WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural fields based

  1. FPGA Based Real Time Monitoring System for Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dinesh,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The most important factors for the quality and productivity of plant growth are temperature, humidity, light and the level of the carbon dioxide. Continuous monitoring of these environmental variables gives information to the grower to better understand, how each factor affects growth and how to manage maximal crop productiveness .The optimal greenhouse climate adjustment can enable us to improve productivity and to achieve remarkable energy savings - especially during the winter in northern countries. The system itself was usually simple without opportunities to control locally heating, lights, ventilation or some other activity, which was affecting the greenhouse interior climate. This all has changed in the modern greenhouses. The typical size of the greenhouse itself is much bigger what it was before, and the greenhouse facilities provide several options to make local adjustments to the lights, ventilation, heating and other greenhouse support systems.However, more measurement data is also needed to make this kind of automation system work properly. Increased number of measurement points should not dramatically increase the automation system cost. It should also be possible to easily change the location of the measurement points according to the particular needs, which depend on the specific plant, on the possible changes in the external weather or greenhouse structure and on the plant placement in the greenhouse. For the implementation of agricultural technologies, low cost and real time remote monitoring are needed, in this sense, programmable Logic Devices (PLDs present as a good option for the technology development and implementation, because PLDs allow fast development of prototypes and the design of complex hardware systems using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Complex Programmable Logic Devices.

  2. Field-based study of connectivity in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lexartza-Artza, I.; Wainwright, J.

    2009-12-01

    Field-based studies of hydrological connectivity can provide context-specific knowledge that might both help understand dynamic complex systems and contribute to other synthetic or modelling approaches. The importance of such an understanding of catchment processes and also of the knowledge of catchment connections with water bodies and the changes of concentration with scale for Integrated Catchment Management has been increasingly emphasized. To provide a holistic understanding, approaches to the study of connectivity need to include both structural and functional aspects of the system and must consider the processes taking place within and across different temporal and spatial scales. A semi-quantitative nested approach has been used to investigate connectivity and study the interactions and feedbacks between the factors influencing transfer processes in the Ingbirchworth Catchment, in the uplands of the River Don, England. A series of reconnaissance techniques have been combined with monitoring of aspects such as rainfall, runoff, sediment transfer and soil-moisture distribution from plot to catchment scale and with consideration of linkages between land and water bodies. The temporal aspect has also been considered, with a special focus on the temporal distribution of events and the influence of longer term catchment changes such as those in land use and management practices. A variability of responses has been observed in relation to the characteristics of events, land use and scale of observation, with elements traditionally considered as limiting or enhancing connectivity responding differently under changing conditions. Sediment redistribution, reshaping of structure and consequent reinforcing loops can be observed across all land uses and landscape units, but the relevance it terms of effective connectivity of highly connected patches varies as the scale is increased. The knowledge acquired can contribute to recognise emerging processes significant for

  3. Automated Ortho-Rectification of UAV-Based Hyperspectral Data over an Agricultural Field Using Frame RGB Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Habib

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost Unmanned Airborne Vehicles (UAVs equipped with consumer-grade imaging systems have emerged as a potential remote sensing platform that could satisfy the needs of a wide range of civilian applications. Among these applications, UAV-based agricultural mapping and monitoring have attracted significant attention from both the research and professional communities. The interest in UAV-based remote sensing for agricultural management is motivated by the need to maximize crop yield. Remote sensing-based crop yield prediction and estimation are primarily based on imaging systems with different spectral coverage and resolution (e.g., RGB and hyperspectral imaging systems. Due to the data volume, RGB imaging is based on frame cameras, while hyperspectral sensors are primarily push-broom scanners. To cope with the limited endurance and payload constraints of low-cost UAVs, the agricultural research and professional communities have to rely on consumer-grade and light-weight sensors. However, the geometric fidelity of derived information from push-broom hyperspectral scanners is quite sensitive to the available position and orientation established through a direct geo-referencing unit onboard the imaging platform (i.e., an integrated Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and Inertial Navigation System (INS. This paper presents an automated framework for the integration of frame RGB images, push-broom hyperspectral scanner data and consumer-grade GNSS/INS navigation data for accurate geometric rectification of the hyperspectral scenes. The approach relies on utilizing the navigation data, together with a modified Speeded-Up Robust Feature (SURF detector and descriptor, for automating the identification of conjugate features in the RGB and hyperspectral imagery. The SURF modification takes into consideration the available direct geo-referencing information to improve the reliability of the matching procedure in the presence of repetitive texture

  4. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper contamination on China’s arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg-1 in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  5. Drivers of nitrogen dynamics in ecologically based agriculture revealed by long-term, high-frequency field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Denise M; Eckert, Sara E; Kaye, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture impacts ecosystems worldwide. One strategy to mitigate these losses, ecologically based nutrient management (ENM), seeks to recouple carbon (C) and N cycles to reduce environmental losses and supply N to cash crops. However, our capacity to apply ENM is limited by a lack of field-based high-resolution data on N dynamics in actual production contexts. We used data from a five-year study of organic cropping systems to investigate soil inorganic N (SIN) variability and nitrate (NO3-) leaching in ENM. Four production systems initiated in 2007 and 2008 in central Pennsylvania varied in crop rotation, timing and intensity of tillage, inclusion of fallow periods, and N inputs. Extractable SIN was measured fortnightly from March through November throughout the experiment, and NO3- N concentration below the rooting zone was sampled with lysimeters during the first year of the 2008 start. We used recursive partitioning models to assess the importance of management and environmental factors to SIN variability and NO3- leaching and identify interactions between influential variables. Air temperature and tillage were the most important drivers of SIN across systems. The highest SIN concentrations occurred when the average air temperature three weeks prior to measurement was above 21 degrees C. Above this temperature and within 109 days of moldboard plowing, average SIN concentrations were 22.1 mg N/kg soil; 109 days or more past plowing average SIN dropped to 7.7 mg N/kg soil. Other drivers of SIN dynamics were N available from manure and cover crops. Highest average leachate NO3- N concentrations (15.2 ppm) occurred in fall and winter when SIN was above 4.9 mg/kg six weeks prior to leachate collection. Late season tillage operations leading to elevated SIN and leachate NO3- N concentrations were a strategy to reduce weeds while meeting consumer demand for organic products. Thus, while tillage that incorporates organic N inputs preceding cash

