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Sample records for agricultural organization fao

  1. 50th Anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    The occasion of the 50th anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has again been an exceedingly productive year. In addition to our ongoing activities reported extensively in this volume, we have taken this opportunity to highlight several examples of tangible, sustainable results derived out of this unique partnership – beneficial to both our parent organizations and to our Member States – and to share these with our many stakeholders around the world and at the celebratory ceremony of this partnership. The enormous contributions of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division and its numerous stakeholders worldwide to meet the changing needs of Member States through the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies are today clearly demonstrated in the shared goals of our two parent organizations and in the five strategic objectives of the FAO: to help eliminate hunger, food insecurity and malnutrition; to make agriculture, forestry and fisheries more productive and sustainable; to reduce rural poverty; to enable inclusive and efficient agricultural and food systems; and to increase the resilience of livelihood to disaster

  2. FAO and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-07-15

    During the past six years FAO has become more engaged in work concerned with atomic energy. In 1957 it established an Atomic Energy Branch. The new forces and new tools which have become available for use in the fight against poverty, disease and malnutrition can be of the greatest assistance in FAO's work in nearly all phases of the production, storage and distribution of food and other agricultural products. The Organization promotes their use to improve the standards of feeding, clothing and housing throughout the world. Another side of work related to atomic energy is concerned with combating contamination from the use of atomic energy for power production and other purposes. This raises considerable problems for food and agriculture, so that FAO also has a responsibility for assisting Governments in safeguarding their food and food-producing resources from contamination. FAO is essentially concerned with fostering wider knowledge of the many contributions that atomic science can make to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and nutrition. It is also concerned in assisting governments to establish sound programmes for applying atomic science in food and agriculture. One way of spreading such knowledge is through the publication of documents and reports

  3. FAO and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    During the past six years FAO has become more engaged in work concerned with atomic energy. In 1957 it established an Atomic Energy Branch. The new forces and new tools which have become available for use in the fight against poverty, disease and malnutrition can be of the greatest assistance in FAO's work in nearly all phases of the production, storage and distribution of food and other agricultural products. The Organization promotes their use to improve the standards of feeding, clothing and housing throughout the world. Another side of work related to atomic energy is concerned with combating contamination from the use of atomic energy for power production and other purposes. This raises considerable problems for food and agriculture, so that FAO also has a responsibility for assisting Governments in safeguarding their food and food-producing resources from contamination. FAO is essentially concerned with fostering wider knowledge of the many contributions that atomic science can make to agriculture, forestry, fisheries and nutrition. It is also concerned in assisting governments to establish sound programmes for applying atomic science in food and agriculture. One way of spreading such knowledge is through the publication of documents and reports

  4. An overview of FAO`s food crop development programme for Africa - A plant breeder`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueneman, E A [Field Food Crops Group, Plant Production and Protection Div., FAO, Rome (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    While FAO employs some scientists for posts at headquarters, in its laboratory at Seibersdorf in Austria and in its field projects, FAO is not, in the conventional sense, a research organization. FAO assists its member nations providing information on matters ranging from: remote sensing, to projections on food availability to land-use-planning to extension to crop and animal production methodologies (including variety development and germplasm preservation) to marketing and processing to nutrition needs and policies. FAO is also a forum where member nations can present different opinions on regional and global needs as they relate to food, agriculture and sustainable development.

  5. Peran Food And Agriculture Organzation (FAO) dalam Mengatasi Krisis Pangan di Bangladesh Tahun 2007-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Nasution, Ade Irma Suriana

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to look at the role of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in overcoming the food crisis in Bangladesh. The food crisis means losing access to food for the majority of the world community or lack of resources used to produce food. In Bangladesh there are several causes of the food crisis include natural disasters, food price inflation, the increase in population, the transfer of agricultural land, and poverty. The global food crisis provides a parallel effect on foo...

  6. EU Failing FAO Challenge to Improve Global Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A

    2016-07-01

    The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Italian origins of FAO and Paul Otlet

    OpenAIRE

    Guarasci, Roberto; Taverniti, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the strategic role of international organizations, which manage and provide information systems and library services in the agricultural domain, is universally recognized. This paper focuses on the origin of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) by presenting a critical edition of the Rapport by Paul Otlet to the marquis Cappelli, pr?sident de l?Institut International d?Agricolture (Otlet, 1911) that includes original documents and outlines the first steps...

  8. Revised FAO methodology for crop-water requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Allen, R.; Pereira, L.

    1998-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) developed a practical procedure to estimate crop-water requirements that has become a widely accepted standard, in particular for irrigation studies. Since its publication as FAO Irrigation and Drainage Paper, new concepts and advances in research have revealed shortcomings in the methodology and made necessary a review and revision. A consultation of experts organized by FAO recommended the adoption of the Penman-Monteith combination method as a new standard for reference evapotranspiration, and advised on procedures for calculation of the various parameters. By defining the reference crop as hypothetical with an assumed height of 0.12 m, a surface resistance of 70 s m -1 and an albedo of 0.23, closely resembling the evaporation of an extensive surface of actively growing and adequately watered green grass of uniform height, the FAO Penman-Monteith method was developed, overcoming previous deficiencies and providing values more consistent with actual crop-water-use data worldwide. Furthermore, recommendations have been developed for the use of the FAO Penman-Monteith method with limited climatic data, largely eliminating the need for any other reference evapotranspiration methods and creating a consistent and transparent basis for a globally valid standard for crop-water-requirement calculations. (author)

  9. FAO's role in facilitating access to the scientific and technical literature in Agriculture in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Katz, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Research generated in developing and emerging countries is currently “missing” from the international knowledge bases because of financial consequences affecting its publication and distribution. Much of the scientific research output from Africa for example, is in form of grey literature and hardly accessible. FAO is the specialized United Nation agency that leads international efforts to defeat hunger and emphasizes on knowledge management for food and agriculture. FAO more than an extensiv...

  10. Nuclear methods in soil-plant aspects of sustainable agriculture. Proceedings of an FAO/IAEA regional seminar for Asia and the Pacific held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, 5-9 April 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The document contains 24 papers presented at the FAO/IAEA Regional Seminar for Asia and the Pacific organized by the Soil Fertility, Irrigation and Crop Production Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and agriculture and held in Colombo, Sri Lanka, between 5-9 April 1993. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. The joint FAO and IAEA programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fried, M.; Lamm, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    In 1964 the FAO and IAEA decided to establish a joint programme for the specific purpose of assisting Member States in applying nuclear techniques to develop their food and agriculture. As a result, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Isotope and Radiation Applications of Atomic Energy and Agriculture Development was established. The objectives of this joint FAO/IAEA programme are to exploit the potential of isotopes and radiation applications in research and development to increase and stabilize agriculture production, to reduce production costs, to improve the quality of food, to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses, and to minimize pollution of food and agricultural environment. The activities of the joint programme, which are briefly described, can be grouped under three main headings: co-ordination and support of research; technical assistance including training; and dissemination of information. Tables are shown giving a breakdown of 311 research contracts and agreements held with institutes in Member States and 86 technical assistance projects in 46 developing countries, providing training, expertise and specialized equipment

  12. An overview of FAO's food crop development programme for Africa - A plant breeder's perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueneman, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    While FAO employs some scientists for posts at headquarters, in its laboratory at Seibersdorf in Austria and in its field projects, FAO is not, in the conventional sense, a research organization. FAO assists its member nations providing information on matters ranging from: remote sensing, to projections on food availability to land-use-planning to extension to crop and animal production methodologies (including variety development and germplasm preservation) to marketing and processing to nutrition needs and policies. FAO is also a forum where member nations can present different opinions on regional and global needs as they relate to food, agriculture and sustainable development

  13. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth's surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  14. Atoms in the service of agriculture: 25 years of co-operation of the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-12-31

    This film displays joint FAO/IAEA co-operation in developing nuclear technology to improve methods in agriculture. The goal of these methods is to help end world hunger without destroying the environment. Such technology includes: monitoring water levels beneath the earth`s surface, improving plant varieties, enriching the soil, preserving foods, eradicating harmful insects, etc., by using isotopes and radiation techniques

  15. BiodieselFAO: An Integrated Decision Support System for Investment Analysis in the Biodiesel Production Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Galvão da Silva Júnior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the short and medium terms, biofuels are the most viable alternative to reduce the environmental impact of fossil fuels. The recent controversy over the competition between biofuels and food production increases the complexity of investment decisions in the biodiesel production chain. In this context, decision support tools are highly relevant. The purpose of this article is to describe the BiodieselFAO using the Unified Modeling Language (UML. An integrated analysis considering both agricultural and industrial sectors was identified as a key requirement to the system. Therefore, farmers and industry are the main actors in the use case diagram. As the raw material represents around 70% of the industrial cost of biodiesel production, the price negotiation of raw material (oilseeds is the central use case. Configuration, agriculture, industry, results and scenarios are the modules, which encompass the functionalities derived from the UML diagrams. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO has made the BiodieselFAO available, free of charge, to around 180 professionals from 17 Latin American countries. Additionally, the developing team has supported the usage of the BiodieselFAO in several biodiesel investment analyses throughout Latin America. The system was also useful in the design and analysis of policy related to biodiesel industry in Brazil.

  16. 50 Years of Successful Partnership: The Joint FAO/IAEA Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    October 2014 will mark the long lasting 50 years of partnership between the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and its partner in the UN system, the IAEA. Established in 1964, the objective of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture was to use the talents and resources of both organizations to broaden cooperation between their member countries in applying nuclear technology and related bio technologies to develop improved strategies for sustainable agricultural development and food security. From research laboratories to global agrarian systems, nuclear techniques play a vital and distinct role in agricultural research and advancement. They are used in a wide range of applications, from food preservation to crop production and from soil management to animal disease control. The collaborative work of the Joint Division has over the years helped countries solve practical, as well as costly, problems in a variety of areas. The work addresses the application of isotopes and radiation technology in areas such as soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; the control of food contaminants and other food safety issues; and food preservation. These activities are conceived, planned and executed only once they have been reviewed and endorsed by the IAEA’s and FAO’s governing bodies. The joint partnership has witnessed numerous successes, which if not addressed would have had disastrous worldwide implications. These successes include: • Global freedom from rinderpest • The use of mutation induction to develop crop varieties with resistance to the wheat rust disease Ug99 • The eradication of the tsetse fly in Zanzibar Island, Tanzania • The establishment of the regional analytical laboratory network for food safety • Water-saving agriculture in seven African countries For almost five decades, the activities

  17. Blue Growth: the 2014 FAO State of the World Fisheries and Aquaculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Christine M.; Cajas-Cano, Lubia

    2014-01-01

    The latest United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization report (FAO 2014) addresses the prospect of feeding a human population set to rise to 9.6 billion by 2050. Aquaculture products now provide approximately one-half of all food fish consumed, and fish also provide important food security and economic growth. In the FAO analyses, food fish included finfish, crustaceans, mollusks, amphibians, freshwater turtles, and other aquatic animals (such as sea cucumbers, sea urchins, sea squirts, and edible jellyfish) produced for human consumption. At the present time, food fish provides the world population of nearly 7.3 billion people with an average of one-fifth of total animal protein intake.

  18. Banana research in the FAO/IAEA agriculture and biotechnology laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morpurgo, R.; Afza, R.; Brunner, H.; Roux, N.; Grasso, G.; Lee, K.S.; Duren, M. Van; Zapata-Arias, F.J.

    1997-01-01

    The primary activity of the Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory on banana has been to develop and transfer mutation techniques using nuclear and related biotechnology, provide training and mutagen treatment services and technical advice to the Member States. The complex genetic nature and lack of seed formation do not allow conventional breeding of Musa varieties. The FAO/IAEA laboratory has developed in vitro techniques to induce mutations, minimize chimerisms, and rapid propagation of banana. The most commonly used method of propagation is rapid proliferation of axillary and adventitious buds from meristem tip culture. Somatic embryogenesis has been induced in clones with different genomic constitution; however, the low germination rate of somatic embryos is still a major constraint. Investigations have been carried out on enzymes associated with resistance to Fusarium oxisporum f. sp. cubense. Molecular methods based on DNA oligonucleotide and DNA amplification fingerprinting are being developed for genomic characterization of species, cultivars and mutant clones. (author)

  19. Banana research in the FAO/IAEA agriculture and biotechnology laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morpurgo, R; Afza, R; Brunner, H; Roux, N; Grasso, G; Lee, K S; Duren, M Van; Zapata-Arias, F J [Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, International Atomic Energy Agency, Seibersdorf (Austria)

    1997-07-01

    The primary activity of the Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory on banana has been to develop and transfer mutation techniques using nuclear and related biotechnology, provide training and mutagen treatment services and technical advice to the Member States. The complex genetic nature and lack of seed formation do not allow conventional breeding of Musa varieties. The FAO/IAEA laboratory has developed in vitro techniques to induce mutations, minimize chimerisms, and rapid propagation of banana. The most commonly used method of propagation is rapid proliferation of axillary and adventitious buds from meristem tip culture. Somatic embryogenesis has been induced in clones with different genomic constitution; however, the low germination rate of somatic embryos is still a major constraint. Investigations have been carried out on enzymes associated with resistance to Fusarium oxisporum f. sp. cubense. Molecular methods based on DNA oligonucleotide and DNA amplification fingerprinting are being developed for genomic characterization of species, cultivars and mutant clones. (author).

  20. Comparative Performance Evaluation of the Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) ... Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike Umuahia. Abia State. Nigeria ... part of Nigeria, with specific interest in extension services delivery within the period 2006-2008. Purpose of the ...

  1. World Reference Base | FAO SOILS PORTAL | Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Soil classification > World Reference Base FAO SOILS PORTAL Survey Assessment Biodiversity Management Degradation/Restoration Policies/Governance Publications Soil properties Soil classification World Soil Maps and Databases World Reference Base Dominant soils of the world The World Reference Base (WRB

  2. FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories. Activities Report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-02-01

    Almost two thirds of the world's farm population is raised in developing countries where livestock production constitutes an important resource for the subsistence of more than 70% of the impoverished people living there. Animals represent an essential source of protein and contribute to the economic development of these countries and to overall food security. However, production losses caused by animal diseases, estimated to be around 20% worldwide, have huge negative impact on livestock productivity. The Animal Production and Health Laboratory (APHL), within the Animal Production and Health Section, conducts applied research activities to develop diagnostic tools and assists in the transfer of these tools to FAO and IAEA Member States in their efforts to improve livestock productivity, ensure food security and fight against hunger. The aims of the Food and Environmental Protection Laboratory (FEPL), as a component of the Food and Environmental Protection (FEP) Section, are to provide assistance and support to developing countries in their efforts to ensure the safety and quality of food and agricultural commodities, thereby safeguarding the health of consumers and facilitating international trade. The focus of the FEPL's work is on improving Member States' laboratory and regulatory practices and methodologies, The main areas of activity in pursuit of the FEPL objectives are applied R and D, technology transfer and support of the development of international standards and guidelines. The Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL) is an integral part of the Insect Pest Control Section and contributes to its global objectives of increasing food security, reducing food losses and insecticide use, overcoming constraints to sustainable rural development, and facilitating international trade in agriculture commodities. The IPCL achieves these goals through the development and transfer of the sterile insect technique (SIT) package for key insect pests of crops, livestock and

  3. Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough: The FAO and IAEA Crack the Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Aabha

    2014-01-01

    With the breakthrough in sequencing the genome of the tsetse fly species Glossina morsitans in April 2014, another milestone has been achieved in helping to solve a problem that has had horrendous ramifications for Africa. Finding a solution to the havoc created by tsetse flies to livestock has been a major challenge for the combined scientific efforts of the IAEA and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), as well as for the World Health Organization (WHO), which has focused on combating human sleeping sickness. Joint research over the past decades to block the spread of severe infection from tsetse flies resulted in the introduction by the FAO and IAEA of the environmentally friendly sterile insect technique (SIT), a biologically-based method for the management of key insect pests of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance. A form of insect birth control, the SIT involves releasing mass-bred male flies that have been sterilized by low doses of radiation into infested areas, where they mate with wild females. These do not produce offspring and, as a result, the technique can suppress and, if applied systematically on an area-wide basis, eventually eradicate populations of wild flies. The newly acquired knowledge of the tsetse fly genome provides a wealth of information for the improvement of the entire SIT package and can help unravel interactions between tsetse flies, symbionts and trypanosomes. The decoding of the genome was detailed in a press release issued by the IAEA on 24 April 2014 entitled Tsetse Fly Genome Breakthrough Brings Hope for African Farmers. Tsetse flies were successfully eradicated in 1997 from the Tanzanian island of Zanzibar using the SIT. Ethiopia and Senegal are making significant progress in infested areas with the same method. The FAO and IAEA are helping 14 countries control tsetse populations through applying area-wide integrated pest management approaches

  4. Estimating soil water-holding capacities by linking the Food and Agriculture Organization Soil map of the world with global pedon databases and continuous pedotransfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Jackson, T. J.; Rawls, W. J.

    2000-12-01

    Spatial soil water-holding capacities were estimated for the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) digital Soil Map of the World (SMW) by employing continuous pedotransfer functions (PTF) within global pedon databases and linking these results to the SMW. The procedure first estimated representative soil properties for the FAO soil units by statistical analyses and taxotransfer depth algorithms [Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 1996]. The representative soil properties estimated for two layers of depths (0-30 and 30-100 cm) included particle-size distribution, dominant soil texture, organic carbon content, coarse fragments, bulk density, and porosity. After representative soil properties for the FAO soil units were estimated, these values were substituted into three different pedotransfer functions (PTF) models by Rawls et al. [1982], Saxton et al. [1986], and Batjes [1996a]. The Saxton PTF model was finally selected to calculate available water content because it only required particle-size distribution data and results closely agreed with the Rawls and Batjes PTF models that used both particle-size distribution and organic matter data. Soil water-holding capacities were then estimated by multiplying the available water content by the soil layer thickness and integrating over an effective crop root depth of 1 m or less (i.e., encountered shallow impermeable layers) and another soil depth data layer of 2.5 m or less.

  5. Assessment of land use change in the coterminous United States and Alaska for global assessment of forest loss conducted by the food and agricultural organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanushree Biswas; Mike Walterman; Paul Maus; Kevin A. Megown; Sean P. Healey; Kenneth Brewer

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations conducted a global assessment for forest change in 2010 using satellite imagery from 1990, 2000, and 2005. The U.S. Forest Service was responsible for assessing forest change in the United States. A polygon-based, stratified sampling design developed by FAO was used to assess change in forest area...

  6. Utilization and management of organic wastes in Chinese agriculture: Past, present and perspectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU; Xiaotang

    2005-01-01

    [1]King,F.H.,Farmers of forty centuries or permanent agriculture in China,Korea and Japan,German translation of first edition (Madison,Wis.,1911),1984.Georg,E.,Siebeneicher,Neu-Ulm und München,208.[2]FAO,FAO Soils Bulletin 40,China:Recycling of organic wastes in agriculture,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Rome,2nd ed.,1978.[3]Roelcke,M.,Organic materials in rice production in the Yangtze River Delta-Investigation on the composition and effects of Waterlogged Compost (in German with English abstract),University Diploma Dissertation,Faculty of Agriculture and Horticulture,Freising-Weihenstephan:Munich Technical University,1988,114.[4]Zhu,Z.L.,Chen,D.L.,Nitrogen fertilizer use in China-Contributions to food production,impacts on the environment and best management strategies,Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems,2002,63:117-127.[5]Ju,X.T.,Liu,X.J.,Zhang,F.S.et al,Nitrogen fertilization,soil nitrate accumulation,and policy recommendations in several agricultural regions of China,Ambio,2004,33(6):300-305.[6]Extension Center of Agricultural Techniques in China,ed.,Organic Manure Resources in China,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1999,1-8.[7]Cao,L.G.,The Fertilization History,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1981.[8]Liu,G.L.,Food production and balanced fertilization in China,in Proceeding of Third International Conference for Balanced Fertilization (ed.Institute of Soil Science and Fertilization,Chinese Academic of Agricultural Science),Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1989,16-21.[9]China Agricultural Yearbook,Editorial Committee of China Agricultural Yearbook,Beijing:China Agricultural Publishing House,1950 - 2003[10]Ellis,E.C.,Wang,S.M.,Sustainable traditional agriculture in the Tai Lake Region of China,Agriculture,Ecosystems and Environment,1997,61,177-193.[11]Ge,J.X.,The History of Chinese Population,Shanghai:Fudan University Publishing House,2001,5:831 - 832.[12]Zhang,S.X.,The Resources of Cultivable Land and

  7. Delivery Strategies to Enhance the Sustainability of Training: Lessons from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rosa, Cecilia; Nadeau, Andrew; Hernandez, Emilio; Kafeero, Fred; Zahiga, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) utilizes training as a major component of the support it provides to its member countries in Africa. In the past, stand-alone training events targeting individual actors were the norm. However, an external evaluation indicated that this type of training scores low in terms of…

  8. Main achievements of the World Organisation for Animal Health/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization network on animal influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Hamilton, Keith; Kim, L Mia; Choudhury, Bhudipa; Capua, Ilaria; Edwards, Steve

    2010-03-01

    The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)/United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) joint network of expertise on animal influenza (OFFLU) includes all ten OIE/FAO reference laboratories and collaborating centers for avian influenza, other diagnostic laboratories, research and academic institutions, and experts in the fields of virology, epidemiology, vaccinology, and molecular biology. OFFLU has made significant progress in improving its infrastructure, in identifying and addressing technical gaps, and in establishing associations among leading veterinary institutions. Interaction with the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Influenza Program is also critical, and mechanisms for permanent interaction are being developed. OFFLU played a key role in the WHO/OIE/FAO Joint Technical Consultation held in Verona (October 7-9, 2008), which provided an opportunity to highlight and share knowledge and identify potential gaps regarding issues at the human-animal interface for avian influenza. OFFLU experts also contributed to the working group for the Unified Nomenclature System for H5N1 influenza viruses based on hemagglutinin gene phylogeny (WHO/OIE/FAO, H5N1 Evolution Working Group, Towards a unified nomenclature system for highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (H5N1) in Emerging Infectious Diseases 14:el, 2008). OFFLU technical activities, led by expert scientists from OIE/FAO reference institutions and coordinated by OIE and FAO focal points, have been prioritized to include commercial diagnostic kit evaluation, applied epidemiology, biosafety, vaccination, proficiency testing, development of standardized reference materials for sera and RNA, and issues at the human-animal interface. The progress to date and future plans for these groups will be presented. OFFLU is also involved in two national projects implemented by FAO in Indonesia and Egypt that seek to establish sustainable mechanisms for monitoring virus circulation, including viral

  9. Perceived Effect of Agricultural Transformation Agenda on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), CABI and Scopus .... from 1990. The problem was compounded by high cost of labour, inputs, supply of .... increase yield, profit maximization, increase income and poverty reduction. This study ...

  10. Constraints and Strategies for Improving Agricultural Intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. MADUKWE

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) ... programmes such as the National Accelerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP-. 1973), River Basin .... farm inputs, high cost of labour, unavailability of agro chemicals, high cost of agro chemicals, poor fadama access roads, lack of credit facilities and low productivity. Slow ...

  11. The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production. Report of the FAO/IAEA consultants meeting. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'The assessment of soil conservation technologies for sustainable agricultural production' was held in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from May 28-30, 2001. The consultants' presentations reviewed recent advances in the use of fallout radionuclides to measure soil erosion as well as approaches and technologies applied for soil conservation worldwide. Also, activities and experiences of FAO and UNEP in the field of land degradation, soil conservation and related issues were presented. Based on the information provided by the Scientific Secretary, a full project proposal was prepared during the second part of the Consultants' Meeting. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of a future CRP on the subject

  12. Agricultural biotechnologies in developing countries and their possible contribution to food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruane, John; Sonnino, Andrea

    2011-12-20

    Latest FAO figures indicate that an estimated 925 million people are undernourished in 2010, representing almost 16% of the population in developing countries. Looking to the future, there are also major challenges ahead from the rapidly changing socio-economic environment (increasing world population and urbanisation, and dietary changes) and climate change. Promoting agriculture in developing countries is the key to achieving food security, and it is essential to act in four ways: to increase investment in agriculture, broaden access to food, improve governance of global trade, and increase productivity while conserving natural resources. To enable the fourth action, the suite of technological options for farmers should be as broad as possible, including agricultural biotechnologies. Agricultural biotechnologies represent a broad range of technologies used in food and agriculture for the genetic improvement of plant varieties and animal populations, characterisation and conservation of genetic resources, diagnosis of plant or animal diseases and other purposes. Discussions about agricultural biotechnology have been dominated by the continuing controversy surrounding genetic modification and its resulting products, genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The polarised debate has led to non-GMO biotechnologies being overshadowed, often hindering their development and application. Extensive documentation from the FAO international technical conference on Agricultural Biotechnologies in Developing Countries (ABDC-10), that took place in Guadalajara, Mexico, on 1-4 March 2010, gave a very good overview of the many ways that different agricultural biotechnologies are being used to increase productivity and conserve natural resources in the crop, livestock, fishery, forestry and agro-industry sectors in developing countries. The conference brought together about 300 policy-makers, scientists and representatives of intergovernmental and international non

  13. Establishment of external quality assurance procedures with FAO/IAEA ELISA kits. Report of an FAO/IAEA consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As part of the programme of support to scientists in developing countries, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has developed and distributed ELISA kits for detecting both the causative agent and the immune response of animals to a number of the major diseases affecting livestock. In many cases these kits are now being used as part of national and international control and/or eradication programmes (e.g. for rinderpest, trypanosomosis, foot and mouth disease, brucellosis) and are likely to form the basis for establishing a country's freedom from particular diseases (e.g. rinderpest) at the national and international level. To further encourage international trade in livestock and livestock products, and to assist in the regional or global control and eradication of a number of the major diseases affecting livestock, there has been a strong move towards international standardization for animal disease diagnosis. Central to this is the need for internal and external quality assurance procedures to ensure that a standardized approach is being adhered to and that the results can be relied upon. In 1992, an FAO/IAEA consultants meeting was convened to define and establish for the ELISA, standards for internal quality control of reagents and procedures and for the expression of results. The recommendations of that meeting have now been incorporated in all FAO/IAEA ELISA kits and have been adopted by the OIE (Office International des Epizooties). The primary function of the internal quality controls is to ensure that the assay is performing within defined limits. Equally important, is an assurance to all outside interested bodies (national veterinary authorities, international organizations, donor organizations, trading partners) that the results being provided by a laboratory are valid. The procedures for ascertaining this assurance would form the basis of an external quality assurance programme (EQAP). Between 1990 and 1993, as part of establishing an EQAP, laboratories using

  14. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  15. The FAO/IAEA External Quality Assurance Programme (EQAP) and movement towards a generic veterinary diagnostic testing laboratory accreditation scheme. Report of an FAO/IAEA consultants meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    establish a network of national veterinary diagnostic testing laboratories that are recognized for their achievements in establishing QA systems and their proficiency in the use of specific diagnostic assays. This network would facilitate the exchange of epidemiological information and, in the current atmosphere of international and regional trade agreements, provide a greater opportunity to increase the share of developing countries in the international trade of livestock and livestock products. In February 1998, a Consultants' Meeting was convened to consider the design, impact, and proposals for future implementation of the current FAO/IAEA EQAP for Animal Disease Diagnosis and make recommendations with regard to its central purposes and future direction. In addition, the Consultants considered the broader question of a generic QA 'accreditation' scheme for veterinary diagnostic testing laboratories that could be made available through international, regional, or national organizations as appropriate to the country of interest. This broader discussion was stimulated by the fact that few developed and no developing countries have nationally organized schemes to measure and recognize the QA systems and technical competence of veterinary diagnostic testing laboratories, but that such a scheme is of vital importance to the quality of policy decisions and actions taken on national animal health issues and the international trade of livestock and livestock commodities. It followed that, in the Subprogramme's role as a Collaborating Centre to the Office International Epizooties (OIE, or World Animal Health Organization), it would be appropriate to consider the FAO/IAEA EQAP within the broader scope of an international scheme for veterinary diagnostic laboratory accreditation for two reasons: 1) to use information learned through the design and implementation of the FAO/IAEA EQAP to assist in the appropriate development of an international scheme and 2) to ensure that the FAO

  16. New Seeds are Resistant to Wheat Stem Rust (Ug99) Multinational Programme Supported by FAO and IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Full text: A multinational effort supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization marked a key milestone this week when a Kenyan university debuted two new varieties of disease-resistant wheat to the nation's farmers. Over the past two days, thousands of Kenyan farmers have visited Eldoret University in western Kenya for a two-day agriculture fair highlighting the latest farming technologies. Supporting the development of the new varieties were the IAEA's Technical Cooperation Department and the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. They manage an interregional Technical Cooperation project to develop varieties of wheat that are resistant to a devastating type of fungus, causing a disease known as wheat stem rust. Wheat stem rust under control for over 30 years, but a resurgence of the disease was discovered in 1999 in Uganda that swiftly spread to neighbouring Kenya. The wheat stem rust, caused by the strain of the fungus known as Ug99, named after its place and year of origin, has since spread to Iran, Yemen and South Africa and threatens crops as far away as India as spores are carried by wind. Parasitic rusts threaten global wheat production, reducing plant growth and crop yields. The disease can destroy up to 70-100 percent of the yield of wheat crop if not prevented. 'Improving food security in developing countries through the use of nuclear techniques is an important priority of the IAEA', said IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. 'I am pleased that we have been able to make an important contribution to fighting wheat rust'. 'Wheat rusts, particularly the Ug99 strain, are a major threat to food security because rust epidemics can result in devastating yield losses. This international project involving affected countries, plant scientists and breeders and international organizations is a major breakthrough. It clearly shows the benefits of FAO/IAEA collaboration and that

  17. Journal of Agricultural Extension Vol. 17 (1) June, 2013 ISSN 1119 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Onyii Ogbonna

    potential of rural women as agents of change for climate mitigation and ... women play a leadership role in early warning systems and reconstruction. Women ... According to the Food and Agricultural Organization(FAO) (2007), women and men ..... about Climate Change Risk Perceptions and Willingness to Sacrifice, Risk.

  18. 15 years in promoting the use of isotopic and nuclear technique for combating land degradation and soil erosion: the contribution of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, Lionel; Toloza, Arsenio; Heng, Lee

    2017-04-01

    The world population will exceed 9 billion by the year 2050 and food production will need to be approximately doubled to meet this crucial demand. Most of this increase will occur in developing countries, where the majority of the population depends on agriculture and their land for their livelihoods. Reports from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted negative impact of climate change, threatening global food security. In addition, the intensification of agricultural activities has increased pressure on land and water resources, resulting in different forms of soil degradation, of which soil erosion and associated sedimentation are worsening. Worldwide economic costs of agricultural soil loss and associated sedimentation downstream have been estimated at US 400 billion per year. As a result of climate change, world average soil erosion is expected to further increase significantly. Adapting to climate change requires agricultural soil and water management practices that make agricultural production systems resilient to drought, floods and land degradation, to enhance the conservation of the natural resource base for sustainable upland farming. These current concerns with ensuring sustainable use and management of agroecosystems create an urgent need for reliable quantitative data on the extent and magnitude of soil resource degradation over several spatial and time scales to formulate sound policies and management measures. Integrated isotopic approaches can help in targeting adapted and effective soil-water conservation measures to control soil degradation and therefore contribute to positive feedback mechanisms to mitigate climate change impact on soil and water resources. Set up 60 years ago as the world's centre for cooperation in the nuclear field, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) promotes the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Since the end of the 1990s, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear

  19. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2015

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    The study examined the costs and return analysis in rubber latex production ... training of rubber farmers in the area of management practices in rubber ... According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Nigeria natural ... costs and return in rubber latex production as well as to estimate the profit. .... maximization.

  20. [Overview of organic agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hong Jun; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-04-22

    This paper introduced the concepts of organic agriculture as defined by different international organizations, origin and theoretical development of organic agriculture, as well as its developing trajectory in China (i.e. a late start followed by rapid growth compared to developed countries). The differences between domestic and international organic agriculture were illustrated by scale, crop types, production standards, inputs and planting techniques. Constraints limiting improvements to organic agriculture in aspects of standards, technology, marketing, certification, environmental pollution, enterprise reputation, and national policies were discussed. Future directions and strategies for developing healthy organic agriculture in China were provided.

  1. An Evaluation of Forest Road Standards and Road Gradients in Turkey in View of FAO Criteria and Some EU Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Çağlar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Forest roads are one of the inevitable infrastructures in conducting forestry operations. Around 1000 km under standardized forest roads have been largely repaired in addition to construction of 1000 km new forest roads in Turkey. Implementing uniform road gradient along the road sections is very important in terms of transportation techniques and safety, as well as the geometrical standardizations of the forest road. In this study, current road standards, longitudinal gradient values and their limitations in forest road constructions recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO and some Europe Union (EU countries were examined. Firstly, the forest road standards and their gradient values have been defined in Turkish forest road construction practices. Afterwards, the forest road standards and the gradient values applied by FAO and some EU countries were presented, and finally, the specifications were examined by comparing them with the current practices in Turkish forestry.

  2. Linked Data for Fighting Global Hunger:Experiences in setting standards for Agricultural Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Thomas; Keizer, Johannes

    FAO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN, has the global goal to defeat hunger and eliminate poverty. One of its core functions is the generation, dissemination and application of information and knowledge. Since 2000, the Agricultural InformationManagement Standards (AIMS) activity in FAO's Knowledge Exchange and Capacity Building Division has promoted the use of Semantic Web standards to improve information sharing within a global network of research institutes and related partner organizations. The strategy emphasizes the use of simple descriptive metadata, thesauri, and ontologies for integrating access to information from a wide range of sources for both scientific and non-expert audiences. An early adopter of Semantic Web technology, the AIMS strategy is evolving to help information providers in nineteen language areas use modern Linked Data methods to improve the quality of life in developing rural areas, home to seventy percent of the world's poor and hungry people.

  3. Panel discussion: UN agencies response to challenges related to the management of MAM. Abstract from Ellen Muehlhoff (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehlhoff, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Promoting agriculture and food-based solutions to alleviate hunger and malnutrition is a major aim of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Interventions that focus on optimal nutrition during the first two years of life are recognized as essential in order to capitalize on the window of opportunity for preventing undernutrition and building healthy and productive future lives. FAO has been promoting improved complementary feeding for children 6-23 months by empowering rural families to enrich young children’s diets using local foods. Working through government health and agricultural extension systems, FAO promotes practical hands-on learning approaches that aim at behavior change in family and young child feeding. The trials of improved practices (TIPs) method is used to provide a comprehensive assessment of current dietary practices and to test feasible culturally acceptable solutions and behaviours with caregivers in a real home environment. Through farmer field schools and community-based demonstrations, households learn how to: 1) grow different nutrient dense crops; 2) raise small livestock to improve family and children’s diets, and generate income; 3) select and prepare nutritious complementary food, including indigenous food, based on taste, seasonal availability and price; 4) incorporate fruit and other healthy snacks into children’s diets; 5) feed age appropriate quantities of complementary food to children and continue breastfeeding; and 6) practice improved hygiene and sanitation. None of these actions are intuitive and frequently require learning of new knowledge and practical hands-on skills. Recognizing that good eating habits are learnt during the early years, good complementary feeding can form a basis for lifelong healthy eating patterns and may prevent the onset of diet-related diseases in the future. Few studies have documented the impact of promoting locally available food on children’s diets, nutritional status and

  4. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agricultu......, - environmental impact and nature, - potentials of organic farming, - community, consumer and market, and - policy and financial strategies.......The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  5. Calibration and evaluation of the FAO56-Penman-Monteith, FAO24-radiation, and Priestly-Taylor reference evapotranspiration models using the spatially measured solar radiation across a large arid and semi-arid area in southern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didari, Shohreh; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid

    2018-05-01

    Crop evapotranspiration (ET) is one of the main components in calculating the water balance in agricultural, hydrological, environmental, and climatological studies. Solar radiation (Rs) supplies the available energy for ET, and therefore, precise measurement of Rs is required for accurate ET estimation. However, measured Rs and ET and are not available in many areas and they should be estimated indirectly by the empirical methods. The Angström-Prescott (AP) is the most popular method for estimating Rs in areas where there are no measured data. In addition, the locally calibrated coefficients of AP are not yet available in many locations, and instead, the default coefficients are used. In this study, we investigated different approaches for Rs and ET calculations. The daily measured Rs values in 14 stations across arid and semi-arid areas of Fars province in south of Iran were used for calibrating the coefficients of the AP model. Results revealed that the calibrated AP coefficients were very different and higher than the default values. In addition, the reference ET (ET o ) was estimated by the FAO56 Penman-Monteith (FAO56 PM) and FAO24-radiation methods by using the measured Rs and were then compared with the measured pan evaporation as an indication of the potential atmospheric demand. Interestingly and unlike many previous studies, which have suggested the FAO56 PM as the standard method in calculation of ET o , the FAO24-radiation with the measured Rs showed better agreement with the mean pan evaporation. Therefore, the FAO24-radiation with the measured Rs was used as the reference method for the study area, which was also confirmed by the previous studies based on the lysimeter data. Moreover, the accuracy of calibrated Rs in the estimation of ET o by the FAO56 PM and FAO24-radiation was investigated. Results showed that the calibrated Rs improved the accuracy of the estimated ET o by the FAO24-radiation compared with the FAO24-radiation using the measured

  6. Adherence to the Food and Agricultural Organization guidelines on trypanocide usage among cattle farmers in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbewe, Njelembo J; Sitali, Lungowe; Namangala, Boniface; Michelo, Charles

    2015-04-15

    Trypanocides will continue to play an important role in the control of tsetse fly transmitted trypanosomosis now and in the near future. The drugs are mostly administered by farmers without any veterinary supervision leading to misuse and under dosing of medication, and these could be factors that promote trypanocidal drug resistance (TDR) development. In order to delay or prevent TDR, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) recommended guidelines on trypanocide use. It is not known if these recommended guidelines are adhered to in Itezhi tezhi district of Zambia. A survey was undertaken to examine how socio-economic and environmental factors were associated with adherence to the recommended guidelines on trypanocide use in Itezhi tezhi, Central Zambia. Ninety farmers who use trypanocides were interviewed using a questionnaire to collect their socio-economic characteristics (age, education in years, cattle herd size, competence on trypanocide use and their access to extension on trypanocide use) and trypanocide usage practices while crush pens which they use were stratified according to location, whether in the Game Management Area (GMA) (Mutenda, Itumbi, Kapulwe and Banachoongo) or non-GMA (Iyanda, New Ngoma and Shinampamba) as an environmental factor. Associations and measures of associations to adherence of FAO guidelines were determined. The results showed that 25.6% of the farmers adhered to guidelines by FAO on trypanocide use and that none of the socio-economic factors under investigation were significantly associated with it. Further the farmers that used crush pens that were in the GMA had an 80% reduction in the likelihood of adhering to the FAO guidelines on trypanocide use than those that used crush pens in the non-GMA (AOR 0.20, 95% CI: 0.05-0.81, P=0.02). There was low adherence to the recommended FAO guidelines on trypanocide use and it was associated with the location of the crush pen whether in the GMA or not, as an environmental factor. With

  7. IAEA and FAO Honour Achievements in Radiation-Supported Plant Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Awards honouring teams of scientists who have helped increase food security by using radiation to breed better crop varieties were presented today by IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano. Mutation breeding, which uses radiation to mimic natural plant mutation events, is a well-established method that enables plant breeders to work with farmers to develop variations of rice, barley, sesame and other crops that are higher-yielding and more resistant to disease. The awards were initiated by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture to celebrate successes achieved so far and promote the development of further sustainable crop varieties. The Joint Division - a strategic partnership between the IAEA and the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization that is celebrating its 50th anniversary this year - supports countries in their use of the method. ''Through the use of plant mutation breeding, nuclear techniques help to create new strains of plants with characteristics that allow them to resist disease and thrive under harsh conditions, such as high altitudes and saline soils,'' Director General Amano said at an award ceremony at the IAEA headquarters, where he handed certificates to representatives of the countries of award recipients. ''The development of new varieties of food crops will be increasingly important in the future as the world tries to adapt to the potential impacts of climate change.''

  8. Feasibility study on the FAO chicken microsatellite panel to assess genetic variability in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Colombo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the feasibility of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO microsatellite panel developed for chickens to assess genetic variability in turkeys. Genomic DNA was extracted from a total of 37 blood samples collected from turkey of different breeds [15 Brianzolo (BR; 12 Colli Euganei (EU; 10 Nero d’Italia (NI], and all 31 chicken microsatellite markers recommended by the FAO were tested. The results show that 22 chicken markers out of 31 suggested by FAO guidelines can be applied to turkey populations. In particular, the multiplex groups confirmed in the turkey were the Multiplex Master Mix 1 (ADL0268, ADL0278, LEI0094, MCW0216, MCW0248 and the Master Mix 2 (MCW0034, MCW0069, MCW0081, MCW0222, MCW0295, whereas 13 microsatellites were amplified only under single polymerase chain reaction (PCR conditions. No PCR products were obtained for 9 markers (LEI0166, MCW0020, MCW0078, MCW0080, MCW0104, MCW0123, MCW0248, MCW0284 and MCW0330, which is 29% of the total markers used. A panel of 22 markers was used to assess genetic diversity in three turkey breeds and a total number of 63 alleles were found. Observed (Ho and expected (He heterozygosity and polymorphism information content (PIC values for each microsatellite and the relative mean values were also calculated. The mean values were 0.210, 0.250, 0.203 for Ho; 0.301, 0.348, 0.228 for He; and 0.265, 0.313, 0.199 for PIC in NI, BR and EU, respectively.

  9. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...

  10. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases.

  11. The FAO/IAEA Partnership for Food Security: Food Safety and Quality Networks in Latin America and the Caribbean, Mexico City, 3 March 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasanya, James; Maestroni, Britt

    2016-01-01

    The side event on “The FAO-IAEA Partnership for Food Security: Food Safety and Quality Networks in Latin America and the Caribbean” took place in Mexico City, on 3rd March 2016 on the occasion of the 34th FAO Regional Conference for Latin America (LAC). The side event helped raise the awareness of stakeholders and decision makers about the benefits of partnership between the FAO/IAEA and Member States in Latin America and the Caribbean to improve food safety and food security in the region. The IAEA and its Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture supports Member State laboratories and institutions in the area of food safety and quality in Latin America and the Caribbean. For instance, capacity is built and an analytical network of laboratories initiated by transferring relevant technologies, strengthening laboratory functionality and competence through the procurement and supply of relevant equipment, analytical standards, reference materials and the facilitation of proficiency tests.

  12. Organic Agriculture in Middle European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Šiljković

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, organic agriculture in the Central European countries has experienced significant changes, especially in the transitional countries of the Eastern part of the region. This artical studies the position and development of the organic food comparing the agricultures in the western market and former communist countries. It is distinctive for the whole region that there is an interest of the state policy for stimulating the organic agriculture, aspecially in the areas where share is a large number of unemployed people due to the privatisation proces in industry. The organic type of cattle – raising is a represented branch of agriculture while the activities which demand more investments and working hours (horticulture and viticulture are poorly developed. The aim is to bring more biological varieties in the concept of organic agriculture and preserving the naturally protected areas. Therefore the organic agriculture is fregmently introduced as the only acceptable way of the food production in the areas of buffer zones and national parks preserving the autochthonism of the plants and animals in that way encouraging the development of agroeco-tourism.

  13. Characteristics and parameters of family poultry production in Africa. Results of a FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to promote the use of nuclear techniques for improving disease diagnosis and monitoring disease control programmes in order to optimise animal production in developing countries. An applied research programme was initiated in 1998 with funding from the Regular Budget to promote farmyard poultry production in Africa by developing practical vaccination strategies against Newcastle disease and Gumboro disease in various countries in Africa and monitoring immunity using an ELISA technique. Following initial discussions with experts from various universities and FAO it became clear that in order to improve farmyard poultry production effectively it was essential to initiate a holistic approach. Consequently, it was decided to first collect production data of the existing situation in a standardised fashion, subsequently analyse the production constraints and finally initiate interventions not only by vaccinating poultry but also by introducing improvements in housing, feeding and commercialisation. At the same time a practical and robust ELISA test for detecting antibodies against Newcastle disease was developed at the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria. The results of the standardised survey to collect production data of the current situation are reported in the present publication together with an analysis of production constraints, a number of review articles on family poultry production in Africa and a comparative analysis of the results from the various countries

  14. The roots of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    It was concern about the replacement of traditional organic fertilizers by the then new chemical fertilizers that precipitated the early stirrings of disquiet about the prevailing direction of agriculture and which has grown into today’s organic agriculture movement. Unease about the issue of synthetic fertilizers preceded the current era of concerns about manufactured nanomaterials in food and farming, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), antibiotic-fattened farm animals, and synthetic pes...

  15. Post-Chernobyl scientific perspectives: Agricultural countermeasures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    One of the lessons of Chernobyl is that farming is vulnerable to the effects of a nuclear accident hundreds, even thousands, of miles away from the site. Therefore plans are needed for countermeasures that can reduce contamination of agricultural produce, regardless of whether or not a country has its own nuclear programme. The plans need to specify radiation levels for foods and feedstuffs at which intervention is necessary and to include a range of countermeasures to be taken to protect agriculture under a range of possible post-accident situations. The FAO/WHO Codes Alimentarius Commission has developed international standards for radionuclides contamination to be applied to food moving in international trade. The intervention levels are based on a number of conservative assumptions to be confident that there will be essentially no effect over a lifetime of exposure. An important purpose of agricultural countermeasures is to maximize the quantity of food produced which passes intervention criteria. The present report discusses how the Joint FAO/IAEA programme on nuclear techniques in food and agriculture has approached agricultural countermeasures

  16. Environmental marketing within organic agriculture system management

    OpenAIRE

    O. Shkuratov; V. Kyporenko

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with economic content of environmental marketing in the management system organic agriculture that allows operators of organic market to effectively plan the production of organic agricultural products and ensure the optimal balance between social and economic indicators throughout the life cycle of the product. Structural-logical scheme on the formation of environmentally oriented motivation of organic agricultural products consumer behavior has been grounded.

  17. Comparison of Biodynamic and Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Çakır

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern agricultural applications contain various biologic physical and chemical process steps to maximize the durability and fertility of the products. Because of the apprehensions that come out as a result of increase in usage of chemical input in these processes, some alternative concepts have been come to exist for modern agricultural applications. Even these approaches match with traditional applications, they differ by their some outstanding features. By the help of industrial devolution in 18TH century, the increasing popularity and global warming caused the people to notice the ecologic deformation on the earth and accordingly saving the ecology and the earth became one of the main topics of current issues. The biodynamic agriculture system is founded in 1924 by Rudolf Steiner (philosopher and E. Pfeiffer (agronomist and built on an anthropologic theory that based on human-nature-universe concept. Biodynamic agriculture is familiar with organic agriculture. Mainly both of them are originated by oppositional perspective on using chemical input (manure, pesticide, herbicide, hormone e.g.. The main dissimilitude of biodynamic agriculture with organic apart from philosophical and historical aspects is, using the biodynamic preparations includes some minerals or specific herbs those are fermented with animal organs. In this review study, the differences between organic and biodynamic agriculture are analysed by emphasizing the main advantages of biodynamic agriculture.

  18. DYNAMICS OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra MUSCĂNESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the beginning of the 1990’s, organic agriculture in the UK has expanded rapidly, in the middle of the year 2003 it represented 4% of the agricultural surface with around 4000 farms, managing almost 720.000 hectares. This growth was brought by the consumers and decisional factors which see organic agriculture as a contribution to environment, social and nutritional welfare purposes. This is one of the sustainable food production strategies; another being the integrated agriculture, a less restrictive option for the farmers. The most recent national statistics presented by DEFRA (The Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs on organic farming were published in July of 2012. These present information gathered throughout 2011 for organic crops and livestock in the UK and the number of organic producers/processors registered with the Organic Certification Bodies in Great Britain.

  19. Atoms for Food and Nutrition: Application of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esilaba, A.O.

    2017-01-01

    KALRO is a corporate body created under the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Act of 2013 to establish suitable legal and institutional frameworks for coordination of agricultural research in Kenya. It promote, streamline, co-ordinate and regulate research in crops, livestock, genetic resources and biotechnology and animal diseases. To expedite equitable access to research information, resources and technologies and promote the application of research findings and developed technologies in the field of agriculture and livestock. FAO's report identifies 15 trends and 10 challenges affecting the world's food systems. There are 10 key challenges that need to be addressed if we are to succeed in eradicating hunger and poverty, while making agriculture and food systems sustainable (FAO, 2017). Empowering small-scale farmers and providing them better access to information, markets and technologies is key to ensuring future food security. The mission of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to support and promote the safe and appropriate use of nuclear and related technologies by the FAO/IAEA member states in food and agriculture, with the aim to contribute to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world, especially to global food security and sustainable agricultural development.Isotopic techniques are employed to monitor foods for contamination with agrochemicals -optimizing sample preparation by radioisotopes -detecting contaminant by electron capture detector. Both stable and radioactive isotopes can be used as tracers in soil and water management & crop nutrition. Through collaboration with IAEA, KALRO is now the center in Africa where new drip irrigation technologies are being evaluated. KALRO partners with IAEA to host fellowship training for scientists and technicians from African region on soil and water management, efficient irrigation technologies and nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency. There is need for

  20. What makes organic agriculture move: protest, meaning or market?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrøe, Hugo; Noe, Egon

    2008-01-01

    Many different actors have hopes and aspirations for the future of organic agriculture. They have different perspectives on organic agriculture with different understandings of what it is and what makes it move. Each perspective entails a certain understanding of organic agriculture featuring...... certain concepts and values and a particular logic or rationality. It is important to acknowledge this heterogeneity when investigating the dynamics and governance of organic agriculture. We suggest a polyocular approach that facilitates a comprehensive and balanced understanding of organic agriculture...... by enabling us to handle different perspectives reflexively. To illustrate this approach we describe three significant perspectives on organic agriculture based on protest, meaning and market. No perspective is the 'right' one and we claim, different perspectives on organic agriculture cannot be merged to one...

