 weeks, respecti...

  18. Applicator Training Manual for: Industrial, Institutional, Structural and Health-Related Pest Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Christian M.; Scheibner, R. A.

    This manual gives descriptions and diagrams for identification of the following types of pests: four species of cockroach; ants; bees and wasps; parasitic pests of man such as bedbugs, fleas, and ticks; occasional invaders such as flies and millipedes; silverfish and firebrats; beetles; termites; moths; fungi; and vertebrates including rodents,…

  19. Biocide plants as a sustainable tool for the control of pests and pathogens in vegetable cropping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifone D'Addabbo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides have played a major role in crop protection related to the intensification of agricultural systems. In the recent years, environmental side effects and health concerns raised by an indiscriminate use have led the EU to the ban of many synthetic pesticides. As a result of this drastic revision, currently there is a strong need for new and alternative pest control methods. An interesting source of biorational pesticides may be represented by the biocidal compounds naturally occurring in plants as products of the secondary metabolism. Groups of plant secondary metabolites most promising for the development of pesticidal formulations are glucosinolates, saponins, and more generally terpenoid phytoconstituents, such as essential oil and their constituents. Glucosinolates are thioglucosidic secondary metabolites occurring mainly in the Brassicaceae and, at a less extent, in Capparidaceae families. The incorporation of glucosinolate- containing plant material into the soil results in degradation products highly toxic to soilborne pest, pathogens and weeds. This practice, known as biofumigation, may be considered as an ecological alternative to soil toxic fumigants. Plant-derived saponins are triterpene glycosides present in top and root tissues of plant species of the families Leguminosae, Alliaceae, Asteraceae, Polygalaceae and Agavaceae. Saponins and saponin-rich plant materials have been also reported for a biocidal activity on phytoparasites and soilborne plant pathogens. Essential oils are volatile, natural, heterogeneous mixtures of single substances, mainly terpenes and phenolics, formed as secondary metabolites by aromatic plants belonging to several botanical families. Among terpenes, limonoid triterpenes have been demonstrated to possess interesting insecticidal, nematicidal and antifungal properties. Occurrence of these compounds is mainly limited to Meliaceae and Rutaceae. Alkaloids, phenolics, cyanogenic glucosides

  20. Demonstration and Research Pest Control: A Training Program for the Certification of Pesticide Applicators, Manual No. 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Harry K.; And Others

    This manual is intended to provide the information necessary to meet EPA standards for demonstration and research pest control and prepare for the written examination required for certification. Emphasis is placed on the principles of safe pesticide use. Chapters are included on pesticide applicator certification in Virginia, basics of pest…

  1. RESEARCH REGARDING INTEGRATED DISEASES AND PESTS CONTROL IN APPLE TREE CULTIVATION IN THE CÂRCINOV-ARGES FRUIT GROWING BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şt. Popescu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In tree culture technologies, regardless the species and varieties in culture, cessation and control of disease and pest attack represent important and necessary sequence, which influence the quantity and mainly the quality of fruit production, especially the biological potential transmitted for the next 2 -3 years.

  2. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  3. Nitric oxide as a fumigant for postharvest pest control and its safety to postharvest quality of fresh products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation under ultralow oxygen atmospheres was discovered recently to be effective for pest control. It is effective against all life stages of insects and mites and against both external and internal feeders. Nitric oxide fumigation comes with additional but acceptable costs associ...

  4. Tsetse flies: their biology and control using area-wide integrated pest management approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vreysen, Marc J B; Seck, Momar Talla; Sall, Baba; Bouyer, Jérémy

    2013-03-01

    Tsetse flies are the cyclical vectors of trypanosomes, the causative agents of 'sleeping sickness' or human African trypanosomosis (HAT) in humans and 'nagana' or African animal trypanosomosis (AAT) in livestock in Sub-saharan Africa. Many consider HAT as one of the major neglected tropical diseases and AAT as the single greatest health constraint to increased livestock production. This review provides some background information on the taxonomy of tsetse flies, their unique way of reproduction (adenotrophic viviparity) making the adult stage the only one easily accessible for control, and how their ecological affinities, their distribution and population dynamics influence and dictate control efforts. The paper likewise reviews four control tactics (sequential aerosol technique, stationary attractive devices, live bait technique and the sterile insect technique) that are currently accepted as friendly to the environment, and describes their limitations and advantages and how they can best be put to practise in an IPM context. The paper discusses the different strategies for tsetse control i.e. localised versus area-wide and focusses thereafter on the principles of area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) and the phased-conditional approach with the tsetse project in Senegal as a recent example. We argue that sustainable tsetse-free zones can be created on Africa mainland provided certain managerial and technical prerequisites are in place.

  5. Green Control Techniques of Crop Insect Pests and Diseases in Huanren County%桓仁县农作物病虫害绿色防控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张吉福; 房佩刚

    2011-01-01

    为促进绿色农业的发展,适应农业发展新形势和市场需求的变化,进一步提高农产品质量,以建立农作物病虫害防治绿色防控示范区为载体,桓仁县建立了一批果树、水稻、蔬菜病虫害防治绿色防控示范乡和示范区.通过示范区的建设,以点带面,示范、推广农药安全使用技术,保护生态环境,实现农业可持续发展的目的.%In order to promote the development of green agriculture, adapt new situation of agricultural development and changes of market demand and further enhance agricultural product quality, some green control model towns and demonstration regions of crop insect pests and diseases on fruit trees, rice and vegetables were established. Demonstrating and popularizing techniques of safety application of pesticide and protecting ecological environment by construction of model zones, realized the'purpose of sustainable development of agriculture.

  6. Controlled atmospheres against insect pests in museums: a review and some considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Berzolla

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Controlled atmospheres using nitrogen represent a safe and effective method for both objects and human health. The use of this technique against pests in museums has received an increasing amount of interest during the last twenty years. This paper looks at the researches into anoxic treatments that use nitrogen from the late ‘80s until now. At the moment, the recommended protocol suggests an oxygen percentage below 1% for at least three weeks. Considering that the major practical problems of controlled atmospheres are connected to treatment time and low oxygen percentage, it is very important to develop more flexible protocols that consider higher oxygen percentages or shorter treatment times, exploiting temperature and/or relative humidity. At oxygen percentage higher than those commonly used, temperature and relative humidity are very critical to insects’ development and success. Preliminary data (unpublished show that it is possible to adapt the application of the controlled atmospheres to different situations, taking advantage of favorable conditions already present in the considered situation and at the same time to use the other parameters at more favorable levels.

  7. Applying the sterile insect technique to the control of insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique involves the mass-rearing of insects, which are sterilized by gamma rays from a 60Co source before being released in a controlled fashion into nature. Matings between the sterile insects released and native insects produce no progeny, and so if enough of these matings occur the pest population can be controlled or even eradicated. A modification of the technique, especially suitable for the suppression of the moths and butterflies, is called the F, or inherited sterility method. In this, lower radiation doses are used such that the released males are only partially sterile (30-60%) and the females are fully sterile. When released males mate with native females some progeny are produced, but they are completely sterile. Thus, full expression of the sterility is delayed by one generation. This article describes the use of the sterile insect technique in controlling the screwworm fly, the tsetse fly, the medfly, the pink bollworm and the melon fly, and of the F1 sterility method in the eradication of local gypsy moth infestations. 18 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  8. Comprehensive Control Technique of Major Maize Diseases and Insect Pests%玉米主要病虫害综合防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚万义

    2011-01-01

    为提高玉米产量和确保玉米优质,提出玉米病虫害防治策略,详细介绍玉米螟、大斑病、小斑病3种玉米常见病虫害的综合防治技术及其要点,通过协调使用农业、生物、物理、化学防治措施,将重大病虫危害控制在经济水平以下。%In order to improve maize yields and ensure its quality,the author presents comprehensive prevention and control measures to check maize diseases and insect pests,including techniques to control Ostrinia nubilalis,leaf blight,Bipolaris maydis,coordinating a variety of agricultural,biologic,physical and chemical therapeutic measures to keep the damages caused by diseases and insect pests under economic levels.

  9. Integrated Pest Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council on Environmental Quality, Washington, DC.

    After a brief discussion of the problems of pesticide use and the status of current pest control practices, a definition of integrated pest management is given along with some examples of its successful application, and a description of some of the reasons why the concept has not been applied more widely. The major techniques which can be used as…

  10. Use of attractant traps in area-wide control of vegetable insect pests in the Jiangxi province of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Plutella xylostella (L.), Prodenia litura (Fabricius) and Laphyqma exiqua Huebner are main insect pests of vegetables in the Jiangxi province. The long-term use of pesticides to control these pests has caused serious problems such as resistance to pesticides and resurgence of pests as well as pollution to environment and vegetables. Sex attractants have been used for area-wide control of these pests to solve these problems and to produce pollution-free vegetables. Based on the principles of effective, economic and operational implementation, two types of traps made of used plastic cola bottles (1.25L) and oil bottles (2.5L), have been used in 2,250 ha of vegetables in 2001-2003. Traps have been baited with pest-specific attractants incorporated in a rubber wick and placed in vegetable fields at a density of 45 traps per ha. The area-wide use of sex attractants to control these pests has resulted in the decrease of densities of male adults, eggs and larva of these pests and the increase of vegetable yield. An average of 2.34, 2.1, 2.85 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively with the cola bottle trap, and 3.22, 0.63, 4.33 male P. xylostella (L.), P. litura (Fabricius) and L. exiqua Huebner was trapped per day respectively oil bottle trap. Comparing trap area with non-trap area, egg density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 84.48% and 85.38%, respectively and larva density of P. xylostella (L.) on radish plants and cabbage plants was decreased by 89.62% and 89.93%, respectively. The egg and larva density of L. exiqua Huebner was reduced by 66.67% and 64.47%, respectively and the percent of damaged host plants and leaves was reduced by 83.48% and 75.85%, respectively. The larva density of P. litura (Fabricius) was reduced by 24.92% and the percent of damaged host plants was reduced by 35.52%. The vegetable yield per ha has been increased by 30% on average

  11. Introducing DuPont Exirel™ and Verimark™ new insect control products for pest management and optimizing yield in Florida citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Portillo, Hector E.; Royal, Stanley S.; Taylor, James E; Temple, Joshua H.; Truszkowski, Alex T.; Mares, Joseph T.; Cameron, Rachel A.; Annan, I. Billy; Alvarez, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    DuPont™ Exirel™ and Verimark™ insect control contain DuPont™ Cyazypyr™ insecticide, the second active ingredient from the anthranilic diamide class of chemistry, and the first to control a cross-spectrum of insect pests including Lepidoptera, Dipteran leafminers, fruit flies, beetles, whiteflies, thrips, aphids, leafhoppers, psyllids and weevils, while conserving key predators and parasitoids.  Exirel™ and Verimark™ deliver a novel mode of action that impacts insect behavior by impairing musc...

