WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural health study

  1. PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We examined the relationship between 50 widely used agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective cohort study of 57,284 pesticide applicators, and 32,333 spouses of farmer applicators with no prior history of lung cancer. Self...

  2. 75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... history information for respondents enrolled in the Agriculture Health Study. This represents a request to... Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture... Disease Among Men and Women in Agriculture (NCI) (OMB : 0925-0406). Type of Information Collection...

  3. RELIABILITY OF REPORTING ON LIFESTYLE AND AGRICULTURAL FACTORS BY A SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY FROM IOWA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repeat interviews from 4,088 Iowa pesticide applicators participating in the Agricultural Health Study provided the opportunity to evaluate the reliability of self-reported information on pesticide use and various demographic and lifestyle factors. Self-completed questionnaire...

  4. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health and safety program. Contact your state or territorial health department or use this directory of local ... producers, small business owners, youth, consumers, and rural communities nationwide. NIOSH Agricultural Safety and Health Centers conduct ...

  5. Mortality among Pesticide Applicators Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in the Agricultural Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Won Jin; Alavanja, Michael C.R.; Hoppin, Jane A; Rusiecki, Jennifer A.; Kamel, Freya; Blair, Aaron; Sandler, Dale P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Chlorpyrifos is one of the most widely used organophosphate insecticides in the United States. Although the toxicity of chlorpyrifos has been extensively studied in animals, the epidemiologic data are limited. Objective To evaluate whether agricultural chlorpyrifos exposure was associated with mortality, we examined deaths among pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study, a prospective study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods A total o...

  6. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, S; Griffiths, J. K.; Webb, P.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  7. Meat and Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer in the Agricultural Health Study

    OpenAIRE

    Koutros, Stella; Cross, Amanda J.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Ma, Xiaomei; Zheng, Tongzhang; Alavanja, Michael C. R.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    Meats cooked at high temperatures, such as pan-frying or grilling, are a source of carcinogenic heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We prospectively examined the association between meat types, meat cooking methods, meat doneness, and meat mutagens and the risk for prostate cancer in the Agricultural Health Study. We estimated relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for prostate cancer using Cox proportional hazards regression, using age as the underlying t...

  8. Emerging health risks associated with modern agriculture practices: a comprehensive study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Aronson, Kristan J; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary W

    2012-05-01

    In order to enhance food production, India has adopted modern agriculture practices and achieved noteworthy success. This achievement was essentially the result of a paradigm shift in agriculture that included high inputs of agrochemicals, water, and widespread practice of monoculture, as well as bureaucratic changes that promoted these changes. There are very few comprehensive analyses of potential adverse health outcomes that may be related to these changes. The objective of this study is to identify health risks associated with modern agricultural practices in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. This study aims to compare high-input and low-input agricultural practices and the consequences for health of people in these communities. The fieldwork was conducted from May to August, 2009 and included a survey carried out in six villages. Data were collected by in-depth personal interviews among 240 households and key informants, field observations, laboratory analyses, and data from secondary sources. The study identified four major visible impacts: occupational hazards, vector borne diseases, changing nutritional status, and inequity in development. In the high-input area, mechanization has resulted in more occurrences of serious accidents and injuries. Ecological changes due to rice cultivation in this area have further augmented mosquito breeding, and there has been a surge in the incidence of Japanese encephalitis and malaria. The traditional coarse cereals (complex carbohydrates, high protein) have been replaced by mill-polished rice (simple carbohydrate, low protein). The prevalence of overweight (BMI>25) has emerged as a new public health challenge, and this is most evident in large-landholding households, especially in the high-input agriculture areas. In all agro-ecological areas, it was observed that women faced a greater risk of both extremes of under-nutrition and being overweight. Output-driven and market-oriented modern agricultural practices have

  9. Sustainability of current agriculture practices, community perception, and implications for ecosystem health: an Indian study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Atanu; Patil, Shantagouda; Hugar, Lingappa B; vanLoon, Gary

    2011-12-01

    In order to support agribusiness and to attain food security for ever-increasing populations, most countries in the world have embraced modern agricultural technologies. Ecological consequences of the technocentric approaches, and their sustainability and impacts on human health have, however, not received adequate attention particularly in developing countries. India is one country that has undergone a rapid transformation in the field of agriculture by adopting strategies of the Green Revolution. This article provides a comparative analysis of the effects of older and newer paradigms of agricultural practices on ecosystem and human health within the larger context of sustainability. The study was conducted in three closely situated areas where different agricultural practices were followed: (a) the head-end of a modern canal-irrigated area, (b) an adjacent dryland, and (c) an area (the ancient area) that has been provided with irrigation for some 800 years. Data were collected by in-depth interviews of individual farmers, focus-group discussions, participatory observations, and from secondary sources. The dryland, receiving limited rainfall, continues to practice diverse cropping centered to a large extent on traditional coarse cereals and uses only small amounts of chemical inputs. On the other hand, modern agriculture in the head-end emphasizes continuous cropping of rice supported by extensive and indiscriminate use of agrochemicals. Market forces have, to a significant degree, influenced the ancient area to abandon much of its early practices of organic farming and to take up aspects of modern agricultural practice. Rice cultivation in the irrigated parts has changed the local landscape and vegetation and has augmented the mosquito population, which is a potential vector for malaria, Japanese encephalitis and other diseases. Nevertheless, despite these problems, perceptions of adverse environmental effects are lowest in the heavily irrigated area. PMID

  10. An Updated Algorithm for Estimation of Pesticide Exposure Intensity in the Agricultural Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Blair

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An algorithm developed to estimate pesticide exposure intensity for use in epidemiologic analyses was revised based on data from two exposure monitoring studies. In the first study, we estimated relative exposure intensity based on the results of measurements taken during the application of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D (n = 88 and the insecticide chlorpyrifos (n = 17. Modifications to the algorithm weighting factors were based on geometric means (GM of post-application urine concentrations for applicators grouped by application method and use of chemically-resistant (CR gloves. Measurement data from a second study were also used to evaluate relative exposure levels associated with airblast as compared to hand spray application methods. Algorithm modifications included an increase in the exposure reduction factor for use of CR gloves from 40% to 60%, an increase in the application method weight for boom spray relative to in-furrow and for air blast relative to hand spray, and a decrease in the weight for mixing relative to the new weights assigned for application methods. The weighting factors for the revised algorithm now incorporate exposure measurements taken on Agricultural Health Study (AHS participants for the application methods and personal protective equipment (PPE commonly reported by study participants.

  11. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. Methods For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. Results The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Conclusion Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a

  12. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuller Jeffrey D

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of mental health related links between agricultural support, health and other human services in four drought declared shires in comparable districts in rural New South Wales, Australia. Mental health links covered information exchange, referral recommendations and program development. Results 87 agencies from 111 (78% completed a survey. 79% indicated that two thirds of their clients needed assistance for mental health related problems. The highest mean number of interagency links concerned information exchange and the frequency of these links between sectors was monthly to three monthly. The effectiveness of agricultural support and health sector links were rated as less effective by the agricultural support sector than by the health sector (p Conclusion Aligning with agricultural agencies is important to build effective mental health service pathways to address the needs of farming populations. Work is required to ensure that these agricultural support agencies have operational and effective links to primary mental health care services. Network analysis provides a baseline to inform this work. With interventions such as local mental health training and joint service planning to promote network development we would expect to see over time an increase in the mean number of links, the frequency in which these links are used and the rated effectiveness of these links.

  13. Using Multiple Imputation to Assign Pesticide Use for Non-Responders in the Follow-Up Questionnaire in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a large prospective cohort, was designed to elucidate associations between pesticide use and other agricultural exposures and health outcomes. The cohort includes 57,310 pesticide applicators who were enrolled between 1993 and 1997 in Iowa and...

  14. Agriculture, food, and health perspectives on a long relationship: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Tim

    2006-01-01

    "Agriculture produces food fundamental for human health. It therefore seems obvious that agriculture, food, and health are related! Agriculture affects whether people have enough food to eat, whether it is of sufficient nutritional value, and whether it is safe, all of which affect human health. But it is not so simple: history has taught that there are different ways of looking at the relationships between agriculture, food, and health. Agricultural connections to food and health are mediate...

  15. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming and pesticide use have previously been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated agricultural use of specific insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants and risk of NHL and NHL-subtypes (including CLL an...

  16. 77 FR 72871 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request (60-Day FRN): The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    ... updating the occupational and environmental exposure information as well as medical history information for.... The total estimated annualized burden hours are 10,465. Estimated Annualized Burden Hours Table A.12-1... Institutes of Health (NIH) will publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the...

  17. The common agricultural policy health check

    OpenAIRE

    Erjavec, Emil; Lovec, Marko

    2016-01-01

    In 2008, the ministers of agriculture of European Union member states made a political agreement on the Common Agricultural Policy reform, also known as the Health Check. The reform coincided with three things: the ongoing Doha round of the World Trade Organization negotiations

  18. Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reported in 2009 that people who use the weed killer imazethapyr have increased risks of bladder cancer and ... reported an analysis of farmers who use the weed killer atrazine, which is a type of chemical known ...

  19. [Integrated approach to the promotion of health and safety in agriculture: a pilot study in the Cremona area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmi, A M; Bottazzi, R; Dolara, D; Longo, S; Boldori, L; Bertoletti, M; Boglioli, V; Cauzzi, D; Mastroiorio, S; Pizzacani, R; Valcarenghi, M; Cirla, P E

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural sector in Cremona country is made up of many small farms and this makes it difficult to realease the principles of health and safety at work. In this experience an innovative platform for information and training, in which the agricoltural trade unions are privileged partner of public institutions in the road map for continuous improvement, has been tested. In a first phase, the availability of expert technicians to check the consistency of the application of safety standards has been offered by the trade associations free of charge to 100 farms. The critical points and problems were identified using specific checklists and a custom proposal to solve them was proposed. In a second phase, farms participating in the project have been officially inspected by the local public health authority. The comparison between the data collected in the two phases allowed to ascertain a good effectiveness and efficiency of the preventive intervention plan experienced. PMID:23405675

  20. Health and safety risks in production agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Essen, S G; McCurdy, S A

    1998-01-01

    Production agriculture is associated with a variety of occupational illnesses and injuries. Agricultural workers are at higher risk of death or disabling injury than most other workers. Traumatic injury commonly occurs from working with machinery or animals. Respiratory illness and health problems from exposures to farm chemicals are major concerns, and dermatoses, hearing loss, certain cancers, and zoonotic infections are important problems. Innovative means of encouraging safe work practices are being developed. Efforts are being made to reach all groups of farmworkers, including migrant and seasonal workers, farm youth, and older farmers. PMID:9795581

  1. 78 FR 8151 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request (30-Day FRN): The Agricultural Health Study: A...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... Women in Agriculture (NCI) Summary: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork... and Women in Agriculture, 0925-0406, Expiration Date 5/31/2013--REVISION--National Institute of... and environmental exposure information as well as medical history information for licensed...

  2. Service network analysis for agricultural mental health

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller Jeffrey D; Kelly Brian; Law Susan; Pollard Georgia; Fragar Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Farmers represent a subgroup of rural and remote communities at higher risk of suicide attributed to insecure economic futures, self-reliant cultures and poor access to health services. Early intervention models are required that tap into existing farming networks. This study describes service networks in rural shires that relate to the mental health needs of farming families. This serves as a baseline to inform service network improvements. Methods A network survey of men...

  3. Conservation agriculture & soil health: The US perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Idol, Travis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to give a history and current status of soil conservation and conservation agriculture. It discusses soil quality indicators and gave recommendations for policies and practices, including adoption of conservation agriculture production systems that can help conserve soil and maintain agricultural productivity, especially on degraded farmland. LTRA-11 (CAPS among tribal societies in India and Nepal)

  4. Adverse respiratory health and hematological alterations among agricultural workers occupationally exposed to organophosphate pesticides: a cross-sectional study in North India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Fareed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-protective work practices followed by farm workers during spraying of pesticides lead to occupational exposure among them. OBJECTIVE: This study is designed to explore the respiratory health and hematological profile of agricultural workers occupationally exposed to OP pesticides. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional study was undertaken among 166 pesticide sprayers working in mango orchards of Lucknow district in North India compared with 77 controls to assess the respiratory illness, lung functions, cholinesterase levels and hematological profile. A questionnaire based survey and clinical examination for respiratory health were conducted among study subjects. Lung function test was conducted among study subjects by using spirometer. Cholinesterase level as biomarker of OP pesticides and hematological profile of study subjects were investigated in the laboratory by following the standard protocols. RESULTS: Overall respiratory morbidity observed among exposed subjects was 36.75%. Symptoms for respiratory illness like dry cough, productive cough, wheezing, irritation of throat and blood stained sputum were found to be significantly more (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers than controls. Lung function parameters viz. PEFR, FEV1, %PEFR predicted, %FEV1 predicted and FEV1/FVC were found to be significantly decreased (p<0.05 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls. Exposure wise distribution of respiratory illness and lung functions among pesticide sprayers show that the exposure duration significantly elevates (p<0.05 the respiratory problems and significantly decreases (p<0.001 lung functions among pesticide sprayers. Activities of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase were found to be significantly depleted (p<0.001 among pesticide sprayers as compared to controls which show the exposure of OP pesticides among them. The hematological profile viz. RBC, WBC, monocytes, neutrophils, MCV, MCH, MCHC and platelet

  5. An Evaluation Tool for Agricultural Health and Safety Mobile Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Iris; Ellis, Tammy; Yoder, Aaron; Keifer, Matthew C

    2016-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices and their software applications, or apps, becomes ubiquitous, use amongst agricultural working populations is expanding as well. The smart device paired with a well-designed app has potential for improving workplace health and safety in the hands of those who can act upon the information provided. Many apps designed to assess workplace hazards and implementation of worker protections already exist. However, the abundance and diversity of such applications also presents challenges regarding evaluation practices and assignation of value. This is particularly true in the agricultural workspace, as there is currently little information on the value of these apps for agricultural safety and health. This project proposes a framework for developing and evaluating apps that have potential usefulness in agricultural health and safety. The evaluation framework is easily transferable, with little modification for evaluation of apps in several agriculture-specific areas. PMID:27494309

  6. Effects of work in childhood on health in the opinion of respondents from agricultural families

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Lachowski; Magdalena Florek-Łuszczki

    2013-01-01

    Background: The engagement of children in work is common in agricultural families. Work of children brings about specific benefits to both the family and the children; however, at the same time, it creates many hazards, including health risk. Materials and Method: The aim of the study was to determine current and delayed health effects among individuals who were engaged in agricultural activities in childhood. The study was conducted using the method of diagnostic survey questionnaire and cov...

  7. Socio-hydrologic drivers of the Pendulum Swing between agriculture development and environmental health: a case study from Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kandasamy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study centered on the Murrumbidgee river basin in eastern Australia that illustrates the dynamics of the balance between water extraction and use for food production and efforts to mitigate and reverse consequent degradation of the riparian environment. In particular the paper traces the history of a pendulum swing between an exclusive focus on agricultural development and food production in the initial stages and its attendant socio-economic benefits, followed by the gradual realization of the adverse environmental impacts, efforts to mitigate these with the use of remedial measures, and ultimately concerted efforts and externally imposed solutions to restore environmental health and ecosystem services. The 100 yr history of development within Murrumbidgee is divided into four eras, each underpinned by the dominance of different norms/goals and turning points characterized by their changes. The various stages of development can be characterized by the dominance, in turn, of infrastructure systems, policy frameworks, economic instruments, and technological solutions. The paper argues that, to avoid these costly pendulum swings, management needs to be underpinned by long-term coupled socio-hydrologic system models that explicitly include the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems, including evolution of human values/norms relating to water and the environment. Such coupled human-water system models can provide insights into dominant controls of the trajectory of their co-evolution in a given system, and can also be used to interpret patterns of co-evolution of such coupled systems in different places across gradients of climatic, socio-economic and socio-cultural conditions, and in this way to help develop generalizable understanding.

  8. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong Jiayou

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and biocides. At the same time, the availability of resources {e.g. agricultural land) decreases. The objective of this study is to operationalize a methodology to assess the effectiveness of new crop and li...

  9. Effects of work in childhood on health in the opinion of respondents from agricultural families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Lachowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The engagement of children in work is common in agricultural families. Work of children brings about specific benefits to both the family and the children; however, at the same time, it creates many hazards, including health risk. Materials and Method: The aim of the study was to determine current and delayed health effects among individuals who were engaged in agricultural activities in childhood. The study was conducted using the method of diagnostic survey questionnaire and covered a group of 482 adults from agricultural families. Results: The majority of respondents expressed the opinion that work in childhood had no impact on their health. At the same time, 2/5 of respondents considered that work on their parents' farm exerted an effect on their health in childhood (current effects, whereas nearly 1/3 admitted that an engagement in work in childhood also affected their present state of health (delayed effects. In the respondents' opinion, overloading with work in childhood exerted an adverse effect on their health, and also resulted in health problems in adulthood. Conclusion: The engagement of children in agricultural work in a small amount of working time, and adjustment of assigned jobs to their capabilities brings about many health benefits with low health risk. In turn, the engagement of children in work from their youngest years and overloading them with work exerts an adverse effect on health, especially in later life. Med Pr 2013;64(3:373–385

  10. Livestock and health: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Catelo, Maria Angeles

    2006-01-01

    "The linkages between livestock and health are significant, particularly for the poor, whether as livestock raisers or as consumers of meat and milk, or even as users of the environment. The processes of livestock production and consumption bring both benefits and problems for human health... Livestock production and consumption can lead to four main types of human health risks: (1) diseases transmitted from livestock to humans; (2) environmental pollution; (3) foodborne diseases and risks; a...

  11. The health risk of the agricultural production in potentially contaminated sites: an environmental-health risk analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Russo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rural areas are often interested by pollution phenomena generated by agricultural activities with a high use of pesticides and/or by anthropic activities, such as industrial plants or illegal waste disposal sites, which may cause even long-range contamination. The risk for human health from the pollutants present in the environment can be quantitatively evaluated by the environmental health risk analysis set out in the Italian Legislative Decree no. 152/2006 (Italian Regulation, 2006. This analysis is the best technical-normative tool to estimate the health risks linked to the pollutants present in the environment but it does not consider the specificity of agricultural soils or the contamination of agricultural products. This study aims to provide this missing technical-normative data by identifying and applying a suitable methodology to evaluate the health risk caused by the ingestion of agricultural products grown in contaminated soils. The risk analysis was applied to two contaminated areas in southern Italy using an innovative methodology based on widely accepted parameters for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs soil-plant bio-transfer factor in the case of horticultural crops. In addition, some concentration limits of PAHs in agricultural soils are proposed that may be of help to the competent authorities (health agencies, local authorities in delineating the areas requiring strict health surveillance of the food products cultivated.

  12. Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo, S

    2011-01-01

    In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on the Irrigation Scheme and Drylands areas of the Makhatini Flats described and compared occupational activities, crop production, pesticide use and adverse health outcomes among women working in small...

  13. Agricultural soils potentially contaminated: risk assessment procedure case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Beccaloni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment, the health-environmental risk analysis is used to decision-making targets in the contaminated sites management; this procedure allows to assess the quantitative health risk related to the pollutants presence in environmental compartments, as soil and waters. As regards potentially contaminated agricultural soils, the ingestion of food from vegetable and/or animal source, produced inside the contaminated area, is the most suitable way to assess the health risk. As an official procedure to this assessment is not available, the National Institute for Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, ISS has worked out an operating procedure, organized into several phases, depending on the available specific-site know-how. In this document, agricultural soils potentially contaminated in two sites have been studied; the sites are the following: Brescia Caffaro and Torviscosa.

  14. Financial health of agricultural enterprises in the organic sector

    OpenAIRE

    Brozova, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    The present research was aimed at evaluating the economic performance of organic farm enterprises (legal entities) in the Czech Republic on the basis of their production base and financial health. The evaluation was carried out by means of specific financial indicators. The results recorded in the organic farming sector were confronted with those of the conventional agriculture. It stemmed from the analysis that conventionally farming legal entities, as opposed to the organically farming ones...

  15. The role of intermediaries in delivering an occupational health and safety programme designed for small business - a case study of an insurance incentive programme in the agriculture sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kirsten Bendix; Hasle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    transformation and dissemination of a national OHS programme for small business that built on an Insurance incentive scheme – the New Zealand Workplace Safety Discount scheme. It is a case study of this scheme implementation in the agriculture sector. Data was collected from scheme documentation and semi......-structured interviews with the scheme owner, representatives from intermediary groups and the targeted small businesses. The interviews were tape recorded, transcribed and thematically analysed in relation to the scheme’s programme theory. The intermediaries introduced new programme mechanisms and recruitment...... strategies that were not considered in the design. These were shaped by the intermediaries’ understanding of the target group and by their own business interest. To engage Non-Governmental Intermediaries the scheme owner had to establish a close relation to them and to link the aim of the scheme to the...

  16. The links between agriculture and health: an intersectoral opportunity to improve the health and livelihoods of the poor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinna Hawkes

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and health are linked in many ways. First, agriculture is essential for good health: it produces the world's food, fibre and materials for shelter; in many countries it is also an important source of livelihood among the poor. At the same time, agriculture can be linked with poor health, including malnutrition, malaria, foodborne illnesses, human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS, livestock-related diseases, chronic diseases and occupational ill-health. Health also affects agriculture: people's health status influences the demand for agricultural outputs, and in agricultural communities, poor health reduces work performance, reducing income and productivity and perpetuating a downward spiral into ill-health. This paper presents an overview of the bidirectional links between agriculture and health with a focus on the developing world. It develops a conceptual framework that brings together the various links between agriculture and health into a single broad framework. The framework comprises the core components of the agricultural supply chain (producers, systems and outputs, key health concerns and the mechanisms of common interaction between the agricultural and health components: income, labour, environment and access - all key social determinants of health. These links between agriculture and health present an opportunity for the two sectors to work together to find solutions to each other's problems. Yet the health and agricultural sectors remain poorly coordinated. Leadership from global health and agricultural institutions is needed to build policies and good governance to facilitate integration, while capacity building is needed at all levels to help translate the conceptual links into comprehensive action on the ground. Health and agricultural researchers likewise need to work more closely together to achieve common goals.

  17. STUDY ON THE FRAMEWORK SYSTEM OF DIGITAL AGRICULTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    China is a great agricultural country with large population, limited soil resources and traditional farming mode, so the central government has been attaching great importance to the development of agriculture and put forward a new agricultural technology revolution - the transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture and from extensive farming to intensive farming. Digital agriculture is the core of agricultural informatization. The enforcement of digital agriculture will greatly promote agricultural technology revolution, two agricultural transformations and its rapid development, and enhance China′ s competitive power after the entrance of WTO. To carry out digital agriculture, the frame system of digital agriculture is required to be studied in the first place. In accordance with the theory and technology of digital earth and in combination with the agricultural reality of China, this article outlines the frame system of digital agriculture and its main content and technology support.

  18. Occupational Safety and Health: A View of Current Practices in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Ewing, John C.; Evanoski, Danielle C.

    2015-01-01

    Providing safe and secure teaching and learning environments within schools is an ongoing process which requires a significant amount of attention. Therefore, this study sought to: 1) explore safety and health practices within secondary Agricultural Mechanics Education; and 2) identify the perceived obstacles which appear to hinder implementation…

  19. Agro-ecology, household economics and malaria in Uganda: empirical correlations between agricultural and health outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Wielgosz, Benjamin; Kato, Edward; Ringler, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper establishes empirical evidence relating the agriculture and health sectors in Uganda. The analysis explores linkages between agricultural management, malaria and implications for improving community health outcomes in rural Uganda. The goal of this exploratory work is to expand the evidence-base for collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors in Uganda. Methods The paper presents an analysis of data from the 2006 Uganda National Household Survey using a par...

  20. AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES AND HEALTH PROBLEMS IN RURAL AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrashekhar B.

    2014-01-01

    In India, half of the world's labour force is in agriculture and an estimated 1.3 billion workers are engaged in agricultural production world wide. The share of the agricultural labour force in the very economically active population is under 10 per cent in the developed countries and accounts for 59 per cent of workers in the less developed regions (International Labour Conference (ILC) 2000). Compared to workers in other sectors, agricultural workers are under protected...

  1. A Brief Report Describing the Union of Medical Training and Agricultural Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Jeffrey L; Bowling, John; Wickman, Amanda J; Harris, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This brief report describes a mutually beneficial partnership forged to extend agricultural medicine training to physicians, nurses, veterinarians, public health workers, health care professionals, medical residents, and students. Agricultural Medicine: Occupational and Environmental Health for Rural Health Professionals originated at the University of Iowa, Iowa's Center for Agricultural Safety and Health, and the Great Plains Center for Agricultural Health. Through a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-funded Training Project Grant, The University of Texas Health Northeast worked with the University of Iowa and regional experts to adapt the agricultural medicine content for the southwestern United States. Further partnerships were developed with the Southwest Center for Agricultural Health, Injury Prevention and Education, The University of North Texas Health Science Center College of Osteopathic Medicine, and the Texas Rural Health Association to extend the reach of this training to other important stakeholders. Each of the collaborators offered unique resources to the coordination of the agricultural medicine course. Likewise, each organization benefited from extending regionally relevant agricultural medicine training to current and future health care providers. The long-term goal for the partnership is to train a broad array of health care providers with the basics of anticipation, recognition, diagnosis, treatment, and the prevention of occupational and environmental illnesses and injuries within rural and agricultural communities, customized to the Southwest Region. This brief descriptive report highlights the process by which strategic partners collaborated to conduct a regional agricultural medicine course, such that other organizations interested in offering a similar training might gain insight to best practices from our experience. PMID:26479683

  2. Health and occupational risks due to pesticide handling among agricultural workers in marinilla, antioquia, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C. Tabares L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has played a key role in the development of Colombia’s economy and rural communities. The Marinilla municipality, located in the eastern area of the department of Antioquia, bases its economy in agriculture and livestock activities. This requires the use of a wide variety of chemical products that pose health risks. Objective: to describe the occupational and health risks of the farmers who use pesticides in Marinilla. Methodology: a descriptive study with multistage sampling and a sample of 157 farmers. Results: 64.9% of the farmers combine more than two chemicals. 83% of them have received no training on safe handling of agricultural chemical products. Approximately 80% of these individuals do not use the appropriate protective equipment to perform this task. Only 2.5 % of the farmers have occupational risks insurance. The most common disease was acute respiratory infection (78%. 22.3% have suffered from acute intoxication, and 14% (11 of the female farmers who have ever been intoxicated had abortions, premature births, or bore children with some kind of disability. A statistically significant difference was found between the age of farmers and pesticide usage time. No statistical difference was found between low schooling level and knowledge of the risks posed by chemical products. Conclusion: most agricultural workers have not been trained in safety standards; therefore, they disregard all kinds of safety measures during their work, and act without safety in mind and without personal hygiene habits.

  3. Agriculture, nutrition and health essentials for non-specialist development professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, J.

    2011-01-01

    This short paper combines basic agriculture, nutrition, and health knowledge, terms, and practices in an effort to facilitate more collaboration and understanding between these disciplines. This paper was written as a follow-up to the 2020 conference Leveraging Agriculture for Improving Nutrition and Health in Delhi in 2011.

  4. Overcoming Language and Literacy Barriers in Safety and Health Training of Agricultural Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Arcury, Thomas A; Estrada, Jorge M.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2010-01-01

    The workforce in all areas of United States agriculture and forestry is becoming increasingly diverse in language, culture, and education. Many agricultural workers are immigrants who have limited English language skills and limited educational attainment. Providing safety and health training to this large, diverse, dispersed, and often transient population of workers is challenging. This review, prepared for the 2010 Agricultural Safety and Health Council of America/National Institute for Oc...

  5. Wastewater and excreta use in agriculture in northern Vietnam : health risks and environmental impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Duc, Phuc

    2012-01-01

    Wastewater is commonly used in agriculture and aquaculture in developing countries but also in developed countries due to the growing water scarcity. In Vietnam, the use wastewater and excreta in agriculture has a long tradition. While this practice has clear advantages (fertiliser, economic impacts etc.), it harbours potential risks for health and environment. The aim of the thesis was to understand the health and environmental risks related to wastewater and excreta reuse in an agricultural...

  6. Improving Human Nutrition from the Ground Up: Linking Agriculture to Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Welch, R M

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is the leading cause of death globally. Both overt nutrient deficiencies and diet-related chronic diseases account for over 20 million deaths a year. The causes of malnutrition are complex but are rooted in dysfunctional food systems dependent on agricultural systems that have never had an explicit goal of improving human health. These deaths are preventable. Linking agricultural systems to human health could provide sustainable solutions to malnutrition. Various agricultural too...

  7. HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT OF NITRATE EXPOSURE IN WELL WATER OF RESIDENTS IN INTENSIVE AGRICULTURE AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraziah Jamaludin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate in well water has become a public health concern especially in agriculture areas. Nitrate contamination in drinking water poses health risks to humans. This cross-sectional study was conducted with an aim to determine the health risk of residents in intensive agriculture area of Bachok Kelantan from nitrate exposure in drinking well water. Nitrate in well water was determined with Spectrophotometer while the health risk was determined through calculation of Chronic Daily Intake (CDI and Hazard Index (HI. Results indicate that nitrate level in this study was below the Maximum Concentration Limit of National Drinking Water Quality Standard of Malaysia (NDWQS (-1 with the Mean ± SD of 1.66±2.11 mg L-1 and range between 0 to 9.60 mg L-1. The highest Mean ± SD of nitrate was determined in Kampung Aman (3.34±4.07 mg L-1. The mean ± SD for CDI was 0.051±0.086 mg kg day-1 and the HI was <1. This indicate the health risk of residents from nitrate exposure in this area were in acceptable range.

  8. A Study of Green Logistics for Chinese Agriculture Products

    OpenAIRE

    Na Liu

    2015-01-01

    Although agriculture plays an important role in China, the country is still suffering much from the weakness of the logistics system of its agriculture products, such as outdated facilities, lacking of logistics experts, weak information technology, etc. The weak logistics system causes the loss of many agricultural products in daily delivery and storing. This study addresses the problem by taking a study of green logistics for Chinese agriculture products. We take an SWOT method to analyze t...

  9. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  10. Problems incurred by agricultural pilots and its relations with occupational health and safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Zanatta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses qualitative information from studies that address the problems incurred by agricultural pilots in the execution of their work, which may be related to the occupational health and safety. The aim is to investigate whether the evolution of the technologies used in agricultural aviation is accompanied by an improvement in working conditions. In order to achieve this, it was performed a systematic review through computerized search engines to gather existing information on this subject. Data synthesis included the exposure factors presented in work environment and their relations with occupational health and safety. The main problems associated with the health and safety covered in the studies includes exposure to chemicals, noise exposure and unfavorable thermal conditions, improper use or lack of personal and collective protective equipment, team management and occupational health management. Although they are not treated in more detail, other problems are presented in studies that evaluated the conditions of the work environment. These include training and education, working time management, shocks and vibrations, gravitational forces, personal relationships, weather conditions and pilot’s responsibilities.

  11. Urban Agriculture : Findings from Four City Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Urban agriculture contributes to local economic development, poverty alleviation, the social inclusion of the urban poor and women, as well as to the greening of the city and the productive reuse of urban wastes. Urban agriculture encompasses a wide variety of production systems in both urban as well as peri-urban areas. This study examines the contribution of urban agriculture to liveliho...

  12. How sustainable agriculture can address the environmental and human health harms of industrial agriculture.

    OpenAIRE

    Horrigan, Leo; Lawrence, Robert S.; Walker, Polly

    2002-01-01

    The industrial agriculture system consumes fossil fuel, water, and topsoil at unsustainable rates. It contributes to numerous forms of environmental degradation, including air and water pollution, soil depletion, diminishing biodiversity, and fish die-offs. Meat production contributes disproportionately to these problems, in part because feeding grain to livestock to produce meat--instead of feeding it directly to humans--involves a large energy loss, making animal agriculture more resource i...

  13. Seasonal agricultural youth workers' concerns on development - growth in adolescence period and utilization of health services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep simsek

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Physical, psychological and social changes occurring in adolescence period may be cause for concern. In this study, it was aimed to determine concerns on growth and development in adolescence period, related factors and utilization of health services. Methods: In this study, data related youths' concerns, utilization of health services and socio-demographic variables obtained from multi-purpose cross-sectional survey named Needs Assesment of Seasonal Agricultural Worker Families Survey-2011 were used. Survey framework was consisted of aged 15-24 young people of families who worked as a seasonal agricultural farmworker in the year of research conducted. Survey was completed in 1021 households total 915 youths selected by probability cluster sampling method of 1200 households by Turkish Statistical Institution (Response rates were 90,7% in women, and 77,2% in men. and lsquo;Woman and Men Questionnaires' were applied by face to face interview. University Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained. Data entry and analysis performed using SPSS 11.5 software, descriptive statistics, t-test, chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: Of participants 63,6% of female and 46,6% of male adolescents reported at least one concern related to growth and development inadolescent period. While having any concern prevalence in women were changed working time in the fields and health perception, marital status and education level with adolescent's concerns were related in men significantly (P <0,05. 13,8% of females and 10,9% of males utilized the health services because of concerns. Conclusion: By Family Health Centers at this risky young group during their period of residence in their address, adolescent follow-up should be done, should be asked concerns and given early diagnosis and treatment. On the other hand, health education programs on adolescence period by Community Health Centers will be useful. [TAF Prev Med Bull

  14. Nutritional and health implications of conventional agriculture : a review

    OpenAIRE

    Habte, Tsige Yohannes; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The ecosystem imbalance imposed by conventional agriculture is characterized by the loss of biodiversity that leads to uneven biological-energy distribution or to the disequilibrium of photosynthesis and respiration. These changes contribute to the excessive greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere followed by global climate change. The loss of biodiversity and the technologies applied in conventional agriculture are additionally involved in the depletion and adulteration of fertile soil...

  15. COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY FROM HEALTH CHECK DECISIONS TO THE POST-2013 REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculescu Oana Marilena

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposed for being presented belongs to the field research International Affairs and European Integration. The paper entitled Common Agricultural Policy from Health Check decisions to the post-2013 reform aims to analyze the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP from the Health Check adoption in November 2008 to a new reform post-2013. The objectives of the paper are the presentation of the Health Check with its advantages and disadvantages as well as the analysis of the opportunity of a new European policy and its reforming having in view that the analysis of Health Check condition was considered a compromise. The paper is related to the internal and international research consisting in several books, studies, documents that analyze the particularities of the most debated, controversial and reformed EU policy. A personal study is represented by the first report within the PhD paper called The reform of CAP and its implications for Romanias agriculture(coordinator prof. Gheorghe Hurduzeu PhD, Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Faculty of International Business, research studies in the period 2009-2012. The research methodology used consists in collecting and analysis data from national and international publications, their validation, followed by a dissemination of the results in order to express a personal opinion regarding CAP and its reform. The results of the research consist in proving the opportunity of a new reform due to the fact that Health Check belongs already to the past. The paper belongs to the field research mentioned, in the attempt to prove the opportunity of building a new EU agricultural policy. The challenges CAP is facing are: food safety, environmental and climate changes, territorial balance as well as new challenges-improving sustainable management of natural resources, maintaining competitiveness in the context of globalization growth, strengthening EU cohesion in rural areas, increasing the support of CAP for

  16. Addressing Agricultural Issues in Health Care Education: An Occupational Therapy Curriculum Program Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallfield, Stacy; Anderson, Angela J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Medical and allied health professionals who work in agricultural states frequently address the needs of clients who live and work in rural and frontier environments. The primary occupations of those living in rural areas include farming, ranching, or other agriculture-related work. Farming is consistently ranked as one of the most…

  17. Agriculture, malaria, and water-associated diseases: understanding the links between agriculture and health

    OpenAIRE

    Mutero, Clifford M; McCartney, Matthew; Boelee, Eline

    2006-01-01

    "Malaria, schistosomiasis (bilharzia), and Japanese encephalitis are the major vector-borne diseases whose increase or decrease can be attributed to agricultural water development (see table). Others include dengue fever, yellow fever, and filariasis. Young children in poor communities are particularly affected: malaria is among the top five causes of death among under-fives in Sub-Saharan Africa; schistosomiasis among children affects growth, nutritional status, and cognitive development; an...

  18. Feeding the world healthily: the challenge of measuring the effects of agriculture on health

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkesworth, S; Dangour, AD; Johnston, D.; Lock, K; Poole, N.; Rushton, J.; Uauy, R.; Waage, J.

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural production, food systems and population health are intimately linked. While there is a strong evidence base to inform our knowledge of what constitutes a healthy human diet, we know little about actual food production or consumption in many populations and how developments in the food and agricultural system will affect dietary intake patterns and health. The paucity of information on food production and consumption is arguably most acute in low- and middle-income countries, wher...

  19. The role of governance in agricultural expansion and intensification: a global study of arable agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mandemaker, M.; Bakker, M.M.; Stoorvogel, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research we studied empirical relationships between agricultural production dynamics and six quantitative World Bank governance indicators for 173 countries between 1975 and 2007. It is hypothesized that in countries with lower quality of governance, agricultural production increases are more likely to be achieved by area expansions than by increases in yields. We distinguished four groups of countries: those with both area and yield increases; those with increasing yields but decreas...

  20. A STUDY OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE OF INDIAN AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    KANAKA. S AND M. CHINADURAI

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the international trade scenario and corresponding alterations in India’s foreign trade policies have depicted far reaching implications for India’s agricultural sector in general and agricultural exports in particular. The present study has ascertained the changes in comparative advantage status of India’s major agricultural exports during the postreforms period (1994-95 to 2008-09). India had enjoyed a comparative advantage in tea exports but had depicted a declining ...

  1. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  2. Benefits of nuclear energy in health care, industry and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immense benefits of radioisotopes and radiations have very diversified applications ranging from the diagnosis of diseases and life saving role in fighting cancer to leak detection of pipes, seepage in canals and dams and getting the high yield of crop production. The public perception of nuclear energy can be enhanced favourably by the widespread application of radiation and radioisotopes in medicine, industry and agriculture

  3. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken. PMID:27486573

  4. Chemical Pesticides and Human Health: The Urgent Need for a New Concept in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolopoulou-Stamati, Polyxeni; Maipas, Sotirios; Kotampasi, Chrysanthi; Stamatis, Panagiotis; Hens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    The industrialization of the agricultural sector has increased the chemical burden on natural ecosystems. Pesticides are agrochemicals used in agricultural lands, public health programs, and urban green areas in order to protect plants and humans from various diseases. However, due to their known ability to cause a large number of negative health and environmental effects, their side effects can be an important environmental health risk factor. The urgent need for a more sustainable and ecological approach has produced many innovative ideas, among them agriculture reforms and food production implementing sustainable practice evolving to food sovereignty. It is more obvious than ever that the society needs the implementation of a new agricultural concept regarding food production, which is safer for man and the environment, and to this end, steps such as the declaration of Nyéléni have been taken. PMID:27486573

  5. The Role of Governance in Agricultural Expansion and Intensification: a Global Study of Arable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetse Stoorvogel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research we studied empirical relationships between agricultural production dynamics and six quantitative World Bank governance indicators for 173 countries between 1975 and 2007. It is hypothesized that in countries with lower quality of governance, agricultural production increases are more likely to be achieved by area expansions than by increases in yields. We distinguished four groups of countries: those with both area and yield increases; those with increasing yields but decreasing area; those with decreasing yields but a growing area; and those with both declines in yields and area. We analyzed differences between these four groups, and also analyzed governance-production relationships within these groups. On average, quality of governance is low in countries with both area and yield increases and high in countries with increasing yields but decreasing area. Countries with declining yields were too few in number to allow for quantitative analyses. The analysis of governance-production relationships within the four groups suggests that countries with a lower quality of governance are more inclined to achieve production increases by expanding agricultural area rather than increasing yields. Additional explanatory value of governance indicators to agricultural production dynamics is generally small, but nevertheless significant in most cases. Our results suggest that, in order for agricultural production to increase without excessive expansions of agricultural area, governance issues should be resolved.

  6. Pectic oligosaccharides from agricultural by-products: production, characterization and health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babbar, Neha; Dejonghe, Winnie; Gatti, Monica; Sforza, Stefano; Elst, Kathy

    2016-08-01

    Pectin containing agricultural by-products are potential sources of a new class of prebiotics known as pectic oligosaccharides (POS). In general, pectin is made up of homogalacturonan (HG, α-1,4-linked galacturonic acid monomers) and rhamnogalacturonan (RG, alternate galacturonic acid and rhamnose backbone with neutral side chains). Controlled hydrolysis of pectin containing agricultural by-products like sugar beet, apple, olive and citrus by chemical, enzymatic and hydrothermal can be used to produce oligo-galacturonides (GalpOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GalOS), rhamnogalacturonan-oligosaccharides (RGOS), etc. However, extensive research is needed to establish the role of POS, both as a prebiotic as well as therapeutic agent. This review comprehensively covers different facets of POS, including the nature and chemistry of pectin and POS, potential agricultural residual sources of pectin, pre-treatment methods for facilitating selective extraction of pectin, identification and characterization of POS, health benefits and important applications of POS in food and feed. This review has been compiled to establish a platform for future research in the purification and characterization of POS and for in vivo and in vitro studies of important POS, so that they could be commercially exploited. PMID:25641325

  7. Exploring options for agricultural development : a case study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhong Jiayou,

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Linear programming; Land use model; Technology assessmen China's agriculture faces a series of challenges, i.e. guaranteeing national food security, increasing farmer's income and reducing the adverse effects on environment and human health associated with the use of fertilizers and bioc

  8. Applied statistical methods in agriculture, health and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Lawal, Bayo

    2014-01-01

    This textbook teaches crucial statistical methods to answer research questions using a unique range of statistical software programs, including MINITAB and R. This textbook is developed for undergraduate students in agriculture, nursing, biology and biomedical research. Graduate students will also find it to be a useful way to refresh their statistics skills and to reference software options. The unique combination of examples is approached using MINITAB and R for their individual strengths. Subjects covered include among others data description, probability distributions, experimental design, regression analysis, randomized design and biological assay. Unlike other biostatistics textbooks, this text also includes outliers, influential observations in regression and an introduction to survival analysis. Material is taken from the author's extensive teaching and research in Africa, USA and the UK. Sample problems, references and electronic supplementary material accompany each chapter.

  9. Comparative Study on Sustainable Agriculture Knowledge among Malaysian Contract Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmariana Azman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Modern farming methods like contract farming must emphasize on the need to practice sustainable agriculture so that it will lead towards the development of the agriculture sector. To do so, knowledge is paramount as this will enable the implementation of good agriculture practices. What is the current level of knowledge of contract farmers with regards to sustainable agriculture? Is there any difference in the level of knowledge between farmers from different zones? Thus, this study would like to investigate on the level of knowledge pertaining to sustainable agriculture practices between contract farmers from east and west Malaysian. Approach: This study used a survey methodology to obtain the data. A total of 160 respondents participated in the study and the data was analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: From the result, it was identified that the respondents were at a high level pertaining to their knowledge on sustainable agriculture. Further analysis showed that there is a significant difference in knowledge based on different zones. Conclusion: The study recommends that more efforts should be taken by respective stakeholders to further improve farmers knowledge regarding pest control, soil erosion and proper usage of machine for agriculture.

  10. A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Harvie, Jamie; Mikkelsen, Leslie; Shak, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food sy...

  11. Quantitative studies in public and agricultural economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adele Cecile

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation contains three essays. The first is entitled "Property Tax Treatment of Farmland: Does Tax Relief Delay Land Development?" I investigate use-value assessment, a state policy allowing farmland to be assessed at its agriculture-only value, rather than its full market value. Using Census data from 2963 counties over 1959--1987, I test the effect of use-value assessment on the proportion of county land in farming. Estimates indicate that after adoption, use-value assessment produced a gradually increasing proportion of farmland relative to counties who did not have the policy. The effect rose to ten percentage points more land in farming after twenty years. I present a model of the landowner's decision to develop farmland for urban uses and derive the effect of use-value assessment policy on the optimal development timing. The second essay is "State and Local Government Employment: Do Governments Respond Asymmetrically to Changes in Incomes?" I develop models for changes in government employment that allow an asymmetric response to increases and decreases in per capita private income to see whether government employment increases more in years of economic growth than it decreases in years of economic decline. I develop a model that does not require special assumptions to predict a positive relationship between the dependent and independent variables, and estimate it with U.S. Census data from 1970 to 1991 for 48 states. Results demonstrate symmetrical government employment response to incomes and are quite robust, holding consistently for several functional forms and other specifications of asymmetric response. I find that Democratic and Republican governors hire equivalently, but may slow layoffs in election years. The third essay is "Energy Efficiency, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Soil Management in Crop Production." I develop a theoretical model for optimal factor intensity (input per unit output). Using cross-sectional data from USDA's 1996

  12. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  13. A New Health Care Prevention Agenda: Sustainable Food Procurement and Agricultural Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvie, Jamie; Mikkelsen, Leslie; Shak, Linda

    2009-07-01

    Health care leaders are broadening their awareness to include the need to address the food system as a means to individual, public, and global health, above and beyond basic nutritional factors. Key voices from the health care sector have begun to engage in market transformation and are aggregating to articulate the urgency for engagement in food and agricultural policy. Systemic transformation requires a range of policies that complement one another and address various aspects of the food system. Health care involvement in policy and advocacy is vital to solve the expanding ecological health crises facing our nation and globe and will require an urgency that may be unprecedented. PMID:23144678

  14. The health of women temporary agricultural workers in Canada: a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Kathryn; Berman, Helene; Basok, Tanya; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Forchuk, Cheryl

    2011-12-01

    Among high-income countries such as Canada, there is growing dependency on "low skilled" temporary foreign workers in a variety of sectors. The purpose of this review is to critically synthesize and analyze the theoretical and empirical literature on gendered and temporary migration in the context of globalization and the health of temporary agricultural workers, particularly women in Canadian programs. While the social sciences literature contains well-developed conceptualizations of gendered migration, the research has focused on women in feminized occupations such as domestic work. Multidisciplinary searches produced only 11 research and review publications on the gendered constraints or health of temporary agricultural workers in Canada. Further investigation is needed to explore and integrate the strengths, resiliencies, and health-care needs of women migrant agricultural workers in Canada, as well as the barriers they face, within the intersecting and gendered forces of inequities at all levels: local, national, and global. PMID:22435309

  15. Quality of wastewater reuse in agricultural irrigation and its impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hammad, Bushra Ahmed; Abd El-Salam, Magda Magdy; Ibrahim, Sahar Yassin

    2014-11-01

    This study is planned to perform a sanitary survey of the largest sewage treatment plant in Riyadh, KSA, fortnightly for 6 months to examine its effluent quality as an example for the growing dependence on reuse of treated municipal wastewater in agricultural irrigation purposes to cope with increasing water shortage. The biological and physico-chemical parameters of 12 wastewater samples from the plant were examined using standard methods. The physico-chemical analysis indicated that the surveyed municipal wastewater treatment plant contained some of the studied parameters, such as turbidity, total suspended solids, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand and residual chlorine above the maximum permissible wastewater limits set by the Saudi Standards. However, heavy metal concentrations in all samples were lower than the recommended standards. Total and faecal coliform counts were above the permissible limits indicating poor sanitation level. Fifty percent of all wastewater samples were contaminated with faecal coliforms but, surprisingly, Escherichia coli were only detected in 8.3 % of the samples. Regular monitoring and enhancement of microbial and physico-chemical parameters of the wastewater quality served by different wastewater treatment plants for reuse in agricultural irrigation is recommended to preserve the environment and public health. PMID:25085428

  16. Life science, agriculture and forestry and fishery and health and medical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book gives descriptions of future technology in Korea, by field : Life science, agriculture and forestry and fishery and health and medical treatment. It indicates the purpose of survey, survey system survey outline, characteristic of this survey, how to read the prediction of survey result, the result of survey with the tasks of survey object, field on important survey and development period of realizable prediction, obstacle of realization, propel ways for survey and development, policy tasks, important future technology chronological table, characteristic of respondent, the result of survey : Life science, agriculture and forestry and fishery and health and medical treatment.