  6. Drivers of nitrogen dynamics in ecologically based agriculture revealed by long-term, high-frequency field measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Denise M; Eckert, Sara E; Kaye, Jason P

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from agriculture impacts ecosystems worldwide. One strategy to mitigate these losses, ecologically based nutrient management (ENM), seeks to recouple carbon (C) and N cycles to reduce environmental losses and supply N to cash crops. However, our capacity to apply ENM is limited by a lack of field-based high-resolution data on N dynamics in actual production contexts. We used data from a five-year study of organic cropping systems to investigate soil inorganic N (SIN) variability and nitrate (NO3-) leaching in ENM. Four production systems initiated in 2007 and 2008 in central Pennsylvania varied in crop rotation, timing and intensity of tillage, inclusion of fallow periods, and N inputs. Extractable SIN was measured fortnightly from March through November throughout the experiment, and NO3- N concentration below the rooting zone was sampled with lysimeters during the first year of the 2008 start. We used recursive partitioning models to assess the importance of management and environmental factors to SIN variability and NO3- leaching and identify interactions between influential variables. Air temperature and tillage were the most important drivers of SIN across systems. The highest SIN concentrations occurred when the average air temperature three weeks prior to measurement was above 21 degrees C. Above this temperature and within 109 days of moldboard plowing, average SIN concentrations were 22.1 mg N/kg soil; 109 days or more past plowing average SIN dropped to 7.7 mg N/kg soil. Other drivers of SIN dynamics were N available from manure and cover crops. Highest average leachate NO3- N concentrations (15.2 ppm) occurred in fall and winter when SIN was above 4.9 mg/kg six weeks prior to leachate collection. Late season tillage operations leading to elevated SIN and leachate NO3- N concentrations were a strategy to reduce weeds while meeting consumer demand for organic products. Thus, while tillage that incorporates organic N inputs preceding cash

  7. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.;

    2009-01-01

    conditions, and the EOS/MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to map (a) the temporal development in leaf area index for agricultural fields, (b) a dynamic “canopy” coefficient (Kc) of forests being scaled between its minimum and maximum values for use in the FAO Penman...... surface heterogeneity is based on the assumption that sub-class soil heterogeneity can be indirectly represented by the observed spatial variations in NDVI due to its close affiliation with vegetation growth, soil water uptake and evapotranspiration. Multiple spatial resolution water balance simulations...... is negligible (Days 125–300). The presence/absence of pipe drains, urban surface runoff and forest parameterization cause very large differences in the water balance of agricultural, forest and urban regions. The results show that the use of local-scale standard model parameters and NDVI time series...

  8. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  9. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  10. The Curriculum System Development of Sightseeing Agriculture Major Based on Work Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Sujuan; Chen, Guoyuan; Wang, Chengzhong

    2014-01-01

    From the position setting of sightseeing agriculture businesses and ability analysis, this paper analyzes the career action field based on training objectives of sightseeing agriculture major and determines the typical tasks and career action field. According to the major teaching design of career action field, this paper introduces the systematic curriculum system of sightseeing agriculture major based on work flow.

  11. The Curriculum System Development of Sightseeing Agriculture Major Based on Work Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sujuan; CHEN; Guoyuan; CHEN; Chengzhong; WANG

    2014-01-01

    From the position setting of sightseeing agriculture businesses and ability analysis,this paper analyzes the career action field based on training objectives of sightseeing agriculture major and determines the typical tasks and career action field. According to the major teaching design of career action field,this paper introduces the systematic curriculum system of sightseeing agriculture major based on work flow.

  12. Zoning of agricultural field using a fuzzy indicators model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for deciding how to subdivide a field into a few relatively homogenous zones is using applications of fuzzy sets theory. Data collected from a precision agriculture study in central Texas...

  13. Laser-based agriculture system

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-03-31

    A system and method are provided for indoor agriculture using at least one growth chamber illuminated by laser light. In an example embodiment of the agriculture system, a growth chamber is provided having one or more walls defining an interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system may include a removable tray disposed within the interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system also includes a light source, which may be disposed outside the growth chamber. The one or more walls may include at least one aperture. The light source is configured to illuminate at least a part of the interior portion of the growth chamber. In embodiments in which the light source is disposed outside the growth chamber, the light source is configured to transmit the laser light to the interior portion of the growth chamber via the at least one aperture.

  14. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O; Ebbole, D J; Freeman, S; Rodriguez, R J; Dickman, M B

    2003-10-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  15. AgBase: a functional genomics resource for agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill David P

    2006-09-01

    functionally characterize gene products. AgBase is also directly relevant for researchers in fields as diverse as agricultural production, cancer biology, biopharmaceuticals, human health and evolutionary biology. Moreover, the experimental methods and bioinformatics tools we provide are widely applicable to many other species including model organisms.