  12. The prospect of applying chemical elicitors and plant strengtheners to enhance the biological control of crop pests

    OpenAIRE

    Sobhy, Islam S.; Erb, Matthias; Lou, Yonggen; Ted C J Turlings

    2014-01-01

    An imminent food crisis reinforces the need for novel strategies to increase crop yields worldwide. Effective control of pest insects should be part of such strategies, preferentially with reduced negative impact on the environment and optimal protection and utilization of existing biodiversity. Enhancing the presence and efficacy of native biological control agents could be one such strategy. Plant strengthener is a generic term for several commercially available compounds or mixtures of com...

  13. Geogenic and agricultural controls on the geochemical composition of European agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Gerben; Saaltink, Rémon; Griffioen, Jasper; Birke, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Concern about the environmental impact of agriculture caused by intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the geogenic and agricultural controls on the elemental composition of European

  14. Geogenic and agricultural controls on the geochemical composition of European agricultural soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saaltink, R.; Griffioen, J.; Mol, G.; Birke, M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Concern about the environmental impact of agriculture caused by intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the geogenic and agricultural controls on the elemental composition of European,

  15. Grape Integrated Pest Prevention and Control Technology%葡萄虫害综合防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤喜良

    2012-01-01

      近几年随着湖南省宁乡县沙田乡葡萄产业的发展,虫害的发生率也有所增加,葡萄虫害属于自然灾害,一旦发生,对葡萄的产量和质量都有严重影响,所以进行葡萄虫害的防治工作尤为重要。从葡萄虫害的种类和其症状表现出发,探讨其防治的方法措施。%  With the development of the industry in recent years, the incidence of pest increase grape pests belonging to natural disasters, the yield and quality of grapes has seriously affected in the event, the grape pest prevention and control work is particularly important. In this paper, starting from the type of grape pests and their symptoms, and to explore its prevention measures.

  16. Agriculture and the promotion of insect pests: rice cultivation in river floodplains and malaria vectors in The Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louca Vasilis

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthropogenic modification of natural habitats can create conditions in which pest species associated with humans can thrive. In order to mitigate for these changes, it is necessary to determine which aspects of human management are associated with the promotion of those pests. Anopheles gambiae, the main Africa malaria vector, often breeds in rice fields. Here the impact of the ancient practice of 'swamp rice' cultivation, on the floodplains of the Gambia River, on the production of anopheline mosquitoes was investigated. Methods Routine surveys were carried out along 500 m transects crossing rice fields from the landward edge of the floodplains to the river during the 2006 rainy season. Aquatic invertebrates were sampled using area samplers and emergence traps and fish sampled using nets. Semi-field experiments were used to investigate whether nutrients used for swamp rice cultivation affected mosquito larval abundance. Results At the beginning of the rainy season rice is grown on the landward edge of the floodplain; the first area to flood with fresh water and one rich in cattle dung. Later, rice plants are transplanted close to the river, the last area to dry out on the floodplain. Nearly all larval and adult stages of malaria vectors were collected 0–100 m from the landward edge of the floodplains, where immature rice plants were grown. These paddies contained stagnant freshwater with high quantities of cattle faeces. Semi-field studies demonstrated that cattle faeces nearly doubled the number of anopheline larvae compared with untreated water. Conclusion Swamp rice cultivation creates ideal breeding sites for malaria vectors. However, only those close to the landward edge harboured vectors. These sites were productive since they were large areas of standing freshwater, rich in nutrients, protected from fish, and situated close to human habitation, where egg-laying mosquitoes from the villages had short distances to

  17. Effect of some Ghanaian plant components on control of two stored-product insect pests of cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu

    2000-01-15

    In an attempt to find natural and cheaper methods for the control of stored-product pests of cereals, some traditionally useful Ghanaian plant materials were evaluated. Hexane+isopropyl alcohol extract of leaves of Ocimum viride proved most effective in the control of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), followed by that of Chromolaena odorata. O. viride showed strong repellent activity and thus deterred the insects from feeding. It reduced survival of both insect pests to less than 25% after 10 days of treatment at concentrations of 0.1 mg ml(-1) and above. The results show the potential of O. viride and C. odorata in the control of stored-product insects. PMID:11124372

  18. Importance of microbial pest control agents and their metabolites In relation to the natural microbiota on strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge M. B.; Jensen, Dan Funck;

    The main objectives of the this project were to examine the abundance of applied microbial pest control agents (MPCAs) and their metabolites compared to that of the natural microbiota and to examine the compatibility between MPCAs and conventional fungicides and their combination effects in disease...... control. A series of laboratory, growth chamber, semi-field and field experiments using strawberry as a model plant focusing on commercial microbial pest control products (MPCPs) or laboratory MPCAs expected to be on the market within 10 years served as our experimental platform. Initially the background....... atrum. None of the fungal MPCAs produced any mycotoxins when applied to flowers in semi-field and field experiments, but strawberries artificially inoculated with Trichoderma-based MPCPs in vitro contained biologically active fungal metabolites of the peptaibol family. 8 In general, fungicides employed...

  19. Trading biodiversity for pest problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent shifts in agricultural practices have resulted in increased pesticide use, land use intensification, and landscape simplification, all of which threaten biodiversity in and near farms. Pests are major challenges to food security, and responses to pests can represent unintended socioeconomic a...

  20. Fuzzy Control for Food Agricultural Robotics of a Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepeng Song

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the fuzzy control for food agricultural robotics of a degree. Weeding robots can replace humans weeding activities, since the control system with nonlinear, robustness and a series of complex time-varying characteristics of the traditional PID control of the food agricultural robot end of the operation control effect cannot achieve the desired results, therefore, the design for the traditional use of classical PID control algorithm to control the food agricultural robot end of the operation of a series of drawbacks, combining cutting-edge control theory, fuzzy rule-based adaptive PID control strategy to control the entire system, so as to achieve the desired control effect. Experimental results show that the fuzzy adaptive PID control method for robot end postural control has better adaptability and track-ability.

  1. Protecting Plants against Pests and Pathogens with Entomopathogenic Fungi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keyser, Chad Alton

    This thesis investigates the natural occurrence of the fungal genus Metarhizium in association with crop-roots in Denmark, and advances the current understanding of how these fungi interact with other root-associating organisms when applied as a biological control agent. Insect-pest management...... is an increasingly important area of research. Efforts to maximize agricultural output are significantly dependent on reliable means for pest suppression. Biological control, or the use of living organisms to suppress a pest population, is a leading alternative to traditional chemical-based pesticides for crop...... of variability with in the species. The results of these studies further clarify the important role Metarhizium spp. play in the natural environment and highlight their vast potential to be implemented as biological control agents of important pest insects....

  2. Urban Pest Management. Selected Readings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Kathleen Letcher, Comp.; And Others

    These readings provide basic background information on urban integrated pest management and the development of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs for the control of rodents, cockroaches, and head lice. IPM is a decision-making process for deciding if pest supprssion treatments are needed, when they should be initiated, where they should be…

  3. PESTS CONTROL IN BIRDS STORED FOOD WITH LAVANDER ESSENTIAL OIL VOLATILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Knochl Novokmet

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal efficiency of aromatic herb Lavandula officinalis Ch. was confirmed on two species of stored pests Plodia interpunctella Hübner and Tribolium castaneum Herbst by conducting the experiments. The oil was applied in two doses (0,5 i 1 ml/kg on three kinds of food for birds. Under winter storage conditions, the 100% mortality of P. interpunctella was obtained after 40 days of exposure to the dose of 1ml/kg. Under summer storage conditions, by applying the same dose, 68 days of exposure were necessary to generate 100% mortality of P. interpunctella. During the winter season, the application of 1 ml oil per kg of food generated a 100% mortality of T. castaneum after 44 days of exposure to the treated food. During the summer storage period, the same doses caused 100% mortality of T. castaneum after 68 days of exposure to the treated food. To achieve the same level of control of test insects in treated food at lower dose (0,5ml/kg, the exposure period of insects to treated food was generally longer for 4 to 8 days.

  4. The Role of Pest Control Advisers in Preventative Management of Grapevine Trunk Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillis, Vicken; Lubell, Mark; Kaplan, Jonathan; Doll, David; Baumgartner, Kendra

    2016-04-01

    Vineyards with trunk diseases (Botryosphaeria dieback, Esca, Eutypa dieback, and Phomopsis dieback) can have negative returns in the long run. Minimizing economic impacts depends on effective management, but adopting a preventative practice after infection occurs may not improve yields. Pest control advisers may reduce grower uncertainty about the efficacy of and need for prevention, which often entails future and unobservable benefits. Here, we surveyed advisers in California to examine their influence over grower decision-making, in the context of trunk diseases, which significantly limit grape production and for which curative practices are unavailable. Our online survey revealed adviser awareness of high disease incidence, and reduced yields and vineyard lifespan. Advisers rated both preventative and postinfection practices positively. Despite higher cost estimates given to postinfection practices, advisers did not recommend preventative practices at higher rates. High recommendation rates were instead correlated with high disease incidence for both preventative and postinfection practices. Recommendation rates declined with increasing cost for preventative, but not for postinfection, practices. Our findings suggest that even when advisers acknowledge the risks of trunk diseases, they may not recommend preventative practices before infection occurs. This underscores the importance of clear outreach, emphasizing both the need for prevention and its long-term cost efficacy. PMID:26645645

  5. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J

    2015-04-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  6. A new threat to bees? Entomopathogenic nematodes used in biological pest control cause rapid mortality in Bombus terrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutka, Alexandrea; McNulty, Alison; Williamson, Sally M

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a great deal of concern about population declines in pollinating insects. Many potential threats have been identified which may adversely affect the behaviour and health of both honey bees and bumble bees: these include pesticide exposure, and parasites and pathogens. Whether biological pest control agents adversely affect bees has been much less well studied: it is generally assumed that biological agents are safer for wildlife than chemical pesticides. The aim of this study was to test whether entomopathogenic nematodes sold as biological pest control products could potentially have adverse effects on the bumble bee Bombus terrestris. One product was a broad spectrum pest control agent containing both Heterorhabditis sp. and Steinernema sp., the other product was specifically for weevil control and contained only Steinernema kraussei. Both nematode products caused ≥80% mortality within the 96 h test period when bees were exposed to soil containing entomopathogenic nematodes at the recommended field concentration of 50 nematodes per cm(2) soil. Of particular concern is the fact that nematodes from the broad spectrum product could proliferate in the carcasses of dead bees, and therefore potentially infect a whole bee colony or spread to the wider environment.