  17. Soil compaction and soil tillage - studies in agricultural soil mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with various aspects of soil compaction due to agricultural field traffic, the draught force requirement of tillage implements and soil structures produced by tillage. Several field experiments were carried out to study the mechanical impact of agricultural machines. It was shown that the stress interaction from the different wheels in dual and tandem wheel configurations is small and these wheels can be considered separate wheels with regard to soil stress. Hence, soil stre...

  18. New frontiers of multidisciplinary research in STEAM-H (science, technology, engineering, agriculture, mathematics, and health)

    CERN Document Server

    Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics : Volume 90

    2014-01-01

    This highly multidisciplinary volume contains contributions from leading researchers in STEAM-H disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, Mathematics and Health). The volume explores new frontiers in multidisciplinary research, including: the mathematics of cardiac arrhythmia; brain research on working memory; penalized ordinal regression to classify melanoma skin samples; forecasting of time series data; dynamics of niche models; analysis of chemical moieties as anticancer agents; study of gene locus control regions; qualitative mathematical modelling; convex quadrics and group circle systems; remanufacturing planning and control; complexity reduction of functional differential equations; computation of viscous interfacial motion; and differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells. An extension of a seminar series at Virginia State University, the collection is intended to foster student interest and participation in interdisciplinary research, and to stimulate new research. The content wi...

  19. Organic Agriculture in Albania - Sector Study 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Bernet, Thomas; Kazazi, Iris S.

    2012-01-01

    FiBL, working with local partners, has compiled the facts and figures in a study presenting the organic sector's drivers and determinants. The study is a valuable resource for local stakeholders and interested trading companies.

  20. Response of Soil Properties and Microbial Communities to Agriculture: Implications for Primary Productivity and Soil Health Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pankaj; Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Anderson, Ian C; Singh, Brajesh K

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is placing tremendous pressure on the soil's capacity to maintain its functions leading to large-scale ecosystem degradation and loss of productivity in the long term. Therefore, there is an urgent need to find early indicators of soil health degradation in response to agricultural management. In recent years, major advances in soil meta-genomic and spatial studies on microbial communities and community-level molecular characteristics can now be exploited as 'biomarker' indicators of ecosystem processes for monitoring and managing sustainable soil health under global change. However, a continental scale, cross biome approach assessing soil microbial communities and their functional potential to identify the unifying principles governing the susceptibility of soil biodiversity to land conversion is lacking. We conducted a meta-analysis from a dataset generated from 102 peer-reviewed publications as well as unpublished data to explore how properties directly linked to soil nutritional health (total C and N; C:N ratio), primary productivity (NPP) and microbial diversity and composition (relative abundance of major bacterial phyla determined by next generation sequencing techniques) are affected in response to agricultural management across the main biomes of Earth (arid, continental, temperate and tropical). In our analysis, we found strong statistical trends in the relative abundance of several bacterial phyla in agricultural (e.g., Actinobacteria and Chloroflexi) and natural (Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria) systems across all regions and these trends correlated well with many soil properties. However, main effects of agriculture on soil properties and productivity were biome-dependent. Our meta-analysis provides evidence on the predictable nature of the microbial community responses to vegetation type. This knowledge can be exploited in future for developing a new set of indicators for primary productivity and soil

  1. STUDYING INVESTMENT PATTERNS IN RUSSIAN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bokusheva, R.; Bezlepkina, I.; Kypavykh, A.

    2007-01-01

    The study analyzes the investment behavior of Russian farms during the period of economic stabilization that followed the financial crisis of 1998. While the literature primarily uses accelerator and adjustment costs models to describe farms investment behavior in the context of transition countries, our study reveals that error-correction formulation of the investment equation is more suited to analyzing Russian farms investment patterns. In addition, by distinguishing between different cate...

  2. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    OpenAIRE

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S.; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P.; Baker, H

    2001-01-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health interve...

  3. Indigenous Agricultural Knowledge and Innovation: A Study of Agricultural Scientists in Odisha

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Dhal

    2013-01-01

    Study of indigenous knowledge has been a challenge, as it demands cross-cultural and inter-disciplinary understanding. Of late, contribution of IK to conservation of resources and solution science has been realised by academia and policy-makers, which is expanding the frontiers of knowledge use for innovation. Interface between science and indigenous knowledge system (IKS) is increasingly observed in the field of agriculture, simultaneously putting emphasis on knowledge transformation at inst...

  4. Women's occupational health working in small-scale agriculture in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naidoo, S.

    2011-01-01

    In developing economies women’s contributions are in agriculture. Trends indicate that women’s participation in small-scale agriculture is increasing. On the Makhatini Flats in northern KwaZulu-Natal intensive small-scale farming takes place with > 4 000 women involved. A cross-sectional study on th

  5. Occupational Health and Safety. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Gadd, Nick; Lucas, Michele

    This publication contains the three communication skills units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her written and spoken communication skills needed…

  6. Occupational Health and Safety. Numeracy. Level 1. Level 2. Level 3. Support Materials for Agricultural Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batman, Kangan; Tully, Chris

    This publication contains the three numeracy units of the three levels of Support Materials for Agricultural Training (SMAT) in the area of occupational health and safety: Level 1 (starting), 2 (continuing), and 3 (completing). The units are designed to help the learner improve his or her numeracy skills needed to deal with occupational safety and…

  7. Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Respiratory Health among Adolescent Agricultural Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine L. Callahan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a commonly used organophosphate insecticide (OP. In adults, exposure to OPs has been inconsistently associated with reduced lung function. OP exposure and lung function has not been assessed in adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess CPF exposure and lung function among Egyptian adolescents. We conducted a 10-month study of male adolescent pesticide applicators (n = 38 and non-applicators of similar age (n = 24. Urinary 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TPCy, a CPF-specific metabolite, was analyzed in specimens collected throughout the study. Spirometry was performed twice after pesticide application: day 146, when TCPy levels were elevated and day 269, when TCPy levels were near baseline. Applicators had higher levels of TCPy (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 33,217.6; standard deviation (SD = 49,179.3 than non-applicators (mean cumulative TCPy day 146 = 3290.8; SD = 3994.9. Compared with non-applicators, applicators had higher odds of reporting wheeze, odds ratio = 3.41 (95% CI: 0.70; 17.41. Cumulative urinary TCPy was inversely associated with spirometric measurements at day 146, but not at day 269. Although generally non-significant, results were consistent with an inverse association between exposure to CPF and lung function.

  8. Study on nitrogen load reduction efficiency of agricultural conservation management in a small agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Chen, Qiuwen; Zeng, Zhaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Different crops can generate different non-point source (NPS) loads because of their spatial topography heterogeneity and variable fertilization application rates. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen NPS load reduction efficiency by spatially adjusting crop plantings as an agricultural conservation management (ACM) measure in a typical small agricultural watershed in the black soil region in northeast China. The assessment was undertaken using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Results showed that lowland crops produce higher nitrogen NPS loads than those in highlands. It was also found that corn gave a comparatively larger NPS load than soybeans due to its larger fertilization demand. The ACM assessed was the conversion of lowland corn crops into soybean crops and highland soybean crops into corn crops. The verified SWAT model was used to evaluate the impact of the ACM action on nitrogen loads. The results revealed that the ACM could reduce NO3-N and total nitrogen loads by 9.5 and 10.7%, respectively, without changing the area of crops. Spatially optimized regulation of crop planting according to fertilizer demand and geological landscapes can effectively decrease NPS nitrogen exports from agricultural watersheds. PMID:24759530

  9. Discovering Information Use in Agricultural Economics: A Citation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2007-01-01

    This citation study investigated the research needs and activity of U.S. agricultural economists. Journals were the dominant format of cited sources. Books, government publications, and working papers formed the other important types of references, whereas electronic sources were sparsely used. Subject scatter in this interdisciplinary field was…

  10. Kazakhstan : Agricultural Insurance Feasibility Study, Volume 2. Annexes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture is a very important socioeconomic sector in Kazakhstan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan (GRK) introduced a national compulsory crop insurance scheme in 2005 in order to provide grain producers and other farmers with a minimum level of protection against catastrophic climatic events. The overall objective of the current study is to assist the GRK in improving the ex...

  11. Kazakhstan : Agricultural Insurance Feasibility Study, Volume 1. Main Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture is a very important socioeconomic sector in Kazakhstan. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan (GRK) introduced a national compulsory crop insurance scheme in 2005 in order to provide grain producers and other farmers with a minimum level of protection against catastrophic climatic events. The overall objective of the current study is to assist the GRK in improving the ex...

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals in leaf vegetables from agricultural soils and associated potential health risks in the Pearl River Delta, South China

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, C Y; Yu, H. Y.; Chen, J. J.; Li, F. B.; Zhang, H.H.; Liu, C. P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of heavy metal accumulation in leaf vegetables and associated potential health risks in agricultural areas of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. Total concentrations of mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and arsenic (As) were determined in 92 pairs of soil and leaf vegetable (flowering Chinese cabbage, lettuce, pakchoi, Chinese cabbage, loose-leaf lettuce, and Chinese leaf mustard) samples collected from seven agricultural areas (cit...

  13. Conservation of Agroecosystem through Utilization of Parasitoid Diversity: Lesson for Promoting Sustainable Agriculture and Ecosystem Health

    OpenAIRE

    DAMAYANTI BUCHORI; BANDUNG SAHARI; NURINDAH

    2008-01-01

    For many years, agricultural intensification and exploitation has resulted in biodiversity loss and threaten ecosystem functioning. Developing strategies to bridge human needs and ecosystem health for harmonization of ecosystem is a major concern for ecologist and agriculturist. The lack of information on species diversity of natural enemies and how to utilize them with integration of habitat management that can renovate ecological process was the main obstacle. Parasitoids, a group of natura...

  14. Small-scale irrigation dams, agricultural production, and health - theory and evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Ersado, Lire

    2005-01-01

    The author looks at the feasibility and potential of instituting small-scale irrigation dams to reduce Ethiopia s dependence on rainfed agriculture and the associated food insecurity. He develops a theoretical framework to assess the welfare implications of irrigation development programs and provides empirical evidence from microdam construction and reforestation projects in northern Ethiopia. The author pays particular attention to health-related costs of establishing small-scale irrigation...

  15. ePedigree Traceability System for the Agricultural Food Supply Chain to Ensure Consumer Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar Farooq

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability relies on the environmental, social and economical systems: the three pillars of sustainability. The social sustainability mostly advocates the people’s welfare, health, safety, and quality of life. In the agricultural food industry, the aspects of social sustainability, such as consumer health and safety have gained substantial attention due to the frequent cases of food-borne diseases. The food-borne diseases due to the food degradation, chemical contamination and adulteration of food products pose a serious threat to the consumer’s health, safety, and quality of life. To ensure the consumer’s health and safety, it is essential to develop an efficient system which can address these critical social issues in the food distribution networks. This research proposes an ePedigree (electronic pedigree traceability system based on the integration of RFID and sensor technology for real-time monitoring of the agricultural food to prevent the distribution of hazardous and adulterated food products. The different aspects regarding implementation of the proposed system in food chains are analyzed and a feasible integrated solution is proposed. The performance of the proposed system is evaluated and finally, a comprehensive analysis of the proposed ePedigree system’s impact on the social sustainability in terms of consumer health and safety is presented.

  16. System analysis and path choice for modem agricultural development: a case study of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhai Rongxin; Liu Yansui

    2009-01-01

    From the view of.system theory,modern agriculture in a region embodies elements conformitv,structure optimization,multi-functionality and sustainable development.This paper first expounds on the relationship among agricultural elements,structure,function and development theoretically,compartmentalizes agriculture types based on human-land elements matching,and depicts the development path of agricultural multi-functionality.It shows that the matching of human-land elements is a key to agricultural types,and the multi:functionality is an indication of agricultural development stages.At last,as a case study of Suzhou in easteru coastal area,the paper analyzes the evolvement situation and developing mechanism and some typical models of modern agriculture which suit to agriculture system evolvement.The results show that in Suzhou the agriculture productivity has improved greatly,And along with the agriculture structure optimizing,agriculture function has translated from "production " to "nonproduction and production ".With simulation of agricultural trend in Suzhou,it is found that Suzhou has a LP,dependence (labor productivity) on agricultural element,so Suzhou will has much more potential in land productivity.Based on the above analysis on agricultural system,some typical patterns on modern agriculture in Suzhou are brought up,such as export-oriented agriculture,enterprises-leading agriculture,science and technology parks agriculture,stereoscopic agriculture,and tourism and sightseeing agriculture.

  17. A Qualitative Study of the Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agricultural Households in Southeastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Komwa, Maction K.; Parker, Dawn C.; Kathryn H. Jacobsen

    2009-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic threatens economic, social, and environmental sustainability throughout sub-Saharan Africa. This paper reports on a qualitative study exploring interrelationships between HIV/AIDS, labor availability, agricultural productivity, household resources, food consumption, and health status in rural southeastern Uganda. Respondents reported an increase in widow-and-orphan-headed households; labor shortages due to illness and caretaking; degradation of household resources from h...

  18. Case Studies of Rural Development and Clean Agriculture in Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachika Hirokawa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study examines the kind of actors and resources that empower small-scale farmers to promote sustainable agriculture. It also analyzes the reasons given by farmers who changed their farming methods. In 2004, the Department of Agriculture launched a project for the Promoting Organic Farming and Marketing in Lao PDR (PROFIL. PROFIL tried to develop market opportunities for Lao’s organic products and supported the local organic farmers. I conducted field researches at Nonte village in Vientiane Capital twice in 2008. The researches indicated that “Clean Agriculture” is one of the new challenges for farmers. Thus, this research focuses on the observation of how local organic farmers adapt to a new method and cope with problems. Information as knowledge from community groups and external actors such as local institutions and experts might help villagers to have choices in terms of farming methods, which gave them positive choices in terms of health and an agricultural environment. Since the government has the recognition of comparative advantages of clean agriculture, farmers may have the opportunity to gain a large market of organic farm products if they can develop distribution channels. This study encourages the positive contributions of challenges of sustainable agriculture in Lao PDR.

  19. Study on Modern Agriculture Equipment and Technology Coordinating Innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weilong; WANG; Zulin; DA

    2013-01-01

    As the material foundation of agriculture modernization, the modernization level of agricultural equipment and technology is the significant signal of agricultural modernization, and the advancement of agricultural modernization is the important content of building a well-off society in an all-around way. Upgrading key technology research ability and promoting agricultural mechanization and industry development not only can shorten the gap between agricultural development level in China and that in developed countries, but also can advance the modernization process of China.

  20. Soil Management in Organic Agriculture: a Case Study of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Khattak, Asif Khan

    2008-01-01

    The research work in this thesis is based on the review of empirical studies on soil degradation and soil conservation in both organic and conventional agriculture conducted in Denmark and published in international/Danish journals and other sources. This provides a scientific support to the methodology in general and to the findings in particular. The findings are not based on assumptions or expectations but on proved scientific information. The methodology adopted for this...

  1. Agricultural Exports and the Environment: A Cross-National Study of Fertilizer and Pesticide Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Stefano; York, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The mass consumption of agrochemicals, including manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, by industrialized agricultural systems worldwide threatens human health and the health of ecosystems. The production of these agricultural inputs is a highly energy- and capital-intensive process, and their application contributes to a variety of direct and…

  2. An improvement of agricultural equipment manufacturing by using lean techniques : A case study of agricultural machinery company

    OpenAIRE

    Nattariya Pakdeepunya; Panitarn Peerapattana

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to study and improve the manufacturing process of agricultural equipment to reduce wastes by using the LEAN tools: a case study of agricultural machinery company. This study found that the main wastes were inefficiency of transportation and working process. The Systematic Layout Planning Pattern (SLP) had been applied. Moreover, the principles of ECRS, the change in input factors (a number of employees), together with simulation and the Analysis Hierarchy Pr...

  3. Theoretical Study of Agricultural High-tech Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian; XU; Xianming; WU

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the characteristics of the agricultural high-tech industries,and points out that the agricultural high-tech industries are intelligence-intensive and knowledge-intensive industries with the characteristics of high investment,high risk,high value-added, which focuses on constant innovation,having strong horizontal and vertical linkages with other enterprises and showing the trend of internationalization.The connotation of agricultural high-tech industrialization is analyzed as follows:Agricultural high-tech industrialization is the process of transformation of the agricultural high-tech achievements to the agricultural high-tech industries; essentially the marketization and commercialization of agricultural high technology; the manifestation of scale and level of agricultural high-tech industries; the manifestation of social impact,social status and social role of agricultural high-tech industries.The development strategies are put forward for agricultural high-tech industrialization:(1) Bringing the research of agricultural high technology into the orbit of the market economy; (2) Implementing the new mechanism to closely link agricultural high technology with modern rural enterprises; (3) Building the agricultural high-tech team with a larger size and high level; (4) Further improving the construction of the agricultural high-tech industrial development zone; (5) Solving the issues concerning agricultural intellectual property and patent; (6) Increasing policy guidance and support efforts for agricultural high-tech industries.

  4. Adapting Certified Safe Farm to North Carolina Agriculture: An Implementation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Julia F; LePrevost, Catherine E; Tutor-Marcom, Robin; Cope, W Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Certified Safe Farm (CSF) is a multimodal safety and health program developed and assessed through multiple controlled intervention studies in Iowa. Although developed with the intent to be broadly applicable to agriculture, CSF has not been widely implemented outside the midwestern United States. This article describes the CSF implementation process in North Carolina (NC), as piloted on a large-scale in three agriculturally diverse and productive counties of NC, and reports its effectiveness using the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Implementation involved (1) capacity building through safety and health training, (2) adaptation of components of Iowa's CSF model to NC agriculture, (3) marketing and recruitment, and (4) formative evaluation, including an online survey and focus group discussion. From 2009 to 2012, 113 farms participated in at least one component of the CSF intervention, representing a NC farm participation rate of 3.1% in the study area. A major adaptation of NC implementation was the utilization of NC Cooperative Extension as the local driver of implementation in contrast to local AgriSafe clinics in Iowa. The most innovative adaptation to CSF components was the development of a defined economic incentive in the form of a cost-share program. The RE-AIM framework was found to be useful and relevant to the field of agricultural health and safety translational research. This study provides effectiveness measures and implementation alternatives useful for those considering implementing CSF. It informs current efforts to move CSF from research to practice through the National Sustainable Model CSF Program initiative. PMID:27096550

  5. Studying health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    industrialized world, while still including local outbreaks of tuberculosis. Health research in Greenland is logistically difficult and costly, but offers opportunities not found elsewhere in the world. A long tradition of registration enhances the possibilities for research. A number of research institutions in...

  6. Building Capacity to Use Earth Observations in Decision Making for Climate, Health, Agriculture and Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, A. W.; Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    In order to fill the gaps existing in climate and public health, agriculture, natural disasters knowledge and practices, the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) has developed a Curriculum for Best Practices in Climate Information. This Curriculum builds on the experience of 10 years courses on 'Climate Information' and captures lessons and experiences from different tailored trainings that have been implemented in many countries in Africa, Asia and Latin America. In this presentation, we will provide examples of training activities we have developed to bring remote sensing products to monitor climatic and environmental information into decision processes that benefited users such as the World Health Organization, Ministries of Health, Ministries of Agriculture, Universities, Research Centers such as CIFOR and FIOCRUZ. The framework developed by IRI to provide capacity building is based on the IDEAS framework: Innovation (research) Around climate impacts, evaluation of interventions, and the value of climate information in reducing risks and maximizing opportunities Demonstration E.g. in-country GFCS projects in Tanzania and Malawi - or El Nino work in Ethiopia Education Academic and professional training efforts Advocacy This might focus on communication of variability and change? We are WHO collaborating center so are engaged through RBM/Global Malaria Programme Service ENACTS and Data library key to this. Country data better quality than NASA as incorporates all relevant station data and NASA products. This presentation will demonstrate how the IDEAS framework has been implemented and lessons learned.

  7. Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). 95th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI values exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04). PMID:20552725

  8. The rodent problem in Madagascar : agricultural pest and threat to human health

    OpenAIRE

    Duplantier, Jean-Marc; Rakotondravony, D.

    1999-01-01

    In Madagascar the rodent problem is linked to one species, the black rat (#Rattus rattus$). This chapter will describe its population dynamics in agro-ecosystems and its impact in agricultural crops, in stored grain, on human health and on the endemic rodent community. The black rat has spread absolutely everywhere : from sea level to more than 2,000 m - in houses, fields and also in the forests. It represents more than 95% of rodent catches in the fields and inside houses. Reproduction of ra...

  9. Agricultural productivity growth and technology progress in developing country agriculture: case study in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDZIO-BIKA Herve Lezin W.; WEI Long-bao

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to analyze the impact of some production variables (input) on agricultural productivity growth (output) in China from 1989~2002. We selected through random sampling Zhejiang Province for our disaggregate analysis with the use of Cobb-Douglas function. The estimation results showed that all key parameters are significant and are of the expected sign. Labor and that capital and land have positive impact on agricultural productivity growth.

  10. Study Guide in Health Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, George; Jablon, Bert

    Prepared to assist students at Empire State College in developing learning contracts for the study of the economics of health care delivery, this study guide discusses various aspects of the topic, suggests student projects, and provides an extensive bibliography. First, introductory material discusses the relationship of economics to health care…

  11. Study on Connotations and Development Strategies of Creative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liangshan; YANG; Hailing; HE

    2013-01-01

    Creative agriculture is a new agricultural type with originality as a key element, integrating agricultural production activities into creative activities such as culture and art, broadening functions of agriculture and improving added value of agricultural products. Creative agriculture is characterized by external economy, technology integration, art appreciation, high efficiency and value, and it is significant for promoting inheritance of traditional culture, optimal allocation and regeneration of resources, optimal distribution of elements, expansion of agricultural functions, construction of beautiful countryside, cultural construction of rural areas, transformation of agricultural and rural economic growth mode. With agricultural resources as the foundation, sightseeing and leisure agriculture as the breakthrough point, by means of science and technology, many regions in China have explored products of creative agriculture and presented several typical cases of creative agriculture. However, these projects are mostly restricted by problems such as poor development concept, lack of supportive policies, and ineffective industrial integration. Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we proposed path choice, supportive system and relevant policy suggestions for the development of creative agriculture.

  12. A Study of the Development of Agricultural Mechanization in Kunming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wangyun; NING; Yulan; KUANG; Yonghua; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Kunming City has entered the rapid development stage of urbanization. In the course of building the urban modern agriculture, the agricultural mechanization of Kunming City is being faced with excellent development opportunity. In this paper, the author scientifically analyzed current development situations of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City and explored existing problems in the course of development. On the basis of analysis, the author put forward recommendations, including increasing scientific research input for agricultural machinery, supporting agricultural machinery enterprises, promoting scientific and technical innovation, taking characteristic industries (such as flowers and vegetables) as pillar industry, speeding up development of modern facility agriculture, and upgrading primary processing of agricultural products. These will play significant role in the development of agricultural mechanization in Kunming City.

  13. Agricultural pest monitoring using fluorescence lidar techniques. Feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, L.; Guan, Z. G.; Zhou, H. J.; Lv, J.; Zhu, Z. R.; Cheng, J. A.; Chen, F. J.; Löfstedt, C.; Svanberg, S.; Somesfalean, G.

    2012-03-01

    The fluorescence of different types of planthopper ( Hemiptera) and moth ( Lepidoptera), which constitute important Chinese agricultural pests, was investigated both in situ in a laboratory setting and remotely using a fluorescence light detection and ranging (lidar) system operating at a range of about 50 m. The natural autofluorescence of different species, as well as the fluorescence from insects that had been dusted with fluorescent dye powder for identification were studied. Autofluorescence spectra of both moths and planthoppers show a maximum intensity peak around 450 nm. Bleaching upon long-time laser illumination was modest and did not affect the shape of the spectrum. A single dyed rice planthopper, a few mm in size, could be detected at 50 m distance by using the fluorescence lidar system. By employing various marking dyes, different types of agricultural pest could be determined. We suggest that lidar may be used in studies of migration and movement of pest insects, including studies of their behavior in the vicinity of pheromone traps and in pheromone-treated fields.

  14. Biofuels and North American agriculture--implications for the health and safety of North American producers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Paul D

    2008-01-01

    This decade has provided North American agricultural producers with opportunity to not only produce fiber and food, but also fuel and other industrial products. The drivers incenting this development could be sustained well into the future, therefore workforce safety and health implications are likely to persist for some time. Within production agriculture, the 'feedstock growth and harvest cycle' and 'transport' sectors possess the changing exposures experienced by workers. The Conference explored the following exposures: distiller's grains and bio-processing byproducts, spent catalyst, solvent brine, microbial agents, genetically modified organisms, discharge effluent, H2O dilutes, change in cropping patterns and resultant use of different seeding and harvest technologies, pests (whether target or non-target), and rural traffic resulting from concentrated movement of massive quantities of biomass and grain. Other issues of a more general public health nature such as watershed implications, other environmental impacts, emissions, uneven economic development potential, public safety issues associated with transport of both fuel and other industrial products, and rural emergency medical service need were explored. And, agronomic impacts were noted, including tillage change, potassium buildup in soil, nutrient depletion, sedimentation and erosion of tillable soil, and local esthetics. It was concluded that rural venues for formation and exploration of public policy need to be created. PMID:19064413

  15. Terraced agriculture protects soil from erosion: Case studies in Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabesiranana, Naivo; Rasolonirina, Martin; Fanantenansoa Solonjara, Asivelo; Nomenjanahary Ravoson, Heritiana; Mabit, Lionel

    2016-04-01

    - Soil degradation is a major concern in Madagascar but quantitative information is not widely available. Due to its impact on the sustainability of agricultural production, there is a clear need to acquire data on the extent and magnitude of soil erosion/sedimentation under various agricultural practices in order to promote effective conservation strategies. Caesium-137 and 210Pbex fallout radionuclides (FRNs) possess particular characteristics that make them effective soil tracers for erosion studies. After fallout, 137Cs and 210Pbex are rapidly adsorbed onto fine soil particles. But to date, combined use of these FRNs has never been used to document soil erosion in Madagascar. The study area is located 40 km east of Antananarivo, in Madagascar highlands. Two adjacent cultivated fields have been selected (i.e. a sloped field and a terraced field) as well as an undisturbed reference site in the vicinity of these agricultural fields. Soil samples were collected along downslope transects using motorized corer. The 137Cs and 210Pb gamma analysis were performed at the Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucléaires (INSTN-Madagascar) using a high resolution and low background N-type HPGe detector. Results showed that at the terraced field, 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories reached 145 Bq/m2 to 280 Bq/m2 and 2141 Bq/m2 to 4253 Bq/m2, respectively. At the sloped field, the 137Cs and 210Pbex inventories values ranged from 110 Bq/m2 to 280 Bq/m2 and from 2026 Bq/m2 to 4110 Bq/m2, respectively. The net soil erosion determined for the sloped field were 9.6 t/ha/y and 7.2 t/ha/y for 137Cs and 210Pbex methods, respectively. In contrast, at the terraced field, the net soil erosion rates reached only 3.4 t/ha/y and 3.8 t/ha/y, respectively. The preliminary results of this research highlighted that terraced agricultural practice provides an efficient solution to protect soil resources of the Malagasy highlands.

  16. Plant-microbe interactions promoting plant growth and health: perspectives for controlled use of microorganisms in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Gabriele

    2009-08-01

    Plant-associated microorganisms fulfill important functions for plant growth and health. Direct plant growth promotion by microbes is based on improved nutrient acquisition and hormonal stimulation. Diverse mechanisms are involved in the suppression of plant pathogens, which is often indirectly connected with plant growth. Whereas members of the bacterial genera Azospirillum and Rhizobium are well-studied examples for plant growth promotion, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Serratia, Stenotrophomonas, and Streptomyces and the fungal genera Ampelomyces, Coniothyrium, and Trichoderma are model organisms to demonstrate influence on plant health. Based on these beneficial plant-microbe interactions, it is possible to develop microbial inoculants for use in agricultural biotechnology. Dependent on their mode of action and effects, these products can be used as biofertilizers, plant strengtheners, phytostimulators, and biopesticides. There is a strong growing market for microbial inoculants worldwide with an annual growth rate of approximately 10%. The use of genomic technologies leads to products with more predictable and consistent effects. The future success of the biological control industry will benefit from interdisciplinary research, e.g., on mass production, formulation, interactions, and signaling with the environment, as well as on innovative business management, product marketing, and education. Altogether, the use of microorganisms and the exploitation of beneficial plant-microbe interactions offer promising and environmentally friendly strategies for conventional and organic agriculture worldwide. PMID:19568745

  17. Prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms among agricultural workers in the United States: an analysis of the National Health Interview Survey, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Jeong; Tak, Sangwoo; Alterman, Toni; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomic risks from agricultural tasks can compromise musculoskeletal health of workers. This study estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in a sample representing almost 2 million US agricultural industry workers. This study used National Health Interview Survey data from 2004 to 2008. Weighted prevalence was calculated by demographic and employment factors. Prevalence ratios were calculated using generalized linear models with the Poisson distribution assumption. Prevalence rates of low back and neck pain in the previous 3 months were 24.3% and 10.5%, respectively, among agricultural workers. Monthly prevalence of joint pain was 17.0% for hips/knees, 9.8% for shoulders, 9.5% for wrists/hands, 5.4% for elbows, and 4.7% for ankles/toes. Agricultural workers had a significantly higher prevalence of shoulder pain than all other industry workers (prevalence ratios [PR] = 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02-1.61). This study provides detailed national estimates of musculoskeletal symptom prevalence to understand the burden and the need for intervention among agricultural workers. PMID:24959759

  18. Acute human lethal toxicity of agricultural pesticides: a prospective cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Andrew H; Michael Eddleston; Lalith Senarathna; Fahim Mohamed; Indika Gawarammana; Bowe, Steven J.; Gamini Manuweera; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000-370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aim...

  19. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides:A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dawson, Andrew H; Eddleston, Michael; Senarathna, Lalith; Mohamed, Fahim; Gawarammana, Indika; Bowe, Steven J.; Manuweera, Gamini; Buckley, Nicholas A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Agricultural pesticide poisoning is a major public health problem in the developing world, killing at least 250,000-370,000 people each year. Targeted pesticide restrictions in Sri Lanka over the last 20 years have reduced pesticide deaths by 50% without decreasing agricultural output. However, regulatory decisions have thus far not been based on the human toxicity of formulated agricultural pesticides but on the surrogate of rat toxicity using pure unformulated pesticides. We aim...

  20. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting ...

  1. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Smart

    Full Text Available We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments.

  2. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  3. Linking Measures of Colony and Individual Honey Bee Health to Survival among Apiaries Exposed to Varying Agricultural Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Matthew; Pettis, Jeff; Rice, Nathan; Browning, Zac; Spivak, Marla

    2016-01-01

    We previously characterized and quantified the influence of land use on survival and productivity of colonies positioned in six apiaries and found that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more land in uncultivated forage experienced greater annual survival, and generally more honey production. Here, detailed metrics of honey bee health were assessed over three years in colonies positioned in the same six apiaries. The colonies were located in North Dakota during the summer months and were transported to California for almond pollination every winter. Our aim was to identify relationships among measures of colony and individual bee health that impacted and predicted overwintering survival of colonies. We tested the hypothesis that colonies in apiaries surrounded by more favorable land use conditions would experience improved health. We modeled colony and individual bee health indices at a critical time point (autumn, prior to overwintering) and related them to eventual spring survival for California almond pollination. Colony measures that predicted overwintering apiary survival included the amount of pollen collected, brood production, and Varroa destructor mite levels. At the individual bee level, expression of vitellogenin, defensin1, and lysozyme2 were important markers of overwinter survival. This study is a novel first step toward identifying pertinent physiological responses in honey bees that result from their positioning near varying landscape features in intensive agricultural environments. PMID:27027871

  4. Hazard-Ranking of Agricultural Pesticides for Chronic Health Effects in Yuma County, Arizona

    OpenAIRE

    Anastasia J. Sugeng; Beamer, Paloma I.; Eric A. Lutz; Rosales, Cecilia B.

    2013-01-01

    With thousands of pesticides registered by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, it not feasible to sample for all pesticides applied in agricultural communities. Hazard-ranking pesticides based on use, toxicity, and exposure potential can help prioritize community-specific pesticide hazards. This study applied hazard-ranking schemes for cancer, endocrine disruption, and reproductive/developmental toxicity in Yuma County, Arizona. An existing cancer hazard-ranking scheme was modi...

  5. Role of Women in Agriculture: A Micro Level Study

    OpenAIRE

    E. Krishna Rao

    2006-01-01

    India has a predominantly agrarian economy. 70% of her population is rural; of those households, 60% engage in agriculture as their main source of income. It has always been India's most important economic sector. In this important agricultural sector woman plays a vital role, because it is largely a household enterprise. Women in India are major producers of food in terms of value, volume and number of hours worked. Nearly 63 percent of all economically active men are engaged in agriculture ...

  6. Implication of Micronutrients in Agriculture and Health with Special Reference to Iron and Zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Govindaraj,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The green revolution fulfilled the food demand of crowdedmillions. From the time of green revolution to till date highyielding and fertilizer responsive varieties have evolved toincrease the production per unit area. To improve the productivityonly major nutrients are concentrated almost in all crops. Thoughthe importance of micronutrient realized during past decades inmost of the crops but it is not effectively materialized in generalcrop cultivation practices. The micronutrient deficiencies in soilare not only hamper crop productivity but also deteriorating theproduce quality. World health organization (WHO has estimatedthat over 3 billion people in the globe suffer from the micronutrientmalnutrition and about 2 billion people of these have irondeficiency. Iron is one of the 16 essential elements needed forplant growth. Iron is used for the synthesis of chlorophyll and isessential for the function of chloroplasts. Zinc is involved inmembrane integrity, enzyme activation, and gene expression.Rice, sorghum and corn are Zn sensitive and sorghum, sugarcane,groundnut, soyabean, beans, grapes, vegetables and citrus arehighly Fe sensitive crops. To overcome these problems foliarspray is being recommended but it is not crop specific or soilspecific recommendation. Keeping these problems in the view,recently development of micronutrient efficient genotypes,creating awareness of micronutrient dose, crop specific micronutrient uptake and accumulation are vital to improve productivity and to address human health problems. In this paperwe discussed the importance of iron and zinc in agriculture andtheir role in crop plants and ways to improve the crop productivityas well as human health

  7. Climate, Health, Agricultural and Economic Impacts of Tighter Vehicle-Emission Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew; Faluvegi, Greg; Walsh, Michael; Anenberg, Susan C.; VanDingen, Rita; Muller, Nicholas Z.; Austin, Jeff; Koch, Dorothy; Milly, George

    2011-01-01

    Non-CO2 air pollutants from motor vehicles have traditionally been controlled to protect air quality and health, but also affect climate. We use global composition climate modelling to examine the integrated impacts of adopting stringent European on-road vehicle-emission standards for these pollutants in 2015 in many developing countries. Relative to no extra controls, the tight standards lead to annual benefits in 2030 and beyond of 120,000-280,000 avoided premature air pollution-related deaths, 6.1-19.7 million metric tons of avoided ozone-related yield losses of major food crops, $US0.6-2.4 trillion avoided health damage and $US1.1-4.3 billion avoided agricultural damage, and mitigation of 0.20 (+0.14/-0.17) C of Northern Hemisphere extratropical warming during 2040-2070. Tighter vehicle-emission standards are thus extremely likely to mitigate short-term climate change in most cases, in addition to providing large improvements in human health and food security. These standards will not reduce CO2 emissions, however, which is required to mitigate long-term climate change.

  8. Base line study on demographic and health pattern around uranium mining area at Tummalapalle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim of the study is to document baseline data on the socio-economic, demographic and health status of the study area with specific objective to generate household information on infrastructure, housing, agriculture, drinking water and sanitation facilities

  9. Pesticide Health and Safety Challenges Facing Informal Sector Workers: A Case of Small-scale Agricultural Workers in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngowi, Aiwerasia; Mrema, Ezra; Kishinhi, Stephen

    2016-08-01

    The Tanzania informal sector is growing fast, with precarious working conditions and particular hazards for women and children in agriculture. Hazardous agricultural chemicals including pesticides are mostly imported and have been used for many years. Despite the role played by pesticides in food security and vector control, these chemicals are responsible for acute and chronic illnesses among communities. The availability of obsolete persistent organic pesticides on the open market indicates existence of an inadequate regulatory system. People who get injured or ill in the agriculture sector in Tanzania receive health services in primary health care facilities where professionals have little or no knowledge of pesticides. We are presenting the pesticide health and safety challenges faced by small-scale farmers who fall in the informal sector. Achievements that have been made by the government and other players to reduce and prevent pesticide exposures and poisoning are also outlined. PMID:27406110

  10. Spillover impacts of agricultural research: a review of studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.K. Deb

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The spillover impacts of agricultural research are very important for research policy formulation. This paper reviews the existing literature on the policy effects of research and summarizes the methodologies used for quantifying the spillover impacts. Three types of spillover effects have been identified on the basis of the existing literature: across-location spillover, across-commodity spillover, and price spillover effects. The former two are direct effects, and the latter indirect. Across-location or across-environment spillover effects relate to a situation in which a technology developed for one crop at a specific location can be adopted to improve the production efficiency of the same crop at other locations. Across-commodity spillover effects occur when the technology developed has applicability for other commodities. Price spillover effects occur when the technological change for a particular commodity at a specific location increases supply and changes the price of the commodity at other locations through trade. Two types of measurement techniques, subjective and objective, have been used to assess spillover effects in agriculture. Subjective estimates are based on value judgements rather than experimental or on-farm yield and cost data, and are often arrived at through elicitation from experts. Objective estimates on the other hand are based on hard data and evidence reflecting the extent of applicability of a new technology across environments or commodities beyond the designed research target. Both subjective and objective estimates are used in the empirical quantification of across-location spillover impacts. However, only a theoretical model (no empirical quantification is available for the estimation of across-commodity spillover. Price spillover effects are estimated in conjunction with the across-environment technology spillover. Studies have quantified across-location impacts using economic surplus models, subjectively and

  11. Climate change and its effect on agriculture, water resources and human health sectors in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Szwed

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Multi-model ensemble climate projections in the ENSEMBLES Project of the EU allowed the authors to quantify selected extreme-weather indices for Poland, of importance to climate impacts on systems and sectors. Among indices were: number of days in a year with high value of the heat index; with high maximum and minimum temperatures; length of vegetation period; and number of consecutive dry days. Agricultural, hydrological, and human health indices were applied to evaluate the changing risk of weather extremes in Poland in three sectors. To achieve this, model-based simulations were compared for two time horizons, a century apart, i.e., 1961–1990 and 2061–2090. Climate changes, and in particular increases in temperature and changes in rainfall, have strong impacts on agriculture via weather extremes – droughts and heat waves. The crop yield depends particularly on water availability in the plant development phase. To estimate the changes in present and future yield of two crops important for Polish agriculture i.e., potatoes and wheat, some simple empirical models were used. For these crops, decrease of yield is projected for most of the country, with national means of yield change being: –2.175 t/ha for potatoes and –0.539 t/ha for wheat. Already now, in most of Poland, evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during summer, hence the water storage (in surface water bodies, soil and ground decreases. Summer precipitation deficit is projected to increase considerably in the future. The additional water supplies (above precipitation needed to use the agro-potential of the environment would increase by half. Analysis of water balance components (now and in the projected future can corroborate such conclusions. As regards climate and health, a composite index, proposed in this paper, is a product of the number of senior discomfort days and the number of seniors (aged 65+. The value of this index is projected to increase over 8-fold during

  12. Preliminary Study on the Standard of Selenium Content in Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-yuan; YOU Yong; GUO Qing-quan; WANG Yong-hong; DENG Shi-lin

    2012-01-01

    With the improvement of living standards, people pay more attention to the agricultural products with health protection function, and the selenium-rich agricultural products attract more and more consumers. The main biological role of selenium is to resist oxidation and inflammatory response, mainly focusing on resisting aging, preventing cardiovascular disease, protecting eyesight, counteracting or destroying the toxic properties, preventing cancer and thyroid disease. In most areas of China, there is a widespread shortage of selenium, thus producing selenium-rich agricultural products to provide natural selenium-rich health food to the areas in need of selenium, has gradually become a new hot spot of China’s health food industry, but high content of selenium in food is detrimental to human body, even leads to selenium intoxication, and artificially adding inorganic selenium is difficult to guarantee that the selenium content of agricultural products is not exceeded. According to human body’s daily demand for selenium in dietetics and the content of selenium in agricultural products in the Chinese food composition table, we put forward the recommendations on the standard of selenium in agricultural products, in order to provide the basis for China to formulate the health standard of selenium content in selenium-rich agricultural products.

  13. Study of Agricultural Market in India with Illustration of Business Opportunity

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Mr. Tushar; Joshi, Saurabh Arvind; Bhatia, Dipti Kiran; Rajendran, Santosh

    2010-01-01

    The role of agriculture in India has been not just to produce food but to sustain and contribute towards overall socio-economic development in rural societies. Overregulation of agriculture along with lack of infrastructural facilities and small fragmented unproductive landholdings has increased costs, price risks and uncertainty. The agricultural system has traditionally been unfair to farmers as well as the end consumers. This study will analyze the agricultural marketing system in India...

  14. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  15. Urban Agriculture Practices and Health Problems among Farmers Operating on a University Campus in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nana O.B. Ackerson

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture, a world-wide practice, faces both environmental and health challenges. Farmers are susceptible to occupational and other water-related health risks. The research identified health problems related to urban agricultural farming through farmers’ social characteristics and agricultural practices. Thorough interviews, using structured questionnaires, were carried out. Sixty three farmers responded to questions ranging from agricultural practices to health problems encountered. The findings showed that farmers apply both organic and inorganic fertilisers while 97% used pesticides of varying active ingredients at different application rates. Only 10% used personal protective clothing during the application of pesticides. Overhead irrigation was carried out using a watering can. Eighty four percent and 13% of the respondents utilised water from shallow wells and shallow wells mixed with contaminated stream, respectively. Besides schistosomiasis and cholera, other bacterial diseases, nematode infections, malaria, headaches, dermatological, visual, cardiac, and respiratory problems were common health complaints. Headache complaints were the most common (75%.L’agriculture urbaine, une pratique qui a cours dans le monde entier, est confrontée à des défis d’ordre environnemental et sanitaire. Les agriculteurs sont exposés à divers risques professionnels, et notamment à ceux que l'eau peut poser pour leur santé. Cette étude a identifié les problèmes de santé liés à l’agriculture urbaine en fonction des caractéristiques sociales et des pratiques des agriculteurs. Des entretiens approfondis ont été conduits en suivant des questionnaires structurés. Soixante-trois fermiers ont répondu aux questions, qui abordaient leurs pratiques agricoles ainsi que leurs problèmes de santé. Les résultats montrent que les fermiers emploient aussi bien des engrais organiques que non organiques, et que 97 % utilisent des pesticides

  16. Study for Agricultural Engineering Development in Brazil. Summary Report of Joint Study Group on Agricultural Engineering in Brazil (July 24-August 12, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The joint study group was established to identify the most urgent research and training needs in agricultural engineering in Brazil and to recommend how best to meet those needs. Specific recommendations are given for a long-term program to establish quality programs in education and research in agricultural engineering in Brazil and means to gain…

  17. A Case Study of Construction of Special Database on Urban Agriculture in Library of Beijing University of Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qianning; LIU

    2013-01-01

    With the development of urban agriculture and digital library, the theoretical research and exploitation of special database on urban agriculture has become an inevitable trend. On the basis of analyzing the advantages of the special database on urban agriculture constructed by the library of Beijing University of Agriculture, the author has analyzed the status and the problems of the special database on urban agriculture developed by Beijing University of Agriculture and proposed the development path of special database on urban agriculture.

