WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural pathogen decontamination

  1. Agricultural pathogen decontamination technology-reducing the threat of infectious agent spread.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Betty, Rita G.; Bieker, Jill Marie; Tucker, Mark David

    2005-10-01

    Outbreaks of infectious agricultural diseases, whether natural occurring or introduced intentionally, could have catastrophic impacts on the U.S. economy. Examples of such agricultural pathogens include foot and mouth disease (FMD), avian influenza (AI), citrus canker, wheat and soy rust, etc. Current approaches to mitigate the spread of agricultural pathogens include quarantine, development of vaccines for animal diseases, and development of pathogen resistant crop strains in the case of plant diseases. None of these approaches is rapid, and none address the potential persistence of the pathogen in the environment, which could lead to further spread of the agent and damage after quarantine is lifted. Pathogen spread in agricultural environments commonly occurs via transfer on agricultural equipment (transportation trailers, tractors, trucks, combines, etc.), having components made from a broad range of materials (galvanized and painted steel, rubber tires, glass and Plexiglas shields, etc), and under conditions of heavy organic load (mud, soil, feces, litter, etc). A key element of stemming the spread of an outbreak is to ensure complete inactivation of the pathogens in the agricultural environment and on the equipment used in those environments. Through the combination of enhanced agricultural pathogen decontamination chemistry and a validated inactivation verification methodology, important technologies for incorporation as components of a robust response capability will be enabled. Because of the potentially devastating economic impact that could result from the spread of infectious agricultural diseases, the proposed capability components will promote critical infrastructure protection and greater border and food supply security. We investigated and developed agricultural pathogen decontamination technologies to reduce the threat of infectious-agent spread, and thus enhance agricultural biosecurity. Specifically, enhanced detergency versions of the patented

  2. Multiplex detection of agricultural pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Mary Teresa (Brentwood, CA); Slezak, Thomas Richard (Livermore, CA); Messenger, Sharon Lee (Kensington, CA)

    2010-09-14

    Described are kits and methods useful for detection of seven agricultural pathogens (BPSV; BHV; BVD; FMDV; BTV; SVD; and VESV) in a sample. Genomic sequence information from 7 agricultural pathogens was analyzed to identify signature sequences, e.g., polynucleotide sequences useful for confirming the presence or absence of a pathogen in a sample. Primer and probe sets were designed and optimized for use in a PCR based, multiplexed Luminex assay to successfully identify the presence or absence of pathogens in a sample.

  3. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  4. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation. PMID:27293964

  5. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Kashif Javaid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontamination of agricultural soils. The agricultural crop fields are contaminated by the periodic applications of pesticides. Biodegradation is an ecofriendly, cost-effective, highly efficient approach compared to the physical and chemical methods which are expensive as well as unfriendly towards environment. Biodegradation is sensitive to the concentration levels of hydrogen peroxide and nitrogen along with microbial community, temperature, and pH changes. Experimental work for optimum conditions at lab scale can provide very fruitful results about specific bacterial, fungal strains. This study revealed an upper hand of bioremediation over physicochemical approaches. Further studies should be carried out to understand mechanisms of biotransformation.

  6. Agricultural soils decontamination techniques: methods and results of tests realized near Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a major nuclear accident, decontamination of agricultural soils would be necessary in order to reclaim the land. Specific techniques were studied in the framework of the European program for Rehabilitation of Soils and Surfaces after an Accident (RESSAC). Different ways to remove the top layer of soils are described, and especially the use of Decontaminating Vegetal Network (D.V.N.) combined with spraying of organic polymers. Real scale tests in the 30 km zone around the Chernobyl nuclear power plant showed that it is possible to achieve an excellent decontamination of agricultural fields (decontamination factor greater than 95%. (author)

  7. Assessing microbial decontamination of indoor air with particular focus on human pathogenic viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchaine, Caroline

    2016-09-01

    Transmission of bacterial, fungal, and viral pathogens is of primary importance in public and occupational health and infection control. Although several standardized protocols have been proposed to target microbes on fomites through surface decontamination, use of microbicidal agents, and cleaning processes, only limited guidance is available on microbial decontamination of indoor air to reduce the risk of pathogen transmission between individuals. This article reviews the salient aspects of airborne transmission of infectious agents, exposure assessment, in vitro assessment of microbicidal agents, and processes for air decontamination for infection prevention and control. Laboratory-scale testing (eg, rotating chambers, wind tunnels) and promising field-scale methodologies to decontaminate indoor air are also presented. The potential of bacteriophages as potential surrogates for the study of airborne human pathogenic viruses is also discussed. PMID:27590696

  8. Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. it, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. (author)

  9. Potential of Biological Agents in Decontamination of Agricultural Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Javaid, Muhammad Kashif; Ashiq, Mehrban; Tahir, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used for the control of weeds, diseases, and pests of cultivated plants all over the world, mainly since the period after the Second World War. The use of pesticides is very extensive to control harm of pests all over the globe. Persistent nature of most of the synthetic pesticides causes serious environmental concerns. Decontamination of these hazardous chemicals is very essential. This review paper elaborates the potential of various biological agents in decontaminatio...

  10. Monitoring pathogens from irradiated agriculture products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterweck, Joseph S.

    The final food and environmental safety assessment of agriculture product irradiation can only be determined by product history. Product history will be used for future research and development, regulations, commercial practices and implementation of agriculture and food irradiation on a regional basis. The commercial irradiator treats large varieties and amounts of products that are used in various environments. It, in time, will generate a large data base of product history. Field product monitoring begins when food irradiation progresses from the pilot/demonstration phase to the commercial phase. At that time, it is important that there be in place a monitoring system to collect and analyze field data. The systems managers, public health authorities and exotic disease specialists will use this information to assess the reduction of food pathogens on the populace and the environment. The common sources of monitoring data are as follows: 1) Host Monitoring a) Medical Diagnosis b) Autopsy c) Serology Surveys 2) Environmental Monitoring a) Sentinel b) Pest Surveys/Microbial Counts c) Sanitary Inspections 3) Food Industries Quality Assurance Monitoring a) End Product Inspection b) Complaints c) Continual Use of the Product

  11. Chemosensitization of plant pathogenic fungi to agricultural fungicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continual use of fungicides in agriculture often results in development of resistance in pathogens. A new strategy to aid in overcoming or minimizing this problem is enhancement of pathogen sensitivity to fungicides by chemosensitization. This involves combining fungicides with certain non-fungicida...

  12. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author)

  13. Distribution and decontamination of radioactive cesium in small-scale agricultural reservoirs of Fukushima Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors studied optimal methods against the Cs contamination of agricultural reservoirs outside the evacuation zones, which had been contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. As a result of measurements at three points of a small reservoir, the highest radioactivity value was 16.8 Bq/g, with a higher value at bank part and bottom mud. The possibility is considered that the bank part held an organic layer with accumulated Cs, and the bottom mud had litters and clay soil that adsorbed Ce. The distribution of Cs was fluctuated depending on the environment of reservoirs, with the effects of the influx of sediment, influx of litters, and landform of catchment areas. In the 'Technical manual on measures against radioactive materials at reservoirs,' published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, three decontamination methods for reservoirs have been taken up: (1) removal of mud, (2) fixation of bottom mud, and (3) improvement of water intake method. The method (1) and (2) alone cannot cope with re-contamination from water catchment areas. As a countermeasure for recontamination after decontamination, it is good to install a headrace channel, slope, retaining part, etc. at the pond bottom, to increase the efficiency of the recollection and immobilization of Ce. The felling of neighboring trees, litter collection in peripheral areas, and covering measures for the surface layer in the vicinity are essential. (A.O.)

  14. Effects of soil stripping and dressing for decontamination of radioactive materials on soil fertility of agricultural land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farms that were highly contaminated with radioactive materials following the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident were decontaminated by removing topsoil and subsequently dressing with fresh soil. We investigated the chemical properties of soils following such decontamination on farms in Iitate village, Fukushima. The nitrogen content of dressed soil was considerably lower than that of the subsoil that was not stripped for decontamination, as a result of which the amount of dressed soil greatly affected the soil fertility of decontaminated farms. The potassium (K) content of soil differs markedly depending on the type of soil dressing material used; accordingly, the type of soil dressing material affected the soil K content on decontaminated farms. On most of the decontaminated farms where sandy soils were used as the soil dressing material, soil exchangeable K contents were less than 25 mg K2O/100 g, which is the criterion value for inhibiting cesium absorption in rice and soybean cultivation. However, even in the soil dressing material from agricultural land, soil K content after soil dressing was generally lower than that before soil dressing. During fallow management and at the restart of cultivation on decontaminated farms, it is important to know in advance the chemical properties of soil and take the necessary measures based on this information. (author)

  15. Lactic acid as a potential decontaminant of selected foodborne pathogenic bacteria in shrimp (Penaeus merguiensis de Man).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazinejad, Alireza; Ismail, Noryati; Bhat, Rajeev

    2010-12-01

    Fresh raw shrimps were dipped for 10, 20, and 30 min at room temperature (25°C ± 1°C) in lactic acid (LA; 1.5%, 3.0%, v/v) to evaluate their antipathogenic effects against Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella entreitidis, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inoculated at a level of 10(5) CFU/g. Significant reductions in the population of all these pathogenic bacteria were recorded after dipping treatments, which were correlated to the corresponding LA concentrations and treatment time. With respect to the microbial quality, 3.0% LA treatment for 10 min was acceptable in reducing the pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, sensory evaluation results revealed a 10-min dip in 3.0% LA to be more acceptable organoleptically compared with 20 and 30 min of treatments. Results of the present study are envisaged to be useful for commercial applications for effective decontamination of shrimp. PMID:21034165

  16. Radiation resistances and decontamination of common pathogenic bacteria contaminated in white scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Thailand, white scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) was ranked for premium quality, being most expensive and of high demand. This oyster is often eaten raw, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. As limited alternative methods are available to sterilize the oyster while preserving the raw characteristic, irradiation may be considered as an effective method for decontamination. In this study, the radiation resistance of pathogenic bacteria commonly contaminating the oyster and the optimum irradiation doses for sterilization of the most radiation resistant bacteria were investigated. The radiation decimal reduction doses (D10) of Salmonella Weltevreden DMST 33380, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Vibrio vulnificus DMST 5852 were determined in broth culture and inoculated oyster homogenate. The D10 values of S. Weltevreden, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth culture were 0.154, 0.132 and 0.059 kGy, while those of inoculated oyster homogenate were 0.330, 0.159 and 0.140 kGy, respectively. It was found that among the pathogens tested, S. Weltevreden was proved to be the most resistant species. An irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the counts of 105 CFU/g S. Weltevreden inoculated in oyster meat to an undetectable level. The present study indicated that a low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial quality of oyster and further reduce the risks from the food-borne pathogens without adversely affecting the sensory attributes.

  17. Food decontamination using nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    The research indicates that nanomaterials including nanoemulsions are promising decontamination media for the reduction of food contaminating pathogens. The inhibitory effect of nanoparticles for pathogens could be due to deactivate cellular enzymes and DNA; disrupting of membrane permeability; and/...

  18. Radiation resistances and decontamination of common pathogenic bacteria contaminated in white scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thupila, Nunticha [Department of Fishery Products, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, 50 Ngamwongwan Rd. Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand); Ratana-arporn, Pattama, E-mail: ffispmr@ku.ac.t [Department of Fishery Products, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, 50 Ngamwongwan Rd. Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand); Wilaipun, Pongtep [Department of Fishery Products, Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, 50 Ngamwongwan Rd. Ladyao, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2011-07-15

    In Thailand, white scar oyster (Crassostrea belcheri) was ranked for premium quality, being most expensive and of high demand. This oyster is often eaten raw, hence it may pose health hazards to consumers when contaminated with food-borne pathogens. As limited alternative methods are available to sterilize the oyster while preserving the raw characteristic, irradiation may be considered as an effective method for decontamination. In this study, the radiation resistance of pathogenic bacteria commonly contaminating the oyster and the optimum irradiation doses for sterilization of the most radiation resistant bacteria were investigated. The radiation decimal reduction doses (D{sub 10}) of Salmonella Weltevreden DMST 33380, Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17802 and Vibrio vulnificus DMST 5852 were determined in broth culture and inoculated oyster homogenate. The D{sub 10} values of S. Weltevreden, V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in broth culture were 0.154, 0.132 and 0.059 kGy, while those of inoculated oyster homogenate were 0.330, 0.159 and 0.140 kGy, respectively. It was found that among the pathogens tested, S. Weltevreden was proved to be the most resistant species. An irradiation dose of 1.5 kGy reduced the counts of 10{sup 5} CFU/g S. Weltevreden inoculated in oyster meat to an undetectable level. The present study indicated that a low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial quality of oyster and further reduce the risks from the food-borne pathogens without adversely affecting the sensory attributes.

  19. Modelling animal waste pathogen transport from agricultural land to streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of animal waste pathogens from crop land to streams can potentially elevate pathogen levels in stream water. Applying animal manure into crop land as fertilizers is a common practice in developing as well as in developed countries. Manure application into the crop land, however, can cause potential human health. To control pathogen levels in ambient water bodies such as streams, improving our understanding of pathogen transport at farm scale as well as at watershed scale is required. To understand the impacts of crop land receiving animal waste as fertilizers on stream's pathogen levels, here we investigate pathogen indicator transport at watershed scale. We exploited watershed scale hydrological model to estimate the transport of pathogens from the crop land to streams. Pathogen indicator levels (i.e., E. coli levels) in the stream water were predicted. With certain assumptions, model results are reasonable. This study can be used as guidelines for developing the models for calculating the impacts of crop land's animal manure on stream water

  20. Distribution of pathogenic bacteria in imported frozen shrimps and their radiation decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of pathogenic vibrios and other bacteria in 8 samples of the imported frozen shrimps and the effects of irradiation on these bacteria were investigated. The total aerobic bacteria were determined to be 2 x 104 to 4 x 106 per gram. Coliforms were mainly consisted of Enterobacter, and no pathogenic species such as Salmonella and Escherichia were detected. Total 66 vibrios named V. parahaemolyticus, V, mimicus, V. alginolyticus, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis and 4 strains of Listeria monocytogenes were isolated. The necessary doses for elimination of vibrio isolates and Aeromonas hydrophila were ca. 3 kGy in frozen shrimps, whereas ca. 3.5 kGy were required to reduce the number by 4 logs for L. monocytogenes. (author)

  1. Tomato pathogen genome may offer clues about bacterial evolution at the dawn of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    The availability of new genome sequencing technology has prompted a Virginia Tech plant scientist Boris Vinatzer to test an intriguing hypothesis about how agriculture's early beginnings may have impacted the evolution of plant pathogens.

  2. Radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers: (a) the decontamination of plant items, buildings and associated equipment; (b) decontamination of protective clothing; (c) simple personal decontamination; and (d) the basic mechanisms of contamination and their influence on decontaminability. (author)

  3. Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species

    OpenAIRE

    Menardo, Fabrizio; Praz, Coraline R; Wyder, Stefan; Ben-David, Roi; Bourras, Salim; Matsumae, Hiromi; McNally, Kaitlin E.; Parlange, Francis; Riba, Andrea; Roffler, Stefan; Schaefer, Luisa K; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Valenti, Luca; Zbinden, Helen; Wicker, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Throughout the history of agriculture, many new crop species (polyploids or artificial hybrids) have been introduced to diversify products or to increase yield. However, little is known about how these new crops influence the evolution of new pathogens and diseases. Triticale is an artificial hybrid of wheat and rye, and it was resistant to the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) until 2001 (refs. 1,2,3). We sequenced and compared the genomes of 46 powdery mildew isolates cover...

  4. Entomopathogenic and plant pathogenic nematodes as opposing forces in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Eric; Eleftherianos, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are responsible for substantial damages within the agriculture industry every year, which is a challenge that has thus far gone largely unimpeded. Chemical nematicides have been employed with varying degrees of success, but their implementation can be cumbersome, and furthermore they could potentially be neutralising an otherwise positive effect from the entomopathogenic nematodes that coexist with plant-parasitic nematodes in soil environments and provide protection for plants against insect pests. Recent research has explored the potential of employing entomopathogenic nematodes to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes, while providing their standard degree of protection against insects. The interactions involved are highly complex, due to both the three-organism system and the assortment of variables present in a soil environment, but a strong collection of evidence has accumulated regarding the suppressive capacity of certain entomopathogenic nematodes and their mutualistic bacteria, in the context of limiting the infectivity of plant-parasitic nematodes. Specific factors produced by certain entomopathogenic nematode complexes during the process of insect infection appear to have a selectively nematicidal, or at least repellant, effect on plant-parasitic nematodes. Using this information, an opportunity has formed to adapt this relationship to large-scale, field conditions and potentially relieve the agricultural industry of one of its most substantial burdens. PMID:26527129

  5. Microbial contamination of red meat and consideration of gamma irradiation effects for increasing the shelf-life and decontamination of pathogenic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red meat has a lot of microbial flora from different sources. Prevention of outbreak of food born diseases that are caused by pathogenic agents and prevention of microbial spoilage of meat that makes many losses to the human health and economic of society are very important. Also, different methods for decreasing the microbial flora under a standard allowance for increasing the shelf life and decontamination of microbial pathogens have been proposed. In this research, irradiation technique was used for this purposes. After drawing dose/survival curves for all kinds of meats microbial contamination, an optimum dose of 3 kGy for decreasing the contamination and specially for decontamination of salmonella was obtained. When meat is irradiated by 3 kGy gamma rays, it can be kept in a 4-7 digC refrigerator for 2 week without appearing any spoilage nor color changes or odor. Also, some of biochemical factors were analyzed and amounts of 16 amino acids were measured in the irradiated and controlled samples and no difference was observed between the samples

  6. Environmental decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination

  7. Environmental decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, G.A.; Jernigan, H.C. (eds.)

    1981-02-01

    The record of the proceedings of the workshop on environmental decontamination contains twenty-seven presentations. Emphasis is placed upon soil and surface decontamination, the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, and assessments of instrumentation and equipment used in decontamination. (DLS)

  8. Decontamination of Rooibostea by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiological quality of a 'raw' agricultural commodity such as Rooibos tea is determined by a set of factors during harvesting and processing. Results suggest that a fermentation process takes place during processing, with members of the Enterobacteriaceae playing a dominant role. Against this background, as well as fluctuating hygienic conditions during processing, the high microbial population (107 to 5 x 108 /g) and even the possible presence of food-borne pathogens such as salmonellae, may be explaned. No real quarantee for the microbiological status of the product can be given, unless it is subjected to a terminal decontamination process (preferably after final packaging). Radurisation appears to be an ideal process for this purpose, and treatment at 8 kGy resulted in more than a 5000-fold (>99,9%) reduction of the microbial population. This was sufficient to eliminate all pathogens without harming the organoleptic quality of the product

  9. Persistence of Pathogenic and Non-Pathogenic Escherichia coli Strains in Various Tropical Agricultural Soils of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Naganandhini

    Full Text Available The persistence of Shiga-like toxin producing E. coli (STEC strains in the agricultural soil creates serious threat to human health through fresh vegetables growing on them. However, the survival of STEC strains in Indian tropical soils is not yet understood thoroughly. Additionally how the survival of STEC strain in soil diverges with non-pathogenic and genetically modified E. coli strains is also not yet assessed. Hence in the present study, the survival pattern of STEC strain (O157-TNAU was compared with non-pathogenic (MTCC433 and genetically modified (DH5α strains on different tropical agricultural soils and on a vegetable growing medium, cocopeat under controlled condition. The survival pattern clearly discriminated DH5α from MTCC433 and O157-TNAU, which had shorter life (40 days than those compared (60 days. Similarly, among the soils assessed, the red laterite and tropical latosol supported longer survival of O157-TNAU and MTCC433 as compared to wetland and black cotton soils. In cocopeat, O157 recorded significantly longer survival than other two strains. The survival data were successfully analyzed using Double-Weibull model and the modeling parameters were correlated with soil physico-chemical and biological properties using principal component analysis (PCA. The PCA of all the three strains revealed that pH, microbial biomass carbon, dehydrogenase activity and available N and P contents of the soil decided the survival of E. coli strains in those soils and cocopeat. The present research work suggests that the survival of O157 differs in tropical Indian soils due to varied physico-chemical and biological properties and the survival is much shorter than those reported in temperate soils. As the survival pattern of non-pathogenic strain, MTCC433 is similar to O157-TNAU in tropical soils, the former can be used as safe model organism for open field studies.

  10. Decontamination operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paper presents the chronological description of the undertaken measures with decontamination in case of the elimination of the Chernobyl accident consequences. Attention is focused on decontamination of the NPP site and of Pripyat river, on decontamination of the habitations, of equipment, clothes, shoes, sanitary treatment of people, as well as, on the decontamination of roads and dust suppression. 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  11. Environmental fate of manure-borne estrogens and pathogens applied to agricultural land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amin, Mostofa; Forslund, Anita; Bech, Tina Bundgaard;

    separates with soil increased the sorption of E2 significantly. In contrast, dissolved organic matter of slurry reduced the sorption to the soils by increasing the attachment of E2 in the liquid phase. The redistribution and persistence of pig manure-borne pathogens after direct injection to soil was......Contamination of freshwater by pathogens and estrogens in liquid manure applied to agricultural land is of great concern because of their potential for deleterious effects on aquatic life and human health. Recent advances in manure management include partial removal of dry matter by separation...... technologies. This may remove both pathogens and estrogens from the slurry and enhance infiltration upon field application and hence the interaction between contaminants and the soil matrix. A sorption study investigated how 17β-estradiol (E2), a natural estrogen commonly found in pig manure, sorbs to...

  12. Blowback: new formal perspectives on agriculturally driven pathogen evolution and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, R; Wallace, R G

    2015-07-01

    By their diversity in time, space, and mode, traditional and conservation agricultures can create barriers limiting pathogen evolution and spread analogous to a sterilizing temperature. Large-scale monocropping and confined animal feeding-lot operations remove such barriers, resulting, above agroecologically specific thresholds, in the development and wide propagation of novel disease strains. We apply a newly developed class of necessary-conditions statistical models of evolutionary process, first using the theory on an evolutionarily stable viral pathogen vulnerable to vaccine treatment: post-World War II poliomyelitis emerged in the UK and USA from sudden widespread adoption of automobile ownership and usage. We then examine an evolutionarily variable pathogen, swine influenza in North America. The model suggests epidemiological blowback from globalizing intensive husbandry and the raising and shipping of monoculture livestock across increasing expanses, is likely to be far more consequential, driving viral selection for greater virulence and lowered response to biomedical intervention. PMID:26050716

  13. Lusus naturae:climate and invasions of plant pathogens modify agricultural and forest lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Ragazzi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The ecological and economic sustainability of agricultural and forest systems of many advanced and underdeveloped Countries are strongly threatened by the increasing introduction of exotic plant pathogens. This article provides an overview of the main causes behind these invasions. Some important diseases caused by non native phytopathogens, whose arrival in the past century had a disastrous impact on the environment and economy of vast rural areas of our Country are reported. Some dangerous, emerging pathogens, which are literally destroying whole territories in various parts of the Planet, with severe damage to agricultural crops, landscape, economy and local tourism are also reported. Action strategies to prevent immigration of unwanted pathogens, and mitigation strategies, aimed at the development of various measures to mitigate the negative effects of plant parasites already established in the territory are then discussed. Finally, it is highlighted how such a far-reaching problem can be properly tackled only with the active contribution of governments, institutions responsible for plant health monitoring (warning services, research, and agricultural, tourism and transport operators.

  14. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  15. Glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne viruses and agricultural zoonotic pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millen, Hana T.; Gonnering, Jordan C.; Berg, Ryan K.; Spencer, Susan K.; Jokela, William E.; Pearce, John M.; Borchardt, Jackson S.; Borchardt, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    The key first step in evaluating pathogen levels in suspected contaminated water is concentration. Concentration methods tend to be specific for a particular pathogen group, for example US Environmental Protection Agency Method 1623 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium1, which means multiple methods are required if the sampling program is targeting more than one pathogen group. Another drawback of current methods is the equipment can be complicated and expensive, for example the VIRADEL method with the 1MDS cartridge filter for concentrating viruses2. In this article we describe how to construct glass wool filters for concentrating waterborne pathogens. After filter elution, the concentrate is amenable to a second concentration step, such as centrifugation, followed by pathogen detection and enumeration by cultural or molecular methods. The filters have several advantages. Construction is easy and the filters can be built to any size for meeting specific sampling requirements. The filter parts are inexpensive, making it possible to collect a large number of samples without severely impacting a project budget. Large sample volumes (100s to 1,000s L) can be concentrated depending on the rate of clogging from sample turbidity. The filters are highly portable and with minimal equipment, such as a pump and flow meter, they can be implemented in the field for sampling finished drinking water, surface water, groundwater, and agricultural runoff. Lastly, glass wool filtration is effective for concentrating a variety of pathogen types so only one method is necessary. Here we report on filter effectiveness in concentrating waterborne human enterovirus, Salmonella enterica, Cryptosporidium parvum, and avian influenza virus.

  16. Azole fungicides - understanding resistance mechanisms in agricultural fungal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Claire L; Parker, Josie E; Warrilow, Andrew G S; Kelly, Diane E; Kelly, Steven L

    2015-08-01

    Plant fungal pathogens can have devastating effects on a wide range of crops, including cereals and fruit (such as wheat and grapes), causing losses in crop yield, which are costly to the agricultural economy and threaten food security. Azole antifungals are the treatment of choice; however, resistance has arisen against these compounds, which could lead to devastating consequences. Therefore, it is important to understand how these fungicides are used and how the resistance arises in order to tackle the problem fully. Here, we give an overview of the problem and discuss the mechanisms that mediate azole resistance in agriculture (point mutations in the CYP51 amino acid sequence, overexpression of the CYP51 enzyme and overexpression of genes encoding efflux pump proteins). © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:25914201

  17. Differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacterial pathogens to 405-nm light highlighting potential for decontamination applications in orthopedic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Praveen; Maclean, Michelle; MacGregor, Scott J.; Anderson, John G.; Grant, M. Helen

    2014-10-01

    Healthcare associated infections pose a major threat to patients admitted to hospitals and infection rates following orthopedic arthroplasty surgery are as high as 4%. A 405-nm high-intensity narrow spectrum light has been proven to reduce environmental contamination in hospital isolation rooms, and there is potential to develop this technology for application in arthroplasty surgery. Cultured rat osteoblasts were exposed to varying light intensities and it was found that exposures of up to a dose of 36 J/cm2 had no significant effect on cell viability [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay], function (alkaline phosphatase activity), and proliferation rate (BrdU cell proliferation assay). High irradiance exposures (54 J/cm2) significantly affected the cell viability indicating that the effects of 405-nm light on osteoblasts are dose dependent. Additionally, exposure of a variety of clinically related bacteria to a dose of 36 J/cm2 resulted in up to 100% kill. These results demonstrating the differential sensitivity of osteoblasts and bacteria to 405-nm light are an essential step toward developing the technique for decontamination in orthopedic surgery.

  18. Removal of Nitrogen and Pathogens in Agricultural or Urban Channles using Engineered Streambeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCray, J. E.; Herzog, S.; Higgins, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Treating non-point source pollution is one of our greatest challenges in environmental hydrology. Previous efforts in agricultural or urban settings have focused on removing sources or implementing distributed best management practices (BMPs) throughout a watershed. However, for stream pollution, the most efficient point of treatment would be within the stream itself, which integrates flows from the entire watershed. Engineered streambed modifications in urban or agricultural streams and constructed channels have the potential to mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Geomedia designed to treat water pollutants and achieve an optimal residence time via hydraulic conductivity modifications are termed biohydrochemical enhancement structures for stream water treatment (BEST). BEST modules can efficiently drive interchange, attenuating nutrients and pathogens (and can be designed to remove other pollutants such as phosphorus, metals or trace organics). Numerical models, combined with data from bench-top and 2D experiments, demonstrate effective contaminant removal potential for practical applications. Nitrogen and pathogens could be attenuated within a series of BEST on the order of 50 m of stream length, and at a favorable cost compared to traditional BMPs, suggesting that BEST could be an effective best management practice for constructed stormwater channels (particularly outlets of detention ponds) or channels carrying irrigation return flows. New results from a constructed stream demonstrate the real-world applicability of the BEST system.

  19. Hybridization of powdery mildew strains gives rise to pathogens on novel agricultural crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menardo, Fabrizio; Praz, Coraline R; Wyder, Stefan; Ben-David, Roi; Bourras, Salim; Matsumae, Hiromi; McNally, Kaitlin E; Parlange, Francis; Riba, Andrea; Roffler, Stefan; Schaefer, Luisa K; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Valenti, Luca; Zbinden, Helen; Wicker, Thomas; Keller, Beat

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the history of agriculture, many new crop species (polyploids or artificial hybrids) have been introduced to diversify products or to increase yield. However, little is known about how these new crops influence the evolution of new pathogens and diseases. Triticale is an artificial hybrid of wheat and rye, and it was resistant to the fungal pathogen powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) until 2001 (refs. 1,2,3). We sequenced and compared the genomes of 46 powdery mildew isolates covering several formae speciales. We found that B. graminis f. sp. triticale, which grows on triticale and wheat, is a hybrid between wheat powdery mildew (B. graminis f. sp. tritici) and mildew specialized on rye (B. graminis f. sp. secalis). Our data show that the hybrid of the two mildews specialized on two different hosts can infect the hybrid plant species originating from those two hosts. We conclude that hybridization between mildews specialized on different species is a mechanism of adaptation to new crops introduced by agriculture. PMID:26752267

  20. 40 CFR 170.150 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.150 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.150 Decontamination. (a)(1) Requirement. The agricultural employer must provide decontamination supplies for workers in accordance with this section whenever:...

  1. Progress in rapid detection and identification of unknown human and agricultural pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical industry is driving pathogen detection technology from its present characteristics of$50/sample, 100 sample capability systems, with several day time responses, having several percent error rates in reported outcomes. The systems described above are capable of providing samples at and lt;$5/test, managing several million samples, and lt; 1-hour cycle times, (or just minutes in some cases) and and lt; 0.1% error rates. Because of their importance to the medical and agricultural communities, all ''important'' pathogens will have detection kits available (within air transport times, anywhere in the world) by 2020, and the most well known pathogens will have kits available within a few years. Many are available now. Because of the importance of the food supply to modern nations, these technologies will be employed everywhere in this industry. For example, the United States imports 30 B tons of food a year, but inspects and lt; 1%. Portable inspection systems will make it possible to test for dangerous pathogens in feed lots, food processing plants, markets, and points of use. Outbreaks of animal or plant disease will be immediately detectable using field instrumentation, and more complex samples can be sent to central testing laboratories where more sophisticated test systems will be available. Unusual pathogens either naturally or purposefully selected or developed, will require special attention because there is not a commercial economic driver for the development of detection systems and curative agents. Their development, and production for sufficient availability, will require significant investments by the world community. The strategy and costs for developing vaccines or curative drugs will be very expensive and will need special attention. However it is important that attention be directed to these problems because such attention has a strong deterrent effect on potential developers or users. The capacity to use the full information content

  2. Progress in rapid detection and identification of unknown human and agricultural pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T; Holzrichter, J F; Milanovich, F P

    1999-08-13

    The medical industry is driving pathogen detection technology from its present characteristics of $50/sample, 100 sample capability systems, with several day time responses, having several percent error rates in reported outcomes. The systems described above are capable of providing samples at < $5/test, managing several million samples, < 1-hour cycle times, (or just minutes in some cases) and < 0.1% error rates. Because of their importance to the medical and agricultural communities, all ''important'' pathogens will have detection kits available (within air transport times, anywhere in the world) by 2020, and the most well known pathogens will have kits available within a few years. Many are available now. Because of the importance of the food supply to modern nations, these technologies will be employed everywhere in this industry. For example, the United States imports 30 B tons of food a year, but inspects < 1%. Portable inspection systems will make it possible to test for dangerous pathogens in feed lots, food processing plants, markets, and points of use. Outbreaks of animal or plant disease will be immediately detectable using field instrumentation, and more complex samples can be sent to central testing laboratories where more sophisticated test systems will be available. Unusual pathogens either naturally or purposefully selected or developed, will require special attention because there is not a commercial economic driver for the development of detection systems and curative agents. Their development, and production for sufficient availability, will require significant investments by the world community. The strategy and costs for developing vaccines or curative drugs will be very expensive and will need special attention. However it is important that attention be directed to these problems because such attention has a strong deterrent effect on potential developers or users. The capacity to use the full information content contained

  3. Radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It discusses radioactive decontamination from the practical point of view with aim of contributions to safety control of radioisotopes. As general knowledges, contamination forms are explained from physical states of solid materials' surfaces and classification of contaminative mechanism are conducted in each contamination form. Furthermore, the decontaminants selcted for each classified contaminative mechanism are indicated from pH-effect and concentration effect. Decontamination on laboratory, using wet method generally as a decontamination technic includes irrigation method by decontaminant solution and scrubbing method. Decontamination of machinery and tools includes scrubbing method and the methods using ultrasonic decontamination equipment and semiautomatic decontamination equipment of which flow-diagram is illustrated. The methods of decontamination of clothing include its disposal or the use of tightly-closed full automatic washing machine. The general irrigation method are indicated as decontamination of skin. Furthermore, neutral cleaning material method for elimination of short-term elapsed contamination and Titanium oxide paste method for elimination of long-term elapsed contamination are explained. (Kanao, N.)

  4. Surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general methods of surface decontamination used in laboratory and others nuclear installations areas, as well as the procedures for handling radioactive materials and surfaces of work are presented. Some methods for decontamination of body external parts are mentioned. The medical supervision and assistance are required for internal or external contamination involving or not lesion in persons. From this medical radiation protection decontamination procedures are determined. (M.C.K.)

  5. The agricultural use of water treatment plant sludge: pathogens and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Nadal Rocamora

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of water treatment plant sludge to restore degraded soils is customary agricultural practice, but it could be dangerous from the point of view of both health and the environment. A transient increase of either pathogenic or indicator microbial populations, whose persistence in time is variable and attributed to the characteristics of the soil (types of materials in the soil, any amendments (origin and treatments it has undergone or the weather (humidity and temperature mainly, has often been detected in soils treated with this kind of waste. Given their origin, water treatment plant sludges could lead to the transmission of a pathogens and b antibiotic-resistant microorganisms to human beings through the food chain and cause the spreading of antibiotic resistances as a result of their increase and persistence in the soil for variable periods of time. However, Spanish legislation regulating the use of sludges in the farming industry is based on a very restricted microbiological criterion. Thus, we believe better parameters should be established to appropriately inform of the state of health of soils treated with water treatment plant sludge, including aspects which are not presently assessed such as antibiotic resistance.

  6. Evaluation of a hand-held far-ultraviolet radiation device for decontamination of Clostridium difficile and other healthcare-associated pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerandzic Michelle M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Environmental surfaces play an important role in transmission of healthcare-associated pathogens. There is a need for new disinfection methods that are effective against Clostridium difficile spores, but also safe and rapid. The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand device is a hand-held room decontamination technology that utilizes far-ultraviolet radiation (185-230 nm to kill pathogens. Methods We examined the efficacy of disinfection using the Sterilray device in the laboratory, in rooms of hospitalized patients, and on surfaces outside of patient rooms (i.e. keyboards and portable medical equipment. Cultures for C. difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE were collected from commonly-touched surfaces before and after use of the Sterilray device. Results On inoculated surfaces in the laboratory, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100 mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds consistently reduced recovery of C. difficile spores by 4.4 CFU log10, MRSA by 5.4 log10CFU and of VRE by 6.9 log10CFU. A >3 log10 reduction of MRSA and VRE was achieved in ~2 seconds at a lower radiant dose, but killing of C. difficile spores was significantly reduced. On keyboards and portable medical equipment that were inoculated with C. difficile spores, application of the Sterilray device at a radiant dose of 100���mJ/cm2 for ~ 5 seconds reduced contamination by 3.2 log10CFU. However, the presence of organic material reduced the lethal effect of the far-UV radiation. In hospital rooms that were not pre-cleaned, disinfection with the Sterilray device significantly reduced the frequency of positive C. difficile and MRSA cultures (P =0.007. Conclusions The Sterilray™ Disinfection Wand is a novel environmental disinfection technology that rapidly kills C. difficile spores and other healthcare-associated pathogens on surfaces. However, the presence of organic matter

  7. Decontamination method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Hiroshi; Ono, Shigeki; Tada, Nobuo; Tamai, Yasumasa; Okada, Masaya; Kurihara, Masayuki [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Onuki, Toyomitsu; Toyota, Seiichi

    1998-10-27

    Before contamination of materials to be decontaminated, a surface of a region where a strippable paint is to be coated is smoothed by an epoxy resin previously. Then, a waterproof sheet is extended to the material to be decontaminated, and the strippable paint is applied to the periphery or the entire surface of the sheet. In order to facilitate peeling, the strippable paint is not applied to a portion of the outer circumference of the sheet. Even if the contaminating circumstance is an air atmosphere or a liquid such as reactor water, since the sheet itself has waterproofness and the strippable paint excellent in gas and water tightness is applied to the periphery, contamination is eliminated. When decontaminating the material to be decontaminated having contaminated surfaces, if the sheet for the start of peeling is picked up and the sheet is peeled, the strippable paint at the periphery thereof can be peeled off together with the sheet. (N.H.)

  8. Cold atmospheric plasma decontamination against nosocomial bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Klämpfl , Tobias Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial pathogens are a considerable public threat. In order to limit their spread, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) was investigated as new alternative to common decontamination strategies. During my work I developed a Surface micro-discharge (SMD) electrode system, characterized the CAP generated at ambient air conditions, studied its decontaminating behavior against nosocomial bacteria such as Clostridium difficile endospores and revealed factors influencing the decontamination. All in all...

  9. Contamination with bacterial zoonotic pathogen genes in U.S. streams influenced by varying types of animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K; Duris, Joseph W; Kolpin, Dana W; Focazio, Michael J; Meyer, Michael T; Johnson, Heather E; Oster, Ryan J; Foreman, William T

    2016-09-01

    Animal waste, stream water, and streambed sediment from 19 small (water or sediment sample in any control watershed. Post-rainfall pathogen gene numbers in stream water were significantly correlated with FIB, cholesterol and coprostanol concentrations, and were most highly correlated in dairy watershed samples collected from 3 different states. Although collected across multiple states and ecoregions, animal-waste gene profiles were distinctive via discriminant analysis. Stream water gene profiles could also be discriminated by the watershed animal type. Although pathogen genes were not abundant in stream water or streambed samples, PCR on enrichments indicated that many genes were from viable organisms, including several (shiga-toxin producing or enterotoxigenic E. coli, Salmonella, vancomycin-resistant enterococci) that could potentially affect either human or animal health. Pathogen gene numbers and types in stream water samples were influenced most by animal type, by local factors such as whether animals had stream access, and by the amount of local rainfall, and not by studied watershed soil or physical characteristics. Our results indicated that stream water in small agricultural U.S. watersheds was susceptible to pathogen gene inputs under typical agricultural practices and environmental conditions. Pathogen gene profiles may offer the potential to address both source of, and risks associated with, fecal pollution. PMID:27139306

  10. Decontamination of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven papers were presented at this conference in five sessions. Topics covered include regulation, control and consequences of decontamination; decontamination of components and facilities; chemical and non-chemical methods of decontamination; and TMI decontamination experience

  11. Decontaminating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable to decontaminate an object having a complicate surface and also remove hard cruds by a simple device. Method: An object to be decontaminated is placed in a water vessel and steams jetted out from a steam nozzle are condensated at the surface of the object to be decontaminated and decontamination is conducted by impact shocks upon elimination of bubbles. The inside of the water vessel is filled with liquid and steams jetted out from the steam nozzle are cooled by the liquid and condensated. The steams are supplied with a steam supply device by way of steam supply pipeways to the steam nozzle. Since the temperature of the liquid in the water vessel is elevated upon condensation of the jetted steams, the liquids are cooled by the cooling device. Further, since the steams condensated at the surface of the decontaminated object forms water of condensation to increase the water level in the water vessel, the water corresponding to the elevated level is discharged from an overflow pipe. (Kawakami, Y.)

  12. Decontaminating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakurai, Mikio; Hayashi, Tsutomu; Izumi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Sato, Toru; Owada, Kazuo.

    1987-11-21

    Purpose: To enable to decontaminate an object having a complicate surface and also remove hard cruds by a simple device. Method: An object to be decontaminated is placed in a water vessel and steams jetted out from a steam nozzle are condensated at the surface of the object to be decontaminated and decontamination is conducted by impact shocks upon elimination of bubbles. The inside of the water vessel is filled with liquid and steams jetted out from the steam nozzle are cooled by the liquid and condensated. The steams are supplied with a steam supply device by way of steam supply pipeways to the steam nozzle. Since the temperature of the liquid in the water vessel is elevated upon condensation of the jetted steams, the liquids are cooled by the cooling device. Further, since the steams condensated at the surface of the decontaminated object forms water of condensation to increase the water level in the water vessel, the water corresponding to the elevated level is discharged from an overflow pipe. (Kawakami, Y.).

  13. Decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The apparatus for decontaminating radioactive components consists of an attachment mechanism for completely suspending the apparatus from the tube sheet of a nuclear steam generator, a first drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a first direction, a second drive mechanism for pivoting the apparatus in a second direction, and a third drive mechanism for moving the apparatus in a third independent direction. The apparatus also has a dual nozzle arrangement attached to the third drive mechanism for directing a water-grit mixture toward the component to be decontaminated. The apparatus provides a mechanism for remotely decontaminating the channel head of a nuclear steam generator so as to allow working personnel to enter therein. It is likely that less than 0.001 inches of metal surface will be removed from the steam generator using alumina or magnetite grit

  14. Decontamination glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass for the decontamination of the furnace for vitrification of radioactive wastes contains 50 to 60 wt.% of waste glass, 15 to 30 wt.% of calcium oxide, 1 to 6 wt.% sodium oxide, 1 to 5 wt.% phosphorus pentoxide and 5 to 20 wt.% boron oxide. The melting furnace is flushed with the glass such that it melts in the furnace for at least 60 mins and is then poured out of the furnace. After the furnace has cooled down the settled glass spontaneously cracks and peels off the walls leaving a clean surface. The glass may be used not only for decontamination of the furnace but also for decontamination of melting crucibles and other devices contaminated with radioactive glass. (J.B.)

  15. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    KAUST Repository

    Alsalah, Dhafer

    2015-10-05

    This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper) irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not pristine and that better

  16. Assessing the Groundwater Quality at a Saudi Arabian Agricultural Site and the Occurrence of Opportunistic Pathogens on Irrigated Food Produce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhafer Alsalah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the groundwater quality in wells situated near agricultural fields in Saudi Arabia. Fruits (e.g., tomato and green pepper irrigated with groundwater were also assessed for the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens to determine if food safety was compromised by the groundwater. The amount of total nitrogen in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the 15 mg/L permissible limit for agricultural irrigation. Fecal coliforms in densities > 12 MPN/100 mL were detected in three of the groundwater wells that were in close proximity to a chicken farm. These findings, coupled with qPCR-based fecal source tracking, show that groundwater in wells D and E, which were nearest to the chicken farm, had compromised quality. Anthropogenic contamination resulted in a shift in the predominant bacterial phyla within the groundwater microbial communities. For example, there was an elevated presence of Proteobacteria and Cyanobacteria in wells D and E but a lower overall microbial richness in the groundwater perturbed by anthropogenic contamination. In the remaining wells, the genus Acinetobacter was detected at high relative abundance ranging from 1.5% to 48% of the total groundwater microbial community. However, culture-based analysis did not recover any antibiotic-resistant bacteria or opportunistic pathogens from these groundwater samples. In contrast, opportunistic pathogenic Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated from the fruits irrigated with the groundwater from wells B and F. Although the groundwater was compromised, quantitative microbial risk assessment suggests that the annual risk incurred from accidental consumption of E. faecalis on these fruits was within the acceptable limit of 10−4. However, the annual risk arising from P. aeruginosa was 9.55 × 10−4, slightly above the acceptable limit. Our findings highlight that the groundwater quality at this agricultural site in western Saudi Arabia is not

  17. Effect of the temperature of the dipping solution on the antimicrobial effectiveness of various chemical decontaminants against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria on poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Hernando, Alicia; Guevara-Franco, José Alfredo; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos; Capita, Rosa

    2013-05-01

    The influence of the temperature of the dipping solution on the antimicrobial effectiveness of several chemical poultry decontaminants was assessed. A total of 765 poultry legs were inoculated with gram-positive bacteria (Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, or Brochothrix thermosphacta) or gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, or Pseudomonas fluorescens). Samples were dipped for 15 min in solutions (wt/vol) of trisodium phosphate (12%), acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm), citric acid (2%), peroxyacids (220 ppm), chlorine dioxide (50 ppm), or tap water or were left untreated (control). The temperatures of the dipping solutions were 4, 20, or 50°C. Microbiological analyses and pH determinations were carried out after 0, 1, 3, and 5 days of storage at 4°C. In comparison with the control samples, all chemical solutions were effective for reducing microbial loads. The temperature of treatment affected the microbial reductions caused by all chemicals (P chlorine dioxide were observed at 4 and 50°C, respectively. These results may be of use to meat processors for selecting the best conditions for decontamination treatments and may help the European Regulatory Authorities make their decisions for authorization of poultry decontamination treatments. PMID:23643125

  18. Fluxes of radionuclides in the agricultural production after a nuclear accident: countermeasures and decontamination techniques; Flux des radionucleides dans les productions agricoles suite a un accident nucleaire: contre-mesures et techniques de rehabilitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jouve, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 -Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)]|[Universite de Provence, 13 - Marseille (France)

    1997-12-31

    This thesis deals with the radiological consequences of a nuclear accident through the radioactive contamination of the food chain and the subsequent countermeasures for decreasing the fluxes of radionuclides and decontaminating agricultural lands. After a brief summary of the radioprotection ground and context in case of a nuclear accident, this work surveys existing data on the fluxes of radionuclides in soils and from soil to plants. The research work focuses on both the prediction of the fluxes of radionuclides and possible countermeasures: the measurement of the bioavailability of radionuclides in the soil solution, its use in a mathematical expression to quantify the soil-to-plant transfer of caesium and strontium, and the perspectives of an innovative technique of soil decontamination. The obtained results show that based on 4 coefficients, it is possible to predict crop contamination within a 3 % confidence interval: the fluid solid distribution coefficient of radionuclides kd, the amount of chemical analogues of caesium and strontium, i.e. potassium and calcium, respectively, soil pH and a constant characterising the plant species that is concerned. However, it generally appears from soil to plant transfer studies that the reduction of the fluxes of radionuclides is not a promising way of radiological exposure mitigation after a nuclear accident. The work performed shows that it is more efficient to tackle the source of the contamination, i.e. decontaminate the soil. The proposed technique of soil scraping using a turf harvester appears to be the most advantageous among the tested options, for the decontamination of peat-bog meadows. (author).