  1. Sesame improvement by induced mutations. Final reports of an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project. 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient oil crop considered to be still at an early stage in breeding. The fact that sesame is a crop of mainly developing countries with limited available research funds for long term breeding programmes, resulted in very few breeding efforts in research stations. Furthermore, sesame is not a mandate crop of any of the international agriculture research centers. Until recently most of the released sesame varieties in countries such as China, India and the Republic of Korea were the product of selection and pedigree breeding. A major constraint in this approach was the lack of sufficient genetic variation within the existing germplasm collections, especially for traits such as resistance to various diseases and seed retention. This is where mutation techniques could offer a possible solution. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) organized some expert consultations on sesame breeding between 1981 and 1987, which all recommended the use of mutation induction for the enhancement of genetic variability with a focus on the following traits: modified plant architecture, seed retention, and resistance to diseases and pests. As a result, most of these recommendations have been included in this five year co-ordinated research project (CRP) that started in 1993, organized by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. This CRP focused on the induction of the above mentioned characters in different sesame improvement programmes, and on the enhancement of co-operation between sesame breeders in developed and developing countries. Each participant covered a number of traits important for their specific breeding needs. During regular meetings under this project the participants had the opportunity to jointly appraise and evaluate sesame mutants and varieties in demonstration fields, thus strengthening the mutual effort for the genetic improvement of sesame through mutation techniques. The success

  2. Sesame improvement by induced mutations. Final reports of an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project. 1993-1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient oil crop considered to be still at an early stage in breeding. The fact that sesame is a crop of mainly developing countries with limited available research funds for long term breeding programmes, resulted in very few breeding efforts in research stations. Furthermore, sesame is not a mandate crop of any of the international agriculture research centers. Until recently most of the released sesame varieties in countries such as China, India and the Republic of Korea were the product of selection and pedigree breeding. A major constraint in this approach was the lack of sufficient genetic variation within the existing germplasm collections, especially for traits such as resistance to various diseases and seed retention. This is where mutation techniques could offer a possible solution. The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) organized some expert consultations on sesame breeding between 1981 and 1987, which all recommended the use of mutation induction for the enhancement of genetic variability with a focus on the following traits: modified plant architecture, seed retention, and resistance to diseases and pests. As a result, most of these recommendations have been included in this five year co-ordinated research project (CRP) that started in 1993, organized by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. This CRP focused on the induction of the above mentioned characters in different sesame improvement programmes, and on the enhancement of co-operation between sesame breeders in developed and developing countries. Each participant covered a number of traits important for their specific breeding needs. During regular meetings under this project the participants had the opportunity to jointly appraise and evaluate sesame mutants and varieties in demonstration fields, thus strengthening the mutual effort for the genetic improvement of sesame through mutation techniques. The success

  3. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...

  4. Organic Fertilizer: The Underestimated Component in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... been on chemical fertilizer while the impact of the bio-organic input has been neglected. ... Key words: Organic input, environmental remediation, food security, small-holder rural farmers, sustainable agriculture, agricultural transformation ...

  5. Review Of Development And Characteristics Of Organic Agriculture In Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Petljak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, an ever increasing interest of both foreign and domestic academic and general public for organic agriculture can be observed. Organic agriculture, as a new agricultural production system, enables full utilization of farming potentials while satisfying social and economic needs and preserving natural ecosystem and environment. Act on Organic Production of Agricultural Products and Foodstuffs provides an elementary strategic frame for agricultural production development in Republic of Croatia. This article gives an overview of organic agriculture legislation in Croatia and detailed analysis of development periods of organic agriculture. Special emphasis is put on structure of organic production which highlights data on organic plant and animal production in Croatia. The paper provides a comparison between levels of organic agriculture development in the world (with the special emphasis on Europe and in Croatia, as well as the overview of main obstacles towards more significant development of organic agriculture in Republic of Croatia.

  6. Derivation of recommended limits for radionuclide contamination of foods by the FAO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, E.; Mueller, M.K.

    1986-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, USSR, various countries defined limits for radioactive contamination of foods at different levels. These limits ranged from a few Bq iodine 131 or cesium 134 + 137/kg (Malaysia and Canada) to more than 1000 Bq/kg (Great Britain and France). These variations in limits hindered the movement of foods in international trade. For this reason the FAO convened an Expert Consultation to derive 'action levels' below which neither intervention nor constraint would be justified in terms of international movement and trade in food and drink. These limits are to find application in cases of widespread environmental contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides. They are not to be applied in cases of local release, e.g. in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. The derivation of 'action levels' by the FAO was based on the recommendations issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) in May 1985. According to this recommendation the committed dose equivalent for the whole body should not exceed 5 mSv in the first and 1 mSv in the consecutive years. For radionuclides that preferentially irradiate individual organs, e.g. I131 in the thyroid, the dose equivalent to a specified organ may be used to derive limiting values. For individual organs limiting doses of 50 mSv/a and 10 mSv/a respectively were chosen

  7. Derivation of recommended limits for radionuclide contamination of foods by the FAO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, E; Mueller, M K [Institute for Radiation Hygiene, Federal Health Office, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1986-07-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident at Chernobyl, USSR, various countries defined limits for radioactive contamination of foods at different levels. These limits ranged from a few Bq iodine 131 or cesium 134 + 137/kg (Malaysia and Canada) to more than 1000 Bq/kg (Great Britain and France). These variations in limits hindered the movement of foods in international trade. For this reason the FAO convened an Expert Consultation to derive 'action levels' below which neither intervention nor constraint would be justified in terms of international movement and trade in food and drink. These limits are to find application in cases of widespread environmental contamination after an accidental release of radionuclides. They are not to be applied in cases of local release, e.g. in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. The derivation of 'action levels' by the FAO was based on the recommendations issued by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) in May 1985. According to this recommendation the committed dose equivalent for the whole body should not exceed 5 mSv in the first and 1 mSv in the consecutive years. For radionuclides that preferentially irradiate individual organs, e.g. I131 in the thyroid, the dose equivalent to a specified organ may be used to derive limiting values. For individual organs limiting doses of 50 mSv/a and 10 mSv/a respectively were chosen.

  8. Organic Agriculture 3.0 is innovation with research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmann, Gerold; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Bàrberi, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    to strengthen organic food and farming as a means to solve future challenges. In 2010, a global discussion about Organic 3.0 was initiated to address current problems our agri-food systems are facing. Many scientifically and practically proven results are already available to make organic agriculture a strong...... of Organic Agricultural Research (ISOFAR) Symposium “Organic 3.0 is Innovation with Research”, held September 20–22, 2015, in conjunction with the first ISOFAR International Organic Expo, in Goesan County, Republic of Korea. Some of the world’s most active scientists in organic agriculture attended...

  9. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tveterås, Sigbjørn; Asche, Frank; Bellemare, Marc F; Smith, Martin D; Guttormsen, Atle G; Lem, Audun; Lien, Kristin; Vannuccini, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI) relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  10. Fish is food--the FAO's fish price index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigbjørn Tveterås

    Full Text Available World food prices hit an all-time high in February 2011 and are still almost two and a half times those of 2000. Although three billion people worldwide use seafood as a key source of animal protein, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nations-which compiles prices for other major food categories-has not tracked seafood prices. We fill this gap by developing an index of global seafood prices that can help to understand food crises and may assist in averting them. The fish price index (FPI relies on trade statistics because seafood is heavily traded internationally, exposing non-traded seafood to price competition from imports and exports. Easily updated trade data can thus proxy for domestic seafood prices that are difficult to observe in many regions and costly to update with global coverage. Calculations of the extent of price competition in different countries support the plausibility of reliance on trade data. Overall, the FPI shows less volatility and fewer price spikes than other food price indices including oils, cereals, and dairy. The FPI generally reflects seafood scarcity, but it can also be separated into indices by production technology, fish species, or region. Splitting FPI into capture fisheries and aquaculture suggests increased scarcity of capture fishery resources in recent years, but also growth in aquaculture that is keeping pace with demand. Regionally, seafood price volatility varies, and some prices are negatively correlated. These patterns hint that regional supply shocks are consequential for seafood prices in spite of the high degree of seafood tradability.

  11. Seed protein improvement in cereals and grain legumes. Vol. 1. Proceedings of an international symposium jointly organized by the IAEA and the FAO in co-operation with the Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH and held in Neuherberg, 4-8 September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    Based upon the recommendations of a panel of experts in 1968, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established an international programme to improve the protein content and quality in seed crops of importance to developing countries. Reports of previous meetings held under this programme have been published by the IAEA. The meeting on Seed Protein Improvement in Cereals and Grain Legumes, held in September 1978, marked the formal end of the FAO/IAEA/GSF Co-ordinated Research Programme on Seed Protein Improvement. It reviewed the progress achieved. Volume I covers 27 papers. Following a review of the world protein and nutritional situation, the contributions are grouped under the main headings of the need for and use of variability in protein characteristics; genetics, biochemistry and physiology of seed storage proteins; analytical and nutritional techniques; and coordinated research programmes under a joint FAO/IAEA/GSF programme on grain protein improvement. Individual papers of direct relevance are cited as separate entries in INIS.

  12. Yalova: potential organic agricultural land of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süheyla Balcı Akova

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available La pression qui augmente de jour en jour sur les ressources naturelles et les problèmes de la malnutrition conduisent à porter un intérêt croissant aux produits biologiques. Il est assez important de s'interroger sur les surfaces convenables pour la récolte des produits biologiques et d’évaluer les potentiels d’agriculture de ces surfaces. La ville de Yalova, sujet d’étude de cet article, dispose des conditions convenables pour pratiquer l’agriculture biologique. La pratique des activités agricoles effectuées dans la région adaptée aux bases fondamentales de l’agriculture biologique permettra de valoriser le potentiel d’agriculture biologique de la région. De cette manière, les revenus obtenus augmenteront le niveau de vie des habitants de la région, les ressources naturelles de la région seront conservées et les produits biologiques obtenus seront des ressources de vie saine.Dans ce travail, on a étudié le potentiel d’agriculture biologique et l’importance de ce type d’agriculture pour la région. On a tout d’abord réfléchi sur le potentiel de la région pour l’agriculture et la situation générale de l’agriculture biologique en Turquie et dans le monde entier. On a ensuite traité du processus du développement et des caractéristiques de l’agriculture biologique à Yalova.Increasing pressure on natural resources and the problems caused by unhealthy eating habits have brought along an increase in demands for organic products. Therefore, determining the lands suitable for organic farming with an evaluation of their potentials is of great importance. The city of Yalova which constitutes our research sector has convenient conditions for organic farming. After a regulation of current agricultural activities in accordance with the fundamentals of organic farming, remarkable potential of the field would be availed by putting them into practice. Welfare level of the citizens would also be enhanced with

  13. FOOD CRISIS AS FACTOR OF FUTURE VALUE OF THE AGRICULTURAL LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avramchuk Bogdan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available At the present stage of human development, food is one of the most acute problems. Over the past 30-40 years, the growth rate of population in many countries of the world is ahead of the growth rate of agricultural production, which leads to acute shortage of food. This is especially true of developing countries, which accounts for the overwhelming majority of the population of the planet that is under-eating and starving. According to FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization, in the world now about half a billion people are constantly hungry and twice asleep. Insufficient consumption affects children in particular. Nearly 300 million children in Asia, Africa and Latin America are lagging behind in physical and mental development as a result of poor nutrition. Every day from hunger there are about 12 thousand people dying. According to FAO, food products around the world are produced in general enough to feed the entire population of the Earth. However, the main reason for the global food crisis is not that products are distributed among countries irrelevant to the population, although such a problem exists. Researchers believe that the food crisis is caused by the coincidence of demographic, environmental and energy problems with the effects of adverse weather conditions, as well as a colossal increase in military spending. Investigated the interconnection between the dynamics of population growth and world food production volumes with the areas of agricultural land and the possible influence of projected changes in agricultural land use on increasing the cost of agricultural land is substantiated. It was investigated that the average national land rent in Ukraine would increase by 25.5%. This in turn will lead to an increase in the value of agricultural land in Ukraine.

  14. Nuclear strategies in food and agriculture - 25 years of progress, 1964-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, Bjoern

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Healthy and abundant food supplies is a goal for every nation in the world. Nuclear techniques have played a fundamental role in solving some of the obstacles to attaining this goal which existed in the 1960s. New trends and approaches in food and agricultural production have had a tangible impact on the quality of life of people worldwide. Research, testing, analysis and experience in the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have helped solve many practical problems for farmers and industry alike. Unfortunately, however, not all successful nuclear applications available to industrialized countries reach developing nations. To address this problem, in 1964, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations joined forces to create the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. Initially just a small unit seeking solutions to food and agriculture problems through nuclear techniques, the Joint Division, and the Agricultural Laboratory of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratories, have since grown to be an internationally respected research and development centre, a forum for global sharing of information and knowledge, and a conduit through which nuclear technology can be transferred to those countries which need It mos The Joint FAO/IAEA Division today focuses on six major areas: Insect and pest control nuclear techniques are used to control or eradicate harmful pests responsible for extreme losses in food production, as well as in human and animal life, through dangerous diseases. Food preservation through irradiation has become a valuable tool in reducing post-harvest food losses, reducing the occurrence of food-borne disease, and extending the shelf life of agricultural commodities. Animal production and health is an area where nuclear techniques have been used successfully to improve the health and productivity of ruminant animals. Plant breeding and genetics is an

  15. Work and technological innovation in organic agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereso, M J A; Abrahão, R F; Gemma, S F B; Montedo, U B; Menegon, N L; Guarneti, J E; Ribeiro, I A V

    2012-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a sustainable cultivation ecologically, economically and socially. Several researches in organic agriculture have been made from technical perspectives, economic traits or related to ecological aspects. There are practically no investigations into the nature of the technology used in organic agriculture, especially from an ergonomic perspective. From the activity analysis, this study aimed to map the technology used in the production of organic vegetables. Properties producing organic vegetables were selected representing the State of São Paulo. It was applied an instrument (questionnaire and semi-structured interview) with their managers and it was made visual records to identify adaptations, innovations and technological demands that simultaneously minimize the workload and the difficulties in performing the tasks and increase work productivity. For some of the technological innovations a digital scanner was used to generate a virtual solid model to facilitate its redesign and virtual prototyping. The main results show that organic farmers have little technology in product form. The main innovations that enable competitive advantage or allow higher labor productivity occur in the form of processes, organization and marketing.

  16. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Romanian Farms through Organic Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ionela Aceleanu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the development of any sector involves respecting the principles of sustainability, which means economic, social and environmental development. Moreover, organic farming is a very important field for ensuring sustainable development. Romania has great potential for the development of organic agriculture, especially due to the large number of available farmland and reduced use of fertilizers and other chemicals. However, the development of organic farming in Romania is in an early stage, due to the numerous problems that Romanian agriculture is still facing. Concern for the environment should be reflected at the level of production processes and consumption. As market demand influences and stimulates production, we can ask the question to what extent stimulating the consumption of organic products through green marketing can boost organic agriculture development and competitiveness of Romanian farms. Using several methods of research, such as analysis, synthesis, comparison, statistical methods and by calling on studies, reports and data series on organic farming in the EU and Romania, this paper highlights Romania's position in terms of the level of development of organic agriculture and recommends several ways to improve the outcomes obtained by Romania in the field. Moreover, based on regression equations, the trend of convergence of Romanian organic agriculture development in relation to the EU countries is analysed. The paper demonstrates that one of the measures that can be taken by Romanian farms is green marketing strategy development that can stimulate both consumption and production of organic products. Therefore, with increasing interest in the development of organic agriculture in Romania, green marketing can play an increasingly important role in promoting the benefits of consuming organic products, thus contributing to business development of organic products as well as to the development of Romanian agriculture

  17. The World of Organic Agriculture (Session at the BIOFACH 2017)

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Sahota, Amarjit

    2017-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture 2017 www.organic-world.net Presentations at the Session "The World of Organic Agriculture" - Organic Agriculture Worldwide 2017: Current Statistics (Dr. Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Dr. Helga Willer) - Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2017 (Beate Huber) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update & Challenges (Amarjit Sahota)

  18. The use of GMOs (genetically modified organisms): agricultural biotechnology or agricultural biopolitics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuti, Marco; Felici, Cristiana; Agnolucci, Monica

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural biotechnologies embrace a large array of conventional and modern technologies, spanning from composting organic by-products of agriculture to innovative improvement of quality traits of about twenty out of the mostly cultivated plants. In EU a rather restrictive legislative framework has been installed for GMOs, requiring a risk assessment disproportionate with respect to conventional agriculture and organic farming products. The latter are far from being proved safe for human and animal health, and for the environment. Biotechnology of GMOs has been overtaken by biopolitics. On one side there are biotechnological challenges to be tackled, on another side there is plenty of ground for biopolitical decisions about GMOs. Perhaps the era of harsh confrontation could be fruitfully replaced by sensible cooperation, in order to get a sustainable agricultural development.

  19. Determinants of Sustainability Reporting in Food and Agriculture Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Hřebíček

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 1990s, sustainability reporting (SR has become an increasingly relevant topic in business and academia. However, it is still limited in food and agriculture sector in the Czech Republic and the European Union and only little information of the latest developments have thus far been presented. This paper provides current information dating from 2010 to 2014 from publications related to food and agriculture sector. The objective of the paper is to identify what determinants of SR are examined in the world initiatives to identify (in consistencies, gaps, and opportunities for our future research of this field. The paper focuses to new G4 Guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI and the Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture (SAFA systems of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO of the United Nation. Finally, possible future research of SR including SR information systems are discussed by illuminating gaps and underexposed themes in the area of regulation and governance as well as stakeholder perception.

  20. Nature and nature values in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lene; Noe, Egon; Højring, Katrine

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between agriculture and nature is a centra issue in the current agricultural debate. Organic farming has ambitions and a special potential in relation to nature. Consideration for nature is part of the guiding principals of organic farming and many organic farmers are committed...... to protecting natural qualities. However, the issue of nature, landscape, and land use is not straightforward. Nature is an ambiguous concept that involves multiple interests and actors reaching far beyond farmers. The Danish research project ......

  1. Soil Microbial Activity in Conventional and Organic Agricultural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero F.V. Carneiro

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate microbial activity in soils under conventional and organic agricultural system management regimes. Soil samples were collected from plots under conventional management (CNV, organic management (ORG and native vegetation (AVN. Soil microbial activity and biomass was significantly greater in ORG compared with CNV. Soil bulk density decreased three years after adoption of organic system. Soil organic carbon (SOC was higher in the ORG than in the CNV. The soil under organic agricultural system presents higher microbial activity and biomass and lower bulk density than the conventional agricultural system.

  2. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursey, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980

  3. The FAO programme for the control of African animal trypanosomiasis and related development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hursey, B S [FAO, Rome (Italy)

    1990-04-01

    The FAO proposal for a long-term Programme for the Control of African Animal Trypanosomiasis and Related Development was presented to the World Food Conference in November 1974. A recommendation was adopted that the programme should be implemented as a matter of urgency and should receive high priority in the FAO programme of work and budget. Following recommendations of support by FAO statutory bodies the preparatory phase, which led to implementation of a large-scale programme, was launched in 1980.

  4. Reliability and validity analysis of the open-source Chinese Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Samuel K K; Chan, Vincent; Ho, Karen; Ling, Fona; Lui, T H

    2017-12-21

    Develop the first reliable and validated open-source outcome scoring system in the Chinese language for foot and ankle problems. Translation of the English FAOS into Chinese following regular protocols. First, two forward-translations were created separately, these were then combined into a preliminary version by an expert committee, and was subsequently back-translated into English. The process was repeated until the original and back translations were congruent. This version was then field tested on actual patients who provided feedback for modification. The final Chinese FAOS version was then tested for reliability and validity. Reliability analysis was performed on 20 subjects while validity analysis was performed on 50 subjects. Tools used to validate the Chinese FAOS were the SF36 and Pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS). Internal consistency between the FAOS subgroups was measured using Cronbach's alpha. Spearman's correlation was calculated between each subgroup in the FAOS, SF36 and NRS. The Chinese FAOS passed both reliability and validity testing; meaning it is reliable, internally consistent and correlates positively with the SF36 and the NRS. The Chinese FAOS is a free, open-source scoring system that can be used to provide a relatively standardised outcome measure for foot and ankle studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  6. The World of Organic Agriculture - Statistics and Emerging Trends 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Helga; Yussefi, Minou

    2004-01-01

    In 1999, BioFach/Oekowelt GmbH commissioned Foundation Ecology & Agriculture SOEL to compile statistical data and general information on organic agriculture world-wide. Since then this study has been revised annually, and the newest figures are regularly presented at Biofach, which takes place in Nuremberg, Germany, every year. Since the 2003 edition the Research Institute of Organic Agriculture FiBL and the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM) have collaborated i...

  7. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  8. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China’s Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as research object,on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China’s southwestern mountainous regions,we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science,we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years.Finally we draw several general conclusions regarding structure innovation of agricultural organization in China’s southwestern mountainous regions as follows:first,the structure innovation of agricultural organization,a gradual process,proceeds ceaselessly along with ongoing progress and development of agriculture,and in this process,farmers always play a fundamental role;second,the structure innovation of agricultural organization is affected by many factors,and government institutional arrangement and change in market conditions is undoubtedly the most critical factor;third,the probable evolving direction of structure innovation of agricultural organization includes internal differentiation of the same form of agricultural organization,association of different forms of agricultural organization,and emergence of other forms of agricultural organization.

  9. Animal diseases of public health importance.

    OpenAIRE

    Orriss, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) interest in emerging diseases caused by foodborne pathogens derives from its role as the leading United Nations agency with a mandate for food quality and safety matters. The Food Quality and Standards Service of FAO's Food and Nutrition Division is active in all areas related to food safety and implements the FAO/World Health Organization Food Standards Program. Its activities include providing assistance to FAO's member nations in addressing pro...

  10. Making Conventional Agriculture Environmentally Friendly: Moving beyond the Glorification of Organic Agriculture and the Demonization of Conventional Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Alon Tal

    2018-01-01

    The article reviews the most recent research surrounding the potential role of organic agriculture in providing food for the planet. It challenges the claims of organic agriculture’s environmental superiority compared to well-managed, conventional agriculture. The relative advantages of these contrasting approaches to farming in areas such as aggregate land requirements, biodiversity/habitat loss, water quality, land degradation and climate change are considered. Legitimate concerns abo...

  11. The System Dynamics Model for Development of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Črtomir; Škraba, Andrej; Kljajić, Miroljub; Pažek, Karmen; Bavec, Martina; Bavec, Franci

    2008-10-01

    Organic agriculture is the highest environmentally valuable agricultural system, and has strategic importance at national level that goes beyond the interests of agricultural sector. In this paper we address development of organic farming simulation model based on a system dynamics methodology (SD). The system incorporates relevant variables, which affect the development of the organic farming. The group decision support system (GDSS) was used in order to identify most relevant variables for construction of causal loop diagram and further model development. The model seeks answers to strategic questions related to the level of organically utilized area, levels of production and crop selection in a long term dynamic context and will be used for simulation of different policy scenarios for organic farming and their impact on economic and environmental parameters of organic production at an aggregate level.

  12. AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS IN POLAND – AN ATTEMPT TOWARDS A TYPOLOGY*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruta Śpiewak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural organizations play an important role in political decision-making at the local, national, and EU levels. However, it is diffi cult to estimate to what extent the size of public transfers to the Polish countryside is a direct eff ect of these organizations’ activity. The same question applies to farming privileges, which are much more numerous than those for other social groups in rural areas. One of the reasons for this stems from the fact that agricultural organizations in Poland have rarely been examined. The aim of this article is therefore to obtain a structured picture of agricultural organizations in Poland and to search for relations between their legal forms and statutory goals. The main types distinguished here include farmers’ trade unions, employers’ organizations, agribusiness organizations (agribusiness federations and unions, and associations. Taking into consideration the number of members and the thrust of activities, including impact on agricultural policy, the most important agricultural organizations in Poland seem to be the trade unions and agribusiness organizations. The substantive diff erence between them lies in their stated goals. Trade unions primarily indicate goals of a social nature. Federations of agribusiness organizations strive to support their members and promote policy changes, while agribusiness organizations work for the development of specialized farms.

  13. Making Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS Work for Development in Tropical Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural innovation in low-income tropical countries contributes to a more effective and sustainable use of natural resources and reduces hunger and poverty through economic development in rural areas. Yet, despite numerous recent public and private initiatives to develop capacities for agricultural innovation, such initiatives are often not well aligned with national efforts to revive existing Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS. In an effort to improve coordination and responsiveness of Capacity Development (CD initiatives, the G20 Agriculture Ministers requested the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO to lead the development of a Tropical Agricultural Platform (TAP, which is designed to improve coherence and coordination of CD for agricultural innovation in the tropics. This paper presents a summary of the results obtained from three regional needs assessments undertaken by TAP and its partners. The surveyed tropical regions were Southeast Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa and Central America. The findings reveal a mismatch in all three regions between the external supply of primarily individual CD and the actual demand for institutional CD. The misalignment might be addressed by strengthening south-south and triangular collaboration and by improving the institutional capacities that would render national AIS more demand-oriented and responsive to the needs of smallholders in domestic agriculture.

  14. The value of ''naturalness'' in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoog, H.; Lammerts Van Bueren, E.; Matze, M.; Baars, T.

    2007-01-01

    Producers, traders and consumers of organic food regularly use the concept of the naturalnatural to characteri ze organic agriculture or organic food. Critics sometimes argue that such use lacks any rational (scientific) basis and only refers to sentiment. We carried out research to (1) better

  15. The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Tu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    While for wind, solar energy or hydropower, energy supply happens directly from the source to the wind wheels, hydropower turbines or solar panels, in the case of biogas, energy production cannot directly take from the energy source, organic matter, but depends on the institutional structures and farmers′ practices involved for making energy available. With the production of bioenergy in rural areas, practices within agriculture are transformed, requiring new ways of organizing production processes. Research has left the question largely unanswered of how agricultural biogas production and use are – and can best be – organized within rural society. Which kinds of social organization exist, how are these embedded in existing agricultural institutions and practices, and how do these systems function? Under which conditions may the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use work sustainably? This introduction article to the Special Issue “The social organization of agricultural biogas production and use” presents a framework for analysing the different kinds of social organization of biogas production and use presented hereafter. Analysis parameters are the supply network, distribution network, distribution of benefits, social boundaries of the system (accessibility) and scale. Using these parameters, the Special Issue articles are outlined. - Highlights: • Through agricultural institutions and farmers′ practices, biogas is made available. • Scale, supply and delivery network distinguish biogas infrastructural systems. • Access and benefit distribution are key for a biogas system′s sustainability

  16. Developments in breeding cereals for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfe, M.S.; Baresel, J.P.; Desclaux, D.

    2008-01-01

    into the crop can be helped by diversification within the crop, allowing complementation and compensation among plants. Although the problems of breeding cereals for organic farming systems are large, there is encouraging progress. This lies in applications of ecology to organic crop production, innovations......The need for increased sustainability of performance in cereal varieties, particularly in organic agriculture (OA), is limited by the lack of varieties adapted to organic conditions. Here, the needs for breeding are reviewed in the context of three major marketing types, global, regional, local......, in European OA. Currently, the effort is determined, partly, by the outcomes from trials that compare varieties under OA and CA (conventional agriculture) conditions. The differences are sufficiently large and important to warrant an increase in appropriate breeding. The wide range of environments within OA...

  17. Standards and criteria of international organizations concerning agricultural aspects of radiological emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.I.; Hance, R.J.; Crick, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The nuclear facilities are not generally located in densely populated zones, but usually in rural rather agricultural environment. The Chernobyl accident has shown that farming activities may be affected over hundreds if not thousands kilometers from the accident site. Emergency plans must be implemented in order to trigger countermeasures aiming at reducing agricultural product contamination even in countries having not nuclear facilities or programmes of their own. In Introduction the paper presents the principal objectives to be taken into account by the governmental authorities (at central and local level) after an agricultural countermeasure strategy has been elaborated. The second section deals with the development of criteria and intervening levels. On the basis of the new Recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection and the Guidelines concerning the Intervention Levels for Protecting the Public in the Event of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency issued by an IAEA Consultative Group, IAEA and FAO have published in 1994 common directives concerning the measures to be taken at agricultural level in case of an accidental release of radioactivity. The section 3 presents the concepts and criteria for selecting efficient and appropriate countermeasures. It discusses the importance of planning and intervention preparations, the management of accidents and the proper protection measures. The generic activity levels requiring intervention for withdraw from market of alimentary products are presented in the Section 4. The paper discusses also specific level s of intervention (for milk and meat for instance adopted in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia) as well as future prospects

  18. Isotope and radiation applications to agricultural development in Asia and the Pacific Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, C.G.

    1981-01-01

    Use of nuclear techniques have been recognized to be invaluable tools in agricultural research for increasing crop production and reducing food losses in the technologically developed countries. The objectives of FAO/IAEA programme are to exploit the potential of isotopes and radiation applications in R and D for increasing and stabilizing agricultural production, reducing production costs, improving food quality, protecting agricultural products from spoilage and losses and minimizing pollution of food and the agricultural environment. (author)

  19. Use of phosphate rocks for sustainable agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Roy, R.N.

    2004-01-01

    the Land and Water Development Division (AGL), FAO, and the national action plans for soil productivity improvement under the Soil Fertility Initiative for sub-Saharan countries, PRs are considered as potentially important locally available P sources. AGL has instituted several studies on the agro-economic assessment of PRs for direct application in selected countries. Results of practical utility and policy guidelines can be drawn from these studies. Several organizations have conducted extensive research on the utilization of indigenous PR deposits in tropical soils in Latin America, Africa, Asia and elsewhere. In the past decade, considerable progress has been made in the utilization of PR sources for direct application in agricultural cropping systems worldwide. A wealth of information is now available but scattered in several publications. Recognizing the need for the wider dissemination of the available information, the Joint FAO/ IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture together with the AGL convened a Consultants' Meeting in Vienna in November 2001 in order to review advances in this fi eld of research and development, and to elaborate a proposal for the production of this technical bulletin

  20. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    . Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed...... benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated pest management.......This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions...

  1. 78 FR 5164 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program... organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.425 million for this organic...

  2. 76 FR 55000 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Departments of Agriculture for the Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program... organic certification cost-share funds. The AMS has allocated $1.5 million for this organic certification...

  3. Evolution of Organic Agriculture within Theoretical Frameworks of Structural Change and Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Horn

    with the idea of organic agriculture, agricultural structural change and transformation. However, the search for an answer to the research question starts with a contribution with a fragmentary status. Marshall and the theory of externalities present a deepen of the Danish agricultural economists...... it is possibly to draw a link to our initially discussion about definition of organic agriculture. The principles between conventional and organic agriculture differ. We have two kinds of rationalities. Exactly such approach is the methodological hard core in the works of Chayanov and we link to a tentative...... suggestion for working towards, as a minimum, a double definition of organic agriculture. The last "agricultural economist" is Hvelplund. Despite his position as a researcher within energy, we have different arguments for our presentation of him here. The first argument is that Hvelplund is occupied...

  4. Marketing research of organic agricultural products' customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salai Suzana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of customers' marketing research is to acquire information about the way domestic customers behave towards organic agricultural products. This research focuses the overview of conditions and factors influencing customer behavior in nutrition processes in the EM and in Yugoslavia. The acquired information about changes and directions directly affect the possibilities of getting involved into supply processes as well as the 'transmission' of some directions in customer behavior. Anticipations based, on marketing research deal with changes on customers' level, in consumption, products and other competitors. The results of a part of problems concerning customer behavior in nutrition processes follow below, with an emphasis on organic agricultural products.

  5. Soil biota and agriculture production in conventional and organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrama, Maarten; de Haan, Joj; Carvalho, Sabrina; Kroonen, Mark; Verstegen, Harry; Van der Putten, Wim

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable food production for a growing world population requires a healthy soil that can buffer environmental extremes and minimize its losses. There are currently two views on how to achieve this: by intensifying conventional agriculture or by developing organically based agriculture. It has been established that yields of conventional agriculture can be 20% higher than of organic agriculture. However, high yields of intensified conventional agriculture trade off with loss of soil biodiversity, leaching of nutrients, and other unwanted ecosystem dis-services. One of the key explanations for the loss of nutrients and GHG from intensive agriculture is that it results in high dynamics of nutrient losses, and policy has aimed at reducing temporal variation. However, little is known about how different agricultural practices affect spatial variation, and it is unknown how soil fauna acts this. In this study we compare the spatial and temporal variation of physical, chemical and biological parameters in a long term (13-year) field experiment with two conventional farming systems (low and medium organic matter input) and one organic farming system (high organic matter input) and we evaluate the impact on ecosystem services that these farming systems provide. Soil chemical (N availability, N mineralization, pH) and soil biological parameters (nematode abundance, bacterial and fungal biomass) show considerably higher spatial variation under conventional farming than under organic farming. Higher variation in soil chemical and biological parameters coincides with the presence of 'leaky' spots (high nitrate leaching) in conventional farming systems, which shift unpredictably over the course of one season. Although variation in soil physical factors (soil organic matter, soil aggregation, soil moisture) was similar between treatments, but averages were higher under organic farming, indicating more buffered conditions for nutrient cycling. All these changes coincide with

  6. Soil nitrogen balance assessment and its application for sustainable agriculture and environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rabindra; Nath; Roy

    2005-01-01

    [1]United Nations,World Population Prospects:The 1998 Revision,New York,1999.[2]FAO,Fertilizer Requirements in 2015 and 2030,Rome:FAO,2000.[3]IPCC,Climate Change 1995:The Science of Climate Change,Cambridge:Cambridge University Press,1996.[4]USEPA Impact Assessment Report US EPA,Office of Policy,Planning and Evaluation,Washington,DC,1997.[5]IFA/FAO,Global estimates of gaseous emissions of NH3,NO and N2O from agricultural land,Rome,2001.[6]Stoorvogel,J.J.,Smaling,E.M.A.,Assessment of Soil Nutrient Depletion in Sub-Saharan Africa:1983-2000.Report 28,Wageningen:Winland Staring Centre,1990.[7]Pieri,C.,Bilans minéraux des systèmes de cultures pluviales en zones arides et semi-arides,L'Agron.Trop.,1985,40:1 -20.[8]Henao,J.,Baanante,C.,Estimating Rates of Nutrient Depletion in Soils of Agriculture Lands in Africa,Muscle Shoals:International Fertilizer Development Center,1999.[9]OECD,OECD National Soil Surface Nitrogen Balances-Explanatory Notes,Paris:OECD Secretariat,200la.[10]OECD,Environmental Indicators for Agriculture,Volume 3:Methods and Results,Paris:OECD Secretariat,200lb.[11]Sheldrick,W.F.,Syers,J.K.,Lingard,J.,A conceptual model for conducting nutrient audits at national,regional,and global scales,Nut.Cyc.Agroecosys.,2002,62:61-72.[12]Sheldrick,W.F,Syers,J.K.,Lingard,J.,Soil nutrient audits for China to estimate nutrient balances and output/input relationships,Ag.Ecosys.Env.,2003a,94:341-354.[13]FAO,Scaling soil nutrient balances-enabling mesolevel applications for African realities,in Fertilizer and Plant Nutrition Bull.15,Rome:FAO,2004.[14]IFA/IFDC/FAO,Fertilizer Use by Crop,4th ed.,Rome:IFA/IFDC/FAO,2000.[15]De Willigen,P.,An analysis of the calculation of leaching and denitrification losses as practised in the NUTMON approach.Report 18,Wageningen:Plant Research International,2000.[16]Schoorl,J.M.,Veldkamp,A.,Bouma,J.,Modelling water and soil redistribution in a dynamic landscape context,Soil Sci.Soc.Am.,2002,66:1610- 1619.[17]Smaling

  7. Research on Structure Innovation of Agricultural Organization in China's Southwestern Mountainous Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Qiang; Luo, Min; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Taking agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions as research object, on the basis of analysis of the status quo of agricultural organization development in China's southwestern mountainous regions, we use related theoretical knowledge on economics and organization science, we probe into the process of innovation and mechanism of action concerning the structure of agricultural organization in China's southwestern mountainous regions over the past 30 years. Finally w...

  8. Volume 9 No. 6 2009 September 2009 1325 EVALUATION OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The final results of Census, http://www.capmas.gov.eg/.2006. 18. Henein W and U Tharwat Master on therapeutic drugs. MTD, Egypt, 2007. 19. FAO/WHO. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization / World Health. Organization, Requirements of vitamin A, iron, folate, and vitamin B12. FAO. Food and Nutrition Series, ...

  9. 75 FR 54591 - Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    ...] Notice of Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program AGENCY... Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program. SUMMARY: This Notice invites the... Agreement with the Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) for the Allocation of Organic Certification Cost...

  10. Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the foot and ankle outcome score (FAOS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Seldentuis, Arnoud; Reininga, Inge H. F.; Stevens, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is a patient-reported questionnaire measuring symptoms and functional limitations of the foot and ankle. Aim is to translate and culturally adapt the Dutch version of the FAOS and to investigate internal consistency, validity, repeatability and

  11. Biotechnologies for the management of genetic resources for food and agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidder, Preetmoninder; Sonnino, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    facilitate the development and appropriate use of biotechnologies in developing countries; and that FAO and other relevant international organizations and donors should significantly increase their efforts to support the strengthening of national capacities in the development and appropriate use of pro-poor agricultural biotechnologies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  13. Global effects of agriculture on fluvial dissolved organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Boëchat, Iola; Encina, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural land covers approximately 40% of Earth’s land surface and affects hydromorphological, biogeochemical and ecological characteristics of fluvial networks. In the northern temperate region, agriculture also strongly affects the amount and molecular composition of dissolved organic matter...

  14. Cultural Patterns of Soil Understanding in Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzel, Nikola

    2017-04-01

    Different branches of modern agriculture rely on different cultural patterns of soil understanding; and they are supported by different schools of thought in soil science with their specific values and perspectives. For example, the European branch of organic agriculture, as it developed mainly in the 20th Century, is rooted in specific cultural concepts and was supported by associated minorities, or rather marginalised tendencies, within the soil science community. Some cases: It is about the transformations of living or organic matter, linked with debates on "microbes" and "life particles", "tissues" and macromolecules in the humus-sphere. It is about the "industrialised economical-technical paradigm" versus an "organic" or "ecological paradigm" - whatever both may be. It is about the relevance respectively of the "duties" of control by power, or by relatedness and "intercourse" in agricultural human-nature interaction. It is about the male and female qualities of effective God-images - both in their "religious" as well as their "secular" representations in individuals' and society's relation with nature and when dealing with soil. In today's conceptual and strategic debates and power struggles over how to sustainably feed from the land, we see patterns similar to those from the 19th and 20th Centuries in action. But the threats they pose are not yet sufficiently realised; the opportunities they offer are not yet sufficiently fulfilled. In this presentation, using the example of cultural patterns inside organic agriculture in Europe, some cultural problems and tasks will be highlighted, to which geosciences are of course confronted, being part of human society.

  15. 75 FR 27981 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Alimentarius Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... undertaken by international governmental and non- governmental organizations. The CAC will finalize standards... Nations organizations, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO...

  16. Organization of monitoring of agricultural products in NPP region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panteleev, L.I.; Spirin, E.V.; Sanzharova, N.I.

    1990-01-01

    Problem of organizing chemical and radiation monitoring of agricultural products in NPP region is considered. Attention is paid to monitoring during NPP siting and designing, to monitoring of radioactive contamination of agricultural products under normal NPP operation, emergency situations and decommissioning

  17. Atoms for food - A global partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wedekind, L.

    2008-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have been partners for nearly half a century, contributing to efforts toward shared goals of food security. Their mission - through a Joint Division headquartered at the IAEA in Austria - is to help countries effectively use nuclear science and related technologies for food and agricultural development. Millions of people today look to a better future because of the foresight and longstanding investment of FAO and IAEA Member States in the 'Atoms for Food' partnership. Worldwide, more than 100 countries are working together through the Joint Division to increase their harvests, combat animal and plant diseases and pests, and protect the lands, water resources, and environments on which food and agricultural production depend. This century's stark realities of hunger, poverty, climate change, and environmental degradation bring an unprecedented scale of challenges to the fields of food and agriculture. Action requires the research, expertise, and experience of the FAO/IAEA partnership and other effective alliances worldwide to help countries achieve and sustain higher levels of food security for their people. The two organizations are well matched. FAO brings to the table its comprehensive knowledge and networks on food and agriculture. The IAEA, in turn, contributes technical know-how, specifically in agricultural and related applications of nuclear science and technology. The partnership's potential builds on decades of experience

  18. Water satisfaction analysis for dryland maize production in Frankfort

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moeletsi, ME

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available and the atmospheric demand. To assess crop performance based on water available to the crop during the growing season the water requirement satisfaction index (WRSI) was developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) as documented in the FAO Plant...

  19. Time to Redefine Organic Agriculture: Can't GM Crops Be Certified as Organics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M; Sohail, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    The challenges of sustainable food production without damaging the environment for a growing human population have increased considerably. The current agricultural practices involving chemical fertilizers and even organic farming are not sustainable in the long run and can have deleterious effects on the environment. Thus, new, innovative solutions need to be identified and propagated for tackling this. Among such innovations, that can complement conventional as well as organic farming methods, are genetic modification (GM) and aquaculture. Yet, GM technologies often face resistance from civil groups owing to an 'unknown' fear, akin to Frankenstein's monster. How real is this fear? Our discussion rests on basic questions like, why can't 'organics' include GM crops that do not require chemical inputs for cultivation, and can GM crops like Golden rice qualify to be 'organic' if cultivated through organic practices? Do we need to rethink organic agriculture in the context of the present and future challenges of 21st century?

  20. Evapotranspiração real obtida através da relação entre o coeficiente dual de cultura da FAO-56 e o NDVI Real actual evapotranspiration obtained through the relationship between the FAO-56 crop dual coefficient and NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergson Guedes Bezerra

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Um requisito fundamental para adoção de manejo da irrigação é a determinação diária da evapotranspiração (ET das culturas. Em caráter operacional o método do coeficiente de cultura proposto pela Food Agriculture Organization (FAO, através do seu relatório 56 (Irrigation and Drainage Paper, é largamente utilizado na determinação da ET, e tem apresentado precisões que o tornam mundialmente aceito. A ET com base no coeficiente de cultura (Kc, obtido a partir de índices de vegetação, particularmente o NDVI, tem sido calculada em vários estudos e para diversas culturas alcançando muita precisão, quando comparado com observações de campo. Diante do exposto, este trabalho teve por objetivo calcular a ET diária e sazonal da cultura do algodoeiro utilizando o método do Kc dual obtido em função do Índice de Vegetação por Diferença Normalizada - NDVI, obtido a partir de imagens TM - Landsat 5 livre da presença de nuvens. Os resultados revelaram precisões bastante confiáveis, pois foram verificadas diferenças menores que 10%, quando comparados com valores da ET obtidos pela técnica da Bowen, corroborando com o desempenho alcançado pelo método em outras pesquisas realizadas em outras regiões do planeta. Dessa forma, pode-se concluir que o método apresenta bastante confiabilidade e simplicidade.A fundamental requirement for adoption of irrigation management is to determine the crop daily evapotranspiration (ET. On an operational basis the crop coefficient method proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO through its report 56 (Irrigation and Drainage Paper is widely used in the determination of ET and due to its accurate estimative, it has been globally accepted. The ET-based crop coefficient (Kc obtained from vegetation indices, particularly the Vegetation Index Normalized Difference (NDVI has been measured in several studies and various crops showing great accuracy when compared to field observations

  1. Capturing Weather-related Shocks In Smallholder Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, S.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfed agriculture accounts for 93% of total cultivated area in SSA (FAO, 2002) and smallholder is the predominant form of farm organization (33 million with less than 2 ha, representing 80% of all farms). At the same time, 75% of extreme poor live in rural areas and 90% rely on agriculture. A poor harvest can have significant impact on livelihood and welfare of a household with limited coping mechanisms and little savings.This study aims to shed light on how small farmers are affected by growing conditions in a given season and how well these impacts can be predicted using objective measures derived from time-series of remote-sensing data. We investigate the covariate vs idiosyncratic nature of shocks experienced at the household level, using both community-level and household-level observations. We also test the relative efficiency of different metrics in predicting shocks, acknowledging that both spatial resolution and temporal frequency are likely to be limiting factors in the objective measures. To support this analysis we draw on surveys from the Living Standards Measurement Study Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA) project. The LSMS-ISA surveys are georeferenced, multi-topic panel surveys with a strong focus on agriculture, conducted in 7 African countries. We combine the LSMS-ISA data on production and agricultural shocks with objective measures (rainfall deficit/surplus, phenological variables, water requirements satisfaction index) derived from various data sources (CHIRPS, MODIS Land Cover Dynamics, NDVI3g). Objective measures will be considered in both absolute terms as well as deviation from mean in the survey season.

  2. [Preliminary determination of organic pollutants in agricultural fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Ce-hui; Li, Yun-hui; Cai, Quan-ying; Zeng, Qiao-yun; Wang, Bo-guang; Li, Hai-qin

    2005-05-01

    Organic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural fertilizers are new problem deserved more study. Eight kinds of organic pollutants including 43 compounds classified as US EPA priority pollutants in twenty one agricultural fertilizers which were universally used in China were determined by Gas chromatography-mass spectrum (GC-MS). Three kinds of organic pollutants including more than 5 compounds were detected in most fertilizers, composing mainly of phthalic acid esters (PAEs), nitrobenzenes (NBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). There were 26 compounds detected in at least one fertilizer, five of them especially PAEs detected in most fertilizer and even in all fertilizers. Benzo(a)pyrene, a strongly carcinogenic compound was detected in two fertilizers. Higher concentrations of compounds were determined in those fertilizers such as multifunction compound fertilizers and coated fertilizers.

  3. How the organic food system supports sustainable diets and translates these into practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola eStrassner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g. organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards and useful metrics. By 2015 data for organic production and consumption is recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic fo

  4. Nuclear techniques for food and agricultural development: 1964-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigurbjoernsson, B.; Vose, P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past 30 years, programmes of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division have helped countries solve practical, and costly, problems in areas of soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production; plant breeding and genetics; animal production and health; insect and pest control; agrochemicals and residues; and food preservation. The Division's overall objectives are to exploit the potential for application of isotopes and radiation techniques in agricultural research and development; to increase and stabilize agricultural production; to reduce production costs; to improve the quality of food; to protect agricultural products from spoilage and losses; and to minimize pollution of food and the agricultural environment. On the occasion of the Joint Division's 30th anniversary year, this article highlights selected achievements over the past three decades

  5. Officially released mutant varieties - the FAO/IAEA Database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K.; Zanten, L. van; Ahloowalia, B.S.