  16. Addressing Issues of Malnutrition in Children through Public Nutrition using Local Resources of Agriculture and Land Use: Evidence from the Field Based Evaluation Study in Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemthianngai Guite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public Nutrition refers to work in the interest of the public; with the participation of the public; and with all sectors involved in society, not just the health sector, nor mainly the health sector, though for the benefit of population health and nutrition. Action outside of the health sector, particularly with regard to food systems is required, such as capacitating women in agriculture and land use for increased vegetable production. Rationale: Adopting public health approach, an evidence from a field project wherein the evaluation study was conducted by Oxfam India (a leading non-profit organization, and where the authors coordinated and documented field evidence through conducting end line evaluation study is discussed in this paper, in order to highlight the achievement of women farmers in ensuring food and nutrition security by strengthening low cost vegetable production in Shaharanpur and Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh. Objective of the study: To assess the success and impact of measures adopted under the project in order to enhance the capacity and skills of women vegetable farmers in sustainable farming practices. Materials and Methods: Purposive Non Probability Sampling adopted to include key set of stakeholders, which includes 100 women vegetable farmers, 8 NGO and 5 government officials respectively drawn from Shahjahanpur and Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh.  The methods which were used to gather quantitative and qualitative data for the study were: In-depth Interview, Focused Group Discussion (FGD, Case Studies. Results: Child nutrition is positively and independently associated with increased vegetable production through agriculture and land use by women in the villages. It enhanced the nutritional status of women and improved the health status of their family members as well. Conclusion: The public nutrition approach will make it possible to increase the impact of current initiatives which aim to reverse the course

  17. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  18. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  19. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards: Agricultural Laboratory and Field Technician Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    These Illinois skill standards for the agricultural laboratory and field technician cluster are intended to serve as a guide to workforce preparation program providers as they define content for their programs and to employers as they establish the skills and standards necessary for job acquisition. They could also serve as a mechanism for…

  20. 基于农机空间运行轨迹的作业状态自动识别试验%Automatic recognition algorithm of field operation status based on spatial track of agricultural machinery and corresponding experiment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王培; 孟志军; 尹彦鑫; 付卫强; 陈竞平; 魏学礼

    2015-01-01

    With development and wide application of modern information technology as presented by the Internet of things, the position monitoring of operation process of agricultural machinery has been realized easily. But the existing remote monitoring system for agricultural machinery has only realized the remote storage, display and simple analysis. It is difficult to meet the requirements of fine management and intelligent data processing of agricultural machinery. In this paper, combining with the characteristics of the space track of agricultural machinery, the methods of clustering in data mining and spatial data analysis method were used to study automatic segmentation algorithm of field operation area based on spatial track of agricultural machinery. The procedure is as follows: firstly, data preprocessing, including velocity threshold and projection transformation methods, is preparing for further gridding and density slicing for the next step; secondly, spatial track of agricultural machinery was gridded; thirdly, density slicing removed low density cell-grids and preserved high density cell-grids; fourthly, spatial partition tree and spatial index are constructed, which is able to accelerating query speed of spatial nearest neighbors; finally, the cluster analysis is executed to connect high density cell-grids adjacently. The automatic identification of typical agricultural machinery operation method was designed and achieved. The quantitative analysis of the agricultural machinery operation divisions within the field operation time, transfer time and idle time of the agricultural machinery operation were divided and analyzed quantitatively. From May 27, 2012 to June 20, 2012, which is the season of wheat harvest, in order to verify the state of agricultural machinery operation cut automatic identification algorithm, the agricultural machinery tests were carried out in the Shijia Agricultural Machinery Cooperation in Xuchang City, Henan Province. Nine wheat

  1. Knowledge Base and Content of Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Robert A.; Peterson, Ronald L.

    1991-01-01

    Agricultural education encompasses basic sciences and business management principles. Critical curriculum components are (1) technical agriculture (basic principles, functions, and technical specialties of agriculture); (2) experiential learning; and (3) human development. (SK)

  2. Evaluation of impact of earthquake on agriculture in Nepal based on remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiyama, Ayako; Shimada, Sawahiko; Okazawa, Hiromu; Mihara, Machito; Kuo, Kuang Ting

    2016-07-01

    The big earthquake happening on April, 2015 killed over than 8000 people in Nepal. The effect of earthquake not only affected safety of local people but also agricultural field. Agricultural economy dominates income of local people. Therefore, restoration of agricultural areas are required for improving life of local people. However, lack of information about agricultural areas is main problem for local government to assess and restore damaged agricultural areas. Remote sensing was applied for accessing damaged agricultural field due to its advantages in observing responds of environment without temporal and spatial restriction. Accordingly, the objective of the study is to evaluate impact of earthquake on agriculture in Nepal based on remote sensing. The experimental procedure includes conducting the impact of earthquake on changes of total agricultural area, and analysis of response of greenness affected by earthquake in agricultural land. For conducting agricultural land changes, land use map was first created and classified into four categories: road, city, forest, and agricultural land. Changes before and after earthquake in total area of agricultural land were analyzed by GIS. Moreover, vegetation index was used as indicator for evaluating greenness responds in agricultural land and computed based on high-resolution satellite imagery such as World view-3. Finally, the conclusion of the study and suggestions will be made and provided for helping local government in Nepal restore agricultural areas.

  3. Perceptions of Tennessee School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Globalizing the Agricultural Curriculum

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan W. Conner; Katelyn Butcher

    2016-01-01

    The agriculture industry is part of an interconnected world that is continually navigating complex trade regulations and cultural barriers. Graduates of School-Based Agricultural Education programs need to be prepared to positively communicate with people from all over the world and to have an understanding of international agricultural practices. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Tennessee School-Based Agricultural Educators towards globalizing the secondary agricul...

  4. Definition of zones with different levels of productivity within an agricultural field using fuzzy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. One method for the definition of zones with different levels of productivity is based on fuzzy indicator model. Fuzzy indicator model for identification of zones with different levels of productivit...