  7. Responses to colour and host odour cues in three cereal pest species, in the context of ecology and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, S E J; Stevenson, P C; Belmain, S R

    2015-08-01

    Many insects show a greater attraction to multimodal cues, e.g. odour and colour combined, than to either cue alone. Despite the potential to apply the knowledge to improve control strategies, studies of multiple stimuli have not been undertaken for stored product pest insects. We tested orientation towards a food odour (crushed white maize) in combination with a colour cue (coloured paper with different surface spectral reflectance properties) in three storage pest beetle species, using motion tracking to monitor their behaviour. While the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Motsch.), showed attraction to both odour and colour stimuli, particularly to both cues in combination, this was not observed in the bostrichid pests Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (lesser grain borer) or Prostephanus truncatus (Horn) (larger grain borer). The yellow stimulus was particularly attractive to S. zeamais, and control experiments showed that this was neither a result of the insects moving towards darker-coloured areas of the arena, nor their being repelled by optical brighteners in white paper. Visual stimuli may play a role in location of host material by S. zeamais, and can be used to inform trap design for the control or monitoring of maize weevils. The lack of visual responses by the two grain borers is likely to relate to their different host-seeking behaviours and ecological background, which should be taken into account when devising control methods. PMID:25916219

  8. The Potential Role of Nuclear Techniques in Support of the Production of Biological Control Agents of Insect Pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While nuclear techniques could play a vital role in enabling cost-effective mass production of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control, surprisingly little use has been made of these techniques or ionizing radiation produced by other means (e.g., x-rays or electron beams from linear accelerators) for mass rearing beneficial insects. This technology has been available for quite some time, having been used to reproductively sterilize screwworm flies as early as 1951 (Bushland and Hopkins). Similarly, gamma radiation has been accepted internationally for human food preservation and disinfestation for many years (Anon., 1995). Quite a number of gamma radiation sources exist at or near USDA ARS and APHIS facilities throughout the U.S., as well as in many universities. Still, relatively little use has been made of this approach to assist in mass rearing of beneficial insects for use in augmentative biological control. As pointed out by Benbrook (1996), pest management is at a crossroads, and there still is a great need for new, biointensive pest management strategies. Nuclear techniques should play an increasing role in the future, as the overall thrust of biological control moves more and more toward augmentative releases (Knipling, 1992). It is the intent of this presentation to review some of the existing and potential uses that can be made of nuclear techniques and other sources of ionizing radiation in support of the biological control of insect pests. (author)

  9. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests: Integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The successful implementation of area-wide pest control programmes integrating the use of sterile insects with other control technologies against a number of key veterinary, medical and plant insect pests, such as various fruit flies, moths, screwworms, and tsetse species, clearly demonstrates a peaceful application of nuclear technology. Over the last 40 years, FAO and IAEA have played, and they will continue to play, a critical role in supporting their Member States in the development and application of these environment-friendly pest control methods. The concept of area-wide integrated pest management, in which the total population of a pest in an area or region is targeted, is central to the effective application of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and is increasingly being considered for related genetic, biological and other pest control technologies. Insect movement, occurring sometimes over long distances, is generally underestimated. As a consequence, most conventional pest control can be described as localized, un-coordinated action against segments of a pest population, resulting very often in an unsustainable spiral of insecticide application and eventual resistance. However, an area-wide integrated approach adopts a preventive rather than a reactive tactic, whereby all individuals of the pest population are targeted, requiring fewer inputs and resulting in more cost effective and sustainable control. In June 1998 FAO and IAEA sponsored the First International Conference on Area-Wide Control of Insect Pests Integrating the Sterile Insect and Related Nuclear and other Techniques in Penang, Malaysia with the participation of almost 300 participants from 63 Member States and 5 international organizations. This Conference greatly increased awareness concerning the area-wide approach for insect pest control programmes. Since then, many new technical innovations have been introduced and a better regulatory framework is being developed for integrating SIT

  10. Ultraviolet blocking greenhouse polythene covers for insect pest control on organic crops: May 2003 - September 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Leigh

    2004-01-01

    This report reviews the development work carried out within the ‘UV Blocking Polythene Trial’ on the organic farm at the Welsh College of Horticulture during the period May 2003 to September 2004. Two tunnels were erected in 2003, one covered in UV blocking ‘Sterilite’ film and the other in the non-UV blocking ‘Super Strength 600’. The salad/brassicas crops grown during the first season under the UV blocking film showed significantly less pest attack (both winged and non-winged pests). Less a...

  11. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research

  12. Pest Locations, Plant disease and insect pest survey data aggregated to county level., Published in 2009, Smaller than 1:100000 scale, Wisconsin Department of Agriculture, Trade & Consumer Protection.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Pest Locations dataset, published at Smaller than 1:100000 scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2009. It is described as...

  13. 东源县水稻主要病虫害综合防治技术规程%Integrated Control Technical Specification for Rice Diseases and Insect Pests in Dongyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐红梅; 罗伟景

    2012-01-01

    Analyzed the occurrence regularity and characteristics of rice diseases and insect pests in Dongyuan County, and explored a set of agriculture, physical, biological, chemical control measures of rice diseases and insect pests which was recommended to peasants in Dongyuan, all the measures can promote high efficiency and low toxicity application technology extension.%通过近年来东源县水稻常见病虫害的发生规律及其特性.摸索出一套适宜在东源县推广的几种水稻主要病虫害的农业、物理、生物、化学防治措施,以推广高效、低毒应用技术。

  14. Mitonuclear interactions, mtDNA-mediated thermal plasticity, and implications for the Trojan Female Technique for pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonci N; Tompkins, Daniel M; Gemmell, Neil J; Dowling, Damian K

    2016-01-01

    Pest species pose major challenges to global economies, ecosystems, and health. Unfortunately, most conventional approaches to pest control remain costly, and temporary in effect. As such, a heritable variant of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) was proposed, based on the introduction of mitochondrial DNA mutations into pest populations, which impair male fertility but have no effects on females. Evidence for this "Trojan Female Technique" (TFT) was recently provided, in the form of a mutation in the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (mt:Cyt-b) of Drosophila melanogaster which reduces male fertility across diverse nuclear backgrounds. However, recent studies have shown that the magnitude of mitochondrial genetic effects on the phenotype can vary greatly across environments, with mtDNA polymorphisms commonly entwined in genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions. Here we test whether the male-sterilizing effects previously associated with the mt:Cyt-b mutation are consistent across three thermal and three nuclear genomic contexts. The effects of this mutation were indeed moderated by the nuclear background and thermal environment, but crucially the fertility of males carrying the mutation was invariably reduced relative to controls. This mutation thus constitutes a promising candidate for the further development of the TFT. PMID:27443488

  15. Comparison of mineral oil spray with current synthetic pesticides to control important pests in citrus orchards and their side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Damavandian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past years the most important citrus pests poorly controlled despite multiple spraying and growers suffered heavy damage. To this end, a study was done to evaluate and compare the conventional insecticides with mineral oil spray (MOS for the control of citrus pests and adverse effects in citrus orchards in Mazandaran province. In this study, the diversity and abundance of carabid beetles, as a specific predator of snails, were compared in conventional and free protocol pesticide (or MOS orchards. The results showed that the frequency and distribution of important citrus pests in free protocol pesticide orchards after three years of treatment was significantly lower than conventional orchards. The comparison showed that continual use of synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards in the province , leading to a sharp reduction in their population and species diversity. The results of this study indicate that the use of mineral oil can be a useful alternative to synthetic pesticides in citrus orchards of the East province.

  16. RNA interference technology to control pest sea lampreys--a proof-of-concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, George; Childs, Darcy; Docker, Margaret F; McCauley, David W; Whyard, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol) to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs) into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin) reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0-fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species. PMID:24505485

  17. RNA interference technology to control pest sea lampreys--a proof-of-concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Heath

    Full Text Available The parasitic sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus has caused extensive losses to commercial fish stocks of the upper Great Lakes of North America. Methods of controlling the sea lamprey include trapping, barriers to prevent migration, and use of a chemical lampricide (3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol to kill the filter-feeding larvae. Concerns about the non-specificity of these methods have prompted continued development of species-specific methods to control lampreys outside their native range. In this study, we considered the utility of RNA interference to develop a sea lamprey-specific lampricide. Injection of six different short interfering, double-stranded RNAs (siRNAs into lamprey embryos first confirmed that the siRNAs could reduce the targeted transcript levels by more than 50%. Two size classes of lamprey larvae were then fed the siRNAs complexed with liposomes, and three of the siRNAs (targeting elongation factor 1α, calmodulin, and α-actinin reduced transcript levels 2.5, 3.6, and 5.0-fold, respectively, within the lamprey midsections. This is not only the first demonstration of RNAi in lampreys, but it is also the first example of delivery of siRNAs to a non-mammalian vertebrate through feeding formulations. One of the siRNA treatments also caused increased mortality of the larvae following a single feeding of siRNAs, which suggests that prolonged or multiple feedings of siRNAs could be used to kill filter-feeding larvae within streams, following development of a slow-release formulation. The genes targeted in this study are highly conserved across many species, and only serve as a proof-of-concept demonstration that siRNAs can be used in lampreys. Given that RNA interference is a sequence-specific phenomenon, it should be possible to design siRNAs that selectively target gene sequences that are unique to sea lampreys, and thus develop a technology to control these pests without adversely affecting non-target species.