  18. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers: A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress and DNA damage have been proposed as mechanisms linking pesticide exposure to health effects such as cancer and neurological diseases. A study of pesticide applicators and farmworkers was conducted to examine the relationship between organophosphate pesticide exposure and biomarkers of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urine samples were analyzed for OP metabolites and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG). Lymphocytes were analyzed for oxidative DNA repair activity and DNA damage (Comet assay), and serum was analyzed for lipid peroxides (i.e., malondialdehyde, MDA). Cellular damage in agricultural workers was validated using lymphocyte cell cultures. Urinary OP metabolites were significantly higher in farmworkers and applicators (p < 0.001) when compared to controls. 8-OH-dG levels were 8.5 times and 2.3 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. Serum MDA levels were 4.9 times and 24 times higher in farmworkers or applicators (respectively) than in controls. DNA damage (Comet assay) and oxidative DNA repair were significantly greater in lymphocytes from applicators and farmworkers when compared with controls. Markers of oxidative stress (i.e., increased reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione levels) and DNA damage were also observed in lymphocyte cell cultures treated with an OP. The findings from these in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that organophosphate pesticides induce oxidative stress and DNA damage in agricultural workers. These biomarkers may be useful for increasing our understanding of the link between pesticides and a number of health effects

  19. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-06-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners' meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  20. Planning an integrated agriculture and health program and designing its evaluation: Experience from Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Donald C.; Levin, Carol; Loechl, Cornelia; Thiele, Graham; Grant, Frederick; Girard, Aimee Webb; Sindi, Kirimi; Low, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Multi-sectoral programs that involve stakeholders in agriculture, nutrition and health care are essential for responding to nutrition problems such as vitamin A deficiency among pregnant and lactating women and their infants in many poor areas of lower income countries. Yet planning such multi-sectoral programs and designing appropriate evaluations, to respond to different disciplinary cultures of evidence, remain a challenge. We describe the context, program development process, and evaluation design of the Mama SASHA project (Sweetpotato Action for Security and Health in Africa) which promoted production and consumption of a bio-fortified, orange-fleshed sweetpotato (OFSP). In planning the program we drew upon information from needs assessments, stakeholder consultations, and a first round of the implementation evaluation of a pilot project. The multi-disciplinary team worked with partner organizations to develop a program theory of change and an impact pathway which identified aspects of the program that would be monitored and established evaluation methods. Responding to the growing demand for greater rigour in impact evaluations, we carried out quasi-experimental allocation by health facility catchment area, repeat village surveys for assessment of change in intervention and control areas, and longitudinal tracking of individual mother-child pairs. Mid-course corrections in program implementation were informed by program monitoring, regular feedback from implementers and partners’ meetings. To assess economic efficiency and provide evidence for scaling we collected data on resources used and project expenses. Managing the multi-sectoral program and the mixed methods evaluation involved bargaining and trade-offs that were deemed essential to respond to the array of stakeholders, program funders and disciplines involved. PMID:27003730

  1. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    OpenAIRE

    Sebastián Senesi; Fabio Ribas Chaddad; Hernán Palau

    2013-01-01

    Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS) and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultu...

  2. Networks in Argentine agriculture: a multiple-case study approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Senesi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Argentina is among the four largest producers of soybeans, sunflower, corn, and wheat, among other agricultural products. Institutional and policy changes during the 1990s fostered the development of Argentine agriculture and the introduction of innovative process and product technologies (no-till, agrochemicals, GMO, GPS and new investments in modern, large-scale sunflower and soybean processing plants. In addition to technological changes, a "quiet revolution" occurred in the way agricultural production was carried out and organized: from self-production or ownership agriculture to a contract-based agriculture. The objective of this paper is to explore and describe the emergence of networks in the Argentine crop production sector. The paper presents and describes four cases that currently represent about 50% of total grain and oilseed production in Argentina: "informal hybrid form", "agricultural trust fund", "investor-oriented corporate structure", and "network of networks". In all cases, hybrid forms involve a group of actors linked by common objectives, mainly to gain scale, share resources, and improve the profitability of the business. Informal contracts seem to be the most common way of organizing the agriculture process, but using short-term contracts and sequential interfirm collaboration. Networks of networks involve long-term relationships and social development, and reciprocal interfirm collaboration. Agricultural trust fund and investor-oriented corporate structures have combined interfirm collaboration and medium-term relationships. These organizational forms are highly flexible and show a great capacity to adapt to challenges; they are competitive because they enjoy aligned incentives, flexibility, and adaptability.

  3. Agricultural Climate Change and Wetland Agriculture Study under the Climate Change in the Sanjiang Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Minhua; LIU Xingtu; LI Xiujun

    2009-01-01

    With linear curvefitting, Mann-kendall method and Yamamoto method, ≥10 ℃accumulated temperature and precipitation from May to September of 6 meteorological stations (Baoqing, fujin, Jiamusi, Hegang, Jixi and Hulin) from 1978 to 2007 were used to explore 30-year agricultural climate change and trend in the Sanjiang Plain. The results showed that ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature of the 6 stations have risen by 141.0 ℃ to 287.4 ℃ when estimated by their significant linear trends (n=30, α=0.05) over the last 30 years (1978 to 2007). The rates of warming for the last 30 years range from 4.70 ℃per year to 9.58 ℃ per year. There are not significant linear trends on precipitation from May to September of the 6 stations over the last 30 years. The period of 1978 to 1998 in which ≥10 ℃ accumulated temperature is lower is consistent with that in which there is more precipitation from May to September, and warming and drying period has occurred in the Sanjiang Plain since 1999. Under the background of warming and drying agricultural climate, high yield cultivation of Phragmites australis and establishment of Phragmites australis-fish (crab) symbiosis ecosystem in natural mire are the ways for reasonable use of natural wetland. The area of paddy fields has been increasing from 7.25×104 ha in 1978 to 121.2×104 ha in 2006. It is proposed that paddy field range should not be expanded blindly toward the north in the Sanjiang Plain, and chilling injury forecast and prevention should be pay attention to. In the area that the chilling injury happens frequently, the rotation between rice and other crops should be implemented. Measures, which combine drainage, store and irrigation, should be taken instead of single drainage on comprehensive control of regional low and wet croplands to ensure controlling drought and flood.

  4. Proceedings of the DAE-BRNS life sciences symposium on advances in microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enormous quantities of food and agricultural produce are spoiled by microbial activity, which is a major challenge to food security today. Besides, contamination of foods by pathogens or their toxins pose serious problems affecting food safety worldwide. Development of cost effective, reliable, and user friendly methods for detection and identification of microbial pathogens has always remained a challenge in microbiology. Microbial research has also aided development of probiotics, prebiotics and nutraceuticals, which are important for health. The objective of the symposium was to address and dwell upon the recent advances in some of the mentioned research areas pertaining to microbiology of food, agriculture, health and environment. The major themes of the symposium were: Adaptation to Stresses, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Sustainable Agriculture, Food Safety, Food Security and Nutrition, Environmental Microbiology etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. A Case Study of Construction of Special Database on Urban Agriculture in Library of Beijing University of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qianning

    2013-01-01

    With the development of urban agriculture and digital library, the theoretical research and exploitation of special database on urban agriculture has become an inevitable trend. On the basis of analyzing the advantages of the special database on urban agriculture constructed by the library of Beijing University of Agriculture, the author has analyzed the status and the problems of the special database on urban agriculture developed by Beijing University of Agriculture and proposed the develop...

  6. Pellet production from agricultural raw materials - A systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Bernesson, Sven; Hansson, Per-Anders [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. Box 7032, SE-75007 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The demand for biofuel pellets has increased considerably in recent years, causing shortage of the traditional raw materials sawdust and wood shavings. In this study, the costs and energy requirements for the production of pellets from agricultural raw materials were analysed. The materials studied were Salix, reed canary grass, hemp, straw, screenings, rape-seed meal, rape cake and distiller's waste. Four production scales were analysed, having an annual output of 80,000, 8000, 800 and 80 tonnes of pellets per year. It was concluded that the raw materials of greatest interest were Salix and reed canary grass. They had competitive raw material costs and acceptable fuel properties and could be mixed with sawdust in existing large-scale pelleting factories. Straw had low production costs but can cause serious ash-related problems and should, as also is the case for screenings, be avoided in small-scale burners. Hemp had high raw material costs and is of less commercial interest, while distiller's waste, rape-seed meal and rape cake had higher alternative values when used as protein feed. The scale of production had a crucial influence on production costs. The machinery was used much more efficiently in large-scale plants, resulting in clear cost savings. Small-scale pelleting, both static and mobile, required cheap raw materials, low labour costs and long utilisation times to be profitable. In most cases, briquetting would be more commercially viable. The energy use in manufacturing pellets from air-dried crops was generally no higher than when moist sawdust was used as the raw material. (author)

  7. An agriculture and health inter-sectorial research process to reduce hazardous pesticide health impacts among smallholder farmers in the Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chacon Aura

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of highly hazardous pesticides by smallholder farmers constitutes a classic trans-sectoral ‘wicked problem’. We share our program of research in potato and vegetable farming communities in the Andean highlands, working with partners from multiple sectors to confront this problem over several projects. Methods We engaged in iterative cycles of mixed methods research around particular questions, actions relevant to stakeholders, new proposal formulation and implementation followed by evaluation of impacts. Capacity building occurred among farmers, technical personnel, and students from multiple disciplines. Involvement of research users occurred throughout: women and men farmers, non-governmental development organizations, Ministries of Health and Agriculture, and, in Ecuador, the National Council on Social Participation. Results Pesticide poisonings were more widespread than existing passive surveillance systems would suggest. More diversified, moderately developed agricultural systems had lower pesticide use and better child nutrition. Greater understanding among women of crop management options and more equal household gender relations were associated with reduced farm pesticide use and household pesticide exposure. Involvement in more organic agriculture was associated with greater household food security and food sovereignty. Markets for safer produce supported efforts by smallholder farmers to reduce hazardous pesticide use. Participatory interventions included: promoting greater access to alternative methods and inputs in a store co-sponsored by the municipality; producing less harmful inputs such as compost by women farmers; strengthening farmer organizations around healthier and more sustainable agriculture; marketing safer produce among social sectors; empowering farmers to act as social monitors; and using social monitoring results to inform decision makers. Uptake by policy makers has included: the

  8. Internationalization and Diversification Strategies of Agricultural Cooperatives: a Quantitative Study of the Agricultural Cooperatives in the State of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Monica Ritossa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of internationalization on the results achieved by agricultural cooperatives in the State of Parana, at the same time examining strategies for diversification of markets as well as diversification of products aimed exclusively at international markets. Of the 28 cooperatives to be included in the study, 67.9% returned valid structured questionnaires. The collected data was submitted to non-parametric statistical analysis. Key findings suggest the following: external markets are served by indirect and direct exports; product diversification strategies are motivated by the creation of revenue alternatives to members and by the reduction of risks associated to agricultural business; diversification strategies are conceived to develop new business in accordance with market demand and to expand customized products from the existing portfolio; the formation of strategic alliances prioritizes access to distribution channels abroad; internationalization and diversification strategies produce positive results both from an economic and a social perspective.

  9. Improving health and safety conditions in agriculture through professional training of Florida farm labor supervisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morera, Maria C; Monaghan, Paul F; Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Galindo-Gonzalez, Sebastian; Roka, Fritz M; Asuaje, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Because farm labor supervisors (FLSs) are responsible for ensuring safe work environments for thousands of workers, providing them with adequate knowledge is critical to preserving worker health. Yet a challenge to offering professional training to FLSs, many of whom are foreign-born and have received different levels of education in the US and abroad, is implementing a program that not only results in knowledge gains but meets the expectations of a diverse audience. By offering bilingual instruction on safety and compliance, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) FLS Training program is helping to improve workplace conditions and professionalize the industry. A recent evaluation of the program combined participant observation and surveys to elicit knowledge and satisfaction levels from attendees of its fall 2012 trainings. Frequency distributions and dependent- and independent-means t-tests were used to measure and compare participant outcomes. The evaluation found that attendees rated the quality of their training experience as either high or very high and scored significantly better in posttraining knowledge tests than in pretraining knowledge tests across both languages. Nonetheless, attendees of the trainings delivered in English had significantly higher posttest scores than attendees of the trainings delivered in Spanish. As a result, the program has incorporated greater standardization of content delivery and staff development. Through assessment of its program components and educational outcomes, the program has documented its effectiveness and offers a replicable approach that can serve to improve the targeted outcomes of safety and health promotion in other states. PMID:24911687

  10. Agroecological urban agriculture - strategy for health promotion and food and nutrition security - doi: 10.5020/18061230.2012.p381

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Maria Ribeiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To raise considerations about the agroecological urban agriculture, in articulation with movements for promotion of health and food and nutrition security, with participation of local communities. Data synthesis: Documental research carried out through the reading and analysis of report, field activities’ records, participants’ testimonies and interview performed with the project coordinator. The contribution of agroecological urban agriculture was perceivable in regard to the community protagonism, popular participation, and the rising of feeding and environmental awareness among social actors. Conclusion: Relevant aspects in consonance with the principles and fields of action of Health Promotion were identified, especially the strengthening of intersetorial actions, the local community empowerment, individual and collective protagonism, creation of health-friendly environments and community mobilization.

  11. Ninth annual conference of Indian Nuclear Society on public perception on benefits of nuclear energy in health care, industry and agriculture: conference brochure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains a few papers dealing with the applications and the resulting benefits of nuclear energy in health care, industry and agriculture. Nuclear techniques in crime detection, neutron activation analysis, dosimetry, personnel monitoring, radiation protection, applications of nuclear energy in health care, industry and agriculture etc. are some of the main topics dealt with. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  12. Bogor Agricultural University Agribusiness and Agroindustry Incubator : Indonesia Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The incubator for agribusiness and agroindustry at Bogor agricultural university, Indonesia (IAA-IPB) assists during three stages in the incubation process: early incubation (mentoring creative ideas, assisting in evaluation of market prospects, defining, and outsourcing technology needs);incubation (helping production begin); and post-graduation (consulting on business plan revision and f...

  13. Pollution of agricultural crops with lanthanides, thorium and uranium studied

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kučera, Jan; Mizera, Jiří; Řanda, Zdeněk; Vávrová, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 271, č. 3 (2007), s. 581-587. ISSN 0236-5731 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : thorium, uranium * agricultural crops * neutron activation analysis Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.499, year: 2007

  14. Can agricultural Cultivation Methods Influence the Healthfulness of Crops for Foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melballe Jensen, Maja; Jørgensen, Henry; Halekoh, Ulrich;

    2012-01-01

    . Additionally, the nutritional quality was affected by harvest year and location. However, harvest year and location rather than cultivation system affected the measured health biomarkers. In conclusion, the differences in dietary treatments composed of ingredients from different cultivation systems did not......The aim of the current study was to investigate if there are any health effects of long-term consumption of organically grown crops using a rat model. Crops were retrieved over two years from a long-term field trial at three different locations in Denmark, using three different cultivation systems...... lead to significant differences in the measured health biomarkers, except for a significant difference in plasma IgG levels....

  15. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A principal objective of this program is to determine if there are demonstrable effects of radiation exposure to the Hanford worker by analyzing mortality records of this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly i an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses and initiated new areas of analysis. Complete documentation was provided for our computer program for the mortality study, and a user's manual is under development. A case-control study of birth defects was started in FY 1982

  16. A Socio-Economic Study on Adoption of Modern Agricultural Technologies in Bihar, India

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.; Kumar, Abhay

    2013-01-01

    Technology adoption has been the main obstacle in realizing agricultural potential in the country in general and Bihar in particular. The present study focuses on level of adoption, access of farmers to farm technology, quality of modern technology, access to agricultural extension institutions and problems faced by extension officials in transfer of farm technology. It has been observed that the coverage of agricultural development programmes is limited to few villages, however, line departm...

  17. A guide to studying the socio-ecological transition in european agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    González de Molina, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the potential of the Social Metabolism approach to study the industrialization of the agriculture. It provides information about the physical functioning of agrarian systems over time and their spatial differences. It also sheds light on how the industrialisation of agriculture occurred; in other words, how the Socio-Ecological Transition (SET) took place in agriculture. The paper begins defining the characteristic features of the Organic Agrarian Metabolism (OAM), the starti...

  18. Impact of Institutional Credit on Agricultural Output: A Case Study of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaz AHMAD

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the role of credit to agricultural sector in Pakistan. It begins with an analysis of credit as indirect input to agricultural sector. It helps the farmers to buy modern and expensive inputs such as tractor, tubewel, seeds, fertilizers etc. The study covers the period from 1974 to 2008. The empirical findings show that there is a significant role of credit in agriculture sector.

  19. Sustainability of irrigated agriculture under salinity pressure – A study in semiarid Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Bouksila, Fethi

    2011-01-01

    In semiarid and arid Tunisia, water quality and agricultural practices are the major contributing factors to the degradation of soil resources threatening the sustainability of irrigation systems and agricultural productivity. Nowadays, about 50% of the total irrigated areas in Tunisia are considered at high risk for salinization. The aim of this thesis was to study soil management and salinity relationships in order to assure sustainable irrigated agriculture in areas under salin...

  20. Routines in precision agriculture technology: an action research study

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Rubio, Irene; Herrero Romero, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    A crop management and precision agriculture software application facilitates the flow of information between disparate software/equipment and the network of individuals that work with them. A new generation of farmers are using precision technology to help them more efficiently manage their roplands. By measuring precisely the way their fields reflect and emit energy at visible and infrared wavelengths, precision farmers can monitor a wide rang...

  1. [DHS: The Dortmund health study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, K

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the population-based Dortmund health study (DHS) is the assessment of the prevalence and incidence of different headache types as well as other chronic conditions and to analyse their consequences on daily activities of those affected. From 2003 to 2004 overall 2,291 participants were recruited into the study, 1,312 attended the study centre and the others participated by answering a mailed questionnaire. In 2006 a follow-up by mailed questionnaire was performed for 77.8% of the survivors. The influence of social factors was specifically considered in the analysis and interpretation of disease consequences. The following manuscript describes the study design, method of participant recruitment, data assessment and examinations performed in the study and reports the results of the association between neighbourhood unemployment and the prevalence of cardiac risk factors as well as the prevalence of several chronic diseases. PMID:22736161

  2. Assessing community values for reducing agricultural emissions to improve water quality and protect coral health in the Great Barrier Reef

    OpenAIRE

    Windle, Jill; Rolfe, John

    2010-01-01

    Key policy issues relating to protection of the Great Barrier Reef from pollutants generated by agriculture are to identify when measures to improve water quality generate benefits to society that outweigh the costs of reducing pollutants. The research reported in this paper makes a key contribution in several key ways. First, it uses the improved science understanding about the links between management changes and reef health to bring together the analysis of costs and benefits of marginal c...

  3. Is Choice Experiment Becoming more Popular than Contingent Valuation? A Systematic Review in Agriculture, Environment and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Alexandre Mahieu; Henrik Andersson; Olivier Beaumais; Romain Crastes; François-Charles Wolff

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a systematic review based on a large sample of articles published between 2004 and 2013 in economic journals and listed in ISI Web of Science. Results from descriptive statistics and regression models show that choice experiment (CE) is becoming more popular than contingent valuation (CV) in terms of number of publications and citations. Also, journals related to health economics and agricultural economics are more CE oriented than journals related to environmental economi...

  4. Health communication in primary health care -A case study of ICT development for health promotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmud Amina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Developing Information and Communication Technology (ICT supported health communication in PHC could contribute to increased health literacy and empowerment, which are foundations for enabling people to increase control over their health, as a way to reduce increasing lifestyle related ill health. However, to increase the likelihood of success of implementing ICT supported health communication, it is essential to conduct a detailed analysis of the setting and context prior to the intervention. The aim of this study was to gain a better understanding of health communication for health promotion in PHC with emphasis on the implications for a planned ICT supported interactive health channel. Methods A qualitative case study, with a multi-methods approach was applied. Field notes, document study and focus groups were used for data collection. Data was then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results Health communication is an integral part of health promotion practice in PHC in this case study. However, there was a lack of consensus among health professionals on what a health promotion approach was, causing discrepancy in approaches and practices of health communication. Two themes emerged from the data analysis: Communicating health and environment for health communication. The themes represented individual and organizational factors that affected health communication practice in PHC and thus need to be taken into consideration in the development of the planned health channel. Conclusions Health communication practiced in PHC is individual based, preventive and reactive in nature, as opposed to population based, promotive and proactive in line with a health promotion approach. The most significant challenge in developing an ICT supported health communication channel for health promotion identified in this study, is profiling a health promotion approach in PHC. Addressing health promotion values and principles in the

  5. Linking climate smart agriculture and good agriculture practices: case studies on consumption potatoes in South Africa, the Netherlands and Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture has been coined in an attempt to overcome existing barriers among food security, adaptation of agriculture to climate change, and mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because the goals of CSA ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is important to link and integrate CSA goals with Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). Although the general scope of GAP is clear, i.e. sustainable agricultural intensification, there is little common g...

  6. An improvement of agricultural equipment manufacturing by using lean techniques : A case study of agricultural machinery company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattariya Pakdeepunya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study and improve the manufacturing process of agricultural equipment to reduce wastes by using the LEAN tools: a case study of agricultural machinery company. This study found that the main wastes were inefficiency of transportation and working process. The Systematic Layout Planning Pattern (SLP had been applied. Moreover, the principles of ECRS, the change in input factors (a number of employees, together with simulation and the Analysis Hierarchy Process (AHP were also used to determine the appropriate plant layout alternatives by considering the factors such as the productivity, materials handling distance, facilities utilization, and space utilization. The result shared that the best suitable layout is the layout No. 1. Then more improvement the layout No. 1 with the ECRS and the change of input factors (the amount of employees ,it was found that increased productivity by 16.10%, increased facilities utilization by 15.73% and decreased materials handling distance by 48.12%. Furthermore, the number of employees and the average time of workpiece in system could be reduced from 7 to 6 persons, and 54.41 minutes to 45.65 minutes respectively.

  7. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin-Yin Shi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In particular, the high levels of chemically diverse phenols (e.g., phenolic acids, flavonoids present in tea exhibit potent protective properties against many of these diseases. Although health related research on green tea and its predominant phenol (catechins has been on-going for decades, major advances have occurred in the last 5–10 years. Therefore, this review focuses on seminal studies reported primarily within the last five years but not extending past ten years on the link between health and green tea with an emphasis on the catechins.

  8. Practice of Developing Low-carbon Leisure Agriculture in Agricultural Sci-tech Experiment and Demonstration Park: A Case Study of Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan; OUYANG; Huasong; WU; Aiqin; LIU; Huan; YU; Hongmei; FU

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park,as a unique tourist scenic spot,is a new model for the development of low-carbon leisure agriculture.In this paper,with Xinglong Tropical Botanical Park as a study case,the practice of developing a model of low-carbon agricultural science and technology tourism in the park is explored.Main measures for developing low-carbon leisure agriculture in Agricultural Science and Technology Experiment and Demonstration Park are summarized,including development of low carbon attractors,construction of low carbon facilities,strengthening low-carbon management,building low-carbon environment and so on,according to analysis on the models for development of low-carbon agricultural science tourism in this park.

  9. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety: A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tianqi; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and doctors to provide real-time technical services so as to control the abuse of drugs; thirdly, realizes the supervision of local veterinary drugs and diseases. Thus the quality of animal products is guaranteed, and the model is worthy to be popularized.

  10. Harnessing farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak;

    2009-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers' knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to...... successful, it is pertinent that farmers' needs and constraints are incorporated into the formulation of recommended practices. This might happen through indigenous processes but can be supported through farm-based participatory approaches where farmers and scientists work together in developing risk...

  11. Harnessing Farmers' knowledge and perceptions for health-risk reduction in wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernhard; Drechsel, Pay; Seidu, Razak;

    2010-01-01

    This chapter addresses the importance of understanding farmers’ knowledge and perceptions on health-risk and risk-reduction measures for the development of mutually acceptable risk-management strategies. Drawing on studies from different countries, the chapter shows that it is not realistic to...... successful, it is pertinent that farmers’ needs and constraints are incorporated into the formulation of recommended practices. This might happen through indigenous processes but can be supported through farm-based participatory approaches where farmers and scientists work together in developing risk...

  12. A study on the production of agricultural residues in Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Blasi, C.; Tanzi, V.; Lanzetta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Dip di Ingegneria Chimica, Napoli (Italy)

    1997-12-01

    The Italian production of agricultural residues has been evaluated with a view to energy recovery through gasification. Two main categories of residues have been identified: the first, (A) is associated with the growing and collection of products with a nutritional value, whereas the second (B) includes the residues associated with the subsequent processing in order to obtain final products for commercialization. Category A, which comprises three further sub-categories: straw (A1); woody residues (A2); and stems and leaves (residues from vegetables, tobacco, sugar beet, (A3)), results in about 16.5 mt yr. The average amount of straw (A1) is 11 mt/yr, of which about 60% is waste to be eliminated. Woody residues (A2) (mainly pruning off-cuts from vineyards and olive groves) are about 3.5 mt/yr (85% unused). Category A3 amounts to about 2 mt/yr (90% unused). Straw is available mainly in the northern part of the country, whereas the other two sub-categories are widely distributed in central and southern regions. The yields of category B are estimated at 4 mt/yr, of which more than 3 mt/yr are waste products from grape and olive processing. Other residues, such as rice, sunflower and soya-bean husks (about 0.65 mt/yr), almond and nut shells and fruit stones (about 0.2 mt/yr), although not widely available on a national scale, can be significant on a local basis. The total amount of unused agricultural residues is about 14.5 mt/yr, which, if completely exploited through gasification, can contribute as much as 7-10% to the current national electricity needs. The regions of Veneto, Puglia, Friuli, Lombardia and Emilia Romagna appear to be good candidates for electricity production, given the significant surface concentration of unused residues (105-55 t km{sup 2}). (author)

  13. Agricultural sources of contaminants of emerging concern and adverse health effects on freshwater fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillitt, Donald E.; Buxton, Herbert T.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) are generally thought of as certain classes of chemicals associated with animal feeding and production facilities. Veterinary pharmaceuticals used in animal food production systems represent one of the largest groups of CECs. In our review, we discuss the extensive increase in use of antibiotics in animal feeding operations (AFOs) around the world. AFOs are a major consumer of antibiotics and other veterinary pharmaceuticals and over the past decade there has been growing information on the occurrence, release, and fate of CECs from animal food production operations, including the application of pharmaceutical-containing manure to agricultural fields and releases from waste lagoons. Concentrations of CECs in surface and ground water in proximity to AFOs correspond to their presence in the AFO wastes. In many cases, the environmental concentrations of agriculturally-derived CECs are below toxicity thresholds. Hormones and hormone replacement compounds are a notable exception, where chemical concentrations near AFOs can exceed concentrations known to cause adverse effects on endocrine-related functions in fish. In addition, some agricultural pesticides, once thought to be safe to non-target organisms, have demonstrated endocrine-related effects that may pose threats to fish populations in agricultural regions. That is, we have pesticides with emerging concerns, thus, the concern is emerging and not necessarily the chemical. In this light, one must consider certain agricultural pesticides to be included in the list of CECs. Even though agricultural pesticides are routinely evaluated in regulatory testing schemes which have been used for decades, the potential hazards of some pesticides have only recently been emerging. Emerging concerns of pesticides in fish include interference with hormone signaling pathways; additive (or more than additive) effects from pesticide mixtures; and adverse population-level effects at

  14. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA. PMID:25724617

  15. Studies on the Structure Evolvement of Organic Agricultural Industry in Taiwan and its Influential Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; XU; Zheng; ZHANG; Li; KONG

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the development of organic agriculture in Taiwan in recent years,and based on relevant agriculture,economic and social statistics,the general scale of organic agriculture and industrial structure were treated with statistic analysis. Results suggest that the general scale of organic agriculture in Taiwan grew rapidly from 2004 to 2011. The certified organic farmers grew by 140. 59%,and the area with organic plantation grew by 302. 40%. The industrial structure has changed significantly as vegetables have become the No. 1 organic crop instead of rice. Besides of the four major crops,organic plantation has played an increasingly important role. Essential factors influencing the great-leap-forward development include the general trend of agricultural industrial structure adjustment,proliferation of management system and strategic opportunities brought by economic cycles.

  16. Study on the Factors Effect of Adopting Application in Agricultural Products Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Lu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Under the intense impact of global competition, the agriculture of our country appeared the characteristics of low level of industrialization, the low level of management, the value chain of low level, low degree of information technology, organizational dispersed and in recent years the continuous emergence of food quality and safety problems, such as China's agricultural development has sounded the alarm. In order to improve the agricultural supply chain operation efficiency and competitiveness is the key to the problem of solving. Application of Internet of things in the agricultural supply chain helps to improve the agricultural supply chain information technology level, so that the operating efficiency of the supply chain of agricultural products to enhance the whole supply chain integration, the. This study establishes a can optimize the facilities fruit and vegetable cultivation resources, reduce production cost and improve the facility cultivation of a set of decision system of cultivation technology level, reduce the facilities fruit and vegetable production cost, improves the product yield, quality and market competitiveness, not only the follow-up research and popularization of agricultural technology of the Internet of things to lay the foundation, but also can effectively to enhance agriculture IOT application level and has practical application value and practical significance.

  17. Ninth annual conference of Indian Nuclear Society on public perception on benefits of nuclear energy in health care, industry and agriculture: book of preprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains the contributed papers dealing with beneficial aspects of nuclear energy in health care, industry and agriculture. Nuclear techniques in crime detection, neutron activation analysis, dosimetry, personnel monitoring, radiation safety, environmental aspects, application radiation techniques in medicine, industry, agriculture etc. are some of the main topics covered in the conference. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  18. Groundwater economics: An object-oriented foundation for integrated studies of irrigated agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    An integrated foundation is presented to study the impacts of external forcings on irrigated agricultural systems. Individually, models are presented that simulate groundwater hydrogeology and econometric farm level crop choices and irrigated water use. The natural association between groundwater we...

  19. Kosovo : Health Financing Reform Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present information on the different health financing reform options available to Kosovo, which can help the government to make informed policy decisions about financing reforms. The report focuses on the key insurance functions of revenue collection and management, risk pooling, and purchasing of health care, as well as the supportive regulatory and gove...

  20. Posttraumatic stress disorder and health: a preliminary study of group differences in health and health behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, Kathryn M; Lindamer, Laurie A.; Mostoufi, Sheeva; Afari, Niloofar

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more likely to undertake harmful health behaviors like substance use. Less is known about the association of PTSD with healthful behaviors such as healthy diet and exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine differences across physical health indicators and health behaviors in individuals with and without PTSD. Methods A cross...

  1. A review of pesticide exposure and cancer incidence in the agricultural health study cohort Revisão sobre a exposição aos pesticidas e a incidência de câncer em estudo de coorte da saúde dos agricultores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Weichenthal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed epidemiologic evidence related to occupational pesticide exposures and cancer incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS cohort. Studies were identified from the AHS publication list available on a Medline/PubMed database search in March 2009. Findings related to lifetime-days and/or intensity-weighted lifetime-days of pesticide use are the primary focus of this review, because these measures allow for the evaluation of potential exposureresponse relationships. Most of the 32 pesticides examined were not strongly associated with cancer incidence in pesticide applicators. Increased rate ratios and positive exposureresponse patterns were reported for 12 pesticides currently registered in Canada and/or the United States. Exposure misclassification is also a concern in the AHS and may limit the analysis of exposureresponse patterns. Epidemiologic evidence outside the AHS remains limited with respect to most of the observed associations, but animal toxicity data support the biological plausibility of relationships observed six pesticides. Continued follow-up is needed to clarify associations reported to date. In particular, further evaluation of registered pesticides is warranted.Nós revisamos evidências epidemiológicas relacionadas à exposição ocupacional a pesticidas e à incidência de câncer no Estudo da Saúde Agrícola (AHS. Descobertas relacionadas com a vida-dia e / ou intensidade do tempo de vida-dia do uso de agrotóxicos são o foco principal desta revisão, porque estas medidas permitem a avaliação do potencial das relações de exposição-resposta. A maioria dos 32 pesticidas examinados não foram fortemente associados à incidência de câncer em aplicadores de pesticidas. Um aumento da taxa e padrões de resposta-exposição positivos foram reportados em 12 pesticidas registrados atualmente nos Estados Unidos e Canadá. A classificação de exposição incorreta também é uma preocupação para o AHS e pode

  2. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchai Thitiphuree

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml and sediment (0.23 µg/g of the catchment. To monitor potential effects of atrazine on aquatic animals, a freshwater mussel Uniandra contradens was used as a sentinel species for bioaccumulation and potential health effects. Mussels collected from the catchment during 2010-2011 were subjected to analysis for atrazine residue in tissue and condition factor based on body weight and shell length. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in mussel tissue with the highest level (8.40  2.06 ng/g in late wet season when runoff from heavy rain was evidenced. Condition factor, an indicative of overall health, showed a significant negative correlation with atrazine residue in the tissue. This information could be used as part of the monitoring program for herbicide contamination and potential health effects in agricultural environment.

  3. A study of neurologic symptoms on exposure to organophosphate pesticides in the children of agricultural workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastogi S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used extensively throughout the world in agriculture and in pest control as well as for community health purposes. Organophosphate (OP pesticide self-poisoning is an important clinical problem in rural regions of the developing world that kills an estimated 200,000 people every year. Unintentional poisoning kills far fewer people but is an apparent problem in places where highly toxic OP pesticides are available. Neurologic dysfunction is the best documented health effect of pesticide exposure. High-level exposure has both acute and long-term neurologic signs and symptoms, and adverse effects have been reported in most type of pesticides, including organophosphate (OP, carbamate, organochlorine, and pyrethroid insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, and fumigants. Acute OP pesticide exposure can involve in wide range of both central and peripheral neurologic symptoms. Increased neurologic symptom prevalence may provide early evidence of neurologic dysfunctions, before clinically measurable signs are evident. In this study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data on neurologic signs and symptoms from 225 rural children, both males (n = 132 and females (n = 93 who were occupationally and paraoccupationally exposed to methyl OPs (dichlorvos, fenthion, malathion, methyl parathion and ethyl OPs (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, ethyl parathion as they belonged to agricultural families handling, mixing, and spraying the OP pesticides. The children completed a specially designed questionnaire (Q16 on neurologic symptoms associated with pesticide exposure with their parental help. A suitable reference group consisting of rural children (n = 50 never involved in pesticide handling (neither outdoor nor indoor belonging to similar socioeconomic strata included in the study to compare the prevalence of various neurologic symptoms between the two groups. Among all the neurologic self-reported symptoms, headache, watering in eyes, and burning sensation in

  4. How agricultural management shapes soil microbial communities: patterns emerging from genetic and genomic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Grandy, A. Stuart

    2016-04-01

    Agriculture is a predominant land use and thus a large influence on global carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) balances, climate, and human health. If we are to produce food, fiber, and fuel sustainably we must maximize agricultural yield while minimizing negative environmental consequences, goals towards which we have made great strides through agronomic advances. However, most agronomic strategies have been designed with a view of soil as a black box, largely ignoring the way management is mediated by soil biota. Because soil microbes play a central role in many of the processes that deliver nutrients to crops and support their health and productivity, agricultural management strategies targeted to exploit or support microbial activity should deliver additional benefits. To do this we must determine how microbial community structure and function are shaped by agricultural practices, but until recently our characterizations of soil microbial communities in agricultural soils have been largely limited to broad taxonomic classes due to methodological constraints. With advances in high-throughput genetic and genomic sequencing techniques, better taxonomic resolution now enables us to determine how agricultural management affects specific microbes and, in turn, nutrient cycling outcomes. Here we unite findings from published research that includes genetic or genomic data about microbial community structure (e.g. 454, Illumina, clone libraries, qPCR) in soils under agricultural management regimes that differ in type and extent of tillage, cropping selections and rotations, inclusion of cover crops, organic amendments, and/or synthetic fertilizer application. We delineate patterns linking agricultural management to microbial diversity, biomass, C- and N-content, and abundance of microbial taxa; furthermore, where available, we compare patterns in microbial communities to patterns in soil extracellular enzyme activities, catabolic profiles, inorganic nitrogen pools, and nitrogen

  5. Linking climate smart agriculture and good agriculture practices: case studies on consumption potatoes in South Africa, the Netherlands and Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Verhagen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the concept of Climate Smart Agriculture has been coined in an attempt to overcome existing barriers among food security, adaptation of agriculture to climate change, and mitigation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Because the goals of CSA ultimately need to be achieved by farmers it is

  6. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... than one partner had a higher relative mortality rate, which was even higher if she had more than two partners. This finding persisted after excluding unnatural deaths and did not depend on time from exposure. Although some of the findings were adjusted for parity, age and social factors, it is highly...

  7. Identifying the Barriers and Opportunities for Enhanced Coherence between Agriculture and Public Health Policies: Improving the Fat Supply in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Shauna M; Thow, Anne Marie; Ghosh-Jerath, Suparna; Leeder, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    The national Government of India has published draft regulation proposing a 5% upper limit of trans fat in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs). Global recommendations are to replace PHVOs with unsaturated fat but it is not known whether this will be feasible in India. We systematically identified policy options to address the three major underlying agricultural sector issues that influence reformulation with healthier oils: the low productivity of domestically produced oilseeds leading to a reliance on palm oil imports, supply chain wastage, and the low availability of oils high in unsaturated fats. Strengthening domestic supply chains in India will be necessary to maximize health gains associated with product reformulation. PMID:25879914

  8. 玉树农牧区藏族妇女孕产期保健服务可及性研究%Study on the accessibility of maternal health services for Tibetan women in agricultural and pastoral areas in Yushu autonomous prefecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈玲芳; 黄成礼; 杨蓉蓉; 郑晓瑛

    2012-01-01

    目的:了解偏远农牧区藏族育龄妇女的孕产期保健服务可及性状况.方法:利用2009年在青海省玉树县及囊谦县大、小苏莽乡的现场调查数据,分析农牧区藏族育龄妇女的孕产期保健服务利用率与经济、教育、医疗卫生服务可及性等因素的关系.结果:仅12.4%的妇女受过孕产期保健知识教育.最近一次生孩子孕产期保健服务利用率低,产前检查率为49.1%,新法接生率为11.2%,住院分娩率为9.5%,产后访视率为6.5%,均低于同类地区;怀孕期间发生紧急情况,60.4%的妇女会求助村医或乡医;生孩子后身体出现不适,68.6%的妇女会求助村医或乡医.受过孕产期保健知识教育者服务利用率高于未受过教育者;家庭年收入较高的妇女,在怀孕期间出现紧急情况和分娩后身体不适时,求医率高于家庭年收入较低的妇女.服务利用率与到医疗机构采用的不同交通方式和所需时间长短没有明显关系.调查地区67.3%的妇女生孩子无医药费用;有费用者,其自付医药费用占家庭年收入的比例在60%~100%者占5.7%,有2.9%的妇女生孩子自付医药费用超过了过去一年的家庭总收入.受访者报告了在过去2年内有4例亲属在孕产期死亡.结论:偏远农牧区藏族妇女在孕产期保健教育、服务等方面可及性不足.应进一步促进偏远农牧区的经济发展,倡导先进的生育文化,普及育龄妇女孕产期保健知识教育,加强乡村医生孕产期保健服务能力.%Objective; To understand the situation of accessibility of maternal health services for Tibetan women of childbearing age in remote agricultural and pastoral areas. Methods; The relationship between the utilization rate of maternal health services for Tibetan women of childbearing age in remote agricultural and pastoral areas and economic factor, educational factor, and the accessibility of medical and health services

  9. Application of Systematic Approach to the Study of Financial and Credit Infrastructure of Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandr Vladimirovich Dorzhdeev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing value of development of financial and credit infrastructure of agriculture in reproduction activity of agricultural producers is caused by the need of continuous receipt of funds for financing the requirements of agriculture and limited opportunities of selffinancing as a result of rather high capital intensity at rather low level of profitability. The systematic approach to research of financial and credit infrastructure of agriculture assumes its consideration as a set of the interconnected and interdependent subsystems and their elements focused on performance of certain functions. The use of systematic approach deepens complete theoretical ideas about the financial and credit infrastructure of agriculture. In the present article the essence of financial and credit infrastructure of agriculture in the points of view of functional and institutional aspects is opened, its subsystems are characterized, their functions and elements are defined by the authors. The study of the systemic features of market infrastructure allowed the authors to reveal the signs peculiar to financial and credit infrastructure of agricultural sector.

  10. Women's role in agricultural production and its health consequences: Issue for research

    OpenAIRE

    M.E. Chiong-Javier

    2006-01-01

    Women have long occupied a central place in agricultural production in non-industrialized countries, underpinning food security for their households and their communities. However, it was only in the last 30 years that the importance of their role as food producers had received attention and support from international bodies and their own national governments. Spearheaded by the United Nations (UN), various international activities initially directed attention to the subject of women and food...

  11. Connecting agriculture and health care at the regional level: contributions from transition theory and institutional entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Hassink, J.; Grin, J.; Hulsink, W.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyzed two types of regional cooperation. Regional foundations of care farms and care institutions collaborating with a group of farmers. The initiatives were analyzed with a conceptual framework based on transition sciences and institutional entrepreneurship. The presence of a committed institutional entrepreneur with vision, strategic competences and leadership to develop alliances, institutional support and legitimacy in the agricultural and care sector is important for devel...

  12. ENVIRONMENT, HUMAN HEALTH AND SAFETY PERSPECTIVES TO PRIVATE SECTOR PARTICIPATION IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Adeofun, C.O.; Opeolu, B.O.

    2004-01-01

    Agriculture, unlike industrial activity which has always resulted in pollution, has been environmentally benign for most of its history until after the Second World War when the system disintegrated. Then, crop residues were incorporated into the soil or fed to livestock, the manure returned to the land in amounts that could be absolved and utilized. Mechanized farming, however, is reliant on synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. Hence, crop residues and livestock excreta, which were once rec...

  13. Multiple Criteria Decision Making: Method Selection And Application To Three Contrasting Agricultural Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Dooley, A.E.; Sheath, Gavin W.; Smeaton , D.

    2005-01-01

    Agribusiness, farm business and agricultural-environmental decisions which varied in their characteristics were used to evaluate multiple criteria decision making (MCDM) in an agricultural context. This paper discusses differences between the case studies, strengths and weaknesses of the methods used, and the success of the MCDM process based on participants’ expectations and experiences. While MCDM can help identify the best decision, the main benefits identified in using MCDM included bette...

  14. A Case Study of the Symbolic Value of Community Supported Agriculture Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda, Lydia; Reznickova, Anna "Alice"; Russell, Willow Saranna; Hettenbach, David

    2014-01-01

    Sometimes a vegetable is just a vegetable, but how and where it is grown and sold can imbue a lowly potato with status: organic, local, Fairtrade, Peruvian! This paper examines the symbolic value of Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) as a vegetable delivery system using a focus group study. We find that for both current and former members, CSA has both symbolic and private meaning and confers status to vegetables, but has little influence on the perceived status of agriculture. However, on...

  15. The Relationship between Commercial Agriculture and Food Availability to Kenyan Farm Families: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kiriti, Tabitha; Clement A. Tisdell

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the effects of agricultural commercialization and other factors on per capita food availability by means of a case study in the Nyeri district in Kenya. It was found that cash cropping has a negative influence on per capita food availability in the male-headed households. This negative influence is not apparent in the female-headed households and in fact, per capita food availability rises with increased agricultural commercialization. Households of married women seem to...

  16. Accreditation of Agricultural Engineering University studies in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz, Vasco Fitas; Silva, Luis Leopoldo

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the evaluation and accreditation processes of high studies study programs in Portugal; the process of Quality evaluation of new study courses; Nature of engineering profession; EurAgEng recognition; Recognition process implementation;Elements for the recognition process; Some aspects to assure curricula comparability; European Accreditation Process.

  17. Examining Undergraduate Agriculture Students' Attitudes and Decisions Regarding Studying Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Jodi Loeffelholz

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively market and promote study abroad programs, the reasons for undergraduate students' decisions to or not to study abroad need to be considered. Limited research was found identifying students' reasons for or against studying abroad. This researcher examined the reasons students identified in their decision to or not to study…

  18. iWHAM- Integrated water, health and agriculture management : public health implications of integrated watershed management in a tribal area

    OpenAIRE

    Nerkar, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Water scarcity remains a major hurdle in the overall development of tribal people living on hilly terrain, and it is one of the major reasons for their various health problems. Integrated watershed management (IWM) aims to increase water availability and to enhance socio-economic development in such areas. There is a lack of information on the implications of IWM on various aspects of public health, especially in hilly tribal areas. Aim: The overall aim of this thesis was t...

  19. Opportunities for Demand Response in California Agricultural Irrigation: A Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, Gary; Wilcox, Edmund; Olsen, Daniel; Goli, Sasank

    2013-01-02

    California agricultural irrigation consumes more than ten billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually and has significant potential for contributing to a reduction of stress on the grid through demand response, permanent load shifting, and energy efficiency measures. To understand this potential, a scoping study was initiated for the purpose of determining the associated opportunities, potential, and adoption challenges in California agricultural irrigation. The primary research for this study was conducted in two ways. First, data was gathered and parsed from published sources that shed light on where the best opportunities for load shifting and demand response lie within the agricultural irrigation sector. Secondly, a small limited survey was conducted as informal face-to-face interviews with several different California growers to get an idea of their ability and willingness to participate in permanent load shifting and/or demand response programs. Analysis of the data obtained from published sources and the survey reveal demand response and permanent load shifting opportunities by growing region, irrigation source, irrigation method, grower size, and utility coverage. The study examines some solutions for demand response and permanent load shifting in agricultural irrigation, which include adequate irrigation system capacity, automatic controls, variable frequency drives, and the contribution from energy efficiency measures. The study further examines the potential and challenges for grower acceptance of demand response and permanent load shifting in California agricultural irrigation. As part of the examination, the study considers to what extent permanent load shifting, which is already somewhat accepted within the agricultural sector, mitigates the need or benefit of demand response for agricultural irrigation. Recommendations for further study include studies on how to gain grower acceptance of demand response as well as other related studies such as

  20. Understanding Authentic Assessment in a Secondary Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory: An Instrumental Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joey Blackburn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The instrumental case study reported here adds to the literature on authentic assessment by illuminating how one secondary agricultural education instructor employed authentic assessment in the agricultural mechanics laboratory. The study was underpinned by the constructivist notion of authentic learning and assessment, or allowing students to perform what they can do. Multiple sources of data regarding assessment practices were collected from an exemplary secondary agricultural mechanics instructor who demonstrated model authentic assessment behavior by (1 setting high and fair expectations for students, (2 establishing a progressive hierarchy of skills for students to master, (3 providing continuous feedback so that students had knowledge of their progress, and (4 being committed deeply to students’ success. The four themes resonated with previous literature and provided the foundation for a pragmatic model of authentic assessment in the secondary agricultural mechanics laboratory. Future research should focus on refining the model of authentic assessment in agricultural mechanics for a larger audience, as case studies are limited in their ability to generalize. Additionally, research should be conducted to determine how authentic assessment impacts student performance on Oklahoma Agricultural Power and Technology competency examinations.