  5. An optimized field coverage planning approach for navigation of agricultural robots in fields involving obstacle areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibahim; Bochtis, D.; Sørensen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    automation technologies. Since the primary goal of an agricultural vehicle is the complete coverage of the cropped area within the field, an essential prerequisite is the capability of the mobile unit to cover the whole field area autonomously. In this paper, the main objective is to develop an approach...... for coverage planning for agricultural operations involving the presence of obstacle areas within the field area. The developed approach involves a series of stages including the generation of field-work tracks in the field polygon, the clustering of the tracks into blocks taking into account the in....... This approach has proven that it is possible to capture the practices of farmers and embed these practices in an algorithmic description providing a complete field area coverage plan in a form prepared for execution by the navigation system of a field robot....

  6. Agricultural Residues Based Composites 1. Preparation of Fibrous Agricultural Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to use agricultural residues as bagasse, cotton stalks, rice straw, linen and linen fibers, which are produced in Egypt in huge amounts annually to produce composites with cement or gypsum. Also the effect of physical and chemical treatments of the fibers and the addition of some additives to the composites was studied. The mechanical properties of the produced composites also the effect of its firing at temperatures up to 800 degree C was tested after dipping in water for different time intervals (1-90 days). In this paper we considered only the preparation of different types of fibers, its grinding and separation to different fiber lengths (ca. 0.4 to 1.5 mm). The percent of each fiber length and its chemical and physical analysis is found

  7. Perceptions of Tennessee School-Based Agricultural Education Teachers’ Attitudes Toward Globalizing the Agricultural Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan W. Conner

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The agriculture industry is part of an interconnected world that is continually navigating complex trade regulations and cultural barriers. Graduates of School-Based Agricultural Education programs need to be prepared to positively communicate with people from all over the world and to have an understanding of international agricultural practices. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of Tennessee School-Based Agricultural Educators towards globalizing the secondary agricultural curriculum. Twenty-six School-Based Agricultural Educators were interviewed for this study. The interviewees represented the entire state of Tennessee, including both urban and rural programs. The use of thematic analysis allowed the following five themes to emerge: (a heightened awareness of living in a globalized world, (b vision for a globalized School-Based Agricultural Education program, (c benefits of exposure to a globalized School-Based Agricultural Education program, (d preparedness to teach from a globalized perspective, and (e professional development needs. Participants recognized the importance of teaching through a globalized agricultural curriculum and the benefits students received from experiencing a globalized agricultural curriculum. However, not every participant felt prepared to teach using a globalized curriculum and suggestions for professional development were made.

  8. Californian demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. We present a fully automated computational methodology to extract agricultural fields from 30m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series and results for approximately 250,000 square kilometers (eleven 150 x 150 km WELD tiles) encompassing all the major agricultural areas of California. The extracted fields, including rectangular, circular, and irregularly shaped fields, are evaluated by comparison with manually interpreted Landsat field objects. Validation results are presented in terms of standard confusion matrix accuracy measures and also the degree of field object over-segmentation, under-segmentation, fragmentation and shape distortion. The apparent success of the presented field extraction methodology is due to several factors. First, the use of multi-temporal Landsat data, as opposed to single Landsat acquisitions, that enables crop rotations and inter-annual variability in the state of the vegetation to be accommodated for and provides more opportunities for cloud-free, non-missing and atmospherically uncontaminated surface observations. Second, the adoption of an object based approach, namely the variational region-based geometric active contour method that enables robust segmentation with only a small number of parameters and that requires no training data collection. Third, the use of a watershed algorithm to decompose connected segments belonging to multiple fields into coherent isolated field segments and a geometry based algorithm to detect and associate parts of

  9. Cluster Development of Zhengzhou Urban Agriculture Based on Diamond Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on basic theory of Diamond Model,this paper analyzes the competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture from production factors,demand conditions,related and supporting industries,business strategies and structure,and horizontal competition.In line with these situations,it introduces that the cluster development is an effective approach to lifting competitive power of Zhengzhou urban agriculture.Finally,it presents following countermeasures and suggestions:optimize spatial distribution for cluster development of urban agriculture;cultivate leading enterprises and optimize organizational form of urban agriculture;energetically develop low-carbon agriculture to create favorable ecological environment for cluster development of urban agriculture.

  10. 基于条件随机场的英文农产品名识别%Named Entity Recognition of the Agricultural Product in English Based on Conditional Random Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方莹

    2011-01-01

    Recently,as the scarce research of named entity recognition of the products in English in the world,this paper proposes a method for the named entity recognition of the agricultural products in English based on the conditional random fields model. In the conditional random field, this paper adopts word as the grain processing unit,uses the context information and especial cue information of English product names as the features of recognition,and adopts the artificially constructed dictionary to build the model. A good result has been obtained by the experiment.%英文农产品命名实体识别目前国内外研究得较少,提出了一种基于条件随机场模型(CRF)的英文农产品命名实体识别方法.在条件随机场中,该方法以词作为切分粒度,充分利用上下文和英文农产品名特有的指示信息作为分类特征进行建模.实验表明,该方法获得了较好的结果.

  11. Modeling of Movement of Field Gudgeon, Gnathopogon elongatus elongatus, in Agricultural Canals in Yatsu Paddy Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Takeshi; Koizumi, Noriyuki; Mizutani, Masakazu; Mori, Atsushi; Watabe, Keiji

    It is important as quantitative information for making a decision of project sites for networking of water area, to predict reproductive process of fish population when consolidating fish-ways on points dividing fish habitat. To that end, it is necessary to predict the number of individuals migrating to new habitats. Hence, modeling of movement of individuals is necessary as a first step in population modeling. We constructed a mathematical model of movement of field gudgeon in agricultural canals, comparing with observed data obtained by our surveys. A unit time span of this model is 50 days. This model is able to consider existence of 2 types of movement, namely, individuals of sedentary type and individuals of ambulant type. Parameters of the model were decided based on observed data which correspond to 1 unit span. Next, moving distances of 6 individuals for 4 unit span were calculated using those parameters. A histogram of calculated values was similar to that of observed data which correspond to 4 unit span. The model is expected to provide an important immigration component to a population dynamics model which is currently under development. The population model is needed to predict population recovery processes where areas of paddy fields are joined in larger networks through construction of fish-ways.