  18. Comparing strategies for controlling an African pest rodent: an empirically based theoretical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Leirs, Herwig; Mercelis, Saskia;

    2001-01-01

    that CMR data are available, we recommend developing Leslie-type population models for rodent pests on the basis of CMR-estimated demographic schedules. Such models have great potential in rodent management and allow the evaluation of different strategies.7. Besides improving the ecological basis...

  19. Producing bulbs and perennials : sustainable control of diseases, pests and weeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de M.

    2011-01-01

    In the Netherlands every year flower bulbs and perennials are produced representing a value of € 500 m (flower bulbs) and of € 65 m (perennials, 2004). The growers are faced with several threatening pests and diseases during the production. They usually deal with these problems by using pesticides.

  20. Using global information technology to detect, monitor, and control mosquito pest and disease vector populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS), image analysis, and remote sensing comprise global information technologies that are used to characterize pest and vector populations of mosquitoes. At this national meeting, scientists from ARS and McNeese State University organized and convened a half-day sym...

  1. Organic control of oilseed rape pests through natural pesticides and mixed cultivation with turnip rape

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, T.; Jansen, B.; Mayer, J.; Kühne, S.; Böhm, H; Rasmussen, Ilse A.; HERMANSEN John

    2011-01-01

    A mixed cropping system of rapeseed and 10% turnip rape as trap crop was compared with oilseed rape in pure stand to demonstrate the reduction of infestation by insect pests. Furthermore the application of bio-pesticides like pyrethrum/rape oil (Spruzit Neu), spinosad (SpinTor), diatomeen earth (SiO2) /sunflower-oil and rock powder/water was tased.

  2. Sustainable Pest Management : Achievements and Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to: (a) review World Bank's pest management activities during 1999-2004; (b) assess those in view of the changes in the external and internal contexts; (c) identify appropriate opportunities of engagement on pest and pesticide issues; and (d) suggest means to further promote sound pest management in the World Bank operations. The importance of sound pest management for sustainable agricultural production is being recognized by many developing countries. Many cou...

  3. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  4. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Agriculture - Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwater, W. D.; And Others

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the agriculture-plant pest control category. The text discusses identification and control of insects, diseases, nematodes, and weeds of agricultural crops. Proper use of application equipment and safety…

  5. Nanoinsecticidas: Nuevas perspectivas para el control de plagas Nanoinsecticides: New perspectives on insect pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro Stadler; Micaela Buteler; David K. Weaver

    2010-01-01

    La agricultura de bajo impacto ambiental demanda nuevos pesticidas que deben ajustarse a las exigentes normativas internacionales. Parte de la búsqueda de nuevos productos bio-racionales se desarrolla por fuera del marco de la síntesis orgánica, explorando diferentes sustancias de origen natural como extractos vegetales, aceites insecticidas e insecticidas inorgánicos. Los polvos insecticidas representan el grupo más antiguo de sustancias utilizadas por el hombre para el control de plagas, cu...

  6. Studies on the controlled-release pesticide formulations for pest control in cotton and maize using isotope techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on controlled release 14C- carbofuran formulations with EVA for pest control in cotton and maize to investigate the fate and degradation of the release carbofuran from the formulation. Cotton plants both in the field and pots were subjected to three different treatments at the time of sowing: application of 14C-carbofuran formulation with EVA; cold carbofuran formulation with EVA, and granular carbofuran pesticide. It has been found that insect attack was much more on control than on treated plants for three months after germination but after 4-5 months granules treated plants offered less resistance to insects as compared to formulation treated plant both hot and cold. The granules treated plants produced much more cotton lint in the first picking which reduced gradually and consequently hot and cold formulation treated plants produced maximum yield. Radiometric analysis indicated that recovered hot formulation pieces retained at least 24% radioactivity after six months. More activity was recovered in plant leaves as compared to roots and stem and similarly from soil samples, highest radioactivity was observed from 10 cm dia samples at a depth of up to 13 cm. The trend of results from pot and field experiments were almost similar. The used 14C-carbofuran formulation with EVA recovered from the field after cotton harvest was reused for maize crop at the time of sowing. Radiometric analysis revealed that the reused formulation pieces after three months still retained 56% radioactivity of the original dose applied. This confirms that the formulation was indeed slow release and even the lower amounts in the used formulation pieces were available to the next crop. The corn ear-worm attacked the crop at the time of maturity but this problem was minor with formulation treated plants resulting in better yield over control plants. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Geogenic and agricultural controls on the geochemical composition of European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Gerben; Saaltink, Remon; Griffioen, Jasper; Birke, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Concern about the environmental impact of agriculture caused by intensification is growing as large amounts of nutrients and contaminants are introduced into the environment. The aim of this paper is to identify the geogenic and agricultural controls on the elemental composition of European, grazing and agricultural soils. Materials and methods: Robust factor analysis was applied to data series for Al,B,Ca, Cd,Co, Cu, Fe, K, Mg,Mn, Na,Ni, P, S, Se, Sr, U, Zn (ICP-MS) and SiO2, K2O, Na2O, Fe2O3, Al2O3 (XRF) based on the European GEMAS dataset. In addition, the following general soil properties were included: clay content, pH, chemical index of alteration (CIA), loss on ignition (LOI), cation exchange capacity (CEC), total organic carbon (TOC) and total carbon and total sulfur. Furthermore, this dataset was coupled to a dataset containing information of historic P2O5 fertilization across Europe. Also, a mass balance was carried out for Cd, Cu and Zn to determine if concentrations of these elements found in the soils have their origin in historic P2O5 fertilization. Results and discussion: Seven geogenic factors and one agricultural factor were found of which four prominent ones (all geogenic): chemical weathering, reactive iron-aluminum oxide minerals, clay minerals and carbonate minerals. Results for grazing and agricultural soils were near identical, which further proofs the prominence of geogenic controls on the total elemental composition. When the cumulative amount of P2O5 fertilization was considered, no extra agriculture-related factors became visible. The mass balance confirms these observations. Conclusion: Overall, the geological controls are more important for the total soil chemistry in agricultural and grazing land soils than the anthropogenic controls.

  8. As pragas das hortaliças: seu controle e o selo verde Vegetable pests: their control and the green-certificate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octávio Nakano

    1999-03-01

    little time for effective action of predators and parasitoids. Physical measures, on the other hand, are showing a relative arise in importance, with occasional use of light, pheromone, and mostly yellow color traps. However, when outbreaks of exotic or native pests occur, associated with favorable conditions, only chemical control can mitigate the economic losses in the crop. For this reason, and as a result of the increasing public awareness regarding health and the environment, the creation of a green-certificate or quality-certificate, which assures that, if chemicals are used in the development of products, they must be used properly, is a task that must be imposed immediately, with authorities responsible for instructing the process. In the State of São Paulo the Secretary of Agriculture began the implementation of a quality-certificate for strawberries produced in the Atibaia county. Other vegetables are now being considered for inclusion in the a green-certificate scheme.

  9. Codling Moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae – Major Pest in Apple Production: an Overview of its Biology, Resistance, Genetic Structure and Control Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Pajač

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The codling moth Cydia pomonella (CM (Linnaeus is a key pest in pome fruit production with a preference for apple. The pest is very adaptable to different climatic conditions and is known for developing resistance to several chemical groups of insecticides. Because of these reasons, the populations of codling moth are differentiated in many ecotypes of various biological and physiological development requirements. The article provides a bibliographic review of investigation about: morphology, biology, dispersal, damages, resistance to insecticides, population genetic structure and genetic control of this pest.

  10. Efficacy of the controlled release of 14C-carbofuran formulation for pest control in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protocols for the treatment of cotton plants with a ring labelled 14C-carbofuran formulation made up of EVA (polyethylene-polyvinyl acetate co-polymer), with a specific activity of 0.0169 mCi/g were modified in these studies as the dose per pot was reduced by half. Twenty-five plastic pots with a 30 cm diameter and lined with polyethylene film were filled with 22 kg of good homogenized soil. To 12 of these prepared pots, 0.5 g of formulation flakes (1.5 to 2 cm) containing 9.6 mg of carbofuran and with 8.45 μCi radioactivity were applied in a circle with a 5 cm diameter and at a depth of 5 cm. Four cotton seeds of the variety NIAB-78 were planted in the centre of each pot. Cotton seeds were planted in the remaining pots to produce the control plants. It has been observed that even the low amount of carbofuran formulation applied to the cotton crop (0.5 g/pot) offered some plant protection, but was not as effective as the higher dose (1 g/pot) applied in previous studies. Initially, the cotton plants looked healthier (up to 3 months) but then their resistance decreased in comparison to that of the control plants. It is suggested that the half dose applied in these studies is lower than desirable and that probably two-thirds of the dose could better serve the purpose. The radioactivity in the formulation flakes fell to almost one-half when the plants were 1 month old and then decreased gradually with the increase in time. In contrast, the radioactivity in the soil increased gradually with the increase in time. The highest radioactivity in the soil was observed from the 10 cm diameter samples at a depth of up to 13 cm. More radioactivity was recovered from the leaves than the roots and stem, which is in accordance with our previous findings. (author). 3 refs, 4 tabs

  11. Efficacy of Piper (Piperaceae) extracts for control of common home and garden insect pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, I M; Jensen, H; Nicol, R; Lesage, L; Bradbury, R; Sánchez-Vindas, P; Poveda, L; Arnason, J T; Philogène, B J R

    2004-08-01

    Extracts from three species of the plant family Piperaceae, Piper nigrum [L.], Piper guineense [Schum & Thonn, and Piper tuberculatum [Jacq.], were tested for efficacy against insects from five orders. All three species contain isobutyl amides, plant secondary compounds that act as neurotoxins in insects. These materials are considered safe to mammals because Piper spp. were used for centuries for spice and medicinal purposes. When 24-h P. nigrum LC50 values were compared between common insect pests from eastern Canada and the northeastern United States, the most sensitive species in order of increasing lethal concentration were eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.) Piper extracts be restricted to small-scale spot treatments in residential areas where insect pest outbreaks have occurred. PMID:15384353

  12. Transgenic plants for insect pest control: a forward looking scientific perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, N; Edwards, M G; Gatehouse, J; Capell, T; Christou, P; Gatehouse, A M R

    2006-02-01

    One of the first successes of plant biotechnology has been the creation and commercialisation of transgenic crops exhibiting resistance to major insect pests. First generation products encompassed plants with single insecticidal Bt genes with resistance against major pests of corn and cotton. Modelling studies predicted that usefulness of these resistant plants would be short-lived, as a result of the ability of insects to develop resistance against single insecticidal gene products. However, despite such dire predictions no such collapse has taken place and the acreage of transgenic insect resistance crops has been increasing at a steady rate over the 9 years since the deployment of the first transgenic insect resistant plant. However, in order to assure durability and sustainability of resistance, novel strategies have been contemplated and are being developed. This perspective addresses a number of potentially useful strategies to assure the longevity of second and third generation insect resistant plants.