  1. Farmers’ Cognition of Circular Agriculture and its Influencing Factors: A Case Study of Wannian County in Jiangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying; YANG; Xiaohua; PAN

    2014-01-01

    Based on the current situation of agricultural development and agricultural material utilization in Wannian County of Jiangxi Province,we mainly use the form of questionnaire survey and design the relevant questions,to study the farmers’ awareness of circular agriculture and its influencing factors. The study results show that some factors have a significant impact on farmers’ awareness of circular agriculture,such as householders’ age,education level,the proportion of agricultural income to household income,having attended agriculture-related lectures,and whether to be concerned about the information related to agriculture. Through the study in this article,we aim to provide better theoretical reference for the development and study of circular agriculture in Wannian County of Jiangxi Province.

  2. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  3. Statistical health-effects study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of this program is to analyze the mortality of Hanford workers and to determine the effects of radiation exposure in this population. A secondary purpose is to improve methodology for assessing health effects of chronic low-level exposure to harmful agents or substances, particularly in an occupational setting. In the past year we have updated our analyses, submitted papers for publication in the two areas of methodological research, and have interacted with Hanford Environmental Health Foundation staff to improve data collection procedures

  4. Factors Affecting Agricultural Sustainability–A Case Study of Hail Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid A. Asiry

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Availability of data on agricultural activities and production are essential for an appropriate socio-economic planning and sustainability. This study was conducted using a questionnaire that was randomly distributed to farmers to identify some features of the agricultural activities in Hail region and to serve as baseline data on agricultural practices. The questionnaire was divided into main topics including socio-economic status of farms, farm area, main crops, production systems, agricultural practices, financial support, and use of wind breaks, water conservation, animal husbandry and marketing. Some of the results showed that date palms and alfalfa fodder were found to be the main grown crops in addition to citrus, grapes, vegetables, wheat and Rye. In most cases, all these crops were cultivated in open fields, compared to only 18% grown in green houses. About half of the farmers adopted the monoculture system and only 44.9% of them applied the crop rotation. More than 70% of farmers raise animals and the most commonly reared animal are sheep (53.6% followed by goats (23%, camels (18% and poultry (4.5%. The study revealed that Hail region is an important agricultural area in KSA and some agricultural practices need to be revised and directed towards sustainability through extension programmes.

  5. Macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. A case study of Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the macroeconomic impacts in terms of GDP, trade balance and employment of large-scale bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land. An input-output model is developed with which the direct, indirect and induced macroeconomic impacts of bioenergy production and agricultural intensification, which is needed to make agricultural land become available for bioenergy production, are assessed following a scenario approach. The methodology is applied to a case study of Argentina. The results of this study reveal that large-scale pellet production in 2015 would directly increase GDP by 4%, imports by 10% and employment by 6% over the reference situation in 2001. When accounting for indirect and induced impacts, GDP increases by 18%, imports by 20% and employment by 26% compared to 2001. Agricultural intensification reduces but does not negate these positive impacts of bioenergy production. Accounting for agricultural intensification, the increase in GDP as a result of bioenergy production on surplus agricultural land would amount to 16%, 20% in imports and 16% in employment compared to 2001. (author)

  6. Water, Health and Agriculture in Africa Eau, santé, agriculture en Afrique Agua, salud y agricultura en África

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A major Franco-African forum entitled “Water, Health and Agriculture in Africa”, was held at the Paris Académie des Sciences on May 12 and 13, 2011, under the aegis of the Committee for Developing Countries (COPED: http://www.coped.org and the Delegation for International Relations (DRI, and in liaison with the Interacademic Group for Development (GID: http://g-i-d.org.Since its creation in 1996, COPED has principally striven to reinforce scientific and technical links with French-speaking Africa. Forums have been organized, focusing either on fundamental global issues of research, education or training, or on specific questions concerning health, agriculture, nutrition, epidemiology, demography, or energy and mining resources. This Forum, the 11th Forum, brought together French academics and researchers, as well as several members of the Paris Académie des Sciences and from African Academies. In this sense, the meeting follows in the tradition of earlier COPED forums.The African participants – academics, research center directors, and academy members – outlined the current situation with regard to water resources, and how they are managed, in their respective countries. In parallel to these inventories, French and African researchers reported on a range of different approaches, including cutting-edge methodologies for water purification and sanitation, risk prevention, new paradigms on the reuse of wastewater, and local experiences and experiments.Sous l'égide du COPED (Comité Pays en Développement : http://www.coped.org et de la DRI (Délégation aux relations internationales de l'Académie des Sciences, et en interaction avec le GID (Groupement Interacadémique pour le Développement : http://g-i-d.org, un important Forum franco-africain intitulé “Eau, Santé et agriculture en Afrique”, s’est tenu à l’Académie des Sciences à Paris les 12 et 13 Mai 2011.Depuis sa création en 1996 le COPED a essentiellement

  7. Minerals in plant food: effect of agricultural practices and role in human health. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez-Ballesta, M.C.; Dominguez-Perles, R.; Moreno, D. A.; Muries, B.; Alcaraz-López, C.; Bastías, E.; García-Viguera, C; Carvajal, M.

    2010-01-01

    Interest in nutrient absorption and accumulation is derived from the need to increase crop productivity by better nutrition and also to improve the nutritional quality of plants as foods and feeds. This review focuses on contrasting data on the importance for human health of food mineral nutrients (Ca, Mg, K, Na and P) and also the trace elements considered essential or beneficial for human health (Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se and Zn). In addition, environmental stresses such as salinity, d...

  8. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rochedo, Elaine R.R.; Igreja, Eduardo; Barboza, Adriana E., E-mail: elainerochedo@gmail.com, E-mail: eduigreja@gmail.com, E-mail: adrianaebarboza@gmail.com [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Diogo N.G. da; Guimaraes, Jean R.D., E-mail: diogons@gmail.com, E-mail: jeanrdg@biof.ufrj.br [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho; Wasserman, Maria Angelica V., E-mail: mwasserman@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Perez, Daniel V. [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Solos (EMBRAPA), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  9. Preliminary studies on the optimization of countermeasures for agricultural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of remediation measures for rural areas is more complex than that for urban ones, due to the influence of large number of variables associated with climate, diet, farming practices and the type of soil. Thus, it is not possible to perform generic studies applicable to all types of area. Specific studies and surveys should be made in the areas most likely to contamination from a nuclear accident. Preliminary studies demonstrated that the different soil types in Brazil is more relevant to the ingestion dose than the regional differences in diets. Other studies have described the prioritization of areas and products for detailed survey on soil types and remediation procedures, for an accident at the NPP in Angra dos Reis, based on radiological and economic aspects. The most relevant product was milk, due to both its relevance to the intake and the loss of income for the counties. The contribution of milk to dose depends on the season of the year when the accident occurs, mainly due to the relative contribution of other items of the diet. The timing of the application of the countermeasure has an important effect on the dose reduction that can be achieved. For I-131, protective measures must be considered within the emergency phase in order to be effective. The main action on reducing ingestion doses is the removal of food items from diet, while providing clean food to the population. (author)

  10. Studying health in Greenland: Obligations and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Mulvad, Gert; Olsen, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    Health research in Greenland has contributed with several findings of interest for the global scientific community and has documented health problems and risk factors of importance for planning the local health care system. The study of how health develops in small, scattered communities during...... rapid epidemiological transition carries prospects of global significance. The Inuit are a genetically distinct people living under extreme physical conditions. Their traditional living conditions and diet are currently undergoing a transformation, which may approach their disease pattern to that of the......, and the Commission for Research in Greenland. Health news are regularly reported to international and local congresses and to the scientific journals....

  11. Study on the Credit Risk in Societies with Agricultural Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenica POPESCU

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The credit risk is one of the most important risks the banks face in their daily work and it has a direct impact on bank performance. In the current context, a bank has available a variety of options to determine capital requirements, to decrease the credit risk. This study aims to analyze the correlation of the main indicators of creditworthiness of firms and the credit risk, that a bank will take giving credit to these firms.

  12. Sustainable tourism development of globally important agricultural heritage sites: a case study of "traditional rice-fish agriculture system"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongle; Sun Yehong; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui

    2008-01-01

    Traditional rice-fish agricultural heritage site in Qingtian County, China, one of the pilot sites of Glob-ally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), is of great value in tourism development. This paper aims to explore how to realize sustainable tourism development in agricultural heritage site through identifying current problems in GIAHS site, and making constructive recommendations for coupled development of heritage preserva-tion and economic development. Field survey was carried out and data was collected through field questionnaire surveys of tourists and residents' in Longxian Village of Qingtian County, as well as interviews of residents with semi-structured questionnaires for their perceptions and attitudes to tourism development. The following results are got.(1) the tourism industry is still at its early state of Nongjiale tourism (enjoy and experience authentic country life-style), under very limited administrative management; (2) what attracts visitors most are delicious fish and beautiful natural environment, but not agricultural heritage itself; (3) most tourists come from adjacent areas and stay only half a day, many of whom pay their visits twice or more; (4) a few local residents take part in the activities of tourism industry, but in very limited manners even if they do.Current patterns of tourism development are casting negative impacts on agricultural heritage. Conservation agricultural heritage should be put in the first place for sustainable tourism development. Agricultural heritage, as a key attraction, should be taken as the focus for tourism development. The important thing is to change the present Nongjiale tourism into real heritage tourism, to establish a cooperative mechanism among different stakeholders,and to increase local residents' income through engaging in tourism industry.

  13. Analysis on Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of Self-study Examination of Agricultural Science Disciplines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on existing problems in the course of development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, this paper analyzes logical conditions for its sustainable development. Major logical conditions include requirement for free and comprehensive development of individuals; requirement for social institutional evolution and change; requirement for fairness and justice of education and development; as well as requirement for better-established organization system and higher social reputation. Finally, it presents basic measures for sustainable development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, including carrying on reasonable core elements of self-study examination system, adjusting structure of discipline, improving social assistance system, and expanding service space.

  14. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    OpenAIRE

    Moratiel Yugueros, Ruben; Duran Altisent, Jose Maria; Tarquis Alfonso, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros A...

  15. NAFTA as an agricultural "policy option" for Mexico : a case study within a two-level framework

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    NAFTA AS AN AGRICULTURAL 'POLICY OPTION' FOR MEXICO: A CASE STUDY WITHIN A TWO- LEVEL FRAMEWORK The main focus of the thesis was the agricultural negotiation process between Mexico and the United States within the NAFTA process. I wanted to investigate to what extent this process led to changes in Mexican agricultural policy. Furthermore I wanted to find out whose interests were taken into consideration when Mexico negotiated agriculture in NAFTA. If so, was this done at the expense o...

  16. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal ‘hazard quotient’ (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 ‘site-vegetable’ combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl2 and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed. - Highlights: ► Solubility of toxic metals in soils used for urban agriculture is highly variable. ► Washing leafy vegetables prior to cooking reduces consumption of Cr, Pb, As and Ni. ► Lead (Pb) presents the greatest hazard in produce from agriculture in Kampala City. ► Agriculture in East African cities can be practiced safely with the right choices. ► Soil screening to predict hazard to consumers may be useful in site surveys. - Peri-urban agriculture requires careful consideration of vegetable choice and site characteristics.

  17. Mineralogical study on agricultural soils using mossbauer spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron (Fe) compounds are very common in nature. In the case of soils, they occur in the form of Fe sesquioxides, such as oxides, hydroxides and oxyhydroxides, as well as substitution cations in clay minerals. These minerals occur in crystalline and amorphous states. The isotopic selective nature of mossbauer spectroscopy (nuclear gamma resonance) allows the indentification of minerals containing Fe even when they are present in low concentrations and in amorphous state. In this work we report the preliminary results of a current study of soil samples collected from the area of Chinchero, Cusco. The experimental data were obtained by mossbauer spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction; these data were complemented with data reported by other workers. Standard procedures were used for sample preparation and the mossbauer spectra were taken at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures

  18. Health, health behaviors, and health dissimilarities predict divorce: results from the HUNT study

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Poor health and health behaviors are associated with divorce. This study investigates the degree to which six health indicators and health behaviors among husbands and wives are prospectively related to divorce, and whether spousal similarities in these factors are related to a reduced risk of marital dissolution. Theoretically, a reduced risk is possible, because spousal similarity can help the couple’s adaptive processes. Methods The data come from a general population sample (19...

  19. Veterinarians’ and agricultural advisors’ perception of calf health and welfare in organic dairy production in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellingsen, Kristian; Mejdell, C. M.; Hansen, B.;

    2012-01-01

    of respondents considered the routine of keeping calves with their mothers and the good care of the calves by stockpersons as important welfare advantages. Among all factors related to health, welfare, morbidity and mortality, low calf mortality and adequate treatment of disease and injury received...... the best scores. Body condition and growth, as well as the use of calf health recording cards, received the worst scores. The two professions differed in their views on the most important welfare challenges for calves in an organic environment: while both groups agreed on poor feed quality...

  20. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  1. A Case Study Exploring the Perceived and Actual Person-Environment Fit of Teacher Aspirants in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shane Robinson

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the factors that led students who did not participate in secondary agricultural education programs to the agricultural education teaching major. Findings indicated that these participants were motivated to pursue an agricultural education degree because of their passion for agriculture and youth, and affinity for people and the job. Parents and friends were their biggest influences in pursuing a degree in agricultural education. Their greatest perceived strengths were content knowledge in agriculture, leadership skills, and ability to persevere; their greatest perceived limitation was lack of experience in a secondary agricultural education program. Unfortunately, none of the student secured employment as agriculture teachers. Because these findings are more subjective and personal (P in nature, future research should investigate more objective measures of the demands from teachers in the workforce (i.e., environment-E.

  2. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, van der O.M.C.; Roest, van der J.G.

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking pro

  3. Historical background to the studies of the transfer of Chernobyl fallout in swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of the studies on the transfer of radionuclides in the agricultural environment goes back to the fifties when the super powers extended their testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere. In Sweden a cooperation to last for more than 20 years was then started for these studies between the Institute of National Defense and a research unit, prof. L. Fredriksson and co workers, which was fore running the present Department of Radioecology at the University of the Agricultural Sciences at Uppsala. (au)

  4. Study on the Dynamic Pricing Revenue Distribution Model of Fresh Agricultural Products Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoran Shi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study divides the sales cycle of fresh agricultural products into two stages according to the features of fresh agricultural products, establishes two pricing strategies according to its sales and through constructing an centralized-control model of supply chain under the constraints of revenue sharing contract and through analyzing different prices in the two stages, it summarizes the sales strategies of retailers and supplier and the anticipated sales, proposes to coordinate the operation of fresh agricultural products supply chain by adjusting the revenue coefficient in the revenue sharing contract. After comparing the revenue of decentralized-control supply chain model and centralized-control supply chain model, this study concludes that centralized-control supply chain model will have higher revenue.

  5. Effect of democracy on health: ecological study

    OpenAIRE

    Franco, Álvaro; Álvarez-Dardet, Carlos; Ruiz, Maria Teresa

    2004-01-01

    Can political regimes be singled out as a factor affecting health? Rating countries by the extent of their freedom is a useful proxy for measuring the effects of democracy on health related variables. Although the influence of democracy in preventing famines has been reported, there have been no empirical studies on the relation between the extent of freedom allowed by political regimes and the effect on a nation’s health. We explored the effect of democracy on life expectancy and...

  6. Re-envisioning global agricultural trade: time for a paradigm shift to ensure food security and population health in low-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirkle, Catherine M; Poliquin, Hélène; Sia, Drissa; Kouakou, Kouassi Joseph; Sagna, Tani

    2015-03-01

    In this commentary, we use examples from West Africa to highlight how the liberalization of global agricultural trade exacerbates population health inequalities by threatening the livelihoods and food security of communities in low-income settings. We highlight the exploitative nature of trade agreements with West African countries demonstrating how these agreements disincentivize local agricultural investment and take jobs away from small-scale farmers. Further, we link agricultural trade liberalization to increased food insecurity, malnutrition, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Finally, we propose a paradigm shift that advocates for food sovereignty and the right to food. PMID:24814860

  7. Curative and health enhancement effects of aquatic exercise: evidence based on interventional studies

    OpenAIRE

    Honda T.; Kamioka H

    2012-01-01

    Takuya Honda1, Hiroharu Kamioka21Research Fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, 2Laboratory of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise.Methods: We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials), for which ther...

  8. Inuit Health in Transition: the Nuka study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter

    biological samples. The studies in Nunavik and Greenland are not identical but share protocols on diabetes, heart disease, diet, smoking, social capital, self rated health, gambling and many other topics. The study is being geographically expanded to cover also Nunavut, Labrador and East Greenland, and...... of cardiovascular health such as smoking, drinking and physical activity will be explored....... comparable studies have yielded data from Alaska Natives and Norwegian Sami. A number of researchers will present results from the study at this meeting and we shall hear a lot about the link between diet and health. I will take one step back and look at the social determinants of dietary patterns in...

  9. Overview of Studies on Financial Support for China’s Agricultural Industrialization

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Junyu; Ma, Junqi; Tang, Jingyao

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural industrialization is an innovative operation mode and effective drive for transformation of traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Benign development of agricultural industrialization depends on financial support. With increase of the function of financial support for agricultural industrialization development, academic circles have made deeper and deeper researches on agricultural industrialization. These researches mainly touch upon four aspects: (i) definition of conce...

  10. A Brief History of Soils and Human Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Sauer, Thomas J.

    2013-04-01

    The idea that there are links between soils and human health is an ancient one. The Bible depicts Moses as understanding that fertile soil was essential to the well-being of his people in approximately 1400 B.C. as they entered Canaan, and in 400 B.C. Hippocrates provided a list of things that should be considered in a proper medical evaluation, including the ground. Moving into the 18th and 19th Centuries, some North American farmers have been documented as recognizing a link between soils and human vitality. However, the recognition of links between soils and human health by these early people was based on casual observations leading to logical conclusions rather than scientific investigation. In the 1900s the idea that soils influence human health gained considerable traction. At least three chapters in the 1938 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture included recognition of the importance of soil as the origin of many of the mineral elements necessary for human health and in the 1957 USDA Yearbook of Agriculture scientists realized that soils were not only important in the supply of essential nutrients, but that they could also supply toxic levels of elements to the human diet. The U.S. Department of Agriculture established the Plant, Soil and Nutrition Research Unit (PSNRU) on the Cornell University campus in 1940 with a mission to conduct research at the interface of human nutrition and agriculture to improve the nutritional quality and health-promoting properties of food crops. A major human health breakthrough in 1940 was the isolation of antibiotic compounds from soil organisms by the research group at Rutgers University lead by Selman Waksman. Soil microorganisms create antibiotic compounds in an effort to gain a competitive advantage in the soil ecosystem. Humans have been able to isolate those compounds and use them advantageously in the fight against bacterial infections. Waksman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1952, the only soil

  11. Green Tea as an Agricultural Based Health Promoting Food: The Past Five to Ten Years

    OpenAIRE

    Qin-Yin Shi; Vicki Schlegel

    2012-01-01

    The consumption of tea originated in ancient China over 4000 years ago and is currently the second most popular beverage in the world after water. Tea is an aromatic beverage prepared by pouring hot water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The link between tea intake, most notably green tea, and health has resulted in intense research on the components responsible for preventing the onset of several chronic diseases, including atherosclerosis, cancer, obesity and diabetes. In p...

  12. Attitudes of Agricultural Experts Toward Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M; Kitterlin, Miranda; Jahangiry, Sheida; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Van Passel, Steven; Azadi, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) crops is growing around the world, and with it possible opportunities to combat food insecurity and hunger, as well as solutions to current problems facing conventional agriculture. In this regard the use of GMOs in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly over the past decade. However, the development of GM crops has been a matter of considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. This, in addition to skepticism, has stifled the use of this practice on a large scale in many areas, including Iran. It stands to reason that a greater understanding of this practice could be formed after a review of the existing expert opinions surrounding GM crops. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to analyze the predictors that influence agricultural experts' attitudes toward the development of and policies related to GM crops. Using a descriptive correlational research method, questionnaire data was collected from 65 experts from the Agricultural Organization in the Gotvand district in Southwest Iran. Results indicated that agricultural experts were aware of the environmental benefits and possible risks associated with GM crops. The majority of participants agreed that GM crops could improve food security and accelerate rural development, and were proponents of labeling practices for GM crops. Finally, there was a positive correlation between the perception of benefits and attitudes towards GM crops. PMID:26045394

  13. Capitalist agriculture between countryside and the city A study of two cases in Argentinean Pampas region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Ivan Bober

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes transformations in agriculture, agrarian structure and population dynamics in the context of economic expansion in Argentinean Pampas in recent decades. Increase of crops va­lues, new technology packages available and local dynamics generate changes and new relationships between rural and urban areas. The study is a comparison of two different cases: one, is an example of processes of soybean production at Pampas region and the other exposes diversified dynamics of agriculture and urban expansion. 

  14. Estimation of Water Demand of Agriculture Sector by Water-Yield Function (Case Study: Sistan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Ghaffari Moghadam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available I n this study, yield-water and profit function was used to obtain water demand function in agriculture sector. The results showed that the ratio of actual to potential Evapotranspiration had positive, significant effect on the ratio of actual to potential yield for wheat and barley. Also, square ratio of actual to potential Evapotranspiration had negative, significant relationship. After estimation of product function, water demand function for agriculture sector was obtained by profit function. Price elasticity of water demand for agriculture was -1.10 being less than -1 and showing that price policies can be an important factor in the control of non-optimum use of their valuable inputs.

  15. Urban Agriculture as a Tool for Facilitated Urban Greening of Sites in Transition: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozalija CJEVIĆ

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article explores the possibilities of urban agriculture as a tool for facilitated socially inclusive urban greening and governance of sites in transition. “Beyond the Construction Site” (BCS is the research focus of this article. Urban agriculture proves a tool for including people in site planning and management since it requires presence of users on site. The case study reveals two novelties in the facilitation process in relation to the urban agriculture greening of sites in transition: a multiple level operation engaging users, municipality and general public, and b gradual inclusion of users in site governance. The article presents an example of how general participation in spatial planning between municipalities, spatial planners, and citizens could be developed and institutionalised in the future.

  16. Trace contaminants of agriculture, fisheries and food with particular reference to isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing world population, industrilization and intensification of agricultural and fisheries practices have greatly increased the need during recent decades to protect the resources concerned, and the quality of food and agricultural environment. These trends have also resulted in a growing range of trace contaminants and excessive nutrient problems of agriculture and fisheries. Isotopic tracer and nuclear analytical techniques are powerful and often unique tools for the study and control of the problems, especially in relation to trace elements, nutrients and contaminants. In addition to the conventional use of radioactive and stable isotopes as tracers there appears to be considerable scope for the use of environmental or natural isotope ratio techniques and the use of labelled reagents and substrates as monitoring tools. Representative applications are described. (author)

  17. A Study to Determine Competencies Needed in Selected Job Titles in Agricultural Products Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amberson, Max L.; And Others

    The report is a composite of competency interviews and a compilation, evaluation, and analysis of data on agricultural products occupations (bakery, dairy, meat, and flour milling industry job titles). The study was conducted to obtain information which would identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes needed by employees in selected job titles…

  18. Study on the Perceived Risk about the Online Shopping for Fresh Agricultural Commodities and Customer Acquisition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; HUANG; Juan; FENG; Fengxian; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Fresh agricultural commodities have been entering the era of network marketing. However,the coverage population is still relatively small. In this paper,more than 400 online shopping customer survey data are statistically analyzed based on perceived risk multidimensional model by factor analysis method to classify the potential customers’ perceived risk,concluding that food safety risks,mental health risk,relative convenience risk,liquidity risk,privacy risk and time risk are the most important risk factors that impact potential customers online shopping of fresh agricultural commodities. By using customers prediction model which is based on the classification and prediction methods to mining potential customers,it comes to the conclusion that men are more likely to purchase fresh agricultural commodities online,specifically,in the male sample,those whose average monthly net purchase cost equals to or is higher than 51 yuan or whose online shopping time equals to or is longer than 3 years and at the same time whose age is younger than 30 are the most potential customers. Finally,it puts forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions from the perspectives of risk control and effective customer acquisition.

  19. Drought vulnerability assessment for the agriculture: a case study for the west part of Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slejko, M.; Gregorič, G.; Bergant, K.

    2009-04-01

    One of the main aspects of drought adaptation and planning is the assessment of vulnerability. Since agriculture is the primary sector affected by drought and is directly dependent on water availability, we have started with a pilot project in an important agricultural area in the west part of Slovenia. The project is a part of the activities of the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe - DMCSEE. Drought in this area often results in significant economic, environmental, and social impacts. The significance of the impacts of drought on the agricultural sector is assessed taking into account the severity of the drought (magnitude and duration of the drought episode) and the vulnerability of the agricultural system. For that purpose we have developed a general method which can be used as a preliminary tool for assessing drought vulnerability in agriculture and that could be applied on the entire Southeastern Europe region. The approach was based on impact assessment and vulnerability model supported by geographic information system (GIS) software. We found out that factors influencing drought vulnerability were numerous, and the model application might depend on data availability. We have used appropriate and available digital data layers for climate, pedology, solar radiation, land use, irrigation infrastructure and other factors. The final product is a categorical map of agricultural drought vulnerability for the study area, which synthesizes a variety of data and serves as an indicator of areas deserving a detailed drought risk evaluation. It could aid regional decision makers in identifying appropriate mitigation and adaptation actions before the next drought event, lessen impacts of that event and allow sustainable development of the sector.

  20. Contributions of the Nurses’ Health Studies to Reproductive Health Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Gaskins, Audrey J.; Farland, Leslie V.; Terry, Kathryn L.; Zhang, Cuilin; Missmer, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the Nurses’ Health Study’s (NHS’s) contribution to identifying risk factors and long-term health consequences of reproductive events. Methods. We performed a narrative review of the NHS I, NHS II, NHS3, and Growing Up Today Study (GUTS) publications between 1976 and 2016. Results. Collection of detailed reproductive history to identify breast cancer risk factors allowed the NHS to document an association between menstrual irregularities, a proxy for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The NHS II found that infertility associated with ovulation problems and gestational diabetes are largely preventable through diet and lifestyle modification. It also identified developmental and nutritional risk factors for pregnancy loss, endometriosis, and uterine leiomyomata. As women in NHS II age, it has become possible to address questions regarding long-term health consequences of pregnancy complications and benign gynecologic conditions on chronic disease risk. Furthermore, the NHS3 and GUTS are allowing new lines of research into human fertility, PCOS, and transgenerational effects of environmental exposures. Conclusions. The multigenerational resources of the NHSs and GUTS, including linkages of related individuals across cohorts, can improve women’s health from preconception through late adulthood and onto the next generation. PMID:27459445

  1. THE USE OF INTERNET IN ENHANCING STUDENT’S ACADEMIC STUDIES: A CASE STUDY AT ADAMAWA STATE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE (ASCOA GANYE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Ibrahim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The adaptation of the Information Communication Technology (ICT is growing across the state and the entire country. This study examines the use of the internet in enhancing studies in Adamawa State College of Agriculture (ASCOA Ganye. The use of the internet is increasingly becoming an expectation for higher education students. In this paper, a range of case studies are described which illustrate methods of engaged students with technology enhanced learning and improve academic studies and students satisfaction. The sample was taken from five (5 departments in Adamawa State College of Agriculture namely, Animal Health Production (AHP, Agricultural Extension (AGT, Computer Science (CS, Agricultural Engineering technology (AET, and Forestry Technology (FOT. The aim of the study is to examined, the Bio-data characteristics of the internet users, the information on users of internet during studies and the effects of the internet. A sampling technique was used to select 101 students from Animal Health Production (AHP Department, 66 students from Agricultural Extension (AGT Department and 36 students from Computer Science (CS Department; totaling 266 students. A survey questionnaire was employed to determine the use of internet, the researcher analysed the data collected using descriptive, percentages, frequency and influential statistics. The study shows that 78.2% of the students were between the ages of 25 – 29 years 13.2% (30 – 34 years, and only 8.6% were between the age of 18 – 24 years. 81.6% of the students were single while 24.8% were female. The finding also shows that 80.8% download material (e-book from the internet, 89.5% got an e-mail account (address, 273 of the respondents across the department accept that the introduction of a course called GNS 211 Computer Appreciation makes students to have interest of surfing the internet, The first result of the chi-square shows that there is a significant relationship between the users of

  2. Assessing community values for reducing agricultural emissions to improve water quality and protect coral health in the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, John; Windle, Jill

    2011-12-01

    Policymakers wanting to increase protection of the Great Barrier Reef from pollutants generated by agriculture need to identify when measures to improve water quality generate benefits to society that outweigh the costs involved. The research reported in this paper makes a contribution in several ways. First, it uses the improved science understanding about the links between management changes and reef health to bring together the analysis of costs and benefits of marginal changes, helping to demonstrate the appropriate way of addressing policy questions relating to reef protection. Second, it uses the scientific relationships to frame a choice experiment to value the benefits of improved reef health, with the results of mixed logit (random parameter) models linking improvements explicitly to changes in "water quality units." Third, the research demonstrates how protection values are consistent across a broader population, with some limited evidence of distance effects. Fourth, the information on marginal costs and benefits that are reported provide policymakers with information to help improve management decisions. The results indicate that while there is potential for water quality improvements to generate net benefits, high cost water quality improvements are generally uneconomic. A major policy implication is that cost thresholds for key pollutants should be set to avoid more expensive water quality proposals being selected.

  3. Occurrence, sources, and potential human health risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Long; Hou, Hong; Shangguan, Yuxian; Cheng, Bin; Xu, Yafei; Zhao, Ruifen; Zhang, Yigong; Hua, Xiaozan; Huo, Xiaolan; Zhao, Xiufeng

    2014-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of the levels, distribution patterns, and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in agricultural soils of the coal production area surrounding Xinzhou, China, was conducted, and the potential human health risks associated with the levels observed were addressed. A total of 247 samples collected from agricultural soils from the area were analyzed for sixteen PAHs, including highly carcinogenic isomers. The PAH concentrations had a range of n.d. to 782ngg(-1), with a mean value of 202ngg(-1). The two-three ring PAHs were the dominant species, making up 60 percent of total PAHs. Compared with the pollution levels and carcinogenic potential risks reported in other studies, the soil PAH concentrations in the study area were in the low to intermediate range. A positive matrix factorization model indicates that coal/biomass combustion, coal and oil combustion, and coke ovens are the primary PAH sources, accounting for 33 percent, 26 percent, and 24 percent of total PAHs, respectively. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) concentrations had a range of n.d. to 476ngg(-1) for PAH7c, with a mean value of 34ngg(-1). The BaPeq concentrations of PAH7c accounted for more than 99 percent of the ∑PAH16, which suggests that seven PAHs were major carcinogenic contributors of ∑PAH16. According to the Canadian Soil Quality Guidelines, only six of the soil samples had concentrations above the safe BaPeq value of 600ngg(-1); the elevated concentrations observed at these sites can be attributed to coal combustion and industrial activities. Exposure to these soils through direct contact probably poses a significant risk to human health as a result of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs. PMID:25050801

  4. The Cultural Adaptation Process of Agricultural and Life Sciences Students on Short-Term Study Abroad Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Nathan William

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how undergraduate students in a college of agricultural and life sciences experienced cultural adaptation during short-term study abroad programs. The specific objectives of this study were to describe how undergraduate students in the college of agricultural and life sciences experienced culture throughout…

  5. Emerging aspects of nanotoxicology in health and disease: From agriculture and food sector to cancer therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperigkou, Zoi; Karamanou, Konstantina; Engin, Ayse Basak; Gialeli, Chrysostomi; Docea, Anca Oana; Vynios, Demitrios H; Pavão, Mauro S G; Golokhvast, Kirill S; Shtilman, Mikhail I; Argiris, Athanassios; Shishatskaya, Ekaterina; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M

    2016-05-01

    Nanotechnology is an evolving scientific field that has allowed the manufacturing of materials with novel physicochemical and biological properties, offering a wide spectrum of potential applications. Properties of nanoparticles that contribute to their usefulness include their markedly increased surface area in relation to mass, surface reactivity and insolubility, ability to agglomerate or change size in different media and enhanced endurance over conventional-scale substance. Here, we review nanoparticle classification and their emerging applications in several fields; from active food packaging to drug delivery and cancer research. Nanotechnology has exciting therapeutic applications, including novel drug delivery for the treatment of cancer. Additionally, we discuss that exposure to nanostructures incorporated to polymer composites, may result in potential human health risks. Therefore, the knowledge of processes, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as careful toxicological assessment is critical in order to determine the effects of nanomaterials in humans and other biological systems. Expanding the knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity will facilitate designing of safer nanocomposites and their application in a beneficial manner. PMID:26969113

  6. [Ecological studies in environmental health: Beyond epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Becerra, Luis C; Pinzón-Flórez, Carlos E; Idrovo, Álvaro J

    2015-08-01

    Ecological studies provide important and frequent sources of evidence of environmental health, since their unit of analysis is populations. This review summarizes the foundations of ecological studies with the premise that they can be performed using quantitative, qualitative or mixed methods. It presents the logic behind their design, their role in exploring causality, the variables and categories of analysis and the design principles and techniques used to collect data. Examples of ecological studies performed in Latin America are then presented, as well as some common methodological problems and options to address them. Lastly, the relevance of quantitative and qualitative ecological studies to environmental health as a way to overcome the dominance of conceptual and methodological individualism is highlighted, though ecological studies alone do not suffice for studying population health. PMID:26535754

  7. Vulnerability to Agricultural Drought in Western Orissa: A Case Study of Representative Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Swain, Mrutyunjay; Swain, Mamata

    2011-01-01

    The nature of vulnerability to agricultural drought in three study blocks of Bolangir district in western Orissa has been analysed. The indexing and vulnerability profile method have been used for assessing the nature of drought vulnerability, coping capacity and risk. The study has revealed that the three most influential biophysical factors of drought vulnerability are: rainfall variability, drought intensity and shortage of available waterholding capacity of soil and the three most influen...

  8. Systematic mapping study of information communication technology research for agriculture (in case of developing Countries)

    OpenAIRE

    Zewge, Amanuel; Dittrich, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Context: A rural community in a developing country is a socially complex andinfrastructural weak environment that demands clear understanding of the social, economical, cultural, and political precondition before implementing information commutation technology (ICT) innovations.Objective: This work aims to conduct a Systematic Mapping Study (SMS) to get an in-depth understanding about ICT based researches for agriculture in developing countries.Method: A systematic mapping study was carried o...

  9. Managerial form, ownership and efficiency: a case-study of Argentine agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gallacher, Marcos; Goetz, Stephan J.; Debertin, David L.

    1994-01-01

    In agriculture, studies dealing with the separation of ownership from control have focused on sharecropping, paying little attention to the impact of management and ownership on efficiency. Using Argentine data, this study tests the hypothesis that efficiency is a function of type of management, concentration of ownership, and mechanisms for monitoring managers. Results show that management, ownership and monitoring have a greater impact on marketing efficiency than either on technical or cos...

  10. National benchmarking against GLOBALGAP : Case studies of Good Agricultural Practices in Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico and Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Valk, van der, L.J.M.; Roest, De, Kees

    2009-01-01

    This desk study examines the experiences and lessons learned from four case studies of countries aiming at the GLOBALGAP benchmarking procedure for national Good Agricultural Practices, namely Chile, Kenya, Malaysia, and Mexico. Aspects that determine the origin and character of the benchmarking process are the current and future export markets of each country; the ownership of the National GAP Schemes, that is, government or private sector. Government led GAP initiatives are part of strategi...

  11. A Share in the Harvest- A Feasiblity study for community supported agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Pilley, Mr Greg

    2001-01-01

    This feasibility study looks at how community supported agriculture (CSA) can help in the development of local and sustainable food economies. It investigates community involvement in farming around the globe and in a number of established and planned CSA initiatives in England. Eleven case studies provide the basis of discussion, along with relevant policy recommendations and areas for future research. The benefits of CSA include a more secure income and higher returns for farmers. Consumers...

  12. Adult health study report, 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AHS clinical examination is conducted biennially to determine disease (not limited to disease) prevalence rates. No inquiry is made about deaths occurring between the cycle examinations. Since there has been a remarkable difference in cancer mortality by radiation dose it must be stated that the effects of atomic bomb radiation cannot be adequately assessed through a comparison of cancer prevalence rates alone. Nonetheless, in this study, an association between the prevalence rates of various cancers and radiation has been demonstrated, particularly for cancers with a relatively low lethality rate. In this group are cancers of the thyroid and breast where the association is strong, particularly in the younger age-groups. An association continued to be observed for neoplasms of the lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues, and for all cancers excluding the foregoing, for which a demonstrable association to A-bomb exposure was made at an early stage. These are important findings. Further, analysis of benign tumors suggested an increase in prevalence associated with an increase in radiation dose, a finding which was not observed in the studies of autopsied cases. This finding raises a whole series of questions relating to radiation carcinogenesis. As for other diseases, strong association of increased prevalence with increased radiation dose was observed for various thyroid diseases, anemia, cataract, and calcification of the aorta. As for physical measurements and laboratory tests, relationships to radiation dose were observed concerning hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte sedimentatioin rate, and white blood cell count (WBC), in addition to growth and development retardation in the younger survivors as described in a previous report. In general, for many diseases and measurements, the association is stronger for those exposed at younger ages. Furthermore, some effects on the aging process are also suggested by the analysis. (author)

  13. Child Labor in Agriculture: Changes Needed To Better Protect Health and Educational Opportunities. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    In a response to a Congressional request, this report presents information and statistics on child labor in agriculture. Specifically, the report examines: (1) the extent and prevalence of child labor in agriculture, (2) the legislative protections available to children working in agriculture, (3) the enforcement of these protections as they apply…

  14. Sustainable Agriculture- Mandatory Approach for Regional and National Economic Development. Case Study: Tecuci Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Sorcaru

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Romania has a considerable agricultural potential, Tecuci Plain being one of the nationalagricultural regions with high potential, which can generate economic growth at regional and alsonational level.The study main objective is to analyze thedynamics of the main crops, livestock andcrop production in the region, for each administrative unit, between 1970-2011 trying to determinethe major trends and patterns, identifying the favorable and restriction factors and also thepossibilities of thedevelopment of primary economic activities by practicing a sustainableagriculture.The research usedthe data obtainedfrom the Bucharest National Instituteof Statistics,but also fromlocal institutions(Galati&VasluiCounty Department of StatisticsandGalati&VasluiDepartment for Agriculture andRural Development. We also used the cartographic method in orderto highlight the dynamics of the agricultural activities whichcan beanytimeanalyzed bythelocalauthoritiesdirectlyresponsible forthe evolution ofthe region′sagriculturein the last twodecades.The results reflected significantagriculturaldisparities betweenthe ruraladministrativeunitsfromthecentreof theregion(nearTecuci City and the ones from north and south,disparitieswhich webelieveareclosely related totheimplementationof sustainable agriculture.

  15. Agricultural land use intensity and its determinants: A case study in Taibus Banner, Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Haiguang; Li, Xiubin; Tan, Minghong; Zhang, Jiping; Zhang, Huiyuan

    2015-06-01

    Based on rural household survey data from Taibus Banner, in the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, this study separately categorizes agricultural land use intensity into labor intensity, capital intensity, the intensity of labor-saving inputs, and the intensity of yield-increasing inputs, and then analyzes their determinants at the household level. The findings reveal that within the study area: (1) labor intensity is higher and capital intensity is lower than in the major grain-producing and economically developed areas of eastern and central China; (2) the most widely planted crops are those with the lowest labor intensity (oats) and capital intensity (benne); (3) there are marked differences in agricultural land use intensity among households; a major factor affecting land use decision-making is the reduced need for labor intensity for those households with high opportunity costs, such as those with income earned from non-farming activities which alleviates financial constraints and allows for increased capital intensity. As a result, these households invest more in labor-saving inputs; (4) households with a larger number of workers will allocate adequate time to manage their land and thus they will not necessarily invest more in labor-saving inputs. Those households with more land to manage tend to adopt an extensive cultivation strategy. Total income has a positive impact on capital intensity and a negative impact on labor intensity. Households that derive a higher proportion of their total income through farming are more reliant upon agriculture, which necessitates significant labor and yield-increasing inputs. Finally, the authors contend that policy makers should clearly recognize the impacts of non-farming employment on agricultural land use intensity. In order to ensure long-term food security and sustainable agricultural development in China, income streams from both farming and non-farming employment should be balanced.

  16. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL-BASED ROAD TRANSPORT DEICING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow and ice removal on highways and public streets is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure. The issues to be addressed in selecting suitable deicing and anti-icing materials include cost, effectiveness, and damage to the pavement, vehicles and the environment. Considerable research has been carried out in recent years to develop alternative deicers with better performance and cost effectiveness. Among the developed deicer materials are agricultural based deicers that are considered to be sustainable and environmentally-beneficial materials. Iowa is one of the States that is rich in agricultural renewable resources, some of which are being processed for applications such as fuel. Any industrial process, including that of converting corn to ethanol or soy to bio-diesel, is likely to have a number of by-products generated. Rather than face disposal issues for these by-products, it would be desirable to find those that, with a minimum of additional processing, can be used as a deicing compound, either alone, or in combination with products currently in use. Currently, a number of agricultural based deicer materials have been developed or are still under development. However, little information is known about the actual manufacturing/refining process since most of the developed materials are all proprietary products (patented or commercial. Furthermore, no standard test specifying agricultural-based deicer is available. The study described in this paper focuses on the development of an improved agricultural based deicing product. The objective of this study was to evaluate deicer materials including traditional and alternative deicer materials on road skid resistance which is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure.

  17. Tea and Health: Studies in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Tea, next to water is the cheapest beverage humans consume. Drinking the beverage tea has been considered a health-promoting habit since ancient times. The modern medicinal research is providing a scientific basis for this belief. The evidence supporting the health benefits of tea drinking grows stronger with each new study that is published in the scientific literature. Tea plant Camellia sinensis has been cultivated for thousands of years and its leaves have been used for medicinal purposes...

  18. Agricultural and Farmland Protection Planning: A Case Study in Orange County, New York

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Lucy T.; Bills, Nelson L.

    1996-01-01

    The Agricultural Protection Act, passed by the State Legislature in 1992, strengthened New York State's Agricultural Districts Law. One component of the Act provides for county Agricultural and Farmland Protection Boards to develop county agricultural and farmland protection plans. The Department of Agriculture and Markets encourages the development of such plans through a matching grants program. This paper discusses the tools and strategies county Agricultural and Farmland Protection Boards...

  19. An Empirical Study on China’s Regional Carbon Emissions of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Pang; Jingyuan Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Based on China’s carbon emissions of agriculture, the authors appraise the area differentiation of carbon emissions of agriculture; examine the influential factors of agricultural carbon emissions in China. The results show that the performance of China’s agricultural carbon emissions is on the rise. The agricultural carbon emissions in the west of China increase rapidly. The area differentiation of agricultural carbon emissions in China decreases. In general, the major driver of carbon e...

  20. EVOLUTION OF ASSOCIATION FORMS STUDY FROM THE ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE AS ARISING FROM LEGISLATIVE REGULATIONS APPEARED AFTER 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan-Gabriel OANCEA; Silviu JIRLĂIANU; Ruxandra CIOFU

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to analyze the main legal rules governing the operation of forms of association that have arisen since 1990 in the Romanian agriculture. For optimization of the comparative analysis methods the study focuses on four regulations, representative in the forms of association evolution. They are presented in chronological order: "Law no. 36/1991 regarding the agricultural companies and other agricultural associations" representing the first piece of legislation that enacted the asso...

  1. Teaching and Learning in sustainable agriculture curricula: A case study of faculty work as learning at a land grant university

    OpenAIRE

    Helms, Jennifer Louise

    2014-01-01

    In 2009, the National Academy of Sciences called for a dynamic approach to teaching and learning in colleges of agriculture. In response, innovative faculty at colleges and universities are implementing new frameworks for undergraduate education in the agricultural sciences. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to explore the experience of faculty teaching and learning in sustainable agriculture education curricula at a land grant university. A qualitative research methodology employi...

  2. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and irrigation service, in the mid-1990s. Despite a flurry of interventions and agrarian policies directed at the intensification of agricultural production and promotion of commercial agriculture in communa...

  3. Study on Supply-chain of Modern Agricultural Products Based on IOT in Order to Guarantee the Quality and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Mo Lianguang

    2014-01-01

    Modern agriculture features industrialization, marketized industrial structure, intensive production pattern and high digitization; farm produce logistics are characterized by wide range, large quantity, relative independence, consumable as well as value-added processing. In this study, in view of the features of modern agriculture and farm produce logistics, a SCOR model (Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model) of agricultural products based on the Internet of things has been put forward th...

  4. NUTRITIONAL ENHANCEMENT OF CROPS VIA GENETIC ENGINEERING: PROSPECTS FOR HUMAN HEALTH AND FUTURE AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily dietary intake of a few courses of vegetables and fruits provides nutrients such as vitamins, minerals and fiber for maintaining a healthy person. Phytonutrients are recommended as part of human diet because recent studies have shown them to help prevent chronic diseases. Required daily allowa...

  5. Optical characterization of agricultural pest insects: a methodological study in the spectral and time domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y. Y.; Zhang, H.; Duan, Z.; Lian, M.; Zhao, G. Y.; Sun, X. H.; Hu, J. D.; Gao, L. N.; Feng, H. Q.; Svanberg, S.

    2016-08-01

    Identification of agricultural pest insects is an important aspect in insect research and agricultural monitoring. We have performed a methodological study of how spectroscopic techniques and wing-beat frequency analysis might provide relevant information. An optical system based on the combination of close-range remote sensing and reflectance spectroscopy was developed to study the optical characteristics of different flying insects, collected in Southern China. The results demonstrate that the combination of wing-beat frequency assessment and reflectance spectral analysis has the potential to successfully differentiate between insect species. Further, studies of spectroscopic characteristics of fixed specimen of insects, also from Central China, showed the possibility of refined agricultural pest identification. Here, in addition to reflectance recordings also laser-induced fluorescence spectra were investigated for all the species of insects under study and found to provide complementary information to optically distinguish insects. In order to prove the practicality of the techniques explored, clearly fieldwork aiming at elucidating the variability of parameters, even within species, must be performed.