    2000-01-01

    In the approximately 70 year-old history of induced mutations, there are many examples on the development of new and valuable alteration in plant characters significantly contributing to increased yield potential of specific crops. However, knowledge on the success of induced mutations in crop improvement among geneticists and breeders is usually limited to species of their interest. The present paper contains a comprehensive list of officially released mutant varieties, based on information from plant breeders. The number of mutant varieties officially released and recorded in the FAO/IAEA Mutant Varieties Database before the end of 2000 is 2,252. Almost half of these varieties have been released during the last 15 years. Considering a significant delay in the dissemination of information on newly released varieties and difficulties in the collection of such data, there has been a renaissance in the use of mutation techniques in crop improvement. At the demand of geneticists, plant breeders, and more recently molecular geneticists, for information on released mutant varieties of specific crops, the MVD was transferred to the web site of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division. The MVD will be available on our web pages early in 2001. (author)

  6. Environmental impacts and production performances of organic agriculture in China: A monetary valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanqiao; Qiao, Yuhui; Wu, Wenliang; Smith, Pete; Scott, Steffanie

    2017-03-01

    Organic agriculture has developed rapidly in China since the 1990s, driven by the increasing domestic and international demand for organic products. Quantification of the environmental benefits and production performances of organic agriculture on a national scale helps to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimum impacts on the environment. Data of organic production for 2013 were obtained from a national survey organized by the Certification and Accreditation Administration of China. Farming performance and environmental impact indicators were screened and indicator values were defined based on an intensive literature review and were validated by national statistics. The economic (monetary) values of farming inputs, crop production and individual environmental benefits were then quantified and integrated to compare the overall performances of organic vs. conventional agriculture. In 2013, organically managed farmland accounted for approximately 0.97% of national arable land, covering 1.158 million ha. If organic crop yields were assumed to be 10%-15% lower than conventional yields, the environmental benefits of organic agriculture (i.e., a decrease in nitrate leaching, an increase in farmland biodiversity, an increase in carbon sequestration and a decrease in greenhouse gas emissions) were valued at 1921 million RMB (320.2 million USD), or 1659 RMB (276.5 USD) per ha. By reducing the farming inputs, the costs saved was 3110 million RMB (518.3 million USD), or 2686 RMB (447.7 USD) per ha. The economic loss associated with the decrease in crop yields from organic agriculture was valued at 6115 million RMB (1019.2 million USD), or 5280 RMB (880 USD) per ha. Although they were likely underestimated because of the complex relationships among farming operations, ecosystems and humans, the production costs saved and environmental benefits of organic agriculture that were quantified in our study compensated substantially for the

  7. TRANSFORMATION OF MODERN AGRICULTURE INTO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AT SUBAK WANGAYA BETAN, PENEBEL DISTRICT, TABANAN REGENCY, BALI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Dewi Yuliana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the transformation of modern agriculture into organicagriculture at Subak Wangaya Betan, Penebel District, Tabanan Regency, Bali Province.This study is conducted in the perspective of Cultural Studies and the problem is that thedark side of modern agriculture is getting visible. The chemical substances used inagriculture have turned out to result in many problems such as the damage of landquality, the continuous decrease in plant productivity and environment, themarginalization of farmers. Therefore, many farmers have been aware and havetransformed into ecologically organic agriculture as what has taken place at SubakWangaya Betan. The farmers have transformed from modern agriculture into organicagriculture. However, the process of the transformation has left many problems;therefore, a deep study is necessarily conducted to answer various existing questions.The problems in this study are formulated in three basic questions such asfollows. First, how has the process of the transformation from modern agriculture intoorganic agriculture taken place at Subak Wangaya Betan? Second, why has thetransformation from modern agriculture into organic agriculture taken place? Third, whatare the implications and meanings of the transformation from modern agriculture intoorganic agriculture at Subak Wangaya Betan? In general, this study aims at identifyingand comprehending more clearly the transformation from modern agriculture into organicagriculture taking place at Betan Wangaya Subak.This research was conducted using qualitative method with multidisciplinaryapproach in accordance with the paradigm of cultural studies. In the first stage, primaryand secondary data were collected. In the second stage, theories were selected foranalyzing the data. Several critical theories such as the theory of Discourse of Power andKnowledge, the theory of Hegemony and the theory of Deconstruction, which are eclecticin nature, were decided to

  8. TRANSFORMATION OF MODERN AGRICULTURE INTO ORGANIC AGRICULTURE AT SUBAK WANGAYA BETAN, PENEBEL DISTRICT, TABANAN REGENCY, BALI PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Dewi Yuliana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation discusses the transformation of modern agriculture into organicagriculture at Subak Wangaya Betan, Penebel District, Tabanan Regency, Bali Province.This study is conducted in the perspective of Cultural Studies and the problem is that thedark side of modern agriculture is getting visible. The chemical substances used inagriculture have turned out to result in many problems such as the damage of landquality, the continuous decrease in plant productivity and environment, themarginalization of farmers. Therefore, many farmers have been aware and havetransformed into ecologically organic agriculture as what has taken place at SubakWangaya Betan. The farmers have transformed from modern agriculture into organicagriculture. However, the process of the transformation has left many problems;therefore, a deep study is necessarily conducted to answer various existing questions.The problems in this study are formulated in three basic questions such asfollows. First, how has the process of the transformation from modern agriculture intoorganic agriculture taken place at Subak Wangaya Betan? Second, why has thetransformation from modern agriculture into organic agriculture taken place? Third, whatare the implications and meanings of the transformation from modern agriculture intoorganic agriculture at Subak Wangaya Betan? In general, this study aims at identifyingand comprehending more clearly the transformation from modern agriculture into organicagriculture taking place at Betan Wangaya Subak.This research was conducted using qualitative method with multidisciplinaryapproach in accordance with the paradigm of cultural studies. In the first stage, primaryand secondary data were collected. In the second stage, theories were selected foranalyzing the data. Several critical theories such as the theory of Discourse of Power andKnowledge, the theory of Hegemony and the theory of Deconstruction, which are eclecticin nature, were decided to

  9. CERTIFICATION OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR RICE PRODUCTION IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedik Budianta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available To make better the life, it is required safety foods for health. The health foods can be satisfied by organic farming. Organic farming is farming system based on biomass recycling or eliminating the use of materials as a synthetic agrochemical inputs. To determine whether the result of rice called as an organic product needs to be certified by the Organic Certification Board (OCB. According to the Indonesian National Standard (INS 6729: 2013, organic farming systems (OFS are not only limited to not use material agrochemical synthetic, but must meet the requirements of OFS in rice production ranging from cultivating, handling, storage, processing, transportation, labeling, marketing, production facilities and other materials that are allowed start on farm to off farm should be separated from conventional agriculture. The farm is just a negate the use of synthetic agrochemicals without regard to the cultivation process and the system of post-harvest organic results are said to be premium food which is not as organic food, because organic food is food produced from OFS by applying processing practices to preserve the ecosystem of sustainable, control of weeds, pests, diseases, selection and crop rotation, water management, land preparation and planting and the use of biological materials. Thus the system of organic agriculture is a holistic management system to improve and develop the agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. The first step that must be done is the conversion of land for food crops from anorganic to organic farming for 2 years did not get the requisite amount of agrochemical applied to the soil for annual crop and 3 years for perennial crops. If agriculture in paddy soil can control the conventional farms into OFS, then the resulting rice is as an organic product.

  10. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases

  11. IAEA Partners with FAO to Improve Livestock Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unger, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    Sound animal production and health activities contribute to the enhancement of global food security through the transfer and implementation of sustainable livestock production systems using nuclear and nuclear related techniques. FAO/IAEA partnered to help Member States improve their livestock productivity through the early and rapid diagnosis and control of transboundary animal diseases. Timely actions protect farmers’ livelihoods and prevent the spread of diseases. (author)

  12. Global Energy-saving Map of Strong Ocean Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Current (SEC) current, which extends from the surface to about 100 m depth, approaches the Brazilian coast. The SEC splits into two branches near 10°S...19477–19498. FAO (2012). The state of world fisheries and Aquaculture 2012, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome. ISBN 978-92-5...World Bank and FAO. (2009). The sunken billions. The economic justification for fisheries reform. Washington, DC, Agriculture and Rural Development

  13. A Worldwide Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Drained Organic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Nicola Tubiello

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of organic soils, including peatlands, in the global carbon cycle, detailed information on regional and global emissions is scarce. This is due to the difficulty to map, measure, and assess the complex dynamics of land, soil, and water interactions needed to assess the human-driven degradation of organic soils. We produced a new methodology for the comprehensive assessment of drained organic soils in agriculture and the estimation of the associated greenhouse gas emissions. Results indicated that over 25 million hectares of organic soils were drained worldwide for agriculture use, of which about 60% were in boreal and temperate cool areas, 34% in tropical areas, and 5% in warm temperate areas. Total emissions from the drainage were globally significant, totaling nearly one billion tonnes CO2eq annually. Of this, the CO2 component, about 780 million tonnes, represented more than one-fourth of total net CO2 emissions from agriculture, forestry, and land use. The bulk of these emissions came from a few tropical countries in Southeast Asia, and was linked to land clearing and drainage for crop cultivation. Geospatial data relative to this work were disseminated via the FAO geospatial server GeoNetwork, while the national aggregated statistics were disseminated via the FAOSTAT database.

  14. Time to Redefine Organic Agriculture: Can’t GM Crops Be Certified as Organics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husaini, Amjad M.; Sohail, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    The challenges of sustainable food production without damaging the environment for a growing human population have increased considerably. The current agricultural practices involving chemical fertilizers and even organic farming are not sustainable in the long run and can have deleterious effects on the environment. Thus, new, innovative solutions need to be identified and propagated for tackling this. Among such innovations, that can complement conventional as well as organic farming methods, are genetic modification (GM) and aquaculture. Yet, GM technologies often face resistance from civil groups owing to an ‘unknown’ fear, akin to Frankenstein’s monster. How real is this fear? Our discussion rests on basic questions like, why can’t ‘organics’ include GM crops that do not require chemical inputs for cultivation, and can GM crops like Golden rice qualify to be ‘organic’ if cultivated through organic practices? Do we need to rethink organic agriculture in the context of the present and future challenges of 21st century? PMID:29692789

  15. Time to Redefine Organic Agriculture: Can’t GM Crops Be Certified as Organics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjad M. Husaini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The challenges of sustainable food production without damaging the environment for a growing human population have increased considerably. The current agricultural practices involving chemical fertilizers and even organic farming are not sustainable in the long run and can have deleterious effects on the environment. Thus, new, innovative solutions need to be identified and propagated for tackling this. Among such innovations, that can complement conventional as well as organic farming methods, are genetic modification (GM and aquaculture. Yet, GM technologies often face resistance from civil groups owing to an ‘unknown’ fear, akin to Frankenstein’s monster. How real is this fear? Our discussion rests on basic questions like, why can’t ‘organics’ include GM crops that do not require chemical inputs for cultivation, and can GM crops like Golden rice qualify to be ‘organic’ if cultivated through organic practices? Do we need to rethink organic agriculture in the context of the present and future challenges of 21st century?

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF THE METHODS OF INTERNAL CONTROL OF INVENTORIES IN AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Afanasenko A. N.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the necessity of inventories for any organization. The fate of the organization depends on its management effectiveness and its financial position. The organizational peculiarities of internal control in the agricultural sphere have been studied and the ways of improvement of the organizational and methodological mechanisms have been offered for the internal control of inventories in agricultural organizations

  17. Organic agriculture as socially responsible business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Mitar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For decades, the modern world is faced with the need for global, shared responsibility for development, which is in accordance with the needs of people and nature. Every day, the business community is challenged to be more responsible and sustainable. There is a need for continuous work on the integration of economic, social and environmental aspects. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR is not an additional element of business activity, but it's essential and inseparable component, which will be shown in this paper. Organic agriculture in the world is seen as a good tool for the preservation of the environment, and the concept is coherent with CSR. The system of production of organic food must be in sync with the numerous qualitative and quantitative requirements of environmental protection. Organic agriculture can represent a decisive factor in the development of Serbia, but in this area, there is a necessity for more investment, especially in education and the development of existing capacities. Game theory with its models and conclusions ought to provide sustenance to this topic in business and academic research. In this paper, game theory and its models show that investment in organic production as a socially responsible business generates value. By combining producers and processors in the group, additional economic benefits can be achieved, not only for the group, but also for the entire business in which the group operates. The paper is based on the models of Arya and Mittendorf (2006 and Goering (2012, so it represents their combination and therefore the extended version.

  18. Blockchain: The Evolutionary Next Step for ICT E-Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Pin Lin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blockchain technology, while still challenged with key limitations, is a transformative Information and Communications Technology (ICT that has changed our notion of trust. Improved efficiencies for agricultural sustainable development has been demonstrated when ICT-enabled farms have access to knowledge banks and other digital resources. UN FAO-recommended ICT e-agricultural infrastructure components are a confluence of ICT and blockchain technology requirements. When ICT e-agricultural systems with blockchain infrastructure are immutable and distributed ledger systems for record management, baseline agricultural environmental data integrity is safeguarded for those who participate in transparent data management. This paper reviewed blockchain-based concepts associated with ICT-based technology. Moreover, a model ICT e-agriculture system with a blockchain infrastructure is proposed for use at the local and regional scale. To determine context specific technical and social requirements of blockchain technology for ICT e-agriculture systems, an evaluation tool is presented. The proposed system and tool can be evaluated and applied to further developments of e-agriculture systems.

  19. Assessing Sustainability of Smallholder Beef Cattle Farming in Indonesia: A case study using the FAO SAFA Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gayatri, Siwi; Gassó-Tortajada, Vicent; Vaarst, Mette

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to assess the sustainability of smallholder beef cattle farms in Indonesia, where there is a national goal to improve the country’s beef self-sufficiency, and to explore and discuss potential improvement limitations and solutions. This article presents a sustainability assessment...... based on the FAO SAFA (Sustainability Assessment of Food and Agriculture Systems) of six selected family farms representing three types of family farming systems (with only family labour; with hired labour; and with hired labour and a 'middleman in marketing system'). Individual structured interviews...... based on the SAFA guidelines were conducted and the results analysed with the SAFA Tool software. The results showed that the SAFA sustainability performance generally scored better in the farming system with relatively more resources and hired labour, and the household head also working as middleman...

  20. Fields of progress: Nuclear techniques and food security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dargie, J.

    2000-01-01

    Isotopes and ionizing radiation have been used throughout the past half century to provide practical solutions to many issues and challenges facing the world's food and agricultural development. Since the mid-1960s, the IAEA and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) have worked together through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, using their combined technical and managerial expertise and experience to bring the benefits of nuclear technology to farmers and consumers. This article reviews results of selected projects of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division that have contributed to food and agriculture. development. In some areas, it updates previous reports on the work of the Division and the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, which supports the Joint Programme. The article specifically focuses on three of the key strategic issues earmarked for intergovernmental attention at the World Food Summit and earlier at the UN Conference on Environment and Development in 1992. Each can be addressed effectively through nuclear technology that is supported by other technologies, national capacities, and an enabling political and economic environment

  1. The implications of phasing out conventional nutrient supply in organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Jensen, Lars Stoumann; Magid, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Soil fertility management in organic systems, regulated by the organic standards, should seek to build healthy, fertile soils and reduce reliance on external inputs. The use of nutrients from conventional sources, such as animal manures from conventional farms, is currently permitted......, with restrictions, in the organic regulations. However, the reliance of organic agriculture on the conventional system is considered problematic. In light of this, the organic sector in Denmark has recently decided to gradually phase out, and ultimately ban, the use of conventional manures and straws in organic...... agriculture in Denmark. Core focal areas for phasing out conventional nutrients are as follows: (1) amendments to crop selection and rotations, (2) alternative nutrient sources (organic wastes) and (3) increased cooperation between organic livestock and arable farmers. Using Denmark as a case, this article...

  2. The FAOâ s Use of Fear and Forestry as Tools of Neoliberal Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Henry Burke

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis, I study the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nationsâ (FAO) depiction of West African forests in its Forestry Outlook Study for Africa: Subregional Report, West Africa, which attempts to describe all of West Africaâ s forests simultaneously. The FAO is a large international development agency that produces agricultural and environmental information for individual states and other international agencies, such as the World Bank. The FAOâ s forestry studies p...

  3. Human health implications of organic food and organic agriculture: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mie, Axel; Andersen, Helle Raun; Gunnarsson, Stefan; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Quaglio, Gianluca; Grandjean, Philippe

    2017-10-27

    This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall. However, animal experiments suggest that identically composed feed from organic or conventional production impacts in different ways on growth and development. In organic agriculture, the use of pesticides is restricted, while residues in conventional fruits and vegetables constitute the main source of human pesticide exposures. Epidemiological studies have reported adverse effects of certain pesticides on children's cognitive development at current levels of exposure, but these data have so far not been applied in formal risk assessments of individual pesticides. Differences in the composition between organic and conventional crops are limited, such as a modestly higher content of phenolic compounds in organic fruit and vegetables, and likely also a lower content of cadmium in organic cereal crops. Organic dairy products, and perhaps also meats, have a higher content of omega-3 fatty acids compared to conventional products. However, these differences are likely of marginal nutritional significance. Of greater concern is the prevalent use of antibiotics in conventional animal production as a key driver of antibiotic resistance in society; antibiotic use is less intensive in organic production. Overall, this review emphasises several documented and likely human health benefits associated with organic food production, and application of such production methods is likely to be beneficial within conventional agriculture, e.g., in integrated

  4. Joint IAEA/FAO evaluation the Agency's activities in some sectors of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on field evaluation in Kenya, Senegal, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. Special evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A desk review was completed in 1995 of the Agency's activities in the Sub-Saharan region during the previous ten years, covering soil science, irrigation and plant nutrition, plant breeding and genetics, and agricultural biochemistry. As a follow-up of the recommendations of this review, a field evaluation covering activities in Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, as four of the six participants in the first phase of the ongoing regional project ''Increasing Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa'', was conducted in 1996 jointly with the FAO Programme and Budget Evaluation. Ethiopia and Niger were not included in the field evaluation. To date, total disbursement during the last ten years in the 19 projects considered in this evaluation amounted to $2.5 million, evenly distributed in the four countries, plus about $500,000 for training funded outside the projects. Agency inputs included isotope analysers, sample preparation equipment, moisture and density gauges, labelled fertilizers, isotopes and supporting soil laboratory equipment, training of researchers and technicians and expert advice on research trials and on-the-job training on the use of laboratory equipment. Figs, tabs

  5. FAO-56 Dual Model Combined with Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing for Regional Evapotranspiration Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Amri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FAO-56 dual technique for the estimation of regional evapotranspiration (ET and its constituent components (crop transpiration and soil evaporation, for two classes of vegetation (olives trees and cereals in the semi-arid region of the Kairouan plain in central Tunisia. The proposed approach combines the FAO-56 technique with remote sensing (optical and microwave, not only for vegetation characterization, as proposed in other studies but also for the estimation of soil evaporation, through the use of satellite moisture products. Since it is difficult to use ground flux measurements to validate remotely sensed data at regional scales, comparisons were made with the land surface model ISBA-A-gs which is a physical SVAT (Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere Transfer model, an operational tool developed by Météo-France. It is thus shown that good results can be obtained with this relatively simple approach, based on the FAO-56 technique combined with remote sensing, to retrieve temporal variations of ET. The approach proposed for the daily mapping of evapotranspiration at 1 km resolution is approved in two steps, for the period between 1991 and 2007. In an initial step, the ISBA-A-gs soil moisture outputs are compared with ERS/WSC products. Then, the output of the FAO-56 technique is compared with the output generated by the SVAT ISBA-A-gs model.

  6. CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE DEVELOPMENT OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN THE WORLD, THE EU-27 AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to analyze the development of organic agriculture in the world, the EU and Romania, based on the statistical data for the period 2006-2010 and the index, share and comparison methods. Organic agriculture covers 34.04 Million ha at world level, of which 26.99 % in Europe and 32.08 % in Oceania. The largest areas in organic agriculture are in Australia, Argentina, the USA, Brazil, Spain, China and Italy. At world level, there are 1.6 million organic producers, over 63 % operating in Africa and Asia, especially in India, Uganda and Mexico. In 2010, organic food sales accounted for Euro 44.5 Billions of which 50 % in Europe. In the same year, the organic agriculture area increased by 20 % in the EU-27 and reached 9.01 million ha and continues to grow, representing 5.10 % of agricultural land. The larges areas in organic agriculture are in Spain, Italy, Germany and France. In the EU-27 there are 219,290 organic producers of which 40 % in Italy, Spain, Germany and Austria. In 2010, Romania’s area in organic agriculture was 300,205 ha, 2 times higher than in 2006. A number of 10,253 organic operators were registered in 2010, representing 4.67 %, of the EU number. The main organic products are cereals, vegetables, wine, honey, dairy products, representing a chance for Romania’s export on the EU market.

  7. The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    Arbenz, Markus; Willer, Helga; Lernoud, Julia; Huber, Beate; Amarjit, Sahota

    2015-01-01

    The World of Organic Agriculture – Statistics and Emerging Trends (Session at the BIOFACH 2015) Presentations - Introduction (Markus Arbenz) - Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Current Statistics (Helga Willer, Julia Lernoud) - The World of Organic Agriculture: Regulations and Certification Emerging Trends 2015 (Beate Huber, Christiane Mannigel) - Global survey on Voluntary Sustainability Standards (VSS) (Julia Lernoud, Helga Willer) - Global Organic Food & Drink: Market Update...

  8. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  9. Soils in an agricultural landscape of Jokioinen, south-western Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. YLI-HALLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven pedons in an agricultural landscape at elevations 80-130 m above sea level in Jokioinen, south-western Finland were investigated and classified according to Soil Taxonomy, the FAO-Unesco system (FAO, and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources system (WRB. The soils were related to geomorphology of the landscape which is characterized by clayey fields and forested bedrock high areas covered with glacial till. A Spodosol/Podzol was found in a coarse-sandy soil in an esker while the sandy loam in a bedrock high area soils did not have an E horizon. A man-made mollic epipedon was found in a cultivated soil which had a sandy plow layer while clayey plow layers were ochric epipedons. Cambic horizons, identified by structure and redox concentrations, were common in cultivated soils. In a heavy clay soil, small slickensides and wedge-shaped aggregates, i.e., vertic characteristics, were found. Histosols occurred in local topographic depressions irrespective of the absolute elevation. According to the three classification systems, the following catenas are recognized: Haplocryods - Dystro/Eutrocryepts -Haplocryolls - Cryaquepts - Cryosaprists (Soil Taxonomy, Podzols - Regosols - Cambisols - Histosols (FAO-Unesco, and Podzols - Cambisols - Phaeozems - Gleysols - Histosols (WRB.;

  10. Inhibitory Effects of Verrucarin A on Tunicamycin-Induced ER Stress in FaO Rat Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Young Bae

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is linked with development and maintenance of cancer, and serves as a therapeutic target for treatment of cancer. Verrucarin A, isolated from the broth of Fusarium sp. F060190, showed potential inhibitory activity on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells. In addition, the compound decreased tunicamycin-induced GRP78 promoter activity in a dose dependent manner without inducing significant inhibition of luciferase activity and cell growth for 6 and 12 h. Moreover, the compound decreased the expression of GRP78, CHOP, XBP-1, and suppressed XBP-1, and reduced phosphorylation of IRE1α in FaO rat liver cells. This evidence suggests for the first time that verrucarin A inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress in FaO rat liver cells.

  11. Chemical characterization of agricultural supplies applied to organic tomato cultivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, T.C.G.; Nadai Fernandes de, E.A.; Ferrari, A.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    The agricultural supplies used in the organic system to control pests and diseases as well as to fertilize soil are claimed to be beneficial to plants and innocuous to human health and to the environment. The chemical composition of six agricultural supplies commonly used in the organic tomato culture, was evaluated by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results were compared to the maximum limits established by the Environment Control Agency of the S?o Paulo State (CETESB) and the Guidelines for Organic Quality Standard of Instituto Biodinamico (IBD). Concentrations above reference values were found for Co, Cr and Zn in compost, Cr and Zn in cattle manure and Zn in rice bran. (author)

  12. 78 FR 52131 - Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ...] Notice of Funds Availability: Agricultural Management Assistance Organic Certification Cost-Share Program... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This Organic Certification Cost-Share Program is part of the Agricultural Management... Wyoming. The AMS has allocated $1,352,850 for this organic certification cost- share program in Fiscal...

  13. Current state of the employee performance appraisal system in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Venclová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Employee performance appraisal is one of the most important human resource management tools. The first part of the article concentrates on the theoretical background. The second part evaluates the results of the quantitative survey. The aim of the article is to evaluate the use of formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations in the Czech Republic and to test dependencies between selected qualitative characteristics. The results of the survey show that only 12.3% of agricultural organizations (n = 332 use formal appraisal of employees. They also confirm that the application of the formal appraisal of employees in agricultural organizations depends on the size of the agricultural organization (p-value 0.006, Phi coefficient 0.151 and the existence of a personnel department (p-value 0.000, Phi coefficient 0.210. 49.1% of agricultural organizations did not consider formal appraisal important. Only 5.8% of agricultural organizations that do not use any system of formal employee performance appraisal plan its implementation, despite the fact that currently people are considered to be the most important strategic asset of any organization for achieving a competitive advantage.

  14. Evaluation of the Dutch version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS): Responsiveness and Minimally Important Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sierevelt, I. N.; van Eekeren, I. C. M.; Haverkamp, D.; Reilingh, M. L.; Terwee, C. B.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the responsiveness of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and provide data on the Minimally Important Change (MIC) in patients 1 year after hindfoot and ankle surgery. Prospective pre-operative and 1 year post-operative FAOS scores were collected from 145

  15. THE STATUS AND PROSPECTS OF THE ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS MARKET IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Maslak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The modern agricultural market is characterized by an increasing demand for higher quality agricultural products and food. Thus certified organic production was launched in Ukraine, which prohibited the use of chemically synthesized components, genetically modified organisms, etc., and labelling requirements for such products were established. However, experiencing both external and internal demand, the market for organic products in Ukraine is developing slowly. The subject of study focuses on the theoretical, methodological, and practical aspects of forming the organizational-economic basis of organic agricultural products market development in Ukraine. Methodology. Methodological support for the study is based on dialectical and systemic approaches to the study of economic phenomena and processes of formation of the organizational-economic bases of organic agricultural products market development. General scientific and special methods are used, in particular: methods of analogies and comparisons, systematization, statistical and economic, calculation-constructive, program-oriented. The aim of the research is to identify the state of organic agricultural products market in Ukraine and prospects of its further development. The defined goal led to the following tasks: a study of the current state of organic production in Ukraine is carried out; set of problems that hinder its further development are defined; the possible scenarios of this market are identified; prospective tasks, solution of which will contribute to the further development of the market of organic agricultural products in Ukraine, are outlined. According to the results of the conducted research, the following conclusions are made: the tendencies of organic market development in Ukraine are investigated; it is found that the lack of a proper legislative and regulatory framework, a lack of modern market infrastructure, and effective mechanisms of its functioning are holding back

  16. Organic agriculture in a development policy perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelyng, Henrik; Halberg, Niels; Jensen, Henning Høgh

    Farmers growing food with high eco-efficiency may be seen cultivating peace by reducing competition among nations for oil and as producers of other public goods: biodiverse landscapes and ecosystem services with more soil fertility, less water use and less pollution. How does Organic agriculture...... (OA) fare globally on eco-efficiency? Are most African farmers eco-efficient – or may eco-efficient farmers be found everywhere? As OA develops throughout the planet, what does Denmark do beyond Europe? Is organic farming part of our development policy? Do we dilligently share our comparative...

  17. A Review of Organic Farming for Sustainable Agriculture in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Yadav

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the post independence period, the most important challenge in India has been to produce enough food for the growing population. Hence, high-yielding varieties are being used with infusion of irrigation water, fertilizers, or pesticides. This combination of high-yielding production technology has helped the country develop a food surplus as well as contributing to concerns of soil health, environmental pollution, pesticide toxicity, and sustainability of agricultural production. Scientists and policy planners are, therefore, reassessing agricultural practices which relied more on biological inputs rather than heavy usage of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Organic farming can provide quality food without adversely affecting the soil’s health and the environment; however, a concern is whether large-scale organic farming will produce enough food for India’s large population. Certified organic products including all varieties of food products including basmati rice, pulses, honey, tea, spices, coffee, oilseeds, fruits, cereals, herbal medicines, and their value-added products are produced in India. Non edible organic products include cotton, garments, cosmetics, functional food products, body care products, and similar products. The production of these organic crops and products is reviewed with regard to sustainable agriculture in northern India.

  18. Usage Possibilities of Insecticide Effective Biocidals in Organic Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Şimşek, Muharrem; Yağcı, Mürşide; Yaşarer, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    In conventional agriculture it is aimed that mainly increase in the amount of products, synthetic chemicals and fertilizers are used extensively to provide it. Today, terms such as safe food, human and environment health have become more important. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the share of organic agriculture which have less negative impacts to human health and environment, and sustainable use of natural resources. Herein environmentally insecticide effective biocidals to pest contr...

  19. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet.

  20. How the Organic Food System Supports Sustainable Diets and Translates These into Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strassner, Carola; Cavoski, Ivana; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Kahl, Johannes; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Lairon, Denis; Lampkin, Nicolas; Løes, Anne-Kristin; Matt, Darja; Niggli, Urs; Paoletti, Flavio; Pehme, Sirli; Rembiałkowska, Ewa; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Organic production and consumption provide a delineated food system that can be explored for its potential contribution to sustainable diets. While organic agriculture improves the sustainability performance on the production side, critical reflections are made on how organic consumption patterns, understood as the practice of people consuming significant amounts of organic produce, may also be taken as an example for sustainable food consumption. The consumption patterns of regular organic consumers seem to be close to the sustainable diet concept of FAO. Certain organic-related measures might therefore be useful in the sustainability assessment of diets, e.g., organic production and organic consumption. Since diets play a central role in shaping food systems and food systems shape diets, the role of organic consumption emerges as an essential topic to be addressed. This role may be based on four important organic achievements: organic agriculture and food production has a definition, well-established principles, public standards, and useful metrics. By 2015, data for organic production and consumption are recorded annually from more than 160 countries, and regulations are in force in more than 80 countries or regions. The organic food system puts the land (agri-cultura) back into the diet; it is the land from which the diet in toto is shaped. Therefore, the organic food system provides essential components of a sustainable diet. PMID:26176912

  1. Time to Redefine Organic Agriculture: Can’t GM Crops Be Certified as Organics?

    OpenAIRE

    Amjad M. Husaini; Muhammad Sohail

    2018-01-01

    The challenges of sustainable food production without damaging the environment for a growing human population have increased considerably. The current agricultural practices involving chemical fertilizers and even organic farming are not sustainable in the long run and can have deleterious effects on the environment. Thus, new, innovative solutions need to be identified and propagated for tackling this. Among such innovations, that can complement conventional as well as organic farming method...

  2. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  3. From grassroots movement to state-coordinated market strategy: the transformation of organic agriculture in China

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Thiers

    2002-01-01

    The production, certification, and marketing of organic agriculture developed slowly in the West as a nongovernmental, community-based response to concerns over food safety and the environmental impacts of chemical agriculture. The current emergence of organic agriculture in less-developed nations is following a very different trajectory owing to the presence of an established global market for organic products and the developmental goals of interventionist states. In this paper I examine the...

  4. Technical Workshop on Remediation of Radioactive Contamination in Agriculture, IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria, 17-18 October 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The year 2016 marks the fifth anniversary of the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (NPP) and the 30th anniversary of the accident at the Chernobyl NPP. A Technical Workshop on Remediation of Radioactive Contamination in Agriculture was coorganised by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and the National Agriculture and Food Research Organization of Japan (NARO) and held at the IAEA headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 17 to 18 October 2016. Over 100 experts from around the world participated in the event. All presentations and discussions focused on research results and practical experience from Japan and from countries affected by Chernobyl NPP accident. This event was a great success in promoting and sharing knowledge and experience related to remediation of radioactive contamination in food and agriculture. From an agricultural perspective, the impacts of these two major accidents are related to caesium radionuclides, specifically "1"3"7Cs, which is a relatively long lived isotope with a half-life of some thirty years. Research and technical efforts to remediate and ameliorate the impact of radioactivity on agricultural production aim to minimize and prevent contamination of foods and other commodities, and further to assist the social and economic recovery of affected rural communities by enabling sustainable production. However, these efforts are not widely appreciated outside the affected areas

  5. THE ORGANIC AGRICULTURE – A WAY TO PROTECT THE ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TABITA CORNELIA ADAMOV

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The future of the agriculture is a problem very frequently discussed by the specialists. During these debates, the organic agriculture has an advantage. The organic agriculture is taking into consideration two aspects: the human being and the environment. It is based on the prohibition of using chemicals like pesticides, herbicides or chemical fertilizers. This will offer healthy and natural products, but also will protect the environment. The usage of chemicals harms the environment and they remain in the soil for a long time. The substances used to protect the crops destroy the biodiversity, killing the insects, not only the harmful ones. The preservation of the biodiversity and the quality of the environment is an important objective for the beginning of this millennium, extended by the concern for the population health, for food safety assurance and for the improvement of life conditions. The existence of the future human society depends on applying in practice the concept of lasting economical development.

  6. Urban agriculture in Paris It is culture gardening! C’est la culture à la culture! L’esperienza dei Jardins Partagés a Parigi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Caggiano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture plays a critical role in public health in urban contexts, where the majority of the world population now lives, helping to assure food security in developing countries and providing ecological services everywhere (FAO, 2000. However, the new interest for urban agriculture covers different and multifaceted needs and tendencies, as demonstrated by the remarkable urban agriculture experience in the densely built city of Paris.

  7. Certified Organic Agriculture in Mexico: Market Connections and Certification Practices in Large and Small Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar, Laura Gomez; Martin, Lauren; Cruz, Manuel Angel Gomez; Mutersbaugh, Tad

    2005-01-01

    Certification within organic agriculture exhibits flexibility with respect to practices used to demonstrate that a product meets published quality standards. This case study of Mexican certified-organic agriculture finds two forms. Indigenous smallholders of southern Mexico undertake a low-input, process-oriented organic farming in which…

  8. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. GlobWat – a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are

  10. Climate Change and Maize Production: Empirical Evidence from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Madukwe

    Farmers' Adaptation Initiatives to the Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture in Northern ... Environment Department, University of York, United Kingdom, E– mail: ... The 2005 Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Global Forest Resources ... The out migration of indigenous youths to seek for economic opportunities.

  11. Integrated soil, water and nutrient management for sustainable rice-wheat cropping systems in Asia. Report of a FAO/IAEA consultants' meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting on 'Integrated soil, water and nutrient management for sustainable rice-wheat cropping systems in Asia' was held at FAO, Rome, August 22-25, 2000. Five consultants, together with one staff from IAEA headquarters, one staff from IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf, five staff from FAO headquarters, two staff from FAO regional offices, one observer from ACIAR, one observer from Cornell University with expertise in crop, nutrient, soil and water management, attended the meeting. The consultants presented reviews of the situation regarding studies of water and nutrient dynamics in rice-wheat systems in South Asia. These were complemented by a paper on the development of 15 N techniques to study the contribution of N from legumes. The consultants also provided recommendations on the formulation and implementation of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP). Refs, figs, tabs

  12. Effect of organic waste compost and microbial activity on the growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obgonna

    2012-08-02

    Aug 2, 2012 ... mm (FAO, 1984) while the annual temperature ranges from an average ... Faculty of Agriculture, RUST and was treated by allowing it to air- dry for two ..... MR VP Glucose Lactose Sucrose Maltose Probable identity. Large ...

  13. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari; Masoumeh Mohammadzadeh; Stefanos A. Nastis

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude to...

  14. THE POTENTIAL IMPACT OF GROUP CERTIFICATION FOR ORGANIC AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Roxana MUNTEANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In a global market for organic food which in 2011 was estimated to 63 billion US Dollars (Sahota, 2013, smallholding are important as they could fuel further growth. One of the main constraints for organic certification of smallholdings is the cost of certification, which is quite high compared to the turnover. Group certification for organic agriculture is a type of certification which does not require yearly inspection of all farmers and it comes with a smaller price tag for each individual farmer. In several countries such as Canada, India and East African countries the group certification is possible while at the moment in the EU it is not. This article investigates the potential impact of group certification for Romania in the context of the EU still undergoing debate regarding the review of the EU policy on organic agriculture.

  15. Organic agricultural products in Europe and USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodzka Violetta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the most developed countries of Western Europe and North America, the share of organic farming in the food market is between 2% and 6%. The share of organic products on the Polish food market is only 0.33% (Dryjańska E. 2017. The aim of this article is to compare organic agricultural products in the US and EU. The scope of the comparison was covered by the legal regulations for organic production in the mentioned regions and the availability of organic products for customers. In order to highlight differences between the organic product and their traditional counterpart, selected meta-analyzes were conducted by authors in the field of medical and natural sciences. The possibilities of buying organic products are described on the basis of personal experiences of the author as a consumer. The offer of organic products was analyzed on the example of one European country (Poland and the example of several states of America (Colorado, Virginia, New York. The rules for producing organic food in the US are more rigorous than in the EU. The offer of organic and conventional food targeted to the American consumer is comparable. Although Polish consumers have a positive perception of organic food, its supply is significantly different from the US market. The main differences are in distribution channels, product range, price and visual design of organic products.

  16. Tradução e validação do questionário FAOS - FOOT and ankle outcome score para língua portuguesa Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of FOOT and ankle outcome score (FAOS questionnaire into portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mizusaki Imoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: (1 traduzir e validar a versão original da avaliação funcional de tornozelo e pé Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS da língua inglesa para a portuguesa em pacientes com história de entorse de tornozelo em inversão, (2 adaptar culturalmente à população brasileira e (3 correlacionar com o questionário de qualidade de vida SF-36. MÉTODO: O método de tradução e validação utilizado seguiu os critérios descritos por Guillemin et al. Foram incluídos 50 indivíduos com diagnóstico clínico de lesão ligamentar lateral do tornozelo por entorse. RESULTADOS: O questionário FAOS mostrou-se com reprodutibilidade de grau forte para todos os domínios intra e inter-examinador (pOBJECTIVE: (1 to translate and validate the original version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS questionnaire from English into Portuguese in patients with diagnosis of lateral ligament injuries with ankle sprain history,(2 to provide cultural adaptation for Brazilian patients (3 to correlate it with the quality of life SF_36 questionnaire. METHOD: The method of translation and validation followed the criteria described by Guillemin et al. Fifty patients with ankle sprain were included. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: FAOS questionnaire showed good reproducibility for patients with ankle sprain and good reliability for all intraand inter-interviewer sub-scales (p<0.05. The translation and cultural adaptation of FAOS questionnaire had its properties of assessment, reliability and validity measured, showing that this questionnaire is suitable for use in Brazilian patients with lateral ligament ankle injuries.

  17. What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Söderström, Bo; Hedlund, Katarina; Jackson, Louise E.

    2014-01-01

    the physical and biological properties of the soil. Intensification of agriculture and land-use change from grasslands to croplands are generally known to deplete SOC stocks. The depletion is exacerbated through agricultural practices with low return of organic material and various mechanisms......Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks significantly influence the atmospheric C concentration. Agricultural management practices that increase SOC stocks thus may have profound effects on climate mitigation. Additional benefits include higher soil fertility since increased SOC stocks improve......, such as oxidation/mineralization, leaching and erosion. However, a systematic review comparing the efficacy of different agricultural management practices to increase SOC stocks has not yet been produced. Since there are diverging views on this matter, a systematic review would be timely for framing policies...

  18. The Role of Animals in Eco-functional Intensification of Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Eco-functional intensification is understood as building synergies in multi-functional and resilient agricultural systems in harmony with their surrounding environment and human systems, to the benefit of diversified production of food and beyond, as in, for example, ecosystem services. Integration...... of animals into eco-functionally intensified agricultural systems to enhance agricultural, ecological and social systems, can contribute to driving a future sustainable development of organic agricultural and food systems. This approach may respond to challenges of an increasing industrialization...... to respond to current challenges in constantly changing environments, e.g., climate change. A necessary driver in transition towards more eco-functionally intensified agricultural and food systems is a governance system which protect the actors without a voice, e.g., ecosystems, pollinators, animals...

  19. GM Crops, Organic Agriculture and Breeding for Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The ongoing debate about the use of genetically-modified (GM crops in agriculture has largely focused on food safety and genetic contamination issues. Given that the majority of GM crops have been produced to respond to the problem of crop yield reductions caused by diseases, insects and weeds, the paper argues that in those cases, the currently used GM crops are an unstable solution to the problem, because they represent such a strong selection pressure, that pests rapidly evolve resistance. Organic agriculture practices provide a more sustainable way of producing healthy food; however, the lower yields often associated with those practices, making the resultant healthy food more expensive, open the criticism that such practices will not be able to feed human populations. Evolutionary plant breeding offers the possibility of using the evolutionary potential of crops to our advantage by producing a continuous flow of varieties better adapted to organic systems, to climate change and to the ever changing spectrum of pests, without depending on chemical control.

  20. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 74, January 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    I would like to thank all our collaborators in many parts of the world, as well as our staff and colleagues in Vienna and Seibersdorf for a fruitful year 2009. Besides our participation and support to many events and interesting research, field, and knowledge management activities, the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme has been involved in a number of external reviews and is undergoing change as part of a major reform process at FAO and also important restructurings and new leadership at IAEA. It is now 45 years ago that FAO and IAEA joined forces in a partnership through a Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, the oldest example of institutionalized interagency cooperation in the United Nations system. The Joint Division has been developing and is building on the synergies that exist between the mandates of FAO, as the lead agency in food security, agriculture and rural development, and the IAEA, as the global forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nevertheless, during the past two years, as a result of the above reform process, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been subject to a period of much uncertainty about the future of this partnership. I am now very pleased to be able to inform that following an exchange of formal notes between the senior management of FAO and IAEA in mid 2009, the Arrangements between the Directors General of FAO and IAEA for the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture remain in force. This is a confirmation of the strong support that has been received from Member States of both FAO and IAEA during the last two years requesting the continuation of the successful partnership between both organizations

  1. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 74, January 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-01-15

    I would like to thank all our collaborators in many parts of the world, as well as our staff and colleagues in Vienna and Seibersdorf for a fruitful year 2009. Besides our participation and support to many events and interesting research, field, and knowledge management activities, the Insect Pest Control Subprogramme has been involved in a number of external reviews and is undergoing change as part of a major reform process at FAO and also important restructurings and new leadership at IAEA. It is now 45 years ago that FAO and IAEA joined forces in a partnership through a Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, the oldest example of institutionalized interagency cooperation in the United Nations system. The Joint Division has been developing and is building on the synergies that exist between the mandates of FAO, as the lead agency in food security, agriculture and rural development, and the IAEA, as the global forum for scientific and technical cooperation in the peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nevertheless, during the past two years, as a result of the above reform process, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division has been subject to a period of much uncertainty about the future of this partnership. I am now very pleased to be able to inform that following an exchange of formal notes between the senior management of FAO and IAEA in mid 2009, the Arrangements between the Directors General of FAO and IAEA for the Joint FAO/IAEA Division on Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture remain in force. This is a confirmation of the strong support that has been received from Member States of both FAO and IAEA during the last two years requesting the continuation of the successful partnership between both organizations

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF RESERVES INCREASE EFFICIENCY OF MAJOR AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS Krasnodar Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezun Andrey Anatolevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes in detail the method of application of the factor model and to identify reserves increased efficiency of fixed assets. Also in the article the analysis of the samples and to obtain reference values​​. Comparison of results of analysis of the organization with a series of reference values ​​reveals the potential for growth and provide specific recommendations to improve performance. The study will receive a 7-factor regression equation for the full sample, as well as similar equations for small, medium and large agricultural organizations. Differentiation factor 7-dimensional equations on the basis of organizations brings a statistically significant increase in the reliability of the model. These results contribute to the management of scientific research, the effective functioning of plant and equipment, enables to predict the effects of certain factors on the efficiency of the use of the property complex of agricultural organizations.

  3. Nuclear strategies in food and agriculture: 25 years of progress 1964-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-09-01

    This document reviews the activities of the FAO/IAEA Joint Division in the first 25 years of its existence, from 1964-1989. The applications of nuclear methods in food and agriculture are discussed, with separate sections on insect and pot control, on food preservation by irradiation, on animal power, food and clothing, on plant breeding, on soil fertility, irrigation and crop production, and on environmental concerns and agrochemicals

  4. Possibilities of more efficient usage of genetic potential of broilers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and particularly, EU has been specific due to new trends, whereby special attention is focused on regulations and procedures that are adopted by European Union (EU), Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the World Trade Organization.

  5. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  6. Rural Household Attitude towards Traditional Methods of Malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), CABI and Scopus ... Agriculture supports the health of rural households but poor health reduces farmers' ability to ... inequitably distributed because decisions for prevention or treatment are made ... Analysis of “what respondents will do first” during malaria attack showed that only.

  7. Institutional adaptation to drought: the case of Fars Agricultural Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Marzieh; Karami, Ezatollah

    2013-09-30

    Recurrent droughts in arid and semi-arid regions are already rendering agricultural production, mainstay of subsistence livelihoods, uncertain. In order to mitigate the impact of drought, agricultural organizations must increase their capacity to adapt. Institutional adaptation refers to the creation of an effective, long-term government institution or set of institutions in charge of planning and policy, and its capacity to develop, revise, and execute drought policies. Using the Fars Agricultural Organization in Iran, as a case study, this paper explores the institutional capacities and capabilities, necessary to adapt to the drought conditions. The STAIR model was used as a conceptual tool, and the Bayesian network and Partial Least Squares (PLS) path modeling was applied to explain the mechanisms by which organizational capacities influence drought management. A survey of 309 randomly selected managers and specialists indicated serious weaknesses in the ability of the organization to apply adaptation strategies effectively. Analysis of the causal models illustrated that organizational culture and resources and infrastructure significantly influenced drought management performance. Moreover, managers and specialists perceived human resources and strategy, goals, and action plan, respectively, as the main drivers of institutional adaptation to drought conditions. Recommendations and implications for drought management policy are offered to increase organizational adaptation to drought and reduce the subsequent sufferings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. 78 FR 46963 - Cooperative Agreement to Support the Food and Agriculture Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... is to contribute to the knowledge base and development of food safety systems globally due to the... can meet the following projected milestones: 1. Contribute to the knowledge base and development of... regular access to enough high-quality food to lead active, healthy lives. FAO's mandate is to raise levels...

  9. The Role of Agricultural Management in Sustaining Zayandeh-rud Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Emami Heidari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Management of agricultural practices plays a vital role in reducing the use of limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions which could result in their sustainability. In this research, the role of managing agriculture in sustaining flow of Zayandeh-rud was studied by calculation of rice water requirement (actual evapotranspiration in paddy fields of Zarrin-shahr by using method of FAO-56 and comparing the results assuming a shift in cropping pattern from rice to other crops. Rice water requirement was estimated at 1485 mm and the volume of water required for irrigation of paddy fields with area of about 6630 Hectare was estimated at 77 MCM. Volume of irrigated waterwas also evaluated by water balance method, confirmed the reliability of FAO-56 method. The results show that, replacing rice or wheat-rice cropping pattern with some possible crops such as bean, maize, walnut, apple and grape decreases irrigation requirements about 27, 15, 24, 29 and 40 MCM, respectively. Generalizing results for the total paddy fields in Isfahan Province with estimated area of about 20000 Hectare will result in an increase of about 3.4 to 9.1 m3/s in Zayandeh-rud discharge during critical months of June to October, when the river flow highly decreases, causing sustainable flow of the river through the year.

  10. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Report of the third research co-ordination meeting of FAO/IAEA/ITALY co-ordinated research programme. Working material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme, on ``Improvement of basic food corps in Africa through plant breeding including the use of induced mutations``, funded by the Italian Governmnet, was initiated in the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of staple food crops of Africa with main emphasis on the indigenous species and local cultivars. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) under the FAO/IAEA/ITALY Co-ordinated Research Programme was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20-24 September 1993 in which 24 persons participated and 18 scientific reports were presented. These included reports from 10 Research Contract holders from Africa, 3 Technical Contract holders from Italy and the update on the backstopping of research carried out at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The reports, and conclusions and recommendations made by the participants are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs.

  11. Improvement of basic food crops in Africa through plant breeding, including the use of induced mutations. Report of the third research co-ordination meeting of FAO/IAEA/ITALY co-ordinated research programme. Working material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    A Co-ordinated Research Programme, on ''Improvement of basic food corps in Africa through plant breeding including the use of induced mutations'', funded by the Italian Governmnet, was initiated in the Joint Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna. The primary objective of this CRP was to breed improved varieties of staple food crops of Africa with main emphasis on the indigenous species and local cultivars. The Third Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) under the FAO/IAEA/ITALY Co-ordinated Research Programme was held in Nairobi, Kenya, 20-24 September 1993 in which 24 persons participated and 18 scientific reports were presented. These included reports from 10 Research Contract holders from Africa, 3 Technical Contract holders from Italy and the update on the backstopping of research carried out at the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf. The reports, and conclusions and recommendations made by the participants are presented in this publication. Refs, figs, tabs

  12. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 500 - Qualifying International Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Pt. 500, App. A Appendix A to Part 500—Qualifying International Institutions Asian Development Bank (ADB) Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, the “World Bank”) International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) International Development...

  13. Animal trypanosomosis: Diagnosis and epidemiology. Results of a FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on the use of immunoassay methods for improved diagnosis of trypanosomosis and monitoring tsetse and trypanosomosis control programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    One of the tasks of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is to promote the use of nuclear techniques for improving disease diagnosis and monitoring disease control programmes in order to optimise animal production in developing countries. An applied research programme was initiated in 1987 with funding from the Government of the Netherlands to validate an ELISA to detect trypanosomal antigens developed by the International Laboratory for Research on Animal Diseases (ILRAD). The test was successfully validated in ten different laboratories in Africa through a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) from 1987-1993 entitled ''Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomosis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods''. Results indicated a reasonable, but at times variable sensitivity and specificity (published in IAEA-TECDOC-707). During an additional two-year period (1993-1995) the IAEA Department of Technical Co-operation and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture provided support for a Regional Technical Co-operation Project (TCP) to strengthen disease diagnostic capabilities in the National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) with a special emphasis on the diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Results of the TCP were published in IAEA-TECDOC-925 and were encouraging enough to request additional funding from the Government of the Netherlands for a five-year programme to enable application of the assay as a tool for monitoring disease control programmes in Africa. The results of the latter programme are reported in the present publication together with a number of review articles on the diagnostic and epidemiological aspects of the disease in African livestock

  14. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  15. Using CASE-technologies in the simulation of business organization in the agricultural sector

    OpenAIRE

    Karpov, Valery; Mozzherina, Nadezhda; Andreeva, Elena

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose the organization of the structural analysis of the business processes of small businesses and agricultural cooperatives agricultural sector. The content of the business processes in these economic entities at the time of the study, an assessment is the effectiveness of their interactions revealed negative aspects, offers an effective organizational structure that combines business processes entrepreneurs and agricultural cooperatives.

  16. Supporting Innovation in Organic Agriculture: A European Perspective Using Experience from the SOLID Project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padel, Susanne; Vaarst, Mette; Zaralis, K.

    2015-01-01

    quality forage is vitally important, but farmers showed a lack of confidence in the reliability of forage production both in quantity and quality. We conclude that the systems framework improves the understanding of innovation processes in organic agriculture. Farmer-led research is an effective way......Organic farming is recognized as one source for innovation helping agriculture to develop sustainably. However, the understanding of innovation in agriculture is characterized by technical optimism, relying mainly on new inputs and technologies originating from research. The paper uses...... the alternative framework of innovation systems describing innovation as the outcome of stakeholder interaction and examples from the SOLID (Sustainable Organic Low-Input Dairying) project to discuss the role of farmers, researchers and knowledge exchange for innovation. We used a farmer-led participatory...

  17. Report from the FAO/IAEA Plant Breeding and Genetics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In spite of a financial crisis of the UN-system, we were able to keep up essential activities. The co-ordinated research programme on cereal improvement using doubled-haploids but also heterosis from induced mutations started in 1986 and continued during the past year. A new regional co-ordinated research programme for Latin America, primarily for rice improvement had its first co-ordination meeting 30 March - 3 April 1987 in Quito, Ecuador. The co-ordinated research programme for identification and use of induced semi-dwarf mutants as alternative genetic sources for rice breeding completed its work with the final co-ordination meeting at Hangzhou, China, July 1987. In-vitro culture technology for mutation breeding is given high priority, e.g. for improving crop plant resistance to diseases. At the first co-ordination meeting of a new programme in September 1987, it was decided to concentrate efforts first on studying the use of toxins for in-vitro screening of resistant mutants and comparing toxin resistance with the reaction to pathogen attack under greenhouse and field conditions. Oil seeds and industrial crops have unfortunately so far received lower priority in FAO/IAEA projects, but we now look forward with some optimism to establish a global network on sesame improvement, in co-operation with the FAO Plant Production and Protection Division. A consultants meeting for this purpose was hosted by IAEA in Vienna in September 1987. The use of mutagenesis to accelerate the domestication of new crop plants - relevant for developing as well as for developed countries - had been subject of an expert discussion already in November 1986 (see MBNL No. 29). FAO and IAEA were advised to pay attention to this important task, but we still have to see whether funds become available. Vegetatively propagated plants like root and tuber crops, bananas and plantains, or woody perennials are looked upon frequently as a particular domaine of mutation breeding, which is not yet

  18. タイにおけるGood Agricultural Practices(GAP)の発展 : GAP対象品目に関する事例研究

    OpenAIRE

    Pongvinyoo, Pongthong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose and Objectives Good Agricultural Practices or GAP is a global appropriate cultivation method for the farmers to conduct food safety. It is an appropriate on-farm into farm gate cultivation management included, farm inputs selection, farm management, until post-harvest management. GAP aims to encourage the farmers to produce the safety agricultural products for the consumers. After FAO introduced GAP for a period of time, it become one of the minimum requirements for the agricultur...