  13. Evaluation of Plant Extracts from Illicium verum for the Control of Museum Insect Pest Demestes maculatus

    OpenAIRE

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    To assess the insecticidal activity of extracts from Illicium verum against museum insect pest Demestes maculates, mortalities of its larvae and adults under different dose or treatment time were investigated by bioassay methods. Results showed that both extracts (anise oil and (E)-anethole) were highly toxic to both life stages (larvae and adults) of D. maculatus. Furthermore, the insecticidal activity was dependent upon both dose and exposure time. With the increasing of the dose level and ...

  14. Essential oil formulations useful as a new tool for insect pest control

    OpenAIRE

    Moretti, Mario D. L.; Sanna-Passino, Giovanni; Demontis, Stefania; Bazzoni, Emanuela

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some essential oils onLimantria dispar (Lepidoptera: Lymantridae, gypsy moth) larvae, one of the most serious pests of cork oak forests. The essential oils were first formulated as oil in water (o/w) emulsions and used in laboratory bioassays to assess their lethal concentration (LC50). Microcapsules containing the most promising, oils (Rosmarinus officinalis andThymus herba-barona) were then prepared by a phase separation process, followed by freeze-dry...

  15. The Creation of BugBag. Redesign of Insect Trap for Biological Pest Control

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Mads Rømer; Andersen, Jakob Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The project is based on research on pheromones and the project SoftPest Multitrap. Copenhagen Universitys Science and Life Sciences, more specifically Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, has researched and developed the pheromonis for mass trapping of the Strawberry Blossom Weevil (Anthonomus Rubi) and the European Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus Rugulipennis). Our foucus is on the user-experience Associated with the pheromonibased traps. Especially the distrubution, as...

  16. A review of plant materials used for controlling insect pests of stored products (NRI Bulletin 65)

    OpenAIRE

    Dales, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of plant materials for the protection of stored products against insect pests is reviewed. Following an outline of the different methods used for assessing their insecticidal activity, over 120 plants and plant products are listed alphabetically with a brief description of traditional uses (where appropriate), and a summary of the laboratory data currently available; where possible, information on constituents and toxicology is also included. Of these, only a few, all species in the g...

  17. Damage by insect pests to the Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu: detection and control

    OpenAIRE

    Lara Maistrello; Josephine D’Ilario; Gautier Bicheron; Christophe Bouleau

    2011-01-01

    The Djingarey Ber Mosque in Timbuktu (Mali) is one of the most significant earthen construction in West Africa. Originally constructed in 1327, it was included in 1988 on the World Heritage UNESCO List for its unique architecture and historical importance. During its restoration, recently undertaken by the Aga Khan Trust for Culture, the wooden parts of the roof and architraves showed clear signs of threatening insect presence. In order to identify the pests responsible of the damage, evaluat...

  18. Hanford site integrated pest management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giddings, R.F.

    1996-04-09

    The Hanford Site Integrated Pest Management Plan (HSIPMP) defines the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) decision process and subsequent strategies by which pest problems are to be solved at all Hanford Site properties per DOE-RL Site Infrastructure Division memo (WHC 9505090). The HSIPMP defines the roles that contractor organizations play in supporting the IPM process. In short the IPM process anticipates and prevents pest activity and infestation by combining several strategies to achieve long-term pest control solutions.

  19. Genetics and biology of Anastrepha fraterculus: research supporting the use of the sterile insect technique (SIT) to control this pest in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Cladera, Jorge L.; Vilardi, Juan C.; Juri, Marianela; Paulin, Laura E; Giardini, M Cecilia; Gómez Cendra, Paula V; Segura, Diego F.; Lanzavecchia, Silvia B

    2014-01-01

    Two species of true fruit flies (taxonomic family Tephritidae) are considered pests of fruit and vegetable production in Argentina: the cosmopolitan Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann) and the new world South American fruit fly (Anastrepha fraterculus Wiedemann). The distribution of these two species in Argentina overlaps north of the capital, Buenos Aires. Regarding the control of these two pests, the varied geographical fruit producing regions in Argentina are in differen...

  20. Farmers' information on sweet potato production and millipede infestation in north-eastern Uganda. II. Pest incidence and indigenous control strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ebregt, E.; Struik, P.C.; Abidin, P.E.; Odongo, B.

    2004-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamk) is an important staple food for the people of north-eastern Uganda. Crop yields per unit area are low partly because of biological constraints, including pests like millipedes. The objective of this study was to generate information on pest incidence and control strategies of millipedes by interviewing farmers in different districts. The respondents associated the dying of planting material with drought. However, millipedes also damaged planting materi...

  1. Assessing the efficacy of spray-delivered 'eco-friendly' chemicals for the control and eradication of marine fouling pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piola, Richard F; Dunmore, Robyn A; Forrest, Barrie M

    2010-01-01

    Despite its frequent use in terrestrial and freshwater systems, there is a lack of published experimental research examining the effectiveness of spray-delivered chemicals for the management of non-indigenous and/or unwanted pests in marine habitats. This study tested the efficacy of spraying acetic acid, hydrated lime and sodium hypochlorite for the control of marine fouling assemblages. The chemicals are considered relatively 'eco-friendly' due to their low toxicity and reduced environmental persistence compared to synthetic biocides, and they were effective in controlling a wide range of organisms. Pilot trials highlighted acetic acid as the most effective chemical at removing fouling cover, therefore it was selected for more comprehensive full-scale trials. A single spray of 5% acetic acid with an exposure time of 1 min effectively removed up to 55% of the invertebrate species present and 65% of the cover on fouled experimental plates, while one application of 10% acetic acid over 30 min removed up to 78% of species present and 95% of cover. Single-spray treatments of 5% acetic acid reduced cover of the tunicate pest species Didemnum vexillum by up to 100% depending on the exposure duration, while repeat-spraying ensured that even short exposure times (1 min) achieved approximately 99% mortality. Both 5 and 10% acetic acid solutions appeared equally effective at removing the majority of algal species. This technique could be used for controlling the introduction of unwanted species or preventing the spread of pests, and is applicable to use on a variety of natural and artificial substrata, or for the treatment of structures that can be removed from the water. PMID:19937489

  2. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site. PMID:27059867

  3. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Li

    Full Text Available The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st to 5(th instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl into the 4(th instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3% after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (P<0.05. About 80% of the surviving insects in the siRNA-treated group of five genes (PGCP, chitinase1, tubulin1, tubulin2 and helicase showed retarded development. In chitinase1-siRNA and chitinase7-siRNA administered groups, 12.5% survivors exhibited "half-ecdysis". In arf1-siRNA and arf2-siRNA groups, the body color of 15% became black 48 h after injections. In summary, the transcriptome could be a valuable genetic resource for identification of genes in S. exigua and this study provided putative targets for RNAi pest

  4. FAO/IAEA international conference on area-wide control of insect pests integrating the sterile insect and related nuclear and other techniques. Programme book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of this International Conference on the Areawide Approach to the Control of Insect Pests is appropriate and timely. There is increasing interest in the holistic approach to dealing with major insect pest problems. This interest has been prompted by the steady progress scientists have made in the development of the sterile insect technique for eliminating the screwworm from North America, the melon fly from Okinawa, the elimination and containment of the medfly in various countries and the progress that scientists have made in eradicating tsetse fly populations from isolated areas. Increased interest has also been shown by agriculturalists because of the realization that the farm-to-farm reactive method of insect control is only a temporary solution to problems and that pests continue to be about as numerous as ever from year-to-year. In the meantime, there is increasing public concern over the environmental hazards created by the use of broad-spectrum insecticides to deal with insect pest problems. The sterile insect technique provides a feasible way to manage total insect pest populations. However, other techniques and strategies appropriately integrated into management programs can increase the effectiveness and efficiency of area-wide management programs. These include the augmentation of massproduced biological organisms and the use of semiochemicals such as the insect sex pheromones. This conference will give pest management scientists from many countries the opportunity to exchange information on the area-wide approach to insect pest management - an approach that if fully developed can be highly effective, low in cost and at the same time make a major contribution to alleviating the environmental concerns associated with primary reliance on broad-spectrum insecticides for controlling insect pests. This document contains 200 abstracts of papers presented at the conference

  5. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J.; Cryan, Paul M.; Diffendorfer, James E.; Goldstein, Joshua; LaSharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellin, Rodrigo A.; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius J.