  6. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  7. Studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, R.; San Juan, C.

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we review studies investigating economic, agricultural-economic and demographic factors influencing land use dynamics, making special emphasis on the policy framework in the European Union. We find several conclusions, among which the following should be emphasized. First, this review highlights the existence of different methodologies to build up models to identify the effects of policy reforms affecting land use and desertification. Second, use of micro data to set up an econometric-process simulation model of land use has already been used with success. Third, in the geographical distribution of land use, prices drive all short and long-rung processes. Finally, logistic models have recently been used to study micro decisions at the agricultural sector to identify relative rents and land characteristics such as location and soil fertility as main determinants of land use patters. (Author) 8 refs.

  8. Assessment of environmental exposures from agricultural pesticides in childhood leukaemia studies: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesticides are ubiquitous in environments of many rural communities due to drift from agricultural applications and home/garden use. Studies of childhood leukaemia predominantly relied on retrospective pesticide exposure assessment and parental recall of use or proximity to fields or pesticide applications. Sample size requirements mostly preclude the collection of individual-level exposure information, bio-markers or environmental measurements of pesticides prospectively in cohorts. Yet such measures can be used in nested case-control approaches or for validating exposure models that can be applied to large populations. Recently developed models incorporate geographic information system technology and environmental databases of pesticide and/or crop data to assess exposure. Models developed in California to estimate residential exposures are presented by linking addresses to agricultural pesticide application data and land-use maps. Results from exposure validation and simulation studies and exposure measurement error issues are discussed. (authors)

  9. Conflict between Water Buffalo and Market-Oriented Agriculture: A Case Study from Northern Laos

    OpenAIRE

    TAKAI, Yasuhiro; SIBOUNHEUANG, Thanongsone

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a case study of the decline of water buffalo husbandry under the pressure ofland use change in contemporary northern Laos. Since 2000, with the spread of marketorientedagriculture and the implementation of land use zoning, fallow areas suitable forgrazing have been squeezed leading to a conflict between grazers and cultivators. Localgovernment has prohibited the former from allowing their livestock to graze freely in theareas designated for commercial agriculture, encouraging th...

  10. A population based case-control study of agricultural injuries in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Stueland, D. T.; Lee, B.C.; Nordstrom, D L; Layde, P M; Wittman, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify preventable risk factors related to agricultural injuries occurring to children on family farms. SETTING: A geographically defined central region of Wisconsin, USA with nearly 1800 family dairy farms. METHODS: A two year, population based incidence study of occupational injuries among farm residents was conducted. For cases, trained staff abstracted information on the nature, severity, and treatment of the injury from the patient's medical record. Staff also administer...

  11. The impact of agricultural practices on soil biota : a regional study

    OpenAIRE

    Ponge, Jean-François; Pérès, Guénola; Guernion, Muriel; Ruiz-Camacho, Nuria; Cortet, Jérôme; Pernin, Céline; Villenave, Cécile; Chaussod, Rémi; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Bispo, Antonio; Cluzeau, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A gradient of agricultural intensification (from permanent meadows to permanent crops, with rotation crops and meadows as intermediary steps) was studied in the course of the RMQS-Biodiv program, covering a regular grid of 109 sites spread over the whole area of French Brittany. Soil biota (earthworms, other macrofauna, microarthropods, nematodes, microorganisms) were sampled according to a standardized procedure, together with visual assessment of a Humus Index. We hypothesized that soil ani...

  12. Organic Agriculture as Livelihood Strategy: A Case Study in a Rural Community of Southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno-Peñaranda, Raquel; Egelyng, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study of a Brazilian community pursuing a livelihood strategy based on certified organic agriculture. Using the sustainable rural livelihoods framework, the paper identifies three different organic livelihood strategies involving varying degrees of capitals. The paper concludes that understanding the implications of these different organic strategies and their rationales is a prerequisite for policy-makers to tailor policies and programmes aiming to ...

  13. Analysis on Factors Influencing Sustainable Development of Self-study Examination of Agricultural Science Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yan-bing

    2012-01-01

    Based on existing problems in the course of development of self-study examination of agricultural science disciplines, this paper analyzes logical conditions for its sustainable development. Major logical conditions include requirement for free and comprehensive development of individuals; requirement for social institutional evolution and change; requirement for fairness and justice of education and development; as well as requirement for better-established organization system and higher soc...

  14. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qichang Hu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensat...

  15. Reducing fluxes of faecal indicator compliance parameters to bathing waters from diffuse agricultural sources: The Brighouse Bay study, Scotland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Water Framework Directive requires the integrated management of point and diffuse pollution to achieve 'good' water quality in 'protected areas'. These include bathing waters, which are regulated using faecal indicator organisms as compliance parameters. Thus, for the first time, European regulators are faced with the control of faecal indicator fluxes from agricultural sources where these impact on bathing water compliance locations. Concurrently, reforms to the European Union (EU) Common Agricultural Policy offer scope for supporting on-farm measures producing environmental benefits through the new 'single farm payments' and the concept of 'cross-compliance'. This paper reports the first UK study involving remedial measures, principally stream bank fencing, designed to reduce faecal indicator fluxes at the catchment scale. Considerable reduction in faecal indicator flux was observed, but this was insufficient to ensure bathing water compliance with either Directive 76/160/EEC standards or new health-evidence-based criteria proposed by WHO and the European Commission. - Diffuse microbiological pollution from farming activities can be reduced by protected riparian zones

  16. An Empirical Analysis on Agricultural Materials Logistics Control and Agricultural Products Safety :A Case Study of Bi-chains Management Model for Veterinary Drugs in Pinggu District

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG, TIANQI

    2013-01-01

    Through an empirical analysis of the agricultural logistics model and agricultural products quality control system in Pinggu district of Beijing, a model was studied to control the agricultural quality by agricultural logistics. The model adopts modern logistics supply chain, which firstly, establishes a modern logistics distribution system for veterinary drugs by the means of suppliers control, chain management and cold chain distribution; secondly, organizes the veterinary experts and docto...

  17. Study on Supply-chain of Modern Agricultural Products Based on IOT in Order to Guarantee the Quality and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Lianguang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture features industrialization, marketized industrial structure, intensive production pattern and high digitization; farm produce logistics are characterized by wide range, large quantity, relative independence, consumable as well as value-added processing. In this study, in view of the features of modern agriculture and farm produce logistics, a SCOR model (Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model of agricultural products based on the Internet of things has been put forward through the improvement of the logistics model of traditional agricultural products. The advantages of this model have also been analyzed.

  18. Health risk evaluation of whole-body vibration by ISO 2631-5 and ISO 2631-1 for operators of agricultural tractors and recreational vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Min-Soo; Fukuda, Takabumi; Kim, Tae-Gu; Maeda, Setsuo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental research evaluation of the vibration exposure for the health risk prediction during vehicle operation. The vibration measurements were carried out on a recreational vehicle and two types of agricultural tractors. The vibration levels were measured for different surfaces and vehicle speed conditions. Based on the analysis of the results in the small agricultural tractor operated in the workplace (frameworks), Sed exceeded 0.80 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004, and Av exceeded 0.89 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997. That means that operators driving small agricultural tractors more than 8 h a day have a high probability of adverse health effects. However, the exposure value for the recreational vehicle had Sed < 0.5 MPa by ISO2631-5:2004 and Av < 0.5 m/s(2) by ISO2631-1:1997 on highways and local roads. That means Recreational Vehicle operators driving more than 8 h a day, have a low probability of adverse health effects. Also, for the recreational vehicle, vibration was taken at different speeds (40-60 km/h, 80 km/h, 100-120 km/h). However, the speed change did not appear to affect the vibration dose variation while driving a vehicle on the highway and road. Finally, the health effect index of ISO2631-5:2004 are almost the same as assessment of health effect by ISO2631-1:1997. PMID:23558167

  19. Region of birth, sex, and agricultural work of immigrant Latino farm workers: the MICASA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, S A; Stoecklin-Marois, M T; Tancredi, D J; Bennett, D H; Schenker, M B

    2014-04-01

    Agricultural work is hazardous, and immigrant workers perform the majority of production tasks, yet there are few data describing agricultural work and use of protective measures by demographic characteristics. We examined cross-sectionally the influence of region of birth (Mexico vs. Central America) and sex on agricultural work and use of protective measures in the MICASA cohort of immigrant Latino farm workers in Mendota, California. Of 445 participants, 293 (65.8%) were born in Mexico (163 men, 130 women) and 152 (34.2%) were born in Central America (80 men, 72 women). Men worked on average 74.4 more days than women (95% CI 62.0, 86.9) and were more likely to perform tasks requiring high levels of training or strength, such as machine operation, pruning, picking, planting, and irrigation; more likely to work in dusty conditions; and more likely to work directly with pesticides. Women predominated in packing. Respondents from Mexico were more likely to work with tomatoes and less likely to work with melon and lettuce. Central America-born respondents were less likely to engage in planting, irrigation, and pesticide use. Use of task-appropriate personal protective measures on at least a half-time basis was rare, with the exception of persons working with pesticides (a group limited to men) and for facial scarves among Central American women. Further work should focus on identifying barriers to use of preventive measures and programs to further their use. Educational models accounting for cultural factors and driving social norm change, employer engagement, and use of community health workers (promotores) may be helpful in promoting use of preventive measures. PMID:24897916

  20. Management of agricultural soils for greenhouse gas mitigation: Learning from a case study in NE Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Iglesias, A; McVittie, A; Álvaro-Fuentes, J; Ingram, J; Mills, J; Lesschen, J P; Kuikman, P J

    2016-04-01

    A portfolio of agricultural practices is now available that can contribute to reaching European mitigation targets. Among them, the management of agricultural soils has a large potential for reducing GHG emissions or sequestering carbon. Many of the practices are based on well tested agronomic and technical know-how, with proven benefits for farmers and the environment. A suite of practices has to be used since none of the practices can provide a unique solution. However, there are limitations in the process of policy development: (a) agricultural activities are based on biological processes and thus, these practices are location specific and climate, soils and crops determine their agronomic potential; (b) since agriculture sustains rural communities, the costs and potential for implementation have also to be regionally evaluated and (c) the aggregated regional potential of the combination of practices has to be defined in order to inform abatement targets. We believe that, when implementing mitigation practices, three questions are important: Are they cost-effective for farmers? Do they reduce GHG emissions? What policies favour their implementation? This study addressed these questions in three sequential steps. First, mapping the use of representative soil management practices in the European regions to provide a spatial context to upscale the local results. Second, using a Marginal Abatement Cost Curve (MACC) in a Mediterranean case study (NE Spain) for ranking soil management practices in terms of their cost-effectiveness. Finally, using a wedge approach of the practices as a complementary tool to link science to mitigation policy. A set of soil management practices was found to be financially attractive for Mediterranean farmers, which in turn could achieve significant abatements (e.g., 1.34 MtCO2e in the case study region). The quantitative analysis was completed by a discussion of potential farming and policy choices to shape realistic mitigation policy at

  1. Psychedelics and mental health: a population study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teri S Krebs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental health in the adult population. METHOD: Data drawn from years 2001 to 2004 of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health consisted of 130,152 respondents, randomly selected to be representative of the adult population in the United States. Standardized screening measures for past year mental health included serious psychological distress (K6 scale, mental health treatment (inpatient, outpatient, medication, needed but did not receive, symptoms of eight psychiatric disorders (panic disorder, major depressive episode, mania, social phobia, general anxiety disorder, agoraphobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and non-affective psychosis, and seven specific symptoms of non-affective psychosis. We calculated weighted odds ratios by multivariate logistic regression controlling for a range of sociodemographic variables, use of illicit drugs, risk taking behavior, and exposure to traumatic events. RESULTS: 21,967 respondents (13.4% weighted reported lifetime psychedelic use. There were no significant associations between lifetime use of any psychedelics, lifetime use of specific psychedelics (LSD, psilocybin, mescaline, peyote, or past year use of LSD and increased rate of any of the mental health outcomes. Rather, in several cases psychedelic use was associated with lower rate of mental health problems. CONCLUSION: We did not find use of psychedelics to be an independent risk factor for mental health problems.

  2. Effect of air pollution on peri-urban agriculture: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO2, NO2 and O3 and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological characteristics, pigment, biomass and yield. Parameter reductions in mung bean (Vigna radiata), palak (Beta vulgaris), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mustard (Brassica compestris) grown within the urban fringes of Varanasi, India correlated directly with the gaseous pollutants levels. The magnitude of response involved all three gaseous pollutants at peri-urban sites; O3 had more influence at a rural site. The study concluded that air pollution in Varanasi could negatively influence crop yield. - Urban air pollution has a negative impact on peri-urban agriculture

  3. Organic agriculture in the municipality of Alta Floresta-MT: case study on family based properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Caroline de Lima Proença

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Family farming has distinct characteristics in their organization and reproduction, such as the use of labor, family labor, the smallest territorial dimension of the plant and crop diversity. Organic agriculture has great potential for family farms, establishing more harmonious relationships between natural ecosystems and agricultural activities. In this context, this paper aims to study five units of organic farming family based in the municipality of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, making the general characterization of it and trying to identify the reality and the difficulties faced by these farmers. Data were made from semi-structured interviews and observation. It was found that the lack of technical assistance, the lack of access to rural credit facilities and lack of family labor are limiting factors that directly interfere with the management of agroecosystems. Furthermore, the great diversity of species managed is a key success factor in seeking and maintaining the stability of agroecosystems.

  4. Influence of globalization phenomenon on rural agriculture (Case study: Kashmar County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Jahani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Globalization have effected on rural economic. Countries that production of agriculture effect to national economic, therefore have understand influence of globalization. In recent years, globalization has been led to decreasing geographical boundaries between countries. Policies of globalization with products of less developed countries have withdrawn from the competition. Effects of this issue have disabled less developed countries in production, competitiveness and employment, and then have been led to Poverty, inequality and unemployment. There are different products in Iran due to having various climates. Kashmar Farmers active for producing such as grape, saffron, almonds and pomegranate. The effects of international marks influence studied farmers. This paper has been concluded from analyzing of seven villages in Kashmar County at 2014. Findings show, there is oriented relation between globalization and rural agriculture inequality.

  5. Effect of air pollution on peri-urban agriculture: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, M.; Singh, B.; Rajput, M.; Marshall, F.; Bell, J.N.B

    2003-12-01

    Peri-urban agriculture is vital for the urban populations of many developing countries. Increases in both industrialization and urbanization, and associated air pollution threaten urban food production and its quality. Six hour mean concentrations were monitored for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} and plant responses were measured in terms of physiological characteristics, pigment, biomass and yield. Parameter reductions in mung bean (Vigna radiata), palak (Beta vulgaris), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and mustard (Brassica compestris) grown within the urban fringes of Varanasi, India correlated directly with the gaseous pollutants levels. The magnitude of response involved all three gaseous pollutants at peri-urban sites; O{sub 3} had more influence at a rural site. The study concluded that air pollution in Varanasi could negatively influence crop yield. - Urban air pollution has a negative impact on peri-urban agriculture.

  6. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study and women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, V N

    1997-01-01

    In May 1997, President Bill Clinton apologized for the Tuskegee Syphilis Study. The President's action underscores that in the 25 years since its public revelation, the study has moved from a singular historical event to a powerful metaphor that symbolizes racism in medicine, misconduct in human research, the arrogance of physicians, and government abuse of black people. The Tuskegee Syphilis Study also has implications for women's health. Discussion of the study usually ignores its impact on the wives of the victims. In addition, African-American women may be more reluctant to participate in clinical trials because of the shadow cast by the syphilis study and other incidents of medical abuse. Finally, the Tuskegee Syphilis Study reminds us that the battle against racism must be an integral part of the campaign to improve women's health. PMID:9354052

  7. Wild plant food in agricultural environments: a study of occurrence, management, and gathering rights in Northeast Thailand.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, L.L.

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the gathering of wild plant foods in agricultural environments and utilizes research conducted among rice cultivators in northeast Thailand as the case study. The management of wild food plants and gathering rights on agricultural land are closely linked to women's roles as far

  8. Environmental hot spot analysis in agricultural life-cycle assessments – three case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Piringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Present-day agricultural technology is facing the challenge of limiting the environmental impacts of agricultural production – such as greenhouse gas emissions and demand for additional land – while meeting growing demands for agricultural products. Using the well-established method of life-cycle assessment (LCA, potential environmental impacts of agricultural production chains can be quantified and analyzed. This study presents three case studies of how the method can pinpoint environmental hot spots at different levels of agricultural production systems. The first case study centers on the tractor as the key source of transportation and traction in modern agriculture. A common Austrian tractor model was investigated over its life-cycle, using primary data from a manufacturer and measured load profiles for field work. In all but one of the impact categories studied, potential impacts were dominated by the operation phase of the tractor’s life-cycle (mainly due to diesel fuel consumption, with 84.4-99.6% of total impacts. The production phase (raw materials and final assembly caused between 0.4% and 12.1% of impacts, while disposal of the tractor was below 1.9% in all impact categories. The second case study shifts the focus to an entire production chain for a common biogas feedstock, maize silage. System boundaries incorporate the effect of auxiliary materials such as fertilizer and pesticides manufacturing and application. The operation of machinery in the silage production chain was found to be critical to its environmental impact. For the climate change indicator GWP100 (global warming potential, 100-year reference period, emissions from tractor operation accounted for 15 g CO2-eq per kg silage (64% of total GWP100, followed by field emissions during fertilizer (biogas digestate application with 6 g CO2-eq per kg silage (24% of total GWP100. At a larger system scale that includes a silage-fed biogas plant with electricity generated by

  9. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Shi; Jun Xiao; Yafeng Wang; Liding Chen

    2014-01-01

    The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI) values, and human health risk assessments were used ...

  10. Organic Food and Health: A new project to study the effects of plant cultivation methods (organic and conventional) on nutritional value, health and reproduction in an animal experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Kirsten; Nygaard Larsen, Hanne; Andersen, Jens-Otto; Mølgaard, Jens-Peter; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Jørgensen, Henry; Gundersen, Vagn; Larsen, Erik; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2001-01-01

    Many consumers believe that food from plants grown under certain conditions, such as organic agriculture, will benefit health more than conventional food. This cannot be determined simply by analysing the material, since our understanding of the connections between food components and health is still to imprecise for such a purpose. Rather than waiting until basic research provides the knowledge needed for this approach, in the spring of 2001 we have initiated a project to study physiological...

  11. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  12. Photovoltaics in agriculture: A case study on decision making of farmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to identify the success factors, incentives, barriers and challenges in the adoption process of photovoltaics (PV) in the agricultural sector, with particular focus placed on decision making of individual farmers and network effects. We investigated a successful case of an Austrian farmers' association that set up a community power plant concept and a society for facilitating PV adoption among farmers. We found that PV adoption decisions are driven by economic and environmental considerations and that while ethical considerations are relatively strong among farmers, they cannot be used as predictors in the decision making process. Results furthermore suggest that while adoption of PV increases belief in technological progress as a solution to environmental problems, it may simultaneously lead to a weakening in the belief that underlying lifestyle changes are necessary. Our conclusions address crucial aspects of PV adoption in agriculture, and implications for policy measures related to respective community initiatives. - Highlights: • Study on successful community PV adoption case in agriculture. • Bottom-up emergence of institutional agreements as reaction to public subsidies. • Economic and environmental considerations guide decision making of farmers. • PV adoption might change perception of environmental problems. • Policy measures required to cope with potential added-value of private initiatives

  13. REDD+ and climate smart agriculture in landscapes: A case study in Vietnam using companion modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvini, G; Ligtenberg, A; van Paassen, A; Bregt, A K; Avitabile, V; Herold, M

    2016-05-01

    Finding land use strategies that merge land-based climate change mitigation measures and adaptation strategies is still an open issue in climate discourse. This article explores synergies and trade-offs between REDD+, a scheme that focuses mainly on mitigation through forest conservation, with "Climate Smart Agriculture", an approach that emphasizes adaptive agriculture. We introduce a framework for ex-ante assessment of the impact of land management policies and interventions and for quantifying their impacts on land-based mitigation and adaptation goals. The framework includes a companion modelling (ComMod) process informed by interviews with policymakers, local experts and local farmers. The ComMod process consists of a Role-Playing Game with local farmers and an Agent Based Model. The game provided a participatory means to develop policy and climate change scenarios. These scenarios were then used as inputs to the Agent Based Model, a spatially explicit model to simulate landscape dynamics and the associated carbon emissions over decades. We applied the framework using as case study a community in central Vietnam, characterized by deforestation for subsistence agriculture and cultivation of acacias as a cash crop. The main findings show that the framework is useful in guiding consideration of local stakeholders' goals, needs and constraints. Additionally the framework provided beneficial information to policymakers, pointing to ways that policies might be re-designed to make them better tailored to local circumstances and therefore more effective in addressing synergistically climate change mitigation and adaptation objectives. PMID:26921566

  14. Study on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Agricultural Climate Resources during Summer Drought in Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei; YU; Xiaoping; GU; Hua; XIONG

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantitatively assess the objective impact of light,heat and water agricultural climate resources on food crops during summer drought,this paper uses the assessment methods for light and temperature potential productivity,and light,temperature and water potential productivity of food crops,performs the comparative analysis of the difference between the food production potential and the average climate state during summer drought,and objectively analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of agricultural climate resources in Guizhou Province during summer drought. Studies show that under summer drought in Guizhou Province,the light and temperature potential productivity of rice and corn is generally about 10% higher than in normal climate years,and the strengths of light and heat resources are obvious; the light,temperature and water potential productivity of rice and corn is generally 30% to 40% lower than in normal climate years,and the weaknesses of water resources hamper the crop growth. Rational development and efficient use of water resources and good light and heat conditions for crops during drought,are more conducive to agricultural production.

  15. Fabrication of Scalable Indoor Light Energy Harvester and Study for Agricultural IoT Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, M.; Nakamura, A.; Kunii, A.; Kusano, K.; Futagawa, M.

    2015-12-01

    A scalable indoor light energy harvester was fabricated by microelectromechanical system (MEMS) and printing hybrid technology and evaluated for agricultural IoT applications under different environmental input power density conditions, such as outdoor farming under the sun, greenhouse farming under scattered lighting, and a plant factory under LEDs. We fabricated and evaluated a dye- sensitized-type solar cell (DSC) as a low cost and “scalable” optical harvester device. We developed a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)-less process with a honeycomb metal mesh substrate fabricated by MEMS technology. In terms of the electrical and optical properties, we achieved scalable harvester output power by cell area sizing. Second, we evaluated the dependence of the input power scalable characteristics on the input light intensity, spectrum distribution, and light inlet direction angle, because harvested environmental input power is unstable. The TiO2 fabrication relied on nanoimprint technology, which was designed for optical optimization and fabrication, and we confirmed that the harvesters are robust to a variety of environments. Finally, we studied optical energy harvesting applications for agricultural IoT systems. These scalable indoor light harvesters could be used in many applications and situations in smart agriculture.

  16. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects

  17. Behavior of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes in eco-agricultural system: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weixiao; Li, Jianan; Wu, Ying; Xu, Like; Su, Chao; Qian, Yanyun; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to determine abundance and persistence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in eco-agricultural system (EAS), which starts from swine feces to anaerobic digestion products, then application of anaerobic digestion solid residue (ADSR) and anaerobic digestion liquid residue (ADLR) to the soil to grow ryegrass, one of swine feed. Oxytetracycline had the highest concentration in manure reaching up to 138.7 mg/kg. Most of antibiotics could be effectively eliminated by anaerobic digestion and removal rates ranged from 11% to 86%. ARGs abundance fluctuated within EAS. TetQ had the highest relative abundance and the relative abundance of tetG had the least variation within the system, which indicates that tetG is persistent in the agricultural environment and requires more attention. Compared to the relative abundance in manure, tetC and tetM increased in biogas residue while three ribosomal protection proteins genes (tetO, tetQ, tetW) decreased (p0.05). Most ARGs in downstream components (soils and fishpond) of EAS showed significantly higher relative abundance than the control agricultural system (p<0.05), except for tetG and sulI. PMID:26546700

  18. Study of continuous-wave domain fluorescence diffuse optical tomography for quality control on agricultural produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadhira, Vebi, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Kurniadi, Deddy, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Juliastuti, E., E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id; Sutiswan, Adeline, E-mail: vebi@tf.itb.ac.id [Instrumentation and Control Research Group, Faculty of Industrial Technology, Institute Technology of Bandung, Ganesha 10 40132 Bandung (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    The importance of monitoring the quality of vegetables and fruits is prosperity by giving a competitive advantage for producer and providing a more healthy food for consumer. Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is offering the possibility to detect the internal defects of the agricultural produce quality. Fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (FDOT) is the development of DOT, offering the possibilities to improve spatial resolution and to contrast image. The purpose of this research is to compare FDOT and DOT in forward analysis with continuous wave approach. The scattering and absorbing parameters of potatoes are used to represent the real condition. The object was illuminated by the NIR source from some positions on the boundary of object. A set of NIR detector are placed on the peripheral position of the object to measure the intensity of propagated or emitted light. In the simulation, we varied a condition of object then we analyzed the sensitivity of forward problem. The result of this study shows that FDOT has a better sensitivity than DOT and a better potential to monitor internal defects of agricultural produce because of the contrast value between optical and fluorescence properties of agricultural produce normal tissue and defects.

  19. Process-based image analysis for agricultural mapping: A case study in Turkgeldi region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damla Uca Avci, Z.; Sunar, Filiz

    2015-10-01

    The need for timely, accurate, and interoperable geospatial information is steadily increasing. In this context, process-based image processing systems will be the initial segment for future's automatic systems. A process-based system is believed to be a good approach for agricultural purpose because agricultural activities are carried out according to a periodic (annual) cycle. Therefore, a process-based image analysis procedure was designed for routine crop classification for an agricultural region in Kırklareli, Turkey. The process tree developed uses a multi-temporal image data set as an input and gives the final crop classification as an output by using an incremental rule set. The test data set was composed of five images of Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre 4 (SPOT 4) data acquired in 2007. Basically, image objects were first extracted and then classified. A rule set was structured depending on class definitions. A decision-based process was executed and formed a multilevel image classification system. The final classification was obtained by merging classes from the appropriate levels where they were extracted. To evaluate the success of the application the accuracy of the classification was assessed. The overall accuracy and kappa index of agreement was found to be 80% and 0.78, respectively. At the end of the study, problems of segmentation and classification operations were discussed and solution approaches were outlined. To assess the process in terms of its scope for automation, the efficiency and success of the rule set were also discussed.

  20. EARLY DETECTION OF CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON AGRICULTURE AN ISRAELI CASE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Kliot [Department of Geography and Environment Studies University of Haifa, Haifa (Israel)

    2008-09-30

    According to moderate I.P.C.C. scenarios, within the coming 100 years the temperature in the Eastern Mediterranean is expected to rise by an average of 3.3 C in the summer and 2.8 C in the winter. It is expected that heat waves will increase in intensity and frequency. It is also expected that the annual rainfall will be reduced, there will be fewer rainy days and rise in the frequency of extreme rainfall event. Also, frequency of extreme whether events is expected to rise. The difficulties which face Israeli farming which is technologically a very advanced one, are: first, water stress - shortage in water resources and deterioration in their quality; second, impacts on crops and various livestock and poultry branches. Generally, agricultural long term planning will have to plan for replacing many fruit trees which need cool winter (apples, pears, peaches, cherries - for example) by crops which will be better adapted to heat and dry weather. It is expected that the higher temperatures will sustain more diseases of plants, crops and orchards. Field crops which depend on winter precipitation will be particularly effected by climatic changes. Some, such cotton will require supplemental irrigation. All field crops will be subjected to increased soil erosion. Studies which were conducted in Israel estimated that the future damages to agriculture as a result of water shortages as ranging between $101-$208 million. The income of farmers may drop by 20%. One of the coping methods is a system of insurance in most of the agricultural branches and a special fund to compensate wheat farmers for frequent droughts. The various difficulties and adaptation mechanisms (such as smart agriculture, or complete green house farming systems) will be presented.

  1. Study of hybrid power system potential to power agricultural water pump in mountain area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syuhada, Ahmad; Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham

    2016-03-01

    As industry and Indonesian economy grow fast, there are a lot of agricultural land has changed into housing and industrial land. This causes the agricultural land moves to mountain area. In mountainous agricultural area, farmers use the water resources of small rivers in the groove of the mountain to irrigate the farmland. Farmers use their power to lift up water from the river to their land which causes inefectivity in the work of the farmers. Farmers who have capital utilize pump to raise water to their land. The only way to use pump in mountain area is by using fuel energy as there is no electricity, and the fuel price in mountain area is very expensive. Based on those reasons it is wise to consider the exploration of renewable energy available in the area such as solar energy, wind energy and hybrid energy. This study analyses the potential of the application of hybrid power plant, which is the combination of solar and wind energy, to power agricultural pump. In this research, the data of wind speed and solar radiation are collected from the measurement of BMKG SMPK Plus Sare. Related to the solar energy, the photovoltaic output power calculation is 193 W with duration of irradiation of 5 hours/day. While for the wind energy, the output power of the wind turbine is 459.84 W with blade diameter of 3 m and blow duration of 7 hours/day. The power of the pump is 558 W with 8 hours of usage, and the water capacity is 2.520 liters/hour for farmland with the area of 15 ha. Based on the analysis result, the designed system will generate electricity of 3.210 kW/year with initial investment of US 14,938.

  2. Novel Techniques and Their Wide Applications to Health Foods, Medical and Agricultural Biotechnology in Relation to Policy Making on Genetically Modified Crops and Foods

    CERN Document Server

    Baianu, I C; Lozano, P; Lin, H C

    2004-01-01

    Selected applications of novel techniques in Agricultural Biotechnology, Health Food formulations and Medical Biotechnology are being reviewed with the aim of unraveling future developments and policy changes that are likely to open new markets for Biotechnology and prevent the shrinking or closing of existing ones. Amongst the selected novel techniques with applications in both Agricultural and Medical Biotechnology are: immobilized bacterial cells and enzymes, microencapsulation and liposome production, genetic manipulation of microorganisms, development of novel vaccines from plants, epigenomics of mammalian cells and organisms, and biocomputational tools for molecular modeling related to disease and Bioinformatics. Both fundamental and applied aspects of the emerging new techniques are being discussed in relation to their anticipated, marked impact on future markets and present policy changes that are needed for success in either Agricultural or Medical Biotechnology. The novel techniques are illustrated ...

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions of agricultural professionals toward genetically modified (GM) foods: a case study in Southwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasemi, Sedigheh; Karami, Ezatollah; AZADI, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    While there has been a number of consumers' studies looking at factors that influence individuals' attitudes and behavior toward GM foods, few studies have considered agricultural professionals' intentions in this regard. This study illuminates agricultural professionals' insights toward GM foods in Southwest Iran. A random sample of 262 respondents was studied. The results indicated that the majority of the respondents had little knowledge about GM foods. They perceived few benefits or risks...

  4. Starting a learning progression for agricultural literacy: A qualitative study of urban elementary student understandings of agricultural and science education benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexander Jay

    Science and agriculture professional organizations have argued for agricultural literacy as a goal for K-12 public education. Due to the complexity of our modern agri-food system, with social, economic, and environmental concerns embedded, an agriculturally literate society is needed for informed decision making, democratic participation, and system reform. While grade-span specific benchmarks for gauging agri-food system literacy have been developed, little attention has been paid to existing ideas individuals hold about the agri-food system, how these existing ideas relate to benchmarks, how experience shapes such ideas, or how ideas change overtime. Developing a body of knowledge on students' agri-food system understandings as they develop across K-12 grades can ground efforts seeking to promote a learning progression toward agricultural literacy. This study compares existing perceptions held by 18 upper elementary students from a large urban center in California to agri-food system literacy benchmarks and examines the perceptions against student background and experiences. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the constant comparative method. Constructivist theoretical perspectives framed the study. No student had ever grown their own food, raised a plant, or cared for an animal. Participation in school fieldtrips to farms or visits to a relative's garden were agricultural experiences most frequently mentioned. Students were able to identify common food items, but could not elaborate on their origins, especially those that were highly processed. Students' understanding of post-production activities (i.e. food processing, manufacturing, or food marketing) was not apparent. Students' understanding of farms reflected a 1900's subsistence farming operation commonly found in a literature written for the primary grades. Students were unaware that plants and animals were selected for production based on desired genetic traits. Obtaining

  5. Belledune area health study : summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  6. Belledune area health study : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-02-01

    The Belledune area has been home to various industrial activities such as mining, smelting, fertilizer plants, battery-recycling plants, gypsum plants, sawmills, and a coal-fired electricity generating facility. These industries have had various types and quantities of emissions over the past 4 decades that may have impacted on the health of people in the area. This report provided details of the Belledune Health Area Study. The objective of the study was to ensure that the concerns of residents were addressed and that the historical and human health risks associated with past and current industrial activities were quantified. The current health status of residents in the area was examined with reference to environmental exposures, and recommendations for future studies and research based on the results of the study were presented. Two main components were used: the human health risk assessment (HHRA), and community health status assessment (CHSA). Best estimate calculations for residents in the core communities showed that exposures to cadmium, lead and mercury were predicted to be below toxicity reference values. In Belledune itself, child exposures to cadmium and mercury were above the toxicity reference value. Results indicated that the health status pattern for the study area was different from that found in the surrounding areas. There was a statistically significantly elevated incidence of oral, respiratory, and prostate cancer and elevated incidences of kidney and colorectal cancer. There was a higher mortality rate than expected, and there were more deaths than expected due to circulatory disease, cancer and other causes such as accidents and suicides. An expanded survey of blood lead among child residents and pregnant women was recommended. A program was launched to collect data on metal concentrations in fish from the Baie des Chaleurs and additional data on vegetables from the Greater Belledune area. Future research on some of the factors associated

  7. Use of radioisotopes as applied to the study of the metabolism of agricultural chemicals in plants, animals, and insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of radiolabeled compounds to study the fate of agricultural chemicals has found widespread acceptance during the last two decades. Radiochemicals provide the required sensitivity to study the dynamics of these biologically active molecules that are used in small concentrations in the agricultural environment. The metabolic interactions between climate, soil, air, water, plants, and animals present special problems. In this chapter, the authors will review the use of radiolabeled agricultural chemicals to study their metabolic fate in plants, animals, and insects. Specific references to the use of these radiochemicals include methods of dosing, isolation, and characterization of metabolic products

  8. SHPPS 2006: School Health Policies and Programs Study--Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The School Health Policies and Programs Study (SHPPS) is a national survey periodically conducted to assess school health policies and programs at the state, district, school, and classroom levels. This brief reports study results in the following areas, as they relate to nutrition: (1) Health Education; (2) Health Services and Mental Health and…

  9. EVA Health and Human Performance Benchmarking Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercromby, A. F.; Norcross, J.; Jarvis, S. L.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple HRP Risks and Gaps require detailed characterization of human health and performance during exploration extravehicular activity (EVA) tasks; however, a rigorous and comprehensive methodology for characterizing and comparing the health and human performance implications of current and future EVA spacesuit designs does not exist. This study will identify and implement functional tasks and metrics, both objective and subjective, that are relevant to health and human performance, such as metabolic expenditure, suit fit, discomfort, suited postural stability, cognitive performance, and potentially biochemical responses for humans working inside different EVA suits doing functional tasks under the appropriate simulated reduced gravity environments. This study will provide health and human performance benchmark data for humans working in current EVA suits (EMU, Mark III, and Z2) as well as shirtsleeves using a standard set of tasks and metrics with quantified reliability. Results and methodologies developed during this test will provide benchmark data against which future EVA suits, and different suit configurations (eg, varied pressure, mass, CG) may be reliably compared in subsequent tests. Results will also inform fitness for duty standards as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  10. Study on Net Nitrogen Mineralization at Forest, Shrubland and Abandoned Agricultural Lands under Standard Laboratory Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tecimen, Hüseyin Barış

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Current study is based on the data collected in January 2010 from field under authorization of Çatalca-Karacaköy the Chief Forest Enterprise located in the northern Istanbul. Net nitrogen mineralization rates were estimated at soils taken from mixed and thicket age (1.30 m Ø ≈ 20 cm) Oak sp. (Quercus frainetto Ten., Q. cerris L., Q. robur L. and Q. petraea (Mattuschka) Lieblein)) forest (OFL), shrub land (dominated with Cistus spp.) (SL), recently abandoned agricultural land (RAAL...

  11. Feasibility Study on the Valuation of Public Goods and Externalities in EU Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Madureira, Livia; LIMA SANTOS Jose; Ferreira, Ana; GUIMARAES Helena

    2013-01-01

    The present report develops and test and up an up-scaled non-market valuation framework to value changes in the provision level of the public goods and externalities (PGaE) of EU agriculture from the demand-side (i.e. using valuation surveys). The selected PGaE included in the study are the following: cultural landscape, farmland biodiversity, water quality and availability, air quality, soil quality, climate stability, resilience to fire and resilience to flooding. The evaluation framework h...

  12. Studies on Thermal Degradation Behavior of Siliceous Agriculture Waste (Rice Husk, Wheat Husk and Bagasse)

    OpenAIRE

    Javed Syed H.; Aslam Umair; Kazmi Mohsin; Rustam Masooma; Riaz Sheema; Munir Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Various siliceous agriculture waste (SAW) such as rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse have been investigated to study their thermal degradation behavior using Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) technique. The focus of this research is to conduct TGA of raw and acid treated (20% HCl & 1M H2SO4) SAW at heating rate 10°C/min in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The results were analyzed on the basis of thermograms and it was inferred that 24 hours soaking with 20% HCl prior to thermal degradation enhanced...

  13. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe)

  14. How to Apply Data Mining Technology to the Study of Agricultural Information Data Resources?

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xindong; Xu, Haoyue; Gao, Qian; Cai, Haiyan; Lu, Junhai; Li, Min

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a brief description of the definition and methods of data mining. It describes the characteristics of agricultural data (value delivery, specialization, spatio-temporal bidimensionality) and the status of application of data mining technology in agriculture.

  15. Development Situations and Countermeasures of Low Carbon Ecological Circular Agriculture: A Case Study of Nantong City

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chun-he; Qiao, Qi-cheng; Gu, Wei-bing; Sun, Jia-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Developing the low carbon ecological circular agriculture is an effective approach to realizing low carbon development of agriculture. Through investigation on existing measures and performance of development of low carbon type ecological circular agriculture in Nantong City, we analyzed the potential and problems of Nantong City in developing low carbon type ecological circular agriculture. Finally, with reference to domestic and foreign research achievements and practical experience, we put...

  16. A STUDY OF THE CAUSES LEADING TO THE LIQUIDATION OF AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    Kotorman, Annamaria

    2009-01-01

    The viability of agricultural enterprises is of paramount importance. Their liquidation has harmful effects on broad strata of society. The aim of my research is therefore to analyze the leading causes of liquidation of agricultural enterprises. The research was led on 17 agricultural enterprises. This may help in the prevention and treatment of their insolvency. The research results show that a long-term agricultural production is not sustainable with a low equity capital. For the long-term ...

  17. The Value of Multifunctional Agriculture: a case study in northern Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Bernués Jal, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    In some of the most biodiverse regions of the world, people have farmed for centuries, shaping magnificent agricultural landscapes. Multifunctionality recognizes agriculture as a multi-output activity producing not only private (market) goods such as food, feed, or fibre, but also public (nonmarket, non-excludable, non-rival) goods such as agricultural landscapes, farmland biodiversity, water quality, or soil functionality. Additionally, multifunctional agriculture sustains rural developme...

  18. Panel Data Based Dynamic Evaluation of Agricultural Resource Utilization Efficiency: A Case Study of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajuan; TIAN; Li; ZHEN

    2013-01-01

    Resource utilization efficiency is one of important factors influencing modern agricultural development. This paper evaluates agricultural resource utilization efficiency of Hebei Province in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period by dynamic comprehensive evaluation method. Evaluation results indicate that regional disparity in agricultural resource utilization efficiency is significant, and the disparity is increasing year by year.

  19. Psychedelics and Mental Health: A Population Study

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Teri S; Johansen, Pål-Ørjan

    2013-01-01

    Background The classical serotonergic psychedelics LSD, psilocybin, mescaline are not known to cause brain damage and are regarded as non-addictive. Clinical studies do not suggest that psychedelics cause long-term mental health problems. Psychedelics have been used in the Americas for thousands of years. Over 30 million people currently living in the US have used LSD, psilocybin, or mescaline. Objective To evaluate the association between the lifetime use of psychedelics and current mental h...

  20. Farm-based measures for reducing microbiological health risks for consumers from informal wastewater-irrigated agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keraita, Bernard; Konradsen, Flemming; Drechsel, Pay

    2010-01-01

    in developing countries as part of a multiple-barrier approach for health-risk reduction along the farm to fork pathway. Measures discussed include treatment of irrigation water using ponds, filters and wetland systems; water application techniques; irrigation scheduling; and crop selection. In...... in combination, will depend on local site characteristics and practices. Further studies are required to develop new measures or adapt them to other irrigation practices and systems in developing countries.......This chapter presents farm-based measures that have been developed and tested in the informal irrigation sector to reduce microbiological health risks for consumers from wastewater irrigation of vegetables commonly eaten uncooked. The measures target poor smallholder farmers or farmer associations...

  1. In Hot Water. A study on sociotechnical intervention models and practices of water use in smallholder agriculture, Nyanyadzi catchment, Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolding, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study focuses on intervention processes in smallholder agriculture in the Nyanyadzi river catchment, located in Chimanimani district, Manicaland Province Zimbabwe. In particular it concerns itself with sociotechnical interventions that were implemented by Agritex, the local extension and irriga

  2. Study on the Agricultural Residues Burning and PM2.5 Change in China by Remote Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shuai; Wang, Xiufeng; Zhong, Guosheng; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural residues are materials left over from the production of crops. The total amount of agricultural residues in China is about 660 million tons every year, while a large proportion of that is burnt directly on the croplands. Agricultural residues burning is a significant source of air pollution in developing countries including China. In this study, the MODIS MOD14A1 products were used to derive the daily fire spots of China. Then, the agricultural residues burning spots were obtained by extracting with the area of croplands which is from MODIS MCD12Q1 products. After vectorization of agricultural residues burning pixels and with the help of fishnet, the burning density distribution maps were eventually completed. According to the statistics, there were 71,237 pixels of agricultural residues burning in 2014. The pixels mainly focused on April, June and October, the number of which were 11,628, 10,912 and 20,965 respectively. The results show that the distribution of agricultural residues burning is closely connected with ploughing and harvesting activities and it is more severe in north China. The air quality data of 150 cities in China were also used to obtain the daily and monthly distribution maps of PM2.5 by Kriging interpolation method. The maps indicate that the PM2.5 is always higher in north China than that in south China. Comparing the results of agricultural residues burning points with the results of PM2.5, we found the agricultural residues burning can cause the PM2.5 increase, especially in June, the agricultural residues burning region was spatially and temporally consistent with the PM2.5 increase region in this month.

  3. Chinese public understanding of the use of agricultural biotechnology—A case study from Zhejiang Province of China*

    OpenAIRE

    Lü, Lan

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Chinese public’s perceptions of, and attitudes to, agriculture and food applications of biotechnology; and investigates the effect of socio-demographic factors on attitudes. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used in an attempt to combine quantitative analysis with qualitative review. The main finding of this study is that the Chinese population has a superficial, optimistic attitude to agricultural biotechnology; and that, in accordance with public attitudes, ...

  4. The Effects of the Student Teaching Experience on Cooperating Teachers in Secondary Agricultural Education Programs: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Stephen Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the effects of the student teaching experience on secondary agricultural education teachers. Eight of the thirteen participants in this study served as a cooperating teacher during the 2012 spring semester for pre-service teachers in agricultural education from a land-grant institution. Three of the participants had served as a cooperating teacher during either the 2010 or 2011 spring semester but had reported a negative student teachi...

  5. The Non-Linear Relationship between Agricultural Productivity and the Environment and its Effects on Human Health and the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Heft-Neal, Samuel Chester

    2015-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the relationship between agricultural productivity and the environment is highly non-linear. In this dissertation I evaluate yield measures commonly used to quantify agricultural productivity and demonstrate that the largest shocks, damages causing crops to become unharvestable, are omitted from the most commonly used productivity measure. I find that these losses are highly non-linear, and that infrequent but extreme damages account for substantial losse...

  6. An Introduction to Nutrition-Agriculture Linkages

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Agricultural development is now expected to proceed in a way that maximizes opportunities to improve health and nutrition. Accordingly, the term “nutrition-agriculture linkages” describes the set of relationships that shows the mutual dependence of nutrition, health and agriculture. Changes in nutrition or health status are expected to affect agricultural production; conversely changes in the agricultural sector can have significant effects on individual health and nutritional status. Most de...

  7. A laboratory study of agricultural crop residue combustion in China: Emission factors and emission inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hefeng; Ye, Xingnan; Cheng, Tiantao; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Xin; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Renyi

    The burning of agricultural crop residue represents a major source of trace gases (CO, CO 2, NO, NO 2, and NO x) and particulate matter on a regional and global scale. This study investigates the gaseous and particulate emissions from the burning of rice, wheat and corn straws, which are three major agricultural crop residues in China, using a self-built burning stove and an aerosol chamber. Emission factors of CO 2, CO, NO, NO 2 and NO x were measured to be 791.3, 64.2, 1.02, 0.79 and 1.81 g kg -1 for rice straw, 1557.9, 141.2, 0.79, 0.32 and 1.12 g kg -1 for wheat straw, and 1261.5, 114.7, 0.85, 0.43 and 1.28 g kg -1 for corn straw, respectively. The corresponding emission factors of particle number are 1.8 × 10 13, 1.0 × 10 13, and 1.7 × 10 13 particles kg -1, respectively. The total emissions of CO, CO 2, and NO x from rice, wheat and corn straw burnings in China for the year 2004 were estimated to be 22.59, 252.92, and 0.28 Tg, respectively. The percentages of CO, CO 2, and NO x to the total emissions were 13.9%, 15.3%, and 31.4% for rice straw, 32.9%, 32.5%, and 20.9% for wheat straw, and 53.2%, 52.2%, and 47.6% for corn straw, respectively. In addition, the emission allocations of agricultural crop residue burning were also plotted in different regions of China using a simple geographic information system (GIS).