  19. Decontamination Data - Blister Agents

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination efficacy data for blister agents on various building materials using various decontamination solutions This dataset is associated with the following...

  20. The global dispersion of pathogenic microorganisms by dust storms and its relevance to agriculture: Chapter 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martin, Cristina; Teigell-Perez, Nuria; Valladares, Basilio; Griffin, Dale W.

    2014-01-01

    Dust storms move an estimated 500–5000 Tg of soil through Earth’s atmosphere every year. Dust-storm transport of topsoils may have positive effects such as fertilization of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and the evolution of soils in proximal and distal environments. Negative effects may include the stripping of nutrient-rich topsoils from source regions, sandblasting of plant life in downwind environments, the fertilization of harmful algal blooms, and the transport of toxins (e.g., metals, pesticides, herbicides, etc.) and pathogenic microorganisms. With respect to the long-range dispersion of microorganisms and more specifically pathogens, research is just beginning to demonstrate the quantity and diversity of organisms that can survive this type of transport. Most studies to date have utilized different assays to identify microorganisms and microbial communities using predominately culture-based, and more recently nonculture-based, methodologies. There is a clear need for international-scale research efforts that apply standardized methods to advance this field of science. Here we present a review of dust-borne microorganisms with a focus on their relevance to agronomy.

  1. Impact of urbanization and agriculture on the occurrence of bacterial pathogens and stx genes in coastal waterbodies of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Sarah P; Thebo, Anne L; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2011-02-01

    Fecal pollution enters coastal waters through multiple routes, many of which originate from land-based activities. Runoff from pervious and impervious land surfaces transports pollutants from land to sea and can cause impairment of coastal ocean waters. To understand how land use practices and water characteristics influence concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and pathogens in natural waters, fourteen coastal streams, rivers, and tidal lagoons, surrounded by variable land use and animal densities, were sampled every six weeks over two years (2008 & 2009). Fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; Escherichia coli and Enterococci) and Salmonella concentrations, the occurrence of Bacteroidales human, ruminant, and pig-specific fecal markers, E. coli O157:H7, and Shiga toxin (stx) genes present in E. coli, were measured. In addition, environmental and climatic variables (e.g., temperature, salinity, rainfall), as well as human and livestock population densities and land cover were quantified. Concentrations of FIB and Salmonella were correlated with each other, but the occurrence of host-specific Bacteroidales markers did not correlate with FIB or pathogens. FIB and Salmonella concentrations, as well as the occurrence of E. coli harboring stx genes, were positively associated with the fraction of the surrounding subwatershed that was urban, while the occurrence of E. coli O157:H7 was positively associated with the agricultural fraction. FIB and Salmonella concentrations were negatively correlated to salinity and temperature, and positively correlated to rainfall. Areal loading rates of FIB, Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 to the coastal ocean were calculated for stream and river sites and varied with land cover, salinity, temperature, and rainfall. Results suggest that FIB and pathogen concentrations are influenced, in part, by their flux from the land, which is exacerbated during rainfall; once waterborne, bacterial persistence is affected by water temperature and

  2. Decontamination of radioactive cesium in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural soil containing radioactive cesium was decontaminated using an extraction method involving aqueous potassium solutions. Results demonstrated that the potassium solution could extract radioactive cesium from soil artificially contaminated with 137Cs, although extraction rate decreased as time after contamination increased. However, visual examination of radioactivity distribution in soil samples significantly contaminated by the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant showed that radioactive cesium also existed as insoluble particles. Therefore, reducing the volume of radioactive wastes generated from soil decontamination requires a physical decontamination method combined with chemical treatment. (author)

  3. Screening of different Trichoderma species against agriculturally important foliar plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Narayanasamy; Prameeladevi, Thokala; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan; Kamil, Deeba

    2015-01-01

    Different isolates of Trichoderma were isolated from soil samples which were collected from different part of India. These isolates were grouped into four Trichoderma species viz., Trichoderma asperellum (Ta), T. harzianum (Th), T. pseudokoningii (Tp) and T. longibrachiatum (Tl) based on their morphological characters. Identification of the above isolates was also confirmed through ITS region analysis. These Trichoderma isolates were tested for in vitro biological control of Alternaria solani, Bipolaris oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae and Sclerotinia scierotiorum which cause serious diseases like early blight (target spot) of tomato and potato, brown leaf spot disease in rice, rice blast disease, and white mold disease in different plants. Under in vitro conditions, all the four species of Trichoderma (10 isolates) proved 100% potential inhibition against rice blast pathogen Pyracularia oryzae. T. harzianum (Th-01) and T. asperellum (Ta-10) were effective with 86.6% and 97.7%, growth inhibition of B. oryzae, respectively. Among others, T. pseudokoningii (Tp-08) and T. Iongibrachiatum (Tl-09) species were particularly efficient in inhibiting growth of S. sclerotiorum by 97.8% and 93.3%. T. Iongibrachiatum (TI-06 and TI-07) inhibited maximum mycelial growth of A. solani by 87.6% and 84.75. However, all the T. harzianum isolates showed significantly higher inhibition against S. sclerotiorum (CD value 9.430), causing white mold disease. This study led to the selection of potential Trichoderma isolates against rice blast, early blight, brown leaf spot in rice and white mold disease in different crops. PMID:26536792

  4. Researches on skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Living 4∼6 week-aged San Yuan white pigs (Suzhou, China) were used in skin decontamination experiments. Following a standard procedure, SM series of decontamination agents were used for decontamination of liquid nuclides. The results of immediate decontamination were as follows: K(decontamination efficiency) = 97.7% (decontamination factor DF = 43.5) for 131I; K>99% (DF>100) for 90Sr/90Y, MFP and U + TRU; K = 99.9% (DF 1000) for 137Cs. In 3 h-delayed decontamination, DF = 27∼67 (K 96.3%∼98.5) for the nuclides mentioned above. When the initiatory MFP contamination increased from 20 to 300 s-1·cm-2, the value of DF by immediate decontamination increased from 20 to 173 with the remaining activity not higher than 10 Bq·cm-2, and no additional decontamination was needed. For radioactive ash contamination of skin, DF 57∼1000 (K = 98.2%∼99.9%) in 4 h-delayed decontamination. SM series of decontamination agents are neutral liquid or cream without any irritative effect on skin. They are effective and easy to use in skin decontamination. (5 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.)

  5. Ontario Hydro decontamination experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ontario Hydro currently operates 18 nuclear electric generating units of the CANDU design with a net capacity of 12,402 MW(e). An additional 1,762 MW(e) is under construction. The operation of these facilities has underlined the need to have decontamination capability both to reduce radiation fields, as well as to control and reduce contamination during component maintenance. This paper presents Ontario Hydro decontamination experience in two key areas - full heat transport decontamination to reduce system radiation fields, and component decontamination to reduce loose contamination particularly as practised in maintenance and decontamination centres. (author)

  6. Study on skin decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese San-Yuan white pigs 4∼6 weeks old were used in skin decontamination experiments. The decontamination agents used were the SM series of decontamination agents. In immediate decontamination test, K 97.7% (DF = 43.5) was obtained for 131I, K>99%(DF>100) for 90Sr/90Y, MFP and U + TRU, K = 99.9%(DF = 1000) for 137Cs. DF = 27∼67 (K 96.3%∼98.5%) was obtained for the nuclides mentioned above in 3 h delayed decontamination test. When the initial contamination level of MFP increased from 200 to 3000 cps/10 cm2, the remained activity was still lower than 10 Bq/cm2 after decontamination, and no additional decontamination is needed. For radioactive ashes contamination, DF = 57∼1000 (K 98.2%∼99.9%) was reached in 4 h-delayed decontamination. The SM series of decontamination agents are neutral liquid or cream having no stimulating effect to skin. It is effective and easy to use in skin decontamination

  7. Gross decontamination experiment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, R.; Kinney, K.; Dettorre, J.; Gilbert, V.

    1983-07-01

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment.

  8. Gross decontamination experiment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Gross Decontamination Experiment was conducted on various levels and surfaces of the TMI - Unit 2 reactor building in March 1982. The polar crane, D-rings, missile shields, refueling canals, refueling bridges, equipment, and elevations 305' and 347'-6'' were flushed with low pressure water. Additionally, floor surfaces on elevation 305' and floor surfaces and major pieces of equipment on elevation 347'-6'' were sprayed with high pressure water. Selective surfaces were decontaminated with a mechanical scrubber and chemicals. Strippable coating was tested and evaluated on equipment and floor surfaces. The effectiveness, efficiency, and safety of several decontamination techniques were established for the large, complex decontamination effort. Various decontamination equipment was evaluated and its effectiveness was documented. Decontamination training and procedures were documented and evaluated, as were the support system and organization for the experiment

  9. Pickering NGS decontaminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In early 1984, decontaminations of the Pickering NGS Units 1 and 2 heat transport systems were carried out. These decontaminations reduced radiation fields in front of the reactor face by up to a factor of 10, and resulted in radiation fields of 50 to 140 mR/h. These decontaminations were carried out using an improved version of the CAN-DECON process. This paper describes the development of the process and its successful applications at Pickering NGS

  10. Foam Decontamination of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The foam decontamination is quite promising method for purifying radioactive contaminated surfaces. Foam decontamination solutions allow creating the necessary volume of deactivating medium and forming a relatively small amount of secondary liquid waste so that this method may be applicable to bulky objects. Also it should be noted that foam compositions can be effective for objects with a complex geometry. Despite the numerous advantages the well known foam decontamination methods are unpopular today due to their low efficiency and difficulties of recycling waste decontamination solutions. We have made some attempts to improve the attractiveness of foam decontamination process. Currently two compositions (acidic and alkaline) for foam decontamination have been tested. The main advantage of both tested compositions is that they are based on easily degradable surfactants. At the same time the acidic composition has a very low salt content. The preliminary results of tests carried out in real production conditions showed that such approach for metal decontamination was very promising. Metal decontamination factors over 2500 were achieved for consequent treating of metal surfaces with acidic and alkali foam solutions in industrial conditions. The total flow rate of foam generating solutions was 1 L/m2 and processing time was 1 hour. Presently we are trying to modify the foam physical properties to improve the process of decontamination of vertical, inclined and inverted surfaces. Also methods and scheme of spent foam generating solutions treatment are under development. (authors)

  11. Decontamination of body surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are two important points for an effective application of decontamination procedures. One is the organizing method of responsible decontamination teams. The team should be directed by medical doctor with the knowledge of decontamination of radionuclides. The other point is the place of application of the decontamination. Hospitals and clinics, especially with a department of nuclear medicine, or specialized units such as an emergency medical center are preferable. Before decontamination procedures are initiated, adequate monitoring of the body surface should be undertaken by a competent person in order to demarcate the areas which are contaminated. There are fundamental principles which are applicable to all decontamination procedures. (1) Precautions must always be taken to prevent further spread of contamination during decontamination operations. (2) Mild decontamination methods should be tried before resorting to treatment which can damage the body surface. The specific feature of each contamination varies widely in radionuclides involved, place and area of the contamination, condition of the contaminated skin such as whether the skin is wounded or not, and others. Soap and water are usually good detergents in most cases. If they fail, orange oil cream (SUPERDECONCREAM, available from Tokyo Engineering Co.) specially prepared for decontamination of radionuclides of most fission and corrosion products may be used. Contaminated hair should be washed several times with an efficient shampoo. (author)

  12. Influence of Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the influence of several decontamination techniques on the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. There are different kinds of decontamination methods like mechanical and chemical processes. The techniques specified, and their potential to change measured characteristics like the isotope vector of the contamination is demonstrated. It is common for all these processes, that the contamination is removed from the surface. Slightly adhered nuclides can be removed more effectively than strongly sticking nuclides. Usually a mixture of these nuclides forms the contamination. Problematically any kind of decontamination will influence the nuclide distribution and the isotope vector. On the one hand it is helpful to know the nuclide distribution and the isotope vector for the radiological characterization of the nuclear facility and on the other hand this information will be changed in the decontamination process. This is important especially for free release procedures, radiation protection and waste management. Some questions on the need of decontamination have been discussed. (authors)

  13. Use of U.S. Department of Agriculture - Pathogen Modeling Program and the Predictive Microbiology Information Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The science of Predictive Microbiology is based on the assumption that bacterial behavior is reproducible, and that it can be quantified by characterizing the environmental factors that affect growth, survival, and inactivation. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Serv...

  14. Contamination and decontamination in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendation, decontamination, nuclear waste repository, agriculture crisis, and contamination and uncleanness are described. The first failure in application of ICRP recommendation was to decide 20 mSv of reference level, because the work site could not take the special measures by this value. The next failure was to change many reference levels to the lowest values. It was important to decide the values depending on the conditions of sites. A model of nuclear waste repository, which prevents the diffusion of Cs, is proposed. In order to solve the problem of agricultural land containing Cs, we find a control method that the cultivated crops do not absorb the radioactive Cs. The education for basic knowledge of radioactive substances, its health effects and contamination will help to perform the reasonable and best decision making for safety. (S.Y.)

  15. PWR decontamination feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination work which has been accomplished is reviewed and it is concluded that it is worthwhile to investigate further four methods for decontamination for future demonstration. These are: dilute chemical; single stage strong chemical; redox processes; and redox/chemical in combination. Laboratory work is recommended to define the agents and processes for demonstration and to determine the effect of the solvents on PWR materials. The feasibility of Indian Point 1 for decontamination demonstrations is discussed, and it is shown that the system components of Indian Point 1 are well suited for use in demonstrations

  16. Long lasting decontamination foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmer, Ricky L.; Peterman, Dean R.; Tripp, Julia L.; Cooper, David C.; Wright, Karen E.

    2010-12-07

    Compositions and methods for decontaminating surfaces are disclosed. More specifically, compositions and methods for decontamination using a composition capable of generating a long lasting foam are disclosed. Compositions may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6. Such compositions may further include affinity-shifting chemicals. Methods may include decontaminating a contaminated surface with a composition or a foam that may include a surfactant and gelatin and have a pH of less than about 6.

  17. Chitin Amendment Increases Soil Suppressiveness toward Plant Pathogens and Modulates the Actinobacterial and Oxalobacteraceal Communities in an Experimental Agricultural Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W.; Visser, Johnny H. M.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2013-01-01

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the

  18. Concrete decontamination scoping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the research efforts and scoping tests performed at the Idaho Chemical Process Plant using scabbling, chemical, and electro-osmotic decontamination techniques on radiologically contaminated concrete

  19. Facility decontamination technology workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-10-01

    Purpose of the meeting was to provide a record of experience at nuclear facilities, other than TMI-2, of events and incidents which have required decontamination and dose reduction activities, and to furnish GPU and others involved in the TMI-2 cleanup with the results of that decontamination and dose reduction technology. Separate abstracts were prepared for 24 of the 25 papers; the remaining paper had been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  20. Decommissioning and Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of SCK-CEN's decommissioning and decontamination programme are (1) to develop, test and optimise the technologies and procedures for decommissioning and decontamination of nuclear installations in order to minimise the waste arising and the distributed dose; (2) to optimise the environmental impact; (3) to reduce the cost of the end-of-life of the installation; (4) to make these new techniques available to the industry; (5) to share skills and competences. The programme and achievements in 1999 are summarised

  1. Tritium contamination and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of tritium safe handling technology is required with the development of fusion reactor research. Tritium is contained by multiple-barriers containment due to the difficulty in perfect containment of hydrogen isotopes. Tritium contamination of materials and subsequent desorption are one of the critical issues in tritium containment. And the development of tritium decontamination technology is also a critical issue in tritium safe handling. The status of tritium contamination study and tritium decontamination technology are reviewed. (author)

  2. Lessons Learned from Decontamination Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, JH

    2000-11-16

    This interim report describes a DOE project currently underway to establish what is known about decontamination of buildings and people and the procedures and protocols used to determine when and how people or buildings are considered ''clean'' following decontamination. To fulfill this objective, the study systematically examined reported decontamination experiences to determine what procedures and protocols are currently employed for decontamination, the timeframe involved to initiate and complete the decontamination process, how the contaminants were identified, the problems encountered during the decontamination process, how response efforts of agencies were coordinated, and the perceived social psychological effects on people who were decontaminated or who participated in the decontamination process. Findings and recommendations from the study are intended to aid decision-making and to improve the basis for determining appropriate decontamination protocols for recovery planners and policy makers for responding to chemical and biological events.

  3. N-acetylcysteine in agriculture, a novel use for an old molecule: focus on controlling the plant-pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia S Muranaka

    Full Text Available Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC. The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC, a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X. fastidiosa in different experimental conditions. Concentrations of NAC over 1 mg/mL reduced bacterial adhesion to glass surfaces, biofilm formation and the amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS. The minimal inhibitory concentration of NAC was 6 mg/mL. NAC was supplied to X. fastidiosa-infected plants in hydroponics, fertigation, and adsorbed to organic fertilizer (NAC-Fertilizer. HPLC analysis indicated that plants absorbed NAC at concentrations of 0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL but not at 6 mg/mL. Sweet orange plants with CVC symptoms treated with NAC (0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL in hydroponics showed clear symptom remission and reduction in bacterial population, as analyzed by quantitative PCR and bacterial isolation. Experiments using fertigation and NAC-Fertilizer were done to simulate a condition closer to that normally is used in the field. For both, significant symptom remission and a reduced bacterial growth rate were observed. Using NAC-Fertilizer the lag for resurgence of symptoms on leaves after interruption of the treatment increased to around eight months. This is the first report of the anti-bacterial effect of NAC against a phytopathogenic bacterium. The results obtained in this work together with the characteristics of this molecule indicate that the use of NAC in agriculture might be a new and sustainable strategy for controlling plant pathogenic bacteria.

  4. N-acetylcysteine in agriculture, a novel use for an old molecule: focus on controlling the plant-pathogen Xylella fastidiosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muranaka, Lígia S; Giorgiano, Thais E; Takita, Marco A; Forim, Moacir R; Silva, Luis F C; Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Machado, Marcos A; de Souza, Alessandra A

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue used mainly to treat human diseases, on X. fastidiosa in different experimental conditions. Concentrations of NAC over 1 mg/mL reduced bacterial adhesion to glass surfaces, biofilm formation and the amount of exopolysaccharides (EPS). The minimal inhibitory concentration of NAC was 6 mg/mL. NAC was supplied to X. fastidiosa-infected plants in hydroponics, fertigation, and adsorbed to organic fertilizer (NAC-Fertilizer). HPLC analysis indicated that plants absorbed NAC at concentrations of 0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL but not at 6 mg/mL. Sweet orange plants with CVC symptoms treated with NAC (0.48 and 2.4 mg/mL) in hydroponics showed clear symptom remission and reduction in bacterial population, as analyzed by quantitative PCR and bacterial isolation. Experiments using fertigation and NAC-Fertilizer were done to simulate a condition closer to that normally is used in the field. For both, significant symptom remission and a reduced bacterial growth rate were observed. Using NAC-Fertilizer the lag for resurgence of symptoms on leaves after interruption of the treatment increased to around eight months. This is the first report of the anti-bacterial effect of NAC against a phytopathogenic bacterium. The results obtained in this work together with the characteristics of this molecule indicate that the use of NAC in agriculture might be a new and sustainable strategy for controlling plant pathogenic bacteria. PMID:24009716

  5. Decontamination and decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project scope of work included the complete decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of the Westinghouse ARD Fuel Laboratories at the Cheswick Site in the shortest possible time. This has been accomplished in the following four phases: (1) preparation of documents and necessary paperwork; packaging and shipping of all special nuclear materials in an acceptable form to a reprocessing agency; (2) decontamination of all facilities, glove boxes and equipment; loading of generated waste into bins, barrels and strong wooden boxes; (3) shipping of all bins, barrels and boxes containing waste to the designated burial site; removal of all utility services from the laboratories; and (4) final survey of remaining facilities and certification for nonrestricted use; preparation of final report. These four phases of work were conducted in accordance with applicable regulations for D and D of research facilities and applicable regulations for packaging, transportation, and burial and storage of radioactive materials. The final result is that the Advanced Fuel Laboratories now meet requirements of ANSI 13.12 and can be released for unrestricted use. The four principal documents utilized in the D and D of the Cheswick Site were: (1) Plan for Fully Decontaminating and Decommissioning, Revision 3; (2) Environmental Assessment for Decontaminating and Decommissioning the Westinghouse Advanced Reactors Division Plutonium Fuel Laboratories, Cheswick, Pa.; (3) WARD-386, Quality Assurance Program Description for Decontaminating and Decommissioning Activities; and (4) Health Physics, Fire Control, and Site Emergency Manual. These documents are provided as Attachments 1, 2, 3 and 4

  6. Decontamination method for radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic radioactive wastes are immersed in a liquid nitrogen vessel above a freezing crusher and they are frozen to about -196degC. Then, impact shocks are applied to crush the radioactive wastes frozen by a rotary shearing shock crusher disposed below the freezing crusher. The thus obtained crushed materials are sent to a decontamination device and decontaminated. In this case, since the objective materials are crushed, any of a blast decontamination method, an electrolytic polishing decontamination method, a redox decontamination method and a chemical agent immersion decontamination method can be applied. Thereafter, the dose of remaining radioactivity of the decontaminated crushed materials is measured. With such procedures, the decontamination and the subsequent measurement for the radiation contamination dose can easily and certainly be conducted for metallic radioactive wastes such as pipes of a small diameter and complicated structures. (I.N.)

  7. Radiation decontamination of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report radiation decontamination was initiated to investigate the red pepper, which is widely consumed in all parts of Pakistan. The samples were collected from local market and prepared for gamma radiation at dose level of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 kGy. The measurement of total fungal count was carried out immediately after irradiation and the at two months storage interval. It was reported that radiation dose 10.0 kGy is suitable for complete decontamination of red pepper. (A.B.)

  8. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomasney, H. [ISOTRON Corp., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has assigned a priority to the advancement of technology for decontaminating concrete surfaces which have become contaminated with radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organics. This agency is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning of thousands of buildings. Electrokinetic extraction is one of the several innovative technologies which emerged in response to this initiative. This technique utilizes an electropotential gradient and the subsequent electrical transport mechanism to cause the controlled movement of ionics species, whereby the contaminants exit the recesses deep within the concrete. This report discusses the technology and use at the Oak Ridge k-25 plant.

  9. A chemical decontamination process for decontaminating and decommissioning nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five chemical decontamination processes have been developed for nuclear reactor applications. One of these processes is the cerium decontamination process (CDP). This method uses a cerium acid reagent to rapidly decontaminate surfaces, obtaining decontamination factors in excess of 300 in 6 h on pressurized water reactor specimens. Sound volume reduction and waste management techniques have been demonstrated, and solidified waste volume fractions as low as 9% experimentally obtained. The CDP method represents the hybrid decontamination technique often sought for component replacement and decommissioning operations: high effectiveness, rapid kinetics, simple waste treatment, and a low solidified waste volume

  10. Piper nigrum Leaf and Stem Assisted Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Its Antibacterial Activity Against Agricultural Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanniah Paulkumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of biological materials in synthesis of nanoparticles is one of the hottest topics in modern nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the present investigation, the silver nanoparticles were synthesized by using the leaf and stem extract of Piper nigrum. The synthesized nanoparticle was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscope (SEM, transmission electron microscope (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX, and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The observation of the peak at 460 nm in the UV-vis spectra for leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles reveals the reduction of silver metal ions into silver nanoparticles. Further, XRD analysis has been carried out to confirm the crystalline nature of the synthesized silver nanoparticles. The TEM images show that the leaf- and stem-synthesized silver nanoparticles were within the size of about 7–50 nm and 9–30 nm, respectively. The FTIR analysis was performed to identify the possible functional groups involved in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, the antibacterial activity of the green-synthesized silver nanoparticles was examined against agricultural plant pathogens. The antibacterial property of silver nanoparticles is a beneficial application in the field of agricultural nanotechnology.

  11. Decontamination of outdoor school swimming pools in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake, many school swimming pools in Fukushima have suspended water discharge, due to concerns that pool water which contains radioactive fallout is discharged into a river or waterway for agricultural use. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency conducted researches and examinations on the existing absorbent method and the flocculation method as ways for decontaminating pool water. By reviewing and improving these methods through decontamination demonstrations at eight pools in Fukushima, a practical decontamination method for outdoor pools has been established. This report summarizes the methods and results of the decontamination demonstrations carried out at the schools. Also, the surface density of fallout estimated at one of the pools is also presented and discussed in connection with the overall collection ratio of radiocesium at the pool. (author)

  12. Evaluation of Levulinic Acid for Topical Decontamination of Meat Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Jeffrey V.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effects of wash treatments, consisting of hot water, 2% lactic, 2% acetic, or 2% levulinic acid, for decontamination of pathogenic bacteria previously inoculated onto meat surfaces, to inhibit growth of pathogenic bacteria inoculated onto previously washed meat surfaces, and on the organoleptic quality of sliced turkey roll and beef trim. Acid washes were no more effective at reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef plate, Listeria monocytogenes ...

  13. Minimal impact, waterless decontamination technologies for improving food safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen contamination of produce, meats, poultry, shellfish, and other foods remains an ongoing concern. Chemical sanitizers are widely employed for foods and food contact surfaces. However, there is growing interest in the development of minimal impact, waterless decontamination processes that wil...

  14. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A controlled and up-scalable biosynthetic route to nanocrystalline silver particles with well-defined morphology using cell-free aqueous filtrate of a non-pathogenic and commercially viable biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum is being reported for the first time. A transparent solution of the cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum containing 1 mM AgNO3 turns progressively dark brown within 5 d of incubation at 25 deg. C. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ∼410 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of the silver particles using TEM and XRD studies is found to be in the range 13-18 nm. These nanoparticles are found to be highly stable and even after prolonged storage for over 6 months they do not show significant aggregation. A plausible mechanism behind the formation of silver nanoparticles and their stabilization via capping has been investigated using FTIR and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy

  15. Green synthesis of highly stabilized nanocrystalline silver particles by a non-pathogenic and agriculturally important fungus T. asperellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, P.; Roy, M.; Mandal, B. P.; Dey, G. K.; Mukherjee, P. K.; Ghatak, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Kale, S. P.

    2008-02-01

    A controlled and up-scalable biosynthetic route to nanocrystalline silver particles with well-defined morphology using cell-free aqueous filtrate of a non-pathogenic and commercially viable biocontrol agent Trichoderma asperellum is being reported for the first time. A transparent solution of the cell-free filtrate of Trichoderma asperellum containing 1 mM AgNO3 turns progressively dark brown within 5 d of incubation at 25 °C. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-vis spectroscopy. An intense surface plasmon resonance band at ~410 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of silver nanoparticles. The size of the silver particles using TEM and XRD studies is found to be in the range 13-18 nm. These nanoparticles are found to be highly stable and even after prolonged storage for over 6 months they do not show significant aggregation. A plausible mechanism behind the formation of silver nanoparticles and their stabilization via capping has been investigated using FTIR and surface-enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy.

  16. Floating decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apparatus is disclosed for decontaminating a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. It comprises a buoyant annular frame which descends into the vessel as the water level within it is lowered. Spray nozzles move around the frame on trolleys in a reciprocating fashion and spray water under high pressure on the inner surface of the vessel wall, resulting in automatic washdown of the reactor vessel

  17. Thermal treatment for pathogen inactivation as a risk mitigation strategy for safe recycling of organic waste in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elving, Josefine; Vinnerås, Björn; Albihn, Ann; Ottoson, Jakob R

    2014-01-01

    Thermal treatment at temperatures between 46.0°C and 55.0°C was evaluated as a method for sanitization of organic waste, a temperature interval less commonly investigated but important in connection with biological treatment processes. Samples of dairy cow feces inoculated with Salmonella Senftenberg W775, Enterococcus faecalis, bacteriophage ϕX174, and porcine parvovirus (PPV) were thermally treated using block thermostats at set temperatures in order to determine time-temperature regimes to achieve sufficient bacterial and viral reduction, and to model the inactivation rate. Pasteurization at 70°C in saline solution was used as a comparison in terms of bacterial and viral reduction and was proven to be effective in rapidly reducing all organisms with the exception of PPV (decimal reduction time of 1.2 h). The results presented here can be used to construct time-temperature regimes in terms of bacterial inactivation, with D-values ranging from 0.37 h at 55°C to 22.5 h at 46.0°C and 0.45 h at 55.0°C to 14.5 h at 47.5°C for Salmonella Senftenberg W775 and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively and for relevant enteric viruses based on the ϕX174 phage with decimal reduction times ranging from 1.5 h at 55°C to 16.5 h at 46°C. Hence, the study implies that considerably lower treatment temperatures than 70°C can be used to reach a sufficient inactivation of bacterial pathogens and potential process indicator organisms such as the ϕX174 phage and raises the question whether PPV is a valuable process indicator organism considering its extreme thermotolerance. PMID:25035917

  18. Report on decontamination pilot projects to establish guidelines for environmental remediation of residential areas contaminated with radioactive materials discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JAEA performed decontamination experiments at two test sites that combined a range of buildings and different types of land use, located in Date and Minami Soma municipalities as field pilot projects in order to accumulate knowledge and data for full-scale decontamination activities performed by local governments. In the pilot projects, we established its plan using practical decontamination methods that can be easily implemented, according to decontamination targets (e.g., forests, agricultural land, residential house and roads) at each site. As a result of the decontamination, the average air dose rates were reduced to approximately one half of the values before decontamination. (author)

  19. Decontamination formulations for disinfection and sterilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.; Engler, Daniel E.

    2007-09-18

    Aqueous decontamination formulations that neutralize biological pathogens for disinfection and sterilization applications. Examples of suitable applications include disinfection of food processing equipment, disinfection of areas containing livestock, mold remediation, sterilization of medical instruments and direct disinfection of food surfaces, such as beef carcasses. The formulations include at least one reactive compound, bleaching activator, inorganic base, and water. The formulations can be packaged as a two-part kit system, and can have a pH value in the range of 7-8.

  20. Sunflowers to decontaminate water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunflowers offer a new method of decontamination. 55 kilograms (dry weight) of sunflowers are able to decontaminate all the cesium 137 and the strontium 90 polluting a pond situated at one kilometer from Tchernobyl. These flowers are able to decrease 95% in 24 hours the uranium concentration in the american site of Ashtabula in Ohio getting this water from 350 parts by milliards to less than 5 parts by milliards. The radioactivity should stocked in the roots at concentrations 5 000 to 10 000 times higher than water concentration. The cost is cheaper than micro filtration and precipitation (2-6 dollars for 4 000 liters of water against 80 dollars for others technologies). when sunflowers are radioactive they can be reduced in dust and vitrified and stocked as solid radioactive wastes. (N.C.)

  1. Soil decontamination with Extraksol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Extraksol process is a mobile decontamination technology which treats unconsolidated materials by solvent extraction. Treatment with Extraksol involves material washing, drying and solvent regeneration. Contaminant removal is achieved through desorption/dissolution mechanisms. The treated material is dry and acceptable to be reinstalled in its original location. The process provides a fast, efficient and versatile alternative for decontamination of soil and sludge. The organic contaminants extracted from the matrix are transferred to the extraction fluids. These are thereafter concentrated in the residues of distillation after solvent regeneration. Removal and concentration of the contaminants ensures an important waste volume reduction. This paper presents the process is operational principles and the steps involved in Extraksol's development with results of the pilot tests and full-scale demonstrations

  2. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described of removing radioactive contamination from a primary fluid header of a steam generator between periods of active operation thereof, the header having a sealable access manway therein to permit access to interior surfaces of the header. The method consists of: inserting through the header manway into the interior thereof a robotic arm having a base portion sized to fit sealably in the manway, an ultrasonic decontamination head disposed to be movable at an end of the robotic arm, a solvent supply tube connected to the decontamination head, and a fluid removal conduit disposed at a low point in the interior of the header; sealing the base portion in the header manway

  3. Decontamination and protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.C.; Dhein, E.H.; Morgenthau, M.

    1954-01-01

    Test panels, four ft square, of 14 building materials were mounted on the weather surfaces of two remotely controlled liberty ships and on a stationary barge. One of the ships was protected by a washdown system. All surfaces were contaminated significantly with tenacious fallout. Vertical surfaces facing upwind became equally or more highly contaminated than horizontal or pitched surfaces, probably due to wind currents impacting the tenacious contaminant onto surfaces normal to it. A sequence of hosing and vigorous scrubbing operations resulted in contamination reductions of 40 to 70%, but with reductions on most surfaces being less than 50%. The most effective decontamination method was scrubbing. Under the conditions of this test, painting and joint sealing had little effect while the washdown countermeasure reduced the initial contamination over 90%. It is concluded that contamination from fallout encountered in these tests presents a serious decontamination problem on buildings and paved areas and further development of effective countermeasures is necessary.

  4. Decontamination for free release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many countries are seeking to treat radioactive waste in ways which meet the local regulatory requirements, but yet are cost effective when all contributing factors are assessed. In some countries there are increasing amounts of waste, arising from nuclear plant decommissioning, which are categorized as low level waste: however with suitable treatment a large part of such wastes might become beyond regulatory control and be able to be released as non-radioactive. The benefits and disadvantages of additional treatment before disposal need to be considered. Several processes falling within the overall description of decontamination for free release have been developed and applied, and these are outlined. In one instance the process seeks to take advantage of techniques and equipment used for decontaminating water reactor circuits intermittently through reactor life. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  6. Decontaminating radioactive lead solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead has been and continues to be used extensively at nuclear facilities and DOE/DOD sites to shield workers from ionizing radiation. Because it is often used in highly contaminated areas, the lead itself often becomes radioactively contaminated, thus creating a Mixed Waste. If the lead is contaminated above specified limits, it must be decontaminated prior to release for unrestricted use. In most cases, where the lead cannot be decontaminated using conventional methods, the lead is stored until a viable decontamination method and/or disposal alternative is determined. At many facilities, large quantities of stored lead are creating a significant problem. The U.S. EPA treatment standard for radioactive lead is, 'Macroencapsulafion with surface coating materials such as polymeric organics (e.g. resins and plastics) or with a jacket of inert inorganic materials to substantially reduce surface exposure to potential leaching media'. Since the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) requires size reduction to less than 9.5 mm particles for solid waste, macroencapsulation is not a practical or economically feasible option for processing lead. The U.S. EPA originally proposed 'Surface Deactivation' as the treatment standard. Because there exists no demonstrated available technology, this method was dropped from the final treatment standard. (author)

  7. Local strategies for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, t and return from experience allowed to assess radiological efficiencies (e.g. 'decontamination factor') and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then, those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimization of decontamination strategies. Results will be presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies, and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement, and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined here

  8. Results of 'decontamination model project' and application to decontamination operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes 'Decontamination Model Project,' which aims to collect the data related to decontamination and to arrange them for providing the results, for the purpose of judgment on how to implement radioactive decontamination in wide areas as the first experience in Japan. This was the project that Japan Atomic Energy Agency was entrusted by the government, and it was completed in June 2012. This project arranged the following items as information. (1) Various decontamination technologies and methods including applicability / effects, cost, necessary manpower, required time, and technological detail such as the treatment method of waste generated from decontamination and storage method of the waste, (2) Radiation control such as exposure control for workers and securement of general work safety, and (3) Communication with related local governments and local residents. This project is a pilot-trial work in order to measure to what extent decontamination is possible for what substances by what method, but numerical target such as the goal depletion ratio of air dose rate is not specified. However, this project comparatively arranged the results on how much extents the individual item affected surface decontamination. As the conclusion, this paper picks out the points that should be considered in the future full-scale decontamination work, from the results obtained by the experience of this project. (1) preliminary monitoring, (2) safety and operation / maintenance of temporary storage sites, and (3) radiation control involved in decontamination work. (O.A.)

  9. Economies of capacity use in decontamination of pig carcasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Lawson, Lartey Godwin; Lund, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    at the processing plant level, then the exploitation of the favorable cost-effectiveness properties of hot water slaughtering requires fairly ambitious risk reduction goals and thus high use of decontamination capacity. If instead risk reduction goals are formulated for the sector as a whole, the......This article analyzes the economies of capacity use regarding hot water decontamination to reduce postslaughter risk of pathogens in meat, taking interfarm heterogeneities of Salmonella risk and costs of transportation into account, using Denmark as a case study. If risk reduction goals are stated...... cost-effectiveness properties can be exploited even for relatively low-risk reduction goals....

  10. Decontamination of radioisotope production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strippable coating method use phosphoric glycerol and irradiated latex as supporting agents have been investigated. The investigation used some decontaminating agents: EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid and potassium permanganate were combined with phosphoric glycerol supporting agent, then EDTA Na2, sodium citric, sodium oxalic and potassium permanganate were combined with irradiated latex supporting agent. The study was needed to obtain the representative operating data, will be implemented to decontamination the Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The experiment used 50x50x1 mm stainless steel samples and contaminated by Cs-137 about 1.1x10-3 μCi/cm2. This samples according to inner cover of Hot Cell material, and Hot Cell activities. The decontamination factor results of the investigation were: phosphoric glycerol as supporting agent, about 20 (EDTA as decontaminating agent) to 47 (oxalic acid as decontaminating agent), and irradiated latex as supporting agent, about 11.5 (without decontamination agent) to 27 (KMnO4 as decontaminating agent). All composition of the investigation have been obtained the good results, and can be implemented for decontamination of Hot Cell for radioisotope production. The irradiated latex could be recommended as supporting agent without decontaminating agent, because it is very easy to operate and very cheap cost. (author)

  11. Manual on decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manual is intended for those who are responsible for the organization and implementation of decontamination programmes for facilities where radioactive materials are handled mainly on a laboratory scale. It contains information and guidelines on practical methods for decontaminating working spaces, equipment, laboratory benches and protective clothing. Useful information is also provided on the removal of loose skin contamination from personnel by mild, non-medical processes. Methods of removing skin contamination needing medical supervision, or of internal decontamination, which is entirely a medical process, are not covered in this manual. Large-scale decontamination of big nuclear facilities is also considered as outside its scope

  12. Radioactivity decontamination device and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a method of decontaminating floors and walls of large-scaled equipments and buildings (large-sized members to be decontaminated) in a radioactive material handling facility. Namely, supersonic vibrations are applied to a low pressure running water to form water vibrating at fine frequency of supersonic waves. It is jetted to the large-scaled members to be decontaminated to remove radiation-contaminated materials from the surface of the large-scaled members to be decontaminated by friction of the vibrations. Specifically, when the decontaminating water is jetted out from a nozzle at a hydraulic pressure of from 0.02 to 0.1kg/cm2G, supersonic waves at a variable oscillation frequency of from 100 to 800kHz and an output of from 5 to 15W/cm2 per a unit area of vibrator are applied to the water stream. Fine decontamination for large-scaled members can be conducted by the decontamination method of the present invention. Since decontamination of radioactivity does not occur, and unevenness and remaining of contamination are eliminated, the decontamination operation can be made efficient. (I.S.)

  13. Study on LOMI decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of decontamination technique of Low-Oxidation-State Metal-Ion (LOMI) reagents developed from 1986 to 1991 in the laboratory are introduced. The experiments included preparation of LOMI reagents, de-filming efficiency, corrosion behavior of typical alloys, decontamination factors of reagents for contaminated materials and components have proved that the NP/LOMI decontamination method and treatment technique of waste water are feasible and have some advantages. The preparation of LOMI reagent with low concentration of formic acid by reduced pressure distilling technique and the utilization ratio of vanadium reached to 95% by second electrolysis are the main contributions of the study to the decontamination technique

  14. Unit for air decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To fulfill the applicable requirements of safety to the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities, it is necessary to make a cleaning of the air that hurtles to the atmosphere. For that which was designed and it manufactured an unit for decontamination of the air for the Pilot plant of production of Nuclear Fuel that this built one with national parts, uses Hepa national filters and the design can adapt for different dimensions of filters, also can be added a lodging for a prefilter or to adopt two Hepa filters. (Author)

  15. Decontamination of latex gloves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initially the latex gloves used in controlled zones were processed after use as radioactive waste. In view of the continually increasing number used, however, the persons in charge of the SPRAR have considered the possibility of decontaminating the gloves and using them again after control. The recovery installations which have been developed were initially designed rather crudely and operated irregularly; they have been progressively improved as a result of the experience acquired; today they are more really an industrial concern, equipped with automatic machinery. In 1967 it has been possible with this set-up to recover 247000 pairs of gloves, representing nearly 70 per cent of the number treated. (author)

  16. Decontaminating pesticide protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, J

    1993-01-01

    The review of recent work on the mechanisms of soil removal from textiles assists in understanding decontamination of pesticide protective clothing. The current work provides explanatory conclusions about residue retention as a basis of making recommendations for the most effective decontamination procedures. A caution about generalizations: Some pesticides produce very idiosyncratic responses to decontamination. An example is the paraquat/salt response. Other pesticides exhibit noticeable and unique responses to a highly alkaline medium (carbaryl), or to bleach (chlorpyrifos), or are quickly volatilized (methyl parathion). Responses such as these do not apply to other pesticides undergoing decontamination. Given this caution, there are soil, substrate, and solvent responses that do maximize residue removal. Residue removal is less complete as the concentration of pesticide increases. The concentration of pesticide in fabric builds with successive exposures, and the more concentrated the pesticide, the more difficult the removal. Use a prewash product and/or presoak. The surfactant and/or solvent in a prewash product is a booster in residue removal. Residues transfer from contaminated clothing to other clothing during the washing cycle. Use a full washer of water for a limited number of garments to increase residue removal. The hotter the washing temperature, the better. Generally, this means a water temperature of at least 49 degrees C, and preferably 60 degrees C. Select the detergent shown to be more effective for the formulation: heavy-duty liquid detergents for emulsifiable concentrate formulations and powdered phosphate detergents for wettable powder formulations. If the fabric has a soil-repellent finish, use 1.25 times the amount recommended on the detergent label. For water hardness above 300 ppm, an additional amount of powdered phosphate detergent is needed to obtain the same level of residue removal as obtained with the heavy-duty liquid detergent when

  17. Decontamination of radioactive corrosion products by KAERI decontamination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong-Hun; Park, Sang-Yoon; Ahn, Byung-Gil; Lee, Byung-Jik; Oh, Won-Zin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-31

    A study was performed to develop the chemical decontamination process, which is effective in removing the radioactive corrosion products with large amounts of Ni and Cr. The dissolution characteristics of decontamination agents and the material integrity of disk arm holder with Type 304 stainless steel were examined in high temperature conditions and the results have been compared with low temperature decontamination process. Dissolution tests revealed that oxides on disk arm holder had a spinel-type structure in the form of Fe{sub 1.7}Ni{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.8}O{sub 4}. In the dissolution steps, component metals were dissolved fast from the oxide in the early stage, while were dissolved very slowly in the later stage. This might be caused by reduction in metal concentration in the near surface of the oxide and by precipitation of reaction by product, MnO{sub 2}, which prevents reactants in solution from diffusion to the oxide surface. The average DF(Decontamination Factor) after a chemical decontamination, consisting of 3 oxidation-reduction steps, was 75 and an improved DF, of 150, was observed when a ultrasonic treatment was applied after a chemical decontamination, since the corrosion oxide become soft by the dissolution of grain boundary and crack of the oxide during chemical decontamination process. High temperature decontamination process showed remarkable improvement in decontamination effectiveness compared with traditional low temperature process. An examination of corrosion rates monitored during the decontamination, using corrosion coupons, showed that all process reagents caused minimal corrosion(Type 304 stainless steel: 1.7 x 10{sup -3} mil, Inconel 600: 6.6 x 10{sup -3} mil, Stellite-6: 1.2 x 10{sup -2} mil). (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs., 9 figs.

  18. Recontamination following dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination is beneficial in reducing radiation fields before inspection, maintenance, or repair work has to be performed on reactor systems. If the fields remain low at subsequent shutdowns, further benefit is attributable to the decontamination. Conversely, if fields rapidly become as high as before the decontamination, no residual benefit derives. In the case where the field rapidly becomes higher than before the decontamination, a detriment from the decontamination is experienced at subsequent shutdowns. In this paper the recontamination data following six separate dilute chemical decontaminations are reported for surveillance periods of up to two years. Surfaces operating at low temperature hardly recontaminated at all over the two-year period; surfaces exposed to high temperatures recontaminated to about 95% of their predecontamination level over a two-year period. A rapid recontamination rate for about three months following the decontamination was followed by recontamination at a rate which is significantly below the published rates for most BWRs in the USA, and for these two plants in particular. In all six cases studied, residual benefit from the decontamination was experienced at subsequent shutdowns. (author)

  19. N-Acetylcysteine in Agriculture, a Novel Use for an Old Molecule: Focus on Controlling the Plant–Pathogen Xylella fastidiosa

    OpenAIRE

    Muranaka, Lígia S.; Giorgiano, Thais E.; Marco A. Takita; Forim, Moacir R.; Luis F C Silva; Helvécio D. Coletta-Filho; Machado, Marcos A; De Souza, Alessandra A.

    2013-01-01

    Xylella fastidiosa is a plant pathogen bacterium that causes diseases in many different crops. In citrus, it causes Citrus Variegated Chlorosis (CVC). The mechanism of pathogenicity of this bacterium is associated with its capacity to colonize and form a biofilm in the xylem vessels of host plants, and there is not yet any method to directly reduce populations of this pathogen in the field. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), a cysteine analogue use...

  20. Ultrasonic decontamination robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultrasonic decontamination robot removes radioactive contamination from the internal surface of the inlet and outlet headers, divider plate, tube sheet, and lower portions of tubes of a nuclear power plant steam generator. A programmable microprocessor controller guides the movement of a robotic arm mounted in the header manway. An ultrasonic transducer having a solvent delivery subsystem through which ultrasonic action is achieved is moved by the arm over the surfaces. A solvent recovery suction tube is positioned within the header to remove solvent therefrom while avoiding interference with the main robotic arm. The solvent composition, temperature, pressure, viscosity, and purity are controlled to optimize the ultrasonic scrubbing action. The ultrasonic transducer is controlled at a power density, frequency, and on-off mode cycle such as to optimize scrubbing action within the range of transducer-to-surface distance and solvent layer thickness selected for the particular conditions encountered. Both solvent and transducer control actions are optimized by the programmable microprocessor. (author)

  1. Electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concrete structures which have been contaminated with uranium and other radioisotopes may be decontaminated using in-situ electrokinetic remediation. By placing an electrode cell on the concrete surface and using the concrete's rebar, a ground rod, or another surface cell as the counter electrode, the radioisotopes may be migrated from the concrete into this cell. The process is highly dependent upon the chemical parameters of the species involved; namely, the concrete, the contaminants, and the solubilizers used to mobilize the contaminants. In a preliminary study conducted at the K-25 Site of the Oak Ridge National Labs, an estimated removal of >40 percent of uranium has been observed for a short duration run. This removal occurred using traditional uranium solubilizers in contact with the contaminated surface

  2. Granulated decontamination formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark D.

    2007-10-02

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a sorbent additive, and water. A highly adsorbent sorbent additive (e.g., amorphous silica, sorbitol, mannitol, etc.) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  3. Decontamination & decommissioning focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    In January 1994, the US Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (DOE EM) formally introduced its new approach to managing DOE`s environmental research and technology development activities. The goal of the new approach is to conduct research and development in critical areas of interest to DOE, utilizing the best talent in the Department and in the national science community. To facilitate this solutions-oriented approach, the Office of Science and Technology (EM-50, formerly the Office of Technology Development) formed five Focus AReas to stimulate the required basic research, development, and demonstration efforts to seek new, innovative cleanup methods. In February 1995, EM-50 selected the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) to lead implementation of one of these Focus Areas: the Decontamination and Decommissioning (D & D) Focus Area.