  12. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  13. ASSESSMENT OF THE CURRENT STATUS OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION OF KRASNODAR REGION IN THE FIELD OF TAXATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigidov Y. I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In modern conditions, the problem of the choice of an optimum tax regime especially is particularly acute for agricultural organizations. The subjective factors influencing acceptance of management decision on the matter such as the production specialization level, a share of the income from sale of agricultural products in total income, number of workers are characteristic of each organization. However, a preliminary stage of the analysis of tax expenses in case of various tax regimes is consideration of statistical information on an industry in the field of the taxation. In this article, data on structure and size of liabilities on taxes, charges, fees are provided to off-budget funds of agricultural organizations of the Krasnodar Region, dynamics of this indicator within five years that gives an idea of a tendency of change of conditions of the taxation in case of various tax regimes. Statistical information on distribution of agricultural organizations of the Krasnodar Region on tax regimes is also provided in a percentage ratio. The comparative analysis of level of the tax load in case of various tax regimes which gives an idea of benefits of a special tax regime to agricultural producers is provided. The study was sponsored by RFFR and the administration of the Krasnodar Territory in the framework of a research project № 16-46-230131 “Formation of information efficient management of agricultural production systems through the integration of information flows of the financial, tax and management accounting (based on organizations of the Krasnodar region”

  14. The Role Played by Agricultural Policy-based Finance in New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of the agricultural policy-based finance in terms of supporting the new village construction is analyzed: in the first place, the theoretical roots of agricultural policy-based finance supporting new village construction are "market failure" and "government intervention"; in the second place, the continual decline of agriculture and the "rural financial market failure" in recent years have become the objective evidence and historical mission for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; in the third place, the combination of agricultural policy-based finance and new village construction is conducive to solving the "three agriculture" problems and facilitating the reform of new village construction. The feasibility of the support is analyzed: firstly, agricultural policy-based finance boasts the status and position of the "primary drive" in new village construction; secondly, the nation continuously deepens the reform of rural financial system and policy-based banks and strengthens the functions of Agricultural Development Bank, which provides policies for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; thirdly, the 14 years’ reform and development of Agricultural Development Bank and the eleventh five year plan lay sound practical basis for the support of agricultural policy-based finance to new village construction. Based on the necessity and feasibility, the following six aspects are analyzed to fully display the function of the "first engine" of agricultural policy-related finance to new village construction. Firstly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to grain and cotton and some other agricultural products in the circulation domain; secondly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to agricultural industrialization in processing field; thirdly, intensifying the credit and loan aid to agricultural comprehensive development, rural infrastructure construction, application and promotion of

  15. Optimization of agricultural field workability predictions for improved risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risks introduced by weather variability are key considerations in agricultural production. The sensitivity of agriculture to weather variability is of special concern in the face of climate change. In particular, the availability of workable days is an important consideration in agricultural practic...

  16. The use of grey literature in the agricultural economics field : a quantitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cesare, Rosa; Sala, Cesare; GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service

    1996-01-01

    Despite the increasing attention to GL a number of methodological issues remain unsolved, basically standards of presentations and indicators for measuring GL use. The main aim of this paper is to study the use of GL in agricultural economics. This field of agricultural science is an interesting point of observation because it represents a social science (economics) in an applied context (agricultural). Previous studies showed that all agricultural research fields are strongly connected to ag...

  17. A GPS Backpack System for Mapping Soil and Crop Parameters in Agricultural Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, J. V.; Lebars, J. M.

    Farmers are having to gather increasing amounts of data on their soils and crops. Precision agriculture metre-by-metre is based on a knowledge of the spatial variation of soil and crop parameters across a field. The data has to be spatially located and GPS is an effective way of doing this. A backpack data logging system with GPS position tagging is described which has been designed to aid a fanner in the manual collection of data.

  18. Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Morise

    Full Text Available Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples and 48 (field samples isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs, indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis.

  19. Profiling Nematode Communities in Unmanaged Flowerbed and Agricultural Field Soils in Japan by DNA Barcode Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

  20. GAOS: Spatial optimisation of crop and nature within agricultural fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.; Janssen, H.; Klompe, A.; Lerink, P.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates a spatial optimiser that allocates areas of inefficient machine manoeuvring to field margins thus improving the use of available space and supporting map-based Controlled Traffic Farming. A prototype web service (GAOS) allows farmers to optimise tracks within the

  1. A mobile app for delivering in-field soil data for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, John P.; Stojanovic, Vladeta; Falconer, Ruth E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade precision agriculture has grown from a concept to an emerging technology, largely due to the maturing of GPS and mobile mapping. We investigated methods for reliable delivery and display of appropriate and context aware in-field farm data on mobile devices by developing a prototype android mobile app. The 3D app was developed using OpenGL ES 2.0 and written in Java, using the Android Development Tools (ADT) SDK. The app is able to obtain GPS coordinates and automatically synchronise the view and load relevant data based on the user's location. The intended audience of the mobile app is farmers and agronomists. Apps are becoming an essential tool in an agricultural professional's arsenal however most existing apps are limited to 2D display of data even though the modern chips in mobile devices can support the display of 3D graphics at interactive rates using technologies such as webGL. This project investigated the use of games techniques in the delivery and 3D display of field data, recognising that this may be a departure from the way the field data is currently delivered and displayed to farmers and agronomists. Different interactive 3D visualisation methods presenting spatial and temporal variation in yield values were developed and tested. It is expected that this app can be used by farmers and agronomists to support decision making in the field of precision agriculture and this is a growing market in UK and Europe.