  8. Operational resilience of reservoirs to climate change, agricultural demand, and tourism: A case study from Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereu, Simone; Sušnik, Janez; Trabucco, Antonio; Daccache, Andre; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Renoldi, Stefano; Virdis, Andrea; Savić, Dragan; Assimacopoulos, Dionysis

    2016-02-01

    Many (semi-) arid locations globally, and particularly islands, rely heavily on reservoirs for water supply. Some reservoirs are particularly vulnerable to climate and development changes (e.g. population change, tourist growth, hydropower demands). Irregularities and uncertainties in the fluvial regime associated with climate change and the continuous increase in water demand by different sectors will add new challenges to the management and to the resilience of these reservoirs. The resilience of vulnerable reservoirs must be studied in detail to prepare for and mitigate potential impacts of these changes. In this paper, a reservoir balance model is developed and presented for the Pedra e' Othoni reservoir in Sardinia, Italy, to assess resilience to climate and development changes. The model was first calibrated and validated, then forced with extensive ensemble climate data for representative concentration pathways (RCPs) 4.5 and 8.5, agricultural data, and with four socio-economic development scenarios. Future projections show a reduction in annual reservoir inflow and an increase in demand, mainly in the agricultural sector. Under no scenario is reservoir resilience significantly affected, the reservoir always achieves refill. However, this occurs at the partial expenses of hydropower production with implications for the production of renewable energy. There is also the possibility of conflict between the agricultural sector and hydropower sector for diminishing water supply. Pedra e' Othoni reservoir shows good resilience to future change mostly because of the disproportionately large basin feeding it. However this is not the case of other Sardinian reservoirs and hence a detailed resilience assessment of all reservoirs is needed, where development plans should carefully account for the trade-offs and potential conflicts among sectors. For Sardinia, the option of physical connection between reservoirs is available, as are alternative water supply measures

  9. Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-10-01

    This study provides cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. Agricultural statistics indicate that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of sheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm, cooperative, and industrial scales. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low-cost chemicals can be utilized. Use of low-cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low-cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

  10. Feasibility study for anaerobic digestion of agricultural crop residues. Dynatech report No. 1935

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashare, E.; Buivid, M. G.; Wilson, E. H.

    1979-07-31

    The objective of this study was to provide cost estimates for the pretreatment/digestion of crop residues to fuel gas. A review of agricultural statistics indicated that the crop residues wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw are available in sufficient quantity to provide meaningful supplies of gas. Engineering economic analyses were performed for digestion of wheat straw, corn stover, and rice straw for small farm-, cooperative-, and industrial scales. The small farm scale processed the residue from an average size US farm (400 acres), and the other sizes were two and three orders of magnitude greater. The results of the analyses indicate that the production of fuel gas from these residues is, at best, economically marginal, unless a credit can be obtained for digester effluent. The use of pretreatment can double the fuel gas output but will not be economically justifiable unless low chemical requirements or low cost chemicals can be utilized. Additional development is necessary in this area. Use of low cost hole-in-the-ground batch digestion results in improved economics for the small farm size digestion system, but not for the cooperative and industrial size systems. Recommendations arising from this study are continued development of autohydrolysis and chemical pretreatment of agricultural crop residues to improve fuel gas yields in an economically feasible manner; development of a low cost controlled landfill batch digestion process for small farm applications; and determination of crop residue digestion by-product values for fertilizer and refeed.

  11. Climate change, poverty and agricultural resource degradation: a case study of district d.g. khan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global development agendas are now being bonded with adaptation to climate change. Sustainable biodiversity and community adaptation to climate change are closely associated as depletion of natural resources adversely affects the living standard of people. Rapid climatic changes and intervention to regulate water resources in Indus delta of Pakistan have put the lives of millions of people residing near the Indus river belt at the stake of climate change. Therefore, this study was designed to inquire the socio-economic conditions of the people residing near the Indus river bank and the perceived impact of climate change on river belt agricultural resources specifically in district D. G. Khan. Based on primary data study employed univariate and bivariate analysis which suggested flood, wind storm and temperature as the significant climate change parameters affecting the land fertility, forest and fisheries. The Foster Greer and Thorbeck technique for calculating the poverty indicated that majority (82%) of population was below poverty line and most of them entirely depend on river belt agricultural resources which were found to be depleting due to rapid climate change. (author)

  12. A review: study on the behavior of 137Cs in agricultural environment of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China, study on the behavior of137Cs in agricultural environment was begun in 1960. Many papers on the behavior of 137Cs in soil-plant system and the estimation of 137Cs radioactivity in soil and food were published. The absorption, accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in plant, the relationship between absorption of 137Cs by plant and contaminating way and form, the 137Cs radioactivity in soil and food and its transfer coefficient in soil-plant system, the effects of the characters of soil and plant as well as the living stages on the transfer are concerned. The results show that the average radioactivity of 137Cs in soil of China is 10.45 Bq/kg, and the deposition densities decrease with the latitude decreasing. The transfer coefficient of 137Cs from soil to the agricultural products is about 0.12∼8.19 x 10-3. The distribution of 137Cs in rice plant is in the order of the root>glume>leaf>stem>rice. The radioactivity of aerial part accumulates mainly in the glume. The countermeasures to alleviate the adverse effects of 137Cs contamination need further study

  13. Assessing the mitigation potential of agricultural systems by optimization of the agricultural management: A modeling study on 8 agricultural observation sites across Europe with the process based model LandscapeDNDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers increase crop yields but cause the biggest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and strongly contribute to surface water eutrophication (e.g. nitrate leaching). The necessity to identify affordable strategies that improve crop production while improving ecosystem services are in continuous debate between policy decision makers and farmers. In this line, a lack commitment from farmers to enforce laws might result in the reduction of benefits. For this reason, farmers should aim to increase crop production and to reduce environmental harm by the adoption of precision climate smart agriculture tools applied to management practices for instance. In this study we present optimized strategies for 8 sites (agricultural and grassland ecosystems) with long term field observation across Europe to show the mitigation potential to reduce reactive nitrogen losses under the constrain of keeping yields at observed levels. LandscapeDNDC simulations of crop yields and associated nitrogen losses (N2O emissions and NO3 leaching) were evaluated against long term field measurements. The sites presented different management regimes including the main commodity crops (maize, wheat, barley, rape seeds, etc) and fertilization amendments (synthetic and organic fertilizers) in Europe. The simulations reproduced the observed yields, captured N2O emissions and NO3 leaching losses with high statistical presicion (r2), acurrency (ME) and agreement (RMSPEn). The mitigation potentials to reduce N losses while keeping yields at observed levels for all 8 sites were assesed by Monte Carlo optimizations of the individual underlying multi year agricultural management options (timings of planting and harvest, fertilization & manure applications and rates, residues management). In this study we present for all 8 agricultural observations sites their individual mitigation potentials to reduce N losses for multi year rotations. The conclusions

  14. Accounting for health in climate change policies: a case study of Fiji

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Morrow

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Climate change is expected to affect the health of most populations in the coming decades, having the greatest impact on the poorest and most disadvantaged people in the world. The Pacific islands, including Fiji, are particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. Objective: The three major health impacts of climate change in Fiji explored in this study were dengue fever, diarrhoeal disease, and malnutrition, as they each pose a significant threat to human health. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent the Fiji National Climate Change Policy, and a selection of relevant sectoral policies, account for these human health effects of climate change. Design: The study employed a three-pronged policy analysis to evaluate: 1 the content of the Fijian National Climate Change Policy and to what extent health was incorporated within this; 2 the context within which the policy was developed; 3 the relevant processes; and 4 the actors involved. A selection of relevant sectoral policies were also analysed to assess the extent to which these included climate change and health considerations. Results: The policy analysis showed that these three health impacts of climate change were only considered to a minor extent, and often indirectly, in both the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and the corresponding National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, as well as the Public Health Act. Furthermore, supporting documents in relevant sectors including water and agriculture made no mention of climate change and health impacts. Conclusions: The projected health impacts of climate change should be considered as part of reviewing the Fiji National Climate Change Policy and National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy, and the Public Health Act. In the interest of public health, this should include strategies for combating dengue fever, malnutrition, and water-borne disease. Related sectoral policies in water and agriculture should

  15. Individualized study health physics training modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strength of individualized study modules is that the quicker student can move more rapidly while the slower student may continue to review the material, take self-checking tests, and obtain guidance from an instructor until mastery is achieved. At the present time five health physics, individualized study modules are nearing completion. The titles of these modules are: The Nature of Radiation and Its Interaction with Matter; Detection of Radiation and Assay of Radioactivity; Biological Effects of Radiation; Physical Safeguards; and Waste Disposal and Decontamination. Each module consists of a slide and audio tape synchronized program which is accompanied by student directions, objectives, a self quiz and a test

  16. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production along railway tracks: a case study from the Mumbai Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prem Jose Vazhacharickal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA contributes to food security, serves as an opportunity for income generation, and provides recreational services to urban citizens. With a population of 21 Million people, of which 60 % live in slums, UPA activities can play a crucial role in supporting people’s livelihoods in Mumbai Metropolitan Region (MMR. This study was conducted to characterize the railway gardens, determine their role in UPA production, and assess potential risks. It comprises a baseline survey among 38 railway gardeners across MMR characterized by different demographic, socio-economic, migratory, and labour characteristics. Soil, irrigation water, and plant samples were analyzed for nutrients, heavy metals, and microbial load. All the railway gardeners practiced agriculture as a primary source of income and cultivated seasonal vegetables such as lady’s finger (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench, spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., red amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus L., and white radish (Raphanus sativus var. longipinnatus which were irrigated with waste water. This irrigation water was loaded with 7–28 mg N l^(−1, 0.3–7 mg P l^(−1, and 8–32 mg K l^(−1, but also contained heavy metals such as lead (0.02–0.06 mg Pb l^(−1, cadmium (0.03–0.17 mg Cd l^(−1, mercury (0.001–0.005 mg Hg l^(−1, and pathogens such as Escherichia coli (1,100 most probable number per 100 ml. Levels of heavy metals exceeded the critical thresholds in surface soils (Cr, Ni, and Sr and produce (Pb, Cd, and Sr. The railway garden production systems can substantially foster employment and reduce economic deprivation of urban poor particularly slum dwellers and migrant people. However this production system may also cause possible health risks to producers and consumers.

  17. Efficient nitrogen recycling through sustainable use of organic wastes in agriculture - an Australian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Hannah; Landman, Michael; Collins, David; Walton, Katrina; Penney, Nancy; Pritchard, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    to nutrient losses to air and water. This paper discusses the sustainable recycling N resources in biosolids and biowastes in agriculture in Australia using specific recent research examples from Western Australia, including lime amended biosolids, alum sludge and dewatered biosolids cake, and from Tasmania, papermill sludge. The primary focus is the N fertiliser replacement value of different biosolids and biowaste types under different environmental conditions, and management issues relating to the sustainable recycling of N. Experimental work included field trials and soil incubation studies. The findings are compared with research findings conducted in different climatic regions and soil types across Australia (Queensland, Victoria, New South Wales) and internationally.

  18. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River Basin, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. M. van Emmerik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River Basin (MRB. The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and a measure of environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. We propose this as a generalizable modeling framework for coupled human hydrological systems that is potentially transferable to systems in different climatic and socio

  19. Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Risks of Heavy Metal Contamination in Agriculture Soils Disturbed by Pipeline Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Shi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of large-scale infrastructures such as nature gas/oil pipelines involves extensive disturbance to regional ecosystems. Few studies have documented the soil degradation and heavy metal contamination caused by pipeline construction. In this study, chromium (Cr, cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb and zinc (Zn levels were evaluated using Index of Geo-accumulation (Igeo and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI values, and human health risk assessments were used to elucidate the level and spatial variation of heavy metal pollution risks. The results showed that the impact zone of pipeline installation on soil heavy metal contamination was restricted to pipeline right-of-way (RoW, which had higher Igeo of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb than that of 20 m and 50 m. RI showed a declining tendency in different zones as follows: trench > working zone > piling area > 20 m > 50 m. Pipeline RoW resulted in higher human health risks than that of 20 m and 50 m, and children were more susceptible to non-carcinogenic hazard risk. Cluster analysis showed that Cu, Ni, Pb and Cd had similar sources, drawing attention to the anthropogenic activity. The findings in this study should help better understand the type, degree, scope and sources of heavy metal pollution from pipeline construction to reduce pollutant emissions, and are helpful in providing a scientific basis for future risk management.

  20. Reclamation of natural, seminatural and agricultural environments following radioactive contamination - A Nordic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A range of methods, from simple cost benefits analyses to sophisticated decision making systems, are available for assessing the net countermeasure benefits to man contamination of different environments. As part of the Nordic Nuclear Safety Research Programme, an attempt was made to develop a strategy for mid- and long-term reclamation of contaminated cultivated agricultural environments, animals, forests, freshwater and fish, and urban environments. The study focused on the long-lived nuclides 137Cs and 90Sr. Also social implications and a sound environmental management should be addressed in the selection of a countermeasure strategy. The considerations of the cultivated agricultural environment included a model of a Nordic environment, with different soil types, land use and crops. When considering countermeasure strategies for animals, both transfer and production rates have to be compared, as the transfer of radiocaesium to animals in cultivated areas is low compared to the transfer in unimproved areas or to wild animals. The countermeasures considered for freshwater were: use of alternative water supply, and ion exchange method, and for freshwater fish: limiting consumption, brining in households, and wet land and lake liming. In urban environments knowledge on the source strengths, relative dose rate at different locations (indoor, outdoor) due to the deposition on different urban surfaces (roofs, walls, paved areas, trees, bushes etc.) is important. For all environments costs and averted doses were estimated for a fallout scenario giving 1 MBq m-2 of 137Cs. The effectiveness of the different countermeasures was then compared and reclamation strategies suggested. (author)

  1. An exploratory study on occurrence and impact of climate change on agriculture in Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, R. Jayakumara; Kumar, Pramod; Jha, Girish Kumar; Pal, Suresh; Singh, Rashmi

    2015-12-01

    This study has been undertaken to examine the occurrence of climate change in Tamil Nadu, the southernmost state of India and its impact on rainfall pattern which is a primary constraint for agricultural production. Among the five sample stations examined across the state, the minimum temperature has increased significantly in Coimbatore while the same has decreased significantly in Vellore whereas both minimum and maximum temperatures have increased significantly in Madurai since 1969 with climate change occurring between late 1980s and early 1990s. As a result, the south-west monsoon has been disturbed with August rainfall increasing with more dispersion while September rainfall decreasing with less dispersion. Thus, September, the peak rainfall month of south-west monsoon before climate change, has become the monsoon receding month after climate change. Though there has been no change in the trend of the north-east monsoon, the quantity of October and November rainfall has considerably increased with increased dispersion after climate change. On the whole, south-west monsoon has decreased with decreased dispersion while north-east monsoon has increased with increased dispersion. Consequently, the season window for south-west monsoon crops has shortened while the north-east monsoon crops are left to fend against flood risk during their initial stages. Further, the incoherence in warming, climate change and rainfall impact seen across the state necessitates devising different indigenous and institutional adaptation strategies for different regions to overcome the adverse impacts of climate change on agriculture.

  2. Sorption of methylene blue on treated agricultural adsorbents: equilibrium and kinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, D. P.; Singh, S. K.; Sharma, Neetu

    2015-03-01

    Agricultural adsorbents are reported to have a remarkable performance for adsorption of dyes. In the present study, formaldehyde and sulphuric acid treated two agricultural adsorbents; potato peel and neem bark are used to adsorb methylene blue. On the whole, the acid-treated adsorbents are investigated to have high sorption efficiency compared to HCHO treated adsorbents. The percentage removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated potato peel (APP) increases considerably high from 75 to 100 % with increase in adsorbent dose, whereas the removal efficiency of H2SO4 treated neem bark (ANB) is found to be 98 % after adding the first dose only. The monolayer sorption behaviour of HCHO treated potato peel (PP) and APP is well defined by Langmuir, whereas the chemisorptions behaviour of HCHO treated neem bark (NB) and ANB is suggested by Temkin's isotherm model. The maximum adsorption capacity measured is highest in ANB followed by NB, PP and APP with the values of 1000, 90, 47.62 and 40.0 mg/g, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model fitted well with the observed data of all the four adsorbents. The results obtained reveal that NB and ANB both are good adsorbents compared to PP and APP.

  3. Starting a Learning Progression for Agricultural Literacy: A Qualitative Study of Urban Elementary Student Understandings of Agricultural and Science Education Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Alexander Jay

    2010-01-01

    Science and agriculture professional organizations have argued for agricultural literacy as a goal for K-12 public education. Due to the complexity of our modern agri-food system, with social, economic, and environmental concerns embedded, an agriculturally literate society is needed for informed decision making, democratic participation, and…

  4. When Does Variable Rate Technology for Agricultural Sprayers Pay? A Case Study for Cotton Production in Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Mooney, Daniel; Larson, James; Roberts, Roland; English, Burton

    2009-01-01

    Producers interested in precision agriculture lack information on the profitability of variable rate technology (VRT) systems for agricultural sprayers. A partial budgeting framework was developed to evaluate the level of input savings required to pay for investments in VRT. To illustrate this framework, a case study for cotton production in Tennessee is provided. Ownership and information costs were determined for two commerciallyavailable VRT systems and compared to extension recommended in...

  5. A Comprehensive Study of Agricultural Drought Resistance and Background Drought Levels in Five Main Grain-Producing Regions of China

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Kang; Hongqi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Drought control and resistance affect national food security. With this in mind, we studied five main grain-producing regions of China: Sanjiang Plain, Songnen Plain, Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, the middle Yangtze River and Jianghuai region and Sichuan Basin. Using GIS technology, we evaluated the comprehensive agricultural drought situation based on major crops, the basic drought resistance by integrating multiple indicators and the comprehensive drought resistance against background agricultural ...

  6. Study on Separation of Factors of Production from Grain and Food Safety during the Evolution of Chinese Agricultural Structure

    OpenAIRE

    SHAN, Kangkang; WANG, Anran

    2015-01-01

    China is the world's largest food producer, and it also has the largest food demand. The stability of China's food production directly affects the supply and demand situation of the world food market. In the context of evolving Chinese agricultural structure, this paper studies the separation of factors of production from grain and issues concerning food safety. It is found that the arable land for food production within agricultural sector continues to flow to non-food production sector whil...

  7. Studies on mental health in Kurdistan - Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mofidi, Naser

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to carry out an epidemiological study on mental health related issues in the Kurdish population of Iran. This part of Iran suffered directly during the Iran-Iraq war 1980-1988. Iran is an Islamic republic with strict adherence to Islamic traditions, which has implications for the way of life and gender issues. Suicide is prohibited according to Islamic teaching, but still there is a rather high suicide incidence especially among young women, who burn themselves to d...

  8. Tracheobronchial calcification in adult health study subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tracheobronchial calcification is reportedly more frequent in women than in men. Ten cases of extensive tracehobronchial calcification were identified on chest radiographs of 1,152 consecutively examined Adult Health Study subjects, for a prevalence of 0.87 %. An additional 51 subjects having this coded diagnosis were identified among 11,758 members of this fixed population sample. Sixty of the 61 subjects were women. The manifestations and extent of this type of calcification and its correlations with clinical and histopathologic features, which have not been previously reported, are described here. (author)

  9. Radioactive contamination and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some guidelines are presented for the Belgian agriculture to realise three vital objectives in case of a nuclear accident : protection of food quality and public health, radiation protection for farmers and keeping the production apparatus intact. (H.E.)

  10. Study on Growth of China’s Agricultural Industrial Chain from the Perspective of Large Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhui; LIU; Yingliang; ZHANG; Taiyan; YANG

    2014-01-01

    The growth of agricultural industrial chain is the result of market demand,fund,technology,industrial development and policy guidance. At present,separate and small peasant operating model has become one of the important factors restricting the growth of agricultural industrial chain. From growth mechanism of agricultural industrial chain and actual conditions of China,this paper analyzed actual factors restricting the growth of agricultural industrial chain,and held that it is required to break system bottleneck of large scale agricultural production,match management conditions of large scale agricultural production,and orient towards large scale organization,large scale service,large scale industrial distribution,and large scale chain.

  11. Aspects of agricultural education in Angola - case study from Bié province

    OpenAIRE

    Saiovo, Liudmila Helena Sambalundo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Angola has been promoting a set of policies and instruments aimed to create an enabling environment conducive for agricultural growth. After the peace ascension in the country, the importance of the secondary agricultural education has increased due to the need of qualified manpower which is essential to support the development of agriculture. In the scope of co-operation with the government of the Czech Republic was established in Angola, specifically in Bié, the secondary agric...

  12. Study on the Application of Information Technologies on Suitability Evaluation Analysis in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Ying; Shi, Leigang; Huai, Heju; Li, Cunjun

    2013-01-01

    It is expounded the suitability evaluation research in agriculture in three aspects: land suitability, climatic suitability and crop ecological suitability in this paper. The suitability evaluation methods in agriculture are summarized systematically, which including of traditional mathematic model methods (fuzzy comprehensive assessment analysis, AHP etc.) and modern information technologies (GIS, RS and ES etc.). The future development trends of suitability evaluation in agriculture is poin...

  13. ADVANTAGES OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM MONITORING AND STOCKS AGRICULTURAL PRICES. CASE STUDY – ROSIM

    OpenAIRE

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Abstract agricultural policy in our country is based on information dispersed, especially because there is no centralized monitoring system, who to provide reliable information, while the agricultural and food market is experiencing a general feeling of instability - basically, it consists of channels and a dysfunctional organizational structure, based on communication systems do not operate in real time.. An integrated on-line monitoring of prices of agricultural products is of great interes...

  14. Study on the Factors Effect of Adopting Application in Agricultural Products Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang Lu; Ning Yang; Chun-meng Wang; Xiu-yuan Peng; Bo Wang; Xiao-lei Hou; Bing Bai; Liang-shan Feng

    2015-01-01

    Under the intense impact of global competition, the agriculture of our country appeared the characteristics of low level of industrialization, the low level of management, the value chain of low level, low degree of information technology, organizational dispersed and in recent years the continuous emergence of food quality and safety problems, such as China's agricultural development has sounded the alarm. In order to improve the agricultural supply chain operation efficiency and competitive...

  15. Studies on the Future of the Standardization for Tropical Agricultural Machinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Tropical crops mainly represented by natural rubber,sisal hemp, sugarcane, cassava, coffee, pepper and coconut, and tropical fruits represented by pineapple,mango, banana, longan, litchi are special economical crops in tropical and subtropical regions in our country. Tropical agricultural machinery is the machinery used for planting, managing, harvesting and processing tropical crops and fruits. In recent years, tropical agricultural machinery has been growing very fast,and has a significantly positive effect on the growth of agricultural economy in tropical regions.

  16. Agricultural Research Problems in Small Developing Countries: Case Studies from the South Pacific Island Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Fleming, Euan M.

    1989-01-01

    While research-based technological improvements are an important part of a successful agricultural development strategy, the small South Pacific Island Nations face special difficulties in attaining such innovations because of their particular agricultural production and marketing circumstances and because of diseconomies of small size in research. There is a need to sharpen the focus of national agricultural research efforts on adaptive work, implying both increased international and regiona...

  17. Two worlds in agricultural policy making in Africa? Case studies from Ghana, Kenya, Senegal and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mockshell, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest among donors and domestic policy makers in promoting agricultural development in Africa. Such renewed interest is evident in initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, and TerrAfrica. Yet, the choice of policy instruments that are most suitable to promote agricultural development in Africa remains subject to a co...

  18. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; HUO; Xin; SHEN; Zhipeng; Huang

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics,this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products,and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results,it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products has smaller fluctuation than that of wholesaler-oriented agricultural products. Besides,both the inventory level and bullwhip effect of above chain are lowered.

  19. Discussion of Issues on Several Crucial Basic Study Directions of Agriculture in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfu Li

    2006-01-01

    To solve those problems such as farmland deficiency, ecological environment deterioration, high consumption of resources with low efficiency, serious agricultural pollution, and lack of scientific and technological support for agriculture, the basic researches in breeding theories, serious birds epidemic diseases, agriculture protections, multiple information acquisition methods and diagnosis mechanisms in precision farming, quality formation process of crop produces, and mechanisms of nondestructive examination were explored in this paper. And the results could provide information resources to strengthen the scientific and technological support for agriculture and its sustainable development.

  20. Review of Russian language studies on radionuclide behaviour in agricultural animals: part 1. Gut absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive programme of experiments was conducted in the former USSR on transfer of radionuclides to a wide range of different agricultural animals. Only a few of these studies were made available in the English language literature or taken into account in international reviews of gastrointestinal uptake. The paper gives extended information on Russian research on radionuclide absorption in the gut of farm animals performed in controlled field and laboratory experiments from the 1960s to the current time. The data presented in the paper, together with English language values, will be used to provide recommended values of absorption specifically for farm animals within the revision of the IAEA Handbook of Parameter Values IAEA [International Atomic Energy Agency, 1994. Handbook of Parameter Values for the Prediction of Radionuclide Transfer in Temperate Environments, IAEA technical reports series No. 364. International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna

  1. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  2. A tropical coastal lagoon affected by agricultural activities. The importance of radiolabelled pesticide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to integrate the results obtained from laboratory and field radiolabelled pesticide studies on an appropriate management model for a tropical coastal lagoon in which diverse human activities (e.g. agriculture, aquaculture, fisheries and tourism) take place. The tropical coastal lagoon studied is surrounded by agricultural fields on which large quantities of pesticides are used, and pesticide residue commonly enter the lagoon as runoff. Information on the distribution and dynamics of these contaminants is necessary for establishing coastal lagoon management. The distribution of pesticide residues in sediments of the lagoon was evaluated and the dynamics of the pesticides (water:sediment partitioning and bioaccumulation) experimentally assessed using 14C labelled pesticides (chlorpyrifos, DDT and parathion) in model ecosystems. The results of these experiments indicate that partitioning between phases (water:sediment) is very rapid, with the half-life varying from a few hours for chlorpyrifos and DDT to up to 8 days for parathion. In the same way, bio-accumulation of the different pesticides is an active process that varied for the different organisms exposed to sublethal pesticide concentrations for 30 days. The results demonstrate that the persistence and the degree of bioaccumulation of pesticides are a threat to the ecosystem, both from the ecological and the economic point of view. Thus, traditional fisheries in the lagoon, shrimp farms and tourism could be seriously affected by their excessive use. Improved environmental management is urgently needed to reduce the risk of these ecological hazards. (author). 24 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. Sustainability Assessment for Agriculture Scenarios in Europe's Mountain Areas: Lessons from Six Study Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partidário, Maria Rosário; Sheate, William R.; Bina, Olivia; Byron, Helen; Augusto, Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability assessment (SA) is a holistic and long-range strategic instrument capable of assisting policy-making in electing, and deciding upon, future development priorities. The outcomes of an SA process become more relevant and strengthened when conducted with multi-stakeholder engagement, which provides for multiple dialogues and perspectives. This was the object of research of the SA team in the context of BioScene ( Scenarios for Reconciling Biodiversity Conservation with Declining Agriculture Use in Mountain Areas in Europe), a three-year project (2002-2005) funded by the European Union 5th Framework Program, which aimed to investigate the implications of agricultural restructuring and decline for biodiversity conservation in the mountain areas of Europe, using three distinct methodological streams: the ecological, the socio-economic, and the SA approaches. The SA approach drew on the previous two to assess the importance for biodiversity management of different scenarios of agri-environmental change and rural policy in six countries (France, Greece, Norway, Slovakia, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom), develop causal chains, include stakeholder views, and identify potential contributions for, or conflicts with, sustainability. This article tells how SA was used, what sustainability meant in each study area through different objectives of sustainability considered, discusses the methods used in SA, and the benefits arising. The SA was conducted by a team independent of any study area, who developed and oversaw the application of the SA methodology, assisting national teams, and developing a cross-country understanding of the sustainability of proposed scenarios in the different geographical and social contexts, and their implications for policy-making. Finally, it reflects on the persistent challenges of interdisciplinary research, compounded by multi-cultural teams, and concludes on the BioScene’s lessons for the further development and application

  4. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Regulations Marketing and Trade Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development ... Blogs Case Studies Through this initiative, USDA will use authorities in the 2014 Farm Bill to provide ...

  5. Standardization of doctoral study in agricultural and extension education: is the field of study mature enough for achievement of the optimum degree of order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, G E; Lindner, J R; Shinn, G C; Wingenbach, G W; Baker, M T

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and extension education--or some derivative name--is a field of study leading to the doctoral degree in universities around the world. Is there are body of knowledge or a taxonomy of the knowledge--e.g., a knowledge domain--that one should possess with a doctorate in agricultural and extension education? The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the work of researchers who attempted to define the field of study, with a taxonomy comprising the knowledge domains (standards) and knowledge objects--structured interrelated sets of data, knowledge, and wisdom--of the field of study. Doctoral study in agricultural and extension education needs a document that provides for rules and guidelines--rules and guidelines that in turn provide for common and repeated use--all leading to achievement of an optimum degree of order in the context of academic, scholarly, and professional practice in agricultural and extension education. Thus, one would know in broad categories the knowledge, skills, and abilities possessed by one who holds a doctoral degree in agricultural and extension education. That is, there would exist a standard for doctoral degrees in agricultural and extension education. A content analysis of three previous attempts to categorize knowledge in agricultural and extension education served as the primary technique to create a new taxonomy--or to confirm an existing taxonomy--for doctoral study in agricultural and extension education. The following coalesced as nine essential knowledge domains for a doctorate in agricultural and extension education: (1) history, philosophy, ethics, and policy; (2) agricultural/rural development; (3) organizational development and change management; (4) planning, needs assessment, and evaluation; (5) learning theory; (6) curriculum development and instructional design; (7) teaching methods and delivery strategies; (8) research methods and tools; and, (9) scholarship and communications. PMID:20491409

  6. Agricultural Multifunctionality and Farmers' Entrepreneurial Skills: A Study of Tuscan and Welsh Farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Selyf Lloyd; Marsden, Terry; Miele, Mara; Morley, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    The process of agricultural restructuring in Europe has been strongly influenced both by CAP support of multifunctional agriculture and by market liberalisation, and farmers are exhorted to become more entrepreneurial in response. This paper explores the interaction of these policy goals in two regions where a rural development form of…

  7. Carbon emission and sequestration by agricultural land use : a model study for Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleeshouwers, L.M.; Verhagen, A.

    2002-01-01

    A model was developed to calculate carbon fluxes from agricultural soils. The model includes the effects of crop (species, yield and rotation), climate (temperature, rainfall and evapotranspiration) and soil (carbon content and water retention capacity) on the carbon budget of agricultural land. The

  8. Ecological agriculture in South-India : an agro-economic comparison and study of transition

    OpenAIRE

    Jager, de, A.E.J.; Werf, van der, F.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes two research programmes carried out on ecological agriculture in South-India. Experiences of twelve farmers in transition towards ecological agriculture are described and analysed. The comparative performance of seven farmer pairs, consisting of one ecological and one conventional reference farm, is analysed in relation to agronomic and economic performance

  9. How to Apply Data Mining Technology to the Study of Agricultural Information Data Resources?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xindong; WANG; Haoyue; XU; Qian; GAO; Haiyan; CAI; Junhai; LU; Min; LI

    2013-01-01

    This paper makes a brief description of the definition and methods of data mining.It describes the characteristics of agricultural data(value delivery,specialization,spatio-temporal bidimensionality)and the status of application of data mining technology in agriculture.

  10. Study on Balanced Development of Industrialization,Urbanization and Agricultural Modernization in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the connotation of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization",and points out the problems thwarting balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province as follows:the level of industrialization is not high;the general level of urbanization is low;the agricultural foundation is weak and there are many institutional barriers.The goal of balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization" in Henan Province is to take a road of industrialization and urbanization,not at the expense of agriculture and food.Based on this,the measures are put forward for balanced development of " industrialization,urbanization and agricultural modernization " in Henan Province as follows:keep to the new road of industrialization with characteristics of Henan Province,promote the development of industry and accelerate the transformation of pattern;keep to the road of new urbanization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in urban development pattern;adhere to the road of agricultural modernization with characteristics of Henan Province,and promote the rapid change in pattern of agricultural development.

  11. Study on Retrieval Technique of Content-Based Agricultural Scientech Multimedia Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xiaorong; Wang, Wensheng

    2010-01-01

    Traditional text information-based management and utilization methods can not satisfy application demands of implicit and unstructured agriculture multimedia data. For providing a readable-friendly agriculture science & technology information service, this paper proposes a relation database model oriented multimedia data method, which implements content-based multimedia data search by indexing every kind of multimedia data.

  12. Labor Resources in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Four Corners Agricultural and Development Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces. Agricultural Experiment Station.

    One of five reports developed to summarize research efforts conducted as part of an Agricultural-Forestry Development Project, this report presents the results of an inventory of human resources used in the agricultural and forestry industries in the Four Corners Economic Development Region. Explored are such aspects of labor as: (1) employment…

  13. Horse-Related Injuries among Agricultural Household Members: Regional Rural Injury Study II (RRIS-II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkal, Sibel; Gerberich, Susan G.; Ryan, Andrew D.; Alexander, Bruce H.; Renier, Colleen M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the incidence, associated consequences, and potential risk factors for horse-related injuries among youth and adults residing in Midwestern agricultural households. Methods: Demographic, injury, and exposure data were collected for 1999 and 2001 among randomly selected agricultural households within a 5-state region. A causal…

  14. The health and health behaviours of Australian metropolitan nurses: an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Lin; Gallagher, Robyn; Duffield, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background Nurses make up the largest component of the health workforce and provide the majority of patient care. Most health education is delivered by nurses, who also serve as healthy living and behavioural role models. Anything that diminishes their health status can impact their credibility as role models, their availability and ability to deliver quality care, and is potentially disadvantageous for the health of the population. Study aims were to investigate nurses’ overall health and th...

  15. Global Health in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David J.

    2005-01-01

    It may surprise students to realize that health problems in other countries affect them, too. Where people live and the conditions under which they live directly affect their health. The health of a population can also offer insight into a region's social, political, and economic realities. As a powerful lens into how human societies function,…

  16. Study on dynamics of agricultural production from Caraş-Severin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems faced by Romanian agriculture, which concerns both crop production and livestock production, refers to uniformity of the products. Achievement of a high quality standard is as important as maintaining it. Presence of products on the Romanian market depends, primarily, on the ability to group production in different locations within an agreed quality standard. In recent years, over 98% of Romanian agricultural production is obtained in the private sector, yet it has not proved to be the favorable frame of formation and function a competitive market. The causes can be found in the subsistence state of peasant agriculture, due to poor material and technical endowment and lack of a proper management have led to a steady decline in agricultural production. Agricultural production structure has changed significantly in recent years.

  17. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  18. A Qualitative Study Exploring Facilitators for Improved Health Behaviors and Health Behavior Programs: Mental Health Service Users’ Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candida Graham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Mental health service users experience high rates of cardiometabolic disorders and have a 20–25% shorter life expectancy than the general population from such disorders. Clinician-led health behavior programs have shown moderate improvements, for mental health service users, in managing aspects of cardiometabolic disorders. This study sought to potentially enhance health initiatives by exploring (1 facilitators that help mental health service users engage in better health behaviors and (2 the types of health programs mental health service users want to develop. Methods. A qualitative study utilizing focus groups was conducted with 37 mental health service users attending a psychosocial rehabilitation center, in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Results. Four major facilitator themes were identified: (1 factors of empowerment, self-value, and personal growth; (2 the need for social support; (3 pragmatic aspects of motivation and planning; and (4 access. Participants believed that engaging with programs of physical activity, nutrition, creativity, and illness support would motivate them to live more healthily. Conclusions and Implications for Practice. Being able to contribute to health behavior programs, feeling valued and able to experience personal growth are vital factors to engage mental health service users in health programs. Clinicians and health care policy makers need to account for these considerations to improve success of health improvement initiatives for this population.

  19. Impact study of an accidental pollution and an agricultural pollution on the subsoil water resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work deals with the protection of groundwater resources against accidental and agricultural pollutions. It comprises three parts: part 1 is a bibliographic analysis of pollutants transfer mechanisms in the non-saturated zone. It presents the techniques of numerical resolution of the equations controlling these transfers (mechanistic approach). Approaches of data processing-type are also presented. The advantage of neural networks, more and more used in the environmental domain, is emphasized. The second part treats of the migration of non-miscible pollutants (of hydrocarbon or chlorinated solvent type) in the non-saturated zone from an accidental pollution source (a road accident). After a bibliographic analysis of the reference accident, of the most often road transported pollutants and of the available softwares, the area under study is presented with the tests performed at the laboratory for the determination of the permeability coefficient at saturation and the Van Genuchten parameters of the covering layer. The results of the parametric study are given for a reference example using the NAPL-Simulator code. This study allows to outline the main parameters which are used for the construction of a database for the calibration of the neural network-based model. This model is used in the case of the impact study of the road works between Avesnes-sur-Helpes and Maubeuge carried out on the captation fields of Bachant syncline. The third part treats of the migration of a diffuse pollution of agricultural origin (nitrates) in the non-saturated zone. The area under study is presented with the in-situ follow up results of surface fertilizer supplies and of nitrate profile measurements performed for some logging. The construction of the database is detailed. The input data retained are the surface nitrogen supplies, the thickness of the soil beneath the root zone, the water table depth and the time. Finally, the artificial neural networks model and its application to

  20. Wastewater treatment using low cost activated carbons derived from agricultural byproducts-A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A variety of low cost activated carbons were developed from agricultural waste materials viz., coconut shell, coconut shell fibers and rice husk. The low cost activated carbons were fully characterized and utilized for the remediation of various pollutants viz., chemical oxygen demand (COD), heavy metals, anions, etc., from industrial wastewater. Sorption studies were carried out at different temperatures and particle sizes to study the effect of temperatures and surface areas. The removal of chloride and fluoride increased with rise in temperature while COD and metal ions removal decreased with increase in temperature, thereby, indicating the processes to be endothermic and exothermic, respectively. The kinetics of COD adsorption was also carried out at different temperatures to establish the sorption mechanism and to determine various kinetic parameters. The COD removal was 47-72% by coconut shell fiber carbon (ATFAC), 50-74% by coconut shell carbon (ATSAC) and 45-73% by rice husk carbon (ATRHC). Furthermore, COD removal kinetics by rice husk carbon, coconut shell carbon and coconut fiber carbon at different temperatures was approximately represented by a first order rate law. Results of this fundamental study demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of low cost activated carbons. The parameters obtained in this study can be fully utilized to establish fixed bed reactors on large scale to treat the contaminated water

  1. Addressing Issues of Malnutrition in Children through Public Nutrition using Local Resources of Agriculture and Land Use: Evidence from the Field Based Evaluation Study in Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemthianngai Guite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public Nutrition refers to work in the interest of the public; with the participation of the public; and with all sectors involved in society, not just the health sector, nor mainly the health sector, though for the benefit of population health and nutrition. Action outside of the health sector, particularly with regard to food systems is required, such as capacitating women in agriculture and land use for increased vegetable production. Rationale: Adopting public health approach, an evidence from a field project wherein the evaluation study was conducted by Oxfam India (a leading non-profit organization, and where the authors coordinated and documented field evidence through conducting end line evaluation study is discussed in this paper, in order to highlight the achievement of women farmers in ensuring food and nutrition security by strengthening low cost vegetable production in Shaharanpur and Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh. Objective of the study: To assess the success and impact of measures adopted under the project in order to enhance the capacity and skills of women vegetable farmers in sustainable farming practices. Materials and Methods: Purposive Non Probability Sampling adopted to include key set of stakeholders, which includes 100 women vegetable farmers, 8 NGO and 5 government officials respectively drawn from Shahjahanpur and Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh.  The methods which were used to gather quantitative and qualitative data for the study were: In-depth Interview, Focused Group Discussion (FGD, Case Studies. Results: Child nutrition is positively and independently associated with increased vegetable production through agriculture and land use by women in the villages. It enhanced the nutritional status of women and improved the health status of their family members as well. Conclusion: The public nutrition approach will make it possible to increase the impact of current initiatives which aim to reverse the course

  2. Potentially toxic elements in agricultural soil of the Kurdistan region of Iraq and implications for human health

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, Karzan

    2016-01-01

    A rapidly increasing human population has resulted in the expansion of urban areas and an associated increase in the demand for food . Consequently, urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA), using waste water as a source for irrigation, is increasingly common around the world, particularly in developing countries. Although UPA plays a crucial role in supplying food to urban populations, the quality of that food may be affected by accumulation of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in the soil a...

  3. An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence: A case study of Jihad Agriculture Organization of east Azerbaijan province

    OpenAIRE

    Habibeh Ayagh; Hassan Darvish

    2013-01-01

    An empirical study to investigate the effects of thinking styles on emotional intelligence among employees of agriculture industry in east Azerbaijan province. The proposed study uses a standard thinking style questionnaire originally developed by Sternberg and Wagner (1992) [Sternberg, R. J., & Wagner, R. K. (1992). Thinking styles inventory. Unpublished test, Yale University]. There are 716 employees working for this agriculture-based unit and the study uses random sampling technique and ch...

  4. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  5. IRAQ AND INDIA: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF AGRICULTURE DURING THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zinah Harith Jirjees

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available During the nineteenth century Iraq was weakness and deterioration in the agricultural sector. There was no development in agriculture during the reign of Medhat Pasha that the state of Iraq made good agricultural development., The Ottoman government moved away its interest from the agricultural sector and put the greatest burden on the farmers in land preparation, provision of seeds and harvest and markets sales. If these governors of Iraq would have followed the method of Medhat Pasha, Iraq could have acquired top position in the agricultural production in the world and the agricultural sector would have brought prosperity and progress in Iraq. In India During this period, the colonial economies were open economies. They were affected by the impact of the world market and not national economies, which could determine their own fate and develop their home market. This was a common feature of all colonial economies. There were also distinctive traits mainly related to the supply of peasants and the availability of natural resources. In India, labour was abundant in supply and the prevailing mode of agricultural production was that of small peasant households. Plantations existed only for the production of tea on the hills and they recruited their labour from other region of India.

  6. Interpretation of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptations by Local Household Farmers:a Case Study at Bin County, Northeast China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Qiang-yi; WU Wen-bin; LIU Zhen-huan; Peter H Verburg; XIA Tian; YANG Peng; LU Zhong-jun; YOU Liang-zhi; TANG Hua-jun

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations have been studied extensively, how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and adapt their agricultural activities is poorly understood. Survey-based data (presents farmers’ personal perceptions and adaptations to climate change) associated with external biophysical-socioeconomic data (presents real-world climate change) were used to develop a farmer-centered framework to explore climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations at a local level. A case study at Bin County (1980s-2010s), Northeast China, suggested that increased annual average temperature (0.6°C per decade) and decreased annual precipitation (46 mm per decade, both from meteorological datasets) were correctly perceived by 76 and 66.9%, respectively, of farmers from the survey, and that a longer growing season was conifrmed by 70%of them. These reasonably correct perceptions enabled local farmers to make appropriate adaptations to cope with climate change:Longer season alternative varieties were found for maize and rice, which led to a signiifcant yield increase for both crops. The longer season also affected crop choice:More farmers selected maize instead of soybean, as implicated from survey results by a large increase in the maize growing area. Comparing warming-related factors, we found that precipitation and agricultural disasters were the least likely causes for farmers’ agricultural decisions. As a result, crop and variety selection, rather than disaster prevention and infrastructure improvement, was the most common ways for farmers to adapt to the notable warming trend in the study region.

  7. Adsorption and desorption study of 14C-Chloropyrifos in two Malaysian agricultural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The adsorption equilibrium time and effects of pH and concentration of 14C-labeled chloropyrifos 0,0-diethyl 0-(3, 5, 6 tricloro-2-pyridyl)-phosphorothiote in soil were investigated. Two types of Malaysian soil under oil palm were used in this study; namely clay loam and clay soil obtained from the Sungai Sedu and Kuala Lumpur International Airport (KLIA) Estates, respectively. Equilibrium studies of chloropyrifos between the agricultural soil and the pesticide solution were conducted. Adsorption equilibrium time was achieved within 6 and 24 hours for clay loam and clay soil, respectively. It was found that chloropyrifos adsorbed by the soil samples was characterized by an initial rapid adsorption after which adsorption remained approximately constant. The percentage of 14C-labeled chloropyrifos adsorption on soil was found to be higher in clay loam than in clay soils. Results of the study demonstrated that pH affected the adsorption of chloropyrifos on both clay loam and clay soils. The adsorption of chloropyrifos on both types of soil was higher at low pH with the adsorption reduced as the pH increased. Results also suggest that chloropyrifos sorption by soil is concentration dependent. (Author)

  8. STUDY OF THE INTERNATIONALIZATION PROCESS OF A BRAZILIAN COMPANY IN THE AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozali Araújo Santos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The agribusiness industry and agricultural machinery as well as the internationalization of companies are subjects of growing interest. Thus, a case study of a company in the sector of machinery and implements allowed the analysis of the movements of internationalization under the aspects of strategy, entry mode and challenges of internationalization. The study of the theories and the case study allowed a visualization of their application in practice. The literature review explored the themes internationalization, internationalization strategies, entry modes and challenges of internationalization. The data, qualitative and descriptive, were obtained from semi-structured interviews with the export manager and supplemented by secondary data published on the company’s website. The content analyzes of the data showed that the company is in a primary level of internationalization. However, it also presents strategic orientation toward an internationalization process. The development of this paper can serve as a discussion for further development of internationalization theories and also as a reference in the agribusiness industry to understand this process.

  9. The Hidden Costs of Soil Mining to Agricultural Sustainability in Developing Countries: A Case Study of Machakos District Eastern Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onduru, D.D.; Jager, de A.; Gachini, G.N.

    2005-01-01

    Soil nutrient budget studies are increasingly becoming important in determining the magnitude of nutrient mining in sub-Saharan Africa and its impacts on food production. A study of farms practicing low external input agriculture (LEIA) and conventional farming practices was made with regards to soi

  10. AGRICULTURE IN AN ECOSYSTEMS FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Aillery, Marcel P.; Hrubovcak, James; Kramer, Carol S.; Shoemaker, Robbin A.; Tegene, Abebayehu

    1996-01-01

    By broadening the definition of an ecosystem to include economic activities, can we better characterize the interactions and relationships among agricultural activities and important indicators of ecological system health? This paper addresses research approaches for assessing the role of agriculture in an ecosystems context. Environmental regulation and resource management policies have heightened the interest in understanding interactions among agricultural activities and the natural resour...