  4. Dental unit water lines decontamination with the aid of nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Rashmi Paramashivaiah; Prabhuji, M. L. V.; Roopalakshmi Narayanan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This article reviews the issue of dental unit waterline (DUWL) contamination which affects all the clinical and hospital settings. The contaminating microorganisms commonly isolated from these settings and the most pathogenic among them have serious consequences. Over the years several measures are inculcated for decontamination of water, their advantages and shortcomings have been addressed. Options using nanotechnology which are available in the market are described briefly. Materi...

  5. Decontamination of HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mound Facility, during many years of plutonium-238 experience, has recovered over 150 kg of plutonium-238. Much of this material was recovered from HEPA filters or from solid wastes such as sludge and slag. The objective of this task was to modify and improve the existing nitric acid leaching process used at Mound so that filters from the nuclear fuel cycle could be decontaminated effectively. Various leaching agents were tested to determine their capability for dissolving PuO2, UO2, U3O8, AmO2, NpO2, CmO2, and ThO2 in mixtures of the following: HNO3-HF; HNO3-HF-H2SO4; and HNO3-(NH4)2Ce(NO3)6. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for two leaching systems. In some tests simulated contaminated HEPA filter material was used, while in others actual spent glovebox filters were used. The maximum decontamination factor of 833 was achieved in the recovery of plutonium-238 from actual filters. The dissolution was accomplished by using a six-stage process with 4N HNO3-0.23M (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 as the leaching agent. Thorium oxide was also effectively dissolved from filter media using a mixture of nitric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate. Sodium carbonate and Na2CO3-KNO3 fusion tests were performed using simulated PuO2-contaminated filter media at various temperatures. Approximately 70 wt% of the PuO2 was soluble in a mixture composed of 70 wt% Na2CO3-30 wt% KNO3 (heated for 1 h at 9500C). 23 figs., 14 tables

  6. Decontamination and coating of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology is being developed to decontaminate lead used in shielding applications in contaminated environments for recycle as shieldings. Technology is also being developed to coat either decontaminated lead or new lead before it is used in contaminated environments. The surface of the coating is expected to be much easier to decontaminate than the original lead surface. If contamination becomes severely embedded in the coating and cannot be removed, it can be easily cut with a knife and removed from the lead. The used coating can be disposed of as radioactive (hot hazardous) waste. The lead can then be recoated for further use as a shielding material

  7. Nova target chamber decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An engineering study was performed to determine the most effective method for decontamination of the Nova target chamber. Manual and remote decontamination methods currently being used were surveyed. In addition, a concept that may not require in-situ decontamination was investigated. Based on the presently available information concerning material and system compatibility and particle penetration, it is recommended that a system of removable aluminum shields be considered. It is also recommended that a series of tests be performed to more precisely determine the vacuum compatibility and penetrability of other materials discussed in this report

  8. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawla, Rajiv; Gupta, Akhilesh; Gupta, Anshu; Kumar, Mritunjay

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating the questionnaire. Results: A total of 73 responses were received out of 100. The result of the survey revealed that there is no uniform technique of laryngoscope decontamination. There is marked variability in techniques followed not only among different institutions, but also within the same institution. Conclusion: There are no fixed protocols adopted for laryngoscope decontamination. Thus, there is a need to develop definitive guidelines on this subject, which can be implemented in India. PMID:27006551

  9. Decontamination of laryngoscope blades: Is our practice adequate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telang R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The laryngoscope has been identified as a potential source of cross-infection, because of blood and bacterial contamination. In India, there are no guidelines for cleaning and disinfection of anesthesia-related equipment. Practices for decontamination of laryngoscopes vary widely and in most healthcare institutes, laryngoscope blades are re-used after cleaning with tap-water. Materials and Methods: We prospectively compared two techniques for decontamination of laryngoscope blades - a washing with tap-water and b washing with tap-water followed by disinfection by immersing in 5% v/v (volume/volume, 1:20 dilution aldehyde-free biguanide agent for 10 min. We calculated the cost-effectiveness of using 5% v/v aldehyde-free biguanide agent for disinfection of laryngoscopes. We also conducted a survey to assess the decontamination practices in other Indian hospitals. Results : Overall bacterial growth was 58% (29 out of 50 blades after tap-water cleaning (of which 60% were pathogenic organisms versus 3.4% (one out of 29 blades after tap-water cleaning followed by immersion in disinfectant (all of which were commensals. The cost of disinfection with biguanide was Indian Rupees 1.13 (20 US cents per laryngoscope. Most hospitals in India do not have guidelines regarding laryngoscope decontamination between uses, and cleaning with tap water is a commonly used method. Conclusion : Cleaning of laryngoscope blades with tap-water is a commonly used but inadequate method for decontamination. Washing with tap-water followed by disinfection with 5% v/v aldehyde-free biguanide for at least 10 min is an effective and inexpensive alternative. National guidelines for the decontamination of anesthesia equipment are necessary.

  10. Laryngoscope decontamination techniques: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Rajiv Chawla; Akhilesh Gupta; Anshu Gupta; Mritunjay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: India is a vast country with variable, nonuniform healthcare practices. A laryngoscope is an important tool during general anesthesia and resuscitation. The study aimed to determine the current practices of laryngoscope decontamination in India. Material and Methods: An online survey was conducted amongst 100 anesthesiologists to determine the common methods of laryngoscope decontamination adopted in their settings. The survey was done over 6 months after validating t...

  11. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  12. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  13. Presolidification treatment of decontamination wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsatisfactory leaching performance of several solidified decontamination solutions indicated a need for presolidification treatments to reduce the water sensitivity of the active chemicals. Chemical treatments examined in this work include pH adjustment, precipitation and oxidation-reduction reactions. The reactions involved in these treatments are discussed. The most suitable presolidification treatment for each decontamination solution has been identified. Further research is needed to test the effectivenss of these treatments

  14. Decontamination of Cuban oysters using irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected on the Cuban coast near Havana were examined for contamination with Vibrio cholerae and other potentially pathogenic Vibrio species. The strains thus isolated were characterized and identified to species following standard methods, and their radiation resistance (D10) was determined in pure culture. The Vibrio species most often isolated were V. cholerae, V. parahaemolyticus and V. Alginolyticus. Representative cultures from each species were later used to inoculate shucked oysters to determine the optimal radiation dose that would ensure elimination of 108 colony forming units (CFU)/g. The highest proportion of isolates were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus and V. algynoliticus. Non-O1 strains of Vibrio cholerae were isolated from 50% of samples, but no V. cholerae O1 was identified. D10 values calculated for the various strains were low in relation to those in the literature. The radiation dose for decontaminating heavily inoculated (108 CFU/g) oysters was 1.2 kGy. (author)

  15. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination by gamma irradiation of minor spices such as coriander, fennel, cumin, aniseed, cardamom (large) and ajowan was studied. The bacterial load on these spices ranged from 102 - 105 cfu/g, while the fungal load ranged from 10-103 cfu/g. No microorganisms were detected in samples exposed to radiation and stored up to 12 mo. Though pathogens, such as coliforms, B. cereus and Staphylococci were detected in some samples of spices, their presence was not detected in spices exposed to radiation. A comparison of gas liquid chromatographic profiles indicated no significant change in the quality of volatile oils of these spices. Intra country transportation studies, in collaboration with two national laboratories and a multinational corporation, confirmed our earlier observations regarding retention of quality in several spices following irradiation, transport and storage. Similar results were evident from intercountry collaborative studies with Japan. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs, 10 tabs

  16. Chemical Gel for Surface Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many chemical decontamination processes operate by immersing components in aggressive chemical solutions. In these applications chemical decontamination technique produce large amounts of radioactive liquid waste. Therefore it is necessary to develop processes using chemical gels instead of chemical solutions, to avoid the well-known disadvantages of chemical decontamination techniques while retaining their high efficiency. Chemical gels decontamination process consists of applying the gel by spraying it onto the surface of large area components (floors, walls, etc) to be decontaminated. The gel adheres to any vertical or complex surface due to their thixotropic properties and operates by dissolving the radioactive deposit, along with a thin layer of the gel support, so that the radioactivity trapped at the surface can be removed. Important aspects of the gels are that small quantities can be used and they show thixitropic properties : liquid during spraying, and solid when stationary, allowing for strong adherence to surfaces. This work investigates the decontamination behaviors of organic-based chemical gel for SS 304 metallic surfaces contaminated with radioactive materials

  17. Development of economical decontamination processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activity inventary of the Nuclear Power Plant Gundremmingen (BWR, 250 MWel) had been investigated. In the turbine hall, reactor annulus and auxiliary building two years after shut down a remaining activity of 3.5 E10 Bq was found. The main nuclide was Cobalt 60 which is accounting for more than 70 % of the total activity. The different decontamination methods were proved by laboratory tests on originally contaminated pipe samples. With respect to high efficiency, minimizing secondary waste and easy handling, the electrochemical decontamination proved to be the most economical decontamination method. This decontamination procedure had been tested on primary steam valves and the feedwater pumps. 10-20 manhours were needed for the decontamination of each ton of material. The specific secondary waste amount was 95 kg per ton of steel. Those figures were evaluated for the dismantling of a 250 MWel Boiling Water Reactor (except of the containment). After the decontamination of 3400 tons of metal about 260 tons of secondary waste will remain. The dismantling will need 5.9 years. The same evaluation has been performed too for a 1300 MWel Boiling Water Reactor

  18. Decontamination of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenst, J.W. Jr.; Lewis, E.L.; Luthy, D.F.

    1978-01-01

    Mound Facility, during many years of plutonium-238 experience, has recovered over 150 kg of plutonium-238. Much of this material was recovered from HEPA filters or from solid wastes such as sludge and slag. The objective of this task was to modify and improve the existing nitric acid leaching process used at Mound so that filters from the nuclear fuel cycle could be decontaminated effectively. Various leaching agents were tested to determine their capability for dissolving PuO/sub 2/, UO/sub 2/, U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, AmO/sub 2/, NpO/sub 2/, CmO/sub 2/, and ThO/sub 2/ in mixtures of the following: HNO/sub 3/-HF; HNO/sub 3/-HF-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/; and HNO/sub 3/-(NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Ce(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for two leaching systems. In some tests simulated contaminated HEPA filter material was used, while in others actual spent glovebox filters were used. The maximum decontamination factor of 833 was achieved in the recovery of plutonium-238 from actual filters. The dissolution was accomplished by using a six-stage process with 4N HNO/sub 3/-0.23M (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/Ce(NO/sub 3/)/sub 6/ as the leaching agent. Thorium oxide was also effectively dissolved from filter media using a mixture of nitric acid and ceric ammonium nitrate. Sodium carbonate and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-KNO/sub 3/ fusion tests were performed using simulated PuO/sub 2/-contaminated filter media at various temperatures. Approximately 70 wt% of the PuO/sub 2/ was soluble in a mixture composed of 70 wt% Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/-30 wt% KNO/sub 3/ (heated for 1 h at 950/sup 0/C). 23 figs., 14 tables.

  19. Decontamination of surfaces, contaminated with radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A classification is given of processes taking place during decontamination. The effect of surfaces of various geometry and materials on the rate of decontamination is discussed. The factors influencing the choice of the decontamination method and the main requirements laid to decontaminating agents are reviewed. The decontaminating processes of synthetic washing igredients, detergents, complex-making compounds, caustic solutions, acids, and other compounds, their advantageous and detrimental properties at decontaminating are summarized. The indices of suspectibility to contamination and decontaminability are given. Various measuring methods for decontamination of stains produced by dropping 0.1 ml of isotope solutions on plates of 4x4 cm made of several materials gave different results of the same tendency. It was the heaviest to decontaminate iron plates. According to the investigations a satisfactory combination of surface and agents can be found for each isotope. (K.A.)

  20. Decontamination technology assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to identify and technically assess foreign decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) technology developments that may represent significant improvements over D and D technology currently available or under development in the United States. Technology need areas for nuclear power reactor decommissioning operations were identified and prioritized using the results of past light water rector (LWR) decommissioning studies to quantitatively evaluate the potential for reducing cost and decommissioning worker radiation dose for each major decommissioning activity. Based on these identified needs, current foreign D and D technologies of potential interest to the U.S. were identified through personal contacts and the collection and review of an extensive body of D and D literature. These technologies were then assessed qualitatively to evaluate their uniqueness, potential for a significant reduction in D and D costs and/or worker radiation dose, development status, and other factors affecting their value and applicability to U.S. needs

  1. New decontamination technologies for environmental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technologies discussed represent a versatile collection of tools and approaches for environmental decontamination applications. The fixatives provide a means for gaining and maintaining control of large contaminated areas, for decontaminating large surface areas, and for protecting equipment and supplies used in decontamination operations. The other decontamination techniques together provide a method for removing loose surface contamination from almost all classes of materials and surfaces. These techniques should have wide application both as direct decontamination processes and for the cleaning of tools and equipment used in the decontamination operations

  2. Decontaminating products for routine decontamination in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine decontamination work that has to be carried out in practical operation includes the cleaning of all kinds of surfaces such as floors, walls and apparatus, the decontamination of professional clothes and of the personnel. In order to ensure a trouble-free functioning of plants for the treatment of waste water and concentrate in nuclear power plants, radioactive liquid wastes appearing in the controlled area should be compatible with the treatment methods in practice. Radioactive concentrates and resides obtained from the treatment methods are mixed with matrix materials like cement or bitumen or treated by roller frame drying and thus are conditioned for intermediate or final storage. Several requirements should be made on decontaminating agents used in the controlled area. Some of these physical-chemical criteria will be described in detail. (R.P.)

  3. Toshiba's decontamination technologies for the decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the decommissioning, two types of decontamination process are necessary, 1) system decontamination before dismantling and 2) decontamination of dismantling waste. Toshiba has been developing the decontamination technologies for the both purposes from the viewpoint of minimizing the secondary waste. For the system decontamination before dismantling, chemical decontamination process, such as T-OZON, can be applicable for stainless steel or carbon steel piping. For the decontamination of dismantling waste, several types of process have been developed to apply variety of shapes and materials. For the simple shape materials, physical decontamination process, such as blast decontamination, is effective. We have developed new blast decontamination process with highly durable zirconia particle. It can be used repeatedly and secondary waste can be reduced compared with conventional blast particle. For the complex shape materials, chemical decontamination process can be applied that formic acid decontamination process for carbon steel and electrolytic reduction decontamination process with organic acid for stainless steel. These chemicals can be decomposed to carbon dioxide and water and amount of secondary waste can be small. (author)

  4. Mycotoxins - prevention and decontamination by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfliegler, Walter P; Pusztahelyi, Tünde; Pócsi, István

    2015-07-01

    The application of yeasts has great potential in reducing the economic damage caused by toxigenic fungi in the agriculture. Some yeasts may act as biocontrol agents inhibiting the growth of filamentous fungi. These species may also gain importance in the preservation of agricultural products and in the reduction of their mycotoxin contamination, yet the extent of mycotoxin production in the presence of biocontrol agents is relatively less understood. The application of yeasts in various technological processes may have a direct inhibitory effect on the toxin production of certain molds, which is independent of their growth suppressing effect. Furthermore, several yeast species are capable of accumulating mycotoxins from agricultural products, thereby effectively decontaminating them. Probiotic yeasts or products containing yeast cell wall are also applied to counteract mycotoxicosis in livestock. Several yeast strains are also able to degrade toxins to less-toxic or even non-toxic substances. This intensively researched field would greatly benefit from a deeper knowledge on the genetic and molecular basis of toxin degradation. Moreover, yeasts and their biotechnologically important enzymes may exhibit sensitivity to certain mycotoxins, thereby mounting a considerable problem for the biotechnological industry. It is noted that yeasts are generally regarded as safe; however, there are reports of toxin degrading species that may cause human fungal infections. The aspects of yeast-mycotoxin relations with a brief consideration of strain improvement strategies and genetic modification for improved detoxifying properties and/or mycotoxin resistance are reviewed here. PMID:25682759

  5. Radioactive Decontamination by Strippable Paint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strippable paint, one of the adhesion method, is to decontaminate solid surface of materials or/and a large area. Two kinds of specimen planchet, SUS 304 stainless steel and polycarbonate plastic, contaminated with radioactive 137Cs were studied under various conditions. It included surface bottom types, the flat and convex concentric circle type, normal condition at room temperature and overheat condition (∼80 degree celsius). This method used coating paints which contains some elements to have a reaction with radioactive materials selectively. ALARA-Decon clear, Rempack-X200 clear, JD-P5-Mrs.Coat and Pro-Blue-color guard were selected to use as the coating paints. The contaminated surface was coated by the strippable paint under the optimum time, followed by peeling the paint seal. The Rempack-X200 showed the best result, the highest decontamination efficiency which are about 99-100% for all conditions of specimens. The JD-P5 and ALARA-Decon showed good results, which are 98-99% decontamination efficiency for the normal condition set of specimens and about 94-97% for the overheat set of specimens. They can decontaminate polycarbonate specimens better than stainless steel specimens. The Pro-Blue-color guard showed the lowest decontamination efficiency of which 60% for polycarbonate specimens at normal condition and 40%, 30% for stainless steel specimens at normal and overheat conditions respectively. There was no effects of surface bottom types significantly

  6. DECONTAMINATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR FACILITY REUSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossart, Steven J.; Blair, Danielle M.

    2003-02-27

    As nuclear research and production facilities across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear weapons complex are slated for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D), there is a need to decontaminate some facilities for reuse for another mission or continued use for the same mission. Improved technologies available in the commercial sector and tested by the DOE can help solve the DOE's decontamination problems. Decontamination technologies include mechanical methods, such as shaving, scabbling, and blasting; application of chemicals; biological methods; and electrochemical techniques. Materials to be decontaminated are primarily concrete or metal. Concrete materials include walls, floors, ceilings, bio-shields, and fuel pools. Metallic materials include structural steel, valves, pipes, gloveboxes, reactors, and other equipment. Porous materials such as concrete can be contaminated throughout their structure, although contamination in concrete normally resides in the top quarter-inch below the surface. Metals are normally only contaminated on the surface. Contamination includes a variety of alpha, beta, and gamma-emitting radionuclides and can sometimes include heavy metals and organic contamination regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This paper describes several advanced mechanical, chemical, and other methods to decontaminate structures, equipment, and materials.

  7. Decontaminating lead bricks and shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead used for shielding is often surface contaminated with radionuclides and is therefore a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) D008 mixed waste. The technology-based standard for treatment is macroencapsulation. However, decontaminating and recycling the clean lead is a more attractive solution. Los Alamos National Lab. decontaminates material and equipment contaminated with radioisotopes. Decontaminating lead poses special problems because of the RCRA hazard classification and the size of the inventory, now about 100 metric tons and likely to grow substantially because of planned decommissioning operations. This lead, in the form of bricks and other shield shapes, is surface contaminated with fission products. One of the best methods for decontaminating lead is removing the thin superficial layer of contamination with an abrasive medium under pressure. For lead, a mixture of alumina with water and air at about 280 kPa (40 psig) rapidly and effectively decontaminates the lead. The abrasive medium is sprayed onto the lead in a sealed-off area. The slurry of abrasive and particles of lead falls through a floor grating and is collected in a pump. A pump sends the slurry mixture back to the spray gun, creating a continuous process

  8. Prevention of nosocomial infection in cardiac surgery by decontamination of the nasopharynx and oropharynx with chlorhexidine gluconate - A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Segers; R.G.H. Speekenbrink; D.T. Ubbink; M.L. van Ogtrop; B.A. de Mol

    2006-01-01

    Context Nosocomial infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality after cardiac surgery. Decolonization of endogenous potential pathogenic microorganisms is important in the prevention of nosocomial infections. Objective To determine the efficacy of perioperative decontamination of the

  9. EDF guide book for decontamination at power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses EDF quality organization in the decontamination field: policy includes: decontamination activities, how to reach quality, who is doing what, qualification of decontamination personnel, and acceptance and qualification of a decontamination process. Implementation includes: why planning a decontamination? Responsibility of the initiator, responsibility of the planner, and responsibility of the decontamination crew leader

  10. Tritium permeation, contamination and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the grant-in-aid for scientific research on priority areas entitled 'frontiers of tritium researches toward fusion reactors', coordinated three research programs on the tritium permeation, contamination and decontamination have been conducted by the CO2 team. The results are summarized as follows: (1) Study for the development of the tritium permeation barrier was carried out. A ZrO2 film with a magnesium phosphate layer sintered on a SUS 430 steel plate showed excellent reduction in the hydrogen permeation. (2) The non-destructive method using an imaging plate was proposed to monitor tritium release from contaminated materials. The method was applied to SUS 316 steel and revealed that the tritium release from SUS 316 steel was diffusion-limited. (3) As for contamination-protection and decontamination techniques, improvement in the decontamination rate from SUS 316 steel was obtained by providing CrO2 coating. (J.P.N.)

  11. Handbook of radioactive contamination and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book the fundamentals of radioactive contamination and the general principles of decontamination are set out. Topics covered include the evaluation of risk after human exposure and the decontamination of persons and their clothing and food and the decontamination of reactor components. The assessment of contamination after possible reactor accidents or nuclear explosions is discussed. The various methods of decontamination appropriate to specific incidents are discussed. (UK)

  12. Plant Pathogen Culture Collections: It Takes a Village to Preserve These Resources Vital to the Advancement of Agricultural Security and Plant Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pathogen culture collections are essential resources in our fight against plant disease and for connecting discoveries of the present with established knowledge of the past. However, available infrastructure in support of culture collections is in serious need of improvement, and we continual...

  13. Contamination and decontamination of fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is made of the problems of contamination and decontamination of clothes and underwear. Possible ways are described of contamination of fabrics (dry, wet) and in this connection the contaminant-fabric binding is underlined (in dry state, at different relative air humidity, in wet conditions in an environment of polar solvents). A survey is presented of decontamination methods and their importance. Dry methods include beatino., brushing and vacuum cleaning, wet methods include soaking and washing, dry cleaning in non-polar solvents, and the Intensol and Dual methods which combine dry cleaning and washing in one process. (B.S.)

  14. Optimization of electrochemical soil decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, M. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; John, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Centre for Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry

    2004-07-01

    At the Czech Technical University in Prague, soil decontamination techniques have been studied for several years. The leaching procedures (batch or 'sorption' leaching) did not allow to achieve more than 30% caesium desorption. Caesium thermodesorption was demonstrated not to be very efficient either; quantitative caesium separation could be achieved only from solutions resulting from fusion of the soil with special fluxes. The most promising results were achieved by electrolytic decontamination. In preliminary experiments, more than 97% of caesium was released from soils contaminated long time ago. The aim of this study was to perform optimisation of the parameters of this method. (orig.)

  15. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Barkovsky, A.N.; Mishine, A.S.; Ponamarjov, A.V.; Ramzaev, V.P.; Roed, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    Decontamination was carried out in an area with three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Bryansk region, Russia, in the autumn of 1995. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.34) and outdoor (DRF = 0.20) can be achieved when a controlled cleaning is undertaken....... This paper describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained, The roofs of the houses were swept and cleaned by special roof cleaning equipment. The soil around the houses was removed by hand while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination, By monitoring the...

  16. NOVEL LASER ABLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SURFACE DECONTAMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project is to develop a novel Laser Ablation Decontamination in Liquid (LADIL) technology for surface decontamination and safe removal of radioactive and/or toxic contaminants. It aims to achieve more efficient surface decontamination without secondary conta...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1410 - Decontamination shower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Decontamination shower. 154.1410 Section 154.1410... Equipment § 154.1410 Decontamination shower. When Table 4 references this section, a vessel carrying the listed cargo must have a decontamination shower and an eye wash that: (a) Are on the weatherdeck; and...

  18. 40 CFR 170.250 - Decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination. 170.250 Section 170... PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Pesticide Handlers § 170.250 Decontamination. (a) Requirement. During any..., decontamination supplies for washing off pesticides and pesticide residues. (b) General conditions. (1)...

  19. Nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness: decontamination issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are varieties of radiological decontamination methods available. Extensive research efforts are made in this direction for development of effective multi-purpose decontamination formulations and tremendous progress has been made in this field. It is pertinent to develop effective, easily available, cheap decontamination alternatives which can be usable directly by community itself during any radiological terrorism activity

  20. UV light inactivation of human and plant pathogens in unfiltered surface irrigation water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lisa A; Worobo, Randy W; Smart, Christine D

    2014-02-01

    Fruit and vegetable growers continually battle plant diseases and food safety concerns. Surface water is commonly used in the production of fruits and vegetables and can harbor both human- and plant-pathogenic microorganisms that can contaminate crops when used for irrigation or other agricultural purposes. Treatment methods for surface water are currently limited, and there is a need for suitable treatment options. A liquid-processing unit that uses UV light for the decontamination of turbid juices was analyzed for its efficacy in the treatment of surface waters contaminated with bacterial or oomycete pathogens, i.e., Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Listeria monocytogenes, Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, and Phytophthora capsici. Five-strain cocktails of each pathogen, containing approximately 10(8) or 10(9) CFU/liter for bacteria or 10(4) or 10(5) zoospores/liter for Ph. capsici, were inoculated into aliquots of two turbid surface water irrigation sources and processed with the UV unit. Pathogens were enumerated before and after treatment. In general, as the turbidity of the water source increased, the effectiveness of the UV treatment decreased, but in all cases, 99.9% or higher inactivation was achieved. Log reductions ranged from 10.0 to 6.1 and from 5.0 to 4.2 for bacterial pathogens and Ph. capsici, respectively. PMID:24242253

  1. ORNL decontamination and decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program has been initiated at ORNL to decontaminate and decommission surplus or abandoned nuclear facilities. Program planning and technical studies have been performed by UCC-ND Engineering. A feasibility study for decommissioning the Metal Recovery Facility, a fuel reprocessing pilot plant, has been completed

  2. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogh, C.L.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Barkovsky, A.N.;

    1999-01-01

    . This paper describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained, The roofs of the houses were swept and cleaned by special roof cleaning equipment. The soil around the houses was removed by hand while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination, By monitoring the...

  3. Methods of decontaminating metal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination methods are discussed for internal and external surfaces of facilities and spaces in nuclear power plants. The problem area is divided into mechanical, chemical, electrochemical, steam emulsion and dry methods. For each group of methods the principle, most suitable application and effectiveness are given. (B.S.)

  4. Decontaminating reagents for radioactive systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decontaminating reagent composition has been developed comprising EDTA, citric acid, oxalic acid, and formic acid. Formic acid inhibits the decomposition of both EDTA and citric acid, and yields oxalic acid as a result of its own radiolysis. The invention includes the improvement of initially incorporating formic acid in the mixture and maintaining the presence of formic acid by at least one further addition

  5. Advances in PCB decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1985 several million kilograms of PCB equipment and millions of litres of PCB contaminated oil have been processed in Canada for reduction of PCB concentrations below government guidelines. Advances in extraction and metal recovery from electrical equipment, chemical dechlorination and distillation of PCB-contaminated oils were the significant technological options utilized. For example, using the Decontaksolv technology owners of PCB equipment in Canada have decontaminated three million kilograms of electrical equipment, which resulted in the reintegration of 2.7 million kilograms of useful metals (steel, copper, aluminium) into the economic circuit. The equipment decontaminated included transformers, electromagnets, relays, radiators, circuit breakers, tanks, pipes, valves, and drums. The most recent advances in this technology include improvements that makes the economical processing of capacitors, possible. Chemical dechlorination has virtually eliminated PCB-contaminated oils which are normally present in large transformers, to the point where some service companies have curtailed or discontinued their oil decontamination activities in Canada. Recent advances in this technology center around techniques for the decontamination of waste hydrocarbons, and to a lesser extent, dielectric fluids. Two example projects to illustrate recent advances have been briefly described

  6. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamdar, S. N.; Harikumar, P.

    2008-04-01

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  7. Remote decontamination system for contaminated water tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the experience of decontamination works and achievements of construction with remote- handling/unmanned technologies, Obayashi Corporation has developed technologies for the decontamination of contaminated water tanks at the Fukushima Daiichi NPS as an entity to implement with subsidies the 'Validation of technologies for contaminated water management' project in the FY2013 Supplementary Budget. Our remote decontamination system requires no manned operation inside tanks during decontamination work and contributes to exposure reduction. The decontamination performance and system practicality have been confirmed by full-scale demonstration test. This report describes the technology outline of present system and its demonstration test results. (author)

  8. Decontamination Planning and Approach to its Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Geun-young; Kim, Chang-Lak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The research of the approach to the decontamination is required since Korea doesn't have the NPP decommissioning experience. In this paper, the process flow of decontamination is described throughout the foreign case study. And, factors needed to be considered to progress decontamination smoothly are introduced. For the planning of the decontamination, there are several important decisions to be made as follows : - whether the large components are included in the decontamination items or not - whether there are a delay factors like the fuel failure - what items applied to before/after decontamination - applied technologies - using what equipment. The decontamination plan is not fixed. It can be changed by the circumstances of progress. The schedule can be shortened by the good efficiency.

  9. Decontamination Planning and Approach to its Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research of the approach to the decontamination is required since Korea doesn't have the NPP decommissioning experience. In this paper, the process flow of decontamination is described throughout the foreign case study. And, factors needed to be considered to progress decontamination smoothly are introduced. For the planning of the decontamination, there are several important decisions to be made as follows : - whether the large components are included in the decontamination items or not - whether there are a delay factors like the fuel failure - what items applied to before/after decontamination - applied technologies - using what equipment. The decontamination plan is not fixed. It can be changed by the circumstances of progress. The schedule can be shortened by the good efficiency

  10. Decontamination in the Republic of Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To continue the decontamination work in the Republic of Belarus, which was carried out by the military troops, the state specialized enterprises were formed in Gomel and Mogilev in 1991. The organization and regulations were developed inside the country: instructions, rules, radiological and hygienic criteria and norms. The enterprises concentrated on decontamination of the most socially significant facilities: kindergartens, schools, medical institutions and industrial enterprises. During 9 years Gomel State Specialized Enterprise 'Polessje' decontaminated 130 kindergartens, schools and hospitals. The total decontaminated area was 450 000 m2. The ventilation systems and equipment at 27 industrial enterprises in Gomel were decontaminated. The practical decontamination methods for areas, buildings, roofs, industrial equipment, ventilation systems were developed and tested. The special rules for handling wastes contaminated with Cs were elaborated. The paper analyzes and sums up the acquired experience which is important for implementation of rehabilitation programs and improvement of decontamination methods. (author)

  11. What makes pathogens pathogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hiller, N.Luisa; Hu, Fen Ze

    2008-01-01

    Metazoans contain multiple complex microbial ecosystems in which the balance between host and microbe can be tipped from commensalism to pathogenicity. This transition is likely to depend both on the prevailing environmental conditions and on specific gene-gene interactions placed within the context of the entire ecosystem.

  12. Metal Decontamination, Magnox, United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultra high pressure (UHP) water blasting was a successful technique deployed at Hinkley Point A, in the United Kingdom, for an isolated population of pond skips. UHP blasting achieved levels that allowed the skips to be routed via metal melt to the Energy Solutions Bear Creek facility, in the United States of America, which allowed the beneficial reuse of metal in accordance with the waste hierarchy. However, owing to higher levels of 90Sr in the remaining Magnox skips, metal melt was not an acceptable option for the skips. Decontamination trials were conducted on a representative population of remaining Magnox skips using UHP blasting and UHP blasting with abrasive. The trials demonstrated that for the remaining population of Magnox skips, and skips shared between sites via Sellafield and existing fuel routes, UHP blasting (and other techniques) could not deliver a consistent decontamination factor, or a high enough decontamination factor to significantly and reliably reduce intermediate level waste (ILW) skips to LLW or LLW skips to metal melt acceptance criteria. Based on the trial results, there was a significant risk that many ILW skips would remain ILW after decontamination with UHP blasting, along with the creation of a secondary wet ILW arising. This, coupled with a significant amount of worker dose expended for no apparent benefit, made direct disposal of the skips as LLW the only viable option. It also demonstrated that a significant amount of the radioactivity was in the base metal, or driven into the base metal by the decontamination processes. This left disposal as the only remaining option. The skips were combined with other low activity waste streams and disposed of as LLW, using averaging techniques. This technique was viable until recent restrictive guidance was received from the LLW repository regarding methods of averaging the activity of discrete waste items over a waste consignment. The added restrictions from the guidance eliminated the

  13. Evaluation of microwave steam bags for the decontamination of filtering facepiece respirators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Edward M; Williams, Jessica L; Shaffer, Ronald E

    2011-01-01

    Reusing filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) has been suggested as a strategy to conserve available supplies for home and healthcare environments during an influenza pandemic. For reuse to be possible, used FFRs must be decontaminated before redonning to reduce the risk of virus transmission; however, there are no approved methods for FFR decontamination. An effective method must reduce the microbial threat, maintain the function of the FFR, and present no residual chemical hazard. The method should be readily available, inexpensive and easily implemented by healthcare workers and the general public. Many of the general decontamination protocols used in healthcare and home settings are unable to address all of the desired qualities of an efficient FFR decontamination protocol. The goal of this study is to evaluate the use of two commercially available steam bags, marketed to the public for disinfecting infant feeding equipment, for FFR decontamination. The FFRs were decontaminated with microwave generated steam following the manufacturers' instructions then evaluated for water absorption and filtration efficiency for up to three steam exposures. Water absorption of the FFR was found to be model specific as FFRs constructed with hydrophilic materials absorbed more water. The steam had little effect on FFR performance as filtration efficiency of the treated FFRs remained above 95%. The decontamination efficacy of the steam bag was assessed using bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for a pathogenic virus. The tested steam bags were found to be 99.9% effective for inactivating MS2 on FFRs; however, more research is required to determine the effectiveness against respiratory pathogens. PMID:21525995

  14. Verification of wet blasting decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macoho Co., Ltd. participated in the projects of 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Ministry of the Environment' and 'Decontamination Verification Test FY 2011 by the Cabinet Office.' And we tested verification to use a wet blasting technology for decontamination of rubble and roads contaminated by the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Company. As a results of the verification test, the wet blasting decontamination technology showed that a decontamination rate became 60-80% for concrete paving, interlocking, dense-grated asphalt pavement when applied to the decontamination of the road. When it was applied to rubble decontamination, a decontamination rate was 50-60% for gravel and approximately 90% for concrete and wood. It was thought that Cs-134 and Cs-137 attached to the fine sludge scraped off from a decontamination object and the sludge was found to be separated from abrasives by wet cyclene classification: the activity concentration of the abrasives is 1/30 or less than the sludge. The result shows that the abrasives can be reused without problems when the wet blasting decontamination technology is used. (author)

  15. Decontamination of surfaces contaminated by radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The framework of the dissertation has been developed by the combination of research results at EIR/PSI and their subsequent application and further development as an entrepreneur at decontamination jobs throughout the nuclear industry. The work presented is arranged into 3 categories correpsonding to the chronological sequence of the decontamination process: 1) Decontamination process: preliminary investigations, theoretical elements about the formation of the contamination-layer and the decontamination mechanisms, analysis of activity profiles in contaminated materials, scale-up issues: laboratory-industrial project and decontamination model, method for treatment of boric acid and its use as deco-medium, economic aspects of the decontamination problem and test method for decontamination processes. 2) Description of the newly developed decontamination processes: formic acid/formaldehyd deco-process for steels. Key advantages: effective decontamination with generation of small quantities of an easily disposable secondary waste, universal DECOHA-decontamination process for metals on HBF4-basis for decommissioning. Key advantages: minimal radiation exposure for personnel, total regeneration of the deco-medium, minimal secondary waste, low-investment- and operating costs. This process was transfered to Recytec S.A. and was selected by UDSSR and, subsequently, a decontamination plant has been built in Chernobyl for the processing of 5 tons per day of stainless steel for unrestricted use, chemical decontamination process for concrete and brickwork. Key advantages: quick, economical, independent of geometry, little secondary waste, no damage to concrete surface. 3) Method for free release measurement of decontaminated materials for unrestricted use, by modification of geometry. The mentioned innovation have been applied several times in industry, for instance on the nuclear ship 'Otto Hahn', in the nuclear power plants Niederaichbach, Lingen, Juelich, in a Swiss watch

  16. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Technology for Decontamination of Space Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Rettberg, Petra; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Thoma, Markus; Morfill, Gregor; Zimmermann, Julia; Müller, Meike; Semenov, Igor

    2016-07-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) technology is very fast and effective in inactivation of all kinds of pathogens. It is used in hygiene and especially in medicine, since the plasma treatment can be applied to sensitive surfaces, like skin, too. In a first study to use CAP for the decontamination of space equipment we could show its potential as a quite promising alternative to the standard "dry heat" and H2O2 methods [Shimizu et al. Planetary and Space Science, 90, 60-71. (2014)]. In a follow-on study we continue the investigations to reach high application level of the technology. First, we redesign the actual setup to a plasma-gas circulation system, increasing the effectivity of inactivation and the sustainability. Additionally, we want to learn more about the plasma chemistry processes involved in the inactivation. Therefore, we perform detailed plasma and gas measurements and compare them to numerical simulations. The latter will finally be used to scale the decontamination system to sizes useful also for larger space equipment. Typical materials relevant for space equipment will be tested and investigated on surface material changes due to the plasma treatment. Additionally, it is planned to use electronic boards and compare their functionality before and after the CAP expose. We will give an overview on the status of the plasma decontamination project funded by the Bavarian Ministry of Economics.

  17. Application of a novel decontamination process using gaseous ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moat, J.; Shone, J.; Upton, M. [Manchester Univ., School of Medecine, Manchester (United Kingdom). Medical Microbiology, Translation Medicine; Cargill, J. [Old Medical School, Leeds (United Kingdom). Dept. of Microbiology

    2009-08-15

    Hospital surfaces that are touched regularly by staff carry bacterial spores and pathogens. Environmental disinfection of health care facilities is an important aspect of infection control. This paper presented a recent innovation aimed at improving hospital hygiene and decontamination of laboratory equipment. The vapour- and gas-based treatment was developed to penetrate rooms or soft furnishings and reach places inaccessible by conventional approaches. Surfaces seeded with a range of vegetative cells and spores of bacteria of clinical relevance were decontaminated using the ozone-based treatment. The efficiency of the approach for room sanitization was also evaluated. A quenching agent was used to rapidly reduce ozone concentrations to safe levels allowing treatment times of less than 1 h for most of the organisms tested. Bacteria was seeded onto agar plates and solid surfaces. Reductions in bacterial load of greater than 3 log values were then recorded for a number of organisms including Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Application of the process in a 30 m{sup 3} room showed similar reductions in viable counts for these organisms and for Clostridium difficile spores. It was concluded that ozone-based decontamination of healthcare environments could prove to be a highly cost-effective intervention. 35 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  18. Development and assessment of two decontamination processes: closed electropolishing system for decontamination of underwater surfaces -vibratory decontamination with abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two decontamination processes have been developed to decontaminate the stainless steel components of nuclear power plants. The first process uses an underwater closed electropolishing system for the decontamination of large stainless steel surfaces in flooded systems without loss of electrolyte. Large underwater contaminated areas can be treated with an electropolishing head covering an area of 2 m2 in one step. The decontamination factors achieved with this technique range between 100 and 1000. The second process consists in the decontamination of nuclear components using vibratory equipment with self-cleaning abrasives generating a minimum quantity of waste. This technique may reach contamination factors similar to those obtained with other abrasive methods (brush abrasion, abrasive blasting, etc...). The obtained decontamination factors range between 5 and 50. Only a small quantity of waste is generated, which is treated and reduced in volume by filtration and evaporation

  19. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination was carried out in and around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the autumn of 1995. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.34) and outdoor (DRF = 0.20) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roofs of the houses were swept and cleaned by special roof cleaning equipment. The soil around the houses was removed by hand while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a triple digging method that reduces the dose rate without generating waste. In the appendices of the report the measurement data are available for further analysis. (au) 16 tabs., 15 ills

  20. Decontamination in a Russian settlement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roed, J.; Lange, C.; Andersson, K.G. [and others

    1996-03-01

    Decontamination was carried out in and around three houses in Novo Bobovichi, Russia, in the autumn of 1995. It was demonstrated that significant reductions in the dose rate both indoor (DRF = 0.34) and outdoor (DRF = 0.20) can be achieved when a careful cleaning is undertaken. This report describes the decontamination work carried out and the results obtained. The roofs of the houses were swept and cleaned by special roof cleaning equipment. The soil around the houses was removed by hand while carefully monitoring the ground for residual contamination. By monitoring the decline in the dose rate during the different stages of the work the dose reducing effect of each action has been estimated. This report also describes a test of a triple digging method that reduces the dose rate without generating waste. In the appendices of the report the measurement data are available for further analysis. (au) 16 tabs., 15 ills.

  1. Decontamination of radionuclides in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The release of radionuclides arising from the Chernobyle accident led to widespread contamination of the northern hemisphere through fallout. This accident provided again an opportunity to investigate how and to what extent the radionuclides contamination in crops and animal derived foods could be reduced. The following topics are included in this paper. (1) How to reduce the transfer of radiostrontium and/or cesium from soil to crops: A pH increase of soil is effective for reducing their plant uptake. (2) How to reduce the transfer of radiocesium to animal derived foods: Ammonium-ferric-cyanoferrate (AFCF) should be the most effective compound for radiocesium excretion in the feces. Experiments with lactating cows and/or poultry gave extremely good results with respect to low radiocesium concentrations in milk, meat and eggs. (3) Removal coefficients of radiostrontium, cesium and iodine from contaminated leaf vegetables and cereals during food processing and culinary preparation: Though different by species, more than 80% of cesium and about 50% of strontium and iodine can be removed during culinary preparation of washing and boiling. (4) Simultaneous decontamination of radiocesium and iodine from drinking water and liquid milk: Metal ferrocyanide-anion exchange resin, specifically Fe ferrocyanide one, was successfully used for a rapid and simple decontamination of radiocesium and iodine in the liquid samples arising from the Chernobyle accident. (5) Removal of radiocesium from meat: The meat structurally contaminated with radiocesium is easily and very successfully decontaminated by pickling in NaCl solution and the decontamination is much speeded up by freezing meat before pickling. (author)

  2. Skin contamination - prevention and decontaminating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed examination is made of the structure of human skin. Measures were drawn up to prevent skin contamination in nuclear installations as well as contaminated skin was decontaminated from the personnel. By systematically applying these measures a significant level of success was achieved in preventing contamination in nuclear installations. Cases where more far-reaching chemical methods had to be used were kept to a minimum. (R.P.)

  3. Bacterial infections: antibiotics and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah

    Infectious disease is caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa and micro-organisms including the mycoplasmas, rickettsiae and chlamydiae. Most of the infections commonly encountered in the UK are caused either by bacteria or viruses. This article describes bacterial structure and function to explain how antibiotics work and the processes of decontamination such as cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation, which are important in infection control. PMID:15224613

  4. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (10 cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to oC) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature

  5. Decontamination of Surfaces by Ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was made of factors such as frequency, intensity, and time in the case of steel and of cotton cloth contaminated by fission products. Results show that the method is only of value in the case of steel and that it is necessary to operate at an optimum frequency of 80 khz and with an intensity of at least 4 W/cm2. The difficulty of proposing a valid explanation for the decontamination mechanism is discussed. (authors)

  6. New decontamination techniques generating a low volume of effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document presents some decontamination techniques, their principles, characteristics and advantages and provides references on the subject. Techniques as foam and spray foam decontamination, dry steam decontamination, electro-decontamination and gel decontamination are presented. A presentation of TRIADE, cleanup dismantling servicing, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. New decontamination techniques generating a low volume of effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents some decontamination techniques, their principles, characteristics and advantages and provides references on the subject. Techniques as foam and spray foam decontamination, dry steam decontamination, electro-decontamination and gel decontamination are presented. A presentation of TRIADE, cleanup dismantling servicing, is also provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Pickering emulsions for skin decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Alicia; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Rolland, Pauline; Chevalier, Yves; Josse, Denis; Briançon, Stéphanie

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed at developing innovative systems for skin decontamination. Pickering emulsions, i.e. solid-stabilized emulsions, containing silica (S-PE) or Fuller's earth (FE-PE) were formulated. Their efficiency for skin decontamination was evaluated, in vitro, 45min after an exposure to VX, one of the most highly toxic chemical warfare agents. Pickering emulsions were compared to FE (FE-W) and silica (S-W) aqueous suspensions. PE containing an oil with a similar hydrophobicity to VX should promote its extraction. All the formulations reduced significantly the amount of VX quantified on and into the skin compared to the control. Wiping the skin surface with a pad already allowed removing more than half of VX. FE-W was the less efficient (85% of VX removed). The other formulations (FE-PE, S-PE and S-W) resulted in more than 90% of the quantity of VX removed. The charge of particles was the most influential factor. The low pH of formulations containing silica favored electrostatic interactions of VX with particles explaining the better elimination from the skin surface. Formulations containing FE had basic pH, and weak interactions with VX did not improve the skin decontamination. However, these low interactions between VX and FE promote the transfer of VX into the oil droplets in the FE-PE. PMID:27021875

  9. Contamination with radioactive materials and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The content of the monograph mainly designed for personnel in nuclear power plants, radiochemical laboratories and laboratories of nuclear medicine departments is basically divided into two parts. In the general part, the contamination of persons and objects with radioactive substances is discussed and the physico-chemical principles of decontamination are presented. The main part of the publication is devoted to concrete practical decontamination procedures. Special attention is devoted to the decontamination of components of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors and to the decontamination of the equipment of radiochemical and radiological laboratories (in-service, after accidents and during decommissioning). Also described is the decontamination of garments, underwear, protective aids, rooms, buildings, terrain and water. Also included is a chapter on the disposal of radioactive wastes generated during decontamination. (A.K.)