  19. Hydrochemistry of surface water and groundwater from a fractured ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Groundwater contamination decreases the amount of available groundwater ...... ture; Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO Irrigation and Drainage, paper No. ... province); The 1st IWA Malaysia Young Water Profes- sionals Conference ...

  20. Prioritisation of food-borne parasites in Europe, 2016.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwknegt, Martijn; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Graham, Heather; Robertson, Lucy J; van der Giessen, Joke Wb; The Euro-Fbp Workshop Participants

    Background and aimsPriority setting is a challenging task for public health professionals. To support health professionals with this and in following a recommendation from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and World Health Organization (WHO), 35 European

  1. ECOLOGICAL APPROACHES IN THE ORGANIC AGRICULTURAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The permaculture includes landscape shaping, terrace formation, establishment of raised planes and hilly beds. Sepp Holzer’s permaculture has been practices since 1962, having its followers in Columbia, Thailand, Brazil, the USA and Scotland, etc. Important specifics of the Fukuoka method consists of the requirement that the agricultural farm is close to nature, without any attempts to conquer or improve it, whence the method’s name “natural”, i.e. real or natural. In his book entitled “The One-Straw Revolution” the author examines the issues of natural agriculture. The Biodynamic French Intensive method of vegetable gardening combines two gardening traditions: biodynamics, created in the 1920s by Rudolph Steiner, and French intensive gardening, a method practiced by 19th century farmers on the outskirts of Paris. British horticulturist Alan Chadwick bought these methods to the United States in the 1960s and coined the term biointensive. This style of organic gardening focuses on sustainable, high productivity using minimal space.

  2. Importance of rapid testing to combat the global threat of bird flu.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, A.

    2006-01-01

    One of the important outcomes of the recently held meeting of the World Heatlh Organization (EHO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the World Organization of Animal Heath (OIE) and the World Bank in Genevan November 7- 9, 2005, on the threat of avian inluenza

  3. A Collaborative framework for managing and publishing KOS

    OpenAIRE

    Stellato, Armando; Morshed, Ahsan; Johannsen, Gudrun; Jaques, Yves; Caracciolo, Caterina; Rajbhandari, Sachit; Subirats-Coll, Imma; Keizer, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. In the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the need to revamp its popular agriculture vocabulary AGROVOC using Semantic Web knowledge representation standards combined with the need to provide a collaborative environment for development and maintenance purposes, pushed forward the realization of a dedicated AGROVOC thesaurus maintenance tool. With the progressive standardization of the AGROVOC knowledge model, following recent Simple Knowledge Organization...

  4. Eco-Virological Approach for Assessing the Role of Wild Birds in the Spread of Avian Influenza H5N1 along the Central Asian Flyway

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases, Animal Production and Health Division, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy , 2...study. We are grateful to FAO staff including E. Moncada, F. DiLernia, C. AbiNassif, R. Bargigia, L. Ferrara , P. Markanday, D. Mangione, D. Burgeon, V...Programme for Transboundary Animal Diseases. Rome, Italy : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Animal Health Service, Animal

  5. Should Organic Agriculture Maintain Its Opposition to GM? New Techniques Writing the Same Old Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fern Wickson

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Biotechnology is diversifying rapidly through the development and application of new approaches to genome editing and ongoing research into synthetic biology. Proponents of biotechnology are enthusiastic about these new developments and have recently begun calling for environmental movements to abandon their campaigns against Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs and for organic agriculture to reconsider its exclusion of Genetic Modification (GM. In this article, we begin by describing the diversity of practices that cluster under both the terms GM and organic and show that although there is a clash of different cultures of agriculture at stake, there is also a spectrum of practices existing between these two poles. Having established the terms of the debate, we then go on to analyse whether the organic movement should reconsider its position on GM in light of new plant breeding techniques (NPBTs, using the criteria highlighted as important by the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM in their 2016 draft revised position on GMOs. Through this analysis, we suggest that given the in-context-trajectory of biotechnology development, the continued narrow framing of agricultural problems and the ongoing exclusion of important socio-economic, political and cultural dimensions, the organic movement is justified in maintaining its opposition to GM in the face of NPBTs.

  6. utilization of Western and Traditional healthcare services by farm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PLOUGHMAN

    Most respondent accessed information on Western health care services .... factors to smooth or access to western orthodox health care services? ..... Food and Agricultural Organization(FAO) (2000) Project Concept Proposal - HEAL: Health in.

  7. Organic matter and soil structure in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This publication pertains to management of organic soils (Histosols) in the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). These former wetland soils are a major resource for efficient agricultural production and are important globally for their high organic matter content. Recognition of global warming has led to considerable interest in soils as a repository for carbon. Soils rich in organic matter essentially sequester or retain carbon in the profile and can contribute directly to keeping that sequestered carbon from entering the atmosphere. Identification and utilization of management practices that minimize the loss of carbon from organic soils to the atmosphere can minimize effects on global warming and increase the longevity of subsiding Histosols for agricultural use. Understanding and predicting how these muck soils will respond to current and changing land uses will help to manage soil carbon. The objectives of this document are to: a. Discuss organic soil oxidation relative to storing or releasing carbon and nitrogen b. Evaluate effects of cultivation (compare structure for sugarcane vs. uncultivated soil) Based upon the findings from the land-use comparison (sugarcane or uncultivated), organic carbon was higher with cultivation in the lower depths. There is considerable potential for minimum tillage and residue management to further enhance carbon sequestration in the sugarcane system. Carbon sequestration is improved and soil subsidence is slowed with sugarcane production, and both of these are positive outcomes. Taking action to increase or maintain carbon sequestration appears to be appropriate but may introduce some risk to farming operations. Additional management methods are needed to reduce this risk. For both the longevity of these organic soils and from a global perspective, slowing subsidence through BMP implementation makes sense. Since these BMPs also have considerable societal benefit, it remains to be seen if society will help to offset a part or all

  8. Learning achievements of farmers during the transition to market-oriented organic agriculture in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Owamani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture requires farmers with the ability to develop profitable agro-enterprises on their own. By drawing on four years of experiences with the Enabling Rural Innovation approach in Uganda, we outline how smallholder farmers transition to organic agriculture and, at the same time, increase their entrepreneurial skills and competences through learning. In order to document this learning we operationalised the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, which subsequently informed the collection of qualitative data in two study sites. Our analysis suggests that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach helps farmers to develop essential capabilities for identifying organic markets and new organic commodities, for testing these organic commodities under varying organic farm management scenarios, and for negotiating contracts with organic traders. We also observed several obstacles that confront farmers’ transition to organic agriculture when using the Enabling Rural Innovation approach. These include the long duration of agronomic experimentation and seed multiplication, expensive organic certification procedures and the absence of adequate mechanism for farmers to access crop finance services. Despite prevailing obstacles we conclude that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach provides a starting point for farmers to develop entrepreneurial competences and profitable agro-enterprises on their own.

  9. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M.; Van Velthuizen, H.

    2002-08-01

    After the introduction Chapter 2 presents details of the ecological-economic analysis based on the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zones (AEZ) approach for evaluation of biophysical limitations and agricultural production potentials, and IIASA's Basic Linked System (BLS) for analyzing the world's food economy and trade system. The BLS is a global general equilibrium model system for analyzing agricultural policies and food system prospects in an international setting. BLS views national agricultural systems as embedded in national economies, which interact with each other through trade at the international level. The combination of AEZ and BLS provides an integrated ecological-economic framework for the assessment of the impact of climate change. We consider climate scenarios based on experiments with four General Circulation Models (GCM), and we assess the four basic socioeconomic development pathways and emission scenarios as formulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report. Chapter 3 presents the main AEZ results of the impact of climate change on agriculture. Results comprise environmental constraints to crop agriculture; climate variability and the variability of rain-fed cereal production; changes in potential agricultural land; changes in crop-production patterns; and the impact of climate change on cereal-production potential. Chapter 4 discusses the AEZ-BLS integrated ecological-economic analysis of climate change on the world food system. This includes quantification of scale and location of hunger, international agricultural trade, prices, production, land use, etc. It assesses trends in food production, trade, and consumption, and the impact on poverty and hunger of alternative development pathways and varying levels of climate change. Chapter 5 presents the main conclusions and policy implications of this study

  10. Surface N balances and reactive N loss to the environment from global intensive agricultural production systems for the period 1970-2030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A F; Drecht, G van; Hoek, K W van der

    2005-01-01

    Data for the historical years 1970 and 1995 and the FAO-Agriculture Towards 2030 projection are used to calculate N inputs (N fertilizer, animal manure, biological N fixation and atmospheric deposition) and the N export from the field in harvested crops and grass and grass consumption by grazing

  11. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  12. A Comparison of ASCE and FAO56 Reference Evapotranspiration at Different Subdaily Timescales: a Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzin Parchami-Araghi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Subdaily estimates of reference evapotranspiration (ETo are needed in many applications such as dynamic agro-hydrological modeling. The ASCE and FAO56 Penman–Monteith models (ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM, respectively has received favorable acceptance and application over much of the world, including the United States, for establishing a reference evapotranspiration (ETo index as a function of weather parameters. In the past several years various studies have evaluated ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models for calculating the commonest hourly or 15-min ETo either by comparing them with lysimetric measurements or by comparison with one another (2, 3, 5, 9, 10, 11, 16, 17, 19. In this study, sub-daily ET o estimates made by the ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models at different timescales (1-360 min were compared through conduction of a computational experiment, using a daily to sub-daily disaggregation framework developed by Parchami-Araghi et al. (14. Materials and Methods: Daily and sub-daily weather data at different timescales (1-360 min were generated via a daily-to-sub-daily weather data disaggregation framework developed by Parchami-Araghi et al. (14, using long-term (59 years daily weather data obtained from Abadan synoptic weather station. Daily/sub-daily net long wave radiation (Rnl was estimated through 6 different approaches, including using two different criteria for identifying the daytime/nighttime periods : 1 the standard criteria implemented in both ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models and 2 criterion of actual time of sunset and sunrise in combination with 1 estimation of clear-sky radiation (Rso based on the standard approach implemented in both ASCE-PM and FAO56-PM models (1st and 2nd Rnl estimation approaches, respectively, 2 integral of the Rso estimates derived via a physically based solar radiation model developed by Yang et al. (25, YNG model, for one-second time-steps (3rd and 4th Rnl estimation approaches, respectively, and 3 integral of

  13. Organic matter composition of soil macropore surfaces under different agricultural management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glæsner, Nadia; Leue, Marin; Magid, Jacob; Gerke, Horst H.

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the heterogeneous nature of soil, i.e. properties and processes occurring specifically at local scales is essential for best managing our soil resources for agricultural production. Examination of intact soil structures in order to obtain an increased understanding of how soil systems operate from small to large scale represents a large gap within soil science research. Dissolved chemicals, nutrients and particles are transported through the disturbed plow layer of agricultural soil, where after flow through the lower soil layers occur by preferential flow via macropores. Rapid movement of water through macropores limit the contact between the preferentially moving water and the surrounding soil matrix, therefore contact and exchange of solutes in the water is largely restricted to the surface area of the macropores. Organomineral complex coated surfaces control sorption and exchange properties of solutes, as well as availability of essential nutrients to plant roots and to the preferentially flowing water. DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance infrared Fourier Transform) Mapping has been developed to examine composition of organic matter coated macropores. In this study macropore surfaces structures will be determined for organic matter composition using DRIFT from a long-term field experiment on waste application to agricultural soil (CRUCIAL, close to Copenhagen, Denmark). Parcels with 5 treatments; accelerated household waste, accelerated sewage sludge, accelerated cattle manure, NPK and unfertilized, will be examined in order to study whether agricultural management have an impact on the organic matter composition of intact structures.

  14. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme continues to strengthen our joint efforts to protect human health and facilitate international agricultural trade by providing technical support and training for the development and application of international standards. These activities are primarily related to the use of ionizing radiation, the implementation of traceability systems and analytical techniques to control food contaminants and improve food safety, and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture. These efforts include on-going activities initiated by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in relation to the Japanese nuclear emergency, including the dissemination of information on food monitoring and food restrictions, the consideration of agricultural countermeasures and remediation strategies to mitigate immediate and longer term effects arising from radionuclide contamination, and the interpretation of standards related to radiological protection of the public. These activities are carried out within the context of the FAO's obligations as a full party to the IAEA Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, and under the FAO cosponsored Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (EPR JPLAN 2010), which provides the management tools for coordinating international organization arrangements in preparing for, and responding to, nuclear or radiological emergencies. Additional details are provided in the Past Events section of this Newsletter.

  15. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 15, No. 1, January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-01-15

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme continues to strengthen our joint efforts to protect human health and facilitate international agricultural trade by providing technical support and training for the development and application of international standards. These activities are primarily related to the use of ionizing radiation, the implementation of traceability systems and analytical techniques to control food contaminants and improve food safety, and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture. These efforts include on-going activities initiated by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division in relation to the Japanese nuclear emergency, including the dissemination of information on food monitoring and food restrictions, the consideration of agricultural countermeasures and remediation strategies to mitigate immediate and longer term effects arising from radionuclide contamination, and the interpretation of standards related to radiological protection of the public. These activities are carried out within the context of the FAO's obligations as a full party to the IAEA Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, and under the FAO cosponsored Joint Radiation Emergency Management Plan of the International Organizations (EPR JPLAN 2010), which provides the management tools for coordinating international organization arrangements in preparing for, and responding to, nuclear or radiological emergencies. Additional details are provided in the Past Events section of this Newsletter.

  16. 75 FR 48928 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www... contact: Dr. Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  17. Effect of different substrates for organic agriculture in seedling development of traditional species of Solanaceae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olaria, M.; Nebot, J.F.; Molina, H.; Troncho, P.; Lapeña, P.; Llorens, E.

    2016-11-01

    Sowing of seedlings is one of the most critical processes on the establishment of a crop, since the future development of the plant depends largely on its health when is planted on the field. Moreover, organic agriculture has to deal with the low application of fertilizers and pesticides, which hinder the growth of seedlings. In this work, we studied the big influence of different mixtures of substrates suitable for organic agriculture based on peat, coconut husk and vermicompost in traditional varieties of tomato, pepper and eggplant. Our results indicate that the use of coconut husk based substrates in organic agriculture can reduce the growth of seedlings between 20 and 30% compared with peat-based substrates. Moreover, the plants growth in this substrate showed lower levels of chlorophyll and lower weight, but the results are strongly dependent on the species tested. Comparison between traditional plants demonstrates that traditional varieties are strongly influenced by the substrate, whereas the growth of a commercial variety of tomato barely differs when different substrates are used. The election of the substrate in organic agriculture is critical to the correct development of the plant, especially when traditional plant varieties are used. (Author)

  18. Effect of different substrates for organic agriculture in seedling development of traditional species of Solanaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Molina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sowing of seedlings is one of the most critical processes on the establishment of a crop, since the future development of the plant depends largely on its health when is planted on the field. Moreover, organic agriculture has to deal with the low application of fertilizers and pesticides, which hinder the growth of seedlings. In this work, we studied the big influence of different mixtures of substrates suitable for organic agriculture based on peat, coconut husk and vermicompost in traditional varieties of tomato, pepper and eggplant. Our results indicate that the use of coconut husk based substrates in organic agriculture can reduce the growth of seedlings between 20 and 30% compared with peat-based substrates. Moreover, the plants growth in this substrate showed lower levels of chlorophyll and lower weight, but the results are strongly dependent on the species tested. Comparison between traditional plants demonstrates that traditional varieties are strongly influenced by the substrate, whereas the growth of a commercial variety of tomato barely differs when different substrates are used. The election of the substrate in organic agriculture is critical to the correct development of the plant, especially when traditional plant varieties are used.

  19. Climate Smart Agriculture through Isotopic and Nuclear Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montavon, Matthew

    2014-07-15

    The present world population of 7 billion is expected to reach 9 billion by the year 2050. Most of this increase will occur in developing countries, where the majority of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods. With two billion additional people to feed in the next 40 years, there is an urgent need for the world to grow 70% more food to feed everyone adequately. This is a tough challenge, as the effects of climate change are expected to worsen, bringing more droughts, floods, heat waves, unreliable rainfall distribution and extreme weather events, all of which threaten food security and make agricultural production unpredictable. To address these critical issues of climate change and population growth, FAO and the global scientific community are helping farmers to develop climate-smart agricultural practices and systems which can adapt to the impacts of climate change and variability (i.e., climate change adaptation), while having the potential to increase food production and at the same time reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (i.e., climate change mitigation); which potentially contribute to climate change.

  20. Climate Smart Agriculture through Isotopic and Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montavon, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The present world population of 7 billion is expected to reach 9 billion by the year 2050. Most of this increase will occur in developing countries, where the majority of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihoods. With two billion additional people to feed in the next 40 years, there is an urgent need for the world to grow 70% more food to feed everyone adequately. This is a tough challenge, as the effects of climate change are expected to worsen, bringing more droughts, floods, heat waves, unreliable rainfall distribution and extreme weather events, all of which threaten food security and make agricultural production unpredictable. To address these critical issues of climate change and population growth, FAO and the global scientific community are helping farmers to develop climate-smart agricultural practices and systems which can adapt to the impacts of climate change and variability (i.e., climate change adaptation), while having the potential to increase food production and at the same time reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (i.e., climate change mitigation); which potentially contribute to climate change

  1. Environmental services generated by organic agriculture: A view from the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigeriego, Elena; Cabezas, José; Labrador, Juana; María Moreno, Marta

    2017-04-01

    This work aims to develop an alternative methodology that enables monitoring the environmental differential that agroecological management involves in order to consolidate feasible payments for environmental services generated by organic agriculture. For this purpose, LANDSAT images have been used, and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) of organic fruit farms, all of them with the same species and the similar edaphic and climatic characteristics, has been compared with the NDVI obtained at other nearby fruit farms under conventional management, all of them in Extremadura (Spain). As a result, we obtained a series of statistical data that allows us to clearly differentiate between these two types of management. Among these data, remarkable differences have been detected regarding the minimum values of NDVI in the non-productive periods of the fruit, which is higher in the organic farms due to the permanent vegetation soil cover, with the subsequent effects on soil protection and carbon sequestration. The conclusions of the paper show that it is possible to distinguish different models of crop management by using satellite images obtained in a quick and inexpensive way. Keywords: LANDSAT images; NDVI; environmental services; agroecology; organic agriculture.

  2. Environmental impacts of organic and conventional agricultural products--are the differences captured by life cycle assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Matthias S; Stoessel, Franziska; Jungbluth, Niels; Juraske, Ronnie; Schader, Christian; Stolze, Matthias

    2015-02-01

    Comprehensive assessment tools are needed that reliably describe environmental impacts of different agricultural systems in order to develop sustainable high yielding agricultural production systems with minimal impacts on the environment. Today, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is increasingly used to assess and compare the environmental sustainability of agricultural products from conventional and organic agriculture. However, LCA studies comparing agricultural products from conventional and organic farming systems report a wide variation in the resource efficiency of products from these systems. The studies show that impacts per area farmed land are usually less in organic systems, but related to the quantity produced impacts are often higher. We reviewed 34 comparative LCA studies of organic and conventional agricultural products to analyze whether this result is solely due to the usually lower yields in organic systems or also due to inaccurate modeling within LCA. Comparative LCAs on agricultural products from organic and conventional farming systems often do not adequately differentiate the specific characteristics of the respective farming system in the goal and scope definition and in the inventory analysis. Further, often only a limited number of impact categories are assessed within the impact assessment not allowing for a comprehensive environmental assessment. The most critical points we identified relate to the nitrogen (N) fluxes influencing acidification, eutrophication, and global warming potential, and biodiversity. Usually, N-emissions in LCA inventories of agricultural products are based on model calculations. Modeled N-emissions often do not correspond with the actual amount of N left in the system that may result in potential emissions. Reasons for this may be that N-models are not well adapted to the mode of action of organic fertilizers and that N-emission models often are built on assumptions from conventional agriculture leading to even greater

  3. Food production - Present and future development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamm, C.G.

    1974-01-01

    This year the joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture celebrates its 10th anniversary. The aim of these two United Nations organizations is to ensure that the technical services of both FAO and IAEA are fully co-ordinated and their programmes are designed to assist developing Member States to apply isotopes and radiation techniques to the solution of food and agricultural problems. More precisely, the medium-term objectives of the Joint Division are to exploit the potential of nuclear techniques in research and development for increasing and stabilizing agricultural production, improving food quality, protecting agricultural products from spoilage and losses and minimizing pollution of food and the agricultural environment. This account of what radioisotopes can do for man in the agricultural field is therefore to a great extent a review of the activities of the Joint Division and a prediction of its future fields of emphasis, especially in the light of the present long-range and world-wide food crisis. (author)

  4. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 84, January 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    On 29 September 2014, a ceremony was held in Seibersdorf, Austria to commemorate the 50th Anniversary of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, as well as the ground-breaking for the renovation of the IAEA’s Nuclear Sciences and Applications laboratories at Seibersdorf – including the FAO/IAEA Agriculture & Biotechnology Laboratories. The enormous contributions of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division during the past 50 years were also honoured, serving stakeholders worldwide to meet the changing needs of Member States through the peaceful uses of nuclear technologies based on the shared goals of our two parent organizations and the five strategic objectives of FAO. Established on 1 October 1964, this FAO/IAEA partnership still remains unique, with its key strengths based on interagency cooperation within the United Nations family. It is a tangible joint organizational entity with a fusion of complementary mandates, common targets, a joint programme, co-funding and coordinated management geared to demand- driven and results-based services to its Members and to the international community at large. The mission of the Joint Division has proactively evolved to address new challenges in Member States and nuclear applications continue to provide added value to conventional approaches in addressing a range of agricultural problems and issues, including food safety, animal production and health, crop improvement, insect pest control and sustainable use of finite natural resources. Over the past 50 years, this partnership has brought countless successes with distinct socio-economic impact at country, regional and global levels in Member States. The 50 year anniversary was taken as an opportunity to highlight examples of tangible, sustainable results derived out of this unique partnership – beneficial to Member States of both parent organizations – and to share these with our many stakeholders around the world

  5. Improving food and agricultural production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snitwongse, P.; Lamm, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA and FAO jointly initiated the first in a series of large-scale multi-faceted agricultural field projects using nuclear techniques in agricultural sciences. The first project, in Yugoslavia, served as a model for future ones in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, Venezuela, and Thailand. The Thailand project - for the time being the last one of this series - started in January 1986 for a 5-year period, the project carries major objectives centering on the use of isotopes, radiation, and related technologies in three particular areas: Mutation breeding. Scientists are aiming to generate new genetic sources of disease-resistant varieties of crops that are economically important; Soil Science. Aims are to help farmers make the best use of fertilizers, biofertilizers, and water, and to maximize biological nitrogen fixation and the use of local rock phosphates as sources of crop nutrients; Animal science. Project scientists are aiming to improve livestock productivity on small farms

  6. Grain-size distribution of surface sediments of climbing and falling ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    45

    The climbing and falling dunes distributing in the wide valleys of China's Yarlung. 64. Zangbo River ...... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). 2006. The state of ... Global land use change, economic globalization, and. 450 the looming ...

  7. THEORY OF CONCEPTUAL APPARATUS MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS ON THE BASIS OF REGISTRATION AND ANALYTICAL COMPLEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobiljon Barview

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the theory of management accounting unit of the agricultural organizations on the basis of accounting and analytical complex. With the development of modern economic relations of agricultural activity as a traditional sector of the economy, it is exposed to an active state regulation, which is manifested in a particular system of information and analytical support for accounting and control of enterprises in this industry. Agricultural organizations in the conditions of market economy is largely dependent on reliable information and analytical data.

  8. 77 FR 16806 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... related to the 20th Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following... CCRVDF CONTACT: Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  9. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-15

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  10. Training in radioisotope uses for agricultural investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1966-01-01

    Full text: Seventeen students from Cambodia, the Republic of China, India, Israel, Pakistan, the Philippines, Syria, Thailand and the United Arab Republic attended an inter-regional training course on the use of radioisotopes in soil and plant investigations in Manila, Philippines. Held from 3 October to 25 November 1966, the course was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) under the UN Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance. During the first three weeks, the students, most of whom had graduate training or experience in agricultural research, were taught the basic characteristics of isotopes and the techniques of measuring radiation. Lectures and practical laboratory exercises in the more specialized studies of soil-plant relations took up the rest of the time. Some of the topics covered were: field and water culture experiments, measurement of nutrient in the soil, autoradiography of plant materials, plant mutation and breeding, use of radioisotopes in the study of photosynthesis and plant growth, nuclear techniques for determining soil moisture and density, the use of labelled fertilizer in studying the efficient utilization of fertilizer, etc. Dr. Getulio B. Viado, Head of the Training Institute, Philippine Atomic Energy Commission, was Director of the course, while Dr. Shaukat Ahmed, Director of the Atomic Research Centre, West Pakistan, served as Technical Adviser and as a principal lecturer. The teaching staff consisted of Philippine scientists and three visiting professors: Dr. Victor Middelboe of the IAEA Seibersdorf Laboratory, Dr. M.S. Chandraratna of Ceylon and Dr. S.C. Chang of the Republic of China. (author)

  11. AquaCrop-OS: A tool for resilient management of land and water resources in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozovic, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.; Neale, Christopher M. U.; Raes, Dirk; Steduto, Pasquale; Fereres, Elias; Hsiao, Theodore C.

    2017-04-01

    Water managers, researchers, and other decision makers worldwide are faced with the challenge of increasing food production under population growth, drought, and rising water scarcity. Crop simulation models are valuable tools in this effort, and, importantly, provide a means of quantifying rapidly crop yield response to water, climate, and field management practices. Here, we introduce a new open-source crop modelling tool called AquaCrop-OS (Foster et al., 2017), which extends the functionality of the globally used FAO AquaCrop model. Through case studies focused on groundwater-fed irrigation in the High Plains and Central Valley of California in the United States, we demonstrate how AquaCrop-OS can be used to understand the local biophysical, behavioural, and institutional drivers of water risks in agricultural production. Furthermore, we also illustrate how AquaCrop-OS can be combined effectively with hydrologic and economic models to support drought risk mitigation and decision-making around water resource management at a range of spatial and temporal scales, and highlight future plans for model development and training. T. Foster, et al. (2017) AquaCrop-OS: An open source version of FAO's crop water productivity model. Agricultural Water Management. 181: 18-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.11.015.

  12. Assessment of heavy metals and estimation of human health risk in Tilapia fish from Naik lake of Nagpur, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Giripunje, M.D.; Fulke, A.B.; Meshram, P.U.

    /g dw respectively. These levels were above the maximum permissible limits of Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organisation (WHO). The results confirmed that tilapia fish from Naik lake are not safe for human consumption. Further...

  13. EXAMINATION OF EMPIRICAL RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITIES AND AGRICULTURAL POLICY OUTPUTS IN NIGERIA (1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday Brownson Akpan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated relationships between agricultural policy output (proxy by the agricultural productivity index, agricultural GDP/total GDP and crop productivity index and output of industrial sector (proxy by the industrial capacity utilization rate from 1970 to 2012 period in Nigeria. The study employed time series variables obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, National Bureau of Statistics and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO. Augmented Dickey-Fuller unit root test was conducted on the specified time series, and the result showed that all non-growth rate series were integrated of order one, while growth rate series were stationary at level. The two-step Engle Granger method was employed to test for the presence of cointegration among specified variables. The result revealed that variables were not co-integrated. To avoid spurious regression, the specified models for non-growth rate series were estimated at first difference of the log variables. The empirical result revealed that, the industrial activities Granger cause crop activities in Nigeria. Also, the industrial activity has insignificant relationship with agricultural productivity indices in Nigeria. The same result was also obtained for industrial activities and agricultural GDP/total GDP. However, the result further revealed that, the industrial activity has significant negative correlation with the crop productivity index in Nigeria. These imply that, agricultural production had not played significant role in industrial development in Nigeria. This result suggests that, there is no significant impact of the backward integration policy of the agricultural sector on industrial sector in Nigeria. In addition, the result revealed that, agricultural policies during liberalization era (1986 - 2012 shifted the coefficient of the industrial activities positively. Therefore, it is recommended that the agricultural production in Nigeria should be boosted so as to

  14. Impact of long term pesticide usage on soil properties using radiotracer techniques. Proceedings of a final research coordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    An important activity of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is to assist Member States to ensure that, as far as possible, pesticides are used effectively and safely. To this end, FAO has published Guidelines for the Registration and Control of Pesticides, which forms the basis of most national pesticide registration schemes. Among the recommendations is that data should be provided to show that a candidate pesticide has no unacceptable effects on non-target organisms. Soil micro-flora and fauna, because of their central role in maintaining soil fertility, are highly ranked in this context. Concern has been expressed that the data normally presented may not be adequate to predict the effects on soil micro-organisms of repeated, heavy, multiple applications of pesticides that are common in monocultures of crops, such as cotton, maize and rice. Evaluation of the effects of such pesticide regimes requires studies of a range of soil microbial activities, some of which require the use of 14 C-labelled pesticides. Therefore, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture organised a Co-ordinated Research project to assess whether or not there is a need to extend the data requirements for pesticide registration to cover such extreme agricultural practices. This TECDOC summarises the outcome of this programme and includes papers presented at the final Research Co-ordination meeting held in Hangzhou, China, 24-28 May 1999

  15. Induced mutations for human welfare through agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Use of induced mutation for crop improvement started in 1920's. It gained momentum in 1960's when IAEA and FAO started training and guidance and funds were made available for undertaking mutation breeding. IARI established a Gamma Garden and a separate institution was carved by name 'Nuclear Research Laboratory' in 1970's. ICAR Institutes and State Agriculture Universities started using this facility for crop improvement. Similarly, BARC started extending its help for irradiating the seed material specially X-rays and it became one of the major source of generating variability for crop improvement. Induced mutation has resulted in development of more than 3000 varieties of different food, feed, fruit, vegetables and flowers. Apart from direct use of mutants as cultivars, mutants have played a vital role in creating useful variation for application in basic research and gene discovery. It has helped in increasing yield through use of heterosis by inducing male sterility. It has been used for creating useful variation for changing grain composition to improve nutrition and grain quality parameters, for tolerance against abiotic and biotic stresses. Gene sequencing and related technologies have opened up new application of induced mutations. In model organisms induced mutations provide new opportunities for identification of genes/bio-chemical, cellular, developmental or functional pathways. The use of stable isotopes in basic research is of fundamental use in crop improvement. Apart from crop improvement the nuclear technology has been used for numerous other applications in Agriculture such as soil fertility, plant nutrition, use of fertilizer and irrigation, control of insect pest and storage. In recent decades BARC has come in a big way through funding for projects to State Agricultural Universities and ICAR Institutes and has signed MoU's with few of the Agriculture Universities for testing and popularizing their identified field crop varieties in

  16. Metagenomic analysis of soil and freshwater from zoo agricultural area with organic fertilization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aylan K Meneghine

    Full Text Available Microbial communities drive biogeochemical cycles in agricultural areas by decomposing organic materials and converting essential nutrients. Organic amendments improve soil quality by increasing the load of essential nutrients and enhancing the productivity. Additionally, fresh water used for irrigation can affect soil quality of agricultural soils, mainly due to the presence of microbial contaminants and pathogens. In this study, we investigated how microbial communities in irrigation water might contribute to the microbial diversity and function of soil. Whole-metagenomic sequencing approaches were used to investigate the taxonomic and the functional profiles of microbial communities present in fresh water used for irrigation, and in soil from a vegetable crop, which received fertilization with organic compost made from animal carcasses. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the most abundant genera were Polynucleobacter (~8% relative abundance and Bacillus (~10% in fresh water and soil from the vegetable crop, respectively. Low abundance (0.38% of cyanobacterial groups were identified. Based on functional gene prediction, denitrification appears to be an important process in the soil community analysed here. Conversely, genes for nitrogen fixation were abundant in freshwater, indicating that the N-fixation plays a crucial role in this particular ecosystem. Moreover, pathogenicity islands, antibiotic resistance and potential virulence related genes were identified in both samples, but no toxigenic genes were detected. This study provides a better understanding of the community structure of an area under strong agricultural activity with regular irrigation and fertilization with an organic compost made from animal carcasses. Additionally, the use of a metagenomic approach to investigate fresh water quality proved to be a relevant method to evaluate its use in an agricultural ecosystem.

  17. Metagenomic analysis of soil and freshwater from zoo agricultural area with organic fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghine, Aylan K.; Nielsen, Shaun; Thomas, Torsten; Carareto Alves, Lucia Maria

    2017-01-01

    Microbial communities drive biogeochemical cycles in agricultural areas by decomposing organic materials and converting essential nutrients. Organic amendments improve soil quality by increasing the load of essential nutrients and enhancing the productivity. Additionally, fresh water used for irrigation can affect soil quality of agricultural soils, mainly due to the presence of microbial contaminants and pathogens. In this study, we investigated how microbial communities in irrigation water might contribute to the microbial diversity and function of soil. Whole-metagenomic sequencing approaches were used to investigate the taxonomic and the functional profiles of microbial communities present in fresh water used for irrigation, and in soil from a vegetable crop, which received fertilization with organic compost made from animal carcasses. The taxonomic analysis revealed that the most abundant genera were Polynucleobacter (~8% relative abundance) and Bacillus (~10%) in fresh water and soil from the vegetable crop, respectively. Low abundance (0.38%) of cyanobacterial groups were identified. Based on functional gene prediction, denitrification appears to be an important process in the soil community analysed here. Conversely, genes for nitrogen fixation were abundant in freshwater, indicating that the N-fixation plays a crucial role in this particular ecosystem. Moreover, pathogenicity islands, antibiotic resistance and potential virulence related genes were identified in both samples, but no toxigenic genes were detected. This study provides a better understanding of the community structure of an area under strong agricultural activity with regular irrigation and fertilization with an organic compost made from animal carcasses. Additionally, the use of a metagenomic approach to investigate fresh water quality proved to be a relevant method to evaluate its use in an agricultural ecosystem. PMID:29267397

  18. Identification of commercial circuits for marketing of organic agricultural products in Public Ministries at Machala canton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Estrada Martínez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The identification of commercial circuits in the Machala canton contributes to the economic and social development of the members of the San José de Guartiguro agricultural cooperative located in the Guanazón parish of Zaruma canton. The purpose of this paper was to identify commercial circuits for the marketing of baskets of organic agricultural products in nine Public Ministries of Machala. An inquiry was carried out among 138 workers, and the distribution process of the baskets was observed. The program Microsoft Excel 2013was applied to organize data in tables and graphics. Results showed that 84.14% of the workers inquired agreed to purchase the baskets at the Ministries. The implementation of commercial circuits in Machala canton that will favor the access of the members of the agricultural cooperative to institutional markets is proposed. This measure will also enable the workers at the Ministries to acquire organic agricultural products at lower prices in their work place.

  19. A Record of Experience. Catalogue of FFHC/Action for Development Documents, 1971-1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedom from Hunger Campaign, Rome (Italy).

    The FFHC/AD (Freedom From Hunger Campaign/Action for Development) is the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) link with peoples' organizations in the world's poor and rich countries. During its 18 years of activities, FFHC/AD has channelled additional funds collected by private financing agencies in the industrialized countries to rural…

  20. Effect of organic amendments on quality indexes in an italian agricultural soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, R.; Rao, M. A.; D'Ascoli, R.; Scelza, R.; Marzaioli, R.; Rutigliano, F. A.; Gianfreda, L.

    2009-04-01

    Intensive agricultural practices can determine a decline in soil fertility which represents the main constraint to agricultural productivity. In particular, the progressive reduction in soil organic matter, without an adequate restoration, may threaten soil fertility and agriculture sustainability. Some soil management practices can improve soil quality by adding organic amendments as alternative to the sole use of mineral fertilizers for increasing plant quality and growth. A large number of soil properties can be used to define changes in soil quality. In particular, although more emphasis has been given in literature to physical and chemical properties, biological properties, strictly linked to soil fertility, can be valid even more sensitive indicators. Among these, soil enzyme activities and microbial biomass may provide an "early warning" of soil quality and health changes. The aim of this work was to study the effect of preventive sterilization treatment and organic fertilization on enzymatic activities (dehydrogenase, arylsulphatase, beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease) and microbial biomass C in an agricultural soil under crop rotation. The study was carried out on an agricultural soil sited in Campania region (South Italy). At the beginning of experiment sterilizing treatments to control soilborne pathogens and weeds were performed by solarization and calcium cyanamide addition to soil. Organic fertilization was carried out by adding compost from vegetable residues, ricin seed exhaust (Rigen) and straw, singly or in association. Three samplings were performed at three different stages of crop rotation: I) September 2005, immediately after the treatments; II) December 2005, after a lettuce cycle; III) January 2007, after peppers and lettuce cycles. The soil sampling followed a W scheme, with five sub-samples for each plot. Soils were sieved at 2 mm mesh and air dried to determine physical and chemical properties; in addition a suitable amount of soils

  1. DETERMINANTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY GROWTH IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: 1961-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olajide Abraham Ajao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined changes in agricultural productivity in Sub-Sahara Africa countries in the context of diverse institutional arrangements using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. From a time series which consists of information on agricultural production and means of production were obtained from FAO AGROSTAT and rainfall data from Steve O’Connell data base. The information was for a 43-year period (1961-2003; DEA method was used to measure Malmquist index of total factor productivity. A decomposition of TFP measures revealed that the observed increase in the TFP in the sub–Sahara Africa agriculture is due to technological change rather than efficiency change which is the main constrained of achieving higher level of TFP during the reference period. The study further examined the effect of land quality, malaria, education and selected governance indicators such as, control of corruption and government effectiveness on productivity growth. All the variables included in the model are significant with the exception of government effectiveness

  2. Comparative mapping of quantitative trait loci for tassel-related traits ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cultivated area and yield in the country (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, FAO, .... Gene action was judged according to the criteria of Stuber et al. (1987) ..... of tassel branch number in maize and its implications for a selection.

  3. Improving productivity in agriculture. One of the five key areas to sustainable development where progress is possible with the resources and technologies at our disposal today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    Despite progress made since the 1996 World Food Summit that set the goal of halving the number of undernourished people by the 2015, serious food insecurity persists in many parts of the world. Although more food is being produced worldwide than ever before, some 800 million people are still chronically malnourished. Improving agricultural productivity is a driving force for both economic and social development. When agriculture falters, income sources are lost, social ties are disrupted, and, as a result, societies become more mobile. Up-to-date technologies, improved plant and animal stock, and better soil and water management practices not only combat food insecurity, they are also important to achieving sustainable agriculture practices essential to maintaining an appropriate balance between conservation and use of all the resources required to grow crops and raise livestock. Through its programme in Food and Agriculture operated with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) works to enhance capacities at national and international levels for identifying and alleviating constraints to sustainable food security by facilitating development and adoption of nuclear and related biotechnologies. With an annual budget of nearly $10 million, this programme helps Member States to improve productivity in agriculture, particularly through better water and soil management practices, efficient crop nutrition, and control of insect pests

  4. The organic agricultural waste as a basic source of biohydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwuryandari, Lies; Priantoro, E. Agung; Sintawardani, Neni; Astuti, J. Tri; Nilawati, Dewi; Putri, A. Mauliva Hada; Mamat, Sentana, Suharwadji; Sembiring, T.

    2016-02-01

    Biohydrogen production research was carried out using raw materials of agricultural organic waste that was obtained from markets around the Bandung city. The organic part, which consisted of agricultural waste material, mainly fruit and vegetable waste, was crushed and milled using blender. The sludge that produced from milling process was then used as a substrate for mixed culture microorganism as a raw material to produce biohydrogen. As much as 1.2 kg.day-1 of sludge (4% of total solid) was fed into bioreactor that had a capacity of 30L. Experiment was done under anaerobic fermentation using bacteria mixture culture that maintained at pH in the range of 5.6-6.5 and temperature of 25-30oC on semi-continuous mode. Parameters of analysis include pH, temperature, total solid (TS), organic total solid (OTS), total gas production, and hydrogen gas production. The results showed that from 4% of substrate resulted 897.86 L of total gas, which contained 660.74 L (73.59%) of hydrogen gas. The rate of hydrogen production in this study was 11,063 mol.L-1.h-1.

  5. Consequences of revised estimates of carotenoid bioefficacy for dietary control of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Eilander, A.; Lieshout, van M.

    2002-01-01

    According to existing recommendations of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO), the amount of provitamin A in a mixed diet having the same vitamin A activity as 1 ?g of retinol is 6 ?g of ß-carotene or 12 ?g of other provitamin A carotenoids. The efficiency of

  6. Securing a better future for all: Nuclear techniques for global development and environmental protection. NA factsheet on food and agriculture: Building better agriculture one atom at a time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    In a world facing the dilemmas posed by exponential population growth and changing climates, nuclear technology offers possible avenues to solve production problems, protect soil and water resources and conserve biodiversity, which, in turn, means increased hope for global food security. Application of nuclear technology has a proven record in increasing agricultural production. Higher and more reliable yields not only improve farmers' livelihoods, they mean better quality and safer food for consumers. The methods used vary: isotope measurements identify and trace the efficiency of crop inputs such as water and fertilizer and of animal feeds; gamma rays sterillize male insects so that when they are returned to the wild they are unable to produce progeny; irradiation stops the growth of pests and expands the shelf life of grains, spices and processed foods; radiation induced mutation speeds up natural genetic changes in crops to support plant breeders; and genetic markers expedite the identification of animal diseases thereby allowing treatment to begin sooner. All of these methods, plus a host of others that come under the heading of nuclear technology, are invaluable tools for agriculture and food production. For almost five decades, the IAEA, together with its partner the FAO, guided development of new nuclear based methodologies, requested by its Member States and facilitated their adaptation, adoption and application. A harbinger of the United Nation's Delivering as One, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division stands as the United Nations' system's only joint venture. It also operates its own agriculture and biotechnology laboratories in Seibersdorf where technical services, R and D and laboratory training activities are conducted in support of the development and transfer of new technologies and their adaptation to local needs and environments.

  7. An Overview of Benefits of Organic Agriculture as a Climate Change ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. It emphasis the use of management practices in preference to the use of off-farm inputs, taking into account conditions requiring locally adapted ...

  8. attitudinal and motivational factors influencing job performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    Key words: Attitude, motivation, female extension agents, job performance. ... profession as factors limiting their job performance include lack of incentives, irregular ... Organization (FAO) survey reports that 95% of agricultural extension services ... Several studies also report the problems with male extension services as ...

  9. Breeding and genetics symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sae-Lim, P.; Kause, A.; Mulder, H.A.; Olesen, I.

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food production sector and it contributes significantly to global food security. Based on Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, aquaculture production must increase significantly to meet the future global demand for aquatic foods in

  10. Amount, composition and seasonality of dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen export from agriculture in contrasting climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graeber, Daniel; Meerhof, Mariana; Zwirnmann, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural catchments are potentially important but often neglected sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM), of which a large part is dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON). DOC is an important source of aquatic microbial respiration and DON may be an important source of nitrogen...... to aquatic ecosystems. However, there is still a lack of comprehensive studies on the amount, composition and seasonality of DOM export from agricultural catchments in different climates. The aim of our study was to assess the amount, composition and seasonality of DOM in a total of four streams in the wet......-temperate and subtropical climate of Denmark and Uruguay, respectively. In each climate, we investigated one stream with extensive agriculture (mostly pasture) and one stream with intensive agriculture (mostly intensively used arable land) in the catchment. We sampled each stream taking grab samples fortnightly for two...

  11. An outline of compilation and processing of metadata in agricultural database management system WebAgris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Bartol

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper tackles international information system for agriculture Agris and local processing of metadata with database management software WebAgris. Operations are coordinated by the central repository at the FAO in Rome. Based on international standards and unified methodology, national and regional centers collect and process local publications, and then send the records to the central unit, which enables global website accessibility of the data. Earlier DOS-run application was based on package Agrin CDS/ISIS. The Current package WebAgris runs on web servers. Database construction tools and instructions are accessible on FAO Web pages. Data are entered through unified input masks. International consistency is achieved through authority control of certain elements, such as author or corporate affiliation. Central authority control is made available for subject headings, such as descriptors and subject categories.Subject indexing is based on controlled multilingual thesaurus Agrovoc, also available freely on the Internet. This glossary has become an important tool in the area of the international agricultural ontology. The data are exported to the central unit in XML format. Global database is currently eccessible to everyone. This international cooperative information network combines elements of a document repository,electronic publishing, open archiving and full text open access. Links with Google Scholar provide a good possibility for international promotion of publishing.

  12. Transitions towards sustainable agriculture: the organic apiculture niche in an Argentinean cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Vila Seoane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that it is possible to transform innovation pathways in natural-resource-based industries towards more sustainable ones. In particular, it employs the socio-technical transitions framework to understand the structural barriers that the industrial agricultural system puts to COOPSOL, an Argentinean cooperative project of organic apiculture. The article is based on qualitative data that systematize, on the one hand, the pressures for continuity and change in the agricultural system. On the other hand, the data reveal the main perceptions of COOPSOL´s actors about the existing structural limits.

  13. Occupational agriculture organic dust exposure and its relationship to asthma and airway inflammation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wunschel, Javen; Poole, Jill A

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have made advances into understanding the complex agriculture work exposure environment in influencing asthma in adults. The objective of this study is to review studies of occupational agricultural exposures including dust, animal, and pesticide exposures with asthma in adult populations. PubMed databases were searched for articles pertaining to farming, agriculture, asthma, occupational asthma, airway inflammation, respiratory disease, lung disease, pesticides, and organic dust. Studies chosen were published in or after 1999 that included adults and asthma and farming/agricultural work or agricultural exposures and airway inflammatory disease measurements. The data remain inconclusive. Several retrospective studies demonstrate agricultural work to be protective against asthma in adults, especially with increased farming exposure over time. In contrast, other studies find increased risk of asthma with farming exposures, especially for the non-atopic adult. Mechanistic and genetic studies have focused on defining the wide variety and abundance of microorganisms within these complex organic dusts that trigger several pattern recognition receptor pathways to modulate the hosts' response. Asthma risk depends on the interplay of genetic factors, gender, atopic predisposition, type of livestock, pesticide exposure, and magnitude and duration of exposure in the adult subject. Longer exposure to occupational farming is associated with decreased asthma risk. However, studies also suggest that agricultural work and multiple types of livestock are independent risk factors for developing asthma. Prospective and longitudinal studies focusing on genetic polymorphisms, objective assessments, and environmental sampling are needed to further delineate the influence of agriculture exposure in the adult worker.

  14. Environmental benefits of medfly sterile insect technique in Madeira and their inclusion in a cost-benefit analysis. Study sponsored by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-11-01

    -spectrum insecticides affect access to the market because of the long harvest intervals and residues in fruit. High damage to fruit crops leads to the abandonment of agriculture, which has negative social and environmental consequences. In 1998, the Regional Government of Madeira, with the support of the IAEA and FAO, through a technical cooperation project implemented the Madeira-Med project aimed at controlling the medfly using an integrated approach based on the sterile insect technique (SIT). A mass rearing and sterilization facility with a production capacity of 50 million sterile males per week was built and is currently in operation. Madeira-Med was referred to as an essential stepping-stone for Madeira fruit production to be able to withstand future challenges. The present study sets out to quantify the different categories of benefits that would be obtained by effectively controlling the medfly using SIT and the costs of the control programme. The economic analysis will evaluate how Madeira-Med benefits society as a whole and not only fruit producers. It includes gains from increase in production volumes and the reduction of production costs, which are direct benefits for the farmers. In addition it includes improvements in environmental quality and health that will benefit both farmers and fruit consumers. Recent cost benefit analyses for proposed insect pest eradication or suppression programmes have included some environmental factors, but a systematic valuation of these factors is new to this study

  15. A Global Geospatial Ecosystem Services Estimate of Urban Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Nicholas; Stuhlmacher, Michelle; Miles, Albie; Uludere Aragon, Nazli; Wagner, Melissa; Georgescu, Matei; Herwig, Chris; Gong, Peng

    2018-01-01

    Though urban agriculture (UA), defined here as growing of crops in cities, is increasing in popularity and importance globally, little is known about the aggregate benefits of such natural capital in built-up areas. Here, we introduce a quantitative framework to assess global aggregate ecosystem services from existing vegetation in cities and an intensive UA adoption scenario based on data-driven estimates of urban morphology and vacant land. We analyzed global population, urban, meteorological, terrain, and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) datasets in Google Earth Engine to derive global scale estimates, aggregated by country, of services provided by UA. We estimate the value of four ecosystem services provided by existing vegetation in urban areas to be on the order of 33 billion annually. We project potential annual food production of 100-180 million tonnes, energy savings ranging from 14 to 15 billion kilowatt hours, nitrogen sequestration between 100,000 and 170,000 tonnes, and avoided storm water runoff between 45 and 57 billion cubic meters annually. In addition, we estimate that food production, nitrogen fixation, energy savings, pollination, climate regulation, soil formation and biological control of pests could be worth as much as 80-160 billion annually in a scenario of intense UA implementation. Our results demonstrate significant country-to-country variability in UA-derived ecosystem services and reduction of food insecurity. These estimates represent the first effort to consistently quantify these incentives globally, and highlight the relative spatial importance of built environments to act as change agents that alleviate mounting concerns associated with global environmental change and unsustainable development.