  11. Challenges in linking agricultural soil erosion studies to landscape scale processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C.-H.; Norton, L. D.; Flanagan, D. C.

    2009-04-01

    Soil erosion studies are usually implemented to collect data for specific processes, surface conditions or treatments. The ease of conducting the proposed erosion study, the associated quality of the data, and the confidence level of the findings, are generally related to the degree of the control on the experimental variables. With a proper experimental design, the collected erosion data and interpretation are valid within the realm of the study setting, which can be at any spatial and temporal scale. Simply, erosion data reflect the detachment-transport-deposition processes that occurred under the forcing function and conditions of the soil exposed for the duration of the observation. Scaling becomes an issue when one intends to make erosion assessments outside the range which the data support, both spatially and temporally. This issue is further aggravated by the misuse of physical models to simulate erosion processes at different scales beyond the original intent of the model formulation. Sometimes, processes and conditions controlling sediment detachment and deposition at meter scale areas are extrapolated to hectare or kilometer square areas without considering changes in boundary conditions and driving forces as the scale is increased. In the US, we have seen the evolution from collecting natural runoff plot data that led to the development of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) to the emergence of process-based erosion science using erodibility parameters derived from small-scale controlled plot experiments. These efforts are intended for assessing erosion at the field scale for implementing conservation practices. The nationwide usage of the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) in USDA Field Offices demonstrates the successful development of a field scale erosion assessment technology. Recently, we have been challenged to assess conservation effects at the watershed scale. From the standpoint of erosion assessment in agricultural watersheds, we

  12. Impact of Agricultural Credit on Production of Wheat Crop: A Case Study of District Faisalabad-Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Asghar , Muhammad Waqas Chughtai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture sector plays an important role in the economic development of Pakistan. Wheat is an important and most cultivated crop because it is an essential ingredient of food commodities. Credit plays a vital role in agricultural farming by indirectly participating in purchasing of agricultural inputs i.e. seed, fertilizer, irrigation, machinery and labor etc. Majority of the farmers are poor and they are not able to fulfill the cash requirement of farming, therefore credit has become their dire need. Due to credit farmers can timely purchase the agricultural inputs which resulting a bumper crop. The objective of this study is to depict the impact of credit on the production of wheat crop. Survey was conducted and random sampling technique was used to select the sample borrowers. The collected data was interpreted through “Cobb Douglas Production Function” by using statistical software (SPSS 16.0. The results showed that credit has positive and significant impact on wheat production. The values of R2 and F-statistics are found significant which represented that all selected variables are highly significant. The study not only shares the importance of credit to perform any agriculture activity but also helpful for economists and policy makers for designing agri financing policies.

  13. Climate change impacts on the U.S. agricultural economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, You; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Gao, Wei

    2015-09-01

    The most important aggregate measure of the long run health of the productive component of the agricultural economy is agricultural total factor productivity (TFP). Between 1948 and 2011, average annual input growth in US agriculture averaged approximately 0.07% while annual average output growth averaged roughly 1.5%. That translates into an annual average agricultural TFP growth rate of approximately 1.43%. That growth has led to a remarkable expansion of the productive ability of the US agricultural sector. However, climate change poses unprecedented challenges to U.S. agricultural production because of the sensitivity of agricultural productivity and costs to changing climate conditions. Some studies have examined the effect of climate change on U.S. agriculture. But none has investigated how climate affects the overall U.S. agricultural productivity. This study intends to find out climate change impacts on U.S. agricultural TFP change (TFPC). By correlation analysis with data in 1979-2005, we found that precipitation and temperature had significant positive or negative correlations with U.S. agricultural TFPC. Those correlation coefficients ranged from -0.8 to 0.8. And significant correlations, whether positive or negative, existed in different regions and different seasons. This is important information for policy-makers in decisions to support U.S. agriculture sustainability.

  14. Comparative study on factors affecting anaerobic digestion of agricultural vegetal residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cioabla Adrian

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presently, different studies are conducted related to the topic of biomass potential to generate through anaerobic fermentation process alternative fuels supposed to support the existing fossil fuel resources, which are more and more needed, in quantity, but also in quality of so called green energy. The present study focuses on depicting an optional way of capitalizing agricultural biomass residues using anaerobic fermentation in order to obtain biogas with satisfactory characteristics.. The research is based on wheat bran and a mix of damaged ground grains substrates for biogas production. Results The information and conclusions delivered offer results covering the general characteristics of biomass used , the process parameters with direct impact over the biogas production (temperature regime, pH values and the daily biogas production for each batch relative to the used material. Conclusions All conclusions are based on processing of monitoring process results , with accent on temperature and pH influence on the daily biogas production for the two batches. The main conclusion underlines the fact that the mixture batch produces a larger quantity of biogas, using approximately the same process conditions and input, in comparison to alone analyzed probes, indicating thus a higher potential for the biogas production than the wheat bran substrate. Adrian Eugen Cioabla, Ioana Ionel, Gabriela-Alina Dumitrel and Francisc Popescu contributed equally to this work

  15. Agriculture reuse feasibility studies of sludges for the sewage sludge irradiation plant in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Argentine Sewage Sludge Irradiation Project, conceived by CNEA in 1992, decided the construction of an industrial-scale irradiation plant for disinfection of liquid sludges coming from a sewerage treatment plant and their recycling as fertilizers. This plant is being constructed and installed in Tucuman City in an agricultural zone of North Western Argentina. It is based on a gamma radiation process by batches of six cubic metres and using Argentine made Cobalt-60 sources. The feasibility studies on the Tucuman's Sewage Treatment Plant sludges involves: Technical parameters and chemical characterization of the sludges; Microbiological test to verify disinfection by irradiation; Toxic elements evaluation, both inorganic elements (heavy metals) and organic compounds (pesticide traces). These pollutant concentrations should meet the criteria set by the environmental regulations. Many of these experiments have been conducted within two Research Coordinated Programmes organized by the IAEA and the Joint FAO/IAEA Division. Another important aspect is the bioavailability of soil nutrients (N and P) from the sludges: it will determine the real economic value of sludges as fertilizers. Further studies on the behaviour of toxic elements accumulation on soil and plants, and also the capability of sludges to improve soil properties, will lead to the environment impact assessment of the application on land

  16. Socio-hydrologic modeling to understand and mediate the competition for water between agriculture development and environmental health: Murrumbidgee River basin, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Emmerik, T. H. M.; Li, Z.; Sivapalan, M.; Pande, S.; Kandasamy, J.; Savenije, H. H. G.; Chanan, A.; Vigneswaran, S.

    2014-10-01

    Competition for water between humans and ecosystems is set to become a flash point in the coming decades in many parts of the world. An entirely new and comprehensive quantitative framework is needed to establish a holistic understanding of that competition, thereby enabling the development of effective mediation strategies. This paper presents a modeling study centered on the Murrumbidgee River basin (MRB). The MRB has witnessed a unique system dynamics over the last 100 years as a result of interactions between patterns of water management and climate driven hydrological variability. Data analysis has revealed a pendulum swing between agricultural development and restoration of environmental health and ecosystem services over different stages of basin-scale water resource development. A parsimonious, stylized, quasi-distributed coupled socio-hydrologic system model that simulates the two-way coupling between human and hydrological systems of the MRB is used to mimic and explain dominant features of the pendulum swing. The model consists of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations that describe the interaction between five state variables that govern the co-evolution: reservoir storage, irrigated area, human population, ecosystem health, and environmental awareness. The model simulations track the propagation of the external climatic and socio-economic drivers through this coupled, complex system to the emergence of the pendulum swing. The model results point to a competition between human "productive" and environmental "restorative" forces that underpin the pendulum swing. Both the forces are endogenous, i.e., generated by the system dynamics in response to external drivers and mediated by humans through technology change and environmental awareness, respectively. Sensitivity analysis carried out with the model further reveals that socio-hydrologic modeling can be used as a tool to explain or gain insight into observed co-evolutionary dynamics of diverse

  17. Anatomy of a local-scale drought: Application of assimilated remote sensing products, crop model, and statistical methods to an agricultural drought study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashok K.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Das, Narendra N.; Prakash Khedun, C.; Singh, Vijay P.; Sivakumar, Bellie; Hansen, James W.

    2015-07-01

    Drought is of global concern for society but it originates as a local problem. It has a significant impact on water quantity and quality and influences food, water, and energy security. The consequences of drought vary in space and time, from the local scale (e.g. county level) to regional scale (e.g. state or country level) to global scale. Within the regional scale, there are multiple socio-economic impacts (i.e., agriculture, drinking water supply, and stream health) occurring individually or in combination at local scales, either in clusters or scattered. Even though the application of aggregated drought information at the regional level has been useful in drought management, the latter can be further improved by evaluating the structure and evolution of a drought at the local scale. This study addresses a local-scale agricultural drought anatomy in Story County in Iowa, USA. This complex problem was evaluated using assimilated AMSR-E soil moisture and MODIS-LAI data into a crop model to generate surface and sub-surface drought indices to explore the anatomy of an agricultural drought. Quantification of moisture supply in the root zone remains a gray area in research community, this challenge can be partly overcome by incorporating assimilation of soil moisture and leaf area index into crop modeling framework for agricultural drought quantification, as it performs better in simulating crop yield. It was noted that the persistence of subsurface droughts is in general higher than surface droughts, which can potentially improve forecast accuracy. It was found that both surface and subsurface droughts have an impact on crop yields, albeit with different magnitudes, however, the total water available in the soil profile seemed to have a greater impact on the yield. Further, agricultural drought should not be treated equal for all crops, and it should be calculated based on the root zone depth rather than a fixed soil layer depth. We envisaged that the results of

  18. Acute Human Lethal Toxicity of Agricultural Pesticides: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Matthew; Bhalla, Kavi

    2010-01-01

    Matthew Miller and Kavi Bhalla discuss new research findings from Andrew Dawson and colleagues on the human toxicity of pesticides in Sri Lanka, and call for urgent reclassification of agricultural pesticides to help reduce suicides by poisonings.

  19. Determinants of agricultural water saving technology adoption: an empirical study of 10 provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,China has been faced by an increasingly severe water shortage due to the continua growth of demand on water resources.Although the Chinese government has been actively promoting the agricultural water-saving technology adoption,it is ill-informed of the adoption degree of the current agricultural water saving technologies as well as the function of the governmental policies.Therefore,this paper analyzes the aforesaid problems based on investigative data of 10 provinces in China.The results demonstrate that although there is a rapid increase of adopted agricultural water-saving technologies,the actual adoption area is rather limited.Moreover,the governmental policies and scarcity of water resources are the determinants of agricultural water-saving technology adoption.Ultimately,the paper proposes some policy suggestions.

  20. ADVANTAGES OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM MONITORING AND STOCKS AGRICULTURAL PRICES. CASE STUDY – ROSIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena COFAS

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract agricultural policy in our country is based on information dispersed, especially because there is no centralized monitoring system, who to provide reliable information, while the agricultural and food market is experiencing a general feeling of instability - basically, it consists of channels and a dysfunctional organizational structure, based on communication systems do not operate in real time.. An integrated on-line monitoring of prices of agricultural products is of great interest due to the integration of computer technology (communications and agricultural sciences, based on specific concepts: client / server architecture, the integrated platform software, decision support, database distributed relational distance communication through the web, object oriented programming, mathematical modeling, interactivity etc..

  1. Modeling Preference for Agricultural College Publications: A Readership Study of Missouri's "Focus21."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Mark; Wood-Turley, Sharon; Truong, Linh

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 392 readers of the University of Missouri agricultural college's magazine received 186 responses. Level of interest and source credibility were important preferences for alumni but less useful in explaining faculty preferences. (SK)

  2. Study on Accumulative Effect of Enterprise Symbiotic Space in Agricultural Circular Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Lei; SUN Changxiong

    2009-01-01

    Enterprise symbiotic behavior is one of the main inter-firm organizational modes in agricultural circular economy, and the importance of its accumulative effect of enterprise symbiotic space is no less than its industry dimensionality. Based on this point, this article firstly started from the space factor and the symbiotic relationship and spatial clusters of the agricultural enterprise were analyzed, accordingly the clusters' analysis framework was introduced. And then the cost model, learning curve and the knowledge stock change were set up and the accumulative mechanism of a rational agricultural enterprise in the symbiotic space was discussed. Therefore, a further analysis on all kinds of accumulative effects of agricultural enterprise was carded on. Finally, we got conclusions from three aspects in this article;meanwhile, we obtained the enlightenment for the related enterprises in light of the reality.

  3. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators(infrastructure,transaction process,operation management,and transaction safety),which are divided into 11 second-level indicators(hardware equipment,computer network,e-procurement,logistics distribution,supply chain management,customer relationship management,and payment security).We use analytic hierarchy process(AHP) to determine the weight of indicator at all levels,and establish fuzzy comprehensive evaluation mathematical model of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises.Finally,through examples,we verify the rationality and reliability of evaluation method of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises combining analytic hierarchy process(AHP) and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation.

  4. Agricultural Production with Change and Uncertainty: A Temporal Case Study Simulation of Colorado Potato Beetle

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkila, Jaakko; Peltola, Jukka

    2005-01-01

    Changes in climatic and policy environments combined with uncertainty related to stochastic environmental fluctuations make design of invasive pest policy challenging. These external changes are often exacerbated by changes in the species characteristics. We discuss facing local change and uncertainty when deciding ex ante on a specific policy strategy. Our empirical case deals with an invasive agricultural pest, Colorado potato beetle, and agricultural production in Finland. Invasions are mo...

  5. Study on Electronic Commerce Maturity of Small and Medium-sized Agricultural Enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Yi-lei; Xue, Wan-xin; Yang, Chun-Yu; Su, Yong

    2012-01-01

    This article advances the concept of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises, and establishes the indicator system of electronic commerce maturity of small and medium-sired agricultural enterprises. This indicator system includes 4 first-level indicators (infrastructure, transaction process, operation management, and transaction safety), which are divided into 11 second-level indicators (hardware equipment, computer network, e-procurement, logistics dis...

  6. Study on Inventory of Supply Chain of Supermarket-oriented Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Huo, Hong; Shen, Xin; Huang, Zhipeng

    2013-01-01

    Using principle and method of the system dynamics, this paper takes a qualitative analysis on the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-oriented agricultural products, and compares with the supply chain of wholesale-oriented agricultural products. Two inventory models are established for these two different modes of supply chain. Through simulation of two models in the case of random demand and quantitative analysis of results, it is found that the inventory of supply chain of supermarket-...

  7. Attitudes of Agricultural Experts Toward Genetically Modified Crops: A Case Study in Southwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanian, Mansour; Ghoochani, Omid M.; Kitterlin, Miranda; Jahangiry, Sheida; Zarafshani, Kiumars; Van Passel, Steven; Azadi, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    The production of genetically modified (GM) crops is growing around the world, and with it possible opportunities to combat food insecurity and hunger, as well as solutions to current problems facing conventional agriculture. In this regard the use of GMOs in food and agricultural applications has increased greatly over the past decade. However, the development of GM crops has been a matter of considerable interest and worldwide public controversy. This, in addition to skepticism, has stifled...

  8. Evaluation of Comprehensive Agricultural Production Capacity Based on Factor Analysis: A Case Study of Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Wenzhu

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic connotation of comprehensive agricultural production capacity, this article establishes the comprehensive agricultural production capacity indicator system on the basis of statistics. This indicator system consists of 5 parts (input scale of factors, output scale of factors, output rate of factors, ability to resist disaster and ensure production, and modern operation level) and 14 specific indicators. Based on factor analysis method, we use this indicator system to conduct...

  9. Multiobjective Programming of Income and Employment Generation in Small Scale Agriculture: A Case Study from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhebi, Adrian Wekulo

    1981-01-01

    The major objective of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of generating substantially higher (20 percent or more) income and employment in Kenyan small scale agriculture under various policy options, using data from a selected area. Specific objectives are to: assess the impact of a declining land-labour ratio upon farm enterprise combination; measure and contrast the income and employment generating capacity of two agricultural development strategies--one which pursues the income m...

  10. Comparison of health risk behavior, awareness, and health benefit beliefs of health science and non-health science students: An international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Yung, Tony K C; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Rehman, Rehana

    2016-06-01

    This study determines the differences in health risk behavior, knowledge, and health benefit beliefs between health science and non-health science university students in 17 low and middle income countries. Anonymous questionnaire data were collected in a cross-sectional survey of 13,042 undergraduate university students (4,981 health science and 8,061 non-health science students) from 17 universities in 17 countries across Asia, Africa, and the Americas. Results indicate that overall, health science students had the same mean number of health risk behaviors as non-health science university students. Regarding addictive risk behavior, fewer health science students used tobacco, were binge drinkers, or gambled once a week or more. Health science students also had a greater awareness of health behavior risks (5.5) than non-health science students (4.6). Linear regression analysis found a strong association with poor or weak health benefit beliefs and the health risk behavior index. There was no association between risk awareness and health risk behavior among health science students and an inverse association among non-health science students. PMID:26538523

  11. Preservation of the Environment through Sustainable Agriculture Practices: A Case Study on the Attitude of Crop Farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. D’Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Undoubtedly agriculture over the years has been a remarkable source of income generator for the rural community to achieve a higher standard of living and to live on par with their urban brethren that are mostly involved in industrialization. The quest for a greater income should, however, not deter farmers from paying attention toward the preservation of the environment in terms of protecting the quality of land, air and water so that our present and future generation will be able to have sufficient resources for their survival. Thus, having a positive attitude toward practicing the elements of sustainable agriculture without doubt will help farmers to emphasize on the need to protect the environment. As such, this study is designed to understand contract farming entrepreneurs’ attitude toward the preservation of the environment through sustainable agriculture practices and the issues involved in determining their level of attitude. Approach: The study employed qualitative methodology in the form of a focus group discussion and the data was collected from seven contract farming entrepreneurs in Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. In the data collection process, the researcher played the role as the instrument and an interview guide that was developed prior to it enabled the researcher to achieve the objectives of the study. A couple of voice-recorders assisted in recording the discussion and it was later transformed into verbatim transcripts for data analysis. Results: The outcome of the study showed that in general, crop farmers face an upheaval task in possessing a positive attitude toward practicing sustainable agriculture in spite of having a sound knowledge about it. They perceive that much support is needed from the respective stakeholders that would enable them to embrace sustainable agriculture practices. Conclusion/Recommendations: It is recommended that various stakeholders could play more important

  12. One Health and the Environment: Toxic Cyanobacteria, a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of environmental health typically focuses on human populations. However, companion animals, livestock and wildlife also experience adverse health effects from environmental pollutants. Animals may experience direct exposure to pollutants in ambient exposure situations. ...

  13. Atrazine Contamination and Potential Health Effects on Freshwater Mussel Uniandra contradens Living in Agricultural Catchment at Nan Province, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Tongchai Thitiphuree; Jirarach Kitana; Pakorn Varanusupakul; Noppadon Kitana

    2013-01-01

    Seasonal cultivation in northern part of Thailand leads to widely uses of agrochemicals especially atrazine herbicide. To examine whether an intensive use of atrazine could lead to contamination in aquatic environment, sediment and water were collected from an agricultural catchment in Nan Province during 2010-2011 and subjected to analysis for atrazine by GC-MS. The results showed that detectable levels of atrazine were found in water (0.16 µg/ml) and sediment (0.23 µg/g) of the catchment. T...

  14. Maize production and land degradation: a Portuguese agriculture field case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Pato, João V.; Moreira, Pedro M.; Valério, Luís M.; Guilherme, Rosa; Casau, Fernando J.; Santos, Daniela; Keizer, Jacob J.; Ferreira, António J. D.

    2016-04-01

    While food security is a main challenge faced by human kind, intensive agriculture often leads to soil degradation which then can threaten productivity. Maize is one of the most important crops across the world, with 869 million tons produced worldwide in 2012/2013 (IGC 2015), of which 929.5 thousand tons in Portugal (INE 2014). In Portugal, maize is sown in April/May and harvest occurs generally in October. Conventional maize production requires high inputs of water and fertilizers to achieve higher yields. As Portuguese farmers are typically rather old (on average, 63 years) and typically have a low education level (INE 2014), sustainability of their land management practises is often not a principal concern. This could explain why, in 2009, only 4% of the Portuguese temporary crops were under no-tillage, why only 8% of the farmers performed soil analyses in the previous three years, and why many soils have a low organic matter content (INE 2014). Nonetheless, sustainable land management practices are generally accepted to be the key to reducing agricultural soil degradation, preventing water pollution, and assuring long-term crop production objectives and food security. Sustainable land management should therefore not only be a concern for policy makers but also for farmers, since land degradation will have negative repercussions on the productivity, thus, on their economical income. This paper aims to assess the impact of maize production on soil properties. The study focusses on an 8 ha maize field located in central Portugal, with a Mediterranean climate on a gently sloping terrain (<3%) and with a soil classified as Eutric Fluvisol. On the field, several experiments were carried out with different maize varieties as well as with different fertilizers (solid, liquid and both). Centre pivot irrigation was largely used. Data is available from 2003, and concerns crop yield, fertilization and irrigation practices, as well as soil properties assessed through

  15. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moynihan, Sharon; Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the D...

  16. A study of the usability of CGDI in health mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Xialoun, Yi; Anton, François; Oldfield, Eddie

    2007-01-01

    Due to the recent outbreak of SARS and Bird Flu, the ability to strengthen health surveillance and control is highly appreciated. Since the health problem is strongly referenced with spatial locations, integrating geospatial technology in health study could support better decision making. Right now, the development of CGDI has shown great potential in many fields like emergency management, public health, disaster relief, transportation, land information system. Our study is to use CGDI to sup...

  17. Study on Student Health Literacy Gained through Health Education in Elementary and Middle Schools in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiaoming; Yang, Tubao; Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Health education in primary and middle schools in China has been implemented for more than two decades since 1990s. This study aims to assess the students' health literacy gained through school health education, and provide scientific base to the concerned government agencies for updating the relevant national policy for school-based…

  18. Healthy Sex and Sexual Health: New Directions for Studying Outcomes of Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Eva S.; Vasilenko, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual behavior is an important aspect of adolescent development with implications for well-being. These chapters highlight important perspectives on studying sexual health from a normative, developmental perspective, such as viewing a range of sexual behaviors as life events; considering potentially positive physical health, mental health, social…

  19. Transition of fertilizer application and agricultural pollution loads: a case study in the Nhue-Day River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, P H; Harada, H; Fujii, S; Lien, N P H; Hai, H T; Anh, P N; Tanaka, S

    2015-01-01

    Rapid socio-economic development in suburban areas of developing countries has induced changes in agricultural waste and nutrient management, resulting in water pollution. The study aimed at estimating agricultural nutrient cycles and their contribution to the water environment. A material flow model of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) was developed focusing on agricultural activities from 1980 to 2010 in Trai hamlet, an agricultural watershed in Nhue-Day River basin, Vietnam. The model focused on the change in household management of human excreta and livestock excreta, and chemical fertilizer consumption. The results showed that the proportion of nutrients from compost/manure applied to paddy fields decreased from 85 to 41% for both N and P between 1980 and 2010. The nutrient inputs derived from chemical fertilizer decreased 6% between 1980 and 2000 for both N and P. Then, these nutrients increased 1.4 times for N and 1.2 times for P from 2000 to 2010. As of 2010, the total inputs to paddy fields have amounted to 435 kg-N/ha/year and 90 kg-P/ha/year. Of these nutrient inputs, 40% of N and 65% of P were derived from chemical fertilizer. Thirty per cent (30%) of total N input was discharged to the water bodies through agricultural runoff and 47% of total P input accumulated in soil. PMID:26398021

  20. Study and identification of retention process of heavy metals by adsorption on agricultural byproducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bencheikh-Lehocine, M.; Arris, S.; Meniai, A.H. [Laboratoire de l' Ingenierie des Procedes d' Environnement, Universite Mentouri Constantine (Algeria); Morcellet, M.; Bacquet, M.; Martel, B. [Laboratoire de Chimie Macromoleculaire, UPRESA CNRS 8009 de l' Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille (USTL) (France); Mansri, A. [Laboratoire de Recherche sur les Macromolecules, Universite Abou Bakr Belkaid, Tlemcen (Algeria)

    2003-09-01

    This present study considers the adsorption of cations of heavy metals (zinc, cadmium, copper) which are frequently encountered in industrial wastewaters. The solid material used as adsorbent is nonactivated carbon obtained from a local cereal byproduct. In order to assess this material, adsorbents obtained from other agricultural byproducts, such as almond and peanuts shells, have also been tested. Adsorption isotherms have been determined and the influence of various parameters, such as the particle size, the solid-liquid contacting time, the pH of the solution, the initial concentration, the mixing velocity, the temperature and the ratio solid mass over solution volume, have been considered. The case of simultaneous presence of metallic cations in the solution has also been considered in order to examine their affinity towards the adsorbent. An attempt to determine whether the retention of the cations is a pure adsorption or an ion exchange has also been carried out. Retention yield values exceeding 90 % have been reached with an initial concentration of 10 mg/L, a temperature of 20 C, a particle size smaller than 0.1 mm, a mixing velocity of 600 rev/min, a ratio of 0.5 g adsorbent over 50 ml of solution and a pH varying between 3 and 6. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  1. Protection of groundwater from agricultural pollution: institutions and incentives. [Long Island case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Contamination of groundwater by agricultural practices presents a dilemma between protecting a vital resource and preserving a valuable part of the economy. Legal institutions to protect groundwater have been developed on an ad hoc basis. The institutions that deal with the following environmental problems are critically evaluated: prevention of water pollution, regulation of pesticides, and protection of drinking water. While these institutions mitigate the problem, they fail to solve it. Long Island is used as a case study. This unique region presents a case where groundwater contamination problems are particularly troublesome. The dominant crop of the region is potatoes. Monocultural practices have led to severe pest problems, including a large infestation of the Colorado potato beetle. Methods of pest control have employed large doses of pesticides. The hydrogeology of the region makes the underlying aquifer particularly susceptible to pesticide leaching. The resulting contamination has caused two pesticides to be banned, and a third to be withdrawn from the market. Producers have had difficulty adjusting to the unavailability of these means to reduce Colorado potato beetle damage.

  2. THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL CREDIT IN THE GROWTH OF LIVESTOCK SECTOR: A CASE STUDY OF FAISALABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABEDULLAH, N. MAHMOOD, M. KHALID1 AND S. KOUSER

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study employed stratified random sampling approach to collect the input-output and socioeconomic data set to see the impact of credit on the growth of livestock sector in the rural areas. The income elasticities of meat and livestock products were highest compared to all other food items except fruits, defining the future role of livestock sector in our food basket. It was observed that credit availability expanded the livestock sector more than double (economies of size, which increased per family per month income from livestock sector by 181%. The elasticity values of family size, literacy rate (schooling years and credit were 0.18, 0.05 and 0.06, respectively. The elasticity of family size was highest, followed by credit and literacy rate, indicating that adequate potential exists that can be explored to utilize unemployed and untrained rural labor in the agriculture sector. It would help to mitigate the increasing population pressure on mega cities of Pakistan by providing employment opportunities at the door steps of rural community.

  3. Ecological Compensation Mechanism of Agricultural Water Resources: An Empirical Study in Zhejiang, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qichang Hu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecological compensation is a new area in the field of resources environment. In this study, we set an empirical analysis model about ecological compensation mechanism and analyze influential factors based on agricultural perspective. The result shows that: first, loss of development opportunities is the most important factor that will affect ecological compensation, the regression coefficient is 0.071; sec, environmental protection cost is the most significant variable in ecological compensation, the sig value is 0.007 and the regression coefficient is positive; third, public awareness has high coefficient value as 0.048, means that public awareness plays a positive effect. Overall, the regression model of the empirical results with the above assumptions, under the 10% significant level, the loss of development opportunities; environmental protection cost; the compensation standard; public awareness of the value of ecological environment variable are significantly variables that affecting ecological compensation and the effects of other variables are not obvious. On this basis, we put forward relevant suggestions.

  4. Studies on Thermal Degradation Behavior of Siliceous Agriculture Waste (Rice Husk, Wheat Husk and Bagasse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Syed H.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Various siliceous agriculture waste (SAW such as rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse have been investigated to study their thermal degradation behavior using Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA technique. The focus of this research is to conduct TGA of raw and acid treated (20% HCl & 1M H2SO4 SAW at heating rate 10°C/min in the atmosphere of nitrogen. The results were analyzed on the basis of thermograms and it was inferred that 24 hours soaking with 20% HCl prior to thermal degradation enhanced the percent weight loss. The process also improved the percentage of residual weight of SAW indicating the extraction of amorphous silica with increased purity. The effect of acid treatment was verified by determining chemical composition of SAW samples before and after soaking with 20% HCl. Proximate analysis, thermal degradation temperature ranges and percentage of residual weight at 800°C for each of rice husk, wheat husk and bagasse were also quantified to observe the thermal degradation behavior. XRF analysis was performed to observe the effect of acid treatment for extraction of pure silica.

  5. An Empirical Study of the Allocation Efficiency of Rural Financial Resources in Hubei Province from the Perspective of Agricultural Loans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofang; ZOU; Xueqin; JIANG

    2014-01-01

    The incompatibility of China’s economy and finance has to some extent inhibited the development of rural economy. Taking Hubei Province for example,we measure the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources from the perspective of agricultural input and output,and use the modern rural financial development theory to set forth some policy recommendations on how to build a new rural financial resource allocation system. Studies have shown that the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources is low in China,and improving the allocation efficiency of rural financial resources is the key to perfecting rural financial environment while increasing financial support for agriculture.

  6. N2O emissions from regional agricultural lands--A case study of Guizhou Province,southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To preliminarily study N2O emissions and the importance of environmental parameters on N2O flux from subtropical agroecosystem in China,N2O flux measurements were made at three cultivated agricultural lands in Guizhou Province,southwestern China.Based on the test and validation of daily N2O flux and its several associated variables between DNDC model and field measurements,DNDC model has been employed to estimate total N2O emissions from entire agricultural lands and its spatial distribution at county scale in Guizhou in 1995,and to assess the contributions of cropping practices on N2O emissions.

  7. N2O emissions from regional agricultural lands——A case study of Guizhou Province, southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文彬; 洪业汤; 陈旭晖; C.S.Li

    2000-01-01

    To preliminarily study N2O emissions and the importance of environmental parameters on N2O flux from subtropical agroecosystem in China, N2O flux measurements were made at three cultivated agricultural lands in Guizhou Province, southwestern China. Based on the test and validation of daily N2O flux and its several associated variables between DNDC model and field measurements, DNDC model has been employed to estimate total N2O emissions from entire agricultural lands and its spatial distribution at county scale in Guizhou in 1995, and to assess the contributions of cropping practices on N2O emissions.

  8. Study on the potential imports by member states of agricultural products containing radiocesium concentrations in excess of EC limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the Chernobyl accident, the European Commission maintains Council Regulation (EEC) number 737/90 which sets out the conditions governing the import of agricultural products originating in third countries and includes maximum permitted level (MPL) that shall be applied in respect of contamination with radiocesium. The main objective of the study was to identify agricultural products which might exceed the MPL of radiocesium. The results show that mushroom and berries from Norway or Russia or Belarus or Ukraine may exceed the MPL. Reindeer meat from Norway will stay suspicious for at least 30 years as well as meat from wild animals originating from Russia, Belarus and Ukraine and some other countries. Some agricultural products like living cows or horses, poultry,... can be excluded from the list except for products issued from areas with strong contamination

  9. Environmental impacts of small dams on agriculture and ground water development: a case study of Khan pur Dam, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water scarcity issues are increasing through out the world. Pakistan is also facing water crises and its water demands are increasing every day. During this research it is investigated that small dams are playing an important role for the sustainability of groundwater and agriculture. The main objective of this study was to assess the environmental impacts of small dam on agricultural and ground water. Proper planning and management of small dams may improve the sustainable agriculture in Pakistan. It is also concluded that small dams are significantly contributing towards economy, environment, local climate, recreational activities and crop production. Small dams can also be utilized for the production of electricity at local level. On the other hand, water management issues can be resolved by the involvement of local farmer's associations. Water losses through seepage, unlined channels and old irrigation methods are most critical in developing world. Considering the overall positive environmental impacts, construction of small dams must be promoted. (author)

  10. Non-agricultural Population,Employment and Land:An Econometric Study in an Integrated Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Weiyan; Zhang Anlu; Liu Caixia

    2009-01-01

    This paper explored the relationships among nonagricultural population,employment and land in an integrated framework,taking account of rural-urban land conversion into Carlino-Mills's model on the regional growth.Two-stage-leastsquares and ordinary-least-squares were employed.Recent data for district (grade) cities in China (from 1999 to 2005) were used.Our results showed that:first,urban population influenced non-agricultural employment,and vice versa,but the evidence that non-agricultural employment influenced urban population was stronger than the evidence that urban population influenced non-agricultural employment;second,urban population and non-agricultural employment both influenced ruralurban land conversion,but the evidence that urban population influenced rural urban land conversion was more stronger than the evidence that non-agricultural employment did.We also found that:first,the employment from the secondary industry influenced urban population in a positive way,and vice versa,but the employment from the tertiary industry influenced urban population in a negative way,and vice versa;second,the employment from the secondary industry influenced rural-urban land conversion in a positive way,but the employment from the tertiary industry influenced rural-urban land conversion in a negative way.We can conclude that the key of urbanization is to speed up the process of non-agricultural employment,especially the employment from the tertiary industry,which might promote non-agricultural population,employment and land harmoniously.

  11. Field studies on the behaviour of radiocaesium in agricultural environments after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the occurrence of Chernobyl 137Cs and 134Cs in cultivated, semi-natural and natural agricultural areas of five Swedish counties. The investigations were carried out under field conditions 1986 to 1995 on farms where transfer to grass and milk during the first years were high. Vertical migration rate in soil profiles, the practical value of countermeasures to reduce transfer to feed and food and the impact of passing time were important aims for the study. The transfer of Cs was higher on permanent pasture than on temporary grassland and much lower to barley grain. Stubble and grass swards kept Cs available for transfer to grass. High organic matter contents in the surface soil also caused high transfer during a lag period of some years. Soil texture, grass sward, K-fertilization and growth dilution explained the variation in Cs transfer and its reduction rate. A case study on transfer of Cs to vegetation and to grazing lambs was made on a mountain farm. High transfer to vegetation was found, 510-2260 Bq/kg d.w.. Mean transfer soil to plant (TFg,m2/kg) was 67 and plant to muscle 0.7 during 1990-1993. The effect of K-fertilization on soil-plant transfer was studied on 15 soils. A dose of 100 to 200 kg/ha K decreased the transfer on sandy soils with a factor of up to 10. Liming was effective on soils that were originally low in pH. Adding zeolite on the surface of pastures did not reduce the root uptake of Cs. Ploughing down the contaminated surface was effective in reducing the transfer. Downward migration of Cs was usually less on mineral soils than or organic or podsolized soils. 68 refs, 9 figs, 13 tabs

  12. Risk management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Ramaswami; Shamika Ravi; S.D. Chopra

    2003-01-01

    This monograph was written to be part of the series of studies commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture under the rubric of "State of Indian Farmer - A Millennium Study". On the basis of existing literature, this study documents the status of our knowledge on risks of agriculture and their management. Chapter 2 discusses the evidence on the nature, type and magnitude of agricultural risks. Chapter 3 discusses farmer strategies to combat risk. In addition to the mechanisms at the level of t...

  13. Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS): A Study of Stakeholders and Their Relations in System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchiradipta, Bhattacharjee; Raj, Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper identifies the stakeholders of System of Rice Intensification (SRI), their roles and actions and the supporting and enabling environment of innovation in the state as the elements of the Agricultural Innovation Systems (AIS) in SRI in Tripura state of India and studies the relationship matrix among the stakeholders.…

  14. Prediction of the long term accumulation and leaching of copper in Dutch agricultural soils: a risk assessment study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Römkens, P.F.A.M.; Vries, de W.

    2006-01-01

    This report describes a model study to assess whether current copper inputs on agricultural land lead to accumulation of copper and in time to an exceedance of a Predicted No Effect Concentration. A copper mass balance model was applied to the whole Netherlands. Future copper concentrations after 10

  15. Just How Much Can School Pupils Learn from School Gardening? A Study of Two Supervised Agricultural Experience Approaches in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okiror, John James; Matsiko, Biryabaho Frank; Oonyu, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    School systems in Africa are short of skills that link well with rural communities, yet arguments to vocationalize curricula remain mixed and school agriculture lacks the supervised practical component. This study, conducted in eight primary (elementary) schools in Uganda, sought to compare the learning achievement of pupils taught using…

  16. Knowledge, attitudes and behavioral intentions of agricultural professionals toward genetically modified (GM) foods: a case study in Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Sedigheh; Karami, Ezatollah; Azadi, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    While there has been a number of consumers' studies looking at factors that influence individuals' attitudes and behavior toward GM foods, few studies have considered agricultural professionals' intentions in this regard. This study illuminates agricultural professionals' insights toward GM foods in Southwest Iran. A random sample of 262 respondents was studied. The results indicated that the majority of the respondents had little knowledge about GM foods. They perceived few benefits or risks of GM foods. Their perceived benefits and trust in individuals and institutions had positive impacts on the behavioral intentions of the agricultural professionals. The results also revealed that the low knowledge level of the respondents had a negative impact on the behavioral intentions toward GM foods. This state of affairs is problematic, either GM foods have serious problems or the knowledge conveyed to the Iranian agricultural experts is inappropriate. We recommend a well defined communication strategy to provide information in such a way that allows individuals to feel adequately informed about GM foods. Furthermore, the development of trust and knowledge regarding GM foods can be greater when risk analysis frameworks are transparent, risk assessment methodologies are objective, all stakeholders are engaged in the risk management process, and risk communication focuses on consumers. PMID:22843033

  17. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  18. A Multi-Dimensional Comparative Assessment Methodology for Policy Analysis: A Multi-Country Study of the Agricultural Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, Peter; Vindigni, Gabriella

    1999-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of assessment methods for physicalplanning, with a particular focus on the agricultural sector. Anattempt is made to link multi-criteria analysis to meta-analysis byapplying rough set theory as a framework for comparative study. Anempirical application on the explanation of productivity differencesin OECD countries is used to ilustrate the potential of thisapproach.

  19. Study the effect of emotional intelligence on organizational learning staff, Case study: Jihad Agriculture Organization of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Saeidipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of "emotional intelligence" on "organizational learning" among employees who work for Jihad Agriculture organization of Isfahan. The statistical population includes 500 employees of the organization and a sample of 217 people are selected from these people using Morgan statistical tables for a period of 6 months of second half of 2011. Therefore, the research method is descriptive- survey, the type of correlation. For data collection the Wesinger Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and organizational learning questionnaire was used. Validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by a number of university professors. The reliability was obtained with Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the first questionnaire, 0.813 and for the second questionnaire, 0.786. By using Correlation coefficient and multiple Regressions by SPSS software the data were analyzed. Results in a significant level of 99% showed that emotional intelligence had a significant effect on organizational learning.

  20. The Study of Adaptation of the New Peach Cultivars in the Agricultural Region of Vlora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARDHOSH FERRAJ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Drupaceous fruits are placed in the first place in the species structure of Albania’s farms. To anticipate problems in the development of arboriculture and market production, scientific institutions have started a research to find possible solutions for the development of this sector. This is the reason why through collaboration between, CTT Vlore & IAM Bari was made possible to bring from Italy during the years 2000-2001, 96 cultivars of peaches, plums, cherries, apricots, nectarines, almonds. These cultivars dominate the production markets of the Mediterranean countries. In this project were included 21 peach cultivars 10 years old, rootstocks, planting material of basic category, clear of viruses and other pathogens. As the main rootstocks were selected GF 677 and MRS 2/5. To study the behavior, adaptability and productivity of the peach cultivars, in the warm coastal areas, specialists from the Agriculture University of Tirana and Center for Technology Transfer in Vlora carried out a number of tests and evaluations during a three year period. At the end of the study it resulted that the cultivars with a very early maturation better adapted in the coastal areas were: ‘Cardinal’, ‘May Crest’, and ‘Spring Crest’. The cultivars with early maturation and consolidated productivity were: “Red Haven”, “Bolero”, “Dixired”, “Early Crest”, “Iris Rosso”. Cultivars with an average maturation period were: “Red Haven Bianca”, “Red Top”, “Regina Bianca”, “Sun Crest”. The most suitable cultivars with a delayed maturation period are considered: “Big Moon”, “Domiziana”, “Haile”, “Laure”, “Maria Delizia”, “Rome Star”, “Pontina” and “Red Cal”. The only cultivar with a very delayed maturation is “Padana”.

  1. Chinese public understanding of the use of agricultural biotechnology--A case study from Zhejiang Province of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This study explores the Chinese public's perceptions of, and attitudes to, agriculture and food applications of biotechnology; and investigates the effect of socio-demographic factors on attitudes. A questionnaire survey and interviews were used in an attempt to combine quantitative analysis with qualitative review. The main finding of this study is that the Chinese population has a superficial, optimistic attitude to agricultural biotechnology; and that, in accordance with public attitudes, a cautious policy,with obligatory labelling, should be adopted. The study reveals that education is the factor among socio-demographic variables with the strongest impact on public attitudes. Higher education leads to a more positive evaluation of GM (genetically modified)foods and applications of biotechnology with respect to usefulness, moral acceptability, and suitability for encouragement. In addition, public attitudinal differences depend significantly on area of residence. Compared with their more urban compatriots,members of the public in less developed areas of China have more optimistic attitudes, perceive more benefits, and are more risk tolerant in relation to GM foods and agricultural biotechnology. Finally we obtained a very high rate of"don't know" answers to our survey questions. This suggests that many people do not have settled attitudes, and correspondingly, that the overall public attitude to agricultural biotechnology and GM foods in China is at present somewhat unstable.

  2. Health Literacy among Adults: A Study from Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, H.; Alper, Z.; Uncu, Y.; Bilgel, N.

    2010-01-01

    Patients' health literacy is increasingly recognized as a critical factor affecting health communication and outcomes. We performed this study to assess the levels of health literacy by using Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and Newest Vital Sign (NVS) instruments. Patients (n = 456) at a family medicine clinic completed…

  3. Monitoring adherence to the international code of conduct: highly hazardous pesticides in central Andean agriculture and farmers' rights to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco, Fadya A; Cole, Donald C; Forbes, Greg; Kroschel, Jürgen; Wanigaratne, Susitha; Arica, Denis

    2009-01-01

    The WHO has advocated monitoring adherence to the Food and Agriculture Organization's Code of Conduct to reduce use of highly hazardous pesticides in lower and middle income countries. We re-framed Code articles in terms of farmers' rights and drew on survey data, farmer focus group results, and direct observations of agrochemical stores in Ecuador and Peru to construct indicators reflecting respect for such rights. Use of highly (Ia and Ib) and moderately (II) hazardous pesticides was common. Worse indicators were observed in places with lower education, greater poverty, and more use of indigenous languages. Limited government enforcement capacity, social irresponsibility of the pesticide industry, and lack of farmers' knowledge of the Code were all factors impeding respect for farmers' rights. Addressing the power imbalance among social actors requires informed farmer and farmworker participation in monitoring adherence and active involvement of non-governmental organizations and municipal governments. PMID:19650580

  4. A Study on Regional Specialization of China’s Agricultural Production: Recent Trends and Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilin Ma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines trends and drivers for regional specialization of China’s agricultural produc-tion for 2003-2011. We apply the Regional Specialization Index to a data set of commodities that covers 70 percent of China’s crop and livestock production. Actual prices at the provincial level are used and a seven-region framework is established that accurately reflects China’s agro-ecological characteristics. Our findings show that inequality of specialization among the Chinese regions has narrowed, with the year 2007 as a turning point. We argue that the enhanced regional specialization is due to less government intervention and more openness to international markets. Growing economic freedom, accompanied by intensified internal and external competition, has driven the regions to adjust agricultural production structures closely according to comparative advantages. Recent trends of specialization are identified and explained. Moreover, quantitative evidence to relevant agricultural policies is provided.

  5. ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL INTEGRATION OF ROMANIA INTO THE EUROPEAN UNION. CASE STUDY: THE CONTRIBUTION OF AGRICULTURE TO ECONOMIC GROWTH OF THE NORTH-WEST REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion DONA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional development, by its magnitude, includes several fields, making many institutions are involved in the development and implementation. Structural Funds are the main financial instruments used by the European Union to reduce disparities and promote economic and social cohesion in Europe. For Romania, the regional development policy is a relatively new concept. Using multi-criteria method was attempted an analysis of the level of agricultural development and North-West agricultural sector contribution to economic growth in the region.

  6. Health literacy practices and educational competencies for health professionals: a consensus study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Clifford A; Hudson, Stan; Maine, Lucinda L

    2013-01-01

    Health care professionals often lack adequate knowledge about health literacy and the skills needed to address low health literacy among patients and their caregivers. Many promising practices for mitigating the effects of low health literacy are not used consistently. Improving health literacy training for health care professionals has received increasing emphasis in recent years. The development and evaluation of curricula for health professionals has been limited by the lack of agreed-upon educational competencies in this area. This study aimed to identify a set of health literacy educational competencies and target behaviors, or practices, relevant to the training of all health care professionals. The authors conducted a thorough literature review to identify a comprehensive list of potential health literacy competencies and practices, which they categorized into 1 or more educational domains (i.e., knowledge, skills, attitudes) or a practice domain. The authors stated each item in operationalized language following Bloom's Taxonomy. The authors then used a modified Delphi method to identify consensus among a group of 23 health professions education experts representing 11 fields in the health professions. Participants rated their level of agreement as to whether a competency or practice was both appropriate and important for all health professions students. A predetermined threshold of 70% agreement was used to define consensus. After 4 rounds of ratings and modifications, consensus agreement was reached on 62 out of 64 potential educational competencies (24 knowledge items, 27 skill items, and 11 attitude items), and 32 out of 33 potential practices. This study is the first known attempt to develop consensus on a list of health literacy practices and to translate recommended health literacy practices into an agreed-upon set of measurable educational competencies for health professionals. Further work is needed to prioritize the competencies and practices in

  7. Determinants of health tourism competitiveness: An Alpine case study

    OpenAIRE

    Schalber, Christof; Peters, Mike

    2012-01-01

    Health tourism is of growing interest for tourism destinations and serves as a key theme to add value and to differentiate destinations’ tourism product and service bundles. In tourism research recent studies underline the importance of various forms of health tourism in the Alps. However, due to the fact that health tourism definitions vary greatly amongst academics one can hardly assess the determinants of competitiveness of health tourism products or destinations. This paper aims to invest...