  10. Specific decontamination methods: water nozzle, cavitation erosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The erosion and decontamination tests carried out in the framework of this study, allowed to specify the fields favourable to the use of the high pressure jet taking into account the determinant parameters that are the pressure and the target-nozzle distance. The previous spraying of gels with chemical reagents (sulfuric acid anf hydrazine) allows to get better decontamination factors. Then, the feasibility study of a decontamination method by cavitation erosion is presented. Gelled compounds for decontamination have been developed; their decontamination quality has been evaluated by comparative contamination tests in laboratory and decontamination tests of samples of materials used in nuclear industry; this last method is adapted to remote handling devices and produces a low quantity of secondary effluents, so it allows to clean high contaminated installation on the site without additional exposure of the personnel

  11. Geographic assistance of decontamination strategy elaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Those who elaborates the strategy of decontamination of vast territories is to take into consideration the heterogeneity of such elements of landscape as relief, lithology, humidity and types of soils and, vegetation, both on local and regional level. Geographic assistance includes evaluation of efficacy of decontamination technologies in different natural conditions, identification of areas of their effective application and definition of ecological damage, estimation of balances of the radionuclides in the landscapes to create background of the decontamination strategy

  12. The effect of communication during mass decontamination

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlot, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Reports from small-scale incidents in which decontamination was conducted suggest that a successful communication strategy is vital in order to increase public compliance with, and reduce public anxiety about, decontamination. However, it has not been possible to examine public behaviour during large scale incidents involving decontamination. The aim of the research reported here was to examine the relationship between people’s positive perceptions of responding agencies...

  13. Public experiences of mass casualty decontamination

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlôt, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we analyze feedback from simulated casualties who took part in field exercises involving mass decontamination, to gain an understanding of how responder communication can affect people’s experiences of and compliance with decontamination. We analyzed questionnaire data gathered from 402 volunteers using the framework approach, to provide an insight into the public’s experiences of decontamination and how these experiences are shaped by the actions of emergency responders. Fac...

  14. Decontamination efficiency of selected locally produced detergents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency was tested of 32 different detergents in the decontamination of PVC floorings and plastic concretes. Radionuclides 85Sr, 137Cs separately and in mixtures were used for contamination. The samples were contaminated with aqueous soulutions of radionuclides and then decontaminated using 1% solutions of the individual detergents. All studied detergents reduce the initial level of contamination by 50 to 90%, this also in decontamination under static conditions. (M.D.)

  15. Soil decontamination at Rocky Flats Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of work being done at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) to decontaminate soil contaminated with plutonium-239. How the contamination came about is described, as well as what has been done to contain it while decontamination methods are being developed. The purpose of the work is to decontaminate the soil so that it can be returned to the site instead of having to package, ship, and store it

  16. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis

    OpenAIRE

    Chad W Stratilo; Crichton, Melissa K. F.; Sawyer, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin), compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in ...

  17. Pathogen Phytosensing: Plants to Report Plant Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal Stewart

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time systems that provide evidence of pathogen contamination in crops can be an important new line of early defense in agricultural centers. Plants possess defense mechanisms to protect against pathogen attack. Inducible plant defense is controlled by signal transduction pathways, inducible promoters and cis-regulatory elements corresponding to key genes involved in defense, and pathogen-specific responses. Identified inducible promoters and cis-acting elements could be utilized in plant sentinels, or ‘phytosensors’, by fusing these to reporter genes to produce plants with altered phenotypes in response to the presence of pathogens. Here, we have employed cis-acting elements from promoter regions of pathogen inducible genes as well as those responsive to the plant defense signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Synthetic promoters were constructed by combining various regulatory elements supplemented with the enhancer elements from the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter to increase basal level of the GUS expression. The inducibility of each synthetic promoter was first assessed in transient expression assays using Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts and then examined for efficacy in stably transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS expression analyses showed that both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants responded to elicitor and phytohormone treatments with increased GUS expression when compared to untreated plants. Pathogen-inducible phytosensor studies were initiated by analyzing the sensitivity of the synthetic promoters against virus infection. Transgenic tobacco plants infected with Alfalfa mosaic virus showed an increase in GUS expression when compared to mock-inoculated control plants, whereas Tobacco mosaic virus infection caused no changes in GUS expression. Further research, using these transgenic plants against a range of different

  18. Vibratory finishing as a decontamination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of this research is to develop vibratory finishing into a large-scale decontamination technique that can economicaly remove transuranic and other surface contamination from large volumes of waste produced by the operation and decommissioning of retired nuclear facilities. The successful development and widespread application of this decontamination technique would substantially reduce the volume of waste requiring expensive geologic disposal. Other benefits include exposure reduction for decontamination personnel and reduced risk of environmental contamination. Laboratory-scale studies showed that vibratory finishing can rapidly reduce the contamination level of transuranic-contaminated stainless steel and Plexiglas to well below the 10-nCi/g limit. The capability of vibratory finishing as a decontamination process was demonstrated on a large scale. The first decontamination demonstration was conducted at the Hanford N-Reactor, where a vibratory finisher was installed to reduce personnel exposure during the summer outage. Items decontaminated included fuel spacers, process-tube end caps, process-tube inserts, pump parts, ball-channel inspection tools and miscellaneous hand tools. A second demonstration is currently being conducted in the decontamination facility at the Hanford 231-Z Building. During this demonstration, transuranic-contaminated material from decommissioned plutonium facilities is being decontaminated to <10 nCi/g to minimize the volume of material that will require geologic disposal. Items that are being decontaminated include entire glove boxes, process-hood structural material and panels, process tanks, process-tank shields, pumps, valves and hand tools used during the decommissioning work

  19. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors

  20. Proceedings of the concrete decontamination workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halter, J.M.; Sullivan, R.G.; Currier, A.J.

    1980-05-28

    Fourteen papers were presented. These papers describe concrete surface removal methods and equipment, as well as experiences in decontaminating and removing both power and experimental nuclear reactors.

  1. Decontamination of protective clothing against radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to describe the experimental results of external surface mechanical decontamination of the studied materials forming selected suits. Seven types of personal protective suits declaring protection against radioactive aerosol contamination in different price ranges were selected for decontamination experiments. The outcome of this study is to compare the efficiency of a double-step decontamination process on various personal protective suits against radioactive contamination. A comparison of the decontamination effectiveness for the same type of suit, but for the different chemical mixtures (140La in a water-soluble or in a water-insoluble compound), was performed. (authors)

  2. Handbook of radioactive contamination and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this book is to present a comprehensive picture of the fundamentals of general decontamination of solid surfaces and water. This concerns primarily decontamination of the operational facilities in nuclear power plants equipped with pressure water reactors, and decontamination of the equipment systems in radiochemical laboratories and nuclear medicine departments. Other special decontamination branches of current interest are also dealt with briefly. In common other branches of applied science and technology, the art of decontamination is being continuously enriched by the progress achieved in a variety of relevant scientific disciplines, and it employs the advances in the practice. To keep pace with the rapidly developing technology, and to prevent a lagging art of decontamination from becoming a limiting factor in the further development of nuclear energetics and other utilization of radionuclides, it seems that for some time to come main trends in the development of decontamination will include: development and use of new decontamination methods; utilization of progressive elements of automation and robotics; development and use of such decontamination formulations as would minimize the volume of radioactive wastes and that would produce wastes in a form in which they could be either easily further treated or safely disposed of without any undue risk of endangering human health or polluting human environment. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  3. Decontamination and reclamation of agricultural land following a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report represents a literature review of methods for removing or reducing the potential hazard from 137Cs and 239Pu. Each technique is assessed for practicality, efficiency, time, cost and potential adverse consequences. An alternative to removing activity is dilution by mixing contamination into the soil using conventional ploughs. Deep placement using special machinery provides shielding and removes activity from the rooting zone. Root inhibitors may be used to control root uptake. Changes in land management may also be considered. Crops may be planted without prior tillage to control uptake. The use of potassium-based fertilisers has been shown to reduce caesium uptake in low-potassium soils, and the addition of clay minerals might have a similar effect. The production of sensitive crops such as vegetable and fruit could be moved away from the contaminated area and exchanged for sugar, oil crops or forestry. When disposal and storage of waste is considered, the cost of removing surface soil may reach Pound 10,000 per hectare. Ploughing, would cost between Pound 30 and Pound 460 per hectare. Adaptable computer models for cost effective choice have been developed in the US. (author)

  4. Decontamination Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technology development of surface decontamination in the uranium conversion facility before decommissioning, technology development of component decontamination in the uranium conversion facility after decommissioning, uranium sludge treatment technology development, radioactive waste soil decontamination technology development at the aim of the temporary storage soil of KAERI, Optimum fixation methodology derivation on the soil and uranium waste, and safety assessment methodology development of self disposal of the soil and uranium waste after decontamination have been performed in this study. The unique decontamination technology applicable to the component of the nuclear facility at room temperature was developed. Low concentration chemical decontamination technology which is very powerful so as to decrease the radioactivity of specimen surface under the self disposal level was developed. The component decontamination technology applicable to the nuclear facility after decommissioning by neutral salt electro-polishing was also developed. The volume of the sludge waste could be decreased over 80% by the sludge waste separation method by water. The electrosorption method on selective removal of U(VI) to 1 ppm of unrestricted release level using the uranium-containing lagoon sludge waste was tested and identified. Soil decontamination process and equipment which can reduce the soil volume over 90% were developed. A pilot size of soil decontamination equipment which will be used to development of real scale soil decontamination equipment was designed, fabricated and demonstrated. Optimized fixation methodology on soil and uranium sludge was derived from tests and evaluation of the results. Safety scenario and safety evaluation model were development on soil and uranium sludge aiming at self disposal after decontamination

  5. Magnetic separation for soil decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) is a physical separation process that is used to extract magnetic particles from mixtures. The technology is used on a large scale in the kaolin clay industry to whiten or brighten kaolin clay and increase its value. Because all uranium and plutonium compounds are slightly magnetic, HGMS can be used to separate these contaminants from non-magnetic soils. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was signed in 1992 between Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Company (LESAT) to develop HGMS for soil decontamination. This paper reports progress and describes the HGMS technology

  6. Development of decontamination agent for radioactively contaminated urban surface and its decontamination properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, B. G.; Won, H. J.; Jyung, K. J.; Lee, B. G.; Oh, W. Z. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The decontamination of the urban building surfaces, based on the covering of clay suspensions, has been studied. An ammonium ion was effective as an ion exchanger of contaminated radionuclides. But, ammonium ion appears to be a powerful flocculant for clay suspension. We overcomes the phenomena by adding the hectorite as an additive, and developed stable clay decontamination agent which contained 15 times ammonium ion of cation exchange capacity of the natural clay. From the fluid behavior experiments of the developed clay decontamination agent were non-Newtonian and shear thinning fluid. The agents would be effectively sprayed on the contaminated building surfaces with very low spraying energy. Optimum synthetic condition were determined by the experiments of surface contact angle, fluid characteristics and decontamination behaviors. The decontamination performance of the clay decontamination agents on typical urban building construction materials, the flow behaviors of the suspensions, decontamination characteristics on specimen are reported in this paper. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Development of decontamination agent for radioactively contaminated urban surface and its decontamination properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination of the urban building surfaces, based on the covering of clay suspensions, has been studied. An ammonium ion was effective as an ion exchanger of contaminated radionuclides. But, ammonium ion appears to be a powerful flocculant for clay suspension. We overcomes the phenomena by adding the hectorite as an additive, and developed stable clay decontamination agent which contained 15 times ammonium ion of cation exchange capacity of the natural clay. From the fluid behavior experiments of the developed clay decontamination agent were non-Newtonian and shear thinning fluid. The agents would be effectively sprayed on the contaminated building surfaces with very low spraying energy. Optimum synthetic condition were determined by the experiments of surface contact angle, fluid characteristics and decontamination behaviors. The decontamination performance of the clay decontamination agents on typical urban building construction materials, the flow behaviors of the suspensions, decontamination characteristics on specimen are reported in this paper. (author) 11 refs., 5 figs

  8. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principles of dilute chemical decontamination are described, as well as the method of application. Methods of computing savings in radiation dose and costs are presented, with results from actual experience and illustrative examples. It is concluded that dilute chemical decontamination is beneficial in many cases. It reduces radiation exposure of workers, saves money, and simplifies maintenance work

  9. Project gnome decontamination and decommissioning plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document presents the operational plan for conducting the final decontamination and decommissioning work at the site of the first U.S. nuclear detonation designed specifically for peaceful purposes and the first underground event on the Plowshare Program to take place outside the Nevada Test Site. The plan includes decontamination and decommissioning procedures, radiological guidelines, and the NV concept of operations

  10. PND fuel handling decontamination: facilities and techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of various decontamination techniques and equipment has become a critical part of Fuel Handling maintenance work at Ontario Hydro's Pickering Nuclear Division. This paper presents an overview of the set up and techniques used for decontamination in the PND Fuel Handling Maintenance Facility and the effectiveness of each. (author). 1 tab., 9 figs

  11. Chemically reducing decontamination method for radioactive metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns a decontamination method of electrolytically reducing radioactive metal wastes, then chemically dissolving the surface thereof with a strong acid decontaminating solution. This method utilizes dissolving characteristics of stainless steels in the strong acid solution. That is, in the electrolytic reduction operation, a portion of the metal wastes is brought into contact with a strong acid decontaminating solution, and voltage and current are applied to the portion and keep it for a long period of time so as to make the potential of the immersed portion of the metal wastes to an active soluble region. Then, the electrolytic reduction operation is stopped, and the metal wastes are entirely immersed in the decontaminating solution to decontaminate by chemical dissolution. As the decontaminating solution, strong acid such as sulfuric acid, nitric acid is used. Since DC current power source capacity required for causing reaction in the active soluble region can be decreased, the decontamination facility can be minimized and simplified, and necessary electric power can be saved even upon decontamination of radioactive metal wastes made of stainless steels and having a great area. Further, chemical dissolution can be conducted without adding an expensive oxidizing agent. (N.H.)

  12. INTEGRATED VERTICAL AND OVERHEAD DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities performed during FY98 and describes the planned activities for FY99. Accomplishments for FY98 include identifying and selecting decontamination, the screening of potential characterization technologies, development of minimum performance factors for the decontamination technology, and development and identification of Applicable, Relevant and Appropriate Regulations (ARARs).

  13. Testing and evaluation of eight decontamination chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report covers experimental work comparing eight different decontamination chemicals. Seven of these chemicals have some novelty, or are not currently in use at the ICPP. The eighth is a common ICPP decontamination reagent used as a baseline for effective comparison. Decontamination factors, waste generation values, and corrosion rates are tabulated for these chemicals. Recommendations are given for effective methods of non-sodium or low-sodium decontamination chemicals. The two most effective chemical for decontamination found in these test were a dilute hydrofluoric and nitric acid (HF/HNO3) mixture and a fluoroboric acid solution. The fluoroboric acid solution (1 molar) was by far the most effective decontamination reagent, but suffered the problem of generating significant final calcine volume. The HF/HNO3 solution performed a very good decontamination of the SIMCON coupons while generating only small amounts of calcine volume. Concentration variables were also tested, and optimized for these two solutions. Several oxidation/reduction decon chemical systems were also tested. These systems were similar to the TURCO 4502 and TURCO 4521 solutions used for general decontamination at the ICPP. A low sodium alternative, nitric acid/potassium permanganate, to the ''high sodium'' TURCO 4502 was tested extensively, optimized and recommended for general ICPP use. A reductive chemical solution, oxalic acid/nitric acid was also shown to have significant advantages

  14. Electrochemical decontamination system for actinide processing gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedman, D.E.; Lugo, J.L.; Ford, D.K.; Nelson, T.O.; Trujillo, V.L.; Martinez, H.E.

    1998-03-01

    An electrolytic decontamination technology has been developed and successfully demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for the decontamination of actinide processing gloveboxes. The technique decontaminates the interior surfaces of stainless steel gloveboxes utilizing a process similar to electropolishing. The decontamination device is compact and transportable allowing it to be placed entirely within the glovebox line. In this way, decontamination does not require the operator to wear any additional personal protective equipment and there is no need for additional air handling or containment systems. Decontamination prior to glovebox decommissioning reduces the potential for worker exposure and environmental releases during the decommissioning, transport, and size reduction procedures which follow. The goal of this effort is to reduce contamination levels of alpha emitting nuclides for a resultant reduction in waste level category from High Level Transuranic (TRU) to low Specific Activity (LSA, less than or equal 100 nCi/g). This reduction in category results in a 95% reduction in disposal and disposition costs for the decontaminated gloveboxes. The resulting contamination levels following decontamination by this method are generally five orders of magnitude below the LSA specification. Additionally, the sodium sulfate based electrolyte utilized in the process is fully recyclable which results in the minimum of secondary waste. The process bas been implemented on seven gloveboxes within LANL`s Plutonium Facility at Technical Area 55. Of these gloveboxes, two have been discarded as low level waste items and the remaining five have been reused.

  15. Recent advances in Canadian decontamination technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1973 to 1994, 15 full- and one sub-system decontaminations of CANDU®reactors were carried out using CAN-DECON™ and CAN-DEREM Plus™ processes. The CAN-DECON™ process was developed in the late 1960s and was initially applied in Nuclear Power Demonstration Reactor and Gentilly-1 Nuclear Generating Station on a trial basis, before it was applied as full-system decontamination at Douglas Point in 1975. The decontaminations of the CANDU® reactors, although successful, did highlight some short-comings of the process, and the CAN-DEREM™ and CAN-DEREM Plus™ processes were developed to address these. This paper presents a brief review of the previous decontamination of CANDU® reactors, discussing some key process issues (e.g., carbon steel corrosion, waste volume and low decontamination factors). The paper reviews advances in these decontamination processes, focusing on several major improvements to the process. These include the development of CAN-DEREM™ and CAN-DEREM Plus™ processes to improve process effectiveness, reduction in carbon steel corrosion by use of an effective corrosion inhibitor and the development of a reducing agent to improve process effectiveness. The paper also provides an overview of some of the recent application of the decontamination processes at Chalk River Laboratories, and recent decontamination process qualification for a CANDU® reactor. (author)

  16. Decontamination manual of RI handling laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on experiences in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the essential and practical knowledge of radioactive contamination and its decontamination, and the method and procedure of floor decontamination are described for researcher and managing person in charge of handling radioisotopes (RI) in RI handling laboratories. Essential knowledge concerns the uniqueness of solid surface contamination derived from RI half lives and quantities, surface contamination density limit, and mode/mechanism of contamination. The principle of decontamination is a single conduct with recognition of chemical form of the RI under use. As the practical knowledge, there are physical and chemical methods of solid surface decontamination. The latter involves use of inorganic acids, chelaters and surfactants. Removal and replacement of contaminated solid like floor material are often effective. Distribution mapping of surface contamination can be done by measuring the radioactivity in possibly contaminated areas, and is useful for planning of effective decontamination. Floor surface decontamination is for the partial and spread areas of the floor. It is essential to conduct the decontamination with reagent from the highly to less contaminated areas. Skin decontamination with either neutral detergent or titanium oxide is also described. (N.I.)

  17. The 3rd power unit roofing decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most features of the 3rd power unit (PU) roofing decontamination are described: 1) the most active materials were thrown into the 4th PU ruins before the Ukrytie construction completion; 2) the decontamination was fulfilled using remote-controlled mechanisms and manual devices (the main part). 6 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this coordinated research programme (CRP) were to promote the exchange of information on the practical experience by Member States in decontamination and decommissioning. The scope of the programme included several areas of decontamination and decommissioning rather than focusing on a single aspect of it, in line with recommendation of the experts who participated in Phase 1 of the CRP. Experts felt that this format would generate better awareness of decontamination and decommissioning and would be more effective vehicle for the exchange of information by stimulating broader discussion on all aspects of decontamination and decommissioning. Special emphasis was given to the development of principles and methodologies to facilitate decommissioning and to the new methods and techniques for optimization of decontamination and disassembly of equipment. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Decontamination and modification of liquid scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new technique for decontaminating and recyling used liquid scintillator (LS) is discussed. A modification of hydrophobic scintillator for use with aqueous samples is also described. Both aliphatic and aromatic based LS (Dioxane and Tritol) are effectively decontaminated by extraction with NaOH. A single extraction gives a decontamination factor (DF) of about 90%. Thus 3-4 such extractions decontaminate the LS to background level. Toluene scintillator is unsuitable for aqueous samples because it does not hold water. However, it can be solubilised by alcohol. This LS is decontaminated by separating two phases with excess of water. Recovered LS after proper dilutions gives about 96% efficiency with respect to fresh LS. In all the systems studied generation of active waste ranges from 12-47% depending upon the activity present in the sample. (H.K.)

  20. Concrete decontamination and demolition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding

  1. Psychosocial considerations for mass decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mass exposure to explosions, infectious agents, food-borne illnesses, chemicals or radiological materials may require mass decontamination that have critical psychosocial implications for the public and for both traditional and non-traditional responders in terms of impact and of response. Five main issues are common to mass decontamination events: (i) perception, (ii) somatisation, (iii) media role and communication, (iv) information sharing, (v) behavioural guidance and (vi) organisational issues. Empirical evidence is drawn from a number of cases, including Chernobyl; Goiania, Brazil; the sarin gas attack in Tokyo; the anthrax attacks in the USA; Three Mile Island; and by features of the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome pandemic. In this paper, a common platform for mass casualty management is explored and suggestions for mass interventions are proposed across the complete event timeline, from pre-event threat and warning stages through to the impact and reconstruction phases. Implication for responders, health care and emergency infrastructure, public behaviour, screening processes, risk communication and media management are described. (authors)

  2. Decontamination Technology Development for Nuclear Research Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The originative CO2 pellet blasting equipment was developed by improving additional components such as feed screw, idle roller and air-lock feeder to clear up the problems of freezing and discontinuity of blasting and by adopting pneumatically operated vacuum suction head and vacuum cup to prevent recontamination by collecting contaminant particulates simultaneously with the decontamination. The optimum decontamination process was established according to the kind of materials such as metal, concrete and plastic and the type of contaminants such as particulate, fixed chemical compound and oil. An excellent decontamination performances were verified by means of the lab-scale hot test with radioactive specimen and the technology demonstration in IMEF hot cell. The PFC dry decontamination equipment applicable to the surface contaminated with high radioactive particulate was developed. This equipment consists of the unit processes such as spray, collection, filtration and dry distillation designed originatively applicable to inside of dry hot cell. Through the demonstration of PFC spray decontamination process in IMEF hot cell, we secured on-site applicability and the decontamination efficiency more than 90 %. We investigated the characteristics of dismantled metal waste melting and the radionuclide(Co, Cs, U) distribution into ingot and slag by melting decontamination experiments using electric arc melter. We obtained the decontamination factors greater than 100 for Cs and of 10∼100 for uranium. The pilot scale(200 kg/batch) demonstration for melting decontamination was carried out successfully using high temperature melting facility at KAERI. The volume reduction factor of 1/7 and the economical feasibility of the melting decontamination were verified.

  3. Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contamination is the presence of radioactive substances in or on the materials, human body or other places where it is undesirable or could be harmful. Contamination in nuclear installation may occur during normal operation or due to occurrences of incident or accident. Contamination may result in external as well as internal exposure of the radiation workers. External exposure is from the deposited activity in or on the surfaces. Internal exposure is either due to inhalation of resuspended activity or due to skin absorption through cross contamination and failure of protective barriers or inadvertent ingestion, by mouth due to wrong hygienic habits. To prevent contamination in nuclear installations, efforts are to be made at each stage i.e., design, construction, commissioning, operation, maintenance and decommissioning

  4. Organic Agriculture and Food Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Dr. Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 90. Food safety: Many aspects of organic agriculture reduce the risks of pathogens (zoonoses), mycotoxins, bacterial toxins and industrial toxic pollutants, compared to conventional agriculture. However, some other aspects potentially increase them. Reduced resistance to antibiotics in zoonotic pathogens indicates a better prognosis for patients if an infection does occur. For natural plant toxins, the content in plants appears to systematically be 10 to 50 percent ...

  5. Decontamination of objects in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kusano, Yukihiro;

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination of objects (food) in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is used for the exper......The decontamination of objects (food) in a sealed container by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua, is used...... for the experiments. Glass slides were inoculated with L. innocua. The slides were placed inside a low density polyethylene (LDPE) bag. The bag was filled with a gas mixture of 97.5 Vol% Ar and 2.5 Vol% O2 and subsequently sealed. The bag was placed between the electrodes of a dielectric barrier discharge...

  6. Decontamination techniques for BWR power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes various techniques used for decontamination in BWR power generation plants. Objectives and requirements for decontamination in BWR power plants are first discussed focusing on reduction in dose, prevention of spread of contamination, cleaning of work environments, exposure of equipment parts for inspection, re-use of decontaminated resources, and standards for decontamination. Then, the report outlines major physical, chemical and electrochemical decontamination techniques generally used in BWR power generation plants. The physical techniques include suction of deposits in tanks, jet cleaning, particle blast cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, coating with special paints, and flushing cleaning. The chemical decontamination techniques include the use of organic acids etc. for dissolution of oxidized surface layers and treatment of secondary wastes such as liquids released from primary decontamination processes. Other techniques are used for removal of penetrated contaminants, and soft and hard cladding in and on equipment and piping that are in direct contact with radioactive materials used in nuclear power generation plants. (N.K.)

  7. Effect of Chemical Reagents in Foam Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. This paper deals with understanding the effects of chemical reagents involved in foam decontamination efficiency, evaluation of side effect on foam stability and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. Basic experiments using the nanoparticle-based complex fluid decontamination foam have been performed in order to development of decontamination foam technology. Results show that in the case of coexistence of chemical reagents, for the purpose of the good foam ability and foam stability, it is necessary to increase the concentration of surfactant. In corrosion test, metal materials including carbon steel, stainless steel 304, aluminum, inconel 600 and cupper, generally corrosion solubility percent in nitric acid solution were higher than in phosphoric acid solution. Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of three decontamination formulations on contaminant carbon steel component of dry oven. The results shows decontamination factor was in the range of 6.1∼13.4. Results suggest that our foam formulations have a feasibility potential to removal of about 83∼93% total radioactivity in contaminant

  8. Effect of Chemical Reagents in Foam Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Beom; Yoonm Inho; Jung, Chonghun; Choi, Wangkyu [Korea Atomic Energy research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. This paper deals with understanding the effects of chemical reagents involved in foam decontamination efficiency, evaluation of side effect on foam stability and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. Basic experiments using the nanoparticle-based complex fluid decontamination foam have been performed in order to development of decontamination foam technology. Results show that in the case of coexistence of chemical reagents, for the purpose of the good foam ability and foam stability, it is necessary to increase the concentration of surfactant. In corrosion test, metal materials including carbon steel, stainless steel 304, aluminum, inconel 600 and cupper, generally corrosion solubility percent in nitric acid solution were higher than in phosphoric acid solution. Bench-scale testing was used to evaluate the efficacy of three decontamination formulations on contaminant carbon steel component of dry oven. The results shows decontamination factor was in the range of 6.1∼13.4. Results suggest that our foam formulations have a feasibility potential to removal of about 83∼93% total radioactivity in contaminant.

  9. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, G.B.; Berry, H.W.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250{degrees}C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375{degrees} to 1250{degrees}C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure.

  10. Summary of decontamination cover manufacturing experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination cover forming cracks and vent cup assembly leaks through the decontamination covers were early manufacturing problems. The decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield was as low as 55%. Applicable tooling and procedures were examined. All manufacturing steps from foil fabrication to final assembly leak testing were considered as possible causes or contributing factors to these problems. The following principal changes were made to correct these problems: (1) the foil annealing temperature was reduced from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C, (2) the decontamination cover fabrication procedure (including visual inspection for surface imperfections and elimination of superfluous operations) was improved, (3) the postforming dye penetrant inspection procedure was revised for increased sensitivity, (4) a postforming (prewelding) 1250 degrees C/1 h vacuum stress-relief operation was added, (5) a poststress relief (prewelding) decontamination cover piece-part leak test was implemented, (6) the hold-down fixture used during the decontamination cover-to-cup weld was modified, and concomitantly, and (7) the foil fabrication process was changed from the extruding and rolling of 63-mm-diam vacuum arc-remelted ingots (extrusion process) to the rolling of 19-mm-square arc-melted drop castings (drop cast process). Since these changes were incorporated, the decontamination cover total manufacturing process yield has been 91 %. Most importantly, more than 99% of the decontamination covers welded onto vent cup assemblies were acceptable. The drastic yield improvement is attributed primarily to the change in the foil annealing temperature from 1375 degrees to 1250 degrees C and secondarily to the improvements in the decontamination cover fabrication procedure

  11. Crop protection in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letourneau, D.; Bruggen, van A.H.C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe pests and diseases and their management in organic versus conventional agriculture. Also two case studies are described: 1. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional cereal crops in Europe and 2. Pest and pathogen regulation in organic versus conventional tomat

  12. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  13. Radiation decontamination of poultry viscera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamdar, S.N. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: snjam2@yahoo.com; Harikumar, P. [Food Technology Division, FIPLY, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-04-15

    Application of gamma radiation for decontamination of poultry viscera was examined. Exposure to a dose of 20 kGy rendered the viscera sterile (<1 CFU/10 g tissue), while 5 and 10 kGy reduced the total bacterial count by 4 and 6 log{sub 10} cycles, respectively, eliminating the coliforms to <1 CFU/g of tissue. Analysis of organoleptic and biochemical parameters [proximate composition, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN), lipid peroxidation (TBARS value), and levels of TCA soluble peptides and proteolytic enzyme] showed that gamma irradiation (20 kGy) followed by storage at 4 deg. C for 62 days induced no significant change (except lipid peroxidation) in the acceptability of poultry viscera. However, storage at ambient temperature (26 {sup o}C) produced enhanced levels of TVBN and TCA soluble products accompanied by higher drip loss. Activities of proteolytic enzymes, except acid protease, did not show any significant change during post-irradiation storage at either temperature.

  14. Guide for decontaminating swimming pool at schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of TEPCO Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a huge amount of radioactive materials was widely dispersed and precipitated into the environment. Swimming pools in Fukushima prefectures were contaminated with the radioactives. We JAEA carried out several demonstration tests to decontaminate the radioactives and discharge the pool water safely. We concluded the results obtained from the tests as 'Guide for decontaminating Swimming Pool at School' and released it quickly. Following this, we also released the guide in English. This manuscript, as an experimental report of the swimming pool water decontamination, is consisted from the guide in Japanese and English prepared. (author)

  15. Mechanical and chemical decontamination of surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination does not mean more than a special technique of cleaning surfaces by methods well known in the industry. The main difference consists in the facts that more than just the visible dirt is to be removed and that radioactive contamination cannot be seen. Especially, intensive mechanical and chemical carry-off methods are applied to attack the surfaces. In order to minimize damages caused to the surfaces, the decontamination method is to adapt to the material and the required degree of decontamination. The various methods, their advantages and disadvantages are described, and the best known chemical solutions are shown. (orig./RW)

  16. Recent developments in full-system decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent studies designed to qualify full-system decontamination as a dose reduction measure in U.S. commercial LWRs are summarized. An on-site decontamination of discharged BWR fuel bundles and highly irradiated stainless steel specimens showed no adverse effects when alkaline permanganate LOMI, a solvent was used. AP/CAN-DECON a solvent led to intergranular attack of some fuel bundle components fabricated from Inconel X-750. A cost-benefit study showed full-system decontamination to be cost-effective if performed as part of a major outage. Plans for further work are identified. (author)

  17. Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning Project Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, David Shane; Webber, Frank Laverne

    2001-07-01

    This report is a compilation of summary descriptions of Deactivation, Decontamination and Decommissioning, and Surveillance and Maintenance projects planned for inactive facilities and sites at the INEEL from FY-2002 through FY-2010. Deactivations of contaminated facilities will produce safe and stable facilities requiring minimal surveillance and maintenance pending further decontamination and decommissioning. Decontamination and decommissioning actions remove contaminated facilities, thus eliminating long-term surveillance and maintenance. The projects are prioritized based on risk to DOE-ID, the public, and the environment, and the reduction of DOE-ID mortgage costs and liability at the INEEL.

  18. Optimization of decontamination strategy for CANDU-PHW reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theoretical models of the decontamination process are developed and combined with an existing model of 60Co production in CANDU PHW reactors to predict the effects of decontamination on long term 60Co build-up in reactor primary heat transport systems. The effects of decontamination interval, decontamination factor, and post-decontamination corrosion release are calculated. An optimum decontamination strategy for a Pickering G.S. type reactor is developed on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. This study indicates that the optimum decontamination interval is approximately six years. This optimum interval is relatively insensitive to variations in the costs of personnel exposure, the cost of a decontamination, the decontamination factor, and the post-decontamination corrosion model used. (author)

  19. A Nanosecond Pulsed Plasma Brush for Surface Decontamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, Johanna; Malik, Muhammad; Song, Shutong; Jiang, Chunqi

    2015-11-01

    This work optimizes a non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasma brush for surface decontamination. The generated plasma plumes with a maximum length of 2 cm are arranged in a 5 cm long, brush-like array. The plasma was generated in ambient air with power are in the range of 1-3 mJ and 0.5-1.5 W, respectively. Helium containing varying concentrations of water vapor was evaluated as the carrier gas and was fed into the plasma chamber at a rate varying between 1 to 7 SLPM. Optimization of the cold plasma brush for surface decontamination was tested in a study of the plasma inactivation of two common pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Laminate surfaces inoculated with over-night cultured bacteria were subject to the plasma treatment for varying water concentrations in He, flow rates and discharge voltages. It was found that increasing the water content of the feed gas greatly enhanced the bactericidal effect. Emission spectroscopy was performed to identify the reactive plasma species that contribute to this variation. Additional affiliation: Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics

  20. Critical review of advanced decontamination methods and their application and selection of methods suitable for disposal decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is structured as follows: (i) Critical review of advanced decontamination methods (chemical methods; electrochemical methods; mechanical methods - high-pressure water jet, abrasive methods, ultrasonic methods); (ii) Effective management of the entire decontamination process; (iii) Proposal for advanced decontamination methods suitable for disposal decontamination; and (iv) Effect of decontamination on waste management. It is concluded that (i) No single universal method exists for efficient decontamination of different materials, so a combination of methods must be used; (ii) The decontamination process should be optimised so that its cost should not exceed the cost of contaminated material handling without decontamination. The following methods were selected for additional examination: dry abrasive blasting, chemical decontamination, and ultrasonic decontamination. (P.A.)

  1. Metal Surface Decontamination by the PFC Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PFC (per-fluorocarbon) spray decontamination equipment was fabricated and its decontamination behavior was investigated. Europium oxide powder was mixed with the isotope solution which contains Co-60 and Cs-137. The different shape of metal specimens artificially contaminated with europium oxide powder was used as the surrogate contaminants. Before and after the application of the PFC spray decontamination method, the radioactivity of the metal specimens was measured by MCA. The decontamination factors were in the range from 9.6 to 62.4. The spent PFC solution was recycled by distillation. Before and after distillation, the turbidity of PFC solution was also measured. From the test results, it was found that more than 98% of the PFC solution could be recycled by a distillation. (authors)

  2. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma technology that...

  3. Surface decontamination using dry ice snow cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water washing and steam blast cleaning method are currently used in nuclear power plants in decontamination. These methods produce lots of secondary wastes and tend to damage the work surface. A dry ice snow cleaning device with an adjustable nozzle was developed for the decontamination purpose. Glass with finger prints and scratched acrylic plastics surface with adsorbed oil-dust mixture were tested to see the cleaning ability of the developed device. Traces of finger prints and oil-dust mixture could not be detected after cleaning. The radioactivity of pump housing in a primary system of Wolsung Nuclear Power Plant was also tested. The maximum of 82% of radioactivity was reduced after dry ice snow cleaning. This device is expected to be used in decontamination of expensive electronic and optical instruments and detectors that cannot be decontaminated by water

  4. Urban Decontamination Experience at Pripyat Ukraine - 13526

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paskevych, Sergiy [Institute for Safety Problems of Nuclear Power Plants, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 36 a Kirova str. Chornobyl, Kiev region, 07200 (Ukraine); Voropay, Dmitry [Federal State Unitary Enterprise ' Russian State Center of Inventory and Registration and Real Estate - Federal Bureau of Technical Inventory' , 37-2 Bernadsky Prospekt, Moscow Russia 119415 (Russian Federation); Schmieman, Eric [Battelle Memorial Institute, PO Box 999 MSIN K6-90, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes the efficiency of radioactive decontamination activities of the urban landscape in the town of Pripyat, Ukraine. Different methods of treatment for various urban infrastructure and different radioactive contaminants are assessed. Long term changes in the radiation condition of decontaminated urban landscapes are evaluated: 1. Decontamination of the urban system requires the simultaneous application of multiple methods including mechanical, chemical, and biological. 2. If a large area has been contaminated, decontamination of local areas of a temporary nature. Over time, there is a repeated contamination of these sites due to wind transport from neighboring areas. 3. Involvement of earth-moving equipment and removal of top soil by industrial method achieves 20-fold reduction in the level of contamination by radioactive substances, but it leads to large amounts of waste (up to 1500 tons per hectare), and leads to the re-contamination of treated areas due to scatter when loading, transport pollutants on the wheels of vehicles, etc.. (authors)

  5. Decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upon processing of contaminated materials, dusts containing radioactive materials are deposited to portions such as which are considered not to have been contaminated during use, and cause secondary wastes. Then, as a means for reducing the secondary wastes as less as possible, paints are coated to the portions of the decontaminated materials which are considered not to have been contaminated during use and, then chemical decontamination is applied to suppress dissolution of metals in the portions and then the paints are removed. Any of paints may be used optionally except for aqueous paints having an affinity with decontaminating liquids. This can prevent unnecessary dissolution of metals and, accordingly, the volume of secondary wastes can be reduced as less as possible, to extend the life time of the decontaminating liquids as long as possible. (T.M.)

  6. Decontamination of laryngoscopes in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucx, M J; Dankert, J; Beenhakker, M M; Harrison, T E

    2001-01-01

    In this study the decontamination procedures of laryngoscopes in Dutch hospitals are described, based on a structured telephone questionnaire. There were substantial differences between decontamination procedures in Dutch hospitals and the standards of the APIC (Association of Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology), CDC (Centers of Disease Control) and ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) were met in full in 19.4% of the hospitals. The standards of manual decontamination, used in 78% of the 139 hospitals, were particularly disappointing; manual cleaning was considered inadequate in 22.9% of these hospitals and manual disinfection did not meet the standards of the APIC, CDC or ASA in any of these hospitals. Decontamination by instrument cleaning machines as a standard procedure was used in 30 (22%) hospitals. In three of these hospitals the blades were subsequently sterilized. We suggest adherence to the infection control guidelines of the CDC, APIC and ASA, until the safety of less conservative infection control practices are demonstrated. PMID:11575419

  7. Dilute chemical decontamination program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An evaluation of dilute chemical decontamination technology for Boiling Water Reactor (BWRs) was completed under the Dilute Chemical Decontamination Program. An integrated process was developed and demonstrated under simulated BWR decontamination chemical conditions using a 76 cm long section of 15 cm piping removed from an operating BWR. Reasonable process conditions are: 0.012 M oxalic acid and 0.005 M citric acid at pH 3.0 and 900C with a controlled dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.75 ppM. A novel reagent regeneration process using anion-exchange resin preloaded with oxalate and citrate anions was developed to remove the dissolved corrosion products, including Fe(III), from solution during the decontamination. A limited corrosion testing program was completed and no severe adverse effects were identified

  8. Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Plasma Air Decontamination System (PADS) is a trace contaminant control device based on non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma technology. Compared to...

  9. PROCESS OF DECONTAMINATING MATERIAL CONTAMINATED WITH RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, D.C.; Peterson, M.D.; Acken, M.F.

    1958-09-16

    A process is described for decontaminating metallic objects, such as stainless steel equipment, which consists in contacting such objects with nltric acid in a concentration of 35 to 60% to remove the major portion of the contamination; and thereafter contacting the partially decontaminated object with a second solution containing up to 20% of alkali metal hydroxide and up to 20% sodium tartrate to remove the remaining radioactive contaminats.

  10. Depressurized pipes decontamination by using circulation foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of pipes remains a necessity in order to reduce the radiation level during maintenance or dismantling operations but it is not so easy to do it, especially in case of a long pipe network. To achieve this operation, the use of chemistry is one of the more relevant methods; moreover, the liquid waste production still remains an issue that it can be avoided by the use of decontamination foams. (authors)

  11. Processing of waste solutions from electrochemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of electropolishing as a decontamination technique will be effective only if we can minimize the amount of secondary waste requiring disposal and economically recycle part of the decontamination electrolyte. Consequently, a solution purification method is needed to remove the dissolved contamination and metal in the electrolyte. This report describes the selection of a purification method for a phosphoric acid electrolyte from the following possible acid reclamation processes: ion exchange, solvent extraction, precipitation, distillation, electrolysis, and membrane separation

  12. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This discussion represents one part of a major effort in soil decontamination at the Los Alamos site. A contaminated industrial waste line in the Los Alamos townsite was removed, and a plutonium incineration facility, and a filter building contaminated with actinium-227 were dismantled. The former plutonium handling facility has been decontaminated, and canyons and an old firing site contaminated with strontium-90 have been surveyed

  13. Chemical Decontamination at Browns Ferry Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In May, 2002, the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Board of Directors approved the recovery and restart of Unit 1 at Browns Ferry Nuclear Station. As an initial step in the site characterization and restart feasibility review, a majority of the primary reactor circuit was chemically decontaminated. Close cooperation between TVA and vendor personnel resulted in project completion ahead of schedule with outstanding results. The final average decontamination factors were excellent, and the final dose rates were very low, with contact readings on most points between one and three mRem/hr. In addition to allowing TVA to do a complete and thorough job of determining the feasibility of the Unit 1 restart, the decontamination effort will greatly reduce personnel exposure during plant recovery, both whole body exposure to gamma radiation and airborne exposure during pipe replacement efforts. The implementation of lessons learned from previous decontamination work performed at Browns Ferry, as well as decontamination efforts at other plants aided greatly in the success. Specific items of note are: (1) The initial leak check of the temporary decontamination system should include ancillary systems such as the spent resin system, as well as the main circulation loop. This could save time and dose exposure if leaks are discovered before the use of such systems is required. (2) Due to the quick turnaround time from the award of contract, a vendor representative was onsite early in the project to help with engineering efforts and procedures. This aided greatly in completing preparations for the decontamination. (3) The work was performed under a single maintenance activity. This resulted in great craft and plant support. (4) The constant coverage by the site's decontamination flush directors provided timely plant support and interface. (5) The FPC system isolation and back flushing to prevent residual chemicals from being left in the FPC system should have been addressed in more

  14. Collection of lectures delivered at decontamination course

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collection contains 10 lectures read at the decontamination workshop DEK '85 held between 29-31 Oct 1985 at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez, all of which fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The workshop, whose first course was held in 1975, is destined for personnel of various institutions who are decontamination process users but also for designers of nuclear installations, personnel of safety of work inspectorates, hygiene services, etc. (Z.M.)

  15. Decontamination and disposal of PCB wastes.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnston, L E

    1985-01-01

    Decontamination and disposal processes for PCB wastes are reviewed. Processes are classed as incineration, chemical reaction or decontamination. Incineration technologies are not limited to the rigorous high temperature but include those where innovations in use of oxident, heat transfer and residue recycle are made. Chemical processes include the sodium processes, radiant energy processes and low temperature oxidations. Typical processing rates and associated costs are provided where possible.

  16. Surface decontamination by photo-catalysis - 16068

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently in the nuclear industry, surface contamination in the form of radioactive metal or metal oxide deposits is most commonly removed by chemical decontamination, electrochemical decontamination or physical attrition. Physical attrition techniques are generally used on structural materials (concrete, plaster), with (electro)chemical methods being used to decontaminate metallic or painted surfaces. The most common types of (electro)chemical decontamination are the use of simple mineral acids such as nitric acid or cerium (IV) oxidation (MEDOC). Use of both of these reagents frequently results in the dissolution of a layer of the substrate surface increasing the percentage of secondary waste which leads to burdens on downstream effluent treatment and waste management plants. In this context, both mineral acids and MEDOC can be indiscriminate in the surfaces attacked during deployment, e.g. attacking in transit through a pipe system to the site of contamination resulting in both diminished effect of the decontaminating reagent upon arrival at its target site and an increased secondary waste management requirement. This provides two main requirements for a more ideal decontamination reagent: Improved area specificity and a dissolution power equal to or greater than the previously mentioned current decontaminants. Photochemically promoted processes may provide such a decontamination technique. Photochemical reduction of metal ion valence states to aid in heavy metal deposition has already been extensively studied [1], with reductive manipulation also being achieved with uranium and plutonium simulants (Ce) [2]. Importantly photooxidation of a variety of metals, including neptunium [3], has also been achieved. Here we report on the potential application of this technology to metal dissolution. (authors)

  17. Microbial decontamination of cosmetic products by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microbiological quality of cosmetic products (skin creams, massage gels and hair lotion) and the effect of gamma irradiation on this quality were investigated.The effectiveness of these cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic microorganisms was also examined. Total bacterial counts (TBC) of examined cosmetic products ranged between 5 cfu/g or ml. Most cosmetic products evaluated were free from mold and yeast. Spore forming bacteria (SFB) were low and ranged between 2 cfu/g or ml. The enterobacteriaceae (Ent) group was generally absent from the examined cosmetic products except for one sample (varic, skin cream) which contained 7x103 cfu/g. All cosmetic products studied were free from Pseudomonas species, Aeromonas hydrophila; Bacillus cereus; Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella species. Only one sample (varic, skin cream) contained E. coli (2x102 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis was found in three samples of cosmetic products tested (maxi care, panol and varic creams) and the counts were 7x102, 2x102 and 5x104 cfu/g, respectively. Also Staphylococcus aureus was found in the same three samples and the counts were in the range of 2-3x102 cfu/g. The effectiveness of cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic bacteria differs according to the type of cosmetic products examined . The irradiation dose of 6 kGy was very effective in microbial decontamination and elimination of pathogenic bacteria in cosmetic products for enhancing health quality and ensuring safety of these products.