  16. Impacts of Agricultural Decision Making and Adaptive Management on Food Security in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caylor, K. K.; Evans, T. P.; Estes, L. D.; Sheffield, J.; Plale, B. A.; Attari, S.

    2014-12-01

    Despite massive investments in food aid, agricultural extension, and seed/fertilizer subsidies, nearly 1 billion people in the developing world are food insecure and vulnerable to climate variability. Sub-Saharan Africa is most vulnerable, as approximately 25% of its people are undernourished (FAO/FAOSTAT 2013) and 96% of its cropland is rainfed (FAO 2002). The ability of subsistence farmers to respond to changes in water availability involves both inter-and intra-seasonal adaptation. Adaptive capacity diminishes over the season as decisions are made, resources are used, and the set of possible futures becomes restricted. Assessing the intra-seasonal adaptive capacity of smallholders requires integrating physical models of hydrological and agricultural dynamics with farmer decision-making at fine temporal (e.g. weekly) and spatial (e.g. crop field) scales. However, there is an intrinsic challenge to modeling the dynamics of these sociohydrologic systems, because important and uncharacterized spatial and temporal scale mismatches exist between the level at which the water resource is best understood and the level at which human dynamics are more predictable. For example, the skill of current process-based land surface models is primarily confined to short-term (daily to weekly), national- to regional-scale assessments, and reliable agricultural yield estimates and forecasts for small-scale farming systems remain elusive. In contrast, process-based social science modeling has focused on agent-based approaches that generate fine-scale (individual to community) dynamics over rather coarse time scales (yearly to decadal). A major obstacle to addressing this mismatch is the fundamental fact that the highest skill domain of one framework is essentially unpredictable in the other. We present a coupled sociohydrological observation framework designed to addressing this gap, and demonstrate its utility to understand relationships between climate variability, decision making

  17. A Spatial Data Model Desing For The Management Of Agricultural Data (Farmer, Agricultural Land And Agricultural Production)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taşkanat, Talha; İbrahim İnan, Halil

    2016-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 2000s, it has been conducted many projects such as Agricultural Sector Integrated Management Information System, Agriculture Information System, Agricultural Production Registry System and Farmer Registry System by the Turkish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock and the Turkish Statistical Institute in order to establish and manage better agricultural policy and produce better agricultural statistics in Turkey. Yet, it has not been carried out any study for the structuring of a system which can meet the requirements of different institutions and organizations that need similar agricultural data. It has been tried to meet required data only within the frame of the legal regulations from present systems. Whereas the developments in GIS (Geographical Information Systems) and standardization, and Turkey National GIS enterprise in this context necessitate to meet the demands of organizations that use the similar data commonly and to act in terms of a data model logic. In this study, 38 institutions or organization which produce and use agricultural data were detected, that and thanks to survey and interviews undertaken, their needs were tried to be determined. In this study which is financially supported by TUBITAK, it was worked out relationship between farmer, agricultural land and agricultural production data and all of the institutions and organizations in Turkey and in this context, it was worked upon the best detailed and effective possible data model. In the model design, UML which provides object-oriented design was used. In the data model, for the management of spatial data, sub-parcel data model was used. Thanks to this data model, declared and undeclared areas can be detected spatially, and thus declarations can be associated to sub-parcels. Within this framework, it will be able to developed agricultural policies as a result of acquiring more extensive, accurate, spatially manageable and easily updatable farmer and

  18. FAO -voluntary guidelines on national forest monitoring and its possible effect on measuring, reporting and verification for REDD+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ramirez-Zea

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available During the 23rd session of the FAO-Committee on Forestry (COFO 23 held in July 2016, the voluntary guidelines on national forest monitoring were approved. These guidelines were generated to support FAO member countries on the starting-up and the implementation of their national forest monitoring systems (NFMS. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC, the decision 1/CP.16 encouraged to developing country Parties to undertake actions for REDD+, and requested, inter alia: i to develop a forest reference emission level and/of forest reference level (FREL/REL as a baseline for the emission reductions report, and ii a transparent and robust NFMS. This paper examines the technical assessments from UNFCCC of the FREL/REL submitted by six countries in relation to technical needs for the NFMS setting up. The analysis suggests the need to improve the procurement of ground-base data, to comply the quality of the estimations on forest emission changes, to complete the carbon stocks estimations, and to estimate the associated uncertainties. The strategic and technical planning of the NFMS is also needed, to be able to reach the acceptable preparation level for measuring, reporting and verification system of REDD+, and the FAO voluntary guidelines are a helpful tool for the step-wise approach development.

  19. Research and development of controlled release formulations of pesticides. V.1. Development and evaluation of controlled release formulations of pesticides. Proceedings of a seminar held in Vienna, 6-9 September 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The document contains 31 papers presented at a seminar organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and held in Vienna between 6-9 September 1993. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Geospatial forecast model for tsetse-transmitted animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results indicate that GIS model developed for parasitic diseases based on growing degree day (GDD) concept can be applied to tsetse-transmitted trypanosomosis. GIS for animal trypanosomosis was created using Food and Agriculture Organization – Crop Production System Zones (FAO-CPSZ) database and Normalized ...

  1. Depth distribution of glyphosate and organic matter after 5 years of agroecology transition compared with industrial agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Zamora, Martin; Barbera, Agustin; Castro Franco, Mauricio; Domenech, Marisa; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    The industrial model of agriculture, defined here by its capital intensity and dependence on massive inputs like seeds, fertilizer, and pesticides, is reducing soil organic matter and increasing the inefficiency in agrochemical used. Ecological impacts of industrial agriculture include pollution by pesticides, soil organic matter loss and soil degradation, among many others, with the consequent human health risks. Many of the negative effects of industrial agriculture are remote from fields and farms. The impacts of industrial agriculture on the environment, public health, and rural communities make it an unsustainable way to grow our food over the long term. An alternative approach to the industrial agriculture is the agroecology which has shown promising success on the ground and is actually the only way to ensure that all people have access to sufficient, healthful food. Farming systems designed and managed according to ecological principles can meet the food needs of society while addressing these pressing environmental and social issues. Our concept of agroecological transition is based on increasing resource use efficiency (e.g. fertilizer, pesticides and water), recycling waste or byproducts of one subsystem in another and applying sound? agricultural practices or precision-agriculture technologies. The objective of this work was to compare two production systems: a) industrial agriculture, b) agroecological transition with respect to the impact on the glyphosate load and the organic matter content in the soil and its distribution in depth. The study sites were two field of 15 ha each located at Barrow Experimental Station (38°19´S, 60°15´W). Soil ECa mapping was carried out and the complete experimental area was divided in three ECa classes with similar soil characteristics. Therefore, soil sampling was carried out by zones, based on three ECa classes at each production systems. Soil samples were taken at 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm depth

  2. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 7, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-12-01

    This issue of the Newsletter contains a Feature Article on our participation at the FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators - Building Effective Food Safety Systems in Bangkok, Thailand from 12-14 October 2004. Similar to the First FAO/WHO Global Forum of Food Safety Regulators held in Morocco in January 2002, this Second Global Forum provided the opportunity for food safety regulators from all regions of the world to meet together to consider, discuss and share experiences on food safety issues of concern. The Global Forum was attended by almost 400 participants from over 90 countries and 10 international governmental and non-governmental organizations. The Global Forum presented an excellent opportunity for the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture to report on its food safety and food control activities and to highlight its collaborative efforts in preparedness and response to nuclear emergencies affecting agriculture, including the application of appropriate agricultural countermeasures. This international meeting also provided the opportunity to address one of the recommendations arising from the Working Group Meeting on the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI) by convening a Seminar on the Application of Irradiation for Sanitary and Phytosanitary Purposes immediately prior to the Global Forum on 11 October 2004. The Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Seminar was attended by over 30 participants from 11 IAEA Member States, two representatives from WHO and one representative each from FAO and WHO/PAHO. I would like to note that despite the dissolution of ICGFI in May 2004, our Newsletter contains summaries of this and other ongoing and future activities related to the application of irradiation taking place under the various mechanisms available. These include the sponsoring of visiting scientists, the convening on an ad hoc basis groups of experts to provide independent and authoritative advice, collaboration with

  3. Evaluation of the potential allergenicity of the enzyme microbial transglutaminase using the 2001 FAO/WHO Decision Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mona H.; Hansen, Tine K.; Sten, Eva

    2004-01-01

    All novel proteins must be assessed for their potential allergenicity before they are introduced into the food market. One method to achieve this is the 2001 FAO/WHO Decision Tree recommended for evaluation of proteins from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It was the aim of this study...... to investigate the allergenicity of microbial transglutaminase (m-TG) from Streptoverticillium mobaraense. Amino acid sequence similarity to known allergens, pepsin resistance, and detection of protein binding to specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) (RAST) have been evaluated as recommended by the decision tree...... meets the requirements of the decision tree. However, there is a match at the five contiguous amino acid level to the major codfish allergen Gad c1. The potential cross reactivity between m-TG and Gad c1 was investigated in RAST using sera from 25 documented cod-allergic patients and an extract of raw...

  4. Contaminants in Liquid Organic Fertilizers Used for Agriculture in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Dao M; Qiu, Xuchun; Xu, Hai; Honda, Masato; Yabe, Mitsuyasu; Kadokami, Kiwao; Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji

    2017-07-01

    To provide an overview of anthropogenic contaminants in liquid organic fertilizers (LOFs), products from four biogas plants in Kyushu, Japan, were analyzed for a wide range of contaminants, including copper, cadmium, tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), perfluorooctane sulfonate, 952 semi-volatile organic compounds, and 89 antibiotics. The highest concentrations of copper (31.1 mg/L) and cadmium (0.08 mg/L) were found in LOFs from the Hita biogas plant. Only ofloxacin and sulfapyridine were detected in total 89 antibiotics screened. TBT, DBT, and perfluorooctane sulfonate were present at low concentrations in the LOFs from all four locations. Among the 952 semi-volatile organic compounds, 78 compounds were detected in at least one sample and were present at concentrations between 1.2 and 139.6 mg/L. On the basis of comparisons with previous studies and quality standards for the use of organic fertilizers, the concentrations of contaminants in the studied LOFs indicate that they might be safe for agricultural purposes.

  5. Risk management at the level of agricultural organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genoveva Buzamat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture, as in other production branches of the economy, there businesses which have two main objectives: on short term – achieve profit and on long term – the viability of the company (economic growth and stability. Even if the risk management practice can vary from one company to another, some elements are common for the risk management programs. These are: mission identification, risk assessment and of the risk control uncertainty, risk financing, risk administration. In this study we identify the risk categories and we establish methods to prevent them. The studied organization has as activity object the cereals and technical plants culture.

  6. Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67±0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (∼30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1∼1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2∼2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9±0.2 and 1.8±0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. FAO/IAEA research and training in soil fertility at the IAEA's Seibersdorf Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.; Hardarson, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Soil Science Unit of the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratories provides invaluable research and development support for the co-ordinated research programmes and field technical co-operation projects co-ordinated by the soil fertility, irrigation, and crop production section of the Joint Division of the IAEA and FAO. This article describes how nuclear technology in soil and plant sciences is being developed and transferred through various mechanisms to help countries establish better conditions for crop and livestock production

  8. THE WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION AND SOUTHERN AGRICULTURE: THE COTTON PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Hudson, Darren

    2000-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations could have important implications for Southern Agriculture. This paper explores some of the issues surrounding the WTO negotiations for cotton. Specifically, this paper examines the impacts of the phase-out of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) on the location of textile production and cotton trade flows. Generally, it is believed that the WTO negotiations will have little direct impact on cotton, but will have indirect impacts through textile po...

  9. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficient for potato in organic farming Evapotranspiração e coeficiente de cultivo da batata em sistema agroecológico de produção

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel F. de Carvalho

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to quantify the water consumption and the crop coefficients (Kc for the potato (Solanum tuberosum L., in Seropédica, Rio de Janeiro (RJ, Brazil, under organic management, and to simulate the crop evapotranspiration (ETc using the Kc obtained in the field and the ones recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The water consumption was obtained through soil water balance, using TDR probes installed at 0.15m and 0.30m deep. At the different stages of development, the Kc was determined by the ratio of ETc and reference evapotranspiration, obtained by Penman-Monteith FAO 56. The crop coefficients obtained were 0.35, 0.45, 1.29 and 0.63. The accumulated ETc obtained in the field was 109.6 mm, while the ETc accumulated from FAO's Kc were 142.2 and 138mm, respectively, considering the classical values and the values adjusted to the local climatic conditions. The simulation of water consumption based on meteorological data of historical series from 1961 to 2007 provided higher value of ETc when compared with the one obtained in the field. From the meteorological data of historical series, it was observed that the use of Kc recommended by FAO may overestimate the amount of irrigation water by 9%, over the same growing season.O trabalho foi desenvolvido visando a quantificar, sob manejo agroecológico, o consumo hídrico e os kcs para a cultura da batata (Solanum tuberosum L., em Seropédica (RJ, e a simular a evapotranspiração da cultura (ETc, utilizando os kcs obtidos e os kcs preconizados pela FAO. O consumo hídrico foi obtido por meio do balanço hídrico do solo, utilizando sondas de TDR instaladas a 0,15 e 0,30 m de profundidade. Nas diferentes fases de desenvolvimento, o kc foi determinado pela razão entre a ETc e a evapotranspiração de referência, obtida por Penman-Monteith FAO 56. Os kcs obtidos foram 0,35; 0,45; 1,29 e 0,63. A ETc acumulada obtida em campo foi de 109,6 mm, enquanto as ETcs

  10. The water footprint of animal products : The meat crisis: Developing more sustainable and ethical production and consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; D'Silva, Joyce; Webster, John

    2017-01-01

    Meat and dairy production and consumption are in crisis. Globally, 70 billion farm animals are used for food production every year. It is well accepted that livestock production is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

  11. Phosphine resistance in Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to determine the level of phosphine resistance in 16 Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabricius) populations that were collected from ten provinces and one municipality in China following the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO) standard method. Results showed that the 50% lethal concentration ...

  12. Current applications of probiotic foods in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Natural Food Preservation Systems. In: Wood BJB (Ed). The Lactic. Acid Bacteria. Vol. 1 Elsevier Science Publishers, London. FAO/WHO (2001).Health and nutritional properties of probiotics in food including powder milk with live Lactic acid bacteria. Cordoba,. Argentina: Food and Agriculture Organization ...

  13. Creating the Semantic Web: the Role of an agricultural Ontology Server (AOS)

    OpenAIRE

    Fisseha, Frehiwot; Hagedorn, Kat; Keizer, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    "Knowledge management is vital for effective decision-making.....It is therefore essential to maintain and improve the coverage, quantity, utility, timeliness and accessibility of the information collected and disseminated." (citation from the Strategic Framework for FAO). FAO is a huge content provider for the World Wide Web. The FAO website has more than 6 gigabytes of information that contains knowledge created by more than 4000 FAO staff working in the world to combat hunger and to help p...

  14. Shifted hot spots and nutrient imbalance in global fertilizer use for agriculture production in the past half century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H.; Lu, C.

    2016-12-01

    In addition to enhance agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically altered global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedbacks to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system/land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use over-simplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long period. In this study, we therefore develop a global time-series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in croplands, matched with HYDE 3,2 historical land use maps, at a resolution of 0.5º latitude by longitude during 1900-2013. Our data indicate N and P fertilizer use rates increased by approximately 8 times and 3 times, respectively, since the year 1961, when IFA (International Fertilizer Industry Association) and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) survey of country-level fertilizer input were available. Considering cropland expansion, increase of total fertilizer consumption amount is even larger. Hotspots of agricultural N fertilizer use shifted from the U.S. and Western Europe in the 1960s to East Asia in the early 21st century. P fertilizer input show the similar pattern with additional hotspot in Brazil. We find a global increase of fertilizer N/P ratio by 0.8 g N/g P per decade (phuman impacts on agroecosystem functions in the long run. Our data can serve as one of critical input drivers for regional and global assessment on agricultural productivity, crop yield, agriculture-derived greenhouse gas balance, global nutrient budget, land-to-aquatic nutrient loss, and ecosystem feedback to the climate system.

  15. The Global Soil Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montanarella, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The Global Soil Partnership (GSP) has been established, following an intensive preparatory work of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the European Commission (EC), as a voluntary partnership coordinated by the FAO in September 2011 [1]. The GSP is open to all interested stakeholders: Governments (FAO Member States), Universities, Research Organizations, Civil Society Organizations, Industry and private companies. It is a voluntary partnership aiming towards providing a platform for active engagement in sustainable soil management and soil protection at all scales: local, national, regional and global. As a “coalition of the willing” towards soil protection, it attempts to make progress in reversing soil degradation with those partners that have a genuine will of protecting soils for our future generations. It openly aims towards creating an enabling environment, despite the resistance of a minority of national governments, for effective soil protection in the large majority of the countries that are genuinely concerned about the rapid depletion of their limited soil resources.

  16. Non-governmental organizations and agricultural development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzes the potential collaboration between agricultural research and NGOs in the dissemination of agricultural technologies at the Kenyan coast. An inventory of NGOs working in the region was established, and 11 out of 25 were found to be active in agricultural development. These 11 NGOs were visited and ...

  17. The assessing the economic stability of the agricultural organizations of the Kemerovo region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekacheva Vera Mikhailovna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The main aspects of the essence of economic stability analyzed in this article. The authors define the concept, the problems and the basic criteria for assessing the economic sustainability of the agricultural organizations of the Kemerovo region.

  18. Evaluation of natural organic matter adsorption on Fe-Al binary oxide: Comparison with single metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Jo; Jang, Am

    2017-10-01

    The adsorption characteristics of three types of standard natural organic matter (NOM) on iron-aluminum (Fe-Al) binary oxide (FAO) and heated aluminum oxide (HAO) under natural surface water condition were investigated using various adsorption isotherms and kinetic models. FAO was synthesized by Fe oxide and Al oxide, mixed using the sol-gel hydrothermal method, and aluminum sulfate was used to make HAO. The amount of adsorbed NOM was increased to 79.6 mg g -1 for humic acid (HA), 101.1 mg g -1 for sodium alginate (SA) in the FAO, but the maximum adsorption capacity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) (461.3 mg g -1 ) was identified on the HAO. The adsorption of HA, BSA, and SA dramatically increased (>70%) on FAO in 5 min and HA was significantly removed (90%) among the three NOM. Mutual interaction among the adsorbed NOM (BSA) occurred on the HAO surface during adsorption due to formation of monolayer by protein molecules at neutral pH. The pseudo second order clearly represented the adsorption kinetics for both adsorbents. The equilibrium isotherm data of FAO was better exhibited by the Langmuir isotherm model than by the Freundlich isotherm, but HAO was a slightly non-linear Langmuir type. Also, the free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of adsorption were determined from the thermodynamic experiments. Adsorption on FAO was spontaneous and an exothermic process. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (FEEM) spectra were used to elucidate the variation in organic components. The results obtained suggests that the significant changes in the surface property of the adsorbent (large surface area, increased crystalline intensity, and fine particle size) were effectively determined by the Fe-synthesized Al oxide mixed using the sol-gel hydrothermal method. The results also suggest that the changes enhanced the adsorption capacity, whereby three NOM were notably removed on FAO regardless of NOM characteristics (hydrophobic and hydrophilic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  19. Sustainable agriculture a challenge for soil microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubia Moreno Sarmiento

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils: a solid foundation for life, was the theme of the celebration of 2015, the General Assembly of the UN, decides to declare as the International Year of Soils, considering that these are the foundation of agricultural development, the essential functions of ecosystems and food security. It is therefore a key to sustaining life on Earth element. During that year several actions that contributed to the awareness of their problems and protection of soil resources were made. One was that FAO, reviewed and published in June 2015, the World Soil Charter (originally developed in 1982. The World Soil Charter of Revised, as a preamble quote: 1. Soils are essential for life on Earth, but pressures on soil resources are reaching critical limits. Careful soil management is an essential factor of sustainable agriculture and also provides a valuable tool to regulate climate and a way to safeguard ecosystem services and biodiversity spring. 2. In the final document of the UN Conference on Sustainable Development, held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil in June 2012, "The future we want" economic and social importance of good management is recognized land, including land, particularly its contribution to economic growth, biodiversity, sustainable agriculture, food security, poverty eradication, empowerment of women, measures to address climate change and increase water availability.

  20. Report of the FAO/NACA Consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development: Chiang Rai, Thailand, 29-31 March 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    This is the report of the consultation on Aquaculture for Sustainable Rural Development jointly organised by FAO and NACA in Chiang Rai, Thailand on 29-31 March 1999 to develop the detailed structure...

  1. The FAOSTAT database of greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiello, Francesco N; Salvatore, Mirella; Rossi, Simone; Ferrara, Alessandro; Fitton, Nuala; Smith, Pete

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture, including crop and livestock production, forestry and associated land use changes, are responsible for a significant fraction of anthropogenic emissions, up to 30% according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Yet while emissions from fossil fuels are updated yearly and by multiple sources—including national-level statistics from the International Energy Agency (IEA)—no comparable efforts for reporting global statistics for agriculture, forestry and other land use (AFOLU) emissions exist: the latest complete assessment was the 2007 IPCC report, based on 2005 emission data. This gap is critical for several reasons. First, potentially large climate funding could be linked in coming decades to more precise estimates of emissions and mitigation potentials. For many developing countries, and especially the least developed ones, this requires improved assessments of AFOLU emissions. Second, growth in global emissions from fossil fuels has outpaced that from AFOLU during every decade of the period 1961–2010, so the relative contribution of the latter to total climate forcing has diminished over time, with a need for regular updates. We present results from a new GHG database developed at FAO, providing a complete and coherent time series of emission statistics over a reference period 1961–2010, at country level, based on FAOSTAT activity data and IPCC Tier 1 methodology. We discuss results at global and regional level, focusing on trends in the agriculture sector and net deforestation. Our results complement those available from the IPCC, extending trend analysis to a longer historical period and, critically, beyond 2005 to more recent years. In particular, from 2000 to 2010, we find that agricultural emissions increased by 1.1% annually, reaching 4.6 Gt CO 2 yr −1 in 2010 (up to 5.4–5.8 Gt CO 2 yr −1 with emissions from biomass burning and organic soils included). Over the same decade

  2. Water deficit and water surplus maps for Brazil, based on FAO Penman-Monteith potential evapotranspiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalton Evandro Machado

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The climatological water balance (CWB proposed by Thornthwaite and Mather (1957 is a useful tool for agricultural planning. This method requires the soil water holding capacity (SWHC, rainfall (R and potential evapotranspiration (PET data as input. Among the methods used to estimate PET, the one proposed by Thornthwaite (1948 is the simplest and the most used in Brazil, however it presents limitations of use, which is caused by its empirical relationships. When Thornthwaite PET method is used into the CWB, the errors associated to PET are transferred to the output variables, mainly water deficit (WD and water surplus (WS. As all maps of WD and WS for Brazil are based on Thornthwaite PET, the objective of this study was to produce new maps of these variables considering Penman-Monteith PET. For this purpose, monthly normal climate data base (1961-1990 from Brazilian Meteorological Service (INMET, with 219 locations in all country, was used. PET data were estimated by Thornthwaite (TH and FAO Penman-Monteith (PM methods. PET, from both methods, and R data were used to estimate the CWB for a SWHC of 100 mm, having as results actual ET (AET, WD and WS. Results obtained with PET from the two methods were compared by regression analysis. The results showed that TH method underestimated annual PM PET by 13% in 84% of the places. Such underestimation also led to AET and WD underestimations of 7% (in 69% of places and 40% (in 83% of places, respectively. For WS, the use of TH PET data in the CWB resulted in overestimations of about 80% in 78% of places. The differences observed in the CWB variables resulted in changes in the maps of WD and WS for Brazil. These new maps, based on PM PET, provide more accurate information, mainly for agricultural and hydrological planning and irrigation and drainage projects purposes.

  3. Sinai and Norfa chicken diversity revealed by microsatellite markers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study aimed to outline the population differentiation of Sinai and Norfa chicken, native to Egypt, with microsatellite markers. Twenty microsatellite loci recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) were used. Fifty eight birds were sampled (29 for each strain: 12 males + 17 females). Data were ...

  4. Hydrologic evaluation of a Mediterranean watershed using the SWAT model with multiple PET estimation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Penman-Monteith method suggested by the Food Agricultural Organization in the Irrigation and drainage paper 56 (FAO-56 P-M) was used to evaluate surface runoff and sediment yield predictions by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model at the outlet of an experimental watershed in Sicily. ...

  5. Destruction of Aflatoxins in Contaminated Maize Samples using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alice

    prevailing temperatures are high and favored by warmth and high humidity [6]. According to estimates of Food and Agriculture Organization. (FAO) about 25% of the world's food crops are affected by aflatoxin contamination every year. [7]. Although aflatoxins are frequent contaminants of a wide variety of cereal grains and.

  6. Perception of Modern Processing Technology by Shea Butter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), CABI and Scopus ... industries account for 90% of total Shea butter exports from West Africa while cosmetic and ..... Using modern technology could lead to increase productivity 3.79 0.91. The cost of .... Globalization in the Shea Value Chain: The maintenance and relevance of.

  7. Rice breeding with induced mutations II. Report of an FAO/IAEA research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-03-01

    This report contains the proceedings of the fourth meeting of participants in the FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Program of Research on the Use of Induced Mutations in Rice Breeding, a program which was initiated in 1964. The three previous meetings were reported as follows: First: proceedings published in the International Rice Commission Newsletter, Vol. XV, No. 1 (1966). Second: report presented to the IRC Working Party meeting at Lake Charles, Louisiana, 18-30 July 1966. Third: proceedings published by the IAEA as Technical Reports Series No. 86 under the title 'Rice breeding with induced mutations'. The fourth meeting was held at Oiso, Japan, on 12-14 August 1968. Co-operators from nine countries attended, together with scientists from five other countries, the International Rice Research Institute, the Rockefeller Foundation, the International Rice Commission, and the FAO and IAEA. In addition, a number of scientists from the host country were present. The purpose of the meeting was to present reports on research related to or carried out under the co-ordinated program in 1967/68, to review and co-ordinate research plans for 1968/69, and to draw up technical recommendations for future work.

  8. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This is the second issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  9. Plant breeding and genetics newsletter. No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-05-01

    This is the first issue of the Plant Breeding and Genetics Newsletter. The Newsletter will inform you about current activities of the FAO/IAEA sub-programme on plant breeding and genetics which is implemented by the Plant Breeding and Genetics Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (Vienna) in close collaboration with the Plant Breeding Unit of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory (Seibersdorf)

  10. A seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for food-insecure regions of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shraddhanand; McNally, Amy; Husak, Gregory; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

     The increasing food and water demands of East Africa's growing population are stressing the region's inconsistent water resources and rain-fed agriculture. More accurate seasonal agricultural drought forecasts for this region can inform better water and agricultural management decisions, support optimal allocation of the region's water resources, and mitigate socio-economic losses incurred by droughts and floods. Here we describe the development and implementation of a seasonal agricultural drought forecast system for East Africa (EA) that provides decision support for the Famine Early Warning Systems Network's science team. We evaluate this forecast system for a region of equatorial EA (2° S to 8° N, and 36° to 46° E) for the March-April-May growing season. This domain encompasses one of the most food insecure, climatically variable and socio-economically vulnerable regions in EA, and potentially the world: this region has experienced famine as recently as 2011. To assess the agricultural outlook for the upcoming season our forecast system simulates soil moisture (SM) scenarios using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model forced with climate scenarios for the upcoming season. First, to show that the VIC model is appropriate for this application we forced the model with high quality atmospheric observations and found that the resulting SM values were consistent with the Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO's) Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI), an index used by FEWS NET to estimate crop yields. Next we tested our forecasting system with hindcast runs (1993–2012). We found that initializing SM forecasts with start-of-season (5 March) SM conditions resulted in useful SM forecast skill (> 0.5 correlation) at 1-month, and in some cases at 3 month lead times. Similarly, when the forecast was initialized with mid-season (i.e. 5 April) SM conditions the skill until the end-of-season improved. This shows that early-season rainfall

  11. Environmental modelling of use of treated organic waste on agricultural land

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Schmidt, S.

    2006-01-01

    Modelling of environmental impacts from the application of treated organic municipal solid waste (MSW) in agriculture differs widely between different models for environmental assessment of waste systems. In this comparative study five models were examined concerning quantification and impact......, Denmark). DST and IWM are life cycle inventory (LCI) models, thus not performing actual impact assessment. The DST model includes only one water emission (biological oxygen demand) from compost leaching in the results and IWM considers only air emissions from avoided production of commercial fertilizers...... the different models and investigate the origin of any difference in type or magnitude of the results. The contributions from the LCI models were limited and did not depend on waste composition or local agricultural conditions. The three LCA models use the same overall approach for quantifying the impacts...

  12. Selection and Breeding of Cattle in Asia: Strategies and Criteria for Improved Breeding. Prepared under the Framework of an RCA Project with the Technical Support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with the technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production Using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment (RAS/5/044). The 23 project counterparts and the IAEA technical officer, based on the lack of standard practices in the region with regard to selection of cattle for breeding purposes, and the need to properly manage the genetic resources within each country for improving the productivity of the existing stock while maintaining the unique and beneficial genetic characteristics of the indigenous breeds, agreed during the first meeting to request the IAEA to recruit a group of experts with the task of preparing guidelines for the selection and breeding of cattle and buffalo on the Asian continent. To address these recommendations, an experts meeting on Selection Criteria for Breeding Heifers was organized and held in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. The meeting was hosted by the Faculty of Veterinary Science of the Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU) from 6 to 10 February 2006. It was attended by six foreign experts and two local experts, and was supported by the technical officer of RAS/5/044. The experts from countries participating in RAS/5/044 gave presentations on the current state of cattle breeding in their countries and two experts working in industrialized countries within the region (New Zealand and Australia) informed the participants about the existing cattle breeding programmes in their respective countries and offered their perspectives on how similar approaches could be transferred to the Member States participating in RAS/5/044. All experts also made a field visit to a prominent dairy-producing region, to experience at first-hand some of the current programmes

  13. Expert consensus document. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Colin; Guarner, Francisco; Reid, Gregor; Gibson, Glenn R; Merenstein, Daniel J; Pot, Bruno; Morelli, Lorenzo; Canani, Roberto Berni; Flint, Harry J; Salminen, Seppo; Calder, Philip C; Sanders, Mary Ellen

    2014-08-01

    An expert panel was convened in October 2013 by the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to discuss the field of probiotics. It is now 13 years since the definition of probiotics and 12 years after guidelines were published for regulators, scientists and industry by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the WHO (FAO/WHO). The FAO/WHO definition of a probiotic--"live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host"--was reinforced as relevant and sufficiently accommodating for current and anticipated applications. However, inconsistencies between the FAO/WHO Expert Consultation Report and the FAO/WHO Guidelines were clarified to take into account advances in science and applications. A more precise use of the term 'probiotic' will be useful to guide clinicians and consumers in differentiating the diverse products on the market. This document represents the conclusions of the ISAPP consensus meeting on the appropriate use and scope of the term probiotic.

  14. Digital soil mapping as a basis for climatically oriented agriculture a thematic on the territory of the national crop testing fields of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahabiev, I. A.; Giniyatullin, K. G.; Ryazanov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The concept of climate-optimized agriculture (COA) of the UN FAO implies the transformation of agriculture techniques in conditions of changing climate. It is important to implement a timely transition to the concept of COA and sustainable development of soil resources, accurate digital maps of spatial distribution of soils and soil properties are needed. Digital mapping of soil humus content was carried out on the territory of the national crop testing fields (NCTF) of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation) and the accuracy of the maps obtained was estimated.

  15. Animal production and health newsletter. No. 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-12-01

    This issue of the newsletter outlines activities and coordinated research programmes in the areas of animal production and animal health for the year 1999 by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in food and agriculture and FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory, Seibersdorf

  16. Physicochemical Properties, Contamination and Suitability of Canal Water for Irrigation, Lahore Branch Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Aftab

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The pollution status of Lahore branch canal was determined by physical, chemical and metal constituents because the water is used for irrigation of lands in and around the city. The average result of each physical, chemical and metal parameter at 12 different sites (Location-1 to Location-12 of Lahore branch canal was compared with Food and Agricultural organization (FAO. All physical and chemical parameters were within standards limit while metals concentrations were found in variable quantities in canal water samples. cadmium, copper and chromium concentration was found much higher than the permissible FAO standards.

  17. Effects of culture systems on growth and economic performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IFEOMA PIUS

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... The effect of culture system on growth and economics performance of Orechromis niloticus ( ... from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) stated ... in the reduction of the availability of natural fish food ..... lowest profit, while algae only had the lowest cost and ... Also, maximizing production in terms of.

  18. Are Organic Standards Sufficient to Ensure Sustainable Agriculture? Lessons From New Zealand’s ARGOS and Sustainability Dashboard Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Merfield, Charles; Moller, Henrik; Manhire, Jon; Rosin, Chris; Norton, Solis; Carey, Peter; Hunt, Lesley; Reid, John; Fairweather, John; Benge, Jayson; Le Quellec, Isabelle; Campbell, Hugh; Lucock, David; Saunders, Caroline; MacLeod, Catriona

    2015-01-01

    Our review concludes that organic standards need to account for a broader set of criteria in order to retain claims to ‘sustainability’. Measurements of the ecological, economic and social outcomes from over 96 kiwifruit, sheep/beef and dairy farms in New Zealand between 2004 and 2012 by The Agricultural Research Group on Sustainability (ARGOS) project showed some enhanced ecosystem services from organic agriculture that will assist a “land-sharing” approach for sustainable land management. H...

  19. Agriculture: Organic Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic Farming - Organically grown food is food grown and processed using no synthetic fertilizers or pesticides. Pesticides derived from natural sources (such as biological pesticides) may be used in producing organically grown food.

  20. The FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on ''Evaluation of Methods of Analysis for Determining Mycotoxin Contamination of Food and Feed''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doko, Bruno

    2000-01-01

    The present Co-ordinated Research Programme is to complement the FAO/IAEA Training and Reference Centre (TRC) for Food and Pesticide Control under the Centre's mission ''to assist Member States and their institutions to fulfill requirements to support the implementation of international safeguards/agreements relevant to food safety and control, the safe use of pesticides and sanitary and phytosanitary measures, by providing training, quality assurance services and technology transfer''. Based on the Global Environment Monitoring System - Food Contamination Monitoring and Assessment Programme (GEMS/Food) data and other national data on mycotoxin contamination, mycotoxins are a widespread problem of the food supplies in most countries. As a result, many countries have enacted regulations to control the level of mycotoxins in the national food supply as well as in food moving in international trade. At the international level, the Codex Alimentarius Commission, through its Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants and relevant commodity committees is considering the establishment of international guideline levels for various mycotoxins based on risk assessments performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Codex activities are of particular importance in view of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement specifically refers to Codex standards, guidelines and recommendations as representing the international consensus on health and safety requirements for food based on sound scientific risk assessment. This will require national authorities to give greater attention to the development of consistent and standardised approaches to regulations and their enforcement, including sampling and methods of analysis. Consequently, it is essential that the analytical capabilities of laboratories in developing countries are strengthened in order to enable them to effectively monitor the mycotoxin content of food in

  1. Future breeding for organic and low-input agriculture: integrating values and modern breeding tools for improving robustness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerts Van Bueren, E.

    2010-01-01

    Organic production and also the attention for plant breeding for organic agriculture is still increasing in Europe. The question often raised is how much does plant breeding for the organic sector differ from modern plant breeding and does a ban on GMO also include refraining from molecular marker

  2. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Rebecca E.; Jacobsen, Krista L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.

    2018-01-01

    Agroecosystem nitrogen (N) loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1) an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), winter wheat (Triticum aestivum), or a mix of the two (bi-culture); (2) an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach); and (3) a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N). In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat) and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat). Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit) and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea) and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N) in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems. PMID:29403512

  3. Cover Crops and Fertilization Alter Nitrogen Loss in Organic and Conventional Conservation Agriculture Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Shelton

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agroecosystem nitrogen (N loss produces greenhouse gases, induces eutrophication, and is costly for farmers; therefore, conservation agricultural management practices aimed at reducing N loss are increasingly adopted. However, the ecosystem consequences of these practices have not been well-studied. We quantified N loss via leaching, NH3 volatilization, N2O emissions, and N retention in plant and soil pools of corn conservation agroecosystems in Kentucky, USA. Three systems were evaluated: (1 an unfertilized, organic system with cover crops hairy vetch (Vicia villosa, winter wheat (Triticum aestivum, or a mix of the two (bi-culture; (2 an organic system with a hairy vetch cover crop employing three fertilization schemes (0 N, organic N, or a fertilizer N-credit approach; and (3 a conventional system with a winter wheat cover crop and three fertilization schemes (0 N, urea N, or organic N. In the unfertilized organic system, cover crop species affected NO3-N leaching (vetch > bi-culture > wheat and N2O-N emissions and yield during corn growth (vetch, bi-culture > wheat. Fertilization increased soil inorganic N, gaseous N loss, N leaching, and yield in the organic vetch and conventional wheat systems. Fertilizer scheme affected the magnitude of growing season N2O-N loss in the organic vetch system (organic N > fertilizer N-credit and the timing of loss (organic N delayed N2O-N loss vs. urea and NO3-N leaching (urea >> organic N in the conventional wheat system, but had no effect on yield. Cover crop selection and N fertilization techniques can reduce N leaching and greenhouse gas emissions without sacrificing yield, thereby enhancing N conservation in both organic and conventional conservation agriculture systems.

  4. Report of the Norway-FAO Expert Consultation on the Management of Shared Fish Stocks: Bergen, Norway, 7-10 October 2002

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    The Norway-FAO Expert Consultation was held in recongnition of the fact that the management of shared fishery resources remains one of the great challenges on the way towards achieving long-term sustainable fisheries...

  5. Influence of cultivar and of conventional and organic agricultural practices on phenolic and sensory profile of blackberries (Rubus fruticosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Teresa; Vilela, Alice; Pinto, Andreia; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Anjos, Rosário

    2018-03-06

    Consumer demand for organic products is increasing because of their claimed health benefits. Blackberries are a rich source of polyphenols, with high antioxidant activity; nevertheless, the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on its phytochemical composition is unknown. 'Loch Ness' and 'Chester Thornless' were selected as blackberry cultivars for this study because of their desired sensory and technological properties, which make them more suitable for export. 'Loch Ness' variety presented a higher amounts of polyphenols and higher antioxidant activity when compared to the 'Chester Thornless' variety. The impact of agricultural practices on the phytochemical composition of the two varieties was contradictory. Under organic agricultural practices, levels of polyphenols increased for 'Loch Ness' and decreased for 'Chester Thornless', whereas the soluble solids content increased in both varieties. These changes in composition were correlated with changes observed in the blackberries' sensory profile. The effect of agricultural practices on the blackberries' chemical and sensory profile was dependent on the variety and cannot be generalized. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Appreciation to Organic Agriculture Function: Case Study of Rice Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinjung Mary Prihtanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural activities are not only producing the visible (tangible output in the form of food but also the non-visible output (non-marketable goods/non-tangible services. Non-visible output refers to a multifunctionality to supply food to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household and job opportunities at rural area. The article aims to compare the capability of organic rice farming to conventional, to ensure the food sufficiency of farmer household, the economic value of rice farming to produce food, and the economic estimation of rice farming to its function as an job opportunities. The data for the research is collected in Gentungan Village, Mojogedang District, Karanganyar Regency during the crop year of 2015. In order to study the differences of two rice farming systems, the total of 60 farmers, 30 farmers are dealing with organic farming and other 30 farmers from conventional farming, are subjected for the interview in this research. The results found that the food security of organic farming is higher than conventional farming. The organic rice farming gives the economic value as the food producing and the labor-absorbing function in the study area is higher than the  conventional farming.

  7. Information Needs of Fish-Feed Entrepreneurs in Kainji Lake Basin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), CABI and Scopus ... millions of people all over the world are dependent on it, especially, fish farming, playing a critical role of gainful ... utterly crucial to budge extension focus from production-driven to market led extension which result in ... old with mean age 42 years. Thus, the ...

  8. Regional Spectral Model Workshop in memory of John Roads and Masao Kanamitsu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hann-Ming Henry Juang; Shyh-Chin Chen; Songyou Hong; Hideki Kanamaru; Thomas Reichler; Takeshi Enomoto; Dian Putrasahan; Bruce T. Anderson; Sasha Gershunov; Haiqin Li; Kei Yoshimura; Nikolaus Buenning; Diane Boomer

    2014-01-01

    The committee for the 12th International Regional Spectral Model (RSM) Workshop drew its members from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the U.S. Forest Service, Yonsei University, the Cooperative Institute for Climate and Satellites, the University of Tokyo, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Hokkaido University,...

  9. Stability Parameters for Grain Yield and its Component Traits in Maize Hybrids of Different FAO Maturity Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Djurovic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An objective evaluation of maize hybrids in intensive cropping systems requires identification not only of yield components and other agronomically important traits but also of stability parameters. Grain yield and its components were assessed in 11 maize hybrids with different lengths of growing season (FAO 300-700 maturity groups using analysis of variance and regression analysis at three different locations in Western Serbia. The test hybrids and locations showed significant differences in grain yield, grain moisture content at maturity, 1,000-kernel weight and ear length. A significant interaction was observed between all traits and the environment. The hybrids with higher mean values of the traits, regardless of maturity group, generally exhibited sensitivity i.e. adaptation to more favourable environmental conditions as compared to those having lower mean values. Regression coefficient (bi values for grain yield mostly suggested no significant differences relative to the mean. The medium-season hybrid gave high yields and less favourable values of stability parameters at most locations and in most years, as compared to mediumlate hybrids. As compared to medium-early hybrids, medium-late hybrids (FAO 600 and 700 mostly exhibited unfavourable values of stability parameters i.e. a specific response and better adaptation to favourable environmental conditions, and gave higher average yields. Apart from producing lower average yields, FAO 300 and 400 hybrids showed higher yield stability as compared to the other hybrids tested. Medium-late hybrids had higher yields and showed a better response to favourable environmental conditions compared to early-maturing hybrids. Therefore, they can be recommended for intensive cultural practices and low-stress environments. Due to their more favourable stability parameter values, medium-early hybrids can be recommended for low-intensity cultural practices and stressful environments.

  10. The role of molecular markers and marker assisted selection in breeding for organic agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammerts van Bueren, E.T.; Backes, G.; de Vriend, H.

    2010-01-01

    markers is not self-evident and is often debated. Organic and low-input farming conditions require breeding for robust and flexible varieties, which may be hampered by too much focus on the molecular level. Pros and contras for application of molecular markers in breeding for organic agriculture...... was the topic of a recent European plant breeding workshop. The participants evaluated strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use of molecular markers and we formalized their inputs into breeder’s perspectives and perspectives seen from the organic sector’s standpoint. Clear strengths were...

  11. The International Atomic Energy Agency's Laboratories Seibersdorf and Vienna. Meeting the challenges of research and international co-operation in the application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krippl, E.

    1999-08-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency therefore maintains a unique, multidisciplinary, analytical, research and training centre: the IAEA Laboratories, located at Seibersdorf near Vienna and at the Agency's Headquarters in the Vienna International Centre. They are organized in three branches: (i) the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory: Soil Science, Plant Breeding, Animal Production and Health, Entomology, Agrochemicals; (ii) the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory: Chemistry, Instrumentation, Dosimetry, Isotope Hydrology; (iii) the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory: Isotopic Analysis, Chemical Analysis, Clean Laboratory. 'The Mission of the IAEA Laboratories is to contribute to the implementation of the Agency's programmes in food and agriculture, human health, physical and chemical sciences, water resources, industry, environment, radiation protection and safeguards verification'. Together with a General Services and Safety Section, which provides logistics, information, industrial safety and maintenance services and runs a mechanical workshop, the three groups form the 'Seibersdorf Laboratories' and are part of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. The Laboratories contribute an important share to projects fostering peaceful applications of radiation and isotopes and radiation protection, and play a significant part in the nuclear verification mechanism. All activities are therefore planned and implemented in close co-operation with relevant divisions and departments of the IAEA. In specific sectors, the Laboratories also operate in conjunction with other organizations in the UN system, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and with networks of national laboratories in Member States

  12. CLASSIFICATION OF PROCESSES OF REPRODUCTION OF FIXED CAPITAL OF THE AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoly Shamin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It is described that questions of economic growth, the advancing investments, preservations of food security of the country demand from economy of the Russian Federation of an exit to the new level of functioning that is impossible without effective management of process of reproduction of fixed capital in the agricultural organizations. Materials and methods. In work the analysis of the treatments of the concepts "reproduction type", "type of reproduction", "reproduction method", "reproduction form" existing in the Russian scientific community was carried out, the conclusion is drawn on considerable confusion in terminology, need of identification of these concepts is noted. Authors analyzed essence of these concepts, author's treatments of the studied definitions are given. It is separately emphasized that from the point of view of authors ascertaining of existence of certain types, forms and types of reproduction can be made only after carrying out the corresponding analysis of real processes. Results. In the article the problem of a typologization of processes of reproduction of fixed capital on the basis of change of indicators of the general and average power of elements of fixed capital on the basis of these forms 17-APK annual accounting reports of the agrarian and industrial complexes organizations of the Nizhny Novgorod Region for 2010-2013 were solved. On the basis of the cluster analysis of their values the main 9 types of the organizations for these indicators were allocated. Discussion. On the basis of the analysis of change of types of the organizations 8 types of reproduction of fixed capital on change of indicators of power were allocated, their prevalence is analyzed. It is noted that the agricultural organizations of the Nizhny Novgorod Region generally increase as average, and the specific power of the fixed capital. Conclusion. In the conclusion authors noted the further perspective areas of work on this subject.

  13. Recycling of Organic Wastes to Achieve the Clean Agriculture Approach with Aid of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moursy, A.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    The Objective of this current work is to study Organic matter decomposition under clean agriculture system in sandy soil using nuclear technique. This desirtatation has the following targets: - Amendment and improving sandy soil properties - Utilization of farm wastes (Recycling) in safe mode -Benefits form organic matter decomposition. - Follow up the fate of same nutrients (Nitrogen) released in soil media after organic matter (O.M) decomposition and Impact on plant nutrition status.-saving the environment on short and long run.

  14. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 17, No. 2, July 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-07-01

    The Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme is part of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture (the Joint Division) which this year celebrates its half century of exemplary collaboration within the United Nations system. During this time the Joint Division has promoted the mandates of both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through peaceful uses of nuclear-related technology to promote global health and prosperity and of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in its efforts to eliminate world hunger and reduce poverty through sustainable agricultural and rural development, improved nutrition and food security. By reading this newsletter I hope you will appreciate how the Food and Environmental Protection Subprogramme helps build and strengthen the capabilities of member countries in their use of nuclear-related techniques. For example, by developing techniques to support sustainable food security and disseminating such techniques through international activities in research, training and outreach in FAO and IAEA Member Countries. The subprogramme responds to the needs of Member Countries by coordinating and supporting research; providing technical and advisory services; providing laboratory support and training; and by the collation, analysis and dissemination of information. Our activities are implemented through technical cooperation and coordinated research projects in the main work areas of food authenticity and traceability; the analysis and control of chemical contaminants; food irradiation; and nuclear and radiological emergency preparedness, response and management relating to food and agricultural production

  15. Guidelines for agricultural countermeasures following an accidental release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident in 1986 caused significant radioactive contamination of the environment over widely separated areas, some relatively remote from the site. Considerable scientific research was stimulated directly and indirectly and a good deal of practical experience was obtained in dealing with the aftermath. The collation of the relevant information and experience concerning the transfer of radionuclides through food chains and ways of reducing this transfer is a prudent insurance for the management of agriculture should a major nuclear accident occur again. Work to this end was begun in 1990 by a consultants group convened in a co-ordinated research programme of the IAEA and the CEC on the Validation of Models for the Transfer of Radionuclides in Terrestrial, Urban and Aquatic Environments (VAMP). The work was further developed by a joint programme of the IAEA Division of Nuclear Safety and the Agrochemicals and Residues Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture entitled ''Alleviating the Adverse Effects of Excessive Radionuclide Contamination of the Agricultural Environment''. The present Guidelines are an output of this programme and are intended to assist those charged with administrative, scientific and advisory responsibilities to prepare more detail plans specific to the local conditions. 80 refs, 1 fig., 20 tabs

  16. A PROPOSTA DE DESENVOLVIMENTO RURAL E DE EDUCAÇÃO DA FAO NOS ANOS 1950 E NA ATUALIDADE: FORJANDO CONSENSOS COMO DISFARCE SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayane Santos Silva Dalmaz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A Organização das Nações Unidas para Alimentação e Agricultura - FAO, agência da ONU, atua com expressividade nos programas de governo de combate à fome e de desenvolvimento rural no Brasil, bem como em países da América Latina, Caribe e África. Neste artigo apresentamos como objeto de estudo a relação entre a proposta de desenvolvimento rural da FAO e os princípios educativos defendidos por esta agência nos anos 1950 e a partir de 2005.O estudo foi realizado por meio de fontes secundárias e primárias, cuja síntese das conclusões aponta que como nos anos 1950, e coerentemente com a metodologia da FAO de constituição de consensos sociais em torno das propostas de desenvolvimento rural e educativa, atualmente são lançadas bandeiras de lutas que aglutinam setores sociais antagônicos em torno de uma proposta que promove a inserção subordinada das populações do campo à lógica do mercado.