  2. Zigbee Based Real - Time Monitoring System of Agricultural Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Sumit P. Goyal; Dr. Archana Bhise

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation System is required to be automize in the area of agricultural field. Presently automatic systems have few manual operations, insufficient flexibility and accuracy. Therefore agricultural field prefer automatic control system and provide adequate irrigation to specific area. Proposed system is primarily designed for wide range control applications and to replace the existing non-standard technologies. Current system control parameter like temperature and soil moistur...

  3. Mapping soil fractal dimension in agricultural fields with GPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Oleschko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We documented that the mapping of the fractal dimension of the backscattered Ground Penetrating Radar traces (Fractal Dimension Mapping, FDM accomplished over heterogeneous agricultural fields gives statistically sound combined information about the spatial distribution of Andosol' dielectric permittivity, volumetric and gravimetric water content, bulk density, and mechanical resistance under seven different management systems. The roughness of the recorded traces was measured in terms of a single number H, the Hurst exponent, which integrates the competitive effects of volumetric water content, pore topology and mechanical resistance in space and time. We showed the suitability to combine the GPR traces fractal analysis with routine geostatistics (kriging in order to map the spatial variation of soil properties by nondestructive techniques and to quantify precisely the differences under contrasting tillage systems. Three experimental plots with zero tillage and 33, 66 and 100% of crop residues imprinted the highest roughness to GPR wiggle traces (mean HR/S=0.15, significantly different to Andosol under conventional tillage (HR/S=0.47.

  4. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields in developing countries - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Abdulstter, Rafia; Gomes, Chandima; Hashim, Norhashila

    2016-09-01

    Mechanisation of large-scale agricultural fields often requires the application of modern technologies such as mechanical power, automation, control and robotics. These technologies are generally associated with relatively well developed economies. The application of these technologies in some developing countries in Africa and Asia is limited by factors such as technology compatibility with the environment, availability of resources to facilitate the technology adoption, cost of technology purchase, government policies, adequacy of technology and appropriateness in addressing the needs of the population. As a result, many of the available resources have been used inadequately by farmers, who continue to rely mostly on conventional means of agricultural production, using traditional tools and equipment in most cases. This has led to low productivity and high cost of production among others. Therefore this paper attempts to evaluate the application of present day technology and its limitations to the advancement of large-scale mechanisation in developing countries of Africa and Asia. Particular emphasis is given to a general understanding of the various levels of mechanisation, present day technology, its management and application to large-scale agricultural fields. This review also focuses on/gives emphasis to future outlook that will enable a gradual, evolutionary and sustainable technological change. The study concludes that large-scale-agricultural farm mechanisation for sustainable food production in Africa and Asia must be anchored on a coherent strategy based on the actual needs and priorities of the large-scale farmers. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26940194

  6. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  7. Object-based detection of LUCC with special regard to agricultural abandonment on Tenerife (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günthert, Sebastian; Siegmund, Alexander; Thunig, Holger; Michel, Ulrich

    2011-11-01

    The island Tenerife has always been used for intensive agriculture, whereby the natural landscape was continuously altered. Especially mountainous areas with suitable climate conditions have been drastically transformed for agricultural use by building of large terraces to get flat surfaces. In recent decades political and economic developments lead to a transformation process (especially inducted by an expansive tourism), which caused concentration- and intensificationtendencies of agricultural land use as well as agricultural set-aside and rural exodus. In order to get information about the land use and land cover (LULC) patterns and especially the agricultural dynamics on Tenerife, a multi-scale, knowledge-based classification procedure for recent RapidEye data was developed. Furthermore, a second detection technique was generated, which allows an exact identification of the total ever utilised agricultural area on Tenerife, also containing older agricultural fallow land or agricultural set-aside with a higher level of natural succession (under the assumption that long-term fallow areas can be detected mainly together with old agricultural terraces and its specific linear texture). These areas can hardly be acquired in the used satellite imagery. The method consists of an automatic texture-oriented detection and area-wide extraction of linear agricultural structures (plough furrows and field boundaries of arable land, utilised and non-utilised agricultural terraces) in current orthophotos of Tenerife. Through the detection of recent agricultural land use in the satellite imagery and total ever utilised agricultural area in the orthophotos, it is possible to define the total non-active agricultural land as well as hot spots of agricultural decrease.

  8. Innovating for skills enhancement in agricultural sciences in Africa: The centrality of field attachment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Africa remains an intensely agrarian continent, with two-thirds of its people directly or indirectly deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Higher agricultural education has thus emphasised production of graduates with the requisite skills to drive agricultural development. Despite these efforts, too few graduates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have the employable skills necessary to transition to the labour market. A similar situation is observable among agricultural science graduates, who are vital to serving rural smallholder farmers. Most Colleges of Agriculture in Africa offer field attachment internships in agriculture and related fields but they are largely designed to cater for undergraduate students and are not part of the training programs at graduate level. To ameliorate this gap, the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM, a network of 55 member universities in SSA, designed and rolled out an innovative field attachment program award (FAPA, launched in 2010, to serve graduate students. The FAPA is competitively based and designed to encourage students to follow through with the dissemination of their research and to enable them to link more closely with the communities and agencies working in the geographical area where the research was undertaken. During the period 2010–2015, five grant cycles were successfully implemented and 114 graduate students from 17 countries in SSA awarded. This article discusses the lessons learned during this period by examining two key areas: (1 the application process and implementation of the awards; and (2 the reported outcomes and challenges for grantees. Establishing the award has generated key technical and implementation lessons that the network and individual universities have been able to use to improve and institutionalise processes. Grantees have reported gaining a range of cross-cutting skills in personal mastery, initiative leadership and innovativeness