  18. Criteria and evaluation of three decontamination techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Past decontamination and solvent recovery activities at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP), which is part of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), have resulted in the accumulation of 1.5 million gallons of radioactively contaminated sodium-bearing liquid waste. Future decontamination activities at the ICPP could result in the production of 5 million gallons or more of sodium-bearing waste using the current decontamination techniques of chemical/water flushes and steam jet cleaning. This waste requires a large amount of cold chemical additive to process because the low melting temperatures of sodium and potassium salts cause agglomeration in the bed of the calciner vessel. Criteria have been established for evaluating methods and technologies available for decontaminating equipment and facilities. The criteria were weighted according to their relative importance using a Kepner-Tregoe Problem Solving process. These criteria were used to rank three decontamination techniques new to the ICPP: laser ablation, liquid abrasive blasting and CO2 pellet blasting, against the standard decontamination techniques of sodium-based chemical cleaning and water/steam jets used

  19. Decontamination of skin in emergency situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report briefly discusses the organization of decontamination personnel and facilities to be used for decontamination in the event of an emergency, and outlines the author's experience in carrying out decontamination of the skin of tourists who came back to Japan after staying in Kiev at the time of the accident at Chernobyl (about 150 km away from Kiev). In Japan at present, no nuclear facilities seem to have sufficient personnel who are in charge of skin decontamination activities required in the event of an emergency, and emergency measures are generally limited to the development of emergency plans and implementation of drills. It is necessary to establish training courses for medical doctors and other medical personnel. Each plant has plans for skin decontamination procedures designed for professional workers in the plant. Plans should also be established for general people who might suffer skin decontamination in the event of an accident. What is the most important is to ease their anxiety about the contamination of their skin. The procedures, including washing and shampooing, used for the tourist returning from Kiev are described, and some problems encountered or expected to occur in similar cases are outlined and discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  20. Cellphones A Modern Stayhouse For Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usha Arora

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cellphones are increasingly used by health care personnels for communication. These can harbour variouspotential pathogens and become an exogenous source of nosocomial infections. A total of 160 cellphonesbelonging to doctors and paramedical staff working in various departments at govt. medical college andhospital, Amritsar were screened for bacterial isolates. Sterile swabs moistened with nutrient broth wereused to swab the front, back and the sides of the cellphones and were subjected to culture and sensitivity.The same procedure was repeated after decontamination with 70% iso propyl alcohol.Out of total 160cellphones growth was obtained in 65(40.62% cellphones. 31(19.37% from clinical workers and34(21.25% from non clinical workers. Coagulase negative staphylococcus was the most commonly isolatedorganism.The efficacy of decontamination with 70% isopropyl alcohol was found to be 98% as only 5cellphones showed growth after decontamination.It was found that around 40% of the cellphones ofhealth care workers were contaminated and thus acted as a potential source of nosocomial infections.Simple measures like decontamination with 70% isopropyl alcohol was found to be 98% effective.

  1. Chemical cleaning, decontamination and corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical cleaning of process equipments and pipings in chemical/petrochemical industries is necessitated for improving operation, for preventing premature failures and for avoiding contamination. In developing a chemical formulation for cleaning equipments, the important aspects to be considered include (i) effective removal of corrosion products and scales, (ii) minimum corrosion of the base metal, (iii) easy to handle chemicals and (iv) economic viability. As on date, a wide variety of chemical formulations are available, many of them are either proprietory or patented. For evolving an effective formulation, knowledge of the oxides of various metals and alloys on the one hand and acid concentration, complexing agents and inhibitors to be incorporated on the other, is quite essential. Organic acids like citric acid, acetic acid and formic acid are more popular ones, often used with EDTA for effective removal of corrosion products from ferrous components. The report enumerates some of the concepts in developing effective formulations for chemical cleaning of carbon steel components and further, makes an attempt to suggest simple formulations to be developed for chemical decontamination. (author). 6 refs., 3 fi gs., 4 tabs

  2. Decontamination and decommissioning costing efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM) is responsible for decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of a wide variety of facilities ranging from reactors to fuel cycle processing buildings throughout the country. The D and D effort represents a large financial investment and a considerable challenge for the DOE and contractor program and project managers. Specifically, the collection and sharing of useful cost data and development of cost estimates are difficult in an environment in which the availability of these data is limited and the technologies and project methods are evolving. Sound cost data are essential for developing project cost estimates; baselines; and project management, benchmarking, and continuous improvement purposes. This paper will focus on some initiatives that in coordination with other federal agencies and international organizations, the DOE Environmental Management Applied Cost Engineering (ACE) Team is taking to standardize cost definitions; to collect, analyze, and report D and D cost data; and to develop fast, accurate, and easy-to-use cost-estimating models for D and D work

  3. Decontamination Efficacy and Skin Toxicity of Two Decontaminants against Bacillus anthracis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad W Stratilo

    Full Text Available Decontamination of bacterial endospores such as Bacillus anthracis has traditionally required the use of harsh or caustic chemicals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a chlorine dioxide decontaminant in killing Bacillus anthracis spores in solution and on a human skin simulant (porcine cadaver skin, compared to that of commonly used sodium hypochlorite or soapy water decontamination procedures. In addition, the relative toxicities of these decontaminants were compared in human skin keratinocyte primary cultures. The chlorine dioxide decontaminant was similarly effective to sodium hypochlorite in reducing spore numbers of Bacillus anthracis Ames in liquid suspension after a 10 minute exposure. After five minutes, the chlorine dioxide product was significantly more efficacious. Decontamination of isolated swine skin contaminated with Bacillus anthracis Sterne with the chlorine dioxide product resulted in no viable spores sampled. The toxicity of the chlorine dioxide decontaminant was up to two orders of magnitude less than that of sodium hypochlorite in human skin keratinocyte cultures. In summary, the chlorine dioxide based decontaminant efficiently killed Bacillus anthracis spores in liquid suspension, as well as on isolated swine skin, and was less toxic than sodium hypochlorite in cultures of human skin keratinocytes.

  4. Loop cleanup with redox decontamination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The corrosion rate of stainless steel in nitric acid solution will be enhanced by existence of Ce4+. The goal of this study is to develop a circular decontamination process in medium of nitric acid, in order to use it in a loop clean up. That needs a specially designed electrolytic cell to oxidize the Ce3+ into Ce4+. This regenerator's structure should be simple and easy to operate, and can meet the requirements of practical decontamination operation. The concentration of Ce4+ in the nitric acid solution was selected to provide a suitable corrosion rate to contaminated stainless steel. The total concentration of cerium (III+IV) was also optimized to ensure that the regeneration rate of Ce4+ could satisfy the consumption rate of Ce4+ during decontaminating process. The operation parameters were selected strictly on the basis of our experimental results, so that the regeneration rate of Ce4+ can be higher reasonably in proper operation conditions and not arise any problem related to safety of operation and nuclear aspects. It is considered that this decontamination process could be applied into either decommissioning or maintenance stage of nuclear facilities. The concentration of Ce4+ and temperature are the main factors for corrosion rate, other factors should also be considered during decision of decontamination process. With the regenerator developed under contract No 7959/RB could obtain sufficient decontamination factors, when use following conditions: concentration of Ce4+ is higher than 0.2 mol/1, the total concentration of cerium (III+IV) is higher than 0.4 mol/1, concentration of nitric acid is higher than 2 mol/1, temperature of decontamination operation is within 25 deg. C - 40 deg. C and temperature of regeneration is within 40 deg C - 50 deg.C

  5. Radiation dose reduction by chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the role of chemical decontamination for reducing radiation exposure during major maintenance activities like in-service inspection of coolant channels and EMCCR works on the Primary Heat Transport System and associated components. In order to achieve the man rem reduction, MAPS has successfully carried out six decontamination campaigns of PHT system, three for MAPS-1 and three for MAPS-2. The complexing agent EDTA used in the first four DCDs was changed over to Nitrilo Tri-Acetic acid (NTA) in the subsequent two DCDs and the beneficial effects of the same on dose reduction are detailed. With the use of Nitrilo Tri-Acetic acid (NTA) as complexing agent, the need to add during the process to augment the loss due to IX pickup and radiation decomposition was avoided as NTA displayed better radiation stability and was not getting picked up in the cation IX. Good decontamination factors were observed in the monel with NTA, as copper and nickel complexes of NTA had lower stability constants than that with EDTA. An overview of all these decontaminations along with the brief description of the process and benefits in terms of dose reduction is described. Further, the chemical decontamination procedures adopted for minimising the loose and the fixed contamination on the seal plugs of the 306 coolant channels of Unit-2 during EMCCR works is also presented. The pressure tubes are rolled into the end fittings which have got seal plugs to prevent the PHT water coming out of the system. The 612 seal plugs made of stainless steel were decontaminated using ∼ 10% diammonium hydrogen citrate maintaining a temperature of 70 to 80 deg C. All the 612 seal plugs were successfully decontaminated in 41 batches. The process details and results obtained are reviewed. (author)

  6. Decontamination of radionuclides on construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of materials can become contaminated by radionuclides, either from a terrorist attack or an industrial or nuclear accident. The final disposition of these materials depends, in large part, on the effectiveness of decontamination measures. This study reports on investigations into the decontamination of a selection of building materials. The aim has been to find an effective, easy-to-use and inexpensive decontamination system for radionuclides of cesium and cobalt, considering both the chemical and physical nature of these potential contaminants. The basic method investigated was surface washing, due to its ease and simplicity. In the present study, a basic decontamination formulation was modified by adding isotope-specific sequestering agents, to enhance the removal of cesium(I) and cobalt(II) from such construction materials as concrete, marble, aluminum and painted steel. Spiking solutions contained 134Cs or 60Co, which were prepared by neutron activation in the SLOWPOKE-2 nuclear reactor facility at the Royal Military College of Canada. Gamma spectroscopy was used to determine the decontamination efficiency. The results showed that the addition of sequestering agents generally improved the radiological decontamination. Although the washing of both cesium and cobalt from non-porous materials, such as aluminum and painted steel, achieved a 90-95 % removal, the decontamination of concrete and marble was more challenging, due to the porous nature of the materials. Nevertheless, the removal efficiency from 6-year-old concrete increased from 10 % to approximately 50 % for cobalt(II), and from 18 to 55 % for cesium(I), with the use of isotope binding agents, as opposed to a simple water wash. (author)

  7. Impacts of climate change on indirect human exposure to pathogens and chemicals from agriculture Impactos das mudanças climáticas sobre a exposição humana indireta a elementos patogênicos e químicos da agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Boxall

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is likely to affect the nature of pathogens/ chemicals in the environment and their fate and transport. We assess the implications of climate change for changes in human exposures to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems in the UK and discuss the effects on health impacts, using expert input and literature on climate change; health effects from exposure to pathogens/chemicals arising from agriculture; inputs of chemicals/pathogens to agricultural systems; and human exposure pathways for pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems. We established the evidence base for health effects of chemicals/pathogens in the agricultural environment; determined the potential implications of climate change on chemical/pathogen inputs in agricultural systems; and explored the effects of climate change on environmental transport and fate of various contaminants. We merged data to assess the implications of climate change in terms of indirect human exposure to pathogens/chemicals in agricultural systems, and defined recommendations on future research and policy changes to manage adverse increases in risks.É provável que a mudança climática afete a natureza, destino e transporte de elementos patogênicos/químicos no ambiente . Avaliamos as implicações das mudanças climáticas em mudanças na exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas no Reino Unido e discutimos os efeitos sobre os impactos à saúde, usando a contribuição de especialistas e literatura; efeitos à saúde da exposição a elementos patogênicos/químicos provenientes da agricultura; introdução de elementos químicos/patogênicos e caminhos de exposição humana a elementos patogênicos/químicos nos sistemas agrícolas. Definimos a base de evidência para efeitos de saúde de elementos químicos/patogênicos no ambiente agrícola; determinamos as possíveis implicações da mudança climática na introdução de elementos qu

  8. Experimental analysis of plastic materials containing radionuclides for decontamination viability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 11 March, 2011, the high radioactive dosage was found in polluted water for agriculture use at Baba, Haramachi, Minami-Soma, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. Field experiment for decontamination of water had been studied by using commercial plastic materials. The agricultural water comes from Tetsuzan dam is full of radioactive-contaminated water. Experimental analysis showed that the plastic materials can take up radioactive elements for several months soaked in the polluted agricultural water. The quantitative analyses using X-ray fluorescence analysis, Ge semiconductor and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDS), revealed the detection of the radionuclides on the plastic materials with diatom and clays. The results suggest the adsorption of radionuclides on the surface of plastic materials due to FDNPP accident. The plastic materials associated with clays and diatoms could be stronger carriers of radionuclides in the polluted water. Adherence of diatoms to the plastic fiber in the water for 7 months suggested that some plastic materials were taking up heavy metals (Zn, Ba, Pb, Sb) with radioactive elements (Cs etc.). Mechanisms by which radioactive pollutants and microorganisms are adsorbed onto and desorbed from clays at aqueous interface can be understood by combining chemical analysis with electron microscopy observation. (author)

  9. General recommendations for decontamination procedures to individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental criteria in handling radioactive contaminated persons are discussed and methods of monitoring, including monitoring of contaminated wounds, as well as decontamination measures with reference to particularly exposed regions of the body are described. Each decontamination procedure has to be carried out cautiously and has to be stopped as soon as skin lesion would be ensured from too strong mechanical cleansing, in order to avoid any additional incorporation by an injured skin. As a rule, any residual radioactivity still adherent to the skin surface can be neglected as soon as avoidance of spreading of the contamination to surrounding areas is assured. Experience showed that contaminations with radioactive dust can be removed from the skin surface quite easily by such simple means like water and soap. Radioisotopes, however, as used in nuclear medicine, usually are having a higher adhesive effect to the skin surface, thus making conditions for decontamination more difficult. Measures related to the decontamination procedure such as monitoring, mode of sampling for bioassay in case of incidents, handling of waste resulting from decontamination, as well as self-protective aspects are discussed in the annex. (orig.)

  10. W-12 valve pit decontamination demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste tank W-12 is a tank in the ORNL Low-Level Liquid Waste (LLLW) system that collected waste from Building 3525. Because of a leaking flange in the discharge line from W-12 to the evaporator service tank (W-22) and continual inleakage into the tank from an unknown source, W-12 was removed from service to comply with the Federal Facilities Agreement requirement. The initial response was to decontaminate the valve pit between tank W-12 and the evaporator service tank (W-22) to determine if personnel could enter the pit to attempt repair of the leaking flange. Preventing the spread of radioactive contamination from the pit to the environment and to other waste systems was of concern during the decontamination. The drain in the pit goes to the process waste system; therefore, if high-level liquid waste were generated during decontamination activities, it would have to be removed from the pit by means other than the available liquid waste connection. Remote decontamination of W-12 was conducted using the General Mills manipulator bridge and telescoping trolley and REMOTEC RM-10 manipulator. The initial objective of repairing the leaking flange was not conducted because of the repair uncertainty and the unknown tank inleakage. Rather, new piping was installed to empty the W-12 tank that would bypass the valve pit and eliminate the need to repair the flange. The radiological surveys indicated that a substantial decontamination factor was achieved

  11. Mechanical decontamination techniques for floor drain systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unprecedented nature of cleanup activities at Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) following the 1979 accident has necessitated the development of new techniques to deal with radiation and contamination in the plant. One of these problems was decontamination of floor drain systems, which had become highly contaminated with various forms of dirt and sludge containing high levels of fission products and fuel from the damaged reactor core. The bulk of this contamination is loosely adherent to the drain pipe walls; however, significant amounts of contamination have become incorporated into pipe wall oxide and corrosion layers and embedded in microscopic pits and fissures in the pipe wall material. The need to remove this contamination was recognized early in the TMI-2 cleanup effort. A program consisting of development and laboratory testing of floor drain decontamination techniques was undertaken early in the cleanup with support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). Based on this initial research, two techniques were judged to show promise for use at TMI-2: a rotating brush hone system and a high-pressure water mole nozzle system. Actual use of these devices to clean floor drains at TMI-2 has yielded mixed decontamination results. The decontamination effectiveness that has been obtained is highly dependent on the nature of the contamination in the drain pipe and the combination of decontamination techniques used

  12. Decontamination of 125I in Medical Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiological laboratory for diagnoses was contaminated by 125I. A large-scale survey of gamma-radiation has been made in different locations of the floors and walls of the lab to determine the contaminated area and its activity. The activity level before decontamination for the wall and floor was 1400 and 2000 Bq/cm2 respectively. Decontamination was carried out by using ethyl alcohol, potassium permanganate, ethylene diamine tetracetic acid and tissue papers. Decontamination factor has been calculated and it was 175 and 200 for the wall and floor respectively. D and D computer code has been used to calculate Total Effective Dose Equivalent (TEDE). TEDE from the wall and floor before decontamination were 3.05 and 4.35 ( mSv/yr ) while after decontamination were 18 and 23μSv/yr respectively. These results are lower than the Egyptian and the international regulations (10 mSv/y for the public ) according to International Atomic Energy agency, IAEA, Safety Series, SS, no. 115 (1994).

  13. Development of laser decontamination. 5. Decontamination test of the hot samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Process of laser decontamination system is as follows. As the material is irradiated by laser beam, its surface is instantaneously heated and ablated. Laser decontamination system is able to decontaminate thoroughly. In this work, the characteristics of laser beam transmission by optical fibers, and decontamination effect of laser beam irradiation to test pieces which are cut down of pipe in the hot facility, are experimented for apply laser decontamination technique to radioactive wastes treatment and decommissioning of nuclear fuel facilities. The results are as follows. (1) Beam transmission: Transmission of Q switch pulse YAG laser's beam by optical fibers are examined. Transmission energy is in proportion to incident energy to fiber. Transmission energy of bundled fiber is 168mJ to 406mJ of incident energy. In the case of incident energy was 425mJ, transmission energy was decrease, because some fibers of bundled fiber were damaged by laser beam. (2) Decontamination test of the hot samples: Counting rate of pipe test piece were decreased more than 90% by first irradiation of Q switch pulse YAG laser. Counting rate of pipe test piece were decreased no more than 4% by on and after second irradiation of Q switch pulse YAG laser. To move the test piece slowly, and to raise the density of irradiation energy, and to use the helium gas for auxiliary gas are effective to increase decontamination effect. (author)

  14. Decontamination trade study for the Light Duty Utility Arm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various methods were evaluated for decontaminating the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). Physical capabilities of each method were compared with the constraints and requirements for the LDUA Decontamination System. Costs were compared and a referred alternative was chosen

  15. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through the project of Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology, the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  16. Experiences with decontaminating tritium-handling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium-handling apparatus has been decontaminated as part of the downsizing of the LLNL Tritium Facility. Two stainless-steel glove boxes that had been used to process lithium deuteride-tritide (LiDT) slat were decontaminated using the Portable Cleanup System so that they could be flushed with room air through the facility ventilation system. In this paper the details on the decontamination operation are provided. A series of metal (palladium and vanadium) hydride storage beds have been drained of tritium and flushed with deuterium, in order to remove as much tritium as possible. The bed draining and flushing procedure is described, and a calculational method is presented which allows estimation of the tritium remaining in a bed after it has been drained and flushed. Data on specific bed draining and flushing are given

  17. Training of skin decontamination and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the nuclear power and radioisotope handling facilities, one of the most important problems is a radioactive contamination on skin. Hand skin contamination occurs very often in the operation area and such surface contamination must be removed as soon as possible to prevent an internal contamination. From 1967 to 1975, training courses for skin decontamination had been held with total 536 of trainee based on the radiation protection manual at the Oarai Research Establishment of JAERI. In the training courses, fresh pig skin samples used instead of human skin were contaminated with 137Cs, 131I, 85Sr, 60Co, 144Ce, 88Y, 239Pu, fission products and activated metal corrosion particles, respectively. These samples were washed practically by each trainee with the skin decontamination method recommended in the manual. Results obtained in the training showed that such training itself is a significant work and this skin decontamination method is an excellent first aid. (auth.)

  18. Decontamination tests on tritium-contaminated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These tests are designed to try out various processes liable to be applied to the decontamination of a material contaminated with tritium. The samples are thin stainless- steel slabs contaminated in the laboratory with elements extracted from industrial installations. The measurement of the initial and residual activities is carried out using an open-window BERTHOLD counter. The best results are obtained by passing a current of pre-heated (300 deg. C) air containing water vapour. This process makes it possible to reach a decontamination factor of 99.5 per cent in 4 hours. In a vacuum, the operation has to be prolonged to 100 hours in order to obtain a decontamination factor of 99.2 per cent. Wet-chemical or electrolytic treatments are efficient but their use is limited by the inherent corrosion risks. A study of the reappearance of the contamination has made it possible to observe that this phenomenon occurs whatever the process used. (authors)

  19. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material's decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting

  20. Radioactive scrap metal decontamination technology assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckentin, J.M.; Damkroger, B.K.; Schlienger, M.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Liquid Metal Processing Lab.

    1996-04-01

    Within the DOE complex there exists a tremendous quantity of radioactive scrap metal. As an example, it is estimated that within the gaseous diffusion plants there exists in excess of 700,000 tons of contaminated stainless steel. At present, valuable material is being disposed of when it could be converted into a high quality product. Liquid metal processing represents a true recycling opportunity for this material. By applying the primary production processes towards the material`s decontamination and re-use, the value of the strategic resource is maintained while drastically reducing the volume of material in need of burial. Potential processes for the liquid metal decontamination of radioactively contaminated metal are discussed and contrasted. Opportunities and technology development issues are identified and discussed. The processes compared are: surface decontamination; size reduction, packaging and burial; melting technologies; electric arc melting; plasma arc centrifugal treatment; air induction melting; vacuum induction melting; and vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting.

  1. Biodegradation of concrete intended for their decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those microorganisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  2. Decontamination of medical radioisotopes from hard surfaces using peelable polymer-based decontamination agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Medical radioisotopes used to treat and diagnose patients often contaminate surfaces in patient treatment rooms. They are typically short-lived and decay within a matter of days or weeks. However, down time in a medical facility related to radioisotope contamination is costly and can impact patient care. Most liquid or solid spills can be contained and disposed in radioactive wastes fairly completely and quickly; however residual contamination may remain on the contacted surface. Although liquid decontamination agents can be used to address the issue of residual contamination, they often require multiple applications with attendant scrubbing and wiping. Liquid decontamination can also produce large volumes of low-level radioactive waste. To look at reducing radioactive waste volumes, research was conducted on the efficacy of three low-volume peel able decontamination agents. Testing was performed on hard surfaces, such as vinyl composition floor tiles and stainless steel, which are found in many hospitals, research laboratories, and universities. The tiles were contaminated with the medical use isotopes of 99mTc, Tl-201, and I-131 and subsequently decontaminated with one of the three decontamination agents. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained for each of three different peel able decontamination agent formulations. Quantitative data included environmental temperature and relative humidity, application thickness, dry time, contact time, and decontamination efficacy of the agents on the tested surfaces. Qualitative factors included ease of application and pee lability, as well as sag resistance and odor of each agent. Initial studies showed that under standard conditions there were reproducible differences in the decontamination efficacies among the three different decontamination formulations. (author)

  3. [Population genetics of plant pathogens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wen; Zhan, Jia-Sui

    2012-02-01

    Comparing to natural ecosystems, the evolution of plant pathogens in agricultural ecosystems is generally faster due to high-density monocultures, large-scale application of agrochemicals, and international trade in agricultural products. Knowledge of the population genetics and evolutionary biology of plant pathogens is necessary to understand disease epidemiology, effectively breed and use resistant cultivars, and control plant diseases. In this article, we outlined the aims of population genetic studies in plant pathogens, discuss contributions of five evolutionary forces (i.e., mutation, gene flow, recombination, random genetic drift, and natural selection) to origin, maintenance, and distribution of genetic variation in time and space, and gave an overview of current research status in this field. PMID:22382057

  4. Decontamination of CAGR gas circulator components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the development and full-scale trial of two methods for removal of radioactive contamination on the surfaces of CAGR gas circulator components. The two methods described are a particle impact cleaning (PIC) decontamination technique and an electrochemical technique, 'electro-swabbing', which is based on the principle of decontamination by electro-polishing. In developing these techniques it was necessary to take account of the physical and chemical nature of the surface deposits on the gas circulator components; these were shown to consist of magnetite-type oxide and carbonaceous material. In order to follow the progress of the decontamination it was also necessary to develop a surface sampling technique which was effective and precise under these conditions; an electrochemical technique, employing similar principles to the electro-swabbing process, was developed for this purpose. The full-scale trial of the PIC decontamination technique was carried out on an inlet guide vane (IGV) assembly, this having been identified as the component from the gas circulator which contributes most to the radiation dose accumulated during routine circulator maintenance. The technique was shown to be practically viable and some 99% of the radioactive contamination was readily removed from the treated surfaces with only negligible surface damage being caused. The full-scale trial of the electro-swabbing decontamination technique was carried out on a gas circulator impeller. High decontamination factors were again achieved with ≥ 99% of the radioactive contamination being removed from the treated surfaces. The technique has practical limitations in terms of handling and treatment of waste-arisings. However, the use of specially-designed swabbing electrodes may allow the treatment of constricted geometries inaccessible to techniques such as PIC. The technique is also highly suitable for the treatment of soft-finish materials and of components fabricated from a

  5. High temperature decontamination of stainless steel surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilute Chemical Decontamination process that is carried out at low temperatures (<90 °C) is effective in obtaining good decontamination factors (DFs) on carbon steel (CS) system surfaces of PHWRs as the formulation is efficient in dissolving magnetite present on CS surfaces. However, this low temperature dilute chemical decontamination process is not effective in achieving appreciable DFs on stainless steel (SS) surfaces of nuclear power reactors as it is not efficient in dissolving Cr and Ni substituted oxides present on these surfaces. Hence, a high temperature process was evaluated for the effective decontamination of SS surfaces. Among the various formulations evaluated, formulation consisting of 5 mM NTA and 10 mM N2H4 at 160 °C was found to be appropriate for high temperature decontamination application. Dissolution of various oxides like, magnetite (Fe3O4), mixed ferrites (NiFe2O4, ZnFe2O4, MgFe2O4 etc), Cr oxide (Cr2O3), bonaccordite (Ni2FeBO5) etc. was carried out in NTA at 160 °C. Significant increase in dissolution rate was observed for these oxides at 160 °C. On increasing the temperature from 80 to 180 °C, the dissolution rate of Fe3O4 increased about 6 fold. The optimised formulation (5 mM NTA with 10 mM N2H4) was employed for removing the oxide formed on SS-304, SS-316, SS-403 and SS-410 under simulated reactor water chemistry conditions. Oxide deposits from all the above surfaces could be completely removed by this high temperature process. This paper gives the summary of the results from the laboratory experiments and a simulated high temperature decontamination process. (author)

  6. Hypochlorite (1% is inefficient in decontaminating blood containing hypodermic needles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitnis V

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious biomedical waste and sharps have a potential hazard of transmission of pathogens. Among sharps, used needles form a major share and disinfection by 1 % hypochlorite is recommended in biomedical waste management rules of India. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypochlorite for the decontamination of needles. Needles (16 g filled with suspensions of standard strains and clinical isolates of gram positive and gram negative bacteria in plain normal saline and in human blood containing anticoagulant, were exposed to 1% hypochlorite and the surviving bacteria were subjected to viable counts. The observations indicated that 85 - 90 % of the needles filled with bacterial suspensions in saline are disinfected to a level of >5 log bacterial reduction (standard disinfection on exposure to hypochlorite but only 15 to 30% needles contaminated with the challenge bacteria suspended in blood showed >5 log reduction in viable counts. Thus, hypochlorite treatment is inadequate for disinfecting needles contaminated with pathogenic bacteria in presence of blood and should not be recommended as an option for disinfection of the needles.

  7. Touchless Technologies for Decontamination in the Hospital: a Review of Hydrogen Peroxide and UV Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Michelle; Morgan, Daniel J; Anderson, Deverick; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-09-01

    Reduction of microbial contamination of the hospital environment is a challenge, yet has potential impacts on infection prevention efforts. Fumigation and UV light devices for environmental cleaning have expanded into the health care setting with the goal of decontamination of difficult to clean or overlooked surfaces. In an era of increased scrutiny of hospital-acquired infections, increasingly, health care centers are adopting these "touchless" cleaning techniques as adjuncts to traditional manual cleaning. The evidence for improved clinical outcomes is lacking; yet, the experience with these devices continues to accumulate in the literature. We review the recently published data related to the use of hydrogen peroxide and UV light-based decontamination systems for cleaning of hospital rooms. Touchless cleaning technologies may provide an incremental benefit to standard practices by limiting cross-transmission of pathogens via environmental surfaces, though evidence of prevention of infections remains limited. PMID:26252970

  8. The ultrasonic copper and brass decontamination study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of ultra-sounds as a decontamination technic does not bring an absolute solution. As a function of the materials it seemed necessary to find what was the optimum conditions for using the ultra-sounds and to define not only the ultra-sonic factors but also the chemical solutions which bring some appreciable decontamination factors without bringing any too important corrosion processus. This report gives the results of this study applied to copper and brass. This study allowed to select some effective treatment baths on the two types of contamination: plutonium and fission products. (authors)

  9. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties

  10. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation (8 kGy) on decontamination of pre packed (in polyethylene) and unpacked spices such as black pepper and chilli, was studied over a storage period of 12 months. Radiation dose of 8.0 kGyu completely decontaminated by the spices. Fungal packaged samples. Water content increased from a range values of 7.6-8.5% to 11.4 to 15.2% the increase was higher in red chilli than black pepper. Colour values significantly changed during storage, however the influence of radiation was not consistent. (author)

  11. Radio decontamination experiences of pharmaceuticals products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibilities for the radio decontamination radioimmunodetection of Mafenide 10% cream, Bariopac powder and Ranitidine raw material by means of the application of different dose level of gamma rays were studied. Microbiological and Physicochemical evaluations were carried out before and after the treatment . The industrial production was irradiated with 3 and 1 kGy as the adequate dose, in a continuous way. It was concluded that the application of ionising radiations with decontamination aims is an alternative to guarantee the microbiological quality of these pharmaceuticals

  12. Green coffee decontamination by electron beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemtanu, Monica R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)]. E-mail: monica@infim.ro; Brasoveanu, Mirela [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Grecu, Maria Nicoleta [National Institute for Materials Physics, RO 77 125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Minea, R. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Department of Electron Accelerators, 409 Atomistilor St., P.O. Box MG-36, RO 76 900, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2005-10-15

    Microbiological load of green coffee is a real problem considering that it is extremely sensitive to contamination. Irradiation is a decontamination method for a lot of foodstuffs, being a feasible, very effective and environment friendly one. Beans and ground green coffee were irradiated with electron beams up to 40 kGy. Microbial load, rheological behavior, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and visible spectroscopy were carried out. The results show that electron beam irradiation of green coffee could decontaminate it without severe changes in its properties.

  13. Localization of decontamination waste in the territory of Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various environmental conditions in decontamination waste storage areas in the Zhitomir, Kiev, Chernigov, Rovno, Cherkassy, Sumy Regions of Ukraine are analyzed. Typical designs and basic parameters of decontamination waste storage areas implemented in 17 contractor designs are described. Theoretical grounds of safe storage of decontamination waste in the areas are discussed

  14. Decontamination of a waste dumpside of s.p. DIAMO

    OpenAIRE

    Břenek, Roman; Santarius, Andrzej; Hudeček, Vlastimil

    2014-01-01

    The article indicates possible methods to remedy environmental damage in the Ostramo Lagoon locality. Authors deal with the description of locality, composition of waste and description of current work performed in decontamination of this locality. The article describes also the technical solution of decontamination of the territory and recommendations for possible future use of the decontaminated areas

  15. 40 CFR 761.79 - Decontamination standards and procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination standards and..., AND USE PROHIBITIONS Storage and Disposal § 761.79 Decontamination standards and procedures. (a) Applicability. This section establishes decontamination standards and procedures for removing PCBs, which...

  16. 41 CFR 101-45.001 - Demilitarization and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... decontamination. 101-45.001 Section 101-45.001 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property..., ABANDONMENT, OR DESTRUCTION OF PERSONAL PROPERTY § 101-45.001 Demilitarization and decontamination. (a... characteristics, or otherwise making it unfit for further use. (b) Demilitarization or decontamination of...

  17. Decontamination of the heavy water system of the RA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy water system of the RA reactor was decontaminated of 60Co. The solution used for decontamination was 7% H3PO4 and 3% CrO3. The decontamination factor ranged from 10 to 100. From the results the distribution of 60Co in the heavy water, and on stainless and aluminium parts was determined (author)

  18. In-Situ Biological Decontamination of an Ice Melting Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digel, Ilya

    A major concern in space and even many terrestrial missions is the forward contamination of the alien environment with microbes and biological molecules, transported on spacecraft from Earth. Furthermore, organisms and molecules can be brought to the sampling place from the surface. All this can lead to serious misinterpretations of the obtained data and more impor-tantly, could irreversibly alter the pristine nature of the extraterrestrial environments. These issues were addressed and are constantly updated in COSPAR planetary protection policy (20 October 2002; Amended 24 March 2005; 20 July 2008). The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of different in-situ decontamination protocols in the conditions of thermo-mechanical ice-melting. We evaluated survival rate of microorganisms on the melting probe as a function of both time and penetration depth. Special focus was made on deter-mination of the optimal concentration of chemical decontaminants (hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite) the peculiarities of their antimicrobial action at low temperatures (-80 to 0C) combined with constant dilution with melted ice and mechanical abrasion. Common, non-pathogenic microbial strains belonging to different morphological and metabolic groups (Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Escherichia, Bacillus and others) were chosen as test objects for this study. The working part of the melting probe was first controllably contaminated by in-cubation in suspension of microbial cells. After appropriate sedimentation of microbial cells had been reached, the drilling-melting process was started using specially prepared sterile ice blocks. Every 2 minutes the samples were taken and analyzed. In the control tests, 1 mL of distilled water was injected into the penetration site at the onset of drilling. In the other tests, 1 mL of hydrogen peroxide (30Collected data suggest high efficacy of both used compounds in respect of all tested microbial groups. Typically, 99.9

  19. Efficacy of antimicrobial compounds on surface decontamination of seven shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella inoculated onto fresh beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several antimicrobial compounds have been implemented in commercial meat processing plants for decontamination of pathogens on beef carcasses, but there are many commercially available, novel antimicrobial compounds that may be more effective and suitable to be implemented in beef processing pathoge...

  20. Decontamination and dismantling at the CEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the dismantling policy at the CEA (French Research Center on the atomic energy), the financing of the decontamination and the dismantling, the regulatory framework, the knowledge and the technology developed at the CEA, the radiation protection, the environment monitoring and the installations. (A.L.B.)

  1. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  2. Building 003 decontamination and disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and disposition (D and D) of the contaminated facilities in Building 003 are complete. The Hot Cave, the building radioactive exhaust system, the radioactive liquid waste system, and the fume hoods were removed. The more significant D and D activities are summarized, special techniques are noted, and problems and their resolution are discussed. Results of the radiological monitoring are presented

  3. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities

  4. Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel. Feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel is an expeditious way to reduce radiation exposures resulting in a minimal volume of waste. The fuel assemblies are set up in the fuel preparation machine one at a time and treated without prior disassemblage. By decontaminating 20% of the BWR fuel assemblies annually, there is a potential to reduce the collective dose by approximately 40-50%. Including also improved reactivity of the fuel, this amounts to an economic benefit of about 4 MSEK per reactor and year. The costs for performing the decontamination can be economically justified if the plants do not plan for short outages each year. The decontamination method could also be used for the purpose of removing tramp Uranium following a fuel failure or minor core accident. An additional benefit is removal of loosely adherent crud. The waste produced will be handled in a closed filtering circuit. The method is suggested to be verified in a test on discharged burnt-up fuel at site. The next step will be to develop the method further in order to be able to remove also tenacious crud. 12 refs, 4 tabs

  5. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated. - Highlights: • The process generates minimal additional secondary waste. • The effectiveness of this technique may allow certain materials to be recycled reducing radioactive waste volumes. • The process allows reuse of decontaminated metals

  6. Remote methods for decontamination and decommissioning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods for the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are described along with operational experience associated with each method. Each method described in some way reduces radiation exposure to the operating personnel involved. Electrochemical decontamination of process tanks is described using an in-situ method. Descriptions of two processes, electropolishing and cerium redox decontamination, are listed. A method of essentially smokeless cutting of process piping using a plasma-arc cutting torch is described. In one technique, piping is cut remotely from a distance using a specially modified torch holder. In another technique, cutting is done with master-slave manipulators inside a hot cell. Finally, a method for remote cutting and scarification of contaminated concrete is described. This system, which utilizes high-pressure water jets, is coupled to a cutting head or rotating scarification head. The system is suited for cutting contaminated concrete for removal or removing a thin layer in a controlled manner for decontamination. 4 refs., 6 figs

  7. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When contaminants mainly composed of copper remained on the surface of stainless steel wastes sent from an electrolytic reduction as a first step are chemically decontaminated, metal wastes are discriminated to carbon steel wastes and stainless steel wastes. Then, the carbon steel wastes are applied only with the first step of immersing in a sulfuric acid solution, and stainless steel wastes are applied with a first step of immersing into a sulfuric acid solution for electrolytic reduction for a predetermined period of time and a second step of immersing into a liquid in which an oxidative metal salt is added to sulfuric acid. The decontamination liquid which is used for immersing the stainless steel wastes in the second step and the oxidation force of which is lowered is used as the sulfuric acid solution in the first step for the carbon steel wastes. In view of the above, the decontamination liquid of the second step can be utilized most effectively, enabling to greatly decrease the secondary wastes and to improve decontamination efficiency. (T.M.)

  8. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention relates to a decontamination method for radioactive metal waste products derived from equipment that handles radioactive materials whose surfaces have been contaminated; in particular it concerns a decontamination method that reduces the amount of radioactive waste by decontaminating radioactive waste substances to a level of radioactivity in line with normal waste products. In order to apply chemical decontamination to metal waste products whose surfaces are divided into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste; the carbon steel waste is treated using only a primary process in which the waste is immersed in a sulfuric acid solution, while the stainless steel waste must be treated with both the primary process and then electrolytically reduces it for a specific length of time and a secondary process that uses a solution of sulfuric acid mixed with oxidizing metal salts. The method used to categorize metal waste into carbon steel waste and stainless steel waste involves determining the presence, or absence, of magnetism. Voltage is applied for a fixed duration; once that has stopped, electrolytic reduction repeats the operative cycle of applying, then stopping voltage until the potential of the radioactive metal waste is retained in the active region. 1 fig. 2 tabs

  9. Decontamination and decorporation: the clinical experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination and decorporation are quite interrelated when dealing with a contaminated person. Some clinical experiences from a transuranium production facility are offered. Skin decontamination is accomplished by washing with detergent and water. Stubborn cases are treated with sodium hypochlorite followed by rinsing, and emery cloth is used on more stubborn nail or finger pad contamination. If inhaled, the usual skin cleansing followed by nasal douche with normal saline decontaminates reachable areas and one of the DTPA salts given via aerosol both decontaminates and decorporates the inner recesses. Saline laxative reduces the time inhaled, and ingested particles remain in the gastro-intestinal tract. Conservatism prevails in general, but most persons found to have inhaled contamination are given a single chelation within the hour of discovery and if subsequently found to have over 10% M.P.P.B. of a soluble actinide are offered further chelation. Single dose chelation has been found to be relatively innocuous and usually sufficient. The longest case of chelation therapy spanned 2-1/4 years and encompassed 123 doses of CaNa-DTPA

  10. Decontamination and decorporation: the clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poda, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Decontamination and decorporation are quite interrelated when dealing with a contaminated person. Some clinical experiences from a transuranium production facility are offered. Skin decontamination is accomplished by washing with detergent and water. Stubborn cases are treated with sodium hypochlorite followed by rinsing, and emery cloth is used on more stubborn nail or finger pad contamination. If inhaled, the usual skin cleansing followed by nasal douche with normal saline decontaminates reachable areas and one of the DTPA salts given via aerosol both decontaminates and decorporates the inner recesses. Saline laxative reduces the time inhaled, and ingested particles remain in the gastro-intestinal tract. Conservatism prevails in general, but most persons found to have inhaled contamination are given a single chelation within the hour of discovery and if subsequently found to have over 10% M.P.P.B. of a soluble actinide are offered further chelation. Single dose chelation has been found to be relatively innocuous and usually sufficient. The longest case of chelation therapy spanned 2-1/4 years and encompassed 123 doses of CaNa-DTPA.

  11. Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel. Feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, A.; Libal, A.; Norbaeck, J.; Wegemar, B.

    1995-05-01

    Ultrasonic decontamination of nuclear fuel is an expeditious way to reduce radiation exposures resulting in a minimal volume of waste. The fuel assemblies are set up in the fuel preparation machine one at a time and treated without prior disassemblage. By decontaminating 20% of the BWR fuel assemblies annually, there is a potential to reduce the collective dose by approximately 40-50%. Including also improved reactivity of the fuel, this amounts to an economic benefit of about 4 MSEK per reactor and year. The costs for performing the decontamination can be economically justified if the plants do not plan for short outages each year. The decontamination method could also be used for the purpose of removing tramp Uranium following a fuel failure or minor core accident. An additional benefit is removal of loosely adherent crud. The waste produced will be handled in a closed filtering circuit. The method is suggested to be verified in a test on discharged burnt-up fuel at site. The next step will be to develop the method further in order to be able to remove also tenacious crud. 12 refs, 4 tabs.

  12. Reaction-diffusion models of decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    A contaminant, which also contains a polymer is in the form of droplets on a solid surface. It is to be removed by the action of a decontaminant, which is applied in aqueous solution. The contaminant is only sparingly soluble in water, so the reaction mechanism is that it slowly dissolves in the...

  13. DWTF [decontamination and waste treatment facilities] assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study has been to evaluate the adequacy of present and proposed decontamination and waste treatment facilities (DWTF) at LLNL, to determine the cost effectiveness for proposed improvements, and possible alternatives for accomplishing these improvements. To the extent possible, we have also looked at some of the proposed environmental compliance and cleanup (ECC) projects

  14. Thermal decontamination of transformers: A new technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After evaluating a number of methods for decontaminating or disposing of transformers that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), it was concluded that no entirely satisfactory procedure or technology was yet available which was permanent, effective, safe, relatively simple, and based on proven technology or conventional practice. The most desirable compromise appears to be thermal decontamination. It is proposed to decontaminate transformers by controlled incineration in a specially designed, indirect-fired furnace which resembles the conventional bell-type, vertical elevator, metal heat treating type of furnace. The design differs in the incorporation of those essential features required to achieve oxidation of the organic components, to provide internal air circulation needed to ensure efficient heat and mass transfer, and other factors. The most appropriate decontamination facility would provide for implementation of the following procedures: draining of PCB-containing liquids from the transformer; limited disassembly of the transformer, which in most instances would imply only removal of the top cover to expose the insides; and controlled incineration with any vapors generated being conducted to a secondary combustion chamber. Experiments were conducted in a kiln to simulate the proposed transformer incinerator. Results show that exposure of the transformer segments to a temperature in the 950-1,000 degree C range for over 90 min is generally sufficient to reduce the PCB content to under 1 ppM. Based on the work conducted, a suitable bell furnace was constructed and added to the Swan Hills (Alberta) waste treatment facility. 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Radiation decontamination of meat lyophylized products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is an increasing demand for a powder soups and sauces composed with lyophylizated meat. Technology of lyophylization is not always accompanied by thermal treatment of raw materials. That is the reason the meat lyophylization process does not ensure as good microbiological quality as is required. Degree of microbiological decontamination and organoleptic properties of lyophilized meat were investigated after radiation treatment

  16. Study of Electrolyte for Electrochemical Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of metallic surface contamination by anodic dissolution in an electrochemical has pervaded in industrial use for many years. The removal of radioactive contaminations by this same technique has more recently attracted attention. Allen and Arrowsmith have reported extensive work with phosphoric acid as the electrolyte. Phosphoric acid is very efficient electrolyte for removing radioactive contaminations and does furnish an electro-polished surface that is quite smooth. But inadequate processes for the spent electrolyte caused unwanted waste. Such unwanted waste is also caused in other acidic electrolytes (for example, nitric acid or sulfuric acid). Most of the radioactivity is assumed to be localized in about ten micron thickness on the surface: therefore, a surface decontamination method should be useful as a decontamination technique. In particular, electrolytic decontamination is considered to be the most useful method because of a high volume reduction factor and easy application on metal waste of diverse shapes. In this paper, we consider that NaNO3 solution is suitable for electrochemical decontamination

  17. LASL experience in decontamination of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1972 the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has been actively involved in land area surveys for radioactive contamination and has gained considerable experience in cleanup of lands considered to have unacceptable levels of radioactive contamination. Experience and means of arriving at recommendations for decontamination at levels as low as reasonably achievable

  18. Testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the testing and evaluation of light ablation decontamination. It details WINCO contracted research and application of light ablation efforts by Ames Laboratory. Tests were conducted with SIMCON (simulated contamination) coupons and REALCON (actual radioactive metal coupons) under controlled conditions to compare cleaning effectiveness, speed and application to plant process type equipment

  19. Decontamination and decommissioning focus area. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report presents details of the facility deactivation, decommissioning, and material disposition research for development of new technologies sponsored by the Department of Energy. Topics discussed include; occupational safety, radiation protection, decontamination, remote operated equipment, mixed waste processing, recycling contaminated metals, and business opportunities.

  20. Separation of radionuclides from electrochemical decontamination waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study demonstrated the efficiency and applicability of a combined process for the separation of radionuclides from organic complexonates containing waste. A combination of photo-catalytic degradation of organic complexonates followed by the sorption of the radionuclides onto a strongly acidic ion exchanger offers a promising route for the treatment of the spent electrochemical decontamination solution. (authors)

  1. Microbial decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality of spices was studied. It was found that the dose of 6 KGg decreases the cell count by a factor of 2-3 however complete decontamination is obtained at a dose of 10 KGg

  2. Surface decontamination as a technical and technological discipline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical and physical properties are described of the surface, the contaminant and the decontamination system, i.e., the three components of the decontamination process. A survey is presented of decontamination processes for a solid contaminant and for the decontamination of a contaminant bound to the surface. Problems of decontamination are then discussed, connected with the construction and project designing of facilities which shall operate in a radiation field. The generation of contaminants is described and the principles given of project design and design of facilities with regard to radiation hygiene, economy and disposal. (J.P.)

  3. Study on the Decontamination of Radionuclides in Spent Phosphogypsum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Won, H. J.; Moon, J. K.