  17. FAO/IAEA consultants' meeting on integrated approach for improving small scale market oriented dairy systems. Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    A Consultants' Meeting was held at IAEA, Vienna from 21-24 August 2000 to discuss the need for, and to develop an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) to demonstrate increases in the productivity of small scale market oriented dairy systems using an integrated approach to improving nutrition, reproductive management and disease control. The meeting was attended by five consultants with expertise in specific aspects of research and development in dairy production, three external resource persons who were funded from their own institutes, a staff member of FAO's Animal Production Service, a representative of the IAEA's Department of Technical Co-operation and staff members of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division's Subprogramme on Animal Production and Health. The list of participants is given. The specific objectives of the meeting were to: Review the current research thrusts that are relevant to the objectives of the project, recommend areas that should be included and determine the most appropriate modalities for supporting these activities; Define the scientific scope of the project and recommend appropriate technologies and methods that should be applied in field and laboratory studies for obtaining the necessary information; Review the background document which has been prepared and make appropriate improvements and modifications; and Develop work plans, time scales, schedule of Research Co-ordination Meetings (RCMs) and the project framework matrix. The meeting was formally opened by Dr Martyn Jeggo, Head of the Animal Production and Health Section, who outlined the Sub-programme's mandate, medium-term strategy and how the planned CRP fits into this strategy. Dr Oswin Perera, the Scientific Secretary of the meeting, outlined the previous activities of the Sub-programme in animal nutrition and reproduction, discussed the background to the proposed project, and presented the objectives and expected outcomes of the meeting. The consultants and resource persons

  18. Unintended Effects in Genetically Modified Food/Feed Safety: A Way Forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Antonio; Paoletti, Claudia

    2018-04-20

    Identifying and assessing unintended effects in genetically modified food and feed are considered paramount by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), and Codex Alimentarius, despite heated debate. This paper addresses outstanding needs: building consensus on the history-of-safe-use concept, harmonizing criteria to select appropriate conventional counterparts, and improving endpoint selection to identify unintended effects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hunger, Discourse and the Policy Process: How do Conceptualizations of the Problem of ‘Hunger’ Affect its Measurement and Solution?

    OpenAIRE

    Ian MacAuslan

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies ‘policy processes’ literature to constructions of hunger. Problem conceptualization and associated solutions are understood as shaped by discourse, rhetoric and interests. Two constructions of the problem of ‘hunger’ are analysed: hunger as lack of food, associated with the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and hunger as malnutrition, associated with the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). While both conceptualizations agree h...

  20. Risk Management in Agriculture for Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, A.; National Research CouncilScientific; Technological Research (Conicet)

    2013-05-01

    The Americas are extremely important as a unique contributor to Food Security. It provides from tropical to temperate crops. Not only they are able to feed their own population, but contribute significantly to the food supply of the population in developed, emergent and underdeveloped countries. This fact has given the region a unique responsibility to develop a regional risk-management strategy to manage food insecurity at a local, national, regional and global level. Although international agencies such as UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), Instituto Interamericano para la Cooperación en Agricultura (IICA) and the regional centres of the Consultative Group for International Agriculture Research (CGIAR) and the World Bank (WB), are engaged in actions for Risk Management in Agriculture for reducing Food Insecurity. However there is a need to build a framework and/or comprehensive regional strategy for the Americas. It would identify areas for promoting research projects where natural and social science work together for producing relevant scientific information and tools i.e. maps, indicators, models and scenarios, early warning systems, etc. to cooperate with both policy and decision makers in the public and private sectors. This would eventually lead to a comprehensive regional programme for reducing food insecurity. The purpose of International Council for Science-International Research and the International Research for Disaster Risk programme (ICSU-IRDR) and ICSU Regional Office for Latinamerica and the Caribbean (ICSU-ROLAC) is to promote the cooperation of the relevant scientific fields in both natural science and social science in a multi and trans-disciplinary approach on risk management to reduce food insecurity. Also both ICSU-IRDR and ICSU-ROLAC are building a case for the inclusion of the scientific community in the revision of the Hjogo Framework for Action for Disaster Reduction to be held in 2015 as risk management for reducing food

  1. Research, values, and ethics in organic agriculture - examples from sustainability, precaution, nature quality, and animal welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted; Kristensen, Erik Steen

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural systems are characterised by involving both natural and social systems. Organic farming, in particular, has developed as part of a wider organic movement incorporating producers, manufacturers and consumers. The organic movement is based on explicit rules as well as broader formulated principles and goals for farming and manufacturing, which are connected to underlying values and perceptions of the relationship between human and nature. This paper is concerned with the challenges...

  2. Lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grass-clover as cut-and-carry fertilizers in organic agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgt, van der G.J.H.M.; Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Scholberg, J.M.S.; Koopmans, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Onfarm nitrogen fixation is a driving force in organic agriculture. The efficiency with which this nitrogen is used can be increased by using lucerne (Medicago sativa) or grassclover directly as sources of fertilizer on arable land: cutandcarry fertilizers. In two arable crops, the use of lucerne

  3. U.S.-State Agricultural Data. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 501.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Letricia M.; And Others

    This report presents agricultural information for each of the 50 states and the United States. Data are provided on population, land use, agricultural production, farm income, value of assets on farms, and selected characteristics of farms, such as size, tenure, and farm organization. Primary data sources are the 1982 Census of Agriculture and the…

  4. The start-up phase of the national satellite forest monitoring systems for DRC and PNG: a joint venture between FAO and INPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD Team Forestry Department

    2011-12-01

    Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. "REDD+" goes beyond deforestation and forest degradation, and includes the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks. In the framework of getting countries ready for REDD+, the UN-REDD Programme, a partnership between UNEP, FAO and UNDP, assists developing countries to prepare and implement national REDD+ strategies. Designed collaboratively by a broad range of stakeholders, national UN-REDD Programmes are informed by the technical expertise of FAO, UNDP and UNEP. For the monitoring, reporting and verification, FAO supports the countries to develop satellite forest monitoring systems that allow for credible measurement, reporting and verification (MRV)of REDD+ activities. These are among the most critical elements for the successful implementation of any REDD+ mechanism, also following the COP 16 decisions in Cancun last year. The UN-REDD Programme through a joint effort of FAO and Brazil's National Space Agency, INPE, is supporting countries to develop cost-effective, robust and compatible national monitoring and MRV systems, providing tools, methodologies, training and knowledge sharing that help countries to strengthen their technical and institutional capacity for effective MRV systems. To develop strong nationally-owned forest monitoring systems, technical and institutional capacity building is key. The UN-REDD Programme, through FAO, has taken on intensive training together with INPE, and has provided technical help and assistance for in-country training and implementation for national satellite forest monitoring. The goal of the start-up phase for DRC and Papua New Guinea (PNG) in this capacity building effort is the

  5. Global nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer use for agriculture production in the past half century: shifted hot spots and nutrient imbalance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chaoqun; Tian, Hanqin

    2017-03-01

    In addition to enhancing agricultural productivity, synthetic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) fertilizer application in croplands dramatically alters global nutrient budget, water quality, greenhouse gas balance, and their feedback to the climate system. However, due to the lack of geospatial fertilizer input data, current Earth system and land surface modeling studies have to ignore or use oversimplified data (e.g., static, spatially uniform fertilizer use) to characterize agricultural N and P input over decadal or century-long periods. In this study, we therefore develop global time series gridded data of annual synthetic N and P fertilizer use rate in agricultural lands, matched with HYDE 3.2 historical land use maps, at a resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° latitude-longitude during 1961-2013. Our data indicate N and P fertilizer use rates on per unit cropland area increased by approximately 8 times and 3 times, respectively, since the year 1961 when IFA (International Fertilizer Industry Association) and FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization) surveys of country-level fertilizer input became available. Considering cropland expansion, the increase in total fertilizer consumption is even larger. Hotspots of agricultural N fertilizer application shifted from the US and western Europe in the 1960s to eastern Asia in the early 21st century. P fertilizer input shows a similar pattern with an additional current hotspot in Brazil. We found a global increase in fertilizer N / P ratio by 0.8 g N g-1 P per decade (p human impacts on agroecosystem functions in the long run. Our data can serve as one of critical input drivers for regional and global models to assess the impacts of nutrient enrichment on climate system, water resources, food security, etc. Datasets available at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.863323.

  6. AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN JAPAN - A MODEL FOR COOPERATIVIZATION OF AGRICULTURE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Japan's agriculture provides only a part from the population's needs, in caloric terms Japan must impute 60% of foods. Arable land are few, but are worked very performant, rice being the main crop together with cotton, citrus, sugarcane, wheat, potato, soybean, sugar beet, other vegetables. Widely is practiced sericulture and fisheries, Japan being one of the leading producers of silk from the world and having over 600 ports specialized for fishing. Japanese agriculture has remained behind the industry and services, this trend being manifested after the very high economic growth from 1960-1970. The main focus of the movements from the Japanese cooperative system is represented by the creation of large specialized farms through the replacing of the traditional ones. The most important task of agricultural cooperatives from Japan is meeting the consumption needs of its members. Integrated leadership of Japanese cooperatives of farmers act at all levels, primary, at prefecture level and at national level. Contractual relationships play a decisive role in the integration of Japanese farmers. In Japan there are about 840 agricultural cooperatives very well organized with a balanced planning and efficiently conducted, agricultural cooperative MIKABI being the most developed, mainly focused on the production of mandarins. In Japan there are three large distribution centers of agricultural products, 29 distribution markets controlled by the prefecture and 1,000 local markets. Organization of cooperatives is the pyramid system on three levels: local, prefecture and national (National Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives.

  7. Organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Miriam; Starks, Sarah E; Sanderson, Wayne T; Kamel, Freya; Hoppin, Jane A; Gerr, Fred

    2017-11-01

    Although organic solvents are often used in agricultural operations, neurotoxic effects of solvent exposure have not been extensively studied among farmers. The current analysis examined associations between questionnaire-based metrics of organic solvent exposure and depressive symptoms among farmers. Results from 692 male Agricultural Health Study participants were analyzed. Solvent type and exposure duration were assessed by questionnaire. An "ever-use" variable and years of use categories were constructed for exposure to gasoline, paint/lacquer thinner, petroleum distillates, and any solvent. Depressive symptoms were ascertained with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D); scores were analyzed separately as continuous (0-60) and dichotomous (distillates, and short duration of petroleum distillate exposure and continuous CES-D score (p < 0.05). Although nearly all associations were positive, fewer statistically significant associations were observed between metrics of solvent exposure and the dichotomized CES-D variable. Solvent exposures were associated with depressive symptoms among farmers. Efforts to limit exposure to organic solvents may reduce the risk of depressive symptoms among farmers.

  8. AIDS and African smallholder agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutangadura, G

    1998-09-01

    During the Responding to HIV/AIDS: Technology Development Needs for African Smallholder Agriculture Conference in Harare, about 70 delegates participated from government and nongovernmental organizations, community-based organizations, agricultural research, and regional and international organizations. The aims of the conference were to analyze the impact of HIV/AIDS on smallholder agriculture; identify the necessary technologies, policy, and institutional responses; and propose frameworks for future activities. The conference participants noted that the onset of HIV/AIDS has changed the African rural environment in which existing policy and programs on agriculture have been operating. In view of this, recommendations on technology and development and policy to mitigate the impact of the epidemic were highlighted; namely, promote existing labor and capital saving technologies; review existing agricultural extension; develop appropriate technologies to reduce the time spent on water and fuel collection; develop income-generating activities; strengthen existing community-based initiatives; and redefine the criteria for land tenure and ownership. Moreover, collaboration between development organizations and applied research were also emphasized.

  9. Modelling soil organic carbon in Danish agricultural soils suggests low potential for future carbon sequestration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taghizadeh-Toosi, Arezoo; Olesen, Jørgen Eivind

    2016-01-01

    , various agricultural management scenarios were considered including characteristic crop rotations with and without the presence of cover crops, and the application of organic amendments. We compared these simulated management effects with management effects estimated from Danish SOC monitoring network...

  10. characterisation, phylogenetic analysis,functional annotation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-01-06

    Jan 6, 2017 ... 3Collaborative Innovation Center for Efficient and Health Production of ... qPCR: a) in five tissues from a healthy blunt snout bream, indicating ..... FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) ... Sci.28, 210-214. .... Zhang F., Zhang L., Sun L.-L., Meng X.-L., Zhao Y. and Jin X. 2013 Effects of ...

  11. The water cycle for kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neno, Stephanie; Morgan, Jim; Zonolli, Gabriele; Perlman, Howard; Gonthier, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) have created a water-cycle diagram for use in elementary and middle schools. The diagram is available in many languages. This diagram is part of the USGS's Water Science School, in which the water cycle is described in detail.

  12. Strategies for selecting and breeding EAB-resistant ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer L. Koch; Kathleen Knight; Therese Poland; David W. Carey; Daniel A. Herms; Mary E. Mason

    2011-01-01

    Breeding for pest resistance in forest trees is a proven approach for managing both native and nonnative insects and diseases. A recent study by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports 255 forest tree breeding programs for insect or disease resistance in 33 diff erent countries (http://www.fao.org/forestry/26445/en/). Advantages to...

  13. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991.

  14. Facts about food irradiation. A series of fact sheets from the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-12-01

    The safety and benefits of foods processed by ionizing radiation are well documented. In an effort to provide governments, especially those of developing countries, with scientifically accurate information on issues of general interest to the public, the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI), which was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the IAEA, decided at its 7th Annual Meeting in Rome, Italy, on October 1990, to issue a series of ''Fact Sheets'' on the subject. ICGFI, an inter-governmental body with a membership of 37 governments, has as one of its mandates the function to provide information to Member States of the FAO, WHO, and IAEA and to the three organizations themselves on the safe and proper use of food irradiation technology. The Fact Sheets included here cover issues relating to: status and trends; scientific and technical terms; food irradiation and radioactivity; chemical changes in irradiated food; nutritional quality of irradiated foods; genetic studies; microbiological safety of irradiated food; irradiation and food safety; irradiation and food additives and residues; packaging of irradiated foods; safety of irradiation facilities; controlling the process; food irradiation costs; and irradiated foods and the consumer. The Fact Sheets have been separately indexed and included in the INIS Database under Reference Numbers 23011206-23011217, 23011319 and 23012743. The Fact Sheets were first issued by the ICGFI Secretariat (Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Vienna, Austria) in May 1991

  15. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercon, G; Mabit, L; Hancock, G; Nguyen, M L; Dornhofer, P; Bacchi, O O S; Benmansour, M; Bernard, C; Froehlich, W; Golosov, V N; Haciyakupoglu, S; Hai, P S; Klik, A; Li, Y; Lobb, D A; Onda, Y; Popa, N; Rafiq, M; Ritchie, J C; Schuller, P; Shakhashiro, A; Wallbrink, P; Walling, D E; Zapata, F; Zhang, X

    2012-05-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on "Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides" (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of ¹³⁷Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), ²¹⁰Pb(ex) (half-life of 22.3 years) and ⁷Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably--a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. Copyright

  16. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Nguyen, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002-2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of the different soil conservation measure on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably - a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. (author)

  17. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento-San Joaquin River Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Davisson, M. Lee; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    We used radiocarbon measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to resolve sources of riverine carbon within agriculturally dominated landscapes in California. During 2003 and 2004, average Δ14C for DOC was −254‰ in agricultural drains in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, −218‰ in the San Joaquin River, −175‰ in the California State Water Project and −152‰ in the Sacramento River. The age of bulk DOC transiting the rivers of California’s Central Valley is the oldest reported for large rivers and suggests wide-spread loss of soil organic matter caused by agriculture and urbanization. Using DAX 8 adsorbent, we isolated and measured 14C concentrations in hydrophobic acid fractions (HPOA); river samples showed evidence of bomb-pulse carbon with average Δ14C of 91 and 76‰ for the San Joaquin and Sacramento Rivers, respectively, with older HPOA, −204‰, observed in agricultural drains. An operationally defined non-HPOA fraction of DOC was observed in the San Joaquin River with seasonally computed Δ14C values of between −275 and −687‰; the source of this aged material was hypothesized to be physically protected organic-matter in high clay-content soils and agrochemicals (i.e., radiocarbon-dead material) applied to farmlands. Mixing models suggest that the Sacramento River contributes about 50% of the DOC load in the California State Water Project, and agricultural drains contribute approximately one-third of the load. In contrast to studies showing stabilization of soil carbon pools within one or two decades following land conversion, sustained loss of soil organic matter, occurring many decades after the initial agricultural-land conversion, was observed in California’s Central Valley.

  18. Measurements to know and understand our world

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ostensen, O

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available data. ISO/TC 211 Who are we ? ...member list Active members (P-members), 31 countries Australia Austria Belgium Canada China Czech Rep. Denmark Ecuador Finland Germany Hungary Italy Japan Rep. of Korea Malaysia Morocco Netherlands... Group of Experts on Geographical Names • UNGIWG, United Nations Geographic Information Working Group • UN FAO, Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations • WMO, World Meteorological Organization • CEN/TC 287, Geographic information...

  19. Sustainable Biofuel Crops Project, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juhn, Daniel [Conservation International, Arlington, VA (United States). Moore Center for Science and Oceans. Integrated Assessment and Planning; Grantham, Hedley [Conservation International, Arlington, VA (United States). Moore Center for Science and Oceans. Integrated Assessment and Planning

    2014-05-28

    Over the last six years, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has developed the Bioenergy and Food Security (BEFS) Approach to help countries design and implement sustainable bioenergy policies and strategies. The BEFS Approach consists of two sets of multidisciplinary and integrated tools and guidance (the BEFS Rapid Appraisal and the BEFS Detailed Analysis) to facilitate better decision on bioenergy development which should foster both food and energy security, and contribute to agricultural and rural development. The development of the BEFS Approach was for the most part funded by the German Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture. Recognizing the need to provide support to countries that wanted an initial assessment of their sustainable bioenergy potential, and of the associated opportunities, risks and trade offs, FAO began developing the BEFS-RA (Rapid Appraisal). The BEFS RA is a spreadsheet–based assessment and analysis tool designed to outline the country's basic energy, agriculture and food security context, the natural resources potential, the bioenergy end use options, including initial financial and economic implications, and the identification of issues that might require fuller investigation with the BEFS Detailed Analysis.

  20. The Asia-RiCE activity with data cube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyoshi, K.; Sobue, S.; LE Toan, T.; Lam, N. D.

    2017-12-01

    The Asia-RiCE initiative (http://www.asia-rice.org) has been organized to enhance rice production estimates through the use of Earth observation satellites data, and seeks to ensure that Asian rice crops are appropriately represented within GEO Global Agriculture Monitoring (GEO-GLAM) to support FAO Agriculture Market Information System (FAO-AMIS). Asia-RiCE is composed of national teams that are actively contributing to the Crop Monitor for AMIS and developing technical demonstrations of rice crop monitoring activities using both Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data (Radarsat-2 from 2013; Sentinel-1 and ALOS-2 from 2015.From 2016 after the successful rice crop area and growing estimation using SAR in a technical demonstration site (provincial level), wall-to-wall (national scale) excurse as phase 2 has been implemented in Vietnam and Indonesia in cooperation with ministry of agriculture and space agencies. This paper reports this year activity of 2017 accomplishment and way forward, especially for analysis ready data (ARD) definition of SAR to ingest to CEOS data cube to provide national scale service in Vietnam and Indonesia.

  1. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  2. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  3. The Effect of Organic and Conventional Cropping Systems on CO2 Emission from Agricultural Soils: Preliminary Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Grego

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different agricultural systems on soil organic carbon content and CO2 emission are investigated in this work. In a long-term experiment a conventional system, characterized by traditional agricultural practices (as deep tillage and chemical inputs was compared with an organic one, including green manure and organic fertilizers. Both systems have a three-year crop rotation including pea – durum wheat – tomato; the organic system is implemented with the introduction of common vetch (Vicia sativa L. and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare bicolor as cover crops. In the year 2006 (5 years after the experimentation beginning was determined the soil C content and was measured the CO2 emissions from soil. The first results showed a trend of CO2 production higher in organic soils in comparison with conventional one. Among the two compared cropping systems the higher differences of CO2 emission were observed in tomato soil respect to the durum wheat and pea soils, probably due to the vetch green manuring before the tomato transplanting. These results are in agreement with the total organic carbon content and water soluble carbon (WSC, which showed the highest values in organic soil. The first observations suggest a higher biological activity and CO2 emission in organic soil than conventional one, likely due to a higher total carbon soil content.

  4. Agricultural production and water use scenarios in Cyprus under global change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruggeman, Adriana; Zoumides, Christos; Camera, Corrado; Pashiardis, Stelios; Zomeni, Zomenia

    2014-05-01

    In many countries of the world, food demand exceeds the total agricultural production. In semi-arid countries, agricultural water demand often also exceeds the sustainable supply of water resources. These water-stressed countries are expected to become even drier, as a result of global climate change. This will have a significant impact on the future of the agricultural sector and on food security. The aim of the AGWATER project consortium is to provide recommendations for climate change adaptation for the agricultural sector in Cyprus and the wider Mediterranean region. Gridded climate data sets, with 1-km horizontal resolution were prepared for Cyprus for 1980-2010. Regional Climate Model results were statistically downscaled, with the help of spatial weather generators. A new soil map was prepared using a predictive modelling and mapping technique and a large spatial database with soil and environmental parameters. Stakeholder meetings with agriculture and water stakeholders were held to develop future water prices, based on energy scenarios and to identify climate resilient production systems. Green houses, including also hydroponic systems, grapes, potatoes, cactus pears and carob trees were the more frequently identified production systems. The green-blue-water model, based on the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach, has been set up to compute agricultural water demand and yields for all crop fields in Cyprus under selected future scenarios. A set of agricultural production and water use performance indicators are computed by the model, including green and blue water use, crop yield, crop water productivity, net value of crop production and economic water productivity. This work is part of the AGWATER project - AEIFORIA/GEOGRO/0311(BIE)/06 - co-financed by the European Regional Development Fund and the Republic of Cyprus through the Research Promotion Foundation.

  5. Climatic and watershed controls of dissolved organic matter variation in streams across a gradient of agricultural land use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Peng; Lu, YueHan; Du, YingXun; Jaffé, Rudolf; Findlay, Robert H; Wynn, Anne

    2018-01-15

    Human land use has led to significant changes in the character of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in lotic ecosystems. These changes are expected to have important environmental and ecological consequences. However, high spatiotemporal variability has been reported in previous studies, and the underlying mechanisms remain inadequately understood. This study assessed variation in the properties of stream water DOM within watersheds across a gradient of agricultural land use with grazing pasture lands as the dominant agricultural type in the southeastern United States. We collected water samples under baseflow conditions five times over eight months from a regional group of first- to fourth-order streams. Samples were analyzed for dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration, DOM quality based on absorbance and fluorescence properties, as well as DOM biodegradability. We found that air temperature and antecedent hydrological conditions (indicated by antecedent precipitation index and stream water sodium concentrations) positively influenced stream water DOC concentration, DOM fluorescence index, and the proportion of soil-derived, microbial humic fluorescence. This observation suggests that elevated production and release of microbial DOM in soils facilitated by high temperature, in conjunction with strong soil-stream hydrological connectivity, were important drivers for changes in the concentration and composition of stream water DOM. By comparison, watersheds with a high percentage of agricultural land use showed higher DOC concentration, larger proportion of soil-derived, humic-like DOM compounds, and higher DOC biodegradability. These observations reflect preferential mobilization of humic DOM compounds from shallow organic matter-rich soils in agricultural watersheds, likely due to enhanced soil erosion, organic matter oxidation and relatively shallow soil-to-stream flow paths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. FAO UN-REDD- INPE Joint Programme on Forest Monitoring Systems based on RS and GIS techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, I. G.; FAO UN-REDD MRV Team

    2010-12-01

    Capacity Development and Training for National Forest Monitoring Systems for Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries (REDD+) REDD+, which stands for ’Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Developing Countries’ - is an effort to create a financial value for the carbon stored in forests, offering incentives for developing countries to reduce emissions from forested lands and invest in low-carbon paths to sustainable development. The UN-REDD Programme, a collaborative partnership between FAO, UNDP and UNEP launched in September 2008, supports countries to develop capacity to REDD+ and to implement a future REDD+ mechanism in a post-2012 climate regime. The programme works at both the national and global scale, through support mechanisms for country-driven REDD strategies and international consensus-building on REDD+ processes. The UN-REDD Programme gathers technical teams from around the world to develop common approaches, analyses and guidelines on issues such as measurement, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and flows, remote sensing, and greenhouse gas inventories. Within the partnership, FAO supports countries on technical issues related to forestry and the development of cost effective and credible MRV processes for emission reductions. While at the international level, it fosters improved guidance on MRV approaches, including consensus on principles and guidelines for MRV and training programmes. It provides guidance on how best to design and implement REDD+, to ensure that forests continue to provide multiple benefits for livelihoods and biodiversity to societies while storing carbon at the same time. Other areas of work include national forest assessments and monitoring of in-country policy and institutional change. FAO and INPE (Brazilian Space Agency) have joint forces through a MoU signed last year in Copenhagen. A major joint programme has been agreed upon to set

  7. Joint radiation emergency management plan of the International Organizations. Emergency preparedness and response. Date effective: 1 December 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The Convention on Early Notification of a Nuclear Accident (the 'Early Notification Convention') and the Convention on Assistance in the Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency (the 'Assistance Convention') are the prime legal instruments that establish an international framework to facilitate the exchange of information and the prompt provision of assistance in the event of a nuclear accident or radiological emergency, with the aim of minimizing the consequences. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has specific functions allocated to it under these Conventions, to which the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) are full Parties. Since 1989, the arrangements between these organizations for facilitating the practical implementation of those articles of the two Conventions which are operational in nature have been documented by the IAEA in the Emergency Notification and Assistance Technical Operations Manual (ENATOM). This manual describes the conceptual link between the IAEA, all other relevant international intergovernmental organizations, States which are IAEA Member States and/or Parties to one or both Conventions, and other States under the terms of the two Conventions. The ENATOM is intended for use primarily by Contact Points as defined in the Convention

  8. Phthalate esters (PAEs): Emerging organic contaminants in agricultural soils in peri-urban areas around Guangzhou, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Feng; Cui Kunyan; Xie Zhiyong; Wu Lina; Liu Min; Sun Guoquan; Lin Yujun; Luo Danling; Zeng, Zunxiang

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the first data on the concentrations and distribution of phthalate esters (PAEs) in the agricultural soils from the peri-urban areas of Guangzhou city. Σ 16 PAEs concentrations ranged from 0.195 to 33.6 μg g -1 -dry weight (dw). Elevated levels of PAEs were recorded in the vegetable fields located next to the urban districts, and a decreasing trend exists following the distance away from the urban center. Diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) dominated the PAEs in the agricultural soils. Significant relationship (correlation coefficient R 2 = 0.85, p < 0.01, n = 40) was present between the accumulation of PAEs and total organic carbons in agricultural soils. In addition, both pH and texture of soils are found to be important factors affecting the level of PAEs. This study shows that the agricultural soils in the peri-urban area of Guangzhou city were moderately polluted by PAEs. - PAEs are determined in agricultural soils at high concentration levels, which imply a potential risk for the food chain

  9. Acute pesticide poisoning and pesticide registration in Central America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Corriols, Marianela; Bravo, Viria

    2005-01-01

    The International Code of Conduct on the Distribution and Use of Pesticides of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations has been for 20 years the most acknowledged international initiative for reducing negative impact from pesticide use in developing countries. We analyzed pesticide use and poisoning in Central America, particularly in Costa Rica and Nicaragua, and evaluated whether registration decisions are based on such data, in accordance with the FAO Code. Extensive use of very hazardous pesticides continues in Central America and so do poisonings with organophosphates, carbamates, endosulfan and paraquat as the main causative agents. Central American governments do not carry out or commission scientific risk assessments. Instead, guidelines from international agencies are followed for risk management through the registration process. Documentation of pesticide poisonings during several decades never induced any decision to ban or restrict a pesticide. However, based on the official surveillance systems, in 2000, the ministers of health of the seven Central American countries agreed to ban or restrict twelve of these pesticides. Now, almost 4 years later, restrictions have been implemented in El Salvador and in Nicaragua public debate is ongoing. Chemical and agricultural industries do not withdraw problematic pesticides voluntarily. In conclusion, the registration processes in Central America do not comply satisfactorily with the FAO Code. However, international regulatory guidelines are important in developing countries, and international agencies should strongly extend its scope and influence, limiting industry involvement. Profound changes in international and national agricultural policies, steering towards sustainable agriculture based on non-chemical pest management, are the only way to reduce poisonings

  10. Diagnosis and epidemiology of animal diseases in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooling, A.

    1998-01-01

    Support for scientists and their endeavours in developing countries by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is provided through FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Projects (CRP) and IAEA Technical Co-operation Projects (TCPs). Using these mechanisms the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agricultural aims to encourage and improve the capacity of national institutions in developing countries to identify and resolve problems connected with improving livestock productivity and health. In 1986, the Section introduced and animal health component into its Project. The initial support was for five years but in 1991 this was extended for a further three years and linked with the support available from the IAEA's Technical Co-operation Project through national and regional TCPs and ARCAL activities in Latin America dealing with diagnosis of animal diseases. Central to this overall project ws the use of ELISA for the diagnosis and control of livestock diseases. FAO/IAEA CRPs are developed around a well defined research topic on which between 15 and 20 national institutes collaborate - the topic itself being defined through consultation with national authorities in developing and developed countries and international agricultural research centers and organizations. The primary role of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in such programmes is to ensure that the inputs and efforts under these programmes are co-ordinated and that the results are published. The studies being reported in this IAEA TECDOC were initiated in 1991 and whilst the focus was on three major disease affecting livestock in the region (foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), brucellosis and babesiosis) the approach taken by individual Research Control holders was different and thus in some cases research concentrated on assay validation whilst in other cases the focus was on the

  11. Soil organic matter distribution and microaggregate characteristics as affected by agricultural management and earthworm activity

    OpenAIRE

    Pulleman, M M; Six, J; van Breemen, N; Jongmans, A G

    2005-01-01

    Stable microaggregates can physically protect occluded soil organic matter (SOM) against decomposition. We studied the effects of agricultural management on the amount and characteristics of microaggregates and on SOM distribution in a marine loam soil in the Netherlands. Three long-term farming systems were compared: a permanent pasture, a conventional-arable system and an organic-arable system. Whole soil samples were separated into microaggregates (53-250 mu m), 20-53 mu m and 20 mu m) ve...

  12. What are the effects of agricultural management on soil organic carbon in boreo-temperate systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haddaway, Neal R.; Hedlund, Katarina; Jackson, Louise E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Soils contain the largest stock of organic carbon (C) in terrestrial ecosystems and changes in soil C stocks may significantly affect atmospheric CO2. A significant part of soil C is present in cultivated soils that occupy about 35 % of the global land surface. Agricultural intensifica...

  13. Soil Organic Carbon dynamics in agricultural soils of Veneto Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampa, F. B.; Morari, F. M.; Hiederer, R. H.; Toth, G. T.; Giandon, P. G.; Vinci, I. V.; Montanarella, L. M.; Nocita, M.

    2012-04-01

    One of the eight soil threats expressed in the European Commission's Thematic Strategy for Soil Protection (COM (2006)231 final) it's the decline in Soil Organic Matter (SOM). His preservation is recognized as with the objective to ensure that the soils of Europe remain healthy and capable of supporting human activities and ecosystems. One of the key goals of the strategy is to maintain and improve Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) levels. As climate change is identified as a common element in many of the soil threats, the European Commission (EC) intends to assess the actual contribution of the soil protection to climate change mitigation and the effects of climate change on the possible depletion of SOM. A substantial proportion of European land is occupied by agriculture, and consequently plays a crucial role in maintaining natural resources. Organic carbon preservation and sequestration in the EU's agricultural soils could have some potential to mitigate the effects of climate change, particularly linked to preventing certain land use changes and maintaining SOC stocks. The objective of this study is to assess the SOC dynamics in agricultural soils (cropland and grassland) at regional scale, focusing on changes due to land use. A sub-objective would be the evaluation of the most used land management practices and their effect on SOC content. This assessment aims to determine the geographical distribution of the potential GHG mitigation options, focusing on hot spots in the EU, where mitigation actions would be particularly efficient and is linked with the on-going work in the JRC SOIL Action. The pilot area is Veneto Region. The data available are coming from different sources, timing and involve different variables as: soil texture, climate, soil disturbance, managements and nutrients. The first source of data is the LUCAS project (Land Use/Land Cover Area Frame statistical Survey). Started in 2001, the LUCAS project aims to monitor changes in land cover/use and

  14. organic agriculture in Syria : policy options

    OpenAIRE

    Santucci, Fabio M.

    2010-01-01

    The author analyses present difficulties of conventional agriculture in Syria. Market opportunities, in Syria and abroad, are illustrated. Possible actions and participatory approach are thus covered.

  15. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  16. Sustainability Organic Agriculture and Livestock Production with Respect to European Union in Eastern Anatolia and East Black Sea Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vecihi Aksakal

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The majority of farm households in Turkey and especially the Eastern Anatolia are still based on low-input semi subsistence agriculture and livestock production. Despite a slow decline in recent years, agriculture and livestock production remains a major employer in Turkey and it is a significant contributor to the country’s gross domestic product, GDP. Whist Turkey is one of the EU candidate countries, is self sufficient in food production and Turkish agriculture is poorly structured inefficient, with farming in the Eastern Anatolia being mainly subsistence farming. Yet, these traditional rural structures combined with poor access to low level of education and low level of off-farm unemployment problem makes the situation more complicated and unsustainable. The best way to promote sustainability, better and higher production of Eastern Anatolian and rural Turkey is to invest in the local people, villages through improved, continuing and effective agricultural and livestock programs in particular. Investment in human capital especially in the rural areas leads to more employment opportunities through entrepreneurship and innovation in organic agriculture and livestock production. A holistic approach to developing and improving supply chains could unlock the potential for sophisticated, state-of-the-art organic agriculture and livestock producers and businesses in the region to become EU and global players. Eastern Anatolian livestock producers and the farmers have the ambitions to take part in future progress because the region is naturally organic not by design but default. It is for sure that present potential of the region has not been fully determined and utilized. EU has greatly benefited from previous enlargements economically, politically and socially. When European Union (EU and Turkish Government relations considered and accession of Turkey to EU would be the logical consequence of the previous accessions. The screening on chapter 11

  17. Strategies for global monitoring of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1994-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is conducting a global assessment of tropical forest resources, which will be accomplished by mid-1992. This assessment requires, in part, estimates of the total area of tropical forest cover in 1990 and the rate of change in forest cover between 1980 and 1990. The following are described here: (1) the...

  18. Statistical strategies for global monitoring of tropical forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1991-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations is conducting a global assessment of tropical forest resources, which will be accomplished by mid-1992. This assessment requires, in part, estimates of the total area of tropical forest cover in 1990, and the rate of change in forest cover between 1980 and 1990. This paper describes: (1) the strategic...

  19. The role of hydrology in annual organic carbon loads and terrestrial organic matter export from a midwestern agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Brent J.; Filley, Timothy R.; Harbor, Jon M.

    2007-03-01

    Defining the control that hydrology exerts on organic carbon (OC) export at the watershed scale is important for understanding how the source and quantity of OC in streams and rivers is influenced by climate change or by landscape drainage. To this end, molecular (lignin phenol), stable carbon isotope, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) data were collected over a range of flow conditions to examine the influence of hydrology on annual OC export from an 850 km 2 Midwestern United States agricultural watershed located in west central Indiana. In years 2002 and 2003, modeled annual DOC loads were 19.5 and 14.1 kg ha -1yr -1, while 71% and 85%, respectively, of the total annual OC was exported in flow events occurring during less than 20% of that time. These results highlight the importance of short-duration, high-discharge events (common in smaller watersheds) in controlling annual OC export. Based on reported increases in annual stream discharge coupled with current estimates of DOC export, annual DOC loads in this watershed may have increased by up to 40% over the past 50 years. Molecular (lignin phenol) characterization of quantity and relative degradation state of terrestrial OC shows as much temporal variability of lignin parameters (in high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon) in this one watershed as that demonstrated in previously published studies of dissolved organic matter in the Mississippi and Amazon Rivers. These results suggest that hydrologic variability is at least as important in determining the nature and extent of OC export as geographic variability. Moreover, molecular and bulk stable carbon isotope data from high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon and colloidal organic carbon showed that increased stream flow from the study watershed was responsible for increased export of agriculturally derived OC. When considered in the context of results from other studies that show the importance of flood events and in-stream processing of

  20. In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains. Final reports of an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme from 1988 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    This document contains 9 final reports of the participants at the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on 'In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains'. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains. Final reports of an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme from 1988 to 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This document contains 9 final reports of the participants at the FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research programme on `In vitro mutation breeding of bananas and plantains`. A separate abstract was prepared for each report. Refs, figs and tabs.

  2. Food irradiation: Issues affecting its acceptance by governments, the food industry and consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, P.; Ladomery, L.; Ahmed, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article, in reviewing current trends and issues regarding the acceptability of food irradiation at different levels, highlights the role of the International Consultative Group on Food Irradiation (ICGFI). This group was established under the aegis of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the IAEA and the World Health Organization (WHO) in May 1984, and provides information and advice to the three organizations and ICGFI member countries (35 to date) on work in this field. 21 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab

  3. Radioactive fallout in food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winteringham, F.P.W.

    1989-01-01

    Part 1 of this review is designed to provide an up-dated background to the subject in relation to FAO's interests and responsibilities in scientifically accurate but non-technical language. Part 2 is concerned more specifically with the problems of radioactive fallout over pasture and cultivated soils. Moreover, it is mainly concerned with problems of international significance under peacetime conditions and which are likely only to arise as a result of a major nuclear reactor accident, or, possibly, some unintended nuclear explosion. However, relatively local problems of soil contamination could arise as a result of other kinds of accident. In the report the natural occurrence of radionuclides, and radiation exposure as a fact of life in the human environment, are indicated. Exposure to ionizing radiation from natural and man-made sources are compared. The behaviour and significance of radionuclides in ecosystems are briefly illustrated. Land-based nuclear powr stations and nuclear-powered ships and submarines are identified as the major potential accident hazards to agriculture or fisheries under peacetime conditions. 216 refs, figs and tabs

  4. Nutrient supply to organic agriculture as governed by EU regulations and standards in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løes, Anne Kristin; Bünemann, E.K.; Cooper, J.

    2017-01-01

    -farm P sources include conventional animal manure, composted or anaerobically digested organic residues, rock phosphate, and some animal residues such as meat and bone meal. The recent proposed revision of EU regulations for organic production (2014) puts less emphasis on closing nutrient cycles...... as means are taken to ensure the quality and safety of these inputs. Awareness of the need to close nutrient cycles may contribute to adapting regulations and private standards to support recycling of nutrients from society to organic agriculture. A better definition of the term “natural substance...

  5. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  6. Evaluating the trade-off between food and timber resulting from the conversion of Miombo forests to agricultural land in Angola using multi-temporal Landsat data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneibel, Anne; Stellmes, Marion; Röder, Achim; Finckh, Manfred; Revermann, Rasmus; Frantz, David; Hill, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    The repopulation of abandoned areas in Angola after 27years of civil war led to a fast and extensive expansion of agricultural fields to meet the rising food demand. Yet, the increase in crop production at the expense of natural resources carries an inherent potential for conflicts since the demand for timber and wood extraction are also supposed to rise. We use the concept of ecosystem services to evaluate the trade-off between food and woody biomass. Our study area is located in central Angola, in the highlands of the upper Okavango catchment. We used Landsat data (spatial resolution: 30×30m) with a bi-temporal and multi-seasonal change detection approach for five time steps between 1989 and 2013 to estimate the conversion area from woodland to agriculture. Overall accuracy is 95%, user's accuracy varies from 89-95% and producer's accuracy ranges between 92-99%. To quantify the trade-off between woody biomass and the amount of food, this information was combined with indicator values and we furthermore assessed biomass regrowth on fallows. Our results reveal a constant rise in agricultural expansion from 1989-2013 with the mean annual deforestation rate increasing from roughly 5300ha up to about 12,000ha. Overall, 5.6% of the forested areas were converted to agriculture, whereas the FAO states a national deforestation rate for Angola of 5% from 1990-2010 (FAO, 2010). In the last time step 961,000t per year of woodland were cleared to potentially produce 1240t per year of maize. Current global agro-economical projections forecast increasing pressure on tropical dry forests from large-scale agriculture schemes (Gasparri et al., 2015; Searchinger and Heimlich, 2015). Our study underlines the importance of considering subsistence-related change processes, which may contribute significantly to negative effects associated with deforestation and degradation of these forest ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiation safety: New international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    This article highlights an important result of this work for the international harmonization of radiation safety: specifically, it present an overview of the forthcoming International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources - the so-called BSS. They have been jointly developed by six organizations - the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the Nuclear Energy Agency of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (NEA/OECD), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), and the World Health Organization (WHO)

  8. Gender and agricultural markets

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the traditional division of labor within agricultural markets, where women farmers are primarily responsible for subsistence and household crop production while male farmers dominate the commercial sector. Challenging these gendered roles by increasing women farmers' acces...

  9. PERFORMANCE OF ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIPRIAN APOSTOL

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The term ecological agriculture has been attributed by the European Union of Romania to define this system of agriculture and is similar with terms organic agriculture or biological agriculture, which are used in other member states. One of the main goals of ecological agriculture is the production of agricultural and food products fresh and genuine through processes created to respect nature and its systems. Thus, it prohibits the use of genetically modified organisms, fertilizers and synthetic pesticides, stimulators and growth regulators, hormones, antibiotics for livestock and the use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, drastic interventions on the soil, the introduction of genetically modified organisms, in the case of the cultivated soil. The study aims to highlight the main features of ecological agriculture and its impact on the national economy. Through a descriptive and comparative analysis of specific indicators are surprising the main aspects of ecological agriculture performance in Romania and are identified investment opportunities in this sector of the national economy. Following this study, it was found that ecological agriculture in Romania is quite performant and recorded a continuous development, but mainly in the production, not in the processing and trading of natural products, which is why investment in these areas would be welcome.

  10. Edible safety requirements and assessment standards for agricultural genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Pingjian; Zhou, Xiangyang; Zhou, Peng; Du, Zhong; Hou, Hongli; Yang, Dongyan; Tan, Jianjun; Wu, Xiaojin; Zhang, Jinzhou; Yang, Yongcun; Liu, Jin; Liu, Guihua; Li, Yonghong; Liu, Jianjun; Yu, Lei; Fang, Shisong; Yang, Xiaoke

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the background, principles, concepts and methods of framing the technical regulation for edible safety requirement and assessment of agricultural genetically modified organisms (agri-GMOs) for Shenzhen Special Economic Zone in the People's Republic of China. It provides a set of systematic criteria for edible safety requirements and the assessment process for agri-GMOs. First, focusing on the degree of risk and impact of different agri-GMOs, we developed hazard grades for toxicity, allergenicity, anti-nutrition effects, and unintended effects and standards for the impact type of genetic manipulation. Second, for assessing edible safety, we developed indexes and standards for different hazard grades of recipient organisms, for the influence of types of genetic manipulation and hazard grades of agri-GMOs. To evaluate the applicability of these criteria and their congruency with other safety assessment systems for GMOs applied by related organizations all over the world, we selected some agri-GMOs (soybean, maize, potato, capsicum and yeast) as cases to put through our new assessment system, and compared our results with the previous assessments. It turned out that the result of each of the cases was congruent with the original assessment.

  11. Long-term organic-inorganic fertilization ensures great soil productivity and bacterial diversity after natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Weibing; Xu, Zhihui; Li, Wei; Ren, Yi; Huang, Ting; Ran, Wei; Wang, Boren; Shen, Qirong; Zhang, Ruifu

    2016-09-01

    Natural ecosystems comprise the planet's wild plant and animal resources, but large tracts of land have been converted to agroecosystems to support the demand for agricultural products. This conversion limits the number of plant species and decreases the soil biological diversity. Here we used high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to evaluate the responses of soil bacterial communities in long-term converted and fertilized red soils (a type of Ferralic Cambisol). We observed that soil bacterial diversity was strongly affected by different types of fertilization management. Oligotrophic bacterial taxa demonstrated large relative abundances in chemically fertilized soil, whereas copiotrophic bacterial taxa were found in large relative abundances in organically fertilized and fallow management soils. Only organic-inorganic fertilization exhibited the same local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity as that of a natural ecosystem. However, the independent use of organic or inorganic fertilizer reduced local taxonomic and phylogenetic diversity and caused biotic homogenization. This study demonstrated that the homogenization of bacterial communities caused by natural-to-agricultural ecosystem conversion can be mitigated by employing rational organic-inorganic fertilization management.

  12. Pengaruh Kebijakan Agreement on Agriculture (Aoa) Oleh World Trade Organization (WTO) Terhadap Kenaikan Impor Kopi Indonesia Tahun 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Jamaan, Ahmad; Parapat, Johan Kristo

    2015-01-01

    This research describes and proves the influence of policy AgreementOn Agriculture (AoA) by the World Trade Organization (WTO) for theIndonesian coffee. AoA policy is a policy of international trade in agricultureby WTO.This research uses perspective of pluralism. Pluralist assumes that stateis not unitary actor. This study also uses international trade and internationalorganizations theory.Agreement On Agriculture (AoA) is an international treaty on trade inagriculture in the WTO context. Ao...

  13. International atomic energy agency organization (IAEA) in case of extra territorial accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabit, K.; Nogueira de Oliveira, C.

    2006-01-01

    This article sums up the actual activities of IAEA in terms of preparation and responses to nuclear or radiological emergencies. The Agency has established in 1986 a surveillance unit 24 h/24 h and an operational unit: the center of response to emergencies (C.R.U). The C.R.U. is the principal operational unit in charge of acting in case of nuclear emergency notification and to answer to the demand of information or help during an incident or emergency. It receives the reports of an authority of any state, on an incident and checks any report that is not confirmed. It establishes the first functional links with the state at the origin o the report and any state potentially concerned. It establishes links with W.H.O (world health organization), W.M.O.(world meteorological organization), (B.C.A.H.) the office of coordination of humanitarian affairs of united nations, the FAO ( food and agriculture organization).The principal lessons got from interventions made during real events have been the following ones: first, official information communicated by the Center for the IAEA emergency interventions have contributed to avoid the propagations of hearsay and panic, secondly a fast international cooperation and the presence of the team of IAEA center on the premises during an intervention in case of event with multi sectorial consequences are extremely important. (N.C.)

  14. Harmonisation of food consumption data format for dietary exposure assessments of chemicals analysed in raw agricultural commodities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, Polly E.; Ruprich, Jiri; Petersen, Annette

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to format national food consumption data at raw agricultural commodity (RAC) level. In this way, the data is both formatted in a harmonised way given the comparability of RACs between countries, and suitable to assess the dietary exposure to chemicals analysed......, and the use of the FAO/WHO Codex Classification system of Foods and Animal Feeds to harmonise the classification. We demonstrate that this approach works well for pesticides and glycoalkaloids, and is an essential step forward in the harmonisation of risk assessment procedures within Europe when addressing...... chemicals analysed in RACs by all national food control systems....

  15. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  16. Extension for Organic Agriculture: A Comparative Study between Baden-Württemberg, Germany and Crete, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österle, Nina; Koutsouris, Alex; Livieratos, Yannis; Kabourakis, Emmanuil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the extension services offered in the field of organic agriculture (OA) in Baden-Württemberg (BW), Germany and Crete, Greece. Design/methodology approach: 16 in-depth interviews, 10 in BW and 6 in Crete, were carried out with representatives of OA extension providers; interviews were qualitatively…

  17. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised

  18. Constructing a Soil Class Map of Denmark based on the FAO Legend Using Digital Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Kabindra; Minasny, Budiman; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2014-01-01

    Soil mapping in Denmark has a long history and a series of soil maps based on conventional mapping approaches have been produced. In this study, a national soil map of Denmark was constructed based on the FAO–Unesco Revised Legend 1990 using digital soil mapping techniques, existing soil profile......) confirmed that the output is reliable and can be used in various soil and environmental studies without major difficulties. This study also verified the importance of GlobalSoilMap products and a priori pedological information that improved prediction performance and quality of the new FAO soil map...

  19. Comparison between conventional and organic agriculture in terms of nutritional quality of food - a critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Jørgensen, Henry; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    market. Scientific research on organic foodstuffs is contradictory, and knowledge regarding the effect of cultivation system on the nutritive value and the possible relationship with human health could be further explored. Although some systematic differences in the nutritional content, i.e. nitrogen......The consumption of organic foods has been increasing over the last decades and organic products are becoming more visible on the market. Consumers perceive that organic foods are of better quality, more nutritious and healthier, and these perceptions are some of the main drivers of the organic...... of the research on nutritional quality of food, comparing conventional and organic agriculture; i.e. the nutrient content of plant products and livestock products, digestibility or bioavailability of the nutrients, preference and the potential health effects after consumption. We established a systematic approach...

  20. A Qualitative Study of Technology-Based Training in Organizations that Hire Agriculture and Life Sciences Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Leslie; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dooley, Kim E.

    2008-01-01

    Technological advances have created unlimited opportunities in education. Training and technology have merged to create new methods referred to as technology-based training. The purpose of this study was to identify organizations that hire agriculture and life sciences students for positions involving technology-based training and identify…

  1. Application of PistachioWaste as Organic Manure in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahin Daneshmandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant residuals and waste products of agricultural crops form organic fertilizer sources that are traditionally used as organic manure. From 230000 t of dry pistachios produced in 2014, more than 766000 t waste was generated and a large part was to pistachio orchards in fertile regions to be used as organic manure. This study investigated the positive and negative effects of the used of pistachio waste as organic fertilizer over two consecutive years in the form of statistical designs for compound decomposition (overtime. The results indicate that if pistachio waste accumulates without being disinfected, it is a suitable environment for the growth and activity of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of aflatoxin G2 was confirmed in the pistachio waste (0.028 μg, but this contamination did not exist in the soil of the orchard to which the pistachio waste was added. The addition of waste to soil significantly reduced the EC and pH and increased the levels of Zn, P, and K by 270%, 195%, and 89.5%, respectively, in comparison with the control. The level of B did not differ significantly at between treatments. The results suggest that adding pistachio waste to soil enriches it with elements that are directly absorbable by pistachio trees, but it is necessary for the waste to be disinfected with proper fungicides to prevent development of toxin contamination. Furthermore, to recover the decomposability of soil, application of waste to orchards with intervals of twice or three times a year is recommended.