  8. The Health of Homeless People in Nottingham: an Exploratory Study

    OpenAIRE

    Crocombe, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    This study sought to explore the perspectives of homeless people in Nottingham concerning health and homelessness. Homeless people are known to suffer from a host of health complaints, yet have great difficulty accessing healthcare. Whilst there has been research into health needs of homeless people, there is limited in-depth research which has explored the health needs and perceptions of healthcare provision from a user's perspective, in relation to specific services in one particular area. ...

  9. Teacher competencies in health education: results of a Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Moynihan; Leena Paakkari; Raili Välimaa; Didier Jourdan; Patricia Mannix-McNamara

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed THE LINK TO THE DATA SET FOR THIS ARTICLE IS: URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10344/4736 Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic f...

  10. Study on Management System for Agricultural Sci-tech Achievement Transformation Funding Project

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hong; Yu, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Relying on the management system for agricultural sci-tech achievement transformation funding project in Zhejiang Province, on the basis of current situations and demand of agricultural sci-tech achievement transformation funding project management system, we present a B/S-structured and J2EE platform based system which adopts MVC mode and integrates mainstream open-source frame technologies such as Spring, Struts2, ExtJs, TopLink and FreeMarker, etc. Practice has shown that this system provi...

  11. On sustainable development of agriculture in oasis: a case study of Hexi Corridor, Gansu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Limin

    2007-01-01

    Hexi Corridor is one of the most potential areas in the China's Western Development in 21s' century.However,the problems - the sustainable development of oasis agriculture,the ecosystem of the oasis edge,the landscape structure,the population density in oasis,water resources and land resources in oasis are deteriorating and have restricted the sustainable development of society and economy in this area.This paper summarizes the problems at present,and puts forward the concept of protecting and constructing the oasis environment and sustainable development for the sustainable development of the oasis agriculture in the Hexi Corridor.

  12. Avian influenza outbreak in Turkey through health personnel's views: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbaydar Tugrul

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza threatens public health worldwide because it is usually associated with severe illness and, consequently, a higher risk of death. During the first months of 2006, Turkey experienced its first human avian influenza epidemic. A total of 21 human cases were identified, 12 of which were confirmed by the National Institute for Medical Research. Nine of the cases, including the four fatal ones, were from the Dogubeyazit-Van region. This study aims to evaluate the efforts at the avian influenza outbreak control in the Van-Dogubeyazit region in 2006 through the experiences of health personnel. Methods We conducted in-depth interviews with seventeen key informants who took active roles during the avian influenza outbreak in East Turkey during the first months of 2006. We gathered information about the initial responses, the progress and management of the outbreak control, and the reactions of the health professionals and the public. The findings of the study are reported according to the topics that appeared through thematic analysis of the interview transcripts. Results Following the first suspected avian influenza cases, a Van Crisis Coordination Committee was formed as the coordinating and decision-making body and played an important role in the appropriate timing of decisions. The health and agriculture services could not be well coordinated owing to the lack of integrated planning in preparation for outbreak and of integrated surveillance programs. Traditional poultry practice together with the low socio-economic status of the people and the lack of health care access in the region seemed to be a major risk for animal to animal and animal to human transmission. The strengths and weaknesses of the present health system – primary health care services, national surveillance and notification systems, human resource and management – affected the inter organizational coordination during the outbreak. Open

  13. Automatic Training Site Selection for Agricultural Crop Classification: a Case Study on Karacabey Plain, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdarici Ok, A.; Akyurek, Z.

    2011-09-01

    This study implements a traditional supervised classification method to an optical image composed of agricultural crops by means of a unique way, selecting the training samples automatically. Panchromatic (1m) and multispectral (4m) Kompsat-2 images (July 2008) of Karacabey Plain (~100km2), located in Marmara region, are used to evaluate the proposed approach. Due to the characteristic of rich, loamy soils combined with reasonable weather conditions, the Karacabey Plain is one of the most valuable agricultural regions of Turkey. Analyses start with applying an image fusion algorithm on the panchromatic and multispectral image. As a result of this process, 1m spatial resolution colour image is produced. In the next step, the four-band fused (1m) image and multispectral (4m) image are orthorectified. Next, the fused image (1m) is segmented using a popular segmentation method, Mean- Shift. The Mean-Shift is originally a method based on kernel density estimation and it shifts each pixel to the mode of clusters. In the segmentation procedure, three parameters must be defined: (i) spatial domain (hs), (ii) range domain (hr), and (iii) minimum region (MR). In this study, in total, 176 parameter combinations (hs, hr, and MR) are tested on a small part of the area (~10km2) to find an optimum segmentation result, and a final parameter combination (hs=18, hr=20, and MR=1000) is determined after evaluating multiple goodness measures. The final segmentation output is then utilized to the classification framework. The classification operation is applied on the four-band multispectral image (4m) to minimize the mixed pixel effect. Before the image classification, each segment is overlaid with the bands of the image fused, and several descriptive statistics of each segment are computed for each band. To select the potential homogeneous regions that are eligible for the selection of training samples, a user-defined threshold is applied. After finding those potential regions, the

  14. Water and nutrient balances in a large tile-drained agricultural catchment: a distributed modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of a distributed model of coupled water nutrient processes, based on the representative elementary watershed (REW approach, to the Upper Sangamon River Basin, a large, tile-drained agricultural basin located in central Illinois, mid-west of USA. Comparison of model predictions with the observed hydrological and biogeochemical data, as well as regional estimates from literature studies, shows that the model is capable of capturing the dynamics of water, sediment and nutrient cycles reasonably well. The model is then used as a tool to gain insights into the physical and chemical processes underlying the inter- and intra-annual variability of water and nutrient balances. Model predictions show that about 80% of annual runoff is contributed by tile drainage, while the remainder comes from surface runoff (mainly saturation excess flow and subsurface runoff. It is also found that, at the annual scale nitrogen storage in the soil is depleted during wet years, and is supplemented during dry years. This carryover of nitrogen storage from dry year to wet year is mainly caused by the lateral loading of nitrate. Phosphorus storage, on the other hand, is not affected much by wet/dry conditions simply because the leaching of it is very minor compared to the other mechanisms taking phosphorous out of the basin, such as crop harvest. The analysis then turned to the movement of nitrate with runoff. Model results suggested that nitrate loading from hillslope into the channel is preferentially carried by tile drainage. Once in the stream it is then subject to in-stream denitrification, the significant spatio-temporal variability of which can be related to the variation of the hydrologic and hydraulic conditions across the river network.

  15. Toxicological studies for some agricultural waste extracts on mosquito larvae and experimental animals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somia El-Maghraby; Galal A Nawwar; Reda FA Bakr; Nadia Helmy; Omnia MHM Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate some agricultural waste extracts as insecticide and their effects on enzyme activities in liver and kidney of male mice. Methods: The insecticidal activity of five tested compounds (one crude extract and 4 waste compounds) was bioassay against the 3rd instars of the Culex pipiens (Cx. pipiens) larvae in the laboratory. The LC50 values of eucalyptol, apricot kernel, Rice bran, corn, black liquor and white liquor are 91.45, 1 166.1, 1 203.3, 21 449.65, 4 025.78 and 6 343.18 ppm, respectively. Selection of the compounds for the subsequent studies was not only dependent on LC50 values but also on the persistence of these wastes products on large scale. Results:White and black liquor did not produce any gross effect at 200 mg/Kg body weight. No apparent toxic symptoms were observed in tested animals during the whole period of the experiment which run out for 14 days. No statistically significance was observed in the enzyme cholinesterase activity, the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with black and white liquors. While, no and slight inhibition was observed after the 2 weeks of treatment period with deltamethrin and fenitrothion reached to about 24%in plasma cholinesterase enzyme activity. Significantly increase in the activities of liver enzymes and kidney function in treated mice with deltamethrin and fenitrothion. Conclusions:Black liquor can be used efficiently to control Cx. pipiens larvae under laboratory condition. Environmental problem caused by rice straw can be solved by converting the waste material to beneficial natural selective insecticide.

  16. Evaluation for Use Efficiency of Agricultural Resources in Grain Production: A Case Study of Changshu, Taihe and Ansai in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wei; CHEN Baiming; CHEN Xiwei

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to establish an index system for evaluation of agricultural resources use efficiency (ARUE) in grain production and discuss the causes of low efficiency and high consumption of agricultural resources in Changshu of Jiangsu Province, Taihe of Jiangxi Province and Ausai of Shaanxi Province in China by analyzing the data about meteorology, soil, water consumption and grain production. Agro-ecological Zone (AEZ) method was adopted to calculate the potential productivity, and synthetically multivariate equation was used to evaluate the ARUE of study areas. This paper can be concluded as: 1) the agricultural resources in grain production can be classified into five categories, i.e., climatic resources, water resources, land resources, biological resources and assistant resources, and 15 indexes were selected to evaluate their use efficiency in grain production; 2) the values of ARUE in grain production are 0.5868, 0.6368 and 0.5390 respectively in Changshu, Taihe and Ansai; and 3) Changshu ranks the highest among the three study areas in terms of the use efficiency of climatic resources and biological resources (evaluation values are 0.0277 and 0.1530), but Taihe tops the three in terms of the use efficiency of water resources, land resources and assistant resources (evaluation values are 0.0502, 0.2945 and 0.1379 respectively). However, the ARUE remains always low in Ansai for all the resources. The inefficiencies are caused by poor grain revenue in Changshu, deficient agriculture investments in Taihe and unfavorable natural conditions in Ansai.

  17. Evaluation of agricultural ecological environment in determining the capable areas: A case study of city of Esfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Kiani Salmi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The nature of different activities in production, agriculture as well as distribution and consumption section, called as expansionist activities, largely influence the ability of the land. Production of consumable material, which is required for increasing population in various areas, and their attractions make it possible to earn more profit and it causes a significant pressure on soil and water resources and can threaten environmental pollution and human food security. A self-interested attitude on land resources has led to run short-term programs without considering the ecological capability of the land. These mentioned problems are, significantly intensified particularly in arid and semi-arid areas with severe limitations of water and soil quality and quantity. Therefore, land allocation based on ecological capability and self-purification indexes, used for land use planning, is an appropriate response to meet the deficiencies noted. This paper studies the agricultural capable lands based on land capability. The proposed study uses GIS software capabilities with application of the environmental ability evaluation model, as a holistic approach, to make sustainable development research in the region. The results indicate that suitable lands for agriculture in the whole area in different classes are widespread and with regards to dependency of more than 90 percent of people to agricultural activities, serious attention of authorities is required for providing the appropriate baseline and avoiding land use change to develop this activity.

  18. Agricultural vulnerability in Bangladesh to climate change induced sea level rise and options for adaptation: a study of a coastal Upazila

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Anowarul Islam; Paul Kumar Shitangsu; Md. Zahidul Hassan

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the vulnerabilities of agriculture in coastal regions of Bangladesh to the different adverse effects of sea level rise induced hazards, and also identifies option for future agricultural adaptations. It reveals that due to sea level rise, agriculture of the study area has already experienced noticeable adverse impacts especially in terms of area of inundation, salinity intrusion and reduction in crop production. The study is conducted based on both primary and secondary da...

  19. Education is associated with lower levels of abdominal obesity in women with a non-agricultural occupation: an interaction study using China’s four provinces survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) as their populations become exposed to obesogenic environments. The transition from an agrarian to an industrial and service-based economy results in important lifestyle changes. Yet different socioeconomic groups may experience and respond to these changes differently. Investigating the socioeconomic distribution of obesity in LMICs is key to understanding the causes of obesity but the field is limited by the scarcity of data and a uni-dimensional approach to socioeconomic status (SES). This study splits socioeconomic status into two dimensions to investigate how educated women may have lower levels of obesity in a context where labour market opportunities have shifted away from agriculture to other forms of employment. Methods The Four Provinces Study in China 2008/09 is a household-based community survey of 4,314 people aged ≥60  years (2,465 women). It was used to investigate an interaction between education (none/any) and occupation (agricultural/non-agricultural) on high-risk central obesity defined as a waist circumference ≥80 cm. An interaction term between education and occupation was incorporated in a multivariate logistic regression model, and the estimates adjusted for age, parity, urban/rural residence and health behaviours (smoking, alcohol, meat and fruit & vegetable consumption). Complete case analyses were undertaken and results confirmed using multiple imputation to impute missing data. Results An interaction between occupation and education was present (P = 0.02). In the group with no education, the odds of central obesity in the sedentary occupation group were more than double those of the agricultural occupation group even after taking age group and parity into account (OR; 95%CI: 2.21; 1.52, 3.21), while in the group with any education there was no evidence of such a relationship (OR; 95%CI: 1.25; 0.92, 1.70). Health behaviours

  20. Assessment of Innovative Approaches to Flood Risk Management and Financing in Agriculture : The Thailand Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    The World Bank recently conducted research and concept-testing activities to investigate the expansion of the index approach from drought to flood. The main objective was to assess prerequisite conditions, as well as practical and efficient methods, to conceptualize and potentially implement index-based insurance for agricultural flood losses. In addition, the work assessed how modern tech...

  1. Agriculture and the environment — a case study of the Želivka catchment, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Orderud, G.I.; Políčková-Dobiášová, Berenika

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2010), s. 201-221. ISSN 1523-908X Grant ostatní: EU(CZ) EVK1-CT-2001-00096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : water resources * environmental regulations * transition economy * agriculture * cultural landscape * Czech Republic Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 0.951, year: 2010

  2. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Protocols and pilot studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, W.; Hatfield, J.L.; Ruane, A.C.; Boote, K.J.; Thorburn, P.; Antle, J.M.; Nelson, G.C.; Porter, C.; Janssen, S.J.C.; Asseng, S.; Basso, B.; Ewert, F.; Wallach, D.; Baigorria, G.; Winter, J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a major international effort linking the climate, crop, and economic modeling communities with cutting-edge information technology to produce improved crop and economic models and the next generation of climate impact projecti

  3. Changing the Teaching/Learning Procedures in Physics for Agricultural Engineering. A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Angel; Parra, M. Isabel; Cachadina, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    The subject "Physical Fundamentals of Engineering" for agricultural engineers in the University of Extremadura has long had high rates of students not attending classes, not presenting for examinations and, finally, failing the subject. During the 2007 and 2008 courses, the teaching/learning procedures were strongly modified. Analysis of the…

  4. Study on the Factors Influencing the Level of Innovation in Agricultural Science and Technology Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing; SUN; Baofeng; CHEN

    2015-01-01

    This paper carries out a questionnaire survey of persons in charge of the agricultural project in the " Eleventh Five-Year National Support Program" on the level of innovation in projects and the factors influencing innovation. After the linear regression analysis of the survey data,it is found that the factors influencing the innovation in agricultural science and technology projects include the level of innovation in scientific achievements,efficiency of research methods and creation of innovation environment. Through the variance analysis of the level of innovation and its influencing factors related to different innovators,it is found that there are differences in the statistical significance of level of innovation in projects among universities,research institutes,research and extension departments directly under the government,and enterprises; there are no significant differences in the understanding of factors influencing innovation,that is,different innovators basically have the same understanding of factors influencing innovation,but the assessment on level of innovation in projects completed is different to some extent.On this basis,this paper proposes the recommendations for further strengthening the level of innovation in agricultural science and technology projects in order to provide a theoretical reference and practical basis for the project managers to effectively improve the level of agricultural science and technology project management,and enhance the level of innovation in projects.

  5. Marginal value of natural water in agriculture: a study in the suburbs of Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gezahegn, T.W.; Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin

    2015-01-01

    In areas where markets for natural water are lacking, information on its marginal value can be an important tool for proper pricing to achieve efficient allocation of the resource. This article investigates the marginal value of natural water (rainwater used as a proxy) in agricultural crop producti

  6. Vulnerability of karst aquifers to agricultural contaminants: A case study in the Pennyroyal Plateau of Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst landscapes are common in many agricultural regions in the US. Well-developed karst landscapes are characterized by shallow soils, sinkholes, sinking streams, underground conduits, and springs. In these landscapes surface runoff is minimal and most recharge enters the subsurface relatively quic...

  7. The Study of Performance Management Process for Agricultural Scientific Research Units

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Yanyu; Ma, Zilong; Shi, Xueru

    2014-01-01

    Performance management is an effective means of promoting agricultural research institutes to improve the innovation capability, establish scientific performance management process is the guarantee for the performance management being successfully carried out. This paper discusses the establishment of performance management organization, developing performance plans mission objectives, establishing a scientific performance evaluation index system, the development of assessment criteria and sc...

  8. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  9. How does pyrogenic organic matter affect the N dynamic in agricultural soils? An incubation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Rosa, José M.; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Besides other environmental factors, N availability drives the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in grasslands. Since grass-dominated ecosystems cover approximately 40% of the terrestrial surface and store more than 30% of global soil organic carbon (SOC), alterations to those ecosystems could have significant consequences and potential implications for global C and N cycles and climate (Schlesinger et al., 1990). Understanding the processes that govern the efficient cycling of nutrients through soil/plant systems remains an important topic to underpin the choice of strategies aimed at ensuring the long-term sustainability of ecosystems. In Mediterranean ecosystems, wild-fires occur frequently. Whereas factors such as water shortage or erosion contribute to reduced N-availability by lowering the litter input, burning additionally increase the refractory N and C-pools by charring litter and humic material (charred pyrogenic organic matter-PyOM) (Gonzalez-Pérez, 2004). In general, the addition of organic matter either as plant residues or farmyard manure has been shown to significantly increase biological activity, microbial biomass and enzyme activity in soil (Dick, 1992). Even in situations where microbial biomass appears to be unaffected, the activity of specific processes (e.g. N mineralization) can be significantly influenced by the addition of organic residues). However, little is known about the changes of the N cycle caused by the addition of PyOM. Therefore, the interest of our research was to study the impact of 15N enriched-biochars either alone or in conjunction with a 15N enriched fertilizer (K15NO3) on aggregate stability and organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) distribution among the different soil fractions. The latter may help to elucidate both, the quality of the stored organic matter and if the accumulation is related to interaction with the mineral matter. Therefore, biochar derived from grass material grown on 15N-enriched fertilizer was added

  10. The Healthier the Tastier? USA-India Comparison Studies on Consumer Perception of a Nutritious Agricultural Product at Different Food Processing Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Fatemi, Hajar; Lu, Ji; Hertzer, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Present research compares food beliefs associated with a naturally nutritious agricultural product (namely pulses) in Western and Eastern cultures (namely the US and India). Specifically, this paper focuses on the perception of healthiness and tastefulness of the food and their relationship. Two studies tested the effect of processing level, cultural differences, and branding strategies. In contrast to the well-established inverse relationship between healthiness and tastefulness beliefs observed in the West with industrial food products, the results of both studies revealed a positive association between health and taste for pulses in both West and East. Study 1 shows that this positive association is stronger with lower processing, suggesting the role of naturalness as bridge between health and taste. Focusing on cultural differences, results show that while both West and East hold positive association of health and taste for pulses, this association is stronger for East. However, the role of processing level is significantly stronger in West. Study 2 looks at branding strategies for pulse products with different processing levels in West and East. Results confirm the findings of study 1 on positive association of taste and healthiness and cross-cultural differences. Moreover, study 2 shows that cultural difference between West and East changes the effect of branding strategies on food-related belief and attitude toward food. For American consumers, a future-oriented branding is associated with an enhanced positive healthiness-taste association, whereas a brand image emphasizing tradition leads to increased perception of the taste of product but not necessarily on the healthiness. Current paper has theoretical and practical implications in public policy, health, and marketing. PMID:26858946

  11. The Healthier the Tastier? USA-India Comparison Studies on Consumer Perception of a Nutritious Agricultural Product at Different Food Processing Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurette eDube

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Present research compares food beliefs associated with a naturally nutritious agricultural commodity (namely pulses in Western and Eastern cultures (namely US and India. Specifically, this paper focuses on the perception of healthiness and tastefulness of the food and their relationship. Two studies tested the effect of processing level, cultural differences and branding strategies. In contrast to the well-established inverse relationship between healthiness and tastefulness beliefs observed in the West with industrial food products, the results of both studies revealed a positive association between health and tastefulness for pulses in both West and East. Study1 shows that this positive association is stronger with lower processing, suggesting the role of naturalness as bridge between health and taste. Focusing on cultural differences, results show that while both West and East hold positive association of health and taste for pulses, this association is stronger for East. However, the role of processing level is significantly stronger in West. Study2 looks at branding strategies for pulse products with different processing levels in West and East. Results confirm the findings of study1 on positive association of taste and healthiness and cross cultural differences. Moreover, study2 shows that cultural differences between West and East changes the effectiveness of branding strategies on food related belief and attitude towards food. For American consumers a future oriented branding is associated with an enhanced positive healthiness-taste association, whereas a brand image emphasizing tradition leads to increased perception of the taste of product but not necessarily on the healthiness. Current paper has theoretical and practical implications in public policy, health and marketing.

  12. The Healthier the Tastier? USA–India Comparison Studies on Consumer Perception of a Nutritious Agricultural Product at Different Food Processing Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubé, Laurette; Fatemi, Hajar; Lu, Ji; Hertzer, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Present research compares food beliefs associated with a naturally nutritious agricultural product (namely pulses) in Western and Eastern cultures (namely the US and India). Specifically, this paper focuses on the perception of healthiness and tastefulness of the food and their relationship. Two studies tested the effect of processing level, cultural differences, and branding strategies. In contrast to the well-established inverse relationship between healthiness and tastefulness beliefs observed in the West with industrial food products, the results of both studies revealed a positive association between health and taste for pulses in both West and East. Study 1 shows that this positive association is stronger with lower processing, suggesting the role of naturalness as bridge between health and taste. Focusing on cultural differences, results show that while both West and East hold positive association of health and taste for pulses, this association is stronger for East. However, the role of processing level is significantly stronger in West. Study 2 looks at branding strategies for pulse products with different processing levels in West and East. Results confirm the findings of study 1 on positive association of taste and healthiness and cross-cultural differences. Moreover, study 2 shows that cultural difference between West and East changes the effect of branding strategies on food-related belief and attitude toward food. For American consumers, a future-oriented branding is associated with an enhanced positive healthiness–taste association, whereas a brand image emphasizing tradition leads to increased perception of the taste of product but not necessarily on the healthiness. Current paper has theoretical and practical implications in public policy, health, and marketing. PMID:26858946

  13. Assessing the Need for a New Household Panel Study: Health Insurance and Health Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the availability of data for addressing questions related to health insurance and health care and the potential contribution of a new household panel study. The paper begins by outlining some of the major questions related to policy and concludes that survey data on health insurance, access to care, health spending, and overall economic well-being will likely be needed to answer them. The paper considers the strengths and weaknesses of existing sources of survey data for answering these questions. The paper concludes that either a new national panel study, an expansion in the age range of subjects in existing panel studies, or a set of smaller changes to existing panel and cross-sectional surveys, would significantly enhance our understanding of the dynamics of health insurance, access to health care, and economic well-being.

  14. Epidemiological Study of Greek University Students' Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounenou, Kalliope; Koutra, Aikaterini; Katsiadrami, Aristea; Diacogiannis, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, 805 Greek students participated by filling in self-report questionnaires studying depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale), general health status (General Health Questionnaire), general psychopathology (Symptom Checklist-90-R), and personal demographic features. Some of the more prevalent findings…

  15. The Jamaican SLOWPOKE-2 research reactor: neutron activation analysis in environmental and health studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its 24 years of existence the reactor has been utilized mainly for Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) and has played an important role in the development of research programs in the areas of archaeology, biology, chemistry, forensics, geochemistry, and mining as well as for the production of short lived radioisotopes for experimental work in the physics department. However, over the last fifth teen years our main thrust has been environmental geochemistry, agriculture and health related studies, with interesting results that have implications for land use, farming practices, diabetic control and dietary intakes during pregnancy. (author)

  16. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL EXPORTS IN SUB-SAHARA AFRICA: AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF RUBBER AND COCOA FROM NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyi Ndubuto Nwachukwu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ithin 1961 – 2010. It specifically estimated the determinants of their export performance and determined the degree of export diversification of the agricultural sector. Both export crops were chosen because they remained the most exported agricultural commodities after the number of agricultural exports commodities shrank from the traditional 12–15 commodities of the 1960s. Published national aggregates on specific trade and macroeconomic variables from reputable secondary sources were used. In the course of data analysis, descriptive statistics, diversification index and Error Correction Model (ECM were employed. Prior to estimation, Unit root and Cointegration tests were conducted. The results revealed that export supply of cocoa was found to be influenced by export cost and rainfall in the long run while output, cost of production and export affected it in the short run. Rubber export supply was influenced by cost of export and exchange rate in the long run while world export-output ratio and cost of export affected it in the short run. The study results further revealed that export diversification measure showed that the sector experienced fluctuations with varying Hirschman indices which ranged from 1.3 x 10-7 to 5.1 x 10-7 , depicting decreasing concentration. Invariably, this implies increasing leanness of the export basket. On the basis of the result, it is necessary to explore policy options such as export financing and foreign exchange policies to promote production in the export subsector of agriculture and industrial sector to diversify the national export basket.

  17. Study on agricultural structure and non-point source pollution: a case in Dapu Town of Yixing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Xiyuan; Liu Minghui; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The water body of Taihu Lake has been eutrophicated because of area-source pollution. 83% of the total nitrogen and 84% of the total phosphorus of the pollutant that have washed into Taihu Lake originated from the fertilizer of crop land, rural animal husbandry and living sewage and rubbish in rural area. The goal of adjusting agricultural structure is to improve agricultural development, and to increase the peasants income by planting non-grain crop,centralizing animal husbandry, and intensifying aquaculture, etc, It is necessary to research on the influences of agriculture industrial structure on area-source pollution, This paper studies a case of Dapu Town in Yixing City, which is a typical drainage place beside Taihu Lake. On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of area-source pollution and agriculture industrial structure in Dapu Town, the conflicts between them are discussed. Non-grain crop production with a great deal of fertilizer and developing aquaculture with a great deal of organic pollutant, which are directly discharged,make area-source pollution more serious and accelerate the eutrophication in Taihu Lake. This paper suggests taking corresponding technological measures and policies, which have been tested in Dapu Town and demonstrated in Taihu Lake area.

  18. Blending satellite data and RADAR tool for rapid flood damage assessment in Agriculture: A case study in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarnath, Giriraj; Inada, Yoshiaki; Inoue, Ryosuke; Alahacoon, Niranga; Smakhtin, Vladimir

    2014-05-01

    During the catastrophic flooding it is critically important to estimate losses as it is essential for facilitating good decision making at the district, province and national levels of government and to appraise aid agencies for necessary assistance. Flood loss estimates can also be used to evaluate the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to strengthening flood control measures. In the case of Sri Lanka there were limited knowledge and application system exist for carrying out rapid damage assessment for Agriculture in Sri Lanka. FAO has developed the tool "Rapid Agricultural Disaster Assessment Routine" (RADAR) based on theoretical approach that uses simple tools for assessing the impact on agriculture of a disastrous event. There are two knowledge bases that contain information needed for calculation of the value loss or damage. The procedure of rapid impact assessment implies the use of knowledge-bases, database and GIS. In this study, the user friendly application of RADAR system has been developed. Three components were considered including agriculture, livestock and farmers asset to estimate the losses. The application will allow estimating flood damage at various scales and this being tested at district level and specific example for the 2011 floods in Sri Lanka. In order to understand flood inundation cycle, time-series optical MODIS satellite data (2000-2011) and microwave ALOS PALSAR (2006-2011) were used to derive annual flood extent, flood duration and recurrent areas to identify flood risk and impact of seasonal flooding on agriculture. This study demonstrates how RADAR & satellite-based flood products can be effectively used for rapid damage assessment and managing the floods.

  19. African Countries’ Agricultural Trade Value Chain Assessment Case study: Tanzania (Cashew nut exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Krepl

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa lost its status as a net exporter of agricultural products in the early 1980s when prices for raw commodities fell and local production stagnated. Since then, agricultural imports have grown faster than agricultural exports. In order to get to the bottom of this critical issue, UNIDO in partnership with the AU, IFAD, AfDB, FAO, and UNECA, developed the African Agribusiness and Agro-Industries Development Initiative (3ADI. The major objective of the 3ADI is to increase private sector investment flows going into the agriculture sector in Africa by mobilizing resources for agribusiness and agro-industrial development from the domestic, regional or international financial systems. This formed the basis of research with the objective of assessing the value addition chain for some vital agricultural commodities in the 3ADI focus countries. UNIDO is developing several action plans in a few African countries – one of them is Tanzania. In the case of Tanzania, the findings show the potential in cashew nuts. The paper’s main goal is to propose a plan or set of steps leading to the improvement of added value generation in the area of agricultural trade in Tanzania. The paper is focused on one commodity Cashew-nuts. Tanzania boosts high volumes of local supply of this commodity, which is the key prerequisite for the value addition chain through local processing. The results from the analysis prove significant economic losses related to the current structure of Tanzanian trade in cashew nuts. The main problem of the current cashew nut trade activities is the very low added value of exported cashew nuts. The paper analyses the structure of value added activities related to the cashew nut trade and proposes a plan for increasing the share of processed cashew nuts at a much higher unit price in comparison to raw cashew nuts. The simulated development in the cashew sector in Tanzania to the year 2030 is based on two expectations a 5

  20. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP): Protocols and Pilot Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Jones, J. W.; Hatfield, J. L.; Ruane, A. C.; Boote, K. J.; Thorburn, P.; Antle, J. M.; Nelson, G. C.; Porter, C.; Janssen, S.; Asseng, S.; Basso, B.; Ewert, F.; Wallach, D.; Baigorria, G.; Winter, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) is a major international effort linking the climate, crop, and economic modeling communities with cutting-edge information technology to produce improved crop and economic models and the next generation of climate impact projections for the agricultural sector. The goals of AgMIP are to improve substantially the characterization of world food security due to climate change and to enhance adaptation capacity in both developing and developed countries. Analyses of the agricultural impacts of climate variability and change require a transdisciplinary effort to consistently link state-of-the-art climate scenarios to crop and economic models. Crop model outputs are aggregated as inputs to regional and global economic models to determine regional vulnerabilities, changes in comparative advantage, price effects, and potential adaptation strategies in the agricultural sector. Climate, Crop Modeling, Economics, and Information Technology Team Protocols are presented to guide coordinated climate, crop modeling, economics, and information technology research activities around the world, along with AgMIP Cross-Cutting Themes that address uncertainty, aggregation and scaling, and the development of Representative Agricultural Pathways (RAPs) to enable testing of climate change adaptations in the context of other regional and global trends. The organization of research activities by geographic region and specific crops is described, along with project milestones. Pilot results demonstrate AgMIP's role in assessing climate impacts with explicit representation of uncertainties in climate scenarios and simulations using crop and economic models. An intercomparison of wheat model simulations near Obregón, Mexico reveals inter-model differences in yield sensitivity to [CO2] with model uncertainty holding approximately steady as concentrations rise, while uncertainty related to choice of crop model increases with

  1. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  2. Multisectoral studies in Public Health in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Andreeva, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    The second issue of the TCPHEE contains materials presented at the conference ‘Economics, sociology, theory and practice of public health’ conducted in Kiev on April 12-15, 2011. Conference participants were the faculty, doctoral and master students of the School of Public Health (SPH) at the National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy (NaUKMA). Reports were first discussed during the conference and then submitted as conference abstracts for the editorial review. The revised versions were then...

  3. DETERMINING THE ECONOMIC OPTIMUM RATE OF WATER USE IN AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS (Case Study in Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province-Iran)

    OpenAIRE

    HOOMAN BAGHERPOUR NAJAFABAD; IMAN NAJAF; FARIBA HASHEMI

    2013-01-01

    Water is the main limiting factor in agricultural products. Occurrence of drought phenomenon in recent years makes the need to careful planning for efficient use of existing water resources in agricultural consumptions essential. The aim of this study was to determine the technical and economical optimal level of water use in agriculture sector. Required statistics and data were collected through completing 155 questionnaires by farmers under coverage of traditional irrigation system in Kohgi...

  4. Nitrogen fertilisation of durum wheat: a case study in Mediterranean area during transition to conservation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Galieni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N nutrition plays a key role for high yields and quality in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf. Husn; in Mediterranean environments, data regarding N fertilisation management during the transition phase to conservation agriculture (CA are limited. The aim of this work was to study the effects of N fertiliser forms and rates on yield and some quality traits of durum wheat, during the transition period to CA in Mediterranean areas; moreover, indication on the recommendable N form/rate combinations have been given. Field trials were carried out in south of Italy, during the first two years of transition to CA (from 2010 to 2012 in a durum wheat-based rotation. Following a split-plot design arranged on a randomised complete blocks with three replications, two N forms (main plots - urea and calcium nitrate - and four N rates (sub-plots - 50, 100, 150 and 200 kg N ha–1 - plus an un-fertilised Control, were compared. The following parameters were analysed: grain yield, N-input efficiency, grains protein concentration (GPC, total gluten, gluten fractions and minerals concentration in kernels. Calcium nitrate gave the highest yield (4.48 t ha–1, as predicted by the quadratic model, at 146 kg N ha–1, on average. This was particularly noticeable in 2012, when the distribution of rainfall and temperatures regimes as well as residues’ status could have favoured such N-form. These results were confirmed by the observed higher values of all indices describing N-input efficiency. High GPC values (14.8% were predicted at slightly higher N-rates (173 kg N ha–1, averaging both N forms. In particular, gluten proteins and glutenin/gliadin ratio accrued as the N doses increased, reaching the highest values at 150 kg N ha–1, also positively affecting the quality of durum wheat flour. Iron and zinc concentrations were noticeably increased (38% and 37% on average by N supply, probably due to the enhanced water use efficiency under

  5. An Agricultural Land Resource Assessment Study Based on GIS-An Example from Guiyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 李春来; 万鹰昕

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the agricultural land resources of Guiyang City by means of GIS,on the basis of the pressure-state-response model in which soil heavy metal contamination is selected as a pressure indicator. The results suggest that most of the agricultural land resources are of good quality. However, there are 17.11 km2 dry land and paddy field, which belong to the region of serious heavy metal contamination and are not fit for planting crops. At the same time, the high quality plowland, which is suitable for cultivation, has decreased nearly by 1/3due to soil heavy metal contamination. These findings may improve our understanding that it is very important to prevent and cure heavy metal contamination of Guiyang City.

  6. Study on Management System for Agricultural Sci-tech Achievement Transformation Funding Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Hong; YU; Jun

    2013-01-01

    Relying on the management system for agricultural sci-tech achievement transformation funding project in Zhejiang Province, on the basis of current situations and demand of agricultural sci-tech achievement transformation funding project management system, we present a B/S-structured and J2EE platform-based system which adopts MVC mode and integrates mainstream open-source frame technologies such as Spring, Struts2, ExtJs, TopLink and FreeMarker, etc. Practice has shown that this system provides an original model for management of sci-tech project application, and various projects can be expanded on this model. With the aid of this system, sci-tech project management personnel can be relieved from trivial manual works, so as to increase working efficiency and improve management level of sci-tech project management.

  7. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wilk Chaffee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  8. Alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for pest control: case studies in agriculture and forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Furlan, Lorenzo; Kreutzweiser, David

    2014-01-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used for control of insect pests around the world and are especially pervasive in agricultural pest management. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that the broad-scale and prophylactic uses of neonicotinoids pose serious risks of harm to beneficial organisms and their ecological function. This provides the impetus for exploring alternatives to neonicotinoid insecticides for controlling insect pests. We draw from examples of alternative pest co...

  9. Study on the Strengths and Weaknesses of Agricultural Climate Resources during Summer Drought in Guizhou Province

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Fei; Gu, Xiaoping; XIONG, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In order to quantitatively assess the objective impact of light, heat and water agricultural climate resources on food crops during summer drought, this paper uses the assessment methods for light and temperature potential productivity, and light, temperature and water potential productivity of food crops, performs the comparative analysis of the difference between the food production potential and the average climate state during summer drought, and objectively analyzes the strengths and wea...

  10. Application of a Model Transformation Paradigm in Agriculture: A Simple Environmental System Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Miralles, A.; Libourel, T

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors use the methodology presented in Chapter 2 to develop a system that manages the spreading of organic waste on agricultural parcels. The proposed method uses a process of iterative and incremental development. Two complete iterations of the development process are presented starting from the analysis model and ending with the code produced by the case-tools Structured query language code generator. The first iteration deals with the description of territory objects...

  11. Assessing Agricultural Sustainable Development Based on the DPSIR Approach:Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shu-dong; Felix Mueller; Benjamin Burkhard; CAO Xing-jin; HOU Ying

    2013-01-01

    According to the contemporary ecosystem approach, the linkages of human actions with their environment have to be assessed in an integrative manner. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model is applied to identify and describe processes and interactions in human-environmental systems. An example application from a research project dealing with the development of sustainable management strategies for the agriculture in Jiangsu, China, illustrates the potentials and limitations of its sustainable development. The concept and indicators of ecological integrity are used to assess the indicators in the dimensions of DPSIR between 2003 and 2006. The main drivers included population growth which caused increasing demand for food, growing environmental demands, and rapidly decreasing of land and other natural resources. The main environmental problem was water pollution. The results show that in the dimension of driver, total grain output and agricultural land productivity both increased. Labor intensive agriculture has been promoted to increase agricultural land productivity. In the dimension of pressure, on the positive side, infrastructure got greatly improved, the input level such as total power of machinery, and level of fertilizer use increased, and level of pesticides use decreased, but on the negative side, cultivated land per capita and irrigation rate decreased, natural resources keep decreased. Environmental pollution indicators such as industrial wastewater discharge and acid rain rate increased in Jiangsu Province. In the aspect of state, ecosystem state was improved, plant coverage index increased, biological abundance index increased, fertilizer productivity increased, eco-environmental quality index increased, but land degradation index also increased. In the aspect of impact, output level increased, output efficiency enhanced, farmer’s social economic benefit improved. In the aspect of response, social support was greatly improved, input

  12. Atmospheric Deposition Effects on Agricultural Soil Acidification State — Key Study: Krupanj Municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Čakmak Dragan; Beloica Jelena; Perović Veljko; Kadović Ratko; Mrvić Vesna; Knežević Jasmina; Belanović Snežana

    2014-01-01

    Acidification, as a form of soil degradation is a process that leads to permanent reduction in the quality of soil as the most important natural resource. The process of soil acidification, which in the first place implies a reduction in soil pH, can be caused by natural processes, but also considerably accelerated by the anthropogenic influence of excessive S and N emissions, uncontrolled deforestation, and intensive agricultural processes. Critical loads, i.e. the upper limit of harmful dep...

  13. A comparative study of conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS) for tribal people of Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Pradhan, Aliza; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Lai, Cynthia; Idol, Travis; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Evensen, Carl; Ray, Chittaranjan; Roul, Pravat K.; Mishra, K.N.

    2012-01-01

    Tribal farming in Kendujhar district of Odisha, India is primarily based on traditional shifting cultivation which is becoming unsustainable - resulting in natural resources degradation, reduced production efficiency, and threatened food security. As maize (Zea mays L.) was the primary field crop grown by the tribal farmers, maize-based Conservation Agriculture Production Systems (CAPS) were taken as an innovative approach for conserving resources, enhancing productivity and sustaining liveli...

  14. Promoting GHG mitigation policies for agriculture and forestry : a case study in Guadeloupe, French West Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Colomb, Vincent; Martel, M; Bockel, L.; Martin, S.; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Bernoux, MARTIAL,

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is now accepted as self-evident. It is time to find new production methods, set up new organizations and introduce new policies and new incentives to enable our economies and societies to face this issue. Innovation is required at all levels, from farming practices to government policy. Agricultural and forestry systems are strongly linked to their local environment and are often interdependent (economically, socially, etc.). This paper discusses how a landscape scale approach ...

  15. Workplace Safety and Health Topics: Industries and Occupations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH Industries & Occupations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Agriculture Aircrew Safety & Health Body Art Center for Workers Compensation Studies (CWCS) Cleaning and ...

  16. Health Information Management System for Elderly Health Sector: A Qualitative Study in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Shahi, Mehraban; Ahmadi, Maryam; Davaridolatabadi, Nasrin

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are increasing change and development of information in healthcare systems. Given the increase in aging population, managers are in need of true and timely information when making decision. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the current status of the health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. Materials and Methods: This qualitative study was conducted in two steps. In the first step, required documents for administrative managers were collected using the data gathering form and observed and reviewed by the researcher. In the second step, using an interview guide, the required information was gathered through interviewing experts and faculty members. The convenience, purposeful and snowball sampling methods were applied to select interviewees and the sampling continued until reaching the data saturation point. Finally, notes and interviews were transcribed and content analysis was used to analyze them. Results: The results of the study showed that there was a health information management system for the elderly health sector in Iran. However, in all primary health care centers the documentation of data was done manually; the data flow was not automated; and the analysis and reporting of data are also manually. Eventually, decision makers are provided with delayed information. Conclusions: It is suggested that the steward of health in Iran, the ministry of health, develops an appropriate infrastructure and finally puts a high priority on the implementation of the health information management system for elderly health sector in Iran.

  17. X-ray fluorescence and gamma-ray spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis for topographic studies in agricultural soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical and chemical properties of soils play a major role in the evaluation of different geochemical signature, soil quality, discrimination of land use type, soil provenance and soil degradation. The objectives of the present study are the soil elemental characterization and soil differentiation in topographic sequence and depth, using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) as well as gamma-ray spectrometry data combined with Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The study area is an agricultural region of Boa Vista catchment which is located at Guamiranga municipality, Brazil. PCA analysis was performed with four different data sets: spectral data from EDXRF, spectral data from gamma-ray spectrometry, concentration values from EDXRF measurements and concentration values from gamma-ray spectrometry. All PCAs showed similar results, confirmed by hierarchical cluster analysis, allowing the data grouping into top, bottom and riparian zone samples, i.e. the samples were separated due to its landscape position. The two hillslopes present the same behavior independent of the land use history. There are distinctive and characteristic patterns in the analyzed soil. The methodologies presented are promising and could be used to infer significant information about the region to be studied. - Highlights: • Characterization of topographic sequence of two hillslopes from agricultural soil. • Employment of EDXRF and gamma-ray spectrometry data combined with PCA. • The combination of green analytical methodologies with chemometric studies allowed soil differentiation. • The innovative methodology is promising for direct characterization of agricultural catchments

  18. The Holocene Environment and Transition to Agriculture in Boreal Russia (Serteya Valley Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel M. Dolukhanov

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This article outlines the results of one of the aspects of a multidisciplinary project currently conducted in the upper part of the basin of the Western Dvina River in North-Western Russia. The project was targeted at prehistoric lake dwelling sites in the valley of Serteya River, a small tributary of the Western Dvina, and aimed at the precise dating of the initial transition from hunting-gathering to agriculture in that area. The methods used included pollen, diatom and geochemical analyses under strict time control provided by radiocarbon dating. The initial settlement emerged at c. 6200 cal. BC, when the valley was filled by a fresh water lake with a relatively high lake-level. The initial indices of agriculture became perceptible in the deposits of Usvyatian Culture (4600-3400 cal. BC, featuring large-scale constructions of pile-dwellings. Indices of swidden type agriculture became apparent in the deposits of Zhizhitsian Culture, 2300-2200 cal. BC.

  19. A cytogenetic study of cows from a highly industrial or an agricultural region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, R; Jaszczak, K

    1993-08-01

    An examination was made of the frequency of chromosomal aberrations and sister-chromatid exchange in the blood lymphocytes of cows from an industrial region (aluminium smelting plant, lignite quarries, briquette factory, electric plants, mechanical plants. The control group consisted of cows from an agricultural region. In cows from the industrial region a significantly higher level of chromosomal aberrations was observed than in cows from the agricultural region (5.82 +/- 0.46 vs. 2.11 +/- 0.31 per 100 cells). In older, 7-12-year-old cows from the industrial region a slightly higher level of chromosomal aberrations was observed, and a significantly higher level of gaps than in younger cows. The frequency of SCE in the blood lymphocytes of cows from the industrial region was also higher and reached 7.47 +/- 2.33 per cell, while in cows from the agricultural region it was only 6.38 +/- 1.88, but these differences were not significant statistically. However, significant differences were observed in the number of SCE between the age groups within the industrial region P < or = 0.001) in favour of the younger animals. The results obtained indicate that the industrial pollution emitted into the environment may have a genotoxic character. Thus cytogenetic examination of cattle may be a useful test for monitoring industrial pollution. PMID:7687027

  20. Conserving energy in smallholder agriculture. A multi-objective programming case-study of northwest India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thankappan, Samarthia [Centre for Business Relationships, Accountability, Sustainability and Society, Cardiff University, CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Midmore, Peter [School of Management and Business, The University of Wales Aberystwyth, SY23 3DD (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Tim [Institute of Rural Studies, The University of Wales Aberystwyth, SY23 3AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-02-15

    In semi-arid conditions in Northwest India, smallholder agriculture has made increasing use of subsidised mechanisation and energy inputs to reduce short-term risks. However, detrimental environmental consequences have occurred, not least a rapidly falling water table, and energy-intensive production is threatened by the prospect of increasing scarcity and expense of energy supplies, especially as urban demands are forecast to grow rapidly. This paper describes the energy flows through four subsystems of smallholder agricultural villages: the crop system; non-crop land uses; livestock systems; and households. It employs a multi-objective programming model to demonstrate choices available for maximands either of net solar energy capture or financial surpluses. Applied to three villages selected to represent major settlement types in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat, the results demonstrate that both energy conservation and financial performance can be improved. Although these results need qualifying because of the reductionist, linear character of the model used, they do provide important insights into the cultural role of mechanisation and the influence of traditional agricultural practices. They also underline the need for local energy conservation strategies as part of an overall approach to improved self-determination in progress towards rural sustainability. (author)