    2010-01-15

    The objective of the study is to confirm the possibility of further R and D thru pre-study on the decontamination technology for the safe, high decontamination factor, low waste arising and cost effective removal of radionuclide in spent phosphogypsum. The following contents were studied. 1) Decontamination of Radionuclide in Phosphogypsum - Effect of decontamination chemical formulation on Ra removal - Effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration on Ra removal - Effect of Sr concentration on Ra removal 2) Removal of Radionuclide in Liquid Waste from Decontamination of Phosphogypsum - Ra removal by chromate treatment - Ra removal by zeolite and ACF treatment

  4. Cleaning and decontamination: Experimental feedback from PHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the first few years of operation of PHENIX, it proved necessary to clean, then decontaminate sodium-polluted components, particularly large components such as the intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) and the primary pumps (PP). Ibis document presents the evolution of the cleaning and decontamination processes used, and specifies the reasons for this evolution. As regards the cleaning, experimental feedback and a greater rigour with respect to the hydrogen hazard have resulted in a modification of the process. The new cleaning process used at present (since 1994) is described in greater detail in this document. The main steps are: cold CO2 bubbling in water, followed by hot CO2 bubbling, spraying phase, then drying for inspection before immersion. In order to optimize and validate the process, the cleaning and decontamination plant has been highly instrumented, which, in particular, has allowed confirmation of the contention that the major part of the sodium is eliminated during the bubbling phases. With respect to decontamination, the objective is to perfect an efficient process that allows both human intervention with no particular biological shield for repair or maintenance of the components, and requalification of the materials after the decontamination operation. Owing to the high operating temperature of Fast Breeder Reactor components (400 to 550 deg. C), the activated corrosion products deposited on the components melt into the metal. The decontamination process therefore consists in either dissolving the deposits on the surface, or dissolving a thickness of about less than ten micrometers of the base metal. The reference process for austenitic-type steels is the SPm process, which consists in immersing the component in a sulphuric-phosphoric bath (sulphuric acid and phosphoric acid) at a temperature of 60 deg. C for 6 hours. The problem linked to this process is the treatment of the effluents that are produced, particularly phosphate releases. A series

  5. Radiological measurements during decontamination of PFBR MOX fuel elements using ultrasonic decontamination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a fuel fabrication facility fabrication of MOX fuel elements involving various metallurgical processes is carried out in leak tight glove boxes because of high radio toxicity associated with plutonium,. A fuel pin consists of a thin walled tube loaded with cylindrical fuel pellets with plugs welded on both ends. The pellet loading and welding processes result in cross contamination on the tube surface near the edges. It is important that finished fuel pins should not contain any transferable contamination on the surface beyond safe limits applicable for unrestricted release before subjecting the pins to manual handling for quality control checks. Hence it is imperative that thorough decontamination of fuel pins is essential for safe handling. Conventional decontamination methods result in undue personal exposures and generation of solid waste. Though there are number of techniques available for decontamination of non-fuel elements in the nuclear industry, very few of them can be used for decontamination of fuel elements because of possible damage to fuel clad, Ultrasonic cleaning process, using dc-mineralized water as medium does not affect the properties of the clad and is simple to implement and fast to carry out. This paper brings out radiological measurements carried out to study the effectiveness of ultrasonic decontamination technique and the factors involved in achieving required degree of decontamination with reduced individual exposure

  6. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has designed a containment package in accordance with the DOE standard. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. With or without the food pack can, the material is placed inside the primary can and welded shut under a helium atmosphere. This activity takes place totally within the confinement of the glove box line. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. This fixture is then filled with a flowing electrolyte solution. A low DC electric current is made to flow between the can, acting as the anode, and the fixture, acting as the cathode. Following the decontamination, the system provides a flow of rinse water through the fixture to rinse the can of remaining salt residues. The system then carried out a drying cycle. Finally, the fixture is opened from the opposite side of the partition and the can surface monitored directly and through surface smears to assure that decontamination is adequate

  7. Electrolytic decontamination of the 3013 inner can

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disposition of plutonium recovered from nuclear weapons or production residues must be stored in a manner that ensures safety. The criteria that has been established to assure the safety of stored materials for a minimum of 50 years is DOE-STD-3013. This standard specifies both the requirements for containment and furthermore specifies that the inner container be decontaminated to a level of ≤20 dpm/100 cm2 swipable and ≤500 dpm/100 cm2 direct alpha such that a failure of the outer containment barrier will have a lower probability of resulting in a spread of contamination. The package consists of an optional convenience (food pack) can, a welded type 304L stainless steel inner (primary) can, and a welded type 304L stainless steel outer (secondary) can. Following the welding process, the can is checked for leaks and then sent down the line for decontamination. Once decontaminated, the sealed primary can may be removed from the glove box line. Welding of the secondary container takes place outside the glove box line. The highly automated decontamination process that has been developed to support the packaging of Special Nuclear Materials is based on an electrolytic process similar to the wide spread industrial technique of electropolishing. The can is placed within a specially designed stainless steel fixture built within a partition of a glove box. The passage of current through this electrolytic cell results in a uniform anodic dissolution of the surface metal layers of the can. This process results in a rapid decontamination of the can. The electrolyte is fully recyclable, and the separation of the chromium from the actinides results in a compact, non RCRA secondary waste product

  8. Pathogen Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Irudayaraj

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of sensors for detecting foodborne pathogens has been motivated by the need to produce safe foods and to provide better healthcare. However, in the more recent times, these needs have been expanded to encompass issues relating to biosecurity, detection of plant and soil pathogens, microbial communities, and the environment. The range of technologies that currently flood the sensor market encompass PCR and microarray-based methods, an assortment of optical sensors (including bioluminescence and fluorescence, in addition to biosensor-based approaches that include piezoelectric, potentiometric, amperometric, and conductometric sensors to name a few. More recently, nanosensors have come into limelight, as a more sensitive and portable alternative, with some commercial success. However, key issues affecting the sensor community is the lack of standardization of the testing protocols and portability, among other desirable elements, which include timeliness, cost-effectiveness, user-friendliness, sensitivity and specificity. [...

  9. Cold plasma decontamination of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemira, Brendan A

    2012-01-01

    Cold plasma is a novel nonthermal food processing technology that uses energetic, reactive gases to inactivate contaminating microbes on meats, poultry, fruits, and vegetables. This flexible sanitizing method uses electricity and a carrier gas, such as air, oxygen, nitrogen, or helium; antimicrobial chemical agents are not required. The primary modes of action are due to UV light and reactive chemical products of the cold plasma ionization process. A wide array of cold plasma systems that operate at atmospheric pressures or in low pressure treatment chambers are under development. Reductions of greater than 5 logs can be obtained for pathogens such as Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Effective treatment times can range from 120 s to as little as 3 s, depending on the food treated and the processing conditions. Key limitations for cold plasma are the relatively early state of technology development, the variety and complexity of the necessary equipment, and the largely unexplored impacts of cold plasma treatment on the sensory and nutritional qualities of treated foods. Also, the antimicrobial modes of action for various cold plasma systems vary depending on the type of cold plasma generated. Optimization and scale up to commercial treatment levels require a more complete understanding of these chemical processes. Nevertheless, this area of technology shows promise and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy. PMID:22149075

  10. Land application of sewage sludge: Pathogen issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diseases transmitted via the faecal-oral exposure route cause severe gastroenteric disorders, and large numbers of causative organisms are discharged with the faecal matter of infected individuals. For this reason, pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa, or helminths, are always found in sewage sludge. If not properly treated for use in agriculture, sludge can be a source of pathogenic contamination. Radiation is an attractive method to reduce the numbers of microorganisms in sewage sludge. Routine examination for pathogens is not practised nor recommended because complicated and costly procedures are involved. Instead, an indicator organism is usually assayed and enumerated. In this paper, methods are discussed for the investigation of pathogens in sewage sludge. (author)

  11. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.;

    2010-01-01

    The decontamination of a rotating cutting tool used for slicing in the meat industry by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas is investigated. The target is Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium which causes listeriosis and can be found in plants and food. The non-pathogenic species, Listeria innocua......, is used for the experiments. A rotating knife was inoculated with L. innocua. The surface of the rotating knife was partly exposed to an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge operated in air, where the knife itself served as a ground electrode. The rotation of the knife ensures a...

  12. Acidification and irradiation to decontaminate secondary slurry products - results of model experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontaminating action of acidification and irradiation of secondary slurry products was tested by means of total and indicator germs and one pathogenetic test germ. In acidification, pH 2 proved to be most efficient in germ dilution. All germs were totally eliminated by using 3 Mrad of gamma rays of a 60-Co nuclide. Some germs from dextrose blood agar still were detectable together with proteolytes, following 0.8 Mrad irradiation. S.-dublin was used as pathogenic test germ, and it was inactivated by 0.4 Mrad or pH 3, following 24 hours of acid after-effect. (author)

  13. Decontamination of gravels contaminated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Rock types of high radioactivity were quartz, lamprophyre, and schist. • The larger the gravel size, the more the concentration of the gravel is reduced. • Average removal efficiency of gravel after the third washing was about 37%. • Removal efficiency of the contaminated gravel was not related to its size. • The higher the gravel weight, the more the concentration of gravel is reduced. - Abstract: Gravel washing equipment and electrokinetic–electrodialytic decontamination equipment were manufactured to decontaminate gravel contaminated with uranium. The removal efficiency according to the gravel size and weight and the removal efficiency according to the lapsed time using the manufactured equipment were investigated through several experiments. The volume of gravel in the high uranium concentration group was about 10%, the rock types of which were quartz, lamprophyre, and schist. The larger the gravel size, the higher the contaminated concentration of gravel. The average uranium (238U) concentration of gravel after the first washing was about 1.45 Bq/g, and the average removal efficiency of gravel after the third washing was about 37%. In addition, the removal efficiency of the contaminated gravel was not related to its size. The contaminated concentration of the gravel decreased with an increasing gravel weight. In addition, the removal efficiency of contaminated gravel was not related to its weight. When the electrokinetic–electrodialytic decontamination period of 5 days, 10 days, 15 days, and 20 days elapsed, the 238U in the gravel was removed by about 40%, 65%, 72%, and 81%. The more the electrokinetic–electrodialytic decontamination time elapsed, the more the removal efficiency ratio of 238U decreased. Finally, the gravel with a size of less than 10 cm was treated by soil washing and electrokinetic decontamination methods with soil, and gravel with size of more than 10 cm but less than 20 cm was treated by gravel washing and

  14. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important for the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread.

  15. Ecological niche of plant pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecaterina Fodor

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Disease ecology is a new approach to the understanding of the spread and dynamics of pathogens in natural and man-made environments. Defining and describing the ecological niche of the pathogens is one of the major tasks for ecological theory, as well as for practitioners preoccupied with the control and forecasting of established and emerging diseases. Niche theory has been periodically revised, not including in an explicit way the pathogens. However, many progresses have been achieved in niche modeling of disease spread, but few attempts were made to construct a theoretical frame for the ecological niche of pathogens. The paper is a review of the knowledge accumulated during last decades in the niche theory of pathogens and proposes an ecological approach in research. It quest for new control methods in what concerns forest plant pathogens, with a special emphasis on fungi like organisms of the genus Phytophthora. Species of Phytophthora are the most successful plant pathogens of the moment, affecting forest and agricultural systems worldwide, many of them being invasive alien organisms in many ecosystems. The hyperspace of their ecological niche is defined by hosts, environment and human interference, as main axes. To select most important variables within the hyperspace, is important the understanding of the complex role of pathogens in the ecosystems as well as for control programs. Biotic relationships within ecosystem of host-pathogen couple are depicted by ecological network and specific metrics attached to this. The star shaped network is characterized by few high degree nodes, by short path lengths and relatively low connectivity, premises for a rapid disturbance spread. 

  16. Studies on residue-free decontaminants for chemical warfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, George W

    2015-03-17

    Residue-free decontaminants based on hydrogen peroxide, which decomposes to water and oxygen in the environment, are examined as decontaminants for chemical warfare agents (CWA). For the apparent special case of CWA on concrete, H2O2 alone, without any additives, effectively decontaminates S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl O-ethyl methylphosphonothioate (VX), pinacolyl methylphosphorofluoridate (GD), and bis(2-choroethyl) sulfide (HD) in a process thought to involve H2O2 activation by surface-bound carbonates/bicarbonates (known H2O2 activators for CWA decontamination). A plethora of products are formed during the H2O2 decontamination of HD on concrete, and these are characterized by comparison to synthesized authentic compounds. As a potential residue-free decontaminant for surfaces other than concrete (or those lacking adsorbed carbonate/bicarbonate) H2O2 activation for CWA decontamination is feasible using residue-free NH3 and CO2 as demonstrated by reaction studies for VX, GD, and HD in homogeneous solution. Although H2O2/NH3/CO2 ("HPAC") decontaminants are active for CWA decontamination in solution, they require testing on actual surfaces of interest to assess their true efficacy for surface decontamination. PMID:25710477

  17. Development of strippable gel for surface decontamination applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strippable gels are an attractive option for decontamination of surfaces particularly when materials are to be reused after decontamination. The process in general results in good decontamination performance with minimal secondary waste generation. This paper reports on development of strippable gel formulation using polyvinyl alcohol as the gel former. Peeling behavior of the gel film improved when glycerol was used as plasticizer. Incorporation of decontaminating agents is essential for the gel to be effective, so a number of decontaminating agents were screened based on their miscibility with the gel, smooth peeling, and good decontamination performance. Based on this study, a strippable gel, ‘INDIGEL’ was formulated as a potential candidate for surface decontamination applications. Extensive trials on evaluation of decontamination performance of Indigel were done on simulated surfaces like stainless steel tray, stainless steel fume hood, PVC floor, granite and ceramic table tops. Results show that Indigel is highly effective for decontamination of surfaces contaminated with all types of radionuclides. Simplicity of its use coupled with good decontamination ability will find application in nuclear and other chemical industries. (author)

  18. Nuclear disaster. Fukushima, hundred years of decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article gives an overview of what will have to be done on the site of Fukushima to decontaminate and to dismantle it. Based on the experience gained in Three Mile Island and in Chernobyl, experts foresee ten years of work within the reactor cores, thirty years around the plant, sixty years of decontamination within the no man's land area around the plant; and centuries as far as scattered spots are concerned more than hundred kilometres away from the plant. Three radionuclides must be surveyed, but with different half lives: iodine 131 (8 days), caesium 137 (30 years), and plutonium 239 (24000 years). The expertise of French companies (Areva, Assystem, Bouygues and Vinci) in reactor dismantling, dismantling procedure design, and public works (protection arch like in Chernobyl) is briefly evoked, as well as the French approach for post-accident management

  19. Surface decontamination by heterogeneous foams and suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of methods was used to investigate the surface of stainless steel as delivered or treated (electrochemically polished, machine ground). Micro X-ray spectral analysis evidenced a uniform distribution of alloying elements. Auger spectroscopy revealed the layer-by-layer composition by elements and the thickness of the superficial oxide film. The distribution of heterogeneous uranium dioxide powders on the stainless steel surface was examined by microprobe analysis (using Comebax). In the order of increasing contamination by uranium dioxide, the surfaces can be arranged as: untreated - polished - ground. The behaviour of hydrogen peroxide in alkaline solutions was studied by spectrophotometry and laser analysis. Decontamination of stainless steel surfaces from UO2 by microgaseous emulsions in alkaline media with surfactants present was tested. The decontamination factor was determined as a function of the size and volume of gas bubbles. It was shown to rise with increasing gas content. (author)

  20. APSIC Guidelines for environmental cleaning and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Moi Lin; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Thu, Le Thi Anh; Villanueva, Victoria; Pandjaitan, Costy; Yusof, Mohamad Yasim

    2015-01-01

    This document is an executive summary of APSIC Guidelines for Environmental Cleaning and Decontamination. It describes best practices in routine cleaning and decontamination in healthcare facilities as well as in specific settings e.g. management of patients with isolation precautions, food preparation areas, construction and renovation, and following a flood. It recommends the implementation of environmental hygiene program to keep the environment safe for patients, staff and visitors visiting a healthcare facility. Objective assessment of cleanliness and quality is an essential component of this program as a method for identifying quality improvement opportunities. Recommendations for safe handling of linen and bedding; as well as occupational health and safety issues are included in the guidelines. A training program is vital to ensure consistent adherence to best practices. PMID:26719796

  1. Radiation decontamination unit for the community hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freestanding radiation decontamination units including surgical capability can be developed and made operational in small/medium sized community hospitals at relatively small cost and with minimal plant reconstrution. The Radiological Assistance Program of the United States Department of Energy and the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center Training Site of Oak Rige Associated Universities are ready to support individual hospitals and physicians in this endeavor. Adequate planning rather than luck, should be used in dealing with potential radiation accident victims. The radiation emergency team is headed by a physician on duty in the hospital. The senior administrative person on duty is responsible for intramural and extramural communications. Rapid mobilization of the radiation decontamination unit is important

  2. Impact of LWR decontamination on radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increased radiation levels around certain reactors in the United States and accompanying increases in personnel exposures are causing a reexamination of options available to utilities to continue operation. One of the options is decontamination of the primary system to reduce radiation levels. The Battelle-Northwest study of decontamination and its impact on radwaste systems has been directed towards existing reactors and allied systems as they are employed during their operational lifetimes. Decommissioning and cleanup during such work are not within the scope of this project although certain processes and waste systems might be similar. Rupture debris cleanup represents a special situation that requires different design features and concepts and it is not a part of this study

  3. Combined decontamination processes for wastes containing PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project has focused on the development of a complex assembly of mutually corresponding technological units:-a low temperature thermal process for the desorption of PCBs and other organics from soils and other contaminated solid wastes;-the extraction of PCBs from soils by an ecological friendly aqueous solution of selected surfactants;-the chemical decontamination of PCBs in oils and in oil-in-water emulsions by metallic sodium and potassium in polyethylene glycols in the presence of aluminum powder;-the modified alkaline catalyzed chemical decontamination of PCBs in oils and in oil-in-water dispersions in a solid-state reactor (in a film of reacting emulsion on solid carriers); and-the breakdown of PCBs in aqueous emulsions with activated hydroxyl radicals enhanced by UV radiation The processes operate in a closed loop configuration with effluents circulating among the process unit. These technologies have been verified at laboratory and pilot-plant scales

  4. Room source management decontamination in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A surface,work materials and tools contamination it produced for Ra-226 sources management in des use in Uruguayan radioactive waste and sources management and storage room specifically in the Uruguay Republic University in Nuclear Search Center. A surface contamination direct was performed measurement with Eberline alpha particles Contamat FHT 111M with 42 496/30 sounder. It found greater and least contamination grade in all cement floor as well as in tables where was managed with Ra-226 sources. A value measured surface contamination can see in the Room scheme with more 200 Bq/cm in extension small places. A segregation between work materials and tools considerate d free contamination was realized. The contaminated objects was separated for a future treatment. A proceeding followed in the decontamination was inhale, abrasion,sweep essays in different representative zones, obtain decontamination factors and residual activity

  5. Pool decontamination method in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To enable radioactive substance decontamination in a short time by applying ultrasonic cavitation effect to the surface of a stainless cavity (pool) deposited with such radioactive substances. Method: Upon decontamination, an ultrasonic cleaner is caused to flow in water, before discharging water in a cavity after fuel exchange, and supported on supports of a driving device so that the sonic radiation surface of an ultrasonic oscillator is opposed to the side wall surface of the cavity. Then, clean water is supplied to a tubular re-cleaning device provided with a plurality of jetting ports, the ultrasonic oscillator is excited, water is discharged from the cavity and the driving device is reciprocated, whereby the ultrasonic cleaner conducts ultrasonic cleaning while moving in a zig-zag manner along the trace shown in the drawing to remove the radioactive materials deposited on the cavity surface into water. (Kawakami, Y.)

  6. Laser radiation - application for surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possibilities of uses laser radiation for decontamination of metal surfaces was considered. The principle of the method is to evaporate a very thin layer of material from the surface via ablation using intensive and focused laser beam. The material removed should then be transferred to a filter by a carrier gas. Some of the obtained data, regarding use of pulsed Nd:YAG laser and energy transfer through an optical fiber, were presented here too. Fundamentals of light interaction with a metal surface were also considered in order to be able to predict conditions and possible ways of successful ablation. It was pointed out that the development of the method would bring several benefits: improved safety - decontamination can be performed remotely, reduced waste volume and less secondary waste, no hazardous chemicals and thus no concerns over chemical handling. (author)

  7. Evaluation of commercially available decontamination chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of commercially available decontamination solutions was compared with the effectiveness of 10% oxalic acid in controlled laboratory tests. Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 625 specimens were used. Contamination was sludge from Savannah River Plant (SRP) high level waste tanks. Measured amounts of contamination were placed on each specimen. They were then heated to bond the contamination to the surface and cleaned according to the manufacturer's directions. The effectiveness of the product was determined by monitoring specimens before and after cleaning. Four of the 16 solutions evaluated removed all the contamination from Type 304L stainless steel. Inconel 625 was more difficult to decontaminate. Further tests are planned with the chemicals that were most effective in this test. 4 refs., 6 tabs

  8. Evaluation of commercially available decontamination chemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of commercially available decontamination solutions was compared with the effectiveness of 10% oxalic acid in controlled lab. tests. Type 304L stainless steel and Inconel 625 specimens were used. Contamination was sludge from Savannah River Plant (SRP) high level waste tanks. Measured amounts of contamination were placed on each specimen. They were then heated to bond the contamination to the surface and cleaned according to the manufacturer's directions. The effectiveness of the produce was determined by monitoring specimens before and after cleaning. Four of the 16 solutions evaluated removed all the contamination from Type 304L stainless steel. Inconel 625 was more difficult to decontaminate. Further tests are planned with the chemicals that were most effective in this test

  9. Electrodialytic decontamination of spent ion exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a novel electrodialytic decontamination process for the selective removal of radioactive Cs from spent ion exchange resins containing large amounts of Li is described. The process involves passage of a dc electric current through a bed of the spent ion exchange resin in a specially designed electrodialytic cell. The radiocesium so removed from a volume of the spent resin is concentrated onto a much smaller volume of a Cs selective sorbent to achieve a significant radioactive waste volume reduction. Technical feasibility of the electrodialytic resin decontamination process has been demonstrated on a bench scale with a batch of simulated spent ion exchange resin and using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide as the Cs selective sorbent. A volume reduction factor between 10 and 17 has been estimated. The process appears to be economically attractive. Improvements in process economics can be expected from optimization of the process. Other possible applications of the EDRD process have been identified

  10. Electrochemical decontamination of Pu contaminated stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical decontamination has been demonstrated to be very effective in removing plutonium nitrate contamination (0.5 μg cm-2) on stainless steels. The amount of metal dissolved to achieve a DF of 102 to 103 was 2 to 7 μm depending on the electrolyte used. In unstirred electrolytes 1M HNO3, 1M HNO3/0.1M NaF, 5M HNO3 perform best. Under stirred electrolyte conditions, there is a general marginal fall in effectiveness except for 5M HNO3 where there is a slight improvement. The optimum performance is a compromise between maximizing the electrolyte throwing power and minimizing substrate surface roughening during decontamination. (author)

  11. Decontamination of tannic drugs with ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selected types of tannin-containing plant drugs were gamma irradiated with dosed of 5, 10 and 25 kGy. A statistically significant decrease was observed in the number of microorganisms, bacteria and fungi. With higher doses, the tannin contents in all types under study increased by 4 to 66%, in some also with lower doses. Infusions prepared from the initial material met the requirements of the standard for microbiological harmlessness. The results obtained allowed to arrive at the conclusion that tannic drugs for the preparation of infusions need not be decontaminated while decontamination should be recommended for presentations designed for direct oral application. A dose of 25 kGy should be used that will guarantee microbial harmlessness as well as the preservation of the contents. (M.D.). 7 tabs., 10 refs

  12. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator ''Elektronika 10-10'' at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency

  13. Microbiological decontamination of natural honey by irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W.; Owczarczyk, H. B.; K ȩdzia, B.; Hołderna-K ȩdzia, E.; Madajczyk, D.

    2000-03-01

    Degree of microbiological decontamination, organoleptic and physico-chemical properties of natural honeys were investigated after radiation treatment. Seven kinds of honeys were irradiated with the beams of 10 MeV electrons from a 10 kW linear accelerator "Elektronika 10-10" at the dose 10 kGy. It was shown, that after irradiation, the total count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and moulds decrease by 99%. The antibiotic value in investigated honeys increased in turn from 1.67 to 2.67 after irradiation. Such factors and parameters of investigated honeys as their consistency, content of water and saccharose, acidity, the diastase and 5-HMF values were not changed significantly after irradiation. Decontamination by irradiation is a process which allows us to obtain high microbiological purity of honeys. It is especially needed, when honeys are used in surgical treatment of injuries and in nutrition of babies with food deficiency.

  14. Chemical decontamination for decommissioning purposes. (Vigorous decontamination tests of steel samples in a special test loop)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the research activities described was to develop vigorous decontamination techniques for decommissioning purposes, taking into account the cost of treatment of the radwaste, to achieve possibly unrestricted release of the treated components, and to obtain know-how for in situ hard decontamination. The decontamination procedures for strong decontamination have been optimized in static and dynamic tests (DECO-loop). The best values have been found for: (i) hydrochloric acid: 4 to 5% vol. at low temperature, 0.7 to 1% vol. at high temperature (800C); (ii) hydrofluoric plus nitric acid: 1.5% vol. HF + 5% vol. HNO3 at low temperature; 0.3 to 0.5% vol. HF + 2.5 to 5% vol. HNO3 at high temperature. High flow rates are not necessary, but a good re-circulation of the solution is needed. The final contamination levels, after total oxide removal, are in accordance with limits indicated for unrestricted release of materials in some countries. The arising of the secondary waste is estimated. Decontamination of a 10 m2 surface would typically produce 0.5 to 3.0 kg of dry waste, corresponding to 1.6 to 10 kg of concrete conditioned waste

  15. Decontamination performance of low-pressure ARC decontamination technology using carbon monoxide gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been studying a dry surface decontamination technology using a Low-Pressure Arc, characterized by features such as less secondary wastes. To date, we have obtained results on the decontamination performance of argon Low-Pressure Arc decontamination technology for test pieces of BWR corrosion product film containing Co-60, and found that the Co-60 residual ratio was heavily dependent on the pressure in the chamber (Kanbe, et al., 2003). A Co-60 residual ratio of 20% was achieved only if the pressure in the chamber was reduced to some tens of pascals. We have investigated the performance of a Low-Pressure Arc when using carbon monoxide gas, in the expectation of an improvement in decontamination performance due to a chemical reaction caused by carbon monoxide, in addition to the heat effects of the Low-Pressure Arc. As a result, a Co-60 residual ratio of 20% or less was achieved. Nor was there any dependence of a Co-60 residual ratio on the gas fraction of the mixed gases (Ar/CO = 80/20-50/50 in volume %). A Co-60 residual ratio of 20% was the same level as in the case of a pure argon atmosphere, but was achieved even at pressures of several hundred pascals. The potential of decontamination even at pressures above several hundred pascals would have the advantage of facilitating the collection of radioactive dust using a gas flow by the proposed method. (authors)

  16. Potential harmful effects on agricultural environments of sewage sludge utilization as a fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There can be harmful effects of sewage-sludge utilization in agriculture. However, these can be overcome by treatment of the sludge and by appropriate farm-management practices. Sewage sludge is of increasing potential importance to farmers because of its value as a fertilizer. But some compounds in sludge can be harmful for plants, animals and man. Heavy metals may be taken up by plants, and the higher the content in the soil, the greater the uptake. There are substantial differences in heavy-metal accumulation and tolerance among plant species. With respect to pathogens (for example Salmonella) in sludge, recent developments in decontamination processes can provide greater guarantee of preservation of the environment. Gamma-radiation treatment at a dose of 3 kGy has been proven effective. The use of sewage sludge in agriculture is attractive from the economical and environmental points of view. It is therefore important that farmers are provided not only with more information about the nutrient effects, but also about risks, if any, of leaching of heavy metals and microbial condition to groundwater. To achieve this, there must be close co-operation between farmers and the authorities responsible for disposal of sewage sludge. (author)

  17. Advanced robotics for decontamination and dismantlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and dismantlement (D ampersand D) robotics technology application area of the US Department of Energy's Robotics Technology Development Program is explained and described. D ampersand D robotic systems show real promise for the reduction of human exposure to hazards, for improvement of productivity, and for the reduction of secondary waste generation. Current research and development pertaining to automated floor characterization, robotic equipment removal, and special inspection is summarized. Future research directions for these and emerging activities is given

  18. Cladding hull decontamination process: preliminary development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griggs, B.; Bryan, G.H.

    1979-12-01

    An investigation of the chemical and radioactive properties of fuel hulls was conducted to assist in a decontamination process development effort. The removal of zirconium oxide layers from zirconium was accomplished by a treatment in 600/sup 0/C HF followed by a dilute aqueous reagent. Similar treatment in fused alkali-zirconium fluoride salt baths was examined. A remotely operated small batch facility was developed and process parameters determined. 16 figures, 9 tables.

  19. Method for electrochemical decontamination of radioactive metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    2008-06-10

    A decontamination method for stripping radionuclides from the surface of stainless steel or aluminum material comprising the steps of contacting the metal with a moderately acidic carbonate/bicarbonate electrolyte solution containing sodium or potassium ions and thereafter electrolytically removing the radionuclides from the surface of the metal whereby radionuclides are caused to be stripped off of the material without corrosion or etching of the material surface.

  20. Indoor air as a vehicle for human pathogens: Introduction, objectives, and expectation of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Syed A

    2016-09-01

    Airborne spread of pathogens can be rapid, widespread, and difficult to prevent. In this international workshop, a panel of 6 experts will expound on the following: (1) the potential for indoor air to spread a wide range of human pathogens, plus engineering controls to reduce the risk for exposure to airborne infectious agents; (2) the behavior of aerosolized infectious agents indoors and the use of emerging air decontamination technologies; (3) a survey of quantitative methods to recover infectious agents and their surrogates from indoor air with regard to survival and inactivation of airborne pathogens; (4) mathematical models to predict the movement of pathogens indoors and the use of such information to optimize the benefits of air decontamination technologies; and (5) synergy between different infectious agents, such as legionellae and fungi, in the built environment predisposing to possible transmission-related health impacts of aerosolized biofilm-based opportunistic pathogens. After the presentations, the panel will address a set of preformulated questions on selection criteria for surrogate microbes to study the survival and inactivation of airborne human pathogens, desirable features of technologies for microbial decontamination of indoor air, knowledge gaps, and research needs. It is anticipated that the deliberations of the workshop will provide the attendees with an update on the significance of indoor air as a vehicle for transmitting human pathogens with a brief on what is currently being done to mitigate the risks from airborne infectious agents. PMID:27590701

  1. New technologies for PCB [polychlorinated biphenyl] decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) were mixed with chlorobenzenes to reduce viscosity and provide for both electrical insulation and convective heat transfers. These mixtures were known as askarels, and ca 99.8% of PCBs used in electrical applications are contained in askarel-filled transformers and capacitors. It is estimated that there are ca 180 million gal of PCB-contaminated oil distributed through over 3 million transformers in the USA. Technology used for decontaminating these transformers depends on the concentration of the PCB contamination. At low PCB concentrations of up to ca 2,000 ppM, chemical methods can be used; at higher concentrations, alternative disposal options become more attractive. For chemical treatment, a small mobile unit using quick-reacting reagents has been developed for on-site decontamination. For highly contaminated transformers, retrofilling is very attractive since the owner's liability is minimized at minimum cost. Conventional flush/drain procedures have such drawbacks as the inability to remove oil trapped in windings and the leaching of trapped PCBs back into the uncontaminated retrofill oil over time. A new process has been developed to solve the leaching problem and to decontaminate the drained askarel at room temperature using a catalyst. An alternative disposal strategy involves dismantling the transformer carcass, incinerating non-recyclable materials, and cleaning the metals and wire with solvent. 8 figs

  2. Use of laser ablation in nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development and the use of clean decontamination process appear to be one of the main priorities for industries especially for nuclear industries. This is especially due to the fact of wastes minimization which is one of the principal commitments. One answer would be to use a photonic process such as the LASER process. The principle of this process is based on the absorption, by the contaminant, of the photon's energy. This energy then will propagate into the material and create some mechanical waves responsible of the interfaces embrittlement and de-cohesion. As we can see, this process so called LASER ablation does not use any chemicals and allows us to avoid any production of liquid waste. Since now a couple of years, the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA group (BE/CL) investigates this new decontamination technology. Many tests have been done in inactive conditions on various simulants such as paints, inks, resins, metallic oxides firstly in order to estimate its efficiency but also to fully qualify it. After that, we decided to move on hot tests to fully validate this new process and to show its interest for the nuclear industry. Those hot tests have been done on two kinds of contaminated material (on tank pieces covered with a thick metallic oxide layer and on metallic pieces covered with grease). Some information such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. (authors)

  3. Electrochemical decontamination in easily processed electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallic surfaces can be reduced to very low levels of residual activity by electrochemical decontamination, thus reducing decommissioning and disposal costs. Two electrolyte systems have been developed which minimize the volume for disposal of secondary waste containing the bulk of the activity. Kraftanlagen, Heidelberg has developed a system for use in an immersion tank based on a KBr solution of acetylacetone. This leads to a continuous precipitation of the insoluble acetylacetonates of ferrous substrates together with such active species as 60Co. The bath performance can be maintained by continuous acetylacetone addition. From pilot scale trials, a solids waste volume of 1.1 dm3/m2 of surface decontaminated has been determined. Harwell has developed both immersion and in-situ processes based on nitric acid, as the spent electrolyte is compatible with existing UK waste treatment philosophy - potentially yielding an immobilized product volume of 0.6 dm3/m2 area treated. Nitric acid has the additional advantage of suppressing any hydrogen production. Both processes have been developed from laboratory to microprocessor controlled pilot scale units which have been demonstrated successfully for the treatment of genuine waste. The immersion tank process uses electroetching at low current densities for the treatment of extended areas, while the in-situ technique uses electropolishing in 6M HNO3 in an engineered head connected to a service trolley by an umbilical. This has also shown potential for incorporation in an integrated monitoring/decontamination system under robotic control. (abstract)

  4. Decontamination impacts on solidification and waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research to determine chemical and physical conditions which could lead to thermal excursions, gas generation, and/or general degradation of decontamination-reagent-loaded resins has shown that IRN-78, IONAC A-365, and IRN-77 organic ion exchange resin moisture contents vary significantly depending on the counter ion ''loading.'' The extent/vigor of the reaction is very highly dependent on the degree of dewatering of the resins and on the method of solution addition. The heat generation may be due, in part, to the heat of neutralization. In studies of the long-term compatibility effects of decontamination waste resins in contact with waste package container materials in the presence of decontamination reagents, radiolysis products and gamma irradiation, it has been found that the corrosion of carbon steel and austenitic stainless steel in mixed bed resins is enhanced by gamma irradiation. However, cracking in high density polyethylene is essentially eliminated because of the rapid removal of oxygen from the environment by gamma-induced oxidation of the large resin mass. 13 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Laser decontamination of the radioactive lightning rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potiens, A. J.; Dellamano, J. C.; Vicente, R.; Raele, M. P.; Wetter, N. U.; Landulfo, E.

    2014-02-01

    Between 1970 and 1980 Brazil experienced a significant market for radioactive lightning rods (RLR). The device consists of an air terminal with one or more sources of americium-241 attached to it. The sources were used to ionize the air around them and to increase the attraction of atmospheric discharges. Because of their ineffectiveness, the nuclear regulatory authority in Brazil suspended the license for manufacturing, commerce and installation of RLR in 1989, and determined that the replaced RLR were to be collected to a centralized radioactive waste management facility for treatment. The first step for RLR treatment is to remove the radioactive sources. Though they can be easily removed, some contaminations are found all over the remaining metal scrap that must decontaminated for release, otherwise it must be treated as radioactive waste. Decontamination using various chemicals has proven to be inefficient and generates large amounts of secondary wastes. This work shows the preliminary results of the decontamination of 241Am-contaminated metal scrap generated in the treatment of radioactive lightning rods applying laser ablation. A Nd:YAG nanoseconds laser was used with 300 mJ energy leaving only a small amount of secondary waste to be treated.

  6. Decontamination of radionuclides from skin: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazrart, Anissa; Bérard, Philippe; Leiterer, Alexandra; Ménétrier, Florence

    2013-08-01

    The accident in Fukushima has emphasized the need to increase the capacity of health protection for exposed workers, first responders, and the general public in a major accident situation with release of radioactivity. Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents, but this risk also exists and incidents can happen in industry, research laboratories, or in nuclear medicine departments. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the products currently used after skin contamination in order to highlight the needs and ways to improve the medical management of victims. From this review, it can be observed that the current use of these radiological decontamination products is essentially based on empiricism. In addition, some of these products are harsh and irritating, even toxic, possibly damaging the skin barrier. In some emergency situations in which clean water is in short supply, most of the current products cannot be used. Research on the mechanisms of action of decontaminating products is needed to develop a decontamination strategy. PMID:23799505

  7. Decontamination of radionuclides from skin: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accident in Fukushima has emphasized the need to increase the capacity of health protection for exposed workers, first responders, and the general public in a major accident situation with release of radioactivity. Skin contamination is one of the most probable risks following major nuclear or radiological incidents, but this risk also exists and incidents can happen in industry, research laboratories, or in nuclear medicine departments. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the products currently used after skin contamination in order to highlight the needs and ways to improve the medical management of victims. From this review, it can be observed that the current use of these radiological decontamination products is essentially based on empiricism. In addition, some of these products are harsh and irritating, even toxic, possibly damaging the skin barrier. In some emergency situations in which clean water is in short supply, most of the current products cannot be used. Research on the mechanisms of action of decontaminating products is needed to develop a decontamination strategy. (authors)

  8. Decontamination of radioactive materials. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive materials to which an individual may be exposed are not rare. These potential sources of accidental radiation include medical and food sterilizers, therapeutic devices, industrial radiography sources, research laboratories, transportation accidents, nuclear medicine laboratories, and nuclear power plants. While radiation accidents occur infrequently, one of the problems is that ionizing radiation cannot be detected by the human senses. Contamination accidents involve not only some exposure to radiation as the individuals carry the radioactive materials either internally or externally, and are thus continually exposed to radiation until the contaminant is removed. The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has published ''''Management of Persons Accidentally Contaminated with Radionuclides'''' as report No. 65. One of the chapters, entitled ''''Therapy Procedures and Drugs,'''' details the decontamination of radionuclides. It is the goal of this article to outline and establish procedures and resources for the decontamination of contaminated individuals. Here, we review the treatment of contamination and describe drugs for internal decontamination in Japan. (author). 56 refs

  9. Transfer of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Beef to Tomato through Kitchen Equipment and the Efficacy of Intermediate Decontamination Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkana, E; Lianou, A; Nychas, G-J E

    2016-07-01

    It is well established that a high percentage of foodborne illness is caused by failure of consumers to prepare food in a hygienic manner. Indeed, a common practice in households is to use the same kitchen equipment for both raw meat and fresh produce. Such a practice may lead to cross-contamination of fruits and vegetables, which are mainly consumed without further processing, with pathogenic microorganisms originating from raw meat. The present study was performed to examine the transfer of the pathogenic bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from inoculated beef fillets to tomatoes via contact with high-density polyethylene (PE), stainless steel (SS), and wooden (WD) surfaces and through cutting with SS knives. Furthermore, the following decontamination procedures were applied: (i) rinsing with tap water, (ii) scrubbing with tap water and liquid dish detergent, and (iii) using a commercial antibacterial spray. When surfaces and knives that came into contact with contaminated beef fillets were not cleaned prior to handling tomatoes, the lowest level of pathogen transfer to tomatoes was observed through PE surfaces. All of the decontamination procedures applied were more effective on knives than on surfaces, while among the surface materials tested, WD surfaces were the most difficult to decontaminate, followed by PE and SS surfaces. Mechanical cleaning with tap water and detergent was more efficient in decontaminating WD surfaces than using commercial disinfectant spray, followed by rinsing only with water. Specifically, reductions of 2.07 and 1.09 log CFU/cm(2) were achieved by washing the WD surfaces with water and detergent and spraying the surfaces with an antibacterial product, respectively. Although the pathogen's populations on SS and PE surfaces, as well as on tomatoes, after both aforementioned treatments were under the detection limit, the surfaces were all positive after enrichment, and thus, the potential risk of cross-contamination cannot

  10. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  11. Biodegradation of concrete intended for their decontamination; Biodegradation de matrices cimentaires en vue de leur decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jestin, A

    2005-05-15

    The decontamination of sub-structural materials represents a stake of high importance because of the high volume generated. It is agreed then to propose efficient and effective processes. The process of bio-decontamination of the hydraulic binders leans on the mechanisms of biodegradation of concretes, phenomenon characterized in the 40's by an indirect attack of the material by acids stem from the microbial metabolism: sulphuric acid (produced by Thiobacillus), nitric acid (produced by Nitrosomonas and Nitrobacter) and organic acids (produced by fungi). The principle of the bio-decontamination process is to apply those microorganisms on the surface of the contaminated material, in order to damage its surface and to retrieve the radionuclides. One of the multiple approaches of the process is the use of a bio-gel that makes possible the micro-organisms application. (author)

  12. Impact of decontamination on LWR radioactive waste treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Only at N-Reactor is there a means to accommodate radwaste produced during decontamination. The Dresden system is expected to be ready to accommodate such solutions by the summer of 1979. Solidification of the processed decontamination waste may be a significant problem. There is doubt that the materials in current radwaste treatment systems can handle chemicals from a concentrated process. The total storage volume, for concentrated decontamination, is not sufficient in existing radwaste treatment systems. Greater attention should be placed on designing reactors and radwaste treatment systems for decontamination. A means of handling waste material resulting from leaks in the primary system during the decontamination must be developed. On-site storage of solidified decontamination wastes may be a viable option, but license amendments will be necessary

  13. Decontamination system study for the Tank Waste Retrieval System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the findings of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory's decontamination study in support of the Tank Waste Retrieval System (TWRS) development program. Problems associated with waste stored in existing single shell tanks are discussed as well as the justification for the TWRS program. The TWRS requires a decontamination system. The subsystems of the TWRS are discussed, and a list of assumptions pertinent to the TWRS decontamination system were developed. This information was used to develop the functional and operational requirements of the TWRS decontamination system. The requirements were combined with a comprehensive review of currently available decontamination techniques to produced a set of evaluation criteria. The cleaning technologies and techniques were evaluated, and the CO2 blasting decontamination technique was chosen as the best technology for the TWRS

  14. Experimental study on decontamination effect of water jets spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear components, pipes, casks and so on are contaminated after long usage and should be decontaminated before their repair or maintenance. There are various ways of decontamination such as ultrasonic wave cleaning, mechanical brushing, electric polishing and so forth, but most common is water jet spray. Water jet dynamic pressure along the axis of the nozzle (Pm) depends upon that of nozzle exit (Po) and the distance between nozzle exit and the surface to be decontaminated. The decontamination effect greatly depends not only on the pressure (Pm) but on the nozzle scanning speed (Vs). But the relation of these effects on decontamination is not known yet. The authors studied the characteristics of water jets from various types of nozzles by measuring pressure distribution in the water jets, made simulated sample pieces of crud, and removed the deposit by water jets. As a result of these experimental studies, the authors can obtain the formulated relation between decontamination factor and the former various factors

  15. Decontamination of metal surface contaminated by uranyl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination degrees was measured for the metallic equipments in the uranium conversion plant by a chemical decontamination and contamination degrees also measured. Most equipments was made of stainless steel and contacted with uranium(VI) and nitric acid solution. So, metallic surfaces was contaminated with uranium(VI) materials. And decontamination degrees can be expressed by alpha activity measurements. For the alpha activity measurements, metallic specimens were selected in the three representative processes, dissolution process, solvent extraction, and Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate(AUC) precipitation and were prepared to rectangular parallelepipeds with 18mm width and 18mm length and 5mm height. The metallic surfaces can be decontaminated under 10 Bq/cm2 alpha activity due to uranium by only water decontamination, and under 0.04 Bq/cm2 alpha activity by 10% nitric acid decontamination that is ground activity level

  16. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated equipment and parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Uranium enrichment pilot plant was decommissioned in 1985-1986. The decontamination concept and methods and results for the equipment and parts decontaminated are discussed. The kinds of metals involved in the decontamination action were copper, nickel, aluminium alloy, mild steel, and stainless steel. Decontamination results showed the surface contamination levels of most parts decontaminated achieved the required level. The uranium content in aluminium ingots after metal refining was from 33 to 232 ppm. The decontamination liquid wastes were treated with the multiprecipitation method. The contents of uranium, nickel, and fluoride in the supernatant were 0.02-0.1 mg/1, 0.02 mg/1, and 0.13 mg/1, respectively

  17. Decontamination of toothbrushes used by children with special needs: microbiological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Rodrigues Chibinski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children with special needs generally present poor oral hygiene, consequently, their toothbrushes become highly infected, acting as a reservoir for dissemination of different pathogens. Objective: To evaluate the contamination and decontamination of toothbrushes used by children with special needs. Material and methods: Toothbrushes were retrieved from 30 children after 30 days of use, stored in tubes containing nutrient agar and incubated for 24 h (37ºC. After, 100 µl of the dilutions (1:10 and 1:100 were plated on MacConkey agar (Gram negative bacteria, Mitis Salivarius agar (Streptococcus spp., and Saboroud agar (Candida spp. and incubated (37ºC, 48 h. The toothbrushes were randomly divided into 3 groups for decontamination procedures using 0.12% chlorhexidine (GC; 1% sodium hypochlorite (GH and distilled water (GA - control. The solutions were sprayed 6 times onto the bristles and the toothbrushes were submitted to microbiological analysis. Statistical analysis used non-parametric tests (Fisher’s exact and Wilcoxon (α = 0.05. Results: The initial microbiological analysis showed a bacterial growth in all samples. Microorganisms levels higher than ≥ 300 x 103 CFU/mL were detected in 80% of the samples for Streptococcus spp.; 60% for Gram negative bacteria e 47% for Candida spp. After decontamination, there was significant reduction for GC when considering turbidity (p = 0.04 and at the levels of Gram negative bacteria (p = 0.04 and Candida spp. (p = 0.005. For GH e GA, the decontamination procedures were not significant. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine solution was the only agent effective against Gram negative bacteria and Candida spp. None of the solutions tested was effective against Streptococcus spp.