  2. Measuring organic matter in Everglades wetlands and the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Alan L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Hanlon, Edward A. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Here, organic matter is a complex material that represents the long-term decay products from plants and other organisms in the soil. When organic matter is allowed to build up in a soil, the soil color at the surface usually turns a darker color, often with a red or brown hue. Typically in Florida mineral soils, organic matter content is quite low, within the range of 1 to 5%. However, in some soils that remain flooded for most of the year, organic matter can build up with time and actually become the soil. Such is the case for the organic soils, or histosols, found in southern Florida. These organic soils comprise much of the Water Conservation Areas, Everglades National Park (ENP), Big Cypress Basin, and the Everglades Agricultural Area (EAA). It is important to document organic matter accumulation in the Everglades to gauge the effectiveness of wetland creation and succession. For the EAA, the drained soils lose organic matter due to oxidation, so measurement of the organic matter content of these soils over the course of time indicates the oxidation potential and mineral incorporation from bedrock. Due to the wide diversity of soil types and methods of measuring soil organic matter, there is a need to devise a more universal method applicable to many types of histosols in south Florida. The intent of this publication is: 1.To describe a simple laboratory method for determining the organic matter content of the organic soils of southern Florida and demonstrate the importance of using this new procedure for improved accuracy and precision; 2.To utilize this updated laboratory procedure for field sites across Everglades wetlands and the EAA; and 3. To recommend this procedure be used by growers, state and federal agencies, and university and agency researchers dealing with the management of organic soils in southern Florida. Growers can use this improvement to organic matter measurement to keep lab testing costs low while getting a better, more quantitative

  3. FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing. Book of extended synopses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This document contains extended synopses of 90 articles presented to the FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing, held in Anatalya, Turkey, 19-22 October, 1999. The major themes covered include food irradiation technologies, public acceptance of irradiated food items, effectiveness and economic aspects of food irradiation

  4. FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing. Book of extended synopses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    This document contains extended synopses of 90 articles presented to the FAO/IAEA/WHO international conference on ensuring the safety and quality of food through radiation processing, held in Anatalya, Turkey, 19-22 October, 1999. The major themes covered include food irradiation technologies, public acceptance of irradiated food items, effectiveness and economic aspects of food irradiation.

  5. The antimicrobial role of probiotics in the oral cavity in humans and dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Csilla Zambori; Ciceronis Cumpănăşoiu; Daniela Moţ; Ioan Huţu; Camelia Gurban; Emil Tîrziu

    2014-01-01

    Probiotics have been defined in 2001 by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as "live microorganisms, and as the main bacteria that administered in adequate amounts in humans and animals have beneficial effects on the health of the host". Probiotics are single or mixed cultures of live and non-pathogenic microorganisms that are found in foods (especially acidic dairy yoghurt, kefir, buttermilk, cheese) or in nutritional ...

  6. Report from the FAO/IAEA Plant Breeding and Genetics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Technology development is a pre-requisite for further success in practical applications of nuclear techniques in plant genetics and crop improvement. The Research Contract Programme of the IAEA is a good means to stimulate the needed technology development. Present FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programmes concentrate upon the incorporation of in-vitro culture techniques into mutation breeding projects: In cereals by doubled-haploids for accelerating mutation selection, in root and tuber crops by eliminating chimerism through somatic embryogenesis, in mutation breeding for disease resistance by attempting in-vitro selection using pathotoxins where applicable. The Plant Breeding Unit of the Agency's Seibersdorf Laboratory contributes particularly to the methodology of mutation induction by irradiation of plant material before or during in-vitro culture. Whether the FAO/IAEA Plant Breeding and Genetics Section should include already molecular genetics in its research and training programmes was the main question addressed to a Consultants' Meeting in November. The answer was definitely positive regarding the use of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, but deferred other more sophisticated work recognizing the limited resources. Another new subject matter seriously considered now is the development of tracer techniques for the diagnosis of viruses, viroids and similar causal agents of plant diseases, which eventually could lead to better ways of distinguishing between resistance and susceptibility, particularly in vegetatively propagated and perennial crops. The resources for such work still have to be found. If resources become available, we would also like to start a co-ordinated research programme on domestication of plants for industrial purposes. Project proposals are welcome. As far as assistance to Member States is concerned, in 1988 we began to pay more attention to plant breeding problems in Africa. There was interaction with oil seed breeders during an

  7. Atomic energy and food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1969-07-01

    International activities aimed at improving, increasing and conserving food supplies are fostered in special ways by the Joint Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture established by the Agency and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. An examination of the processes by which food is produced and of the skills arising from nuclear techniques which are being applied is made here by Maurice Fried and Bjorn Sigurbjornsson. They are the Director and Deputy Director of the Joint Division, which is an integral part of both the Agriculture Department of FAO and of the Agency's Department of Research and Isotopes. (author)

  8. Regulatory control of radiation sources. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    The basic requirements for the protection of persons against exposure to ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources were established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Basic Safety Standards), jointly sponsored by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/ NEA), the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) (the Sponsoring Organizations). The application of the Basic Safety Standards is based on the presumption that national infrastructures are in place to enable governments to discharge their responsibilities for radiation protection and safety. Requirements relating to the legal and governmental infrastructure for the safety of nuclear facilities and sources of ionizing radiation, radiation protection, the safe management of radioactive waste and the safe transport of radioactive material are established in the Safety Requirements on Legal and Governmental Infrastructure for Nuclear, Radiation, Radioactive Waste and Transport Safety, Safety Standards Series No. GS-R-1. This Safety Guide, which is jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the International Labour Office, the PAHO and the WHO, gives detailed guidance on the key elements for the organization and operation of a national regulatory infrastructure for radiation safety, with particular reference to the functions of the national regulatory body that are necessary to ensure the implementation of the Basic Safety Standards. The Safety Guide is based technically on material first published in IAEA-TECDOC-10671, which was jointly sponsored by the FAO, the IAEA, the OECD/NEA, the PAHO and the WHO. The requirements established in GS-R-1 have been taken into account. The Safety Guide is oriented towards national

  9. 7 CFR 3600.2 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization. 3600.2 Section 3600.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 3600.2 Organization. The headquarters organization...

  10. The role of hydrologic regimes on dissolved organic carbon composition in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, P.J.; Spencer, R.G.M.; Dyda, R.Y.; Pellerin, B.A.; Bachand, P.A.M.; Bergamaschi, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    Willow Slough, a seasonally irrigated agricultural watershed in the Sacramento River valley, California, was sampled weekly in 2006 in order to investigate seasonal concentrations and compositions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Average DOC concentrations nearly doubled from winter baseflow (2.75 mg L-1) to summer irrigation (5.14 mg L-1), while a concomitant increase in carbon-normalized vanillyl phenols (0.11 mg 100 mg OC-1 increasing to 0.31 mg 100 mg OC-1, on average) indicates that this additional carbon is likely vascular plant-derived. A strong linear relationship between lignin concentration and total suspended sediments (r2 = 0.79) demonstrates that agricultural management practices that mobilize sediments will likely have a direct and significant impact on DOC composition. The original source of vascular plant-derived DOC to Willow Slough appears to be the same throughout the year as evidenced by similar syringyl to vanillyl and cinnamyl to vanillyl ratios. However, differing diagenetic pathways during winter baseflow as compared to the rest of the year are evident in acid to aldehyde ratios of both vanillyl and syringyl phenols. The chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 350 nm showed a strong correlation with lignin concentration (r2 = 0.83). Other CDOM measurements related to aromaticity and molecular weight also showed correlations with carbon-normalized yields (e.g. specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (r2 = 0.57) and spectral slope (r2 = 0.54)). Our overall findings suggest that irrigated agricultural watersheds like Willow Slough can potentially have a significant impact on mainstem DOC concentration and composition when scaled to the entire watershed of the main tributary. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. The role of hydrologic regimes on dissolved organic carbon composition in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernes, Peter J.; Spencer, Robert G. M.; Dyda, Rachael Y.; Pellerin, Brian A.; Bachand, Philip A. M.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.

    2008-11-01

    Willow Slough, a seasonally irrigated agricultural watershed in the Sacramento River valley, California, was sampled weekly in 2006 in order to investigate seasonal concentrations and compositions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Average DOC concentrations nearly doubled from winter baseflow (2.75 mg L -1) to summer irrigation (5.14 mg L -1), while a concomitant increase in carbon-normalized vanillyl phenols (0.11 mg 100 mg OC -1 increasing to 0.31 mg 100 mg OC -1, on average) indicates that this additional carbon is likely vascular plant-derived. A strong linear relationship between lignin concentration and total suspended sediments ( r2 = 0.79) demonstrates that agricultural management practices that mobilize sediments will likely have a direct and significant impact on DOC composition. The original source of vascular plant-derived DOC to Willow Slough appears to be the same throughout the year as evidenced by similar syringyl to vanillyl and cinnamyl to vanillyl ratios. However, differing diagenetic pathways during winter baseflow as compared to the rest of the year are evident in acid to aldehyde ratios of both vanillyl and syringyl phenols. The chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption coefficient at 350 nm showed a strong correlation with lignin concentration ( r2 = 0.83). Other CDOM measurements related to aromaticity and molecular weight also showed correlations with carbon-normalized yields (e.g. specific UV absorbance at 254 nm ( r2 = 0.57) and spectral slope ( r2 = 0.54)). Our overall findings suggest that irrigated agricultural watersheds like Willow Slough can potentially have a significant impact on mainstem DOC concentration and composition when scaled to the entire watershed of the main tributary.

  12. AGRICULTURE IN THE CITY

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The target audience of this book, then, is not only researchers and high-level ...... given the current higher availability of food traded in agricultural markets and in ... recyclable materials as containers for the organic matter and agricultural soil ...

  13. Public perception and risk communication in regard to bioterrorism against animals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, G S

    2006-04-01

    This paper examines the total international prohibition on the use of disease to attack humans, animals and plants, noting that in the past several countries had developed programmes for attacks on animals and plants as well as humans. Current activities undertaken by intergovernmental organisations - the World Health Organization (WHO), Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) and World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)--to counter the threat of attacks on humans, animals and plants are examined. Effective countermeasures to deliberate attacks need to be developed in harmony with existing measures to control natural or accidental outbreaks of disease. Finally the paper assesses the risk and the public perception of it, and considers what risk communication is needed and to whom. Clear mandates are needed for the FAO and OIE to be prepared to deal with outbreaks of disease, and with contamination of the food supply chain, whether accidental or intentional.

  14. FAO/IAEA model protocol for the determination of bound residues in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A protocol for determining bound pesticide residue content in soils was developed and collaboratively tested by 11 members of the FAO/IAEA Research Co-ordination Committee. The method assumes prior incubation of soil with a radioactive pesticide or related organic compound. The major process steps of the protocol include: (a) Soxhlet extraction of air-dry soil with methanol for 24 h; (b) determination of radioactivity in unextracted soil, in methanol-extracted soil (yielding bound residue content), and in the methanol extract (yielding extractable residue content); and (c) use of triplicate samples per analysis. The participants received lysimeter soils treated six to seven years earlier with 14 C-allyl alcohol (Soil A) or 14 C-hexachloro-benzene (Soil H). The inter-laboratory results first indicated non-homogeneity of Soil A sub-samples, since the initial and bound radioactivity for four laboratories was about half of that found by the remaining seven laboratories. Intra-laboratory (in one laboratory) analyses of sub-subsamples from six 'high-group' laboratories, two 'low-group' laboratories and two additional laboratories confirmed the homogeneity of Soil A and implicated error in the combustion methods at 'low-group' laboratories. The intra- and inter-laboratory coefficients of variation for initial 14 C-content were 4.7% and 7.0%, respectively. Of the residual 14 C in Soil A, 95% was bound; in contrast, only 15% of 14 C in Soil H was bound. The coefficients of variation among ten laboratories, for Soil H, were 8.4% and 18.1% for percentage extractable residue and percentage bound residue, respectively. Some limited testing of alternative protocols, using other solvents or batch extraction, confirmed that the IAEA protocol was most efficient in the extraction of non-bound radioactivity; pre-wetting Soil A may, however, improve extraction. (author)

  15. Assessing Crop Coefficients for Natural Vegetated Areas Using Satellite Data and Eddy Covariance Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Corbari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data. Pastures, deciduous and evergreen forests have been considered and lower crop coefficient values are found with respect to FAO data.

  16. Assessing Crop Coefficients for Natural Vegetated Areas Using Satellite Data and Eddy Covariance Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbari, Chiara; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Galvagno, Marta; Cremonese, Edoardo; Mancini, Marco

    2017-11-18

    The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) method for potential evapotranspiration assessment is based on the crop coefficient, which allows one to relate the reference evapotranspiration of well irrigated grass to the potential evapotranspiration of specific crops. The method was originally developed for cultivated species based on lysimeter measurements of potential evapotranspiration. Not many applications to natural vegetated areas exist due to the lack of available data for these species. In this paper we investigate the potential of using evapotranspiration measurements acquired by micrometeorological stations for the definition of crop coefficient functions of natural vegetated areas and extrapolation to ungauged sites through remotely sensed data. Pastures, deciduous and evergreen forests have been considered and lower crop coefficient values are found with respect to FAO data.

  17. Agricultural sectoral demand and crop productivity response across the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, humans will need to roughly double agricultural production by 2050. Continued yield growth forms the foundation of all future strategies aiming to increase agricultural production while slowing or eliminating cropland expansion. However, a recent analysis by one of our co-authors has shown that yield trends in many important maize, wheat and rice growing regions have begun stagnating or declining from the highs seen during the green revolution (Ray et al. 2013). Additional research by our group has shown that nearly 50% of new agricultural production since the 1960s has gone not to direct human consumption, but instead to animal feed and other industrial uses. Our analysis for GLP looks at the convergence of these two trends by examining time series utilization data for 16 of the biggest crops to determine how demand from different sectors has shaped our land-use and intensification strategies around the world. Before rushing headlong into the next agricultural doubling, it would be prudent to first consult our recent agricultural history to better understand what was driving past changes in production. Using newly developed time series dataset - a fusion of cropland maps with historic agricultural census data gathered from around the world - we can examine yield and harvested area trends over the last half century for 16 top crops. We combine this data with utilization rates from the FAO Food Balance Sheet to see how demand from different sectors - food, feed, and other - has influenced long-term growth trends from the green revolution forward. We will show how intensification trends over time and across regions have grown or contracted depending on what is driving the change in production capacity. Ray DK, Mueller ND, West PC, Foley JA (2013) Yield Trends Are Insufficient to Double Global Crop Production by 2050. PLoS ONE 8(6): e66428. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0066428

  18. Development of a global Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS) based on remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoolst, R.

    2016-12-01

    According to the 2012 IPCC SREX report, extreme drought events are projected to become more frequent and intense in several regions of the world. Wide and timely monitoring systems are required to mitigate the impact of agricultural drought. Therefore, FAO's Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and the Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC) have established the `Agricultural Stress Index System' (ASIS). The ASIS is a remote sensing application that provides early warnings of agricultural drought at a global scale. The ASIS has first been designed and described by Rojas et al. (2011). This study focused on the African continent and was based on the back processing of low resolution data of the NOAA-satellites. In the current setup, developed by VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), the system operates in Near Real Time using data from the METOP-AVHRR sensor. The Agricultural Stress Index (ASI) is the percentage of agricultural area affected by drought in the course of the growing season within a given administrative unit. The start and end of the growing season are derived per pixel from the long term NDVI average of SPOT-VEGETATION. The Global Administrative Unit Layer (GAUL) defines the administrative boundaries at level 0, 1 and 2. A global cropland and grassland map eliminates non-agricultural areas. Temperature and NDVI anomalies are used as drought indicators and calculated at a per pixel base. The ASIS aggregates this information and produces every dekad global maps to highlight hotspots of drought stress. New developments are ongoing to strengthen the ASIS to produce country specific outputs, improve existing drought indicators and estimate production deficits using a probabilistic approach.

  19. Learning processes and productive modernization of learning in agriculture from northwestern Mexico: Cases of commercial agriculture of the coast of Hermosillo, Sonora and organic agriculture of the southern zone of Baja California Sur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel O. Villa Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of open markets has created import changes in the Mexican agriculture sector, very much noted in the so called crop pattern, the institutional frame that guides the agro–productive commercial relationships and trade organization. The agriculture in the Northwest region, particularly La Costa de Hermosillo in the State of Sonora and southern Baja in Baja Peninsula, shows a big transformation. This corresponds to Global Production Networks (gpn, a vertical integration with intensive extraterritorial interaction resulting in a process of productive escalation that favors; learning and the creation of new competitive capabilities indispensable to comply with high standards in international markets. These capabilities are reflected in improvements in product quality, productive efficiency and the development of new functions for the players involved in the production and trade of produce. It also reflects the transition to more sophisticated productive units where players are located in other territories. This study focuses on analyzing the roll of gpn in the transformation of the agricultural sector in the northwest region of Mexico, particularly the process that took place in modernizing both places.

  20. Self-Organization and the Bypass: Re-Imagining Institutions for More Sustainable Development in Agriculture and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Sherwood

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In exploring the social dynamics of agrofood movements in Ecuador as examples of self-organization (i.e., locally distributed and resolved development, this article departs from a preoccupation with innovation by means of design and the use of scaling as a metaphor for describing research contributions in agriculture and food. The case material highlights that much development is contingent, unpredictable, and unmanageable as well as unbound to fixed spaces or places. In their study of people’s daily practice, the authors do not find clear boundaries between dichotomies of internal–external, lay–expert, traditional–modern, or local–global organization, but heterogeneous blends of each. For the purposes of sustainable development, this highlights the need for attention to be paid to relationships (social, material, and biological, adaptation (the capacity to innovate, and responsibility (adherence to norms of sustainability. Far from romanticizing self-organization, the authors acknowledge that people and their institutions share varying degrees of complicity for the goods as well as the bads of their economic activity, such as mass soil degradation, agrobiodiversity loss, and poisoning by pesticides. Nevertheless, even under highly difficult conditions, certain actors effectively bypass the limitations of formal institutions in forging a socio-technical course of action (i.e., policy for relatively healthy living and being. As such, the authors have come to appreciate self-organization as a neglected, if paradoxical, resource for policy transition towards more sustainable agriculture and food.

  1. Agricultural practices that store organic carbon in soils: is it only a matter of inputs ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenu, Claire; Cardinael, Rémi; Autret, Bénédicte; Chevallier, Tiphaine; Girardin, Cyril; Mary, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Increasing the world soils carbon stocks by a factor of 4 per mil annually would compensate the annual net increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. This statement is the core of an initiative launched by the French government at the recent COP21, followed by many countries and international bodies, which attracts political attention to the storage potential of C in soils. Compared to forest and pasture soils, agricultural soils have a higher C storage potential, because they are often characterized by low C contents, and increasing their C content is associated with benefits in terms of soil properties and ecosystem services. Here we quantified, under temperate conditions, the additional C storage related to the implementation of two set of practices that are recognized to be in the framework of agroecology: conservation tillage on the one hand and agroforestry on the other hand. These studies were based on long-term experiments, a 16-years comparison on cropping systems on luvisols in the Paris area and a 18-year-old silvoarable agroforestry trial, on fluvisols in southern France, the main crops being cereals in both cases. C stocks were measured on an equivalent soil mass basis. Both systems allowed for a net storage of C in soils, which are, for the equivalent of the 0-30 cm tilled layer, of 0.55 ± 0.16 t ha- 1 yr- 1 for conservation agriculture (i.e. no tillage with permanent soil coverage with an associated plant, fescue or alfalfa) and of 0.25 ± 0.03 t ha-1 yr-1 for the agroforestry system. These results are in line with estimates proposed in a recent French national assessment concerning the potential of agricultural practices to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Compared to recent literature, they further show that practices that increase C inputs to soil through additional biomass production would be more effective to store C in soil (tree rows, cover crops in conservation agriculture) than practices, such as no-tillage, that are assumed to reduce

  2. Soils newsletter. V.17, no.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this newsletter is to provide current information on tracer techniques used to study soil fertility, irrigation and crop production. This issue contains short descriptions of coordinated research programs, listings future of Food and Agriculture Organization and International Atomic Energy Agency (FAO/IAEA) training courses, listings of future meetings, workshops, symposia and seminars, and discriptions of current technical cooperation programmes from the Asia and Pacific Region

  3. Hunger mapping: food insecurity and vulnerability information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Save the Children Foundation (SCF), a nongovernmental organization (NGO), developed the "household food economy analysis" to assess the needs of an area or population facing acute food insecurity. This method considers all of the ways people secure access to food and illustrates the distribution of various food supplies in pie charts that allow comparison of the percentage contribution of each option during a normal year and a "bad" year. Data are gathered through the use of key informants, and the analysis permits identification of ways to support local initiatives and to target assistance. As a result of this work, SCF and another NGO, Helen Keller International, attended a March 1997 expert consultation organized by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to create a workplan for the Food Insecurity and Vulnerability Information and Mapping System (FIVIMS) called for in the World Food Summit Plan of Action. The consultation adopted use of the FAO's food and balance sheet approach, despite its limitations, and determined that indicators should be location- and time-specific as well as 1) simple and reliable, 2) readily available, 3) social and anthropometric, and 4) found at all levels. The consultation also recommended combination of the key informant and the indicator approach to data collection. Finally, the consultation identified appropriate actions that should be accomplished before the 1998 meeting of the FAO's Committee on World Food Security.

  4. Carbon trading as incentive for conversion to organic agriculture. Case study. Organic peanuts in Tanzania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, F.

    2005-12-15

    In this pilot project, the climate effects of the conversion from conventional to organic cultivation of peanuts are evaluated. We could aim at voluntary carbon credits that do not comply with the CDM (Clean Development Mechanisms) rules, but we try to meet the CDM rules by combining it with a agroforestry component. However, in the example of Tanzania meeting the CDM rules was a problem. The agricultural system in Tanzania consists of a rotation of several years cultivation and several years fallow. This fallow of grass, shrubs and trees could be considered as 'forest'. Taking fallow land into cultivation would then be deforestation, which would make the planting of trees no longer eligible under CDM. This is a shame because the traditional 'slash and burn' system emits a lot of greenhouse gases.

  5. Assessment and Determination land uses of Qom's Hoze Soltan Lake southern lands by FAO Agenda and It's Rehabilitation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimpour Reihan, Majid

    2010-05-01

    Increase of playas, decrease of water quality, soil and plant degradation is one of important problems in recent decays. Notwithstanding increase of playa wetlands- 4 million ha in our country- is perform some investigations about this biome and components and this lack of investigation is made degradation of water, soil, plant potentials and at least desertification. Then, management the biome and planning for sustainable development is very important because of sensitive this environments and has requirement to recognize ecological properties and components, so in this study, try to investigate fasting and latent this regions. At last for potentialization of region for rangeland, water and dry culture use, assessment and classification of region was performed with aim of FAO formula. According to this formula, environmental factors studied and performed grading and classifying. Basis on results, the region is not proper for dry farming and view of water farming and rangeland was settled in 5 and 6 classes. Latest result should be conserving the region. For this act, our introduced 13 halophyte plats with view of investigation of 20 factors. May god will, ganged this regions to good rangelands and forests of dry regions. Key words: Assessment of lands, Hoze Soltane of Qom, environmental factors, FAO, Compatible Plants, Reclamation strategies

  6. INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL MARKET FORMATION PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Revenko

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers institutional aspects of the organized agricultural market formation process. Theoretical base to distinguish institute and institutes is given. In order to find out main influential institutes of the “organization” phenomenon author analyses Ukrainian institutional environment that is under construction process. Author considers main processes which are running during the organized market formation. Author researches theoretical approaches to the institutional staff. In order to structure the most common approaches and theoretical knowledge of this problem author proposes few schemes. Author’s points of view for many questions of the organized market formation process are proposed. Researcher analyzes effectiveness of the institutes and governmental regulation of the agricultural market. Readers can find strategically new approach to the agricultural market formation policy from the governmental point of view. Essence of the socioeconomic formation of agricultural market is considered. Main factors of agriculture market formation are outlined. Agricultural market structural parts consideration systematic approach is proposed. Ineffectiveness of the agriculture market relations without regulation process is proved. The most unfavorable reasons of the agricultural market formation are determined.

  7. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  8. Use of immunoassay technologies for the diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-01

    The IAEA and FAO, through the activities of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and their technical co-operation programmes, support the introduction of nuclear and related techniques to improve animal disease diagnosis and surveillance in developing countries. At a workshop hosted by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and the Department of Livestock Development (DLD) of Thailand, in Lampang, Thailand, in September 1993, an analysis of the results of an ACIAR project on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as well as national reports from twelve other Asian countries clearly demonstrated that the control and eradication of FMD in Asia is both a national and regional problem (vaccination alone costs in the region US $380 million annually). It was concluded that a co-ordinated regional approach was the only realistic way forward for controlling and eventually eradicating FMD from the region. It was agreed that the OIE would lead this co-ordinated regional programme in close co-operation with FAO, ACIAR, other relevant international organizations and national governments. Results of the ACIAR Project also clearly demonstrated the immense value of ELISA based systems for the diagnosis and control of FMD within Thailand. The meeting, therefore, recommended that an essential component of a regional strategy was to have, as a minimum, ELISA tests for the detection of FMD virus and for assessing the antibody status of livestock population in each country in the region. In support of this concept, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture established a co-ordinated research project (CRP) with the primary aim of establishing and documenting appropriate mechanisms for introducing and using ELISA based technologies for FMD diagnosis and surveillance in participating countries. At the completion of this Project, the region is left with a national ELISA based diagnostic facility in

  9. Use of immunoassay technologies for the diagnosis and control of foot-and-mouth disease in Southeast Asia. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The IAEA and FAO, through the activities of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and their technical co-operation programmes, support the introduction of nuclear and related techniques to improve animal disease diagnosis and surveillance in developing countries. At a workshop hosted by the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and the Department of Livestock Development (DLD) of Thailand, in Lampang, Thailand, in September 1993, an analysis of the results of an ACIAR project on foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) as well as national reports from twelve other Asian countries clearly demonstrated that the control and eradication of FMD in Asia is both a national and regional problem (vaccination alone costs in the region US $380 million annually). It was concluded that a co-ordinated regional approach was the only realistic way forward for controlling and eventually eradicating FMD from the region. It was agreed that the OIE would lead this co-ordinated regional programme in close co-operation with FAO, ACIAR, other relevant international organizations and national governments. Results of the ACIAR Project also clearly demonstrated the immense value of ELISA based systems for the diagnosis and control of FMD within Thailand. The meeting, therefore, recommended that an essential component of a regional strategy was to have, as a minimum, ELISA tests for the detection of FMD virus and for assessing the antibody status of livestock population in each country in the region. In support of this concept, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture established a co-ordinated research project (CRP) with the primary aim of establishing and documenting appropriate mechanisms for introducing and using ELISA based technologies for FMD diagnosis and surveillance in participating countries. At the completion of this Project, the region is left with a national ELISA based diagnostic facility in

  10. Measurement properties of the most commonly used Foot- and Ankle-Specific Questionnaires: the FFI, FAOS and FAAM. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierevelt, I N; Zwiers, R; Schats, W; Haverkamp, D; Terwee, C B; Nolte, P A; Kerkhoffs, G M M J

    2017-10-12

    In the foot and ankle literature, a wide range of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) is used, however, consensus as to which PROMs are preferred is lacking. Selection of a PROM is among other reasons, often based on measurement properties without considering the methodological quality of the studies that evaluate these measurement properties. The aim of current study was first to identify the most frequently used foot and ankle-specific PROMs in recent orthopaedic foot and ankle literature, and second to conduct a systematic review to synthesize and critically appraise the measurement properties of these PROMS. Six PubMed indexed journals focussing on foot and ankle research were screened to identify most commonly used foot and ankle-specific PROMs over a 2 year period (2015-2016). Subsequently, a systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and Scopus to identify relevant studies on their measurement properties. Methodological quality assessment was performed using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) checklist, criteria for good measurement properties were applied, and a level of evidence was determined for the measurement properties of each domain of the questionnaires. The three most frequently reported PROMs were the Foot Function Index (FFI), the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) and the Foot and Ankle Activity Measure (FAAM). Among 2046 unique citations, 50 studies were included evaluating these PROMs. Evidence to support the measurement properties of the FFI was mainly lacking due to poor methodological quality. More evidence was available for the measurement properties of the FAOS and the FAAM, but overall evidence supporting all measurement properties is not yet sufficient. The best available evidence retrieved in this review showed that the FAOS and the FAAM are promising outcome measures for evaluation of patients with foot and ankle conditions, but their

  11. Food and Environmental Protection Newsletter, Vol. 19, No. 2, July 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-07-01

    The Food and Environmental Protection (FEP) Subprogramme under the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture continues to strengthen our joint efforts with the FAO and IAEA to protect human health and facilitate international agricultural trade by providing technical support and training to develop, accelerate and expand the contributions of nuclear technologies to food security and safety through peaceful uses of atomic energy. These activities are primarily related to the use of ionizing radiation; the implementation of traceability systems; analytical techniques to control food contaminants and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies affecting food and agriculture.

  12. PPARα agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luci, Sebastian; Geissler, Stefanie; Koenig, Bettina; Koch, Alexander; Stangl, Gabriele I.; Hirche, Frank; Eder, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    It has been shown that clofibrate treatment increases the carnitine concentration in the liver of rats. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. In this study, we observed for the first time that treatment of rats with the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α agonist clofibrate increases hepatic mRNA concentrations of organic cation transporters (OCTNs)-1 and -2 which act as transporters of carnitine into the cell. In rat hepatoma (Fao) cells, treatment with WY-14,643 also increased the mRNA concentration of OCTN-2. mRNA concentrations of enzymes involved in carnitine biosynthesis were not altered by treatment with the PPARα agonists in livers of rats and in Fao cells. We conclude that PPARα agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis

  13. 7 CFR 3800.2 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization. 3800.2 Section 3800.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) WORLD AGRICULTURAL OUTLOOK BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 3800.2 Organization. The central and only office of WAOB is located...

  14. Laboratory training manual on the use of isotopes and radiation in soil-plant relations research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in co-operation with local authorities in various countries have jointly sponsored international laboratory training courses on the use of isotopes and radiation in specialized fields of agriculture. Outstanding scientists from various countries have given lectures and devised and conducted the laboratory exercises; research workers from all over the world have attended these courses. In addition, under the United Nations Expanded Programme of Technical Assistance the IAEA in co-operation with host governments has conducted similar regional courses. This laboratory manual is a natural outgrowth of these activities. The contents represents the efforts not only of the IAEA and FAO Secretariats but also of the various instructors who have participated in the courses, a Special Consultant, Victor Middelboe, and a panel of scientists who met in Vienna from 3 to 7 September 1962 and revised the initial version assembled by Hans Broeshart and Chai Moo Cho of the IAEA Secretariat. The present manual consists of two parts: a basic part which contains general information and laboratory exercises on the properties of radiation and the principles of use of radioactive tracers, and a second part which contains a series of detailed laboratory exercises in the field of soil-plant relationships. It is intended to publish at least four additional parts on the subjects of the use of isotopes and radiation in animal science, agricultural biochemistry, entomology and plant pathology. This manual, dealing with an important aspect of the peaceful application and use of atomic energy, should prove helpful not only to those working with the IAEA and FAO training programmes but to other research scientists dealing with the development and use of new information in agricultural science all over the world

  15. Disinfestation of agricultural products with electron beams and their radiation tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Toru

    1996-01-01

    Some agricultural products contaminated with insect pests are fumigated with methyl bromide for quarantine purposes. However, the use of methyl bromide is preferably restricted because of its ozone depleting effect. Therefore, establishing alternative quarantine techniques is highly desirable; one such technique is exposure to ionizing radiation. Few data are available on the effects of radiation on insect pests other than fruit flies and stored-product insects and on the radiation tolerance of host commodities. Radiation technology as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation will be used to inactivate not only insects but also mites, spider mites, thrips, nematodes, scales, mealybugs and thrips contaminating fruits, grains, cut flowers, vegetables, timbers, seedlings and seeds. In order to collect data on the effects of irradiation on pests and host commodities, IAEA and FAO have conducted an international project, 'FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Programme on Irradiation as a Quarantine Treatment of Mites, Nematodes and Insects other than Fruit Fly' since 1992. The project determines the minimum doses necessary to inactivate pests and the maximum doses host commodities tolerate. All pests except nematodes can be inactivated at doses 400Gy or lower. Various varieties of cut flowers and herbs are tolerant to 400Gy of radiation, although some flowers and herbs such as chrysanthemum, rose, lily, calla, anthurium, sweet pea, iris, dill, basil and arugula are intolerant to 200Gy of radiation. Japanese research project on treatment of cut flowers with electron beams carried out mainly by Yokohama Plant Protection Station greatly contributes to these conclusions. Aqueous solution (2%) of sucrose, glucose, fructose or maltose prevents radiation-induced detrimental effects of radiation on chrysanthemums. Sugars reduce radiation-induced physiological deterioration of chrysanthemums. (author)

  16. Vulnerability to Climate Change in Rural Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, T. R.; Townshend, I.; Byrne, J. M.; McDaniel, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    While there is a growing recognition of the impact that climate change may have on human development, there has been a shift in focus from an impacts-led assessment approach towards a vulnerability-led assessment approach. This research operationalizes the IPCC's definition of vulnerability in a sub-national assessment to understand how different factors that shape vulnerability to climate change vary spatially across rural Nicaragua. The research utilizes the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations' (FAO UN) CropWat model to evaluate how the annual yield of two of Nicaragua's staple crops may change under projected changes in temperature and precipitation. This analysis of agricultural sensitivity under exposure to climate change is then overlain with an indicator-based assessment of adaptive capacity in rural Nicaraguan farming households. Adaptive capacity was evaluated using household survey data from the 2001 National Household Survey on Living Standards Measurement, which was provided to us by the FAO UN. The result is a map representing current vulnerability to future climate change, and can serve as a basis for targeting policy interventions in rural Nicaragua.

  17. Review of availability of food composition data for fish and shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenschober, Doris; Nowak, Verena; Charrondiere, U Ruth

    2013-12-15

    The FAO/INFOODS database on fish and shellfish (aFiSh) is a collection of analytical data from primary sources and holds values for 2,277 entries on raw and processed food with sufficient quality. Most data were entered on fatty acids (60%), followed by macronutrients and their fractions (16%), minerals (10%), amino acids (7%), (pro)vitamins (2%), heavy metals (2%) and other components (3%). Information on several factors that contribute to the variation of compositional data (e.g., biodiversity, catch season, habitat, size and part of fish/shellfish analysed) as well as the bibliographic references are presented alongside with each food entry. The data were published in the FAO/INFOODS Food Composition Database for Biodiversity (BioFoodComp2.0) and in the FAO/INFOODS Analytical Food Composition Database (AnFooD1.0), freely available at the INFOODS webpage http://www.fao.org/infoods/biodiversity/index_en.stm. The provision of easy accessible, analytical compositional data should be seen as stimulation for researchers and compilers to incorporate more analytical and detailed data of fish and shellfish into future food composition tables and databases and to improve dietary assessment tools. Copyright © 2013 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  19. Organic Contaminant Content and Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Waste Materials Recycled in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Rigby

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A range of wastes representative of materials currently applied, or with future potential to be applied, to agricultural land in the UK as fertilisers and soil improvers or used as animal bedding in livestock production, were investigated. In addition to full physico-chemical characterization, the materials were analysed for a suite of priority organic contaminants. In general, contaminants were present at relatively low concentrations. For example, for biosolids and compost-like-output (CLO, concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were approximately 1−10 and 5–50 times lower, respectively, than various proposed or implemented European limit values for these contaminants in biosolids or composts applied to agricultural land. However, the technical basis for these limits may require re-evaluation in some cases. Polybrominated, and mixed halogenated, dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans are not currently considered in risk assessments of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals, but were detected at relatively high concentrations compared with PCDD/Fs in the biosolids and CLOs and their potential contribution to the overall toxic equivalency is assessed. Other ‘emerging’ contaminants, such as organophosphate flame retardants, were detected in several of the waste materials, and their potential significance is discussed. The study is part of a wider research programme that will provide evidence that is expected to improve confidence in the use of waste-derived materials in agriculture and to establish guidelines to protect the food chain where necessary.

  20. Contribution of the Land and Water Development Division of FAO to soil and water conservation in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massoud, F.I.

    1980-01-01

    The Land and Water Development Division of FAO has played an active role in promoting soil conservation measures. It has provided advice and expert assistance to many countries and is involved in more than fifty field programmes related to soil conservation. It conducts seminars, workshops, and training courses and provides fellowships for individuals. Technical and education material has been published. Maps have been developed showing the present degradation and risk of degradation in Africa and methodology used in assessment of soil degradation is outlined. (author)

  1. Phosphorus in Agriculture : 100 % Zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnug, Ewald; De Kok, Luit J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is essential for all living organisms, reserves in geogenic deposits are finite, and phosphorus nutrient mining and oversupply are common phenomenons on agricultural soils. Only if the agricultural phosphorus cycle can be closed and the fertilized nutrient been utilized completely,

  2. Livestock and greenhouse gas emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrero, M; Gerber, P; Vellinga, T

    2011-01-01

    emissions. In reality, estimates of international scientific organizations such as the International Governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are in close agreement, with variation mainly arising on how GHG emissions are allocated to land use and land use...... change. Other estimates involve major deviations from international protocols, such as estimated global warming potential of CH4 or including respired CO2 in GHG emissions. These approaches also fail to differentiate short-term CO2 arising from oxidation of plant C by ruminants from CO2 released from...

  3. From alternative Agriculture to the Food Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thorkild; Kristensen, Niels Heine

    1997-01-01

    for organic agriculture over the last decade.Organic food production is now developing fast in some EU member states. This recent development is not only marked by more positive attitudes towards organic products from the food industry but also by an increasing need for a matching response in terms of food...... policy. Relevance: The EU regulation 2092/91/EEC is mainly focused on organic agriculture, but as the food industryenters this field the need emerges for a more specific interpretation, development and implementation of the organic principles and methods in processing, handling and distribution. Whether...

  4. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  5. Low occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in agricultural soils with and without organic amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eNazaret

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was monitored at a broad spatial scale in French agricultural soils, from various soil types and under various land uses to evaluate the ability of soil to be a natural habitat for that species. To appreciate the impact of agricultural practices on the potential dispersion of P. aeruginosa, we further investigated the impact of organic amendment at experimental sites in France and Burkina Faso. A real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR approach was used to analyze a set of 380 samples selected within the French RMQS (‘Réseau de Mesures de la Qualité des Sols’ soil library. In parallel, a culture-dependent approach was tested on a subset of samples. The results showed that P. aeruginosa was very rarely detected suggesting a sporadic presence of this bacterium in soils from France and Burkina Faso, whatever the structural and physico-chemical characteristics or climate. When we analyzed the impact of organic amendment on the prevalence of P. aeruginosa, we found that even if it was detectable in various manures (at levels from 103 to 105 CFU or DNA targets (g drywt-1 of sample, it was hardly ever detected in the corresponding soils, which raises questions about its survival. The only case reports were from a vineyard soil amended with a compost of mushroom manure in Burgundy, and a few samples from two fields amended with raw urban wastes in the sub-urban area of Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. In these soils the levels of culturable cells were below 10 CFU (g drywt-1.

  6. Analysis of SURRGO Data and Obtaining Soil Texture Classifications for Simulating Hydrologic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    the general texture classifications. 2. Another source for soil information, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO...is to use another soils dataset that contains soil properties for the areas of interest, such as the Digital Soil Map of the World provided by the...www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/main/soils/survey/ NOTE: The contents of this technical note are not to be used for advertising

  7. FOOD SECURITY SITUATION OF SELECTED HIGHLY DEVELOPED COUNTRIES AGAINST DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    Karolina Pawlak

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the food security situation in selected highly developed countries and to identify consumption disparities between them and developing countries. The research is based on the data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the Statistical Office of the European Union (Eurostat), the United Nations Statistics Division, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), World Food Programme (WFP) and selected measures used...

  8. Perilous Human Security in South Asia: Are There Ways Out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    South Asia Source: UNFPA: State of World Population 2010. http://www.unfpa.org/webdav/ site /global/shared/swp/2010/swop_2010_eng.pdf (accessed on Jan...21819 and 74806 tons respectively. FAOSTAT, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations, http://faostat.fao.org/ site /342/default.aspx...Strategic Environment, 10-11. 84 Aun Porn Moniroth, “Economic Integration in East Asia – Cambodia’s Experience” in East Asian Visions, ed. Indermit Gil

  9. Analysis of Geographic and Pairwise Distances among Chinese Cashmere Goat Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jian-Bin; Wang, Fan; Lang, Xia; Zha, Xi; Sun, Xiao-Ping; Yue, Yao-Jing; Feng, Rui-Lin; Yang, Bo-Hui; Guo, Jian

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the geographic and pairwise distances of nine Chinese local Cashmere goat populations through the analysis of 20 microsatellite DNA markers. Fluorescence PCR was used to identify the markers, which were selected based on their significance as identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the International Society for Animal Genetics (ISAG). In total, 206 alleles were detected; the average allele number was 10.30; the polymorphism i...

  10. Agriculture products as source of radionuclides and some monitoring principles of agriculture near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksakhin, R.M.; Korneev, N.A.; Panteleev, L.I.; Shukhovtsev, B.I.

    1985-01-01

    Migration of radionuclides into agriculture products in regions adjoining the nuclear facilities depends on a large number of factors. Among them is the complex of ecological conditions: meteorological factors, type of soils etc., as well as biological peculiarities of agriculture plants and animals. It is possible to control the radionuclide content administered to man's organism with agriculture products changing large branches of agriculture and varying within the range of seprate branches of industry, taking into account the most effective ways of radionuclide pathways

  11. Agriculture d'autosubsistance et développement agricole en milieu rural dans la région des Bamanga-Bengamisa (Haut- Zaïre (enquêtes sur les activités agricoles au Zaïre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulongo, KM.

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Survival agricultural and agricultural development in Bamanga-Bengamisa rural area (surveys on farm business in Upper Zaire Province. More than a year of investigation allows us to collect informations about 105 Bamanga rural households. The aim of these surveys was to realize how farmers thing that is possible to improve their agricultural incomes. In spite of the proximity of the National Fertilizer Program (FAO and Zaire agreement for fertilizer use in rural area, nobody thought that manure is an issue of the problem. Twenty-three percent of farmers hope that agricultural prices increase and 14 wish that industrial prices be fixed instead of the free price policy applied ago. More than 30 percent of farmers from 15 to 59 years old get on together that palm tree farming is able to improve agricultural incomes ; while 30 percent of farmers's wife believe that the transport of agricultural products from production centers to rural markets is a priority in farming income improvement. Atlast we realized that it is still indispensable to work hard in breeding in order to improve rural welfare.

  12. Organic agriculture as a precondition for development of eco-agrotourism on the islands - a case study of Korcula Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andelko VRSALJKO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to determine possibility of developing eco-agrotourism on the Korcula Island. Due to growing diversification within agriculture and tourism, the combination of organic agriculture and ecotourism gives a new product- eco-agrotourism, which is increasingly recognized in the world tourism. Eco-agrotourism at the highest level combines the sustainability of both activities. In addition to the mentioned it supports and protects the diversity of ecosystems, the preservation of natural landscapes; promotes biodiversity, preserves rural architecture and cultural content, encourages the promotion and sale of ecological products as well as the synergy of the economy with the environment and the growth and development of local tourism. Eco-agrotourism is an opportunity for employment of the domicile population especially young people. This is particularly pronounced in less favored areas, such as islands. The results showed that the agrotourism farm owners have the ecological awareness about the importance of nature, authenticity and origin of products through organic agriculture, which is connected with the tradition and culture of the islands, and creates a strong interaction unified in eco-agrotourism. Also, the island of Korcula has basic preconditions for the development of agrotourism, in particular eco-tourism, such as: favorable climatic and geographical conditions, attractive landscapes, specific flora and fauna, tradition of agricultural production, availability of healthier and quality food, but also wealth of cultural goods, way of life, various events, dialects, folklore and gastronomy.

  13. Report on second FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting on radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants - Neuherberg, Germany, F.R., 4-8 May 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, the FAO/IAEA Joint Division established the coordinated research programme on 'Radiotracer studies of fungicide residues in food plants'. The first FAO/IAEA research coordination meeting of the programme was held in Panama City, Panama in October 1985. It established a framework for experiments by the participating researchers to investigate metabolism and terminal residues of ethylenebisdithiocarbamates in food plants using 14 C-labelled materials with associated and other techniques. In this second report, progress made since the first report is presented and the further research needed to fulfill the objectives of the programme is outlined. The objectives of the meeting were as follows: To review progress within the coordinated research programme; To discuss problems pertinent to methodologies and labelled substrates; To prepare a report and recommendations with particular reference to future needs and priorities. The 12 papers presented at the meeting are given in summary form. (orig./MG)

  14. 7 CFR 1221.4 - Certified organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1221.4 Section 1221.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization that has been certified by the Secretary pursuant...

  15. 7 CFR 1150.108 - Eligible organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Eligible organization. 1150.108 Section 1150.108 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Order Definitions § 1150.108 Eligible organization. Eligible organization means any organization which...

  16. 7 CFR 1280.103 - Certified organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certified organization. 1280.103 Section 1280.103 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... organization. Certified organization means any organization which has been certified by the Secretary pursuant...

  17. Validation of the FAO/IAEA/PANAFTOSA ELISA kit for determination of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maradei, E.; Pedemonte, A.

    1998-01-01

    A Liquid phase blocking sandwich ELISA (LPBE) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) antibodies, serotypes O, A and C was validated using sera from bovines free of antibodies and vaccinated bovines. This technique proved to be sensitive and specific for the study of these antibodies. This kit has been prepared by the Pan American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Center (PAHO/WHO) in collaboration with the Animal Production and Health Section of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division, Vienna, Austria and the Institute for Animal Health in Pirbright, United Kingdom. (author)

  18. Soils in a young landscape on the coast of southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.L. MOKMA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Soils in an agricultural landscape on the southern coast of Finland (60° 13'N 25° 02'E were characterized and classified according to Soil Taxonomy, the FAO-Unesco system (FAO, and the World Reference Base for Soil Resources system (WRB. The impact of human activity (

  19. Impact of modern agriculture on environment-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.K.; Behl, R.K.; Tauro, P.; Joshi, U.N.

    1995-11-01

    The present volume titled Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment is the outcome of the Proceedings of the Indo-German Conference on Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment, a seminar organized by Haryana Agricultural University in 1993 and deals with certain areas of the environmental aspects of agriculture including its radiological impacts. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately

  20. Analysis of the operation of the organs of internal control in the non agricultural cooperatives of the county of Pinar del Rio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis del Llano Sobrino

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The achievement of a good operation of any entity, demands a high efficiency in the acting of its organs of internal control. It guarantees it that they are detected and prevent the internal deficiencies that affect the achievement of the objectives of the company, on time either material, social and financial without to wait to that coming organisms from the exterior of the entity are those that detect the same ones. At the present time the Non Agricultural Cooperatives in Cuba, are not isolated of this problem, being evidenced structural and functional inadequacies of the organs of internal control in the same ones that affect their inspection processes as well as the control of the execution of the agreements of their General Assembly of Associates. For what is necessary to propose a structure and functions for the organs of the Non Agricultural Cooperatives that it contributes to the improvement of their internal control and consequently the improvement of their economic and social administration.

  1. On the rebound: soil organic carbon stocks can bounce back to near forest levels when agroforests replace agriculture in southern India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hombegowda, H. C.; van Straaten, O.; Köhler, M.; Hölscher, D.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical agroforestry has an enormous potential to sequester carbon while simultaneously producing agricultural yields and tree products. The amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestered is influenced by the type of the agroforestry system established, the soil and climatic conditions, and management. In this regional-scale study, we utilized a chronosequence approach to investigate how SOC stocks changed when the original forests are converted to agriculture, and then subsequently to four different agroforestry systems (AFSs): home garden, coffee, coconut and mango. In total we established 224 plots in 56 plot clusters across 4 climate zones in southern India. Each plot cluster consisted of four plots: a natural forest reference, an agriculture reference and two of the same AFS types of two ages (30-60 years and > 60 years). The conversion of forest to agriculture resulted in a large loss the original SOC stock (50-61 %) in the top meter of soil depending on the climate zone. The establishment of home garden and coffee AFSs on agriculture land caused SOC stocks to rebound to near forest levels, while in mango and coconut AFSs the SOC stock increased only slightly above the agriculture SOC stock. The most important variable regulating SOC stocks and its changes was tree basal area, possibly indicative of organic matter inputs. Furthermore, climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation, and soil variables such as clay fraction and soil pH were likewise all important regulators of SOC and SOC stock changes. Lastly, we found a strong correlation between tree species diversity in home garden and coffee AFSs and SOC stocks, highlighting possibilities to increase carbon stocks by proper tree species assemblies.

  2. Nitrate removal from agricultural drainage ditch sediments with amendments of organic carbon: Potential for an innovative best management practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R.; Kröger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.; Rush, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural fertilizer applications have resulted in loading of nutrients to agricultural drainage ditches in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) amendments on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) removal from overlying water, pore water, and sediment of an agricultural drainage ditch. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, control (i.e., no amendment), DOC, and POC treatments were applied in laboratory microcosms for time intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. In experiment 2, control, DOC, and POC treatments were applied in microcosms at C/N ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. There were statistically significant effects of organic carbon amendments in experiment 1 (F2,71 = 27.1, P < 0.001) and experiment 2 (F2,53 = 39.1, P < 0.001), time (F1,71 = 14.5, P < 0.001) in experiment 1, and C/N ratio (F1,53 = 36.5, P < 0.001) in experiment 2. NO3−-N removal varied from 60 to 100 % in overlying water among all treatments. The lowest NO3−-N removals in experiment 1 were observed in the control at 14 and 28 days, which were significantly less than in DOC and POC 14- and 28-day treatments. In experiment 2, significantly less NO3−-N was removed in overlying water of the control compared to DOC and POC treatments at all C/N ratios. Amendments of DOC and POC made to drainage ditch sediment: (1) increased NO3−-N removal, especially over longer time intervals (14 to 28 days); (2) increased NO3−-N removal, regardless of C/N ratio; and (3) NO3−-N removal was best at a 5:1 C/N ratio. This study provides support for continued investigation on the use of organic carbon amendments as a best management practice for NO3−-N removal in agricultural drainage ditches.