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the “economic benefits” arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function – in this case bat population numbers – is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  6. Market forces and technological substitutes cause fluctuations in the value of bat pest-control services for cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Hoffman, Laura; Wiederholt, Ruscena; Sansone, Chris; Bagstad, Kenneth J; Cryan, Paul; Diffendorfer, Jay E; Goldstein, Joshua; Lasharr, Kelsie; Loomis, John; McCracken, Gary; Medellín, Rodrigo A; Russell, Amy; Semmens, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Critics of the market-based, ecosystem services approach to biodiversity conservation worry that volatile market conditions and technological substitutes will diminish the value of ecosystem services and obviate the "economic benefits" arguments for conservation. To explore the effects of market forces and substitutes on service values, we assessed how the value of the pest-control services provided by Mexican free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis mexicana) to cotton production in the southwestern U.S. has changed over time. We calculated service values each year from 1990 through 2008 by estimating the value of avoided crop damage and the reduced social and private costs of insecticide use in the presence of bats. Over this period, the ecosystem service value declined by 79% ($19.09 million U.S. dollars) due to the introduction and widespread adoption of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton transgenically modified to express its own pesticide, falling global cotton prices and the reduction in the number of hectares in the U.S. planted with cotton. Our results demonstrate that fluctuations in market conditions can cause temporal variation in ecosystem service values even when ecosystem function--in this case bat population numbers--is held constant. Evidence is accumulating, however, of the evolution of pest resistance to Bt cotton, suggesting that the value of bat pest-control services may increase again. This gives rise to an economic option value argument for conserving Mexican free-tailed bat populations. We anticipate that these results will spur discussion about the role of ecosystem services in biodiversity conservation in general, and bat conservation in particular.

  7. The novel ABC transporter ABCH1 is a potential target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaojiang; Kang, Shi; Zhu, Xun; Xia, Jixing; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Youjun

    2015-01-01

    Insect pests cause serious crop damage and develop high-level resistance to chemical insecticides and Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal Cry toxins. A new promising approach for controlling them and overcoming this resistance is RNA interference (RNAi). The RNAi-based insect control strategy depends on the selection of suitable target genes. In this study, we cloned and characterized a novel ABC transporter gene PxABCH1 in diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Phylogenetic analysis showed that PxABCH1 is closely related to ABCA and ABCG subfamily members. Spatial-temporal expression detection revealed that PxABCH1 was expressed in all tissues and developmental stages, and highest expressed in head and male adult. Midgut sequence variation and expression analyses of PxABCH1 in all the susceptible and Bt-resistant P. xylostella strains and the functional analysis by sublethal RNAi demonstrated that Cry1Ac resistance was independent of this gene. Silencing of PxABCH1 by a relatively high dose of dsRNA dramatically reduced its expression and resulted in larval and pupal lethal phenotypes in both susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant P. xylostella strains. To our knowledge, this study provides the first insight into ABCH1 in lepidopterans and reveals it as an excellent target for RNAi-based insect pest control and resistance management. PMID:26333918

  8. Impact of aphid alarm pheromone release on virus transmission efficiency: When pest control strategy could induce higher virus dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Fang-Jing; Bosquée, Emilie; Liu, Ying-Jie; Chen, Ju-Lian; Yong, Liu; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-09-01

    Aphids cause serious damages to crops not only by tacking sap but also by transmitting numerous viruses. To develop biological control, the aphid alarm pheromone, namely E-β-farnesene (EβF), has been demonstrated to be efficient to repel aphids and as attract beneficials, making it a potential tool to control aphid pests. Considering aphids also as virus vectors, changes of their behavior could also interfere with the virus acquisition and transmission process. Here, a combination of two aphid species and two potato virus models were selected to test the influence of EβF release on aphid and virus dispersion under laboratory conditions. EβF release was found to significantly decrease the population of Myzus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae around the infochemical releaser but simultaneously also increasing the dispersal of Potato Virus Y (PVY). At the opposite, no significant difference for Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) transmission efficiency was observed with similar aphid alarm pheromone releases for none of the aphid species. These results provide some support to carefully consider infochemical releasers not only for push-pull strategy and pest control but also to include viral disease in a the plant protection to aphids as they are also efficient virus vectors. Impact of aphid kinds and transmission mechanisms will be discussed according to the large variation found between persistent and non persistent potato viruses and interactions with aphids and related infochemicals.

  9. Ecological control of rice pest/disease and application in Southwest China%稻田病虫害生态防控模式及其在西南地区的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘某承; 白艳莹; 曹智; 徐远涛

    2012-01-01

    Climate change, planting systems, crop cultivations, environment pollution and other factors have aggravated the degree of harm caused by rice diseases and insect pests. To that end, the prevention and control of rice diseases/pests have become increasingly important for rice production operations. Due, however, to labor scarcity in villages and cultural limitations, chemicals have been increasingly used to control rice diseases/pests. This has in turn caused not only environmental pollution, but also threatened food safety. In the face of the above conditions, excellent traditional agricultural plant protection technologies have been invented and improved to control rice diseases/pests in line with modern science and technology. Thus in the practice of rice production in Southwest China, comprehensive eco-technologies have been widely used at extension demonstrations besides the use of chemicals to control rice diseases/pests. These eco-technologies cut across agricultural, physical and biological bases. Compared with chemical control, comprehensive eco-technologies have the advantage of controlling rice diseases/pests and protecting the environment. Thus this paper reviewed and summarized main eco-technologies in Southwestern China used to control rice diseases/pests. The paper also analyzed application modes and effects of these technologies. The review noted that it was effective to control rice blast by intercropping hybrid rice with glutinous rice under high labor conditions. Rice-duck farming controlled rice sheath blight and rice planthop-pers, but at the same time needed high tech and market conditions. Notwithstanding, some effective biotechnologies such as sex phe-romone, biopesticide, etc. existed in the paddy fields of Southwest China.%近年来,由于受气候、种植制度、栽培方式、生态环境和品种多样化等因素的综合影响,水稻病虫害危害程度加重,防控压力增大;同时,由于当前我国农村劳动力的匮乏

  10. Effect of gaseous ozone for control of stored product pests at low and high temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengård; Hansen, Peer; Vagn Jensen, Karl-Martin

    2013-01-01

    was tested on two species of stored product pests: Sitophilus granarius and Plodia interpunctella. Insects were exposed to continuous flows of ozone in doses of approximately 33 ppm for 6 d or approximately 131 ppm for 8 d at low temperatures between 7.3 and 7.9 C and high temperatures between 29.6 and 31....... interpunctella except eggs at the high temperature. At the low dose for 6 d some survival was found in both species at all three temperatures. Thus, in the temperature range studied, we could not confirm that the effect of ozone on S. granarius and P. interpunctella is related to temperature....

  11. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides.

  12. Landscape changes have greater effects than climate changes on six insect pests in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zihua; Sandhu, Hardev S; Ouyang, Fang; Ge, Feng

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, global changes are the major causes of frequent, widespread outbreaks of pests in mosaic landscapes, which have received substantial attention worldwide. We collected data on global changes (landscape and climate) and economic damage caused by six main insect pests during 1951-2010 in China. Landscape changes had significant effects on all six insect pests. Pest damage increased significantly with increasing arable land area in agricultural landscapes. However, climate changes had no effect on damage caused by pests, except for the rice leaf roller (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee) and armyworm (Mythimna separate (Walker)), which caused less damage to crops with increasing mean temperature. Our results indicate that there is slight evidence of possible offset effects of climate changes on the increasing damage from these two agricultural pests. Landscape changes have caused serious outbreaks of several species, which suggests the possibility of the use of landscape design for the control of pest populations through habitat rearrangement. Landscape manipulation may be used as a green method to achieve sustainable pest management with minimal use of insecticides and herbicides. PMID:26825944

  13. Economic evaluation of agricultural pollution control options for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Abler

    2015-01-01

    Environmental sustainability has become a policy priority in China. In agriculture, China has had major success in reha-bilitating desertiifed lands through programs to convert steeply-sloped cropland to forest and limit grazing on sensitive grasslands. However, little has been done in terms of policies for agricultural nutrient management. Runoff and leaching of nutrients in chemical fertilizers and livestock manure are widely acknowledged as signiifcant problems in China. This paper presents an evaluation of agricultural nonpoint pol ution control options for China. Options analyzed include design standards (command&control), performance standards, and design and performance incentives. Evaluation criteria include economic efifciency and effectiveness, environmental impact and risk, and social criteria such as equity and food security. The evaluation indicates that the best options for China involve subsidies to farmers for changing production practices in order to reduce nonpoint emissions, combined with appropriate farmer education and technical assistance.

  14. STATISTICAL CONTROL OF PROCESSES AND PRODUCTS IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Horvat

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental concept of statistical process control is based on decision-making about the process on the basis of comparison of data collected from process with calculated control limits. Statistical process and quality control of agricultural products is used to provide agricultural products that will satisfy customer requirements in a view of quality pretension as well as costumer requirements in a cost price. In accordance with ISO 9000, quality standards for process and products are defined. There are many institutions in Croatia that work in accordance with these standards. Implementation of statistical process control and usage of a control charts can greatly help in convergence to the standards and in decreasing of production costs. To illustrate the above mentioned we tested a work quality of a nozzle at the eighteen meter clutch sprayer.

  15. Effects of agricultural intensification on ability of natural enemies to control aphids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Hua; Hui, Cang; He, Da-Han; Li, Bai-Lian

    2015-01-26

    Agricultural intensification through increasing fertilization input and cropland expansion has caused rapid loss of semi-natural habitats and the subsequent loss of natural enemies of agricultural pests. It is however extremely difficult to disentangle the effects of agricultural intensification on arthropod communities at multiple spatial scales. Based on a two-year study of seventeen 1500 m-radius sites, we analyzed the relative importance of nitrogen input and cropland expansion on cereal aphids and their natural enemies. Both the input of nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion benefited cereal aphids more than primary parasitoids and leaf-dwelling predators, while suppressing ground-dwelling predators, leading to an disturbance of the interspecific relationship. The responses of natural enemies to cropland expansion were asymmetric and species-specific, with an increase of primary parasitism but a decline of predator/pest ratio with the increasing nitrogen input. As such, agricultural intensification (increasing nitrogen fertilizer and cropland expansion) can destabilize the interspecific relationship and lead to biodiversity loss. To this end, sustainable pest management needs to balance the benefit and cost of agricultural intensification and restore biocontrol service through proliferating the role of natural enemies at multiple scales.