  18. Decontamination of microflora in spices by gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of 60Co γ-photon-irradiation on the natural occurrence of pathogenic microorganisms in four principal cereal grains and on amino acids and vitamins in these cereals were investigated. The total numbers of aerobic bacteria were reduced by three logarithmic decades when grains were given a dose of 10kGy. Coliforms and “coagulase- positive” staphylococci were inhibited by a dose of 1kGy, whereas fungi were inhibited by a dose of 5kGy. The 15kGy dose eliminated viable microorganisms in cereal grains, and about 10–30 colony-forming units of Clostridium sp. per gram of grain survived after this dose. The dose of 10kGy did not cause any measurable destruction of total amino acids. Thiamin was reduced by 22–33% and riboflavin by 10–16% after a dose of 10kGy. Irradiation did not increase the acid values significantly, but did increase the peroxide values, which was not accompanied by the off-odors of cereals. We conclude that the overall dose of 10kGy is very effective for microbial decontamination of cereal grains, and does not adversely affect the nutritional quality of cereal grains

  19. Chemical decontamination for decommissioning (DFD) and DFDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DFD is an acronym for the 'Decontamination for Decommissioning' process developed in 1996 by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The process was designed to remove radioactivity from the surfaces of metallic components to allow these components to be recycled or free-released for disposal as non-radioactive. DFD is a cyclic process consisting of fluoroboric acid, potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. The process continues to uniformly remove base metal once oxide dissolution is complete. The DFD process has been applied on numerous components, sub-systems and systems including the reactor systems at Big Rock Point and Maine Yankee in the United States, and the Jose Cabrera (Zorita) Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Spain. The Big Rock Point site has been returned to Greenfield and at Maine Yankee the land under the license was reduced for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI). In the upcoming months in Zorita NPP in Spain will initiate dismantlement and decommissioning activities to return the site to a non-nuclear facility. The development of the EPRI DFD process has been an on-going evolution and much has been learned from its use in the past. It is effective in attaining very high decontamination factors; however, DFD also produces secondary waste in the form of ion exchange resins. This secondary waste generation adds to the decommissioning quota but this can be improved upon at a time when radioactive waste storage at nuclear facilities and waste disposal sites is limited. To reduce the amount of secondary waste, EPRI has developed the DFDX process. This new process is an enhancement to the DFD process and produces a smaller amount of metallic waste rather than resin waste; this reduction in volume being a factor of ten or greater. Electrochemical ion exchange cells are the heart of the DFDX system and contain electrodes and cation ion exchange resin. It has been used very successfully in small system applications and the next evolution

  20. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  1. New decontamination process using foams containing particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guignot, S.; Faure, S. [CEA Marcoule, Lab. des Procedes Avances de Decontamination, 30 (France)

    2008-07-01

    One key point in the dismantling of nuclear facilities is the thorough cleaning of radiation- exposed surfaces on which radioactive deposits have formed. This cleaning step is often achieved by successive liquid rinses with specific solutions containing alkaline, acidic, or even oxidizing species depending on whether the aim is to dissolve greasy deposits (like ter-butylphosphate) or to corrode surfaces on micrometric thicknesses. An alternative process to reduce the amount of chemicals and the volume of the resulting nuclear wastes consists in using the same but foamed solutions (1). Carrying less liquid, the resulting foams still display similar kinetics of dissolution rates and their efficiency is determined by their ability to hold sufficient wetnesses during the time required for the decontamination. Classical foam decontamination process illustrated by foam pulverization or circulation in the 90 turned five years ago into a specific static process using high-lifetime viscosified foam at a steady state. One way to slow down the liquid drainage is to raise liquid viscosity by adding organic viscosifiers like xanthan gum (2). In 2005, new studies started on an innovative process proposed by S. Faure and based on triphasic foams containing particles [3]. The aim is to generate new decontamination foams containing less quantities of organics materials (surfactants and viscosifiers). Silica particles are obviously known to stabilize or destabilize foams (4). In the frame of S. Guignot Ph.D., new fundamental studies are initiated in order to clarify the role of silica solid microparticles in these foams. Our final goal is to determine whether this kind of new foam can be stable for several hours for a decontamination process. The results we will report focus on wet foams used for nuclear decontamination and incorporating fumed silica. The study is conducted on a vertical foam column in a pseudo-free drainage configuration, and aims at investigating the influence of

  2. Steam generator channel head decontamination by remote grit blast methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A decontamination technique using a high pressure water spray containing an abrasive grit has been developed and employed in the decontamination of steam generator channel heads. The spray, which is remotely controlled, removes the corrosion product deposits that form on primary system surfaces and reduces the area dose rates. The remote grit blast technique has proven to be a viable method for decontamination of steam generator channel head surfaces

  3. Decontamination planning based on computer simulation code CDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination planning based on a computer simulation code CDE is discussed in this paper. Large amount of radionuclides had been discharged to environment in the accident of the Tokyo Electronic Power Company Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. CDE has been developed to support planning the decontamination. From the present study, it is validated that the computer simulation is very useful to predict the effect of the scenario before actions, and to plan the decontamination. (J.P.N.)

  4. Use of zeolites for decontamination of radioactively contamined working surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of using zeolites in decontaminates applied for cleaning up radioactively contaminated working clothes and surfaces is studied. It has been established that zeolites can be used for decontamination of working clothes, as well as, working surfaces presented by metals, ceramic tile, wood coated with paint or varnish, glass. The data on different zeolite-based decontaminate in comparison with a known detergent 'Zashchita' are given

  5. Electropulse method of decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of existing methods of decontamination of nuclear power plant equipment; it describes the advantages and disadvantages of the existing methods. A new promising method for decontamination of removable NPP equipment with a complex surface configuration. The technology and the advantages of the proposed method. Presented physical -mathematical model that calculates non- steady field electrolyte concentration, temperature and electric field in the electrolyte during electro surface treatment. Key words: corrosion, radioactive contamination, decontamination, equipment, nuclear power plant

  6. Communication during mass casualty decontamination: highlighting the gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Holly; Drury, John; Rubin, G James; Williams, Richard; Amlot, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Following the World Trade Centre attacks of September 2001, there has been an increased focus in the emergency planning community on methods of managing chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incidents. This has, necessarily, included consideration of methods and processes for rapid decontamination of large numbers of potentially contaminated people. Real-life decontamination incidents have suggested that some contaminated casualties may not comply with decontamination protocol...

  7. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Amlôt; Egan, Joseph R.

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination proces...

  8. Assessment of human skin decontamination from radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A suitable and practicable means for assessing skin decontamination and percutaneous adsorption of radioactive skin contaminants is developed by comparing the streams of beta-particles and gamma-quanta characterizing the penetration and distribution of radioactive skin contaminants. The principal requirements which a preparation for human skin decontaminants should meet are: effectiveness of the preparation, minimal percutaneous absorption, broad activity spectrum on compounds and radionuclides, preservation of integrity of the treated skin and a simple method of use of the decontaminant. (author)

  9. Decontamination technologies for release from bioprocessing facilities. Part I. Introduction. Part II. Decontamination of wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetically engineered microorganisms are widely used in biotechnology. Wastewater from bioprocessing facilities will require treatment to ensure that effluents discharged into surface water or other waste streams are not a source of viable organisms or transmittable genetic material. The application of treatment technologies used in other industries to decontaminate the releases from biotechnology processing facilities was evaluated. Since published literature on the inactivation of recombinant-DNA organisms is very limited, information for bacteria, viruses, fungi and subcellular components was obtained. The data indicated that ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide, heat, ultraviolet light and ionizing radiation offer good performance potential for decontamination of rDNA processing wastewater. 180 refs., 7 figs., 26 tabs

  10. Design of a decontamination section of the post-irradiation examination laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Post-Irradiation Examination Laboratory activities include the decontamination of expensive equipment of different sizes and weight, involving the complexity and extension of the necessary decontamination. A decontamination section has been designed for that purpose. (author)

  11. Transgenic resistance to pathogens and pests

    OpenAIRE

    Melander, Margareta

    2004-01-01

    Pathogens and pests constantly threaten plants and cause crop losses of significant economic importance for agricultural production worldwide. One way to reduce the damage caused by pathogens and pests is the development of new, resistant cultivars. However, conventional resistance breeding often suffers from limited access to suitable resistance sources. The development of gene technology has drastically increased the availability of genes conferring resistance, which can be derived from non...

  12. Phytophthora parasitica: a model oomycete plant pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Yuling; Qiang ZHANG; Ding, Wei; Shan, Weixing

    2014-01-01

    Oomycetes are eukaryotic microorganisms morphologically similar to but phylogenetically distant from true fungi. Most species in the genus Phytophthora of oomycetes are devastating plant pathogens, causing damages to both agricultural production and natural ecosystems. Tremendous progress has been achieved in recent years in diversity, evolution and lifestyles of oomycete plant pathogens, as well as on the understanding of genetic and molecular basis of oomycete-plant interactions. Phytophtho...

  13. Road surface washing system for decontaminating radioactive substances. Experiment of radioactive decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred on March 11, 2011 resulted in the explosion of the TEPCO Fukushima 1st Nuclear Power Plant and the global dispersion of a large quantity of radioactive substances. A high radiation dose was particularly recorded in Fukushima prefecture several weeks after the accident, although the level is presently sufficiently low. However, considering that the adverse effects of low but extended exposure to radiation are yet to be negated, there is the urgent need for further decontamination. In our study, we focused on the efficient decontamination of radioactive substances in residential areas, for which we propose a high-pressure water jet system for washing road surfaces. The system differs from conventional systems of its type that were initially designed for use in the immediate environment of the nuclear reactors of the TEPCO Fukushima 1st Nuclear Power Plant. The proposed system consists of multiple washing, transporter, and server robots. The washing robots decontaminate the road surface using high-pressure water jets and are transported between washed and unwashed areas by the transporter robots. The server robots supply the water used for washing and absorb the polluted water together with ground dust. In this paper, we describe the concept of the system and present the results of decontamination experiments. Particular attention is given to the washing robot and its mechanism and control method. The results of the integration of the washing robot in an experimental system confirmed the feasibility of the proposed system. (author)

  14. Full system decontamination experience in BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, N.; Sugai, K.; Katayouse, N.; Fujimori, A.; Iida, K.; Hayashi, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Company, Tokyo (Japan); Kanasaki, T.; Inami, I. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama (Japan); Strohmer, F. [Framatome ANP Gmbh, Eelangen (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    At the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station unit 3, unit 2, unit 5 and unit 1 of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), the replacement of the core shroud and internals has been conducted since 1997 in this order. The welded core internals in operating BWR plants were replaced to improve stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance. At present these units are operating smoothly. The developed technology concept is to restore those internals in open air inside the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). To reduce the radiation dose rate inside the RPV, not only a shielding method was applied to cut the radiation from the irradiated structures but also a chemical decontamination method was applied to dissolve the radioactive crud deposited on the surface by using chemical agents. The calculated decontamination factor (DF) at the RPV bottom reached 35-117. As result, the dose rate decreased to approximately 0.1 mSv/h under water. Before and after the installation of the in-vessel shielding, a mechanical cleaning was extensively applied inside the RPV to remove the residual crud as well as the swarf, chips from cutting. As a result, the dose rate at the RPV bottom decreased to ranging from 0.2 to 0.4 mSv/h in air. A working environment for human access, which was better than expected, was established inside the RPV, resulting in 70, 140, 50 and 70 man-Sv (estimated) saving respectively at unit 3 (1F-3), unit 2(1F-2), unit 5(1F-5) and unit 1(1F-1). All four full system decontamination (FSDs) contributed to the successful realization of the core shroud replacement project under the dry condition in RPV.

  15. Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973, when the IAEA first introduced the subject of decontamination and decommissioning into its programme, twelve Agency reports reflecting the needs of the Member States on these topics have been published. These reports summarize the work done by various Technical Committees, Advisory Groups, and International Symposia. While the basic technology to accomplish decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) is fairly well developed, the Agency feels that a more rapid exchange of information and co-ordination of work are required to foster technology, reduce duplication of effort, and provide useful results for Member States planning D and D activities. Although the Agency's limited financial resources do not make possible direct support of every research work in this field, the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) creates a forum for outstanding workers from different Member States brought into closer contact with one another to provide for more effective interaction and, perhaps subsequently, closer collaboration. The first IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on decontamination and decommissioning was initiated in 1984. Nineteen experts from 11 Member States and two international organizations (CEC, OECD/NEA) took part in the three Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCM) during 1984-87. The final RCM took place in Pittsburgh, USA, in conjunction with the 1987 International Decommissioning Symposium (sponsored by the US DOE and organized in co-operation with the IAEA and OECD/NEA). The present document summarizes the salient features and achievements of the co-ordinated research work performed during the 1984-87 programme period. The document consists of two parts: Part 1, Summary of the three research co-ordination meetings and Part 2, Final submissions by participants on the research work performed during 1984-1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 7 reports presented. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  17. KEWB facilities decontamination and disposition. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination and disposition of the KEWB facilities, Buildings 073, 643, 123, and 793, are complete. All of the facility equipment, including reactor enclosure, reactor vessel, fuel handling systems, controls, radioactive waste systems, exhaust systems, electrical services, and protective systems were removed from the site. Buildings 643, 123, and 793 were completely removed, including foundations. The floor and portions of the walls of Building 073 were covered over by final grading. Results of the radiological monitoring and the final survey are presented. 9 tables, 19 figures

  18. Decontamination of TRIGA Mark II reactor, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The TRIGA Mark II Reactor in the Centre for Research and Development Nuclear Technique Bandung has been partially decommissioned as part of an upgrading project. The upgrading project was carried out from 1995 to 2000 and is being commissioned in 2001. The decommissioning portion of the project included disassembly of some components of the reactor core, producing contaminated material. This contaminated material (grid plate, reflector, thermal column, heat exchanger and pipe) will be sent to the Decontamination Facility at the Radioactive Waste Management Development Centre. (author)

  19. Automated Single Cell Data Decontamination Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennessen, Kristin [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have encouraged the classification and functional assessment of microorganisms from a wide span of the biospheres phylogeny.1,2 Environmental processes of interest to the DOE, such as bioremediation and carbon cycling, can be elucidated through the genomic lens of these unculturable microbes. However, contamination can occur at various stages of the single-cell sequencing process. Contaminated data can lead to wasted time and effort on meaningless analyses, inaccurate or erroneous conclusions, and pollution of public databases. A fully automated decontamination tool is necessary to prevent these instances and increase the throughput of the single-cell sequencing process

  20. Investigation of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments have been conducted to investigate the capabilities of electrokinetic decontamination of concrete. Batch equilibration studies have determined that the loading of cesium and strontium on concrete may be decreased using electrolyte solutions containing competing cations, while solubilization of uranium and cobalt, that precipitate at high pH, will require lixiviants containing complexing agents. Dynamic electrokinetic experiments showed greater mobility of cesium than strontium, while some positive results were obtained for the transport of cobalt through concrete using EDTA and for uranium using carbonate

  1. Microwave-Based Water Decontamination System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor); Sognier, Marguerite (Inventor); Dusl, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A system for decontaminating a medium. The system can include a medium having one or more contaminants disposed therein. The contaminants can be or include bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, and combinations thereof. A microwave energy radiation device can be positioned proximate the medium. The microwave energy radiation device can be adapted to generate a signal having a frequency from about 10 GHz to about 100 GHz. The signal can be adapted to kill one or more of the contaminants disposed within the medium while increasing a temperature of the medium by less than about 10 C.

  2. Microbiological decontamination of some herbs by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research work on the microbiological decontamination of the medical herbs by electron beam was carried out. The seven samples of the herbs granules were irradiated at the doses 3, 6 and 10 kGy. It has been shown, that D10 values are varied in several samples after irradiation. Additional, research work, by gas chromatographic method, on the composition volatile oils (salvia, orange, peppermint and anise), after irradiation at the dose 4.4 and 8.8 kGy was carried out. It was not significant differences in the compositions between control and irradiated oils. (author). 12 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Decontamination between dismantling of the Rapsodie primary coolant circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The large-scale decontamination of FBR sodium loops is a novel task, as only a limited number of laboratory-scale results are available to date. The principal objective of this work is to develop a suitable decontamination procedure for application to the primary loops of the RAPSODIE fast breeder reactor as part of decommissionning to Stage 2

  4. Study on the decontamination of primary cooling pump in Hanaro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The HANARO, a multi-purpose research reactor of 30 MWth open-tank-in-pool type, has been under normal operation since its initial criticality in February, 1995. Recently, ten years after the initial operation of the HANARO, one of the two primary cooling pumps was decontaminated for overhaul maintenance in 2004. Before decontamination exposure doserate and surface contamination level of primary cooling pump measured at 4 points. After final decontamination exposure doserate and surface contamination level of primary cooling pump remeasured by same method done before. It is easy to decontaminate the out side exposed surfaces of the pump, but it is difficult to approach the inside surface due to double volute installed in the casing. Therefore, a new decontamination facility has been developed to solve this problem. A concentrated de-contaminant (DX-300) is rotated in the closed pump casing by the impeller actuated by a temporary motor. Nuclide particles are removed by the emulsification effect of the de-contaminant and the surface contaminants are chemically removed from the pump by the corrosion and dissolution effect. The inside surfaces of the primary cooling pump have been decontaminated by using the facility. As results, the contamination level of the inside surfaces was maintained below the surface contamination limit

  5. Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Jik; Kwon, H. S.; Kim, G. N. and others

    1999-03-01

    Through the project of 'Development of decontamination, decommissioning and environmental restoration technology', the followings were studied. 1. Development of decontamination and repair technology for nuclear fuel cycle facilities 2. Development of dismantling technology 3. Development of environmental restoration technology. (author)

  6. Research on decontamination of cesium contaminated soil by electrokinetic process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, electrokinetic process was applied for the decontamination of cesium contaminated soil. As a result, about 4.0 times cesium removal was achieved by applying a DC electric field of 80 V/m to comparing zero electric field in treatment for 30 days. Therefore, the electrokinetic process has a possibility to decontamination of cesium contaminated soil. (author)

  7. Stability of Decontamination Foam Containing Silica Nanoparticles and Viscosifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, In Ho; Jung, Chong Hun; Yoon, Suk Bon; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jun Young; Park, Sang Yoon; Moon, Jei Kwon; Choi, Wang Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    This formulation can significantly decrease the amounts of chemical reagents and secondary waste. The advantage of decontamination foam is its potentially wide application for metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and the elements of complex components and facilities. In addition, foam is a good material for in situ decontamination because it generates low final waste volumes owing to its volume expansion. The application of foam allows for remote decontamination processing using only an injection nozzle and the equipment to generate the decontamination foam, which reduces operator exposure to high radioactivity. The decontamination efficiency can be enhanced by improving the contact time between chemical reagents and a contaminated surface through the addition of surfactants and viscosifiers into the decontamination foam. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of silica nanoparticles and a viscosifier on the foam stability and the dissolution behaviors of corroded specimens using a non-ionic surfactant. This study showed the effect of viscosifiers and nanoparticles on the foam stability when developing new formulations of decontamination foam. The addition of xanthan gum and the mixture of xanthan gum and silica nanoparticles (M-5) significantly increased the foam stability, compared to the surfactant solution alone. This result indicates that both the viscosifier and nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on the foam stability. As the contact time increased, the dissolution rate increased to become similar to the dissolution that contained decontamination liquid.

  8. Stability of Decontamination Foam Containing Silica Nanoparticles and Viscosifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This formulation can significantly decrease the amounts of chemical reagents and secondary waste. The advantage of decontamination foam is its potentially wide application for metallic walls, overhead surfaces, and the elements of complex components and facilities. In addition, foam is a good material for in situ decontamination because it generates low final waste volumes owing to its volume expansion. The application of foam allows for remote decontamination processing using only an injection nozzle and the equipment to generate the decontamination foam, which reduces operator exposure to high radioactivity. The decontamination efficiency can be enhanced by improving the contact time between chemical reagents and a contaminated surface through the addition of surfactants and viscosifiers into the decontamination foam. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of silica nanoparticles and a viscosifier on the foam stability and the dissolution behaviors of corroded specimens using a non-ionic surfactant. This study showed the effect of viscosifiers and nanoparticles on the foam stability when developing new formulations of decontamination foam. The addition of xanthan gum and the mixture of xanthan gum and silica nanoparticles (M-5) significantly increased the foam stability, compared to the surfactant solution alone. This result indicates that both the viscosifier and nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on the foam stability. As the contact time increased, the dissolution rate increased to become similar to the dissolution that contained decontamination liquid

  9. Pathogene Mikroorganismen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin

    Infektionen, die vom Tier auf den Menschen übertragen werden, werden als Zoonosen bezeichnet. Pathogene Mikroorganismen können entweder durch Mensch-Mensch, Mensch-Tier-Kontakt oder durch Kontakt mit kontaminierten Vektoren übertragen werden [39]. Vektoren können einerseits belebt (z. B. blutsaugende Insekten), andererseits unbelebt sein. Kontaminierte Lebensmittel und Wasser gehören zu den wichtigsten unbelebten Vektoren. Neben Lebensmitteln können aber auch kontaminierte Gegenstände oder der Kontakt mit Kontaminationsquellen in der Umwelt Auslöser von Krankheitsfällen sein. Weltweit sind mehr als 1400 krankheitsverursachende biologische Agentien bekannt, von denen über 60 % ein zoonotisches Potenzial aufweisen. Als Ergebnis von Expertengesprächen wurde kürzlich berichtet, dass etwa 3 bis 4, meist virale, neu auftretende Infektionskrankheiten ("emerging diseases“) pro Jahr erwartet werden können [15]. Es handelt sich bei diesen Vorgängen aber nicht nur um das Auftauchen vollkommen neuer oder unbeschriebener Spezies, sondern auch um evolutionsbedingte Anpassungen von mikrobiellen Populationen an neue Bedingungen in ihrem Ökosystem [7]. Molekulare Analysen an Umweltchlamydien erbrachten Hinweise, dass die Evolution erste genetische Pathogenitätsmerkmale in dieser Spezies schon vor 700 Mio. Jahren entstehen ließ [14]. Viele Faktoren befeuern den Prozess der Anpassung, unter anderem auch alle Strategien, mit denen der Mensch seit Jahrtausenden versucht, Lebensmittel sicher und haltbar zu machen. Als die treibenden Kräfte des Auftretens neuer Krankheitserreger werden in der Gegenwart vor allem das sich ändernde Weltklima, die globalen Warenströme und die sich verändernden Konsumgewohnheiten genannt. Es steht auch außer Zweifel, dass viele dieser Erreger Tiere als ihr natürliches Reservoir haben werden, d. h. Zoonosen im klassischen Sinne sind [15].

  10. Control of Aeromonas on minimally processed vegetables by decontamination with lactic acid, chlorinated water, or thyme essential oil solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyttendaele, M; Neyts, K; Vanderswalmen, H; Notebaert, E; Debevere, J

    2004-02-01

    Aeromonas is an opportunistic pathogen, which, although in low numbers, may be present on minimally processed vegetables. Although the intrinsic and extrinsic factors of minimally processed prepacked vegetable mixes are not inhibitory to the growth of Aeromonas species, multiplication to high numbers during processing and storage of naturally contaminated grated carrots, mixed lettuce, and chopped bell peppers was not observed. Aeromonas was shown to be resistant towards chlorination of water, but was susceptible to 1% and 2% lactic acid and 0.5% and 1.0% thyme essential oil treatment, although the latter provoked adverse sensory properties when applied for decontamination of chopped bell peppers. Integration of a decontamination step with 2% lactic acid in the processing line of grated carrots was shown to have the potential to control the overall microbial quality of the grated carrots and was particularly effective towards Aeromonas. PMID:14751681

  11. Decontamination of Belarus research reactor installation by strippable coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal of this study was to develop new strippable coatings using water-based solutions of polyvinyl alcohol and active additives for decontamination of research reactor equipment. The employment of strippable coatings makes it possible to minimize the quantity of liquid radioactive waste. The selection of strippable decontaminating coatings was carried out on the basis of general requirements to decontaminating solutions: successfully dissolve corrosion deposits; ensure the desorption of radionuclides from the surfaces and the absence of resorption; introduce minimal corrosion effect of construction materials; to be relatively cheap and available in reagents. The decontaminating ability and adhesion properties of these coatings depending on metal and deposit sorts were investigated. Research on the chemical stability of solid wastes was carried out. The data obtained were the base for recommendations on waste management procedure for used films and pastes. A full-scale case-study analysis was performed for comparing strippable coatings with decontaminating solutions. (author)

  12. Effect of decontamination on nuclear power plant primary circuit materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of repeated decontamination on the properties of structural materials of the WWER-440 primary coolant circuit was examined. Three kinds of specimens of 08Kh18Ni10T steel were used for radioactivity-free laboratory experiments; they included material obtained from assembly additions to the V-2 nuclear power plant primary piping, and a sheet of the CSN 17247 steel. Various chemical, electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination procedures were tested. Chemical decontamination was based on the conventional AP(20/5)-CITROX(20/20) procedure and its variants; NP-CITROX type procedures with various compositions were also employed. Solutions based on oxalic acid were tested for the electrochemical and semi-dry electrochemical decontamination. The results of measurements of mass losses of the surfaces, of changes in the corrosion resistance and in the mechanical properties of the materials due to repeated decontamination are summarized. (Z.S.). 12 figs., 1 tab., 8 refs

  13. Decontamination Technique Using Liquid And Supercritical CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A green decontamination method using CO2 as a environmentally benign solvent has been studied for removal of contaminant in the nuclear power plant. We developed a decontamination technique using CO2 for removal of contaminants in working dresses. Owing to the low solubilizing. A reverse micelle system was developed. Fluorinated AOT was synthesized and used as surfactants forming microemulsions with water. Cobalt was decontaminated by dissolution into microemulsions in liquid CO2. If this decontamination technique is applied to nuclear industry, the secondary waste during decontamination will be revolutionarily reduced. Negligibly small amount of water is a net waste, while the surfactants and solvent, CO2 are recovered and reused in the system. (authors)

  14. A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ''Remote Decon'' robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms

  15. A remotely operated robot for decontamination tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudar, A.M.; Vandewalle, R.C.

    1994-02-01

    Engineers in the Robotics Development Group at the Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) have developed a robot which will be used to decontaminate a pipe gallery of a tank farm used for nuclear waste storage. Personnel access is required into this pipe gallery to inspect existing pipes and perform repairs to secondary containment walls around the tank farm. Presently, the pipe gallery is littered with debris of various sizes and its surface is contaminated with activity levels up to 2.5E6 DPM (disintegrations per minute) alpha and exposure levels as high as 20 Rad/hr. Cleaning up this pipe gallery win be the mission of an all-hydraulic robotic vehicle developed in-house at WSRC caged the ``Remote Decon`` robot. The Remote Decon is a tracked vehicle which utilizes skid steering and features a six-degree-of-freedom (DOF) manipulator arm, a five-DOF front end loader type bucket with a rotating brush for scrubbing and decontaminating surfaces, and a three-DOF pan/tilt mechanism with cameras and lights. The Remote Decon system is connected to a control console via a 200 foot tethered cable. The control console was designed with ergonomics and simplicity as the main design factors and features three joysticks, video monitors, LED panels, and audible alarms.

  16. Irradiation decontamination of soy protein flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reported decontaminative effects of irradiation on the soy protein flour quality, including main nutrient components, sensitivity of urea enzyme and sensory index. The results show that the irradiation treatment is very effective in eliminating microorganism in soy protein flour. The higher the dose was, the more microorganisms were eliminated. At least 53% microorganisms were eliminated at 2.0 kGy irradiation. Eliminating ratios of 95%, 97% and 100% were obtained at applied doses 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 kGy, respectively. The content of protein, crude fiber, total sugar and amino acid (except Leu) and urea enzyme would not vary much in the ranged of 2 to 8kGy. But the content of crude fat and lecithin in irradiated soy protein flour is significant different (at 0.01 level), and the content of isoflavone significantly decreased (at 0.05 level). Irradiation will not change the sensory index of soy protein flour much when irradiation dose is lower than 6.0 kGy. It was concluded that the optimal dose for bacteria decontamination of soy protein flour is in the range of 3.0 ∼ 5.0 kGy for the sake of various quality factors. (authors)

  17. Chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a chemical decontamination method for radioactive metal wastes, which are generated from radioactive material handling facilities and the surfaces of which are contaminated by radioactive materials. That is, it has a feature of applying acid dissolution simultaneously with mechanical grinding. The radioactive metal wastes are contained in a vessel such as a barrel together with abrasives in a sulfuric acid solution and rotated at several tens rotation per minute. By such procedures for the radioactive metal wastes, (1) cruds and passive membranes are mechanically removed, (2) exposed mother metal materials are uniformly brought into contact with sulfuric acid and further (3) the mother metal materials dissolve the cruds and the passive membranes also chemically by a reducing dissolution (so-called local cell effect). According to the method of the present invention, stainless steel metal wastes having cruds and passive membranes can rapidly and efficiently be decontaminated to a radiation level equal with that of ordinary wastes. (I.S.)

  18. Decontamination of uranium-contaminated concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the decontamination method by washing with nitric acid for uranium contaminated concrete pieces produced from the decommissioning of a uranium conversion plant and evaluated the amount of waste sludge generated from the treatment. In addition, carbonate solution, nitric acid and sulfuric acid were used as the extraction reagents for the uranium, and their efficiencies were also compared. For concrete pieces coated with and without epoxy, the separation method of cement paste from aggregates was preferable to the leaching of uranium from concrete because of its simpler decontamination process. When concrete pieces with epoxy were heated for 2 h at 400 deg C, pulverized and sequentially washed with 0.1, 2.0 and 1.0 M of nitric acid, their radioactivity reached below the limit value of uranium for self-disposal. Unlike previous results, uranium dissolved in 1 and 2 M sulfuric acid solutions was not removed by strong anion exchange resins such as IRA 910 and Ag1 x 8. (author)

  19. Survey of decontamination and decommissioning techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports and articles on decommissioning have been reviewed to determine the current technology status and also attempt to identify potential decommissioning problem areas. It is concluded that technological road blocks, which limited decommissioning facilities in the past have been removed. In general, techniques developed by maintenance in maintaining the facility have been used to decommission facilities. Some of the more promising development underway which will further simplify decommissioning activities are: electrolytic decontamination which simplifies some decontaminating operations; arc saw and vacuum furnace which reduce the volume of metallic contaminated material by a factor of 10; remotely operated plasma torch which reduces personnel exposure; and shaped charges, water cannon and rock splitters which simplify concrete removal. Areas in which published data are limited are detailed costs identifying various components included in the total cost and also the quantity of waste generated during the decommissioning activities. With the increased awareness of decommissioning requirements as specified by licensing requirements, design criteria for new facilities are taking into consideration final decommissioning of buildings. Specific building design features will evolve as designs are evaluated and implemented

  20. Project n.4: local strategies for decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiencies of a great number of techniques for decontamination or dose reduction in contaminated areas have been investigated by several teams of E.C. and CIS scientists (ECP4 project). Modelling, laboratory and field experiments, and a return from experience from the area contaminated by the Chernobyl accident allowed to assess radiological efficiencies and requirements for the operation of numerous practical solutions. Then those data were supplemented with data on cost and waste generation in order to elaborate all the information for the optimisation of decontamination strategies. Results are presented for about 70 techniques. However, a technique cannot be compared to another from a generic point of view. Rather it is designed for a specific target and the best technology depends on the objectives. It has been decided to implement decision analyses on case studies and the local conditions and objectives have been investigated. Individual doses ranged from 1 to 5 mSv, with the contrasted contributions of internal and external doses. The desire to restore a normal activity in a partially depopulated settlement and concerns about the recent increase in internal doses were typical incentives for action. The decision aiding analysis illustrated that actions can be usually recommended. Results are outlined. (authors)

  1. Cracking silica gels for surface decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two types of silica based gels, oxidising and non-oxidising, have been developed and investigated for decontamination of fixed α, β, and γ contamination from contaminated surfaces of glove boxes, PVC floors, fume hood glass doors. Ceric ammonium nitrate dissolved in nitric acid was used as oxidant in oxidising gel. In non-oxidising gel, water soluble reagent; tetra ethyl diglycolamide (TEDGA) in nitric acid was used as complexing agent. Silica gel and PEG-400 was base material in both the cases. The gels were brushed on a stainless steel surface, on drying; these gels crack to yield flakes that were easily scrubbed from the surfaces. The flakes, concentrated in activity, was immobilised in cement for storage. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of concentrations of oxidant, TEDGA and nitric acid for effective decontamination. Oxidising gels with 0.75 M Ce (IV) and 1 M Nitric acid have shown a maximum DF of 90 for fixed Pu contaminated SS surface. Non-oxidising gel showed a DF of 7 for similar surfaces with 0.075 M TEDGA, 1 M nitric acid and 1 M phosphoric acid. (author)

  2. Y-12 Plant Decontamination and Decommissioning Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Program at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is part of the Environmental Restoration (ER) and Waste Management (WM) Programs (ERWM). The objective of the ER Program is to provide Y-12 the capability to meet applicable environmental regulations through facility development activities and site remedial actions. The WM Program supports the ER program. The D and D Program provides collective management of sites within the Plant which are in need of decontamination and decommissioning efforts, prioritizes those areas in terms of health, safety, and environmental concerns, and implements the appropriate level of remedial action. The D and D Program provides support to identifiable facilities which formerly served one or more of the many Plant functions. Program activities include (1) surveillance and maintenance of facilities awaiting decommissioning; (2) planning safe and orderly facility decommissioning; and (3) implementing a program to accomplish facility disposition in a safe, cost effective, and timely manner. In order to achieve the first objective, a formal plan which documents the surveillance and maintenance needs for each facility has been prepared. This report provides this documentation for the Y-12 facilities currently included in the D and D Program, as well as those planned for future inclusion in the Program, and includes projected resource requirements for the planning period of FY 1993 through FY 2000

  3. Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Emerging Pathogens Initiative (EPI) database contains emerging pathogens information from the local Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). The EPI software...

  4. Effectiveness of ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems for terminal room decontamination: Focus on clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, David J; Rutala, William A; Anderson, Deverick J; Chen, Luke F; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Boyce, John M

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, substantial scientific evidence has accumulated that indicates contamination of environmental surfaces in hospital rooms plays an important role in the transmission of key health care-associated pathogens (eg, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, Clostridium difficile, Acinetobacter spp). For example, a patient admitted to a room previously occupied by a patient colonized or infected with one of these pathogens has a higher risk for acquiring one of these pathogens than a patient admitted to a room whose previous occupant was not colonized or infected. This risk is not surprising because multiple studies have demonstrated that surfaces in hospital rooms are poorly cleaned during terminal cleaning. To reduce surface contamination after terminal cleaning, no touch methods of room disinfection have been developed. This article will review the no touch methods, ultraviolet light devices, and hydrogen peroxide systems, with a focus on clinical trials which have used patient colonization or infection as an outcome. Multiple studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet light devices and hydrogen peroxide systems have been shown to inactivate microbes experimentally plated on carrier materials and placed in hospital rooms and to decontaminate surfaces in hospital rooms naturally contaminated with multidrug-resistant pathogens. A growing number of clinical studies have demonstrated that ultraviolet devices and hydrogen peroxide systems when used for terminal disinfection can reduce colonization or health care-associated infections in patients admitted to these hospital rooms. PMID:27131140

  5. Situations of decontamination promotion activities. Efforts by Tokyo Electric Power Company, Fukushima Revitalization Headquarters, Decontamination Promotion Office

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As for the decontamination of the soil contaminated with radioactive materials, decontamination is on the way in compliance with the 'Act on Special Measures Concerning the Handling of Environmental Pollution by Radioactive Materials by the NPS Accident Associated with the Tohoku District - Off the Pacific Ocean' (hereinafter, the Act on Special Measures). Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO), as the party concerned to the accident, is cooperating with decontamination activities conducted by countries and municipalities under the Act on Special Measures. Total number of people cooperated by the Decontamination Promotion Office amounts to about 120,000 people. The cooperation to the decontamination by countries and municipalities covers the following fields: provision of knowledge of radiation, training of site management and supervisors, and proposal such as the decontamination method suitable for the site. As cooperation to various monitoring, there is a traveling monitoring that performs radiation measurement from the vehicles. As cooperation in the farming and industrial resumption toward the reconstruction, the group has implemented support for the distribution promotion of the holdup that was stuck in distribution due to contamination with radioactive substances. As decontamination related technology, the following are performed: (1) preparation of radiation understanding promotion tool, (2) development of precise individual dose measurement technology, and (3) development and utilization of decontamination effect analysis program. In the future, this group will perform the follow-up for decontamination, and measures toward the lifting of evacuation order. It will install the basis to perform various technical analyses on decontamination, and will further intensify technical cooperation. (A.O.)

  6. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  7. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  8. Divergent and Convergent Evolution of Fungal Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yanfang; Xiao, Guohua; Zheng, Peng; Cen, Kai; Zhan, Shuai; Wang, Chengshu

    2016-01-01

    Fungal pathogens of plants and animals have multifarious effects; they cause devastating damages to agricultures, lead to life-threatening diseases in humans, or induce beneficial effects by reducing insect pest populations. Many virulence factors have been determined in different fungal pathogens; however, the molecular determinants contributing to fungal host selection and adaptation are largely unknown. In this study, we sequenced the genomes of seven ascomycete insect pathogens and performed the genome-wide analyses of 33 species of filamentous ascomycete pathogenic fungi that infect insects (12 species), plants (12), and humans (9). Our results revealed that the genomes of plant pathogens encode more proteins and protein families than the insect and human pathogens. Unexpectedly, more common orthologous protein groups are shared between the insect and plant pathogens than between the two animal group pathogens. We also found that the pathogenicity of host-adapted fungi evolved multiple times, and that both divergent and convergent evolutions occurred during pathogen-host cospeciation thus resulting in protein families with similar features in each fungal group. However, the role of phylogenetic relatedness on the evolution of protein families and therefore pathotype formation could not be ruled out due to the effect of common ancestry. The evolutionary correlation analyses led to the identification of different protein families that correlated with alternate pathotypes. Particularly, the effector-like proteins identified in plant and animal pathogens were strongly linked to fungal host adaptation, suggesting the existence of similar gene-for-gene relationships in fungus-animal interactions that has not been established before. These results well advance our understanding of the evolution of fungal pathogenicity and the factors that contribute to fungal pathotype formation. PMID:27071652

  9. 7 CFR 305.40 - Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Garbage treatment schedules for insect pests and pathogens. 305.40 Section 305.40 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Treatments for Garbage § 305.40 Garbage...

  10. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geuther, W.J.

    1995-04-03

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site.

  11. Use of citric acid for large parts decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed to identify and evaluate chemical decontamination agents to replace ammonium carbonate, an environmentally unacceptable compound, in the decontamination facility for large process equipment at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Preliminary screening of over 40 possible decontamination agents on the basis of efficiency, availability, toxicity, cost, corrosiveness, and practicality indicated sodium carbonate and citric acid to be the most promising. Extensive laboratory studies were performed with these two reagents. Corrosion rates, decontamination factors, uranium recovery efficiencies, technetium (99Tc)/ion exchange removal effects, and possible environmental impacts were determined or investigated. Favorable results were found in all areas. Detailed monitoring and analysis during two-week trial periods in which sodium carbonate and citric acid were used in the large parts decontamination facility resulted in similar evaluation and conclusions. Because it has cleaning properties not possessed by sodium carbonate, and because it eliminated several operational problems by incorporating two acidic decontamination reagents (citric and nitric acids) instead of one basic reagent (sodium or ammonium carbonate) and one acidic reagent (nitric acid), citric acid was selected for one-year field testing. On the basis of its excellent performance in the field tests, citric acid is recommended as a permanent replacement for ammonium carbonate in the decontamination facility for large process equipment

  12. New decontamination techniques: chemical gels, electropolishing and abrasives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decommissioning of nuclear installations requires decontamination techniques that are efficient, simple to apply and producing a small amount of wastes, which are easy to process. With a view to this, three decontamination methods, which appear to be particularly suited to decommissioning, have been studied. These three methods are: - spraying of gels carrying chemical decontaminating agents, - electropolishing with a swab device, - abrasives blasting. After parametric tests on non-radioactive and active samples, the industrial application of these methods in the dismantling of installations was studied. These industrial applications concern: - decontamination of pieces coming from the German BWR ISAR by immersion and gel spraying, - decontamination, mainly by gel spraying, and dismantling of the BRENNILIS bituminisation plant, - decontamination of part of the cooling circuit of the graphite gas reactor G2 by gel spraying, - decontamination of a component of the FBR SuperPhenix, using dry abrasives blasting. During the first three applications, generated secondary wastes volume and form were determined. 33 tabs., 16 figs., 12 refs

  13. Preconceptual design of the gas-phase decontamination demonstration cart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal of uranium deposits from the interior surfaces of gaseous diffusion equipment will be a major portion of the overall multibillion dollar effort to decontaminate and decommission the gaseous diffusion plants. Long-term low-temperature (LTLT) gas-phase decontamination is being developed at the K-25 Site as an in situ decontamination process that is expected to significantly lower the decontamination costs, reduce worker exposure to radioactive materials, and reduce safeguard concerns. This report documents the preconceptual design of the process equipment that is necessary to conduct a full-scale demonstration of the LTLT method in accordance with the process steps listed above. The process equipment and method proposed in this report are not intended to represent a full-scale production campaign design and operation, since the gas evacuation, gas charging, and off-gas handling systems that would be cost effective in a production campaign are not cost effective for a first-time demonstration. However, the design presented here is expected to be applicable to special decontamination projects beyond the demonstration, which could include the Deposit Recovery Program. The equipment will therefore be sized to a 200 ft size 1 converter (plus a substantial conservative design margin), which is the largest item of interest for gas phase decontamination in the Deposit Recovery Program. The decontamination equipment will allow recovery of the UF6, which is generated from the reaction of ClF3 with the uranium deposits, by use of NaF traps

  14. Effect of Cerium(IV)-Surfactant Reaction in Foam Decontamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Han Beom; Jung, Chong-Hun; Yoon, In-Ho; Kim, Chorong; Choi, Wang-Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Using foams allows the decommissioning of complex shaped facilities. The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. The corrosion rate of radioactive nuclides contaminated stainless steel metal is very important factor for the foam decontamination process. The goal of this study is to develop the decontamination process for contaminated stainless steel in medium of nitric acid. Stainless steel needs a strong oxidizing agent such as Ce(IV) ion and the effects of cerium(IV). Surfactant interaction involved in foam decontamination and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. The formulation of foams loaded with strong oxidizing reagents such as Ce(IV) is an important factor. The enhanced decontamination properties of nitric acid with Ce(IV) additive on stainless steel is well known in liquid mediums. stainless steel metal is an important aspect in the foam decontamination process.

  15. Planning guidance for nuclear-power-plant decontamination. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munson, L.F.; Divine, J.R.; Martin, J.B.

    1983-06-01

    Direct and indirect costs of decontamination are considered in the benefit-cost analysis. A generic form of the benefit-cost ratio is evaluated in monetary and nonmonetary terms, and values of dollar per man-rem are cited. Federal and state agencies that may have jurisiction over various aspects of decontamination and waste disposal activities are identified. Methods of decontamination, their general effectiveness, and the advantages and disadvantages of each are outlined. Dilute or concentrated chemical solutions are usually used in-situ to dissolve the contamination layer and a thin layer of the underlying substrate. Electrochemical techniques are generally limited to components but show high decontamination effectiveness with uniform corrosion. Mechanical agents are particularly appropriate for certain out-of-system surfaces and disassembled parts. These processes are catagorized and specific concerns are discussed. The treatment, storage, and disposal or discharge or discharge of liquid, gaseous, and solid wastes generated during the decontamination process are discussed. Radioactive and other hazardous chemical wastes are considered. The monitoring, treatment, and control of radioactive and nonradioactive effluents, from both routine operations and possible accidents, are discussed. Protecting the health and safety of personnel onsite during decontamination is of prime importance and should be considered in each facet of the decontamination process. The radiation protection philosophy of reducing exposure to levels as low as reasonably achievable should be stressed. These issues are discussed.

  16. Development of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technologies for Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. An electrokinetic-flushing process was found to be effective for soil wastes aged for a long time and an agglomeration leaching process was effective for soil wastes of surface contamination. On the other hand, a supercritical CO2 soil decontamination technology was found to be applicable for U or TRU bearing soil wastes. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone

  17. Development of Decontamination and Decommissioning Technologies for Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Jei Kwon; Lee, Kune Woo; Won, Hui Jun

    2010-04-15

    A laser ablation decontamination technology which is reportedly effective for a removal of fixed contaminants has been developed for three years as the first stage of the development. Lab scale experimental equipment was fabricated and the process variables have been assessed for determination of appropriate decontamination conditions at the laser wave lengths of 1,064 nm and 532 nm, respectively. The decontamination tests using radioactive specimens showed that the decontamination efficiency was about 100 which is quite a high value. An electrokinetic-flushing, an agglomeration leaching and a supercritical CO{sub 2} soil decontamination technology were development for a decontamination of radioactive soil wastes from the decommissioned sites of the TRIGA research reactor and the uranium conversion facilities. An electrokinetic-flushing process was found to be effective for soil wastes aged for a long time and an agglomeration leaching process was effective for soil wastes of surface contamination. On the other hand, a supercritical CO{sub 2} soil decontamination technology was found to be applicable for U or TRU bearing soil wastes. The remediation monitoring key technologies such as a representative sample taking and a measurement concept for the vertical distribution of radionuclides were developed for an assessment of the site remediation. Also an One-Dimensional Water Flow and Contaminant Transport in Unsaturated Zone (FTUNS) code was developed to interpretate the radionuclide migration in the unsaturated zone

  18. Development of calculation system for decontamination effect, CDE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large amount of radionuclides had been discharged to environment in the accident of the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The radionuclides deposited on the ground elevate dose rates in large area around the Fukushima site. For the reduction of the dose rate and recovery of the environment, decontamination based on a rational plan is an important and urgent subject. A computer software, named CDE (Calculation system for Decontamination Effect), has been developed to support planning the decontamination. CDE calculates the dose rates before the decontamination by using a database of dose contributions by radioactive cesium. The decontamination factor is utilized in the prediction of the dose rates after the decontamination, and dose rate reduction factor is evaluated to express the decontamination effect. The results are visualized on the image of a target zone with color map. In this paper, the overview of the software and the dose calculation method are reported. The comparison with the calculation results by a three-dimensional radiation transport code PHITS is also presented. In addition, the source code of the dose calculation program and user's manual of CDE are attached as appendices. (author)

  19. Long-term decontamination engineering study. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report was prepared by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) with technical and cost estimating support from Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL) and Parsons Environmental Services, Inc. (Parsons). This engineering study evaluates the requirements and alternatives for decontamination/treatment of contaminated equipment at the Hanford Site. The purpose of this study is to determine the decontamination/treatment strategy that best supports the Hanford Site environmental restoration mission. It describes the potential waste streams requiring treatment or decontamination, develops the alternatives under consideration establishes the criteria for comparison, evaluates the alternatives, and draws conclusions (i.e., the optimum strategy for decontamination). Although two primary alternatives are discussed, this study does identify other alternatives that may warrant additional study. hanford Site solid waste management program activities include storage, special processing, decontamination/treatment, and disposal facilities. This study focuses on the decontamination/treatment processes (e.g., waste decontamination, size reduction, immobilization, and packaging) that support the environmental restoration mission at the Hanford Site

  20. Effect of Cerium(IV)-Surfactant Reaction in Foam Decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using foams allows the decommissioning of complex shaped facilities. The decontamination foam comprises at least one surfactant to generate the foam and one or more chemical reactants to achieve the dissolution of the contaminants at the solid surface. In order to improve the efficiency of decontamination foam, the present study attempts to find the optimum condition of chemical reagents to the foaming solution. The corrosion rate of radioactive nuclides contaminated stainless steel metal is very important factor for the foam decontamination process. The goal of this study is to develop the decontamination process for contaminated stainless steel in medium of nitric acid. Stainless steel needs a strong oxidizing agent such as Ce(IV) ion and the effects of cerium(IV). Surfactant interaction involved in foam decontamination and finally the improvement brought by formulation science. The formulation of foams loaded with strong oxidizing reagents such as Ce(IV) is an important factor. The enhanced decontamination properties of nitric acid with Ce(IV) additive on stainless steel is well known in liquid mediums. stainless steel metal is an important aspect in the foam decontamination process

  1. Experimental studies on decontamination in first aid for contaminated wounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Tomoko; Ogaki, Kazushi; Yoshizawa, Yasuo (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1982-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the decontamination procedures in first aid for wounds contaminated with radionuclides. Abrasion of mouse skin was contaminated with /sup 58/CoCl/sub 2/. Irrigation by decontamination fluids began at 2 min after administration of the radionuclide and continued for 14 min. Tap water, 0.5% Hyamine solution or 10% Ca-DTPA solution were used as the decontamination fluids. Radioactivities of whole body, wounded skin surface and washed solution were measured with an animal counter with 5 cm NaI(Tl) and a well-type auto-gamma-counter. Decontamination effectiveness were expressed as follows: (1) absorption rate of radionuclide through the wound and (2) residual rate of radionuclide on the wound. More than 20% of the radionuclide applied on the wounded skin was absorbed in 15 min after contamination. The absorption rate decreased to 2% by the decontamination procedures. The Ca-DTPA solution reduced the residual rate of radionuclide on the wounds. The results suggested that the decontamination for the contaminated wounds should begin as soon as possible. Irrigation with 0.5% Hyamine solution has been advocated for the decontamination in the first aid.