  9. Agricultural Production Efficiency of Chongqing Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Literatures about agricultural production efficiency are reviewed.Concept of DEA Method,as well as the definition methods of effective DEA and scale efficiency increase are introduced.According to the relevant statistical data in the years 1997-2007 in Chongqing Municipality,efficiency of agricultural economy is calculated from the year 1997 to 2007 by DEA method and the scale efficiency is also analyzed by taking the total output of agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery industry as the output index.And the input index includes total workforce in agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry and fishery,the total sown area of crops,the total power of agricultural machinery,chemical fertilizer application,the draft animal,and the effective irrigation area.Result shows that Chongqing City became a municipality directly under the central government;its agricultural production efficiency is still low.And the sustainable development capacity of agricultural is weak in Chongqing,and the agricultural resources are not fully used.Based on this,related suggestions are put forward to improve the agricultural production efficiency of Chongqing,such as implementing an appropriate management scale of land,improving the organization degree of peasant households and the rate of industrialization management,enhancing the quality of the rural labor force,strengthening the agricultural science and technology input and extension,perfecting the construction of rural infrastructure,and improving the rate of resource utilization.

  10. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  11. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent CMC based hydrogels for agriculture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raafat, Amany I., E-mail: ismaelraafat_a@hotmail.com [Polymer Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eid, Mona; El-Arnaouty, Magda B. [Polymer Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) crosslinked with gamma irradiation have been proposed for agriculture application. The effect of preparation conditions such as feed solution composition and absorbed irradiation dose on the gelation and swelling degree was evaluated. The structure and the morphology of the superabsorbent CMC/PVP hydrogel were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Effect of ionic strength and cationic and anionic kinds on the swelling behavior of the obtained hydrogel was investigated. Urea as an agrochemical model was loaded onto the obtained hydrogel to provide nitrogen (N) nutrients. The water retention capability and the urea release behavior of the CMC/PVP hydrogels were investigated. It was found that, the obtained CMC/PVP hydrogels have good swelling degree that greatly affected by its composition and absorbed dose. The swelling was also extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cationic kind. Owing to its considerable slow urea release, good water retention capacity, being economical, and environment-friendly, it might be useful for its application in agriculture field.

  12. Building up a Knowledge-based System forAgricultural Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShunxiangWu; MaoqingLi; ZhiweiNi; SifengLiu; JiandeGu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the successful multimedia expert systems of longan and cauliflower planting techniques. This paper deeply summarizes and analyzes the knowledge features of agricultural multimedia expert domains and various related data models. According to the real needs of agricultural field, we design and implement the architecture and functions of the system, and propose the design ideas of the hybrid knowledge representation and fuzzy reasoning in the article.

  13. Pre-Columbian Agriculture: Construction history of raised fields in Bermeo, in the Bolivian Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous

  14. Metrological Analysis on Literature in Chinese Agricultural Science Field Based on ESI Database%基于ESI数据库中国农业科学领域文献计量分析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁花侠; 白君礼

    2013-01-01

    Based on United States ESI literature metrological analysis database, the paper metro logically analyzes the global agricultural and China agricultural science literatures in ten years from 2001 to 2011.By analysising the indicators, such as countries and regions, research institutions, journals, scientists, high cited papers, hot papers, the top articles, research frontier, the baseline and etc, the paper is thought to be able to provide important refrence for our country agricultural scientific research.%利用美国ESI文献计量分析数据库对2001年~ 2011年10年来全球农业科学领域和中国农业科学领域的文献进行了计量分析.通过对国家和地区、研究机构、期刊、科学家、高被引论文、热点论文、顶级论文、研究前沿、基线等各项指标统计分析,为我国农业科学研究提供重要参考.

  15. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  16. Potential of hyperspectral remote sensing for field scale soil mapping and precision agriculture applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Casa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mapping within-field variation in soil properties opens up the possibility of employing variable agronomic management and precision farming technologies with potential environmental and economic benefits. However, the excessive cost of systematic direct soil sampling severely constrains the practical feasibility of site specific management based on soil variability information. Remote sensing offers a cost effective and efficient means for gathering a great deal of information on soil properties. The aim of the present work was to assess the potential of satellite hyperspectral imagery for the mapping of soil properties and the tilled layer of agricultural fields, in the context of precision agriculture applications. CHRIS-PROBA satellite images were acquired over two bare soil fields and their capability to provide estimates of soil texture and soil organic matter (SOM at the field scale was assessed. Partial least squares regression (PLSR models were developed on datasets spatially independent from those used for validation. Clay and sand could be estimated with intermediate accuracy, with values of RPD (ratio of performance to deviation higher than 1.4. Root mean squared error (RMSE values of 3.7 and 5.2 were obtained for clay in the two fields respectively. SOM estimates were not satisfactory, probably because of the limited range of spatial variation in the studied fields. Maps of uniform soil zones were obtained from measured and estimates soil texture data by means of fuzzy c-means classification. The resulting maps were then used for the parameterization of a simple water balance model, i.e. CropWat8.0, in order to simulate and compare uniform and variable-rate irrigation strategies. Simulation results suggest that site-specific irrigation allows to reduce significantly water losses by deep percolation, which occur when irrigation scheduling and volumes are calculated on the basis of average field soil properties. The present paper