  16. ECONOMIC APPROACH FOR CONTROL AGRICULTURAL NONPOINT SOURCE POLLUTION IN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-yan; CAO Li-ping

    2005-01-01

    This paper mainly discusses the feasibility to establish economic policy systems for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China. The current situation of serious agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China is described firstly. Based on the environmental policy and economics theories, the system of economic policies for control and management of agricultural nonpoint source pollution is designed in this paper. This system includes the policy objective, the designing principle and the methods. The key issues include pollution charge,inputs tax for restriction, subsides for induction and incentive, effluent trading for least cost reduction. The emphases are optimized on inputs tax and agricultural chemical tax permit under complete information, as well as sub-optimized inputs tax under incomplete information, subsides for farm due to positive and negative externality. The functions and suitability of the policies are also analyzed in the paper. According to the field experiment results and other relating economic data in watershed of the Chaohe River, Beijing, some economic approaches to reducing agricultural nonpoint source pollution are proposed. The main idea is to encourage and support the farmers to improve their farming way,and to implement the policy of castigating charge simultaneously. The feasibility of the policies are analyzed with consideration of economy, technology and institution. It is concluded that the economic policies are necessary and feasible.

  17. Integrated Pest Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sagers, Larry A.

    2006-01-01

    Integrated pest management, in which the conventional pesticides are augmented by one or more nonchemical control practices, has been receiving renewed interest. What is new in this revitalization of an old technique is the careful and more knowledgeable application of a variety of control techniques.

  18. Biopolymers in controlled release devices for agricultural applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of biopolymers such as starch for agricultural applications including controlled release devices is growing due the environmental benefits. Recently, concerns have grown about the worldwide spread of parasitic mites (Varroa destructor) that infect colonies of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.). ...

  19. Global pest management in the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the problems that have arisen with overproduction in parts of the northern hemisphere, agriculture has to meet the challenge of providing enough food within the next 50 years for as many people as have lived on the earth during the last 1987 years. With a constantly growing world population this can only be achieved by intensifying production on a given acreage, since there are only marginal possibilities for extending agricultural land. Therefore, the yield potential of crop plants has to be secured against detrimental effects. The input for pest and weed control amounts to an average of less than 5% of the running costs at farm level but stabilizes the yield and quality of the agricultural production significantly. Rational use of biological and cultural practices in addition to chemicals will grow in importance to keep losses below the economic threshold. These approaches to pest management have global dimensions; intensity and structure, however, vary from region to region. The highly intensive agriculture of developed countries is increasingly subject to aspects of agricultural and environmental policy, whereas political economy and food supply are the dominating influences in developing countries and have a direct impact on pest management methods. These more regional trends do not always run parallel with the international policy trends of the agrochemical industry. However, research for effective crop protection basically envisages common targets; some aim at low rates, selectivity and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological properties. Regional conditions may therefore be covered by efforts to select suitable products, formulations and application techniques. This will only be possible through an integrated research strategy, including biochemistry and molecular biology, based upon future oriented market analysis. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig., 4 tabs

  20. Developmental Status Quo and Trends of Low-carbon Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liming; CAO; Xiaohua; PAN; Maobai; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce carbon emission in agricultural production,this paper has discussed the developmental trends of low-carbon agriculture in terms of developing precision agriculture,improving the efficiency of fertilizer utilization,scientific use of pesticides,water-saving irrigation,ecological control of pests and diseases,as well as energy conservation and emission reduction by agricultural machinery and other agricultural practices.

  1. Advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for assessing welfare impacts associated with vertebrate pest control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausoleil, N J; Mellor, D J

    2015-01-01

    Many pest control activities have the potential to impact negatively on the welfare of animals, and animal welfare is an important consideration in the development, implementation and evaluation of ethically defensible vertebrate pest control. Thus, reliable and accurate methods for assessing welfare impacts are required. The Five Domains model provides a systematic method for identifying potential or actual welfare impacts associated with an event or situation in four physical or functional domains (nutrition, environment, health or functional status, behaviour) and one mental domain (overall mental or affective state). Here we evaluate the advantages and limitations of the Five Domains model for this purpose and illustrate them using specific examples from a recent assessment of the welfare impacts of poisons used to lethally control possums in New Zealand. The model has a number of advantages which include the following: the systematic identification of a wide range of impacts associated with a variety of control tools; the production of relative rankings of tools in terms of their welfare impacts; the easy incorporation of new information into assessments; and the highlighting of additional information needed. For example, a recent analysis of sodium fluoroacetate (1080) poisoning in possums revealed the need for more information on the period from the onset of clinical signs to the point at which consciousness is lost, as well as on the level of consciousness during or after the occurrence of muscle spasms and seizures. The model is also valuable because it clearly separates physical or functional and affective impacts, encourages more comprehensive consideration of negative affective experiences than has occurred in the past, and allows development and evaluation of targeted mitigation strategies. Caution must be used in interpreting and applying the outputs of the model, most importantly because relative rankings or grades are fundamentally qualitative in

  2. Sound analysis: A potential strategy of quality control for sterilised insect pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The increasing threat caused by the spread of sleeping sickness urgently calls for drastically intensifying the control of tsetse flies. The long-established method of releasing sterilised males requires expensive breeding technology and a reliable quality control of the sterilised males. The proposal to archive quality control by acoustical means was originally made several decades ago. Since 2002 the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in cooperation with the Zoological Institute has been working on developing an acoustical system of quality control. The target is to develop simple and inexpensive equipment for use in those countries in which the sterilised glossinas are produced. Tsetse flies, as many other insects produce biological sound signals (signals for communication). Two main groups of acoustical signals are distinguished: courtship sounds and copulation sounds. The courtship sounds, used to find sexual partners, are emitted by both males and females. The function of copulation sounds, produced during copulation, remains to be clarified. The loudest sounds emitted by tsetse flies, the flying sounds (wing sounds), apparently have no significance as acoustic signals. They should be also considered as a parameter of quality control. A key question of the project is: Are there distinguishing acoustical features between tsetse flies of different fitness? Do parameters of frequency, time and sound pressure level change when tsetse flies become weaker? A first investigation examined whether the frequencies and the variations of frequencies of the courtship sounds and the flying sounds change when the flies become weaker. Progressive weakness was simulated with unfed male and female Glossina pallidipes over a period of one week. Furthermore, it examined whether the signals of males and females differ in frequency. The results showed that the characteristics of the frequencies do not change either in the courtship songs or in the flying

  3. Radiations: tool for insect pest management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery that X-rays or gamma radiation could cause sufficient genetic damage to insect reproductive systems to induce sterility resulted from work conducted by H.J. Muller starting in the 1920s. The sterilizing effect of radiation was noted by scientists of the US Department of Agriculture who had been seeking a method to sterilize insects for many years. These scientists had theorized that if large numbers of the target insect species were reared, sterilized, and released into the field, the sterile insects would mate with the wild insects. These mating would result in no offspring and thus a decline in the population would be obtained. They calculated that if sufficient numbers of sterile insects were released, reproductive rate for the wild population would rapidly decline and reach zero. In simple language, birth control of insects. Radiation sterilization was the answer. In a SIT operation, radiation is used to sexually sterilize insects. Since the SIT is species specific, the selection the insect pest or group of pests on which to work is of primary importance. The Joint Division of the IAEA Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) has been involved in the use of isotopes and radiation in insect control since 1964. Isotopes are used as tags or markers, for instance, of chemical molecules, insects, or plants. For example, with these tags one can follow the fate of insecticides within insects and the environment; the incorporation of nutrients into the insect; and the movements of insects under field conditions. They also can plants on which insects feed so that the quantity of consumed food can be measured and directly correlated with plant resistance. They can be used as well to follow parasites and predators of insects - for example, their movements, numbers, and ability to help control insect pests. Radiations therefore have come as a novel tool to combat insect pest problem and in future could be very helpful in various other ways, of be it be cost

  4. An assessment of the benefits of yellow Sigatoka (Mycosphaerella musicola control in the Queensland Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cook

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The banana leaf spotting disease yellow Sigatoka is established and actively controlled in Australia through intensive chemical treatments and diseased leaf removal. In the State of Queensland, the State government imposes standards for de-leafing to minimise the risk of the disease spreading in 6 banana pest quarantine areas. Of these, the Northern Banana Pest Quarantine Area is the most significant in terms of banana production. Previous regulations imposed obligations on owners of banana plants within this area to remove leaves from plants with visible spotting on more than 15 per cent of any leaf during the wet season. Recently, this leaf disease threshold has been lowered to 5 per cent. In this paper we examine the likely impact this more-costly regulation will have on the spread of the disease. We estimate that the average net benefit of reducing the diseased leaf threshold is only likely to be $1.4million per year over the next 30 years, expressed as the annualised present value of tightened regulation. This result varies substantially when the timeframe of the analysis is changed, with shorter time frames indicating poorer net returns from the change in protocols. Overall, the benefit of the regulation change is likely to be minor.

  5. Conservation of bio-control agents in cotton, gossypium hirsutum l. field by food supplements for insect pests management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study reports the use of artificial food sprays to conserve the parasitoids and predators for the management of insect pests in cotton field. Cotton crop was treated with bio-control agents, Chrysoperla carnea and Trichogramma chilonis alongwith different food attractants such as Protein hydrolysate and sugar alone and in combination in a randomized complete block design. Each treatment was applied on one-acre field with three replications. Results showed that the chemicals tested helped in increasing the populations of beneficial insects including; C. carnea, T. chilonis and Orius spp., in the field. The populations of C. carnea and T. chilonis were found the highest in the combined treatment of protein hydrolysate and sugar as compared to other treatments where protein hydrolysate and sugar were used separately. However, the population of Orius spp. was higher in the treatment where only sugar solution was sprayed as food supplement. Consequently, incorporation of food supplements in the trial increased the establishment of natural enemies and subsequently the predation/ parasitism percentage enhanced on the insect pests of cotton. (author)

  6. Cotton in Benin: governance and pest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togbe, C.E.

    2013-01-01

    Key words: cotton, synthetic pesticides, neem oil (Azadirachta indica), Beauveria bassiana, Bacillus thuringiensis, field experiment, farmers’ participation   Pests are one of the main factors limiting cotton production worldwide. Most of the pest control strategies in cotton producti

  7. Utah Home Orchard Pest Management Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Marion; Alston, Diane; Nischwitz, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Integrated pest management (IPM) is the practice of combining knowledge of the pest and host plant with multiple tactics for long-term, safe pest control. The goal of IPM is pesticide reduction by using cultural, mechanical, and biological controls before the last option, pesticides.