  2. Analysis of decontamination methods used at nuclear power plants and in other facilities. Research report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methods used in the Czech Republic and in other countries are described. The following topics are treated: Introduction into decontamination; Chemical methods; Foam methods; Electrochemical methods; Mechanical methods; Other methods; Decontamination of civil engineering structures; Technologies suitable for disposal decontamination; and Effect of decontamination on waste management. (P.A.)

  3. 40 CFR 761.378 - Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Decontamination, reuse, and disposal...-Porous Surfaces § 761.378 Decontamination, reuse, and disposal of solvents, cleaners, and equipment. (a) Decontamination. Decontaminate solvents and non-porous surfaces on equipment in accordance with the standards...

  4. Decontamination and its role in the Fort St. Vrain decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The full scale decommissioning of a reactor requires the use of a variety of decontamination processes, techniques and equipment. In August of 1992, the decommissioning of the Fort St. Vrain High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) was initiated by Public Service Company of Colorado. The Fort St. Vrain Decommissioning Project is being performed by a team comprised of Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Scientific Ecology Group, and MK Ferguson. This project is the largest decommissioning and early dismantlement of a commercially operated reactor in the United States to date. The scope of the project includes decontamination and dismantlement of the Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessel (PCRV) and decontamination/removal of contaminated plant systems, site cleanup, and a comprehensive final radiation survey. This paper discusses the various types of decontamination equipment, survey instrumentation and techniques used during the Fort St. Vrain Decommissioning Project. Decontamination techniques range from simple methods such as soapy water, high pressure washing, scabbling, strippable paint; to more complicated methods such as remotely operated grit blast equipment used to decontaminate embedded pipe. The parameters necessary to evaluate the cost effectiveness of various decontamination techniques are discussed. Typically this includes consideration of the type and level of contamination, the substrate and surface to be decontaminated, the type and volume of waste generated from the decontamination process, whether the decon will be performed on site or off site, equipment and labor costs, project schedule impact, and the unconditional release criteria that must be achieved. These factors and costs are then compared to the costs associated with the removal, possible volume reduction and final disposal of a particular component or system. The successes and lessons learned during the Fort St. Vrain Decommissioning Project are presented

  5. Decontaminating soil organic pollutants with manufactured nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Chen, Xijuan; Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Xin

    2016-06-01

    Organic pollutants in soils might threaten the environmental and human health. Manufactured nanoparticles are capable to reduce this risk efficiently due to their relatively large capacity of sorption and degradation of organic pollutants. Stability, mobility, and reactivity of nanoparticles are prerequisites for their efficacy in soil remediation. On the basis of a brief introduction of these issues, this review provides a comprehensive summary of the application and effectiveness of various types of manufactured nanoparticles for removing organic pollutants from soil. The main categories of nanoparticles include iron (oxides), titanium dioxide, carbonaceous, palladium, and amphiphilic polymeric nanoparticles. Their advantages (e.g., unique properties and high sorption capacity) and disadvantages (e.g., high cost and low recovery) for soil remediation are discussed with respect to the characteristics of organic pollutants. The factors that influence the decontamination effects, such as properties, surfactants, solution chemistry, and soil organic matter, are addressed. PMID:26906002

  6. Uranium enrichment decontamination and decommissioning fund

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most challenging issues facing the Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is the cleanup of the three gaseous diffusion plants. In October 1992, Congress passed the Energy Policy Act of 1992 and established the Uranium Enrichment Decontamination and Decommissioning Fund to accomplish this task. This mission is being undertaken in an environmentally and financially responsible way by: devising cost-effective technical solutions; producing realistic life-cycle cost estimates, based on practical assumptions and thorough analysis; generating coherent long-term plans which are based on risk assessments, land use, and input from stakeholders; and, showing near-term progress in the cleanup of the gaseous diffusion facilities at Oak Ridge

  7. Decontamination of spices by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of spices (onion powder, cardamom, red pepper powder, etc.) used for special types of Bulgarian sausages was investigated. Gamma irradiation (60Co) at doses of 4, 6, 8 and 10 kGy was applied. It was found that the total count of microorganisms in spices was between 1.85.105 and 3.8.107. The largest was the amount of the coliforms and the staphylococci in the onion powder. The cardamom and onion powder were free of coliforms with dose of 4 kGy. The staphylococci were eliminated with doses of 6 kGy. The number of proteolytic microorganisms was decreased but they were isolated from spices irradiated even with 10 kGy. (author)

  8. Enhancement of electrokinetic decontamination with EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, M A; Khan, L I

    2012-01-01

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) during electrokinetic decontamination (EKD) was investigated in this research. EDTA is a ligand that can form soluble complexes with precipitated heavy metals inside soil pores. Millpond sludge, primarily contaminated with lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), was subjected to EKD with and without the presence of EDTA. Dilute EDTA solutions with strengths of 0.05 M and 0.125 M were injected into the millpond sludge by electroosmosis. Several beneficial effects of using EDTA were observed in this research. One was that the presence of EDTA substantially increased the electroosmotic (EO) flow in the millpond sludge indicating that it could significantly reduce the duration of EKD. Another advantage was that a significantly higher percentage of Pb and Zn removal was achieved from the solid phase due to the complexation of EDTA with these heavy metals. Also, EDTA was able to prevent the precipitation of metals at the cathode electrode, typically observed in EKD process. PMID:23393970

  9. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Newal (ed.)

    2008-07-15

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company.

  10. Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorial issue, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The focus of the July-August issue is on Decontamination, decommissioning, and vendor advertorials. Articles and reports in this issue include: D and D technical paper summaries; The role of nuclear power in turbulent times, by Tom Chrisopher, AREVA, NP, Inc.; Enthusiastic about new technologies, by Jack Fuller, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy; It's important to be good citizens, by Steve Rus, Black and Veatch Corporation; Creating Jobs in the U.S., by Guy E. Chardon, ALSTOM Power; and, and, An enviroment and a community champion, by Tyler Lamberts, Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. The Industry Innovations article is titled Best of the best TIP achievement 2008, by Edward Conaway, STP Nuclear Operating Company

  11. Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Decontamination Systems Information and Research Program at West Virginia University consists of research and development associated with hazardous waste remediation problems at the Department of Energy complex and elsewhere. This program seeks to facilitate expedited development and implementation of solutions to the nation's hazardous waste clean-up efforts. By a unique combination of university research and private technology development efforts, new paths toward implementing technology and speeding clean-ups are achievable. Mechanisms include aggressive industrial tie-ins to academic development programs, expedited support of small business technology development efforts, enhanced linkages to existing DOE programs, and facilitated access to hazardous waste sites. The program topically falls into an information component, which includes knowledge acquisition, technology evaluation and outreach activities and an R and D component, which develops and implements new and improved technologies. Projects began in February 1993 due to initiation of a Cooperative Agreement between West Virginia University and the Department of Energy

  12. Thixotropic corrosive gels for nuclear decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis was the development of corrosive gels for metallic surface decontamination. These gels formulation, based on a powerful oxidant (the cerium IV), the nitric acid, a mineral charge (silica) and a non ionic surface-active, has been developed according to the specific constraints of the nuclear industry. The objective was to prepare thixotropic gels becoming liquid after shacking to allow an easy pulverization and coming again solid to permit a perfect adhesion on the metallic surface. This rheological study of the gels has been completed by an evaluation of their corrosive properties. The last part of the work presents an industrial utilization during two years. (A.L.B.)

  13. Phase 2 microwave concrete decontamination results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on the results of the second phase of a four-phase program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop a system to decontaminate concrete using microwave energy. The microwave energy is directed at the concrete surface through the use of an optimized wave guide antenna, or applicator, and this energy rapidly heats the free water present in the interstitial spaces of the concrete matrix. The resulting steam pressure causes the surface to burst in much the same way popcorn pops in a home microwave oven. Each steam explosion removes several square centimeters of concrete surface that are collected by a highly integrated wave guide and vacuum system. The authors call this process the microwave concrete decontamination, or MCD, process. In the first phase of the program the principle of microwaves concrete removal concrete surfaces was demonstrated. In these experiments, concrete slabs were placed on a translator and moved beneath a stationary microwave system. The second phase demonstrated the ability to mobilize the technology to remove the surfaces from concrete floors. Area and volume concrete removal rates of 10.4 cm2/s and 4.9 cm3/S, respectively, at 18 GHz were demonstrated. These rates are more than double those obtained in Phase 1 of the program. Deeper contamination can be removed by using a longer residence time under the applicator to create multiple explosions in the same area or by taking multiple passes over previously removed areas. Both techniques have been successfully demonstrated. Small test sections of painted and oil-soaked concrete have also been removed in a single pass. Concrete with embedded metal anchors on the surface has also been removed, although with some increased variability of removal depth. Microwave leakage should not pose any operational hazard to personnel, since the observed leakage was much less than the regulatory standard

  14. ONLINE MEASUREMENT OF THE PROGRESS OF DECONTAMINATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    In order to determine if the sensor technology and the decontamination technology will face problems once integrated, a feasibility study (see Appendix B) was produced in which the effect of motion on the efficiency of a radiation sensor was measured. It was found that the effect is not negligible; however, it is not catastrophic, and if the sensors are properly calibrated, this obstacle can be overcome. During the first year of this project, many important tasks have been accomplished. The search for radiation sensors provided knowledge on the technologies commercially available. This, in turn, allowed for a proper assessment of the properties, limitations, different methods of measurement, and requirements of a large number of sensors. The best possible characterization and data collection instrument and decontamination technologies were chosen using the requirement information in Appendix A. There are technical problems with installing sensors within the blasting head, such as steel shot and dust interference. Therefore, the sensor array is placed so that it will measure the radioactivity after the blasting. Sensors are rather sensitive, and therefore it is not feasible to place the sensor windows in such an abrasive environment. Other factors, such as the need for radiation hardening in extreme cases, and the possible interference of gamma rays with the radio frequency modem, have been considered. These factors are expected to be negligible and can be revisited at the time of prototype production. Factors that need to be addressed are the vibrations of the blasting unit and how to isolate the sensor array from these. In addition, an electromagnetic survey must be performed to ensure there will be no interference with the electronic component that will be integrated. The integration design is shown in section 4.0.

  15. Surface Decontamination Using Laser Ablation Process - 12032

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new decontamination method has been investigated and used during two demonstration stages by the Clean-Up Business Unit of AREVA. This new method is based on the use of a Laser beam to remove the contaminants present on a base metal surface. In this paper will be presented the type of Laser used during those tests but also information regarding the efficiency obtained on non-contaminated (simulated contamination) and contaminated samples (from the CEA and La Hague facilities). Regarding the contaminated samples, in the first case, the contamination was a quite thick oxide layer. In the second case, most of the contamination was trapped in dust and thin grease layer. Some information such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-Ray scattering spectroscopy and decontamination factors (DF) will be provided in this paper. Laser technology appears to be an interesting one for the future of the D and D applications. As shown in this paper, the results in terms of efficiency are really promising and in many cases, higher than those obtained with conventional techniques. One of the most important advantages is that all those results have been obtained with no generation of secondary wastes such as abrasives, chemicals, or disks... Moreover, as mentioned in introduction, the Laser ablation process can be defined as a 'dry' process. This technology does not produce any liquid waste (as it can be the case with chemical process or HP water process...). Finally, the addition of a vacuum system allows to trap the contamination onto filters and thus avoiding any dissemination in the room where the process takes place. The next step is going to be a commercial use in 2012 in one of the La Hague buildings. (authors)

  16. The impact of pulsed light on decontamination, quality, and bacterial attachment of fresh raspberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenqing; Wu, Changqing

    2016-08-01

    Raspberries have served as vehicles for transmission of foodborne pathogens through fecal-oral route and have resulted in 11 outbreaks in the United States from 1983 through 2013. However, because of its dedicated structures and perishability, water based sanitizer washing cannot be used for raspberry decontamination. As a non-thermal technique, pulsed light (PL) may have the potential to maintain both safety and quality of fresh raspberries. The first objective of our study was to investigate Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 inactivation efficacy of pulsed light (PL) on fresh raspberries during 10 days storage at 4 °C. The qualities of raspberries after PL treatment, including color, texture, total phenolic content (TPC), total anthocyanin content (TAC), total bacteria count (TBC) as well as total yeast and mold count (TYMC), have also been evaluated during the 10 days storage. Compared with the untreated control, all the PL treatments (5 s, 15 s and 30 s) maintained lower pathogen survival population during 10 days refrigerated storage. At day 10, all PL treated raspberries maintained significantly lower TBC and TYMC than the control. Although PL treatment for 30 s (with fluence of 28.2 J/cm(2)) reduced most Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 right after treatment, by 4.5 and 3.9 log 10 CFU/g respectively, it failed to maintain its advantage during storage. In addition, color and texture of these raspberries changed negatively after 10 days storage. PL 30 s provided the lowest TBC and TYMC at day 0, but failed to maintain its advantage during storage. To consider both safety and quality of fresh raspberries as well as the treatment feasibility, 5 s PL treatment with fluence of 5.0 J/cm(2) was recommended for decontamination. The second objective was to study attachment of bacteria as well as decontamination effect of PL on raspberries. Under the scanning electron microscopy (SEM), PL showed severe damage to the cell membrane on smooth surface

  17. Decontamination estimate and demonstration test results on road in the return difficult area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper compared evaluation results of decontamination simulation with the actual decontamination result. One of the major factors that decontamination does not proceed, is that the decontamination results are unpredictable. JAEA has developed the software that can be predictive simulation of decontamination with a simple user interface. The purpose of this study is that to evaluate the simulation accuracy. JAEA evaluated accuracies that compared simulation results of decontamination simulation with the actual decontamination result using ultra-high water jet in the returning difficult area. Prediction accuracy was consistent with the range of ±50%. (author)

  18. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers during the

  19. Comparison and Evaluation of Various Tritium Decontamination Techniques and Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of fusion energy development, various techniques and processes have been developed over the past two decades for the removal and decontamination of tritium from a variety of items, surfaces, and components. Tritium decontamination, by chemical, physical, mechanical, or a combination of these methods, is driven by two underlying motivational forces. The first of these motivational forces is safety. Safety is paramount to the established culture associated with fusion energy. The second of these motivational forces is cost. In all aspects, less tritium contamination equals lower operational and disposal costs. This paper will discuss and evaluate the various processes employed for tritium removal and decontamination

  20. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.; Boudreaux, J.F.; Chinta, S.; Zanakis, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites.

  1. An alternative simple method in laryngoscope blade decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Mehmet Emin; Saygun, Onur; Güzeldemir, M Erdal

    2002-06-01

    The cleaning and disinfection of laryngoscope blades is controversial. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of two different chemical disinfectant agents and tap water where the laryngoscope blades were contaminated by different microorganisms and try to create a simple, effective and easy decontamination method. The results of our study demonstrate that the decontamination of the laryngoscope blades, which are cleansed with tap water, is not a reliable approach. In conclusion, mechanical cleaning of blades with water and the immersion in 2% glutaraldehyde or 10% polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine for 10 minutes is an effective method for decontamination of laryngoscope blades. PMID:12138517

  2. Fitness of different decontamination methods for reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contaminated oxide layers formed on the light water reactor surfaces during reactor operation are surveyed. The principles of decontamination of these surfaces are presented. In the experimental part of the study the oxides formed both in PWR and BWR simulating autoclave conditions are decontaminated chemically and electrochemically. Various stainless steels (including different metallurgical states). Inconel 600 alloy and carbon and low alloy steels were used as test materials. The effectiveness of decontamination and possible corrosion effects on the base materials including the deposition of dissolution products were especially studied

  3. Decontamination Technologies, Task 3, Urban Remediation and Response Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.; Sullivan, T.

    2009-06-30

    In the aftermath of a Radiological Dispersal Device (RDD, also known as a dirty bomb) it will be necessary to remediate the site including building exteriors and interiors, equipment, pavement, vehicles, personal items etc. Remediation will remove or reduce radioactive contamination from the area using a combination of removing and disposing of many assets (including possible demolition of buildings), decontaminating and returning to service other assets, and fixing in place or leaving in place contamination that is deemed 'acceptable'. The later will require setting acceptable dose standards, which will require negotiation with all involved parties and a balance of risk and cost to benefit. To accomplish the first two, disposal or decontamination, a combination of technologies will be deployed that can be loosely classified as: Decontamination; Equipment removal and size reduction; and Demolition. This report will deal only with the decontamination technologies that will be used to return assets to service or to reduce waste disposal. It will not discuss demolition, size reduction or removal technologies or equipment (e.g., backhoe mounted rams, rock splitter, paving breakers and chipping hammers, etc.). As defined by the DOE (1994), decontamination is removal of radiological contamination from the surfaces of facilities and equipment. Expertise in this field comes primarily from the operation and decommissioning of DOE and commercial nuclear facilities as well as a small amount of ongoing research and development closely related to RDD decontamination. Information related to decontamination of fields, buildings, and public spaces resulting from the Goiania and Chernobyl incidents were also reviewed and provide some meaningful insight into decontamination at major urban areas. In order to proceed with decontamination, the item being processed needs to have an intrinsic value that exceeds the cost of the cleaning and justifies the exposure of any workers

  4. Decision Analysis System for Selection of Appropriate Decontamination Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective for designing Decision Analysis System for Decontamination (DASD) is to support DOE-EM's endeavor to employ the most efficient and effective technologies for treating radiologically contaminated surfaces while minimizing personnel and environmental risks. DASD will provide a tool for environmental decision makers to improve the quality, consistency, and efficacy of their technology selection decisions. The system will facilitate methodical comparisons between innovative and baseline decontamination technologies and aid in identifying the most suitable technologies for performing surface decontamination at DOE environmental restoration sites

  5. Effect of Organic Solvents in Preparation of Silica-Based Chemical Gel Decontaminates for Decontamination of Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment such as stainless steel components, other iron-based steel and alloys, metal surfaces, structural materials and so on. Chemical decontamination technology in particular is a highly effective method to remove the radioactive contamination through a chemical dissolution or a redox reaction. However, this method has the serious drawback due to the generation of large amounts of the radioactive liquid wastes. Recently, a few literatures have been reported for the preparation of the chemical gel decontaminants to reduce the amount of the radioactive liquid wastes and to enhance the decontamination efficiency through increasing the contact time between the gels and the radioactive contaminants. In the preparation of the chemical gels, the control of the viscosity highly depends on the amount of a coviscosifier used among the components of the chemical gels consisted of a viscosifier, a coviscosifier, and a chemical decontaminant. In this works, a new effective method for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the organic solvents. The mixture solution of the coviscosifier and organic solvent was more effective in the control of the viscosity compared with that of the coviscosifier only in gels. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels measured by using the multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed the high decontamination factor for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on the surface of the stainless steel 304

  6. Effect of Organic Solvents in Preparation of Silica-Based Chemical Gel Decontaminates for Decontamination of Nuclear Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Suk Bon; Jung, Chong Hun; Kim, Chang Ki; Choi, Byung Seon; Lee, Kune Woo; Moon, Jei Kwon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    Decontamination of nuclear facilities is necessary to reduce the radiation field during normal operations and decommissioning of complex equipment such as stainless steel components, other iron-based steel and alloys, metal surfaces, structural materials and so on. Chemical decontamination technology in particular is a highly effective method to remove the radioactive contamination through a chemical dissolution or a redox reaction. However, this method has the serious drawback due to the generation of large amounts of the radioactive liquid wastes. Recently, a few literatures have been reported for the preparation of the chemical gel decontaminants to reduce the amount of the radioactive liquid wastes and to enhance the decontamination efficiency through increasing the contact time between the gels and the radioactive contaminants. In the preparation of the chemical gels, the control of the viscosity highly depends on the amount of a coviscosifier used among the components of the chemical gels consisted of a viscosifier, a coviscosifier, and a chemical decontaminant. In this works, a new effective method for the preparation of the chemical gel was investigated by introducing the organic solvents. The mixture solution of the coviscosifier and organic solvent was more effective in the control of the viscosity compared with that of the coviscosifier only in gels. Furthermore, the decontamination efficiency of the chemical gels measured by using the multi-channel analyzer (MCA) showed the high decontamination factor for Co-60 and Cs-137 contaminated on the surface of the stainless steel 304

  7. An experimental study on decontamination by surface condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface decontamination is one of the very important problem to be completely solved in the isotope laboratory where there is always the possibility of radioactive contamination, i.e., on the floors, walls, working tables and benches etc., Isotope laboratories require surface covering of material which can be easily and effectively decontaminated. These experiment were done to find an effective decontamination procedure for kind of surfaces which usually are found in radioisotope laboratories and the best type of surface material, that is, one which is easily decontaminated from the point of view of radiation health and safely. This study is presented to guide radioisotope laboratories in Korea which may need to renovate existing unsafe facilities. In some contaminated facilities entirely new installations may be required. Twelve types of surface material are used for study in this experiment. These include 10 cm square of stainless steel, aluminum, ceramic and mosaic tiles, glass, acrylic, formica board, asphalt tile and coated wood with 4 kinds of paints. Stepwise decontamination was performed with various decontamination procedures following a spill of I131 on the center of the surface material being tested. Twelve different decontamination procedures were tested. These included wet wiping with water and detergent, or dry wiping, or removing with gummed paper. Additional chemical procedures used 10% solution of hydrochloric acid, or surface acid, or ammonium citrate, or potassium iodide, or acetone or carbon tetrachloride. The final testing method was abrasion of the test surfaces. Brief analysis of experimental results on the decontaminability on the tested surface showed: 1. Metallic surfaces such as stainless steel or aluminum, or glass, or a piece of ceramic tile or acrylic are recommended as the surface materials for isotope laboratories because these are easily decontaminated by wet wiping only. 2. Formica board, asphalt tile and wood are not easily

  8. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  9. Superiority of chlorhexidine 2%/alcohol 70% wipes in decontaminating ultrasound equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Bhavin; Howell, Victoria; Griffiths, Alicia; Thoppil, Anita; Liu, Monica; Carter, Joseph; Young, Peter

    2014-08-01

    Ultrasound equipment is known to act as a reservoir for potentially pathogenic organisms. The aims of these studies were to establish current cleaning practices, to review the extent of bacterial contamination of ultrasound equipment in our hospital, to establish an effective cleaning regimen and to ensure that cleaning does not cause damage. A questionnaire was sent to all acute NHS hospitals in England to establish current cleaning practices. A review of our current practice was performed to establish the extent of bacterial contamination of ultrasound equipment currently in use. Laboratory studies compared cleaning the probes with soap and water with decontaminating with a chlorhexidine 2% and alcohol 70% wipe, including quantifying the residual effect. Accelerated aging was performed on the probe and staff surveyed to establish potential problems with using the wipes on the probe. The survey revealed that a variety of cleaning methods were used to decontaminate ultrasound probes; 57% of our ultrasound machines were contaminated with bacteria. The laboratory studies showed superiority of the chlorhexidine and alcohol wipes over soap and water due to a residual effect, both immediately after cleaning and after 24 hours. The staff survey demonstrated no apparent change in function of the probe after cleaning with the chlorhexidine wipes. Cleaning ultrasound probes with chlorhexidine and alcohol wipes is effective and provides additional protection against bacterial contamination due to its residual effect, and appears in the short term to have no detrimental effect on the probe. PMID:27433210

  10. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  11. Application of zirconia particle to abrasive blast decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In blasting decontamination, alumina or steel grit has been used as conventional blast material. The problem with such existing materials is the decreasing of blasting performance during the repeated use due to their diminishing hardness. Consequently, a lot of waste grit is generated as secondary waste. In order to solve this problem, zirconia has been selected because of its high strength and spherical shape. A repeating test in which blasting is executed 300 times and a decontamination test were performed using actual waste materials to confirm the applicability of zirconia grit. More than 90% of zirconia grit kept the initial performance after being used 300 times. Zirconia exhibited durability superior to that of alumina which was broken in the course pf several repetitions of use. Moreover, the decontamination performance of zirconia grit has been confirmed to be equivalent to that of alumina grit. From the results, zirconia grit is expected to be applied to the decontamination of metal wastes. (author)

  12. Advance in radioactive decontamination; Avances en descontaminacion radiactiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basteris M, J. A. [Universidad Autonoma de Yucatan, Facultad de Medicina, Departamento de Diagnostico por Laboratorio y Gabinete, Av. Cupules No. 232, Col. Garcia Gineres, 97070 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Farrera V, R., E-mail: basteris@prodigy.net.m [Hospital de Especialidades de la UMAE, Centro Medico Nacional Ignacio Garcia Tellez, Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Calle 34 x 41, Exterrenos el Fenix s/n, Col. Industrial, 91750 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-09-15

    The objective of the present work was to determine if the application of the Na hypochlorite has some utility in the radioactive decontamination, in comparison with the water, detergent and alcohol. Several methods were compared for decontaminate the iodine 131 and technetium 99, the work table and the skin it was carried out an initial count with the Geiger Muller. Later on, in a single occasion, the areas were washed with abundant water, alcohol, clothes detergent and sodium hypochlorite (used commercially as domestic bleacher) without diluting. Observing that the percentage in the decrease of the counted radioactivity by the Geiger Muller, decreased in the following way: It was demonstrated that the Na hypochlorite presents the highest index of radioactive decontamination with 100% of effectiveness. The Na hypochlorite is an excellent substance that can be used with effectiveness and efficiency like decontamination element in the accident cases of radioactive contamination in the clinical laboratories of nuclear medicine. (Author)

  13. Hydrodynamic study of the effectiveness of the APCITROX decontamination technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the VVER-type pressurized water reactors, the so-called AP-CITROX method (AP: alkaline permanganate, CITROX: citric and oxalic acids) is widely used for the chemical decontamination of the austenitic stainless steel piping of steam generators (SGs). During the period of 1993-2000 in the blocks 1-3 of the Paks NPP chemical decontamination of ten SGs were carried out, even in 2 or 3 consecutive cycles. Based on the above decontamination procedures a database of characteristic parameters was compiled. Some new findings are presented obtained in the experiments focused on the optimization of the linear flow rate at which the decontamination factor of the heat exchanger tubes increases remarkably without detrimental changes in the passivity of the surfaces. (R.P.)

  14. Decontaminating method and device for radioactive metal waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention concerns decontamination of radioactive metal wastes contaminated at their surface and released from radioactive material handling facilities such as nuclear power plants. Ultrasonic wave vibrators are disposed at the bottom and on the side of a decontaminating vessel. Among the radioactive metal wastes, carbon steel series wastes are simply immersed in the decontaminating vessel, while stainless steel series wastes are electrolytically reduced at the initial stage of immersion. In this case, cladding materials containing most of radioactive materials are peeled off accompanying the melting of the matrix metals. For improving the peeling effect, ultrasonic waves are applied over a predetermined period of time by the ultrasonic wave vibrators just before pulling up the radioactive metal wastes. Thus, decontaminating treatment for the radioactive metal wastes can be conducted to such a radioactive level as that for ordinary wastes without using oxidative metal salts and at a high efficiency. (I.N.)

  15. Decontamination by water jet, chemical and electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The decontamination tests have been carried out on samples coming from representative specimens from primary circuit of the PWR and on samples coming from the emergency feed water piping of the German BWR (Isar). The oxide found in PWR primary loops can only be removed by a two steps process. The initial embrittling step is particularly effective in hot alkaline permanganate medium. Oxidation by ozone treatment is less effective. The second step involves chemical erosion of the metal in nitrofluoric acid in conjonction with ultrasonic agitation. Among the reagents used, only oxalic acid is suitable for electrolytic decontamination. Among the reagents possible for decontamination of the Isar specimens (ferritic steel lined with hematite) halogenous acid in mixture without or with oxygenated water, sulfuric acid, the formic acid/formaldehyde mixture are chosen. Metal erosion with high pressure jet as well as the decontamination efficiency on parts lined with hematite have made possible to determine the best conditions. 33 figs, 29 refs

  16. GARDEC, Estimation of dose-rates reduction by garden decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: GARDEC estimates the reduction of dose rates by garden decontamination. It provides the effect of different decontamination Methods, the depth of soil to be considered, dose-rate before and after decontamination and the reduction factor. 2 - Methods: This code takes into account three Methods of decontamination : (i)digging a garden in a special way, (ii) a removal of the upper layer of soil, and (iii) covering with a shielding layer of soil. The dose-rate conversion factor is defined as the external dose-rate, in the air, at a given height above the ground from a unit concentration of a specific radionuclide in each soil layer

  17. Decontaminating Swift UVOT Grism Observations of Transient Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Smitka, Michael T; Kuin, Paul; Suntzeff, Nicholas B

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique of decontaminating Swift UVOT grism spectra for transient objects. We describe the template image requirements and image processing steps necessary to successfully implement the empirical decontamination technique. We demonstrate the accuracy of the flux and wavelength calibrations for decontaminated spectra by comparing a spectrum of SN 2011fe with a well-calibrated, long-slit ultraviolet spectrum from the Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph. We also show how the decontamination removes spurious emission lines from spectra of iPTF14bdn which otherwise could be misinterpreted as coming from the supernova. The software which implements this technique is briefly discussed and is made available to the community.

  18. Enhanced toxic cloud knockdown spray system for decontamination applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betty, Rita G.; Tucker, Mark D.; Brockmann, John E.; Lucero, Daniel A.; Levin, Bruce L.; Leonard, Jonathan

    2011-09-06

    Methods and systems for knockdown and neutralization of toxic clouds of aerosolized chemical or biological warfare (CBW) agents and toxic industrial chemicals using a non-toxic, non-corrosive aqueous decontamination formulation.

  19. Steam Generator Group Project. Task 6. Channel head decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Steam Generator Group Project utilizes a retired-from-service pressurized-water-reactor steam generator as a test bed and source of specimens for research. An important preparatory step to primary side research activities was reduction of the radiation field in the steam generator channel head. This task report describes the channel head decontamination activities. Though not a programmatic research objective it was judged beneficial to explore the use of dilute reagent chemical decontamination techniques. These techniques presented potential for reduced personnel exposure and reduced secondary radwaste generation, over currently used abrasive blasting techniques. Two techniques with extensive laboratory research and vendors prepared to offer commercial application were tested, one on either side of the channel head. As indicated in the report, both techniques accomplished similar decontamination objectives. Neither technique damaged the generator channel head or tubing materials, as applied. This report provides details of the decontamination operations. Application system and operating conditions are described

  20. Development of wall surface decontamination robot in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the development of a robot system for decontamination processing on radioactivity place such as a reactor well in nuclear power plants. The surface on the well or the cavity is stained with radioactivity. The decontamination process is very important and necessary for the maintenance. In past, the process was carried out by the factory workers. In this study, the decontamination robot system has been developed, which is equipped with a washing mechanism and vacuum unit, and it is able to move on the wall. The developed robot systems are applied to actual nuclear power plants. The paper describes the design and the mechanism of the robot system, and shows the efficiency of decontamination on the radioactivity wall. (author)

  1. Experimental Boiling Water Reactor decontamination and decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author begins by discussing the problems encountered during decontamination and decommissioning. Next, he discusses waste packaging and recycling. His last topic of lessons learned is subdivided into prevention and early detection, recovery issues, management issues, and noteworthy practices

  2. Decontamination of MMH- and NTO/MON-propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, K.; Kaelsch, I.

    2004-10-01

    Decontamination of liquid propellant tanks, namely MMH and NTO/MON tanks, due to emergency off- loading of a spacecraft can cause damage to the propellant tank material if safety precautions are not taken into account. MMH (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine) reacts with water with an exothermic reaction that causes temperature rise and hydrous reaction product formation. NTO and MON (Nitrogen Tetroxide Oxidiser / Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen) react with water forming nitrous and nitric acid, which may cause corrosion and enhance Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) in the titanium tank material. To avoid these problems, a new procedure with a numerical prediction tool for decontamination of MMH tank has been developed, used and assessed to decontaminate the MMH tank of the ESA Rosetta spacecraft successfully. The ESA proposed procedure for MON oxidiser tank emergency off-loading and decontamination is also presented.

  3. Modification of the Decontamination Facility at the Kruemmel NPP - 13451

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In February 2009, Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH was awarded the contract for the design, manufacture, delivery and construction of a new Decontamination Facility in the controlled area for Kruemmel NPP. The new decontamination equipment has been installed according to the state of art of Kruemmel NPP. The existing space required the following modification, retrofitting and reconstruction works: - Demounting of the existing installation: to create space for the new facility it was necessary to dismantle the old facility. The concrete walls and ceilings were cut into sizes of no more than 400 kg for ease of handling. This enabled decontamination so largest possible amount could be released for recycling. All steel parts were cut into sizes fitting for iron-barred boxes, respecting the requirement to render the parts decontaminable and releasable. - Reconstructing a decontamination facility: Reconstruction of a decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies was conducted using pressurized air with abrasives (glass beads or steel shots). The walls were equipped with sound protection, the inner walls were welded gap-free to prevent the emergence of interstices and were equipped with changeable wear and tear curtains. Abrasive processing unit positioned underneath the dry blasting box adjacent to the two discharge hoppers. A switch has been installed for the separation of the glass beads and the steel shot. The glass beads are directed into a 200 l drum for the disposal. The steel shot was cleaned using a separator. The cleaned steel shot was routed via transportation devices to the storage container, making it available for further blasting operations. A decontamination box with separate air lock as access area for the decontamination of components and assemblies using high pressure water technology was provided by new construction. Water pressures between 160 bar and 800 bar can be selected. The inner

  4. Decontamination of laryngoscope blades: Is our practice adequate?

    OpenAIRE

    Telang R; Patil V; Ranganathan P; Kelkar R

    2010-01-01

    Background : The laryngoscope has been identified as a potential source of cross-infection, because of blood and bacterial contamination. In India, there are no guidelines for cleaning and disinfection of anesthesia-related equipment. Practices for decontamination of laryngoscopes vary widely and in most healthcare institutes, laryngoscope blades are re-used after cleaning with tap-water. Materials and Methods: We prospectively compared two techniques for decontamination of laryngoscope blade...

  5. Decontamination of process equipment using recyclable chelating solvent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevec, J.; Lenore, C.; Ulbricht, S. [Babcock & Wilcox, Co., R& DD, Alliance, OH (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. This report describes the results of the performance testing of chelates and solvents for the dissolution of uranium.

  6. Fighting Ebola with novel spore decontamination technologies for the military

    OpenAIRE

    Doona, Christopher J.; Feeherry, Florence E.; Kustin, Kenneth; Olinger, Gene G.; Setlow, Peter; Malkin, Alexander J.; Leighton, Terrance

    2015-01-01

    Recently, global public health organizations such as Doctors without Borders (MSF), the World Health Organization (WHO), Public Health Canada, National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the U.S. government developed and deployed Field Decontamination Kits (FDKs), a novel, lightweight, compact, reusable decontamination technology to sterilize Ebola-contaminated medical devices at remote clinical sites lacking infra-structure in crisis-stricken regions of West Africa (medical waste materials are ...

  7. Decontamination of naturally contaminated liquid nitrogen storage tanks

    OpenAIRE

    Gilson Antonio Pessoa; Mara Iolanda Batistella Rubin; Carlos Antonio Mondino Silva; Denize Costa da Rosa

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of cleaning and decontamination procedures in liquid nitrogen tanks. We evaluated 151 canisters and 133 bottoms from 133 nitrogen tanks of companies or farms for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Samples were collected from the canisters and the bottom of tanks containing liquid nitrogen. Tanks were divided into Group 1 (G1): tanks decontaminated with 2% glutaraldehyde - Glutaron® II (n = 16 canisters in 8 tanks); Group 2 (G2): decont...

  8. Chlorhexidine decontamination of sputum for culturing Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Asmar, Shady; Drancourt, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the gold standard method for the laboratory diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis, after effective decontamination. Results: We evaluated squalamine and chlorhexidine to decontaminate sputum specimens for the culture of mycobacteria. Eight sputum specimens were artificially infected with 105 colony-forming units (cfu)/mL Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans as contaminants. In the s...

  9. Foam decontamination of large nuclear components before dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special dolly (COMODIN) was designed on the basis of the preceding theoretical considerations to test the decontamination of a series of large valves with complex internal configurations. The valves were made of ordinary low-carbon steel and were taken from the secondary system of a gas-cooled reactor undergoing decommissioning. The schematic diagram and the procedure of the decontamination dolly are given. Some applications to austenitic and ferritic heat exchangers are then described into details. (O.M.)

  10. Magnetite Dissolution Performance of HYBRID-II Decontamination Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seonbyeong; Lee, Woosung; Won, Huijun; Moon, Jeikwon; Choi, Wangkyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this study, we conducted the magnetite dissolution performance test of HYBRID-II (Hydrazine Based Reductive metal Ion Decontamination with sulfuric acid) as a part of decontamination process development. Decontamination performance of HYBRID process was successfully tested with the results of the acceptable decontamination factor (DF) in the previous study. While following-up studies such as the decomposition of the post-decontamination HYBRID solution and corrosion compatibility on the substrate metals of the target reactor coolant system have been continued, we also seek for an alternate version of HYBRID process suitable especially for decommissioning. Inspired by the relationship between the radius of reacting ion and the reactivity, we replaced the nitrate ion in HYBRID with bigger sulfate ion to accommodate the dissolution reaction and named HYBRID-II process. As a preliminary step for the decontamination performance, we tested the magnetite dissolution performance of developing HYBRID-II process and compared the results with those of HYBRID process. HYBRID process developed previously is known have the acceptable decontamination performance, but the relatively larger volume of secondary waste induced by anion exchange resin to treat nitrate ion is the one of the problems related in the development of HYBRID process to be applicable. Therefore we alternatively devised HYBRID-II process using sulfuric acid and tested its dissolution of magnetite in numerous conditions. From the results shown in this study, we can conclude that HYBRID-II process improves the decontamination performance and potentially reduces the volume of secondary waste. Rigorous tests with metal oxide coupons obtained from reactor coolant system will be followed to prove the robustness of HYBRID-II process in the future.

  11. Magnetite Dissolution Performance of HYBRID-II Decontamination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we conducted the magnetite dissolution performance test of HYBRID-II (Hydrazine Based Reductive metal Ion Decontamination with sulfuric acid) as a part of decontamination process development. Decontamination performance of HYBRID process was successfully tested with the results of the acceptable decontamination factor (DF) in the previous study. While following-up studies such as the decomposition of the post-decontamination HYBRID solution and corrosion compatibility on the substrate metals of the target reactor coolant system have been continued, we also seek for an alternate version of HYBRID process suitable especially for decommissioning. Inspired by the relationship between the radius of reacting ion and the reactivity, we replaced the nitrate ion in HYBRID with bigger sulfate ion to accommodate the dissolution reaction and named HYBRID-II process. As a preliminary step for the decontamination performance, we tested the magnetite dissolution performance of developing HYBRID-II process and compared the results with those of HYBRID process. HYBRID process developed previously is known have the acceptable decontamination performance, but the relatively larger volume of secondary waste induced by anion exchange resin to treat nitrate ion is the one of the problems related in the development of HYBRID process to be applicable. Therefore we alternatively devised HYBRID-II process using sulfuric acid and tested its dissolution of magnetite in numerous conditions. From the results shown in this study, we can conclude that HYBRID-II process improves the decontamination performance and potentially reduces the volume of secondary waste. Rigorous tests with metal oxide coupons obtained from reactor coolant system will be followed to prove the robustness of HYBRID-II process in the future

  12. Fukushima Dai-Ichi and the Economics of Nuclear Decontamination

    OpenAIRE

    Alistair Munro

    2012-01-01

    Economic analysis of nuclear accidents and their aftermath is comparatively rare. In this paper, in the light of the Japanese government’s intensive efforts to decontaminate areas affected by radioactive Caesium from Fukushima dai-ichi nuclear power plant, we create a cost-benefit framework for assessing the merits of decontamination strategies. Using some benchmark data for Japan we estimate that optimal delay is positive for most reasonable parameter values. For low value land, optimal dela...

  13. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasutaka, T.; Naito, W. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  14. Evaluation of Cost and Effectiveness of Decontamination Scenarios on External Radiation Exposure in Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the enormous cost associated with radiation decontamination, almost no quantitative assessment has been performed on the relationship between the potential reduction in long-term radiation exposure and the costs of the various decontamination strategies considered for the decontamination areas in Fukushima. In order to establish effective and pragmatic decontamination strategies for use in the radiation contaminated areas in Fukushima, a holistic approach for assessing decontamination strategies, their costs, and long-term external radiation doses is needed. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of decontamination scenarios in the decontamination areas in Fukushima in regard to external radiation exposure. The choice of decontamination strategies in the decontamination areas should be based on a comprehensive analysis of multiple attributes such as radiological, economic, and socio-psychological attributes. The cost and effectiveness of the different decontamination strategies is not sole determinant of the decontamination strategies of the special decontamination area but is one of the most important attributes when making the policy decision. In the current study, we focus on radiological and economic attributes in determining decontamination strategies. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to relate the predicted external dose in the affected areas to the number of potential inhabitants and the land use in the areas. A comprehensive review of the costs of various decontamination methods was conducted as part of the analysis. The results indicate that aerial decontamination in the special decontamination areas in Fukushima would be effective for reducing the air dose rate to the target level in a short period of time in some but not all of the areas. In a standard scenario, the analysis of cost suggests that decontamination costs of decontamination in Fukushima was estimated to be up to approximately 5

  15. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L.; Chamberlain, D.B.; Conner, C.; Vandegrift, G.F.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Decontamination and recovery of materials at nuclear facilities - operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Non-Destructive Cleaning Mobile C02 Decontamination Facilities have more than 120 months of operational time conducting radioactive decontamination at Nuclear Power Stations and U.S. Department of Energy sites. During this time we have compiled an extensive database on what has been decontaminated and the cost savings realized. Over these past five years, NDC has decontaminated items ranging from a 1040 megawatt generator at a nuclear power station after an explosion and fire in the generator, to over 3 1/2 million pounds of contaminated tools and parts at nuclear power stations for over twenty customers. The cost savings at the generator cleaning was in the tens of millions of dollars and the cost savings from cleaning over 31/2 million pounds of contaminated tools and parts is over 70 million dollars. One U.S. Department of Energy decontamination project at the Hanford Reservation saved 5 million dollars in a 14 month decontamination project. The key to achieving these results is the NDC Technology that we developed and patented and use every day with these kind of results. (author)

  17. Decontamination and decommissioning technology development of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Removal behaviour of an oxide which is similar in structure and composition to that on internal system of steam generator were investigated in low concentration chemical decontamination process [KAERI process]. In the AP solution (oxidative dissolution step), Cr dissolved fastly from the oxide in early stage and then dissolved very slowly in later stage. Dissolution behaviours of Fe from the oxides in the reductive dissolution process were similar to those of Cr in the oxidative dissolution process. Oxide dissolution behaviour in each process were discussed. In twice cyclic application of the oxidative and the reductive dissolution process(KAERI decontamination process), about 50% of the oxide was removed by chemical dissolution, about 40% by particulate detachment. The rest 10% oxide could be completely removed by ultrasonic decontamination. Corrosion acceptance guideline was established for the decontamination of domestic PWRs' steam generator. In the KAERI decontamination process, general corrosion to an Inconel-600 and 304 stainless steel was about 2.4 and 1.0% of general corrosion limit, respectively. And localized corrosion was not observed. Those results indicated that the KAERI decontamination process assured integrity of KNUs' steam generator. To evaluate the radioactive inventory for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities, general calculation methods of radioactive inventory, calculation and measurement of contact exposure rate, and confirmation of those results were reviewed. Feasibility for application of the above methods was examined by taking examples of radioactive inventory estimation in the Shippingport nuclear reactor vessel. (Author)

  18. A survey of decontamination processes applicable to DOE nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this survey was to select an appropriate technology for in situ decontamination of equipment interiors as part of the decommissioning of U.S. Department of Energy nuclear facilities. This selection depends on knowledge of existing chemical decontamination methods. This report provides an up-to-date review of chemical decontamination methods. According to available information, aqueous systems are probably the most universally used method for decontaminating and cleaning metal surfaces. We have subdivided the technologies, on the basis of the types of chemical solvents, into acid, alkaline permanganate, highly oxidizing, peroxide, and miscellaneous systems. Two miscellaneous chemical decontamination methods (electrochemical processes and foam and gel systems) are also described. A concise technical description of various processes is given, and the report also outlines technical considerations in the choice of technologies, including decontamination effectiveness, waste handing, fields of application, and the advantages and limitations in application. On the basis of this survey, six processes were identified for further evaluation. 144 refs., 2 tabs

  19. Anthrax Sampling and Decontamination: Technology Trade-Offs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Hamachi, Kristina; McWilliams, Jennifer; Sohn, Michael D.

    2008-09-12

    The goal of this project was to answer the following questions concerning response to a future anthrax release (or suspected release) in a building: 1. Based on past experience, what rules of thumb can be determined concerning: (a) the amount of sampling that may be needed to determine the extent of contamination within a given building; (b) what portions of a building should be sampled; (c) the cost per square foot to decontaminate a given type of building using a given method; (d) the time required to prepare for, and perform, decontamination; (e) the effectiveness of a given decontamination method in a given type of building? 2. Based on past experience, what resources will be spent on evaluating the extent of contamination, performing decontamination, and assessing the effectiveness of the decontamination in abuilding of a given type and size? 3. What are the trade-offs between cost, time, and effectiveness for the various sampling plans, sampling methods, and decontamination methods that have been used in the past?

  20. Demonstration recommendations for accelerated testing of concrete decontamination methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large number of aging US Department of Energy (DOE) surplus facilities located throughout the US require deactivation, decontamination, and decommissioning. Although several technologies are available commercially for concrete decontamination, emerging technologies with potential to reduce secondary waste and minimize the impact and risk to workers and the environment are needed. In response to these needs, the Accelerated Testing of Concrete Decontamination Methods project team described the nature and extent of contaminated concrete within the DOE complex and identified applicable emerging technologies. Existing information used to describe the nature and extent of contaminated concrete indicates that the most frequently occurring radiological contaminants are 137Cs, 238U (and its daughters), 60Co, 90Sr, and tritium. The total area of radionuclide-contaminated concrete within the DOE complex is estimated to be in the range of 7.9 x 108 ft2or approximately 18,000 acres. Concrete decontamination problems were matched with emerging technologies to recommend demonstrations considered to provide the most benefit to decontamination of concrete within the DOE complex. Emerging technologies with the most potential benefit were biological decontamination, electro-hydraulic scabbling, electrokinetics, and microwave scabbling