  3. Comparative analysis of environmental impacts of agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Michael; Tilman, David

    2017-06-01

    Global agricultural feeds over 7 billion people, but is also a leading cause of environmental degradation. Understanding how alternative agricultural production systems, agricultural input efficiency, and food choice drive environmental degradation is necessary for reducing agriculture’s environmental impacts. A meta-analysis of life cycle assessments that includes 742 agricultural systems and over 90 unique foods produced primarily in high-input systems shows that, per unit of food, organic systems require more land, cause more eutrophication, use less energy, but emit similar greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) as conventional systems; that grass-fed beef requires more land and emits similar GHG emissions as grain-feed beef; and that low-input aquaculture and non-trawling fisheries have much lower GHG emissions than trawling fisheries. In addition, our analyses show that increasing agricultural input efficiency (the amount of food produced per input of fertilizer or feed) would have environmental benefits for both crop and livestock systems. Further, for all environmental indicators and nutritional units examined, plant-based foods have the lowest environmental impacts; eggs, dairy, pork, poultry, non-trawling fisheries, and non-recirculating aquaculture have intermediate impacts; and ruminant meat has impacts ∼100 times those of plant-based foods. Our analyses show that dietary shifts towards low-impact foods and increases in agricultural input use efficiency would offer larger environmental benefits than would switches from conventional agricultural systems to alternatives such as organic agriculture or grass-fed beef.

  4. A partner in development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The IAEA's technical co-operation programme has helped to build the foundations for effective application of nuclear related technologies in dozens of developing countries. The degree of sophistication of many nuclear applications has made this 'capacity building' phase a complex process entailing many stages of education and training, sharing of research, development and refinement of appropriate equipment and facilities, and international co-ordination of efforts. The food and agriculture programme of the IAEA is operated jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United nations (FAO). It assists Member States in using nuclear techniques to enhance both the quality and the quantity of agricultural production. Expanding the availability of agricultural land through eradication of insect pests such as the tsetse fly in Africa is one approach being applied for this purpose

  5. Towards a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils for the Swiss greenhouse gas reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, K.; Leifeld, J.; Bretscher, D.; Fuhrer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss inventory submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports on changes in soil organic carbon stocks under different land-uses and land-use changes. The approach currently employed for cropland and grassland soils combines Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods and is considered overly simplistic. As the UNFCC encourages countries to develop Tier 3 methods for national greenhouse gas reporting, we aim to build up a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. We conducted a literature research on currently employed higher-tier methods using process-based models in four countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the USA. The applied models stem from two major groups differing in complexity - those belonging to the group of general ecosystem models that include a plant-growth submodel, e.g. Century, and those that simulate soil organic matter turnover but not plant-growth, e.g. ICBM. For the latter group, carbon inputs to the soil from plant residues and roots have to be determined separately. We will present some aspects of the development of a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. Criteria for model evaluation are, among others, modeled land-use classes and land-use changes, spatial and temporal resolution, and coverage of relevant processes. For model parameterization and model evaluation at the field scale, data from several long-term agricultural experiments and monitoring sites in Switzerland is available. A subsequent regional application of a model requires the preparation of regional input data for the whole country - among others spatio-temporal meteorological data, agricultural and soil data. Following the evaluation of possible models and of available data, preference for application in the Swiss inventory will be given to simpler model structures, i.e. models without a plant-growth module. Thus, we compared different allometric relations

  6. Chapter 1: Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?

    KAUST Repository

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Chen, Guangnan; Tomaszewska, Barbara; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Mushtaq, Shahbaz; Hamawand, Ihsan; Reardon-Smith, Kathryn; Maraseni, Tek; Banhazi, Thomas; Mahmoudi, Hacene; Goosen, Mattheus; Antille, Diogenes L.

    2017-01-01

    The agri-food chain consumes about one third of the world’s energy production with about 12% for crop production and nearly 80% for processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking (Fig. 1.1) (FAO, 2011a). The agri-food chain also accounts for 80-90% of total global freshwater use (Hoff, 2011) where 70% is for irrigation alone. Additionally, on a global scale, freshwater production consumes nearly 15% of the entire energy production (IEA, 2012). It can therefore be argued that making agriculture and the agri-food supply chain independent from fossil fuel use has huge potential to contribute to global food security and climate protection not only for the next decades, but also for the coming century. Provision of secure, accessible and environmentally sustainable supplies of water, energy and food must thus be a priority.

  7. Chapter 1: Solar, wind and geothermal energy applications in agriculture: back to the future?

    KAUST Repository

    Bundschuh, Jochen

    2017-09-13

    The agri-food chain consumes about one third of the world’s energy production with about 12% for crop production and nearly 80% for processing, distribution, retail, preparation and cooking (Fig. 1.1) (FAO, 2011a). The agri-food chain also accounts for 80-90% of total global freshwater use (Hoff, 2011) where 70% is for irrigation alone. Additionally, on a global scale, freshwater production consumes nearly 15% of the entire energy production (IEA, 2012). It can therefore be argued that making agriculture and the agri-food supply chain independent from fossil fuel use has huge potential to contribute to global food security and climate protection not only for the next decades, but also for the coming century. Provision of secure, accessible and environmentally sustainable supplies of water, energy and food must thus be a priority.

  8. From France to the World: The International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paull

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The formation of the International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements (IFOAM at Versailles, France, in 1972 set organic food and farming on a strong future trajectory. It was an initiative of France’s Nature et Progrès, and driven by its then President, Roland Chevriot. IFOAM was founded with the support of a small cluster of kindred organisations: Rodale Press of the USA; the Soil Association of the UK; the Soil Association of South Africa; and the Swedish Biodynamic Association. None of these five organisations bore the term ‘organic’ in their title, nevertheless, the choice of name acknowledged ‘organic’ as the term to signify their common cause. It secured ‘organic’ as the core narrative element and as the international descriptor of what is now a clearly identifiable and differentiated segment of the global food and farming sector. From the outset ‘biodynamic’ was accepted as a special case of ‘organic’. The formation of IFOAM created an entity which united the aspirations, the philosophies and the hopes of disparate groups each with roles primarily restricted to national advocacy. IFOAM has grown to a federation of 804 organisations from 111 counties. Organic production statistics are now reported by IFOAM from 154 countries and organic sector retail sales are reported to be US$51b annually. IFOAM is based in Bonn, Germany, and as the global umbrella advocacy group for the organic sector it is without peer.

  9. Effects of native perennial vegetation buffer strips on dissolved organic carbon in surface runoff from an agricultural landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomorra E. Smith; Randall K. Kolka; Xiaobo Zhou; Matthew J. Helmers; Richard M. Cruse; Mark D. Tomer

    2014-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) constitutes a small yet important part of a watershed's carbon budget because it is mobile and biologically active. Agricultural conservation practices such as native perennial vegetation (NPV) strips will influence carbon cycling of an upland agroecosystem, and could affect how much DOC enters streams in runoff, potentially...

  10. Practical tracer investigations of pesticide residues in agricultural ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehr, F.

    1984-01-01

    According to the FAO's latest estimates, the world food supply can only be guaranteed if the 1982 agricultural production is increased by approx. 50% by the year 2000. 2/3 of this production increase must be achieved on areas already under cultivation. This means that in addition to balanced mineral fertilization the use of pesticides will have to be intensively continued in order to fully exploit the improved yield potential of the cultivated plants achieved by breeding. The primary research objective is therefore to extend our knowledge of the uptake and effects of pesticides in the plant as well as their persistence in agricultural ecosystems in order to be able to apply them both more efficiently and more safely. The Institute of Radioagronomy at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH (Juelich Nuclear Research Centre) is carrying out practical experiments into these problems using 14 C-labelled pesticides under field conditions. In this way statements will become possible on the uptake and residue situation in plants, translocation and metabolism in the soil, the balance in the year of application as well as on the uptake of untreated cultures in the crop rotation. Parallel to this, uptake after leaf spraying or after seed grain treatment is being studied under standardized conditions, as well as for example the mineralization, sorption and fixation of active substances and metabolites in the soil. Results from the past 12 years are being utilized as a basis for an evaluation of the state of knowledge. (orig.)

  11. 7 CFR 2700.2 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization. 2700.2 Section 2700.2 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS § 2700.2 Organization. The Office of Information..., OIRM appear at 7 CFR 2.81. The organization is comprised of five headquarters divisions, an...

  12. Food and environmental protection newsletter. Vol. 14, No. 1, January 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    , scallops and cephalopods) thorough Codex. This presentation also included a further summary of our activities related to food safety, including the control of food contaminants, particularly pesticide and veterinary drug residues, the use of ionizing radiation and the management of nuclear and radiological emergencies. Other activities related to food contamination include our recently held Joint FAO/IAEA Regional Training Course on Linking Soil and Pesticide Behaviour at a Landscape Scale (Seibersdorf, 15-19 November 2010) under the Latin American and Caribbean regional technical cooperation project RLA/5/053 on Implementing a Diagnosis System to Assess the Impact of Pesticide Contamination in Food and Environmental Compartments at a Catchment Scale. Within the context of FAO obligations related to food and agriculture as a full party to the IAEA Early Notification and Assistance Conventions, and in collaboration with our FAO colleagues in Rome, the 21st Regular Meeting of the Inter-Agency Committee on Radiological and Nuclear Emergencies (IACRNE) took place in Geneva, Switzerland from 16-17 June 2010. The World Health Organization hosted the meeting. FAO and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture were represented by Mrs. Admira Mara, Operations Officer, FAO Food Chain Crisis - Emergency Management Unit, at the IACRNE Meeting. FAO regularly participates in the IAEA sponsored IACRNE meetings, whose purpose is to coordinate the arrangements of the relevant international intergovernmental organizations in preparing for and responding to nuclear and radiological emergencies, including their participation in international nuclear emergency exercises

  13. On Development of Agricultural Machinery Operating Service in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chongjing; TAN; Shi; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing takes on rapid increase in number of service organizations,diversified service methods,improvement in service level,and constant service income. However,there are some problems,including unreasonable composition and small scale of service organization,imbalanced development of four service methods,low service level,and low operating income of agricultural machinery households. To accelerate development of agricultural machinery operating service in Chongqing,it is recommended to take following measures: adjusting subsidy for purchase and operation of agricultural machinery; improving fiscal and taxation and financial system; speeding up infrastructure construction,establishing agricultural machinery information network,and improving organizational form and methods of agricultural machinery operating service.

  14. 77 FR 38033 - WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Foreign Agricultural Service WTO Agricultural Safeguard Trigger Levels... and trigger levels for safeguard measures provided for in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement... measures under the safeguard provisions of the WTO [[Page 38034

  15. Adherence to Cooperative Principles among Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Data on group characteristics, level of awareness, adherence and ... enhance small scale farmers' access to credit, Oruonye and Musa (2012) ... According to FAO (2012) cooperatives play important roles in overcoming barriers ... collective bargaining power in input and output markets; and ..... Members' dishonest attitude.

  16. DETERMINATION OF AGRICULTURAL POTENTIAL BY GEO SPATIAL MODELING AND MULTI CRITERIA ANALYSIS FOR “BALSAS MEZCALA” WATERSHED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastacio Espejel-García

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of geographic information systems (GIS facilitates the modeling of specific information allowing faster, lower costs and accuracy for the planning of the agricultural activities for large territories. The objective for this paper was to use GIS as a support for the approach of the land use potential for the “Balsas Mezcala” watershed; for this purpose the multi criteria analysis was used, that allows to consider decision make issues with multiples objectives and considering the following criteria: geo-pedological (geomorphology and soil, climatology (thermal models and rainfall and the edapho-climatological requirements of the crops, the “Balsas Mezcala” hydrological region was chosen as the study area; through cartographic material the area was delimited and climate information was obtained from weather stations, geographic information and the data bases was collected from many different government agencies (INEGI, SEMARNAT, CONABIO, CONAGUA, IMTA, such information was processed in the ArcGIS software version 10.2.2, to obtained the geodatabases and geo spatial matrix which served as a cartographic input for the multi criteria analysis. The result of this investigation is a system that from geo spatial matrix and vectorial data originates raster dataset, same that were submitted to a modeling process with geo statistical algorithms, with that from a structure language, identify the potential zones with the highest aptness level, through the variable attributes that assign a weighted value using the methodology proposed by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA in 1971 and taken by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO for case studies since 1977 as an Agro-ecological Zoning System (AEZ. The result of the modeling of the soil aptness level in the watershed are 4 classes with 6 levels of aptness (very apt, apt, moderately apt, little apt, very little apt, unapt: Lands with irrigation potential

  17. FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human-Animal Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tara; Capua, Ilaria; Dauphin, Gwenaëlle; Donis, Ruben; Fouchier, Ron; Mumford, Elizabeth; Peiris, Malik; Swayne, David; Thiermann, Alex

    2010-05-01

    For the past 10 years, animal health experts and human health experts have been gaining experience in the technical aspects of avian influenza in mostly separate fora. More recently, in 2006, in a meeting of the small WHO Working Group on Influenza Research at the Human Animal Interface (Meeting report available from: http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/influenza/WHO_CDS_EPR_GIP_2006_3/en/index.html) in Geneva allowed influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to discuss together the most recent avian influenza research. Ad hoc bilateral discussions on specific technical issues as well as formal meetings such as the Technical Meeting on HPAI and Human H5N1 Infection (Rome, June, 2007; information available from: http://www.fao.org/avianflu/en/conferences/june2007/index.html) have increasingly brought the sectors together and broadened the understanding of the topics of concern to each sector. The sectors have also recently come together at the broad global level, and have developed a joint strategy document for working together on zoonotic diseases (Joint strategy available from: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/011/ajl37e/ajl37e00.pdf). The 2008 FAO-OIE-WHO Joint Technical Consultation on Avian Influenza at the Human Animal Interface described here was the first opportunity for a large group of influenza experts from the animal and public health sectors to gather and discuss purely technical topics of joint interest that exist at the human-animal interface. During the consultation, three influenza-specific sessions aimed to (1) identify virological characteristics of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) important for zoonotic and pandemic disease, (2) evaluate the factors affecting evolution and emergence of a pandemic influenza strain and identify existing monitoring systems, and (3) identify modes of transmission and exposure sources for human zoonotic influenza infection (including discussion of specific exposure risks by affected countries). A

  18. Comparison of Organic Matter Composition in Agricultural versus Forest Affected Headwaters with Special Emphasis on Organic Nitrogen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinz, Marlen; Graeber, Daniel; Zak, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    . By comparing six agriculturally and six forest-impacted headwater streams, we demonstrated that agriculture promotes increased DOC and DON concentrations, entailing an even more pronounced effect on DON. The major part of DOC and DON in agricultural and forest reference streams is exported in the form of humic...

  19. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  20. Agricultura orgânica em áreas urbanas e periurbanas com base na agroecologia Challenges of organic agriculture in urban and suburban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria de Aquino

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A agricultura orgânica com base na agroecologia é o mote tecnológico adequado à realidade dos agroecossistemas urbanos. Este artigo ressalta a necessidade de se desenvolver tecnologias e insumos específicos. A partir de experiências com agricultura urbana em diferentes países em desenvolvimento, evidencia-se a necessidade de se buscar capacidades locais e apoio do poder público, especialmente nas iniciativas da sociedade organizada e mobilizada para a produção agrícola urbana.This article presents organic agriculture, based on agroecology, as the appropriate technology for the urban agro-ecosystem. It also points out the need for appropriate technologies and amendments development. Looking at experiences with urban agriculture in development countries, it shows the need for local capacity development and a search for the public sector support, specially of organized groups mobilized for urban agriculture production.

  1. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional organization. 2610.3 Section 2610.3 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 2610.3 Regional organization...

  2. Evaluating agronomic effectiveness of phosphate rocks using nuclear and related techniques: Results from an FAO/IAEA co-ordinated research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapata, F.

    2000-01-01

    An FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project, 'The use of nuclear and related techniques for evaluating the agronomic effectiveness of phosphatic fertilisers, in particular rock phosphates', was in operation during the period 1993-98. The research network comprised twenty-three scientists, of whom seventeen were in developing countries, with six in industrialized nations. Conventional and 32 P-isotope techniques were utilized to assess the bioavailability of P in soils amended with phosphate rock (PR) and water-soluble fertilisers, and to evaluate the agronomic effectiveness of PR products. No single chemical extraction method was found to be suitable for all soils and fertilisers. The Pi strip method showed promising results, but more testing is needed with tropical acid soils. The 32 P-phosphate-exchange kinetics method allowed a complete characterization of P dynamics, and provided basic information for estimating the kinetic pools of soil P. The agronomic effectiveness (AE) of PRs depends on their solubility (reactivity), which is related to the degree of carbonate substitution for phosphate in the apatite structure. Rock phosphates of low reactivity were unsuitable for direct application to annual crops. Research in Venezuela, China, Cuba, Brazil, and Thailand demonstrated that AE can be increased by partial acidulation, or by mixing with organic materials or a water-soluble source. The AE can be enhanced also through inoculation with mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobacteria. The AE, which depends on species, is particularly high in crops such as canola and lupin that exude organic acids from the roots. Agronomic effectiveness of PR is higher on soils with low pH, low available P, low exchangeable Ca, high cation exchange capacity and high organic-matter content. The 32 P-techniques are powerful tools for studying the factors that affect AE. Information from field trials was used to create a database for validating a model for providing recommendations for PR

  3. Environmentally sustainable agriculture and future developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO). It is wi......Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO...... in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy...

  4. Agriculture Organic Matter and Chicken Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Taban

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Undo ubtedly organic matter content of soils is one of theim portant factor for high quality and abundant crop production. In addition to improve the physical properties ofsoil, organic matter contributest ocrop production viabeing energy source formicro-organisms in soiland contained plantnutrients. Fiftypercent of theagri cultures oil contains 1-2 % organicmatter in Turkey.In addition to being a sourceof organic matter, organic poultry manurefertilizer isricherthan other organic fertilizerse specially nitrogen content. It is possible to eliminate poultry manure based salt stress and disease factors with composting process in proper conditions.

  5. Skills Required by Agricultural Education Students of Colleges of Education for Employment in Compterized Office of Agribusiness Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugwuoke, Cajethan Uche; Onah, Benardine Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    One of the major concerns of employers of labour in this information age is the recruitment of employees with requisite computerized office skills to fit into the various organization's jobs and positions. In Agricultural education, acquisition of these computerized office skills do not only depends on whether one is able to fulfill the paper…

  6. Fallout radionuclide-based techniques for assessing the impact of soil conservation measures on erosion control and soil quality: an overview of the main lessons learnt under an FAO/IAEA Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dercon, G.; Mabit, L.; Hancock, G.; Nguyen, M.L.; Dornhofer, P.; Bacchi, O.O.S.; Benmansour, M.; Bernard, C.; Froehlich, W.; Golosov, V.N.; Haciyakupoglu, S.; Hai, P.S.; Klik, A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes key findings and identifies the main lessons learnt from a 5-year (2002–2008) coordinated research project (CRP) on “Assessing the effectiveness of soil conservation measures for sustainable watershed management and crop production using fallout radionuclides” (D1.50.08), organized and funded by the International Atomic Energy Agency through the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The project brought together nineteen participants, from Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Japan, Morocco, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States of America and Vietnam, involved in the use of nuclear techniques and, more particularly, fallout radionuclides (FRN) to assess the relative impacts of different soil conservation measures on soil erosion and land productivity. The overall objective of the CRP was to develop improved land use and management strategies for sustainable watershed management through effective soil erosion control practices, by the use of 137 Cs (half-life of 30.2 years), 210 Pb ex (half-life of 22.3 years) and 7 Be (half-life of 53.4 days) for measuring soil erosion over several spatial and temporal scales. The environmental conditions under which the different research teams applied the tools based on the use of fallout radionuclides varied considerably – a variety of climates, soils, topographies and land uses. Nevertheless, the achievements of the CRP, as reflected in this overview paper, demonstrate that fallout radionuclide-based techniques are powerful tools to assess soil erosion/deposition at several spatial and temporal scales in a wide range of environments, and offer potential to monitor soil quality. The success of the CRP has stimulated an interest in many IAEA Member States in the use of these methodologies to identify factors and practices that can enhance sustainable agriculture and minimize land degradation. - Highlights:

  7. Diagnosing Management of Agricultural Research and Technology Development under the Agricultural Innovation Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at identifying and analyzing issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework. The survey consisted of two groups: agricultural researchers of Agriculture-Research and Education Organization and all faculty members of public agricultural faculties of Ministry of Scientific, Research and Technology. Using Cochran sampling formula and multi-stage sampling method, 188 researchers and 205 faculty members were selected in order to fill in the survey questionnaire. Using the SPSS, collected data analyzed based on explanatory factor analysis. Totally, factor analysis of three sets of issues and challenges on the agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework led to extract 13 factors, including agricultural structure and policy, infrastructure and resources of agricultural development, supportive services for agricultural development (level of agricultural development, investment and capacity building in research and technology, management of research and technology development, research and technology productivity, research culture, networks for research and technology development (level of national innovation system, agricultural research policy, impacts and effectiveness of agricultural research and technology development, integrated management of research and technology, institutional development for agricultural research and technology and systematic synergy of agricultural research and higher education (level of agricultural innovation system. Totally, these three sets of factors explained 64%, 75% and 73% of the total variances. Finally, using conceptual clustering for the extracted factors, a conceptual model of issues and challenges of agricultural research and technology development under the national innovation framework was presented.

  8. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-07-01

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  9. Insect Pest Control Newsletter, No. 75, July 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-15

    In our last newsletter we reported that the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture is experiencing important changes as part of a major reform process that is ongoing at FAO since 2009, and which will be fully implemented by 2013, resulting in a more responsive and modern organization. Also at IAEA restructuring is taking place as a result of IAEA's new leadership and external reviews that made positive recommendations. These changes directly affect the operations of the Joint Division. Up to the end of 2009, the IAEA Laboratories in Seibersdorf and Monaco were administratively under separate management, although programmatically they always have been part of their respective Divisions at headquarters. This double leadership in the management structure was a source of inefficiencies in what should be seamless programme operations. As of 1 January 2010, in order to streamline, simplify and harmonize lines of authority and accountability, laboratory activities and staff have been aligned with their respective programmes. In the case of the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratories in Seibersdorf, this means that its five units (including the Entomology Unit) have been fully integrated into the respective subprogrammes under the Director of the Joint Division, who was given full authority and accountability for all programmatic and administrative functions regarding the management of the activities of the FAO/IAEA Laboratories. It is expected that this streamlining will lead to more opportunities for Seibersdorf staff to play a greater role in programme development and will result in improved programme delivery to our Member States. You will notice in this newsletter that, as part of the streamlining, the name of the Entomology Unit, which has been in use since the 1960s, has been officially changed to Insect Pest Control Laboratory (IPCL). Aside from the name change we do not anticipate any real changes in the implementation

  10. CQESTR Simulation of Soil Organic Matter Dynamics in Long-term Agricultural Experiments across USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollany, H.; Liang, Y.; Albrecht, S.; Rickman, R.; Follett, R.; Wilhelm, W.; Novak, J.

    2009-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) has important chemical (supplies nutrients, buffers and adsorbs harmful chemical compounds), biological (supports the growth of microorganisms and micro fauna), and physical (improves soil structure and soil tilth, stores water, and reduces surface crusting, water runoff) functions. The loss of 20 to 50% of soil organic carbon (SOC) from USA soils after converting native prairie or forest to production agriculture is well documented. Sustainable management practices for SOC is critical for maintaining soil productivity and responsible utilization of crop residues. As crop residues are targeted for additional uses (e.g., cellulosic ethanol feedstock) developing C models that predict change in SOM over time with change in management becomes increasingly important. CQESTR, pronounced "sequester," is a process-based C balance model that relates organic residue additions, crop management and soil tillage to SOM accretion or loss. The model works on daily time-steps and can perform long-term (100-year) simulations. Soil organic matter change is computed by maintaining a soil C budget for additions, such as crop residue or added amendments like manure, and organic C losses through microbial decomposition. Our objective was to simulate SOM changes in agricultural soils under a range of soil parent materials, climate and management systems using the CQESTR model. Long-term experiments (e.g. Champaign, IL, >100 yrs; Columbia, MO, >100 yrs; Lincoln, NE, 20 yrs) under various tillage practices, organic amendments, crop rotations, and crop residue removal treatments were selected for their documented history of the long-term effects of management practice on SOM dynamics. Simulated and observed values from the sites were significantly related (r2 = 94%, P management issue. CQESTR successfully simulated a substantial decline in SOM with 90% of crop residue removal for 50 years under various rotations at Columbia, MO and Champaign, IL. An increase in SOM

  11. Water Gender Indicators in Agriculture: A Study of Horticultural Farmer Organizations in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Alice Centrone

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to contribute to the debate on gender equality and water within the Sustainable Development Goals SDGs 5 and 6. Farmers organizations are often considered key stakeholders whose participation should be fostered to achieve a good water governance in agriculture and irrigation programs. Nonetheless, many water management interventions tackle participation as an instrumental and formal process. A common assumption is that granting sufficient space for women in water management will automatically ensure a greater gender empowerment. Nevertheless, often low importance is given to assessing who really actively participates and benefits from water development projects, favoring the technical aspects. This paper addresses the articulation between gender, water management and indicators, using male, female and mixed farmer organizations as touchstones in three regions of Senegal. The authors defines a system of water gender indicators grouped into five sections. The first results show more similarities between mixed and female organizations, while the main gender inequalities are visible in the water technique and economic domains. Thanks to this study, we can see how a gender-based analysis may allow to more deeply understand some more or less “hidden” water governance mechanisms and their related implications in terms of project management and policy making.

  12. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The effective recycling of nutrients in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) domestic (e.g. source separated food waste), agricultural, and commercial and industrial (C&I) biowastes (e.g. food industry wastes, papermill sludge) for use on land, generally following treatment (e.g. composting, anaerobic digestion or thermal conversion technologies) as alternatives to conventional mineral fertilisers in Australia can have economic benefits, ensure food security, and close the nutrient loop. In excess of 75% of Australian agricultural soils have less than 1% organic matter (OM), and, with 40 million tonnes of solid waste per year potentially available as a source of OM, biowastes also build soil carbon (C) stocks that improve soil structure, fertility and productivity, and enhance soil ecosystem services. In recent years, the increasing cost of conventional mineral fertilisers, combined with changing weather patterns have placed additional pressure on regional and rural communities. Nitrogen (N) is generally the most limiting nutrient to crop production, and the high-energy required and GHGs associated with its manufacture mean that, additionally, it is critical to use N efficiently and recycle N resources where possible. Biosolids and biowastes have highly variable organic matter (OM) and nutrient contents, with N often present in a variety of forms only some of which are plant-available. The N value is further influenced by treatment process, storage and fundamental soil processes. The correct management of N in biowastes is essential to reduce environmental losses through leaching or runoff and negative impacts on drinking water sources and aquatic ecosystems. Gaseous N emissions also impact upon atmospheric quality and climate change. Despite the body of work to investigate N supply from biosolids, recent findings indicate that historic and current management of agricultural applications of N from biosolids and biowastes in Australia may still be inefficient leading

  13. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  14. Organic Agriculture: Giving Low-Tech a Chance? An overview of the patent landscape: Tecnología artesanal? Revisión del panorama de patentamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gil Abinader

    Full Text Available This research overview the patent landscape of the inputs approved for certified organic agriculture. For this, it explains the tensions in regards to private voluntary standards addressed in certain trade-related forums. A succinct characterization of the economic impact of plant diseases outbreaks in the Dominican Republic -an organic produce exporting countries- follows. It then briefly compares the "public" norms controlling the production and labeling of organic agriculture, with their "private" counterparts. Subsequently, the result of the patent searchers, which were performed taking into account the private voluntary certifiers' list of validated inputs, is reported. When the data is analyzed quantitatively, the finding suggests that there is no high intellectual property costs required to comply with the examined private voluntary standards. However, a small number of validated fungicides -which are also widely used by organic farmers in the Dominican Republic- may have significant intellectual property access barriers.

  15. Freshwater fish for nutrition security in India: Evidence from FAO data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh Kumar Barik

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional dimension is integral to the concept of food security. A wide range of food commodities are required to fulfill nutritional security need of the people. Animal proteins which include milk, fish, meat and egg are essentially required for nutritionally balanced diets which are available from diverse food commodities. The fish in general and freshwater fish in particular are among the fast growing sectors with increasing contributions in the nutrition security of Indian consumers. The present paper analyses relative role of fish in the nutritional security of India based on the food balance sheet data of FAO available for the period 1961–2013. The apparent fish consumption per capita per year in India has increased primarily due to increase in freshwater fish availability from 0.7 kg/cap/year in 1961–3.48 kg/cap/year in 2013, enabling increase in the overall fish availability from 1.9 to 5.04 kg/cap/year during this period. During 1961–2013, contributions of freshwater fish to non-vegetarian protein, animal protein and total protein increased from 9.1 to 27.2, 3.3–8.7 and 0.4–1.7%, respectively

  16. Behavioural Resistance in Insects: Its Potential Use as Bio Indicator of Organic Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Guzmán, J. A.; García-Marín, F. J.; Sáinz-Pérez, M.; González-Ruiz, R.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the investigations carried out on the resistance of insects to pesticides have been focused on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms. However, the behavioural answers that pesticide induces in the insects have received very little attention. The symptoms from getting pesticides on the cuticular surface of insects, as neurotoxical pre mortem effects, include spasmodic activity, hyperactivity and leak of the surfaces impregnated by the pesticides. These reactions provides a first barrier of defense, named behavioural resistance. Previous experiments carried out on olive groves usually subjected to pesticide application have allowed to visualize a reaction of leak of the natural enemies from treated areas, which is reflected as an increase of its rate of capture in sticky chromatic traps, in relation to the free of pesticides areas, on olive groves, usually subjected to pesticide application. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the reaction of these insects’ species under different agricultural pest management: i- A conventional olive grove, where pesticides are usually applied; and ii- An organic olive grove, where pest management depends exclusively on the role of the natural enemies. During the spring of 2016, experimental applications have been carried out in two olive groves of the province of Jaén (south of Spain) by means of a commercial pesticide application, in order to evaluate the reactions induced in the main species of olive predators. Six pairs of plots were randomly selected in both conventional and organic olive groves, three of these were pesticide sprayed, whereas a second series of three plots were free of pesticide application. Sticky yellow traps were installed in both treated and control plots just after application of pesticide. The results allow to determine the existence of two different reactions of the predators in both types of olive groves. In the plots of the conventional management, a significant increase of

  17. Changes in organic matter (C, N and P) of soils under subsistence agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraga, Vania da Silva

    2002-10-01

    Productivities under low input or subsistence agriculture are strongly dependent on nutrient supply from soil organic matter mineralization (SOM). Few results are available and they indicate declines in soil fertility under this agricultural system, particularly in SOM levels. In an attempt to understand the nature and extent of these declines we selected ten sites having cultivated areas adjacent with areas under native vegetation at the same slope position, in the states of Pernambuco and Paraiba. Based on the management history, in situ observations and 137 Cs concentrations to evaluate soil erosion, the areas were divided in four groups having different levels of soil use intensity: Undisturbed Dry Forest (UDF), Disturbed Dry Forest (DDF), Preserved-Cultivated (PC) and Degraded-Cultivated (DC). In the first part of this work we quantified total organic C, N and P, in addition to 137 Cs concentrations, under the assumption that changes in organic nutrient contents among land use groups would be greater than the within group variability, thus enabling inferences at a regional scale. Concentrations of C and N in DC were 50% smaller (P -3 ) (C-lf); C-CO 2 produced during three days of incubation (C-min3d); C oxidized with 333 mM (C-ox 333) and 16,5 mM (C-ox16) KMnO 4 . The only fraction that did not correlate with total C was C-fl. Average proportions of total C extracted by C-mins3d, C-ox 16 were 1.5%, 24% and 7.2 %, respectively. In the second phase, the whole sample set (n=160) was analyzed for C-ox16. This C fraction decreased from 1.65 g kg -1 under UDF to 0.70 in DC (P -1 , in a pot experiment. Total C correlated significantly with N mineralized in 60 d (N-min60d) (r=0.79***) while N-min60 and P-Mehlich-1 explained 80% of the variation in dry matter production by buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris). Low P availability, C and N losses, limited water availability and sometimes-inappropriate land management techniques, are considered strong limiting conditions for

  18. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN 3 ). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using 51 Cr-EDTA and 125 I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come

  19. Organic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ankamah Yeboah, Isaac; Nielsen, Max; Nielsen, Rasmus

    . This study identifies the price premium on organic salmon in the Danish retail sale sector using consumer panel scanner data for households by applying the hedonic price model while permitting unobserved heterogeneity between households. A premium of 20% for organic salmon is found. Since this premium...... is closer to organic labeled agriculture products than to ecolabelled capture fisheries products, it indicates that consumers value organic salmon as an agriculture product more than fisheries product....

  20. 7 CFR 11.21 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Organization. 11.21 Section 11.21 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture NATIONAL APPEALS DIVISION Organization And Functions § 11.21 Organization. NAD was established on October 13, 1994. Delegation of authority to the Director, NAD, appears at...

  1. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  2. Spatial Interpolation of Reference Evapotranspiration in India: Comparison of IDW and Kriging Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodam, Sanayanbi; Sarkar, Sajal; Marak, Areor G. R.; Bandyopadhyay, A.; Bhadra, A.

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, to understand the spatial distribution characteristics of the ETo over India, spatial interpolation was performed on the means of 32 years (1971-2002) monthly data of 131 India Meteorological Department stations uniformly distributed over the country by two methods, namely, inverse distance weighted (IDW) interpolation and kriging. Kriging was found to be better while developing the monthly surfaces during cross-validation. However, in station-wise validation, IDW performed better than kriging in almost all the cases, hence is recommended for spatial interpolation of ETo and its governing meteorological parameters. This study also checked if direct kriging of FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (PM) (Allen et al. in Crop evapotranspiration—guidelines for computing crop water requirements, Irrigation and drainage paper 56, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, 1998) point ETo produced comparable results against ETo estimated with individually kriged weather parameters (indirect kriging). Indirect kriging performed marginally well compared to direct kriging. Point ETo values were extended to areal ETo values by IDW and FAO-56 PM mean ETo maps for India were developed to obtain sufficiently accurate ETo estimates at unknown locations.

  3. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 77, July 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-07-01

    As reported in some previous newsletters, both FAO and IAEA have been undergoing considerable transformation as a result of a major on-going reform process of FAO that started in 2009 and which is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2013. In addition, the IAEA has seen a complete change of senior management and in January 2011 Mr Daud Mohamad was appointed Deputy Director General Nuclear Sciences and Applications and Head of the Department which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The IAEA has been implementing AIPS, a new IAEA wide Information System for Programme Support, representing a drastic transformation of processes. Until recently there were over 60 different and independent internal information systems and AIPS is replacing most of them with one Oracle product. AIPS also entails the adoption of IPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards, which is used in a majority of international organizations, involving independentlymaintained standards for financial reporting, considered best practice for organizations like ours. AIPS is being introduced in stages or 'plateaus'. The first plateau is devoted to Finance, Procurement, Transportation and the operational parts of Programme and Project Management. This went live in January 2011, in tandem with our adoption of IPSAS. Plateau 2 is scheduled for 2012. In terms of new publications, a special issue of Genetica on 'Molecular Technologies to Improve the Effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique' was recently published. A second publication, 'Rearing Codling Moth for the Sterile Insect Technique' is a text book that was published under the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

  4. Insect and Pest Control Newsletter, No. 77, July 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-15

    As reported in some previous newsletters, both FAO and IAEA have been undergoing considerable transformation as a result of a major on-going reform process of FAO that started in 2009 and which is scheduled to be fully implemented by 2013. In addition, the IAEA has seen a complete change of senior management and in January 2011 Mr Daud Mohamad was appointed Deputy Director General Nuclear Sciences and Applications and Head of the Department which includes the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture. The IAEA has been implementing AIPS, a new IAEA wide Information System for Programme Support, representing a drastic transformation of processes. Until recently there were over 60 different and independent internal information systems and AIPS is replacing most of them with one Oracle product. AIPS also entails the adoption of IPSAS, the International Public Sector Accounting Standards, which is used in a majority of international organizations, involving independentlymaintained standards for financial reporting, considered best practice for organizations like ours. AIPS is being introduced in stages or 'plateaus'. The first plateau is devoted to Finance, Procurement, Transportation and the operational parts of Programme and Project Management. This went live in January 2011, in tandem with our adoption of IPSAS. Plateau 2 is scheduled for 2012. In terms of new publications, a special issue of Genetica on 'Molecular Technologies to Improve the Effectiveness of the Sterile Insect Technique' was recently published. A second publication, 'Rearing Codling Moth for the Sterile Insect Technique' is a text book that was published under the FAO Plant Production and Protection Paper series.

  5. Organic farming benefits local plant diversity in vineyard farms located in intensive agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimbene, Juri; Marini, Lorenzo; Paoletti, Maurizio G

    2012-05-01

    The majority of research on organic farming has considered arable and grassland farming systems in Central and Northern Europe, whilst only a few studies have been carried out in Mediterranean agro-systems, such as vineyards, despite their economic importance. The main aim of the study was to test whether organic farming enhances local plant species richness in both crop and non-crop areas of vineyard farms located in intensive conventional landscapes. Nine conventional and nine organic farms were selected in an intensively cultivated region (i.e. no gradient in landscape composition) in northern Italy. In each farm, vascular plants were sampled in one vineyard and in two non-crop linear habitats, grass strips and hedgerows, adjacent to vineyards and therefore potentially influenced by farming. We used linear mixed models to test the effect of farming, and species longevity (annual vs. perennial) separately for the three habitat types. In our intensive agricultural landscapes organic farming promoted local plant species richness in vineyard fields, and grassland strips while we found no effect for linear hedgerows. Differences in species richness were not associated to differences in species composition, indicating that similar plant communities were hosted in vineyard farms independently of the management type. This negative effect of conventional farming was probably due to the use of herbicides, while mechanical operations and mowing regime did not differ between organic and conventional farms. In grassland strips, and only marginally in vineyards, we found that the positive effect of organic farming was more pronounced for perennial than annual species.

  6. Trends in frequency of type 2 diabetes in Mexico and its relationship to dietary patterns and contextual factors

    OpenAIRE

    Guadalupe Soto-Estrada; Laura Moreno Altamirano; Juan José García-García; Iván Ochoa Moreno; Martín Silberman

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the evolution of the frequency of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its relationship to eating patterns in Mexico from 1961 to 2013, and the Gini coefficient, Human Development Index (HDI) and Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Mexico ranked sixth in world prevalence of diabetes in 2015 with an estimated 11.4 million Mexicans affected. Method: Using data from the Balance Sheets Food published by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the means of apparent ...

  7. Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

  8. Sustainability of organic food production: challenges and innovations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggli, Urs

    2015-02-01

    The greatest challenge for agriculture is to reduce the trade-offs between productivity and long-term sustainability. Therefore, it is interesting to analyse organic agriculture which is a given set of farm practices that emphasise ecological sustainability. Organic agriculture can be characterised as being less driven by off-farm inputs and being better embedded in ecosystem functions. The literature on public goods and non-commodity outputs of organic farms is overwhelming. Most publications address the positive effects of organic farming on soil fertility, biodiversity maintenance and protection of the natural resources of soil, water and air. As a consequence of focusing on public goods, organic agriculture is less productive. Meta-analyses show that organic agriculture yields range between 0·75 and 0·8 of conventional agriculture. Best practice examples from disadvantaged sites and climate conditions show equal or, in the case of subsistence farming in Sub-Saharan Africa, higher productivity of organic agriculture. Hence, organic agriculture is likely to be a good model for productive and sustainable food production. Underfunding in R&D addressing specific bottlenecks of organic agriculture are the main cause for both crop and livestock yield gaps. Therefore, the potential for improving the performance of organic agriculture through agricultural research is huge. Although organic farming is a niche in most countries, it is at the verge of becoming mainstream in leading European countries. Consumer demand has grown over the past two decades and does not seem to be a limiting factor for the future development of organic agriculture.

  9. GLOBAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES ISSN 1596-2903

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ada Global

    FAO/UNESCO equivalent of these soils is Luvisol. ... KEYWORDS: Floodplain soils, classification, land use, sustainable ... texture of floodplain soils to range from clay to sand with ... season but in the dry season, its moisture content is.

  10. Intellectual property right in genetic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Mirjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plant genetic resources for food and agriculture are necessary in food production and biodiversity conservation. These are the most important natural resources, in addition to air, water and soil. Unfortunately, during the evolution large number of plant genetic resources has been lost. The biggest negative impact on loss of plant genetic resources had been made by humans through the modernization of agriculture and the creation of varieties of high genetic uniformity. FAO and its operation through international mechanisms, such as the adoption of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the first legal act which regulates all levels of biodiversity: ecosystems, species and genetic resources, biotechnology, including the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety (regulates the transfer of genetic material across the border, contributed to the conservation of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. In addition to the Convention on Biological Diversity, FAO has been defined by the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture in more specific and detailed way, the preservation of genetic resources. The objectives of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture are the conservation and sustainable use of all plant genetic resources for food and agriculture and the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising out of their use. There are four basic pillars which form the substance of the Contract, Sustainable use of plant genetic resources, Farmers' Rights, the Multilateral System and the Global Information System. Two organizations, the International Biodiversity and the International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants trying to solve the issues of protection of the population and old varieties as intellectual property.

  11. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Interactions between organic resources and mineral inputs in the context of conservation agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanlauwe, B.; Bationo, A.

    2003-01-01

    Lots of efforts are currently being implemented to demonstrate and disseminate conservation agriculture (CA) in various areas in the tropics, and specifically in Central America and SSA. These efforts are usually not backstopped by a clear understanding of the functioning and relative importance of the impacts of the 3 principles on the farming systems. Issues that should receive special attention are (i) the interactions between water and nutrient use efficiencies, (ii) soil organic matter (SOM) dynamics and the impacts of an enhanced SOM status on functions regulating crop growth, (iii) niches for implementation of CA taking into account variability in biophysical and socio-economic conditions at the farm and community level, and (iv) impact of CA on the abundance and composition of belowground biota

  13. Emissions of terpenoids, benzenoids, and other biogenic gas-phase organic compounds from agricultural crops and their potential implications for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentner, D. R.; Ormeño, E.; Fares, S.; Ford, T. B.; Weber, R.; Park, J.-H.; Brioude, J.; Angevine, W. M.; Karlik, J. F.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2014-06-01

    Agriculture comprises a substantial, and increasing, fraction of land use in many regions of the world. Emissions from agricultural vegetation and other biogenic and anthropogenic sources react in the atmosphere to produce ozone and secondary organic aerosol, which comprises a substantial fraction of particulate matter (PM2.5). Using data from three measurement campaigns, we examine the magnitude and composition of reactive gas-phase organic carbon emissions from agricultural crops and their potential to impact regional air quality relative to anthropogenic emissions from motor vehicles in California's San Joaquin Valley, which is out of compliance with state and federal standards for tropospheric ozone PM2.5. Emission rates for a suite of terpenoid compounds were measured in a greenhouse for 25 representative crops from California in 2008. Ambient measurements of terpenoids and other biogenic compounds in the volatile and intermediate-volatility organic compound ranges were made in the urban area of Bakersfield and over an orange orchard in a rural area of the San Joaquin Valley during two 2010 seasons: summer and spring flowering. We combined measurements from the orchard site with ozone modeling methods to assess the net effect of the orange trees on regional ozone. When accounting for both emissions of reactive precursors and the deposition of ozone to the orchard, the orange trees are a net source of ozone in the springtime during flowering, and relatively neutral for most of the summer until the fall, when it becomes a sink. Flowering was a major emission event and caused a large increase in emissions including a suite of compounds that had not been measured in the atmosphere before. Such biogenic emission events need to be better parameterized in models as they have significant potential to impact regional air quality since emissions increase by several factors to over an order of magnitude. In regions like the San Joaquin Valley, the mass of biogenic

  14. Summary of FAO/IAEA Seminar on Food Irradiation for Developing Countries in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A summary is presented of papers submitted to the FAO/IAEA Seminar on Food Irradiation for Developing Countries in Asia and the Pacific, held in Tokyo, 9-13 November 1981. Five reviewed papers on the status of national and international programs on food irradiation, and four communications on irradiation of dried fishery products were presented. The moisture content of fishery products typically ranged from 6 to 40% and the salt content from 0 to 11%. Six papers were presented on the preservation of root crops. Four papers dealt with hygienic conditions of spices and meat products. Five papers were presented on insect disinfestation of fruits and four papers were presented in the session on the commercial use of food irradiation. The round table discussion is summed up and adopted recommendations listed

  15. Classification of soil systems on the basis of transfer factors of radionuclides from soil to reference plants. Report of the final research coordination meeting organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    The IAEA Basic Safety Standards for Radiation Protection include the general requirement to keep all doses as low as reasonably achievable, taking account of economic and social considerations, within the overall constraint of individual dose limits. National and Regional authorities have to set release limits for radioactive effluent and also to establish contingency plans to deal with an uncontrolled release following an accident or terrorist activity. It is normal practice to assess radiation doses to man by means of radiological assessment models. In this context the IAEA published (1994), in cooperation with the International Union of Radioecologists (IUR), a Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments to facilitate such calculations. The obvious limitation of the Handbook is that the data on soil-to-plant transfer of radionuclides are strictly relevant only to temperate climates. Therefore, the IAEA, together with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization and the IUR, conducted a coordinated research project (CRP), to obtain similar data in tropical and sub-tropical regions. A conclusion of this research was that some combinations of ecosystems and radionuclides do not behave as might be expected. A consultants meeting held in May 1998 produced a proposal for a CRP to address the issue of identifying such situations in temperate as well as tropical and sub-tropical conditions

  16. Soil organism in organic and conventional cropping systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Bettiol, Wagner; Ghini, Raquel; Galvão, José Abrahão Haddad; Ligo, Marcos Antônio Vieira; Mineiro, Jeferson Luiz de Carvalho

    2002-01-01

    Despite the recent interest in organic agriculture, little research has been carried out in this area. Thus, the objective of this study was to compare, in a dystrophic Ultisol, the effects of organic and conventional agricultures on soil organism populations, for the tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and corn (Zea mays) crops. In general, it was found that fungus, bacterium and actinomycet populations counted by the number of colonies in the media, were similar for the two cropping systems. C...

  17. Assessment of Genetic Diversity, Relationships and Structure among Korean Native Cattle Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangwon Suh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four Korean native cattle (KNC breeds—Hanwoo, Chikso, Heugu, and Jeju black—are entered in the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO. The objective of this study was to assess the genetic diversity, phylogenetic relationships and population structure of these KNC breeds (n = 120 and exotic breeds (Holstein and Charolais, n = 56. Thirty microsatellite loci recommended by the International Society for Animal Genetics/FAO were genotyped. These genotypes were used to determine the allele frequencies, allelic richness, heterozygosity and polymorphism information content per locus and breed. Genetic diversity was lower in Heugu and Jeju black breeds. Phylogenetic analysis, Factorial Correspondence Analysis and genetic clustering grouped each breed in its own cluster, which supported the genetic uniqueness of the KNC breeds. These results will be useful for conservation and management of KNC breeds as animal genetic resources.

  18. Recommendations of the FAO/IAEA advisory group meeting on improving the productivity of indigenous animals in harsh environments with the aid of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the FAO/IAEA advisory group meeting was to evaluate the nuclear and related techniques currently used to quantify such functions as animal adaptation, digestion and utilization of poor quality feedstuffs, reproductive efficiency and resistance to disease and other forms of stress. The recommendations made by the advisory group are grouped into five sections: reproduction, parasitic diseases, infectious diseases, environmental physiology and nutrition

  19. Freshwater quality of a stream in agricultural area where organic compost from animal and vegetable wastes is used

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Maria Saran

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Organic compost from biomass residues constitutes a viable alternative for partial or total replacement of mineral fertilizers for growing vegetables. This study evaluated the effects of compost on the water quality of a stream used mainly for irrigation of agricultural crops cultivated in nearby soil that has been treated with organic compost produced by carcasses, animal and vegetable waste for the last ten years. We sampled water biannually for two years, 2013 and 2014, from five locations along the stream. Physical variables and some chemical variables were analyzed. We also analyzed the total number of coliforms (Escherichia coli. Bacterial populations were compared by carbon substrate consumption. Total phosphorus contents in the samples from 2014 exceeded 0.1 mg L-1. The concentrations of other chemical species analyzed and the results for the physical variables were in accordance with the expected values compared with national and international water quality standards. The environment showed differential carbon source consumption and a high diversity of microorganisms, but our results did not show any evidence that the applied compost is changing the microbial population or its metabolic activity. This study shows that the use of the organic compost in agricultural areas seen does not negatively influence the quality of surface water in the study area. These results are important because the process of composting animal and vegetable waste and the use of compost obtained can be an alternative sustainable for adequate destination of these wastes.

  20. Food security in the former Yugoslav republics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brankov Tatjana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze food security in the former Yugoslav republics after they became independent nations. For that purpose we use new Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO suite of food security that provides possibility for a more nuanced assessment of food insecurity. The results do show some clear evidence of differences among countries. Compared with other ex-Yugoslav countries Slovenia is the most food secure country. It has the highest gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity (GDP PPP as well as the highest value and growth rate of agricultural productivity. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Macedonia are more vulnerable to food insecurity.