  8. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses.

  9. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): a nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansen, Christian; Stokes, Bryan; James, Jacob; Porter, Patrick; Shields, Eilson J; Wheeler, Terry; Meikle, William G

    2013-04-01

    The larger black flour beetles, Cynaeus angustus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), feeds on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles and occasionally becomes a nuisance pest in adjacent homes and businesses. The potential of Steinernema carpocapsae 'NY 001,' as a potential control agent of larger black flour beetle under experimental conditions was examined with particular reference to the importance of soil moisture content. Without prospects of insecticides being labeled for control of larger black flour beetle in gin trash, the data presented here support further research into applications of entomopathogenic nematodes underneath gin trash piles as a way to minimize risk of larger black flour beetle populations causing nuisance to nearby homes and businesses. PMID:23786050

  10. Biorational pesticides for pecan pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key pecan insect pests include pecan aphid complex (such as the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae) and pecan weevil, Curculio caryae. Alternative control tactics are needed for management of these pests in organic and conventional systems. Our objective was to determine the potential ut...

  11. Agricultural biological reference materials for analytical quality control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihnat, M.

    1986-01-01

    Cooperative work is under way at Agriculture Canada, US Department of Agriculture, and US National Bureau of Standards in an attempt to fill some of the gaps in the world repertoire of reference materials and to provide much needed control materials for laboratories' day to day operations. This undertaking involves the preparation and characterization of a number of agricultural and food materials for data quality control for inorganic constituents. Parameters considered in the development of these materials were material selection based on importance in commerce and analysis; techniques of preparation, processing, and packaging; physical and chemical characterization; homogeneity testing and quantitation (certification). A large number of agricultural/food products have been selected to represent a wide range of not only levels of sought-for constituents (elements) but also a wide range of matrix components such as protein, carbohydrate, dietary fiber, fat, and ash. Elements whose concentrations are being certified cover some two dozen major, minor, and trace elements of nutritional, toxicological, and environmental significance.

  12. Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Förster)-Past, Present, and Future: The History of a Biological Control Method Using L. distinguendus against Different Storage Pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermayer, Steffi; Pollmann, Marie; Steidle, Johannes L M

    2016-01-01

    Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Dryophtoridae), and many other storage pest beetles. The use of this wasp as a biocontrol agent was already suggested in 1919 by Prof. Dr. Hase [1]. Despite many studies on host-finding and behavioral biology, the applied aspect was neglected until 1994. Nowadays the wasps are commercially available and can now even be reared on-site, facilitating their use tremendously. This review highlights the milestones in L. distinguendus research, gives insights in current studies, and ventures a glimpse into the future. PMID:27490572

  13. Lariophagus distinguendus (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) (Förster)—Past, Present, and Future: The History of a Biological Control Method Using L. distinguendus against Different Storage Pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedermayer, Steffi; Pollmann, Marie; Steidle, Johannes L. M.

    2016-01-01

    Legal requirements and consumer demands for residue-free products pose a big challenge for pest control in grain stores. One possible alternative to chemical insecticides is biological pest control with the pteromalid wasp Lariophagus distinguendus against the weevils Sitophilus granarius, S. oryzae (Coleoptera: Dryophtoridae), and many other storage pest beetles. The use of this wasp as a biocontrol agent was already suggested in 1919 by Prof. Dr. Hase [1]. Despite many studies on host-finding and behavioral biology, the applied aspect was neglected until 1994. Nowadays the wasps are commercially available and can now even be reared on-site, facilitating their use tremendously. This review highlights the milestones in L. distinguendus research, gives insights in current studies, and ventures a glimpse into the future. PMID:27490572

  14. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S; Reisig, Dominic D; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I; Roe, R Michael

    2016-09-16

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae): A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhammi, Anirudh; van Krestchmar, Jaap B.; Ponnusamy, Loganathan; Bacheler, Jack S.; Reisig, Dominic D.; Herbert, Ames; Del Pozo-Valdivia, Alejandro I.; Roe, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:27649166

  16. Biology, Pest Status, Microbiome and Control of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae: A New Invasive Pest in the U.S.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirudh Dhammi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F., poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat. However, since the U.S. introduction, studies have been undertaken to improve our understanding of the kudzu bug basic biology, microbiome, migration patterns, host selection and management in its expanding new range. Researchers are not only looking at developing IPM strategies for the kudzu bug in soybean, but also at its unique relationship with symbiotic bacteria. Adult females deposit bacterial packets with their eggs, and the neonates feed on these packets to acquire the bacteria, Candidatus Ishikawaella capsulata. The kudzu bug should be an informative model to study the co-evolution of insect function and behavior with that of a single bacteria species. We review kudzu bug trapping and survey methods, the development of bioassays for insecticide susceptibility, insecticide efficacy, host preferences, impact of the pest on urban environments, population expansion, and the occurrence of natural enemies. The identity of the kudzu bug in the U.S. is not clear. We propose that the kudzu bug currently accepted as M. cribraria in the U.S. is actually Megacopta punctatissima, with more work needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  17. Disease and Insect Pest Control Technical of Rosa roxburghii Tratt%刺梨病虫害防治技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶光伟; 李淼; 王德敏

    2014-01-01

    介绍了刺梨的形态特征和生物学特性,并针对其病虫害,包括白粉病、褐斑病、烟煤病、梨小食心虫、食叶害虫、月季长管蚜、白粉虱等分别总结防治技术,以期为刺梨高产栽培提供参考。%Morphological characteristics and biological characteristics of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were introduced.Disease and pest control techniques of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were summarized,including powdery mildew,brown blotch,dark mildew,oriental fruit moth,defoliator,Macrosiphum rosirvorum Zhang and Trialeurodes vaporariorum,so as to provide the reference for the high-yield cultivation of Rosa roxburghii Tratt.

  18. Before and after Silent Spring: from chemical pesticides to biological control and integrated pest management--Britain, 1945-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gay, Hannah

    2012-07-01

    The use of chemical pesticides increased considerably after World War II, and ecological damage was noticeable by the late 1940s. This paper outlines some ecological problems experienced during the post-war period in the UK, and in parts of what is now Malaysia. Also discussed is the government's response. Although Rachel Carson's book, Silent Spring (1962), was important in bringing the problems to a wider public, she was not alone in sounding the alarm. Pressure from the public and from British scientists led, among other things, to the founding of the Natural Environment Research Council in 1965. By the 1970s, environmentalism was an important movement, and funding for ecological and environmental research was forthcoming even during the economic recession. Some of the recipients were ecologists working at Imperial College London. Moved by the political climate, and by the evidence of ecological damage, they carried out research on the biological control of insect pests.

  19. Classification of agricultural pests based on compressed sensing theory%基于压缩感知理论的农业害虫分类方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩安太; 郭小华; 廖忠; 陈志强; 韩建强

    2011-01-01

    为提高现有害虫分类方法的分类效果,该文分析了现有害虫分类方法的局限性,在此基础上,提出一种基于压缩感知理论的害虫分类新方法.该方法利用害虫训练样本构造训练样本矩阵,通过求解l1范数意义下的最优化问题实现害虫测试样本的稀疏分解,由于稀疏分解结果中包含了明确的分类信息,可直接用于害虫分类.利用该方法对12类储粮害虫和110类常见害虫进行分类,在4种不同试验条件下,分类准确率分别达到92.9418%、98.2877%、78.8651%和61.5938%,证实了压缩感知理论用于害虫分类是合理可行的.%In order to improve the effectiveness of the existing classification methods of pests, a novel classification method of pests was presented by using compressed sensing theory. In the proposed method, a large number of the representative training samples of pests were used to construct the training samples matrix, and then the sparse decomposition representation of the testing samples of pests was obtained by solving the //-norm optimization problem, which had distinct class information and could be used for the different species of pest classification directly. The 12 species of stored-grain pests and the 110 species of common pests were separately classified by the proposed method, and the classification precision reached around 92.9418%、 98.2877%、 78.8651% and 61.5938% respectively under 4 kinds of different experimental conditions. The experimental results indicated that the application of compressed sensing theory in the classification of pests was practical and feasible.

  20. Extracts from Field Margin Weeds Provide Economically Viable and Environmentally Benign Pest Control Compared to Synthetic Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkenda, Prisila; Mwanauta, Regina; Stevenson, Philip C; Ndakidemi, Patrick; Mtei, Kelvin; Belmain, Steven R

    2015-01-01

    Plants with pesticidal properties have been investigated for decades as alternatives to synthetics, but most progress has been shown in the laboratory. Consequently, research on pesticidal plants is failing to address gaps in our knowledge that constrain their uptake. Some of these gaps are their evaluation of their efficacy under field conditions, their economic viability and impact on beneficial organisms. Extracts made from four abundant weed species found in northern Tanzania, Tithonia diversifolia, Tephrosia vogelii, Vernonia amygdalina and Lippia javanica offered effective control of key pest species on common bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) that was comparable to the pyrethroid synthetic, Karate. The plant pesticide treatments had significantly lower effects on natural enemies (lady beetles and spiders). Plant pesticide treatments were more cost effective to use than the synthetic pesticide where the marginal rate of return for the synthetic was no different from the untreated control, around 4USD/ha, compared to a rate of return of around 5.50USD/ha for plant pesticide treatments. Chemical analysis confirmed the presence of known insecticidal compounds in water extracts of T. vogelii (the rotenoid deguelin) and T. diversifolia (the sesquiterpene lactone tagitinin A). Sesquiterpene lactones and the saponin vernonioside C were also identified in organic extracts of V. amygdalina but only the saponin was recorded in water extracts which are similar to those used in the field trial. Pesticidal plants were better able to facilitate ecosystem services whilst effectively managing pests. The labour costs of collecting and processing abundant plants near farm land were less than the cost of purchasing synthetic pesticides. PMID:26599609