  17. A VSA-based strategy for placing conservation buffers in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Zeyuan

    2003-09-01

    Conservation buffers have the potential to reduce agricultural nonpoint source pollution and improve terrestrial wildlife habitat, landscape biodiversity, flood control, recreation, and aesthetics. Conservation buffers, streamside areas and riparian wetlands are being used or have been proposed to control agricultural nonpoint source pollution. This paper proposes an innovative strategy for placing conservation buffers based on the able source area (VSA) hydrology. VSAs are small, variable but predictable portion of a watershed that regularly contributes to runoff generation. The VSA-based strategy involves the following three steps: first, identifying VSAs in landscapes based on natural characteristics such as hydrology, land use/cover, topography and soils; second, targeting areas within VSAs for conservation buffers; third, refining the size and location of conservation buffers based on other factors such as weather, environmental objectives, available funding and other best management practices. Building conservation buffers in VSAs allows agricultural runoff to more uniformly enter buffers and stay there longer, which increases the buffer's capacity to remove sediments and nutrients. A field-scale example is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the within-VSA conservation buffer scenario relative to a typical edge-of-field buffer scenario. The results enhance the understanding of hydrological processes and interactions between agricultural lands and conservation buffers in agricultural landscapes, and provide practical guidance for land resource managers and conservationists who use conservation buffers to improve water quality and amenity values of agricultural landscape.

  18. The Role Of Management Of The Field-Forest Boundary In Poland's Process Of Agricultural Restructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woch, Franciszek; Borek, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work described here has been to point to the relationships between the field-forest boundary and crop productivity as regards the present agrarian land-use structure in Poland, and to provide new opportunities for arranging the agrarian process and the spatial planning of the rural landscape in the context of the sustainable shaping of the field-forest boundary. Impacts of forests and woodlands on crop productivity have been assessed using available data from relevant Polish literature. An assessment of the plot-distribution pattern characterising farms in Poland was made on the basis of reference data from the Agency for the Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture. Finally, the possibility of afforestation of agricultural land has been evaluated within the existing legal framework, and on the basis of available data, with attention paid to the need to include organization of the field-forest boundary within the comprehensive management and planning of rural areas, and to preserve woody elements in patchy landscapes. This all creates an opportunity to test innovative approaches to integrated land use which combines the creation of public goods and local products based on participatory learning processes that bring in local stakeholders and decision-makers.

  19. Parkinson’s Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Yitshak Sade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012. Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79. In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk.

  20. Gis-based technologies and their application in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Geographical information systems are in use in business application for a long time, but their usage in agriculture is well known, too. This article shows the main structure of geographical information systems for decision support (spatial decision support systems as advanced GIS technologies made for solving complex, semistructured or nonstructured problems and their application in the agriculture sector. GIS-based technologies has been reviewed through several examples of their use in agriculture and special respect has been given to the precision farming concept, giving short insight into SSToolbox software (SST. The last part of the article is dedicate to the possible usage of GIS-based technologies in the Serbian agriculture.

  1. Gis-based technologies and their application in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Manić Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Geographical information systems are in use in business application for a long time, but their usage in agriculture is well known, too. This article shows the main structure of geographical information systems for decision support (spatial decision support systems) as advanced GIS technologies made for solving complex, semistructured or nonstructured problems and their application in the agriculture sector. GIS-based technologies has been reviewed through several examples of their use in agri...

  2. An Algorithm and Implementation Based on an Agricultural EOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhineng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of living quality, the agricultural supermarket gradually take the place of the farmers market as the trend. But the agricultural supermarkets’ inappropriate inventory strategies are wasteful and inefficient. So this paper will put forward an inventory strategy for the agricultural supermarkets to lead the conductor decides when and how much to shelve the product. This strategy has significant meaning that it can reduce the loss and get more profit. The research methods are based on the inventory theory and the EOQ model, but the authors add multiple cycles’ theory to them because of the agricultural products’ decreasing characteristics. The research procedures are shown as follows. First, the authors do research in the agricultural supermarket to find their real conduction, and then put forward the new strategy in this paper. Second, the authors found out the model. At last, the authors search the specialty agriculture document to find the data such as the loss rate and the fresh parameters, and solve it out by MATLAB. The numerical result proves that the strategy is better than the real conduction in agricultural supermarket, and it also proves the feasibility.

  3. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or replace conve

  4. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda;

    in agriculture and agricultural technology. This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary extracurricular activity for first year engineering students carried out in the Fall 2012 at the University of Southern Denmark. The case was based on practical group-work centered around an agricultural mobile...... is that engineers and scientists have little knowledge about agricultural technology, and they therefore choose to work in other domains. It is hypothesised that introducing engineering students to precision agriculture through practical work with small-scale service robots will increase their interest......-scale service robot has increased the participants’ practical experience and given them a broader view of technology applied in agriculture. Subsequently, the students have shown an increased interest in and awareness of the possibilities in agricultural technology in relation to their own area of expertise...

  5. Mapping Agricultural Fields in Sub-Saharan Africa with a Computer Vision Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Luo, D.; Estes, L. D.; Fuchs, T.; Caylor, K. K.

    2014-12-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is an important focus for food security research, because it is experiencing unprecedented population growth, agricultural activities are largely dominated by smallholder production, and the region is already home to 25% of the world's undernourished. One of the greatest challenges to monitoring and improving food security in this region is obtaining an accurate accounting of the spatial distribution of agriculture. Households are the primary units of agricultural production in smallholder communities and typically rely on small fields of less than 2 hectares. Field sizes are directly related to household crop productivity, management choices, and adoption of new technologies. As population and agriculture expand, it becomes increasingly important to understand both the distribution of field sizes as well as how agricultural communities are spatially embedded in the landscape. In addition, household surveys, a common tool for tracking agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa, would greatly benefit from spatially explicit accounting of fields. Current gridded land cover data sets do not provide information on individual agricultural fields or the distribution of field sizes. Therefore, we employ cutting edge approaches from the field of computer vision to map fields across Sub-Saharan Africa, including semantic segmentation, discriminative classifiers, and automatic feature selection. Our approach aims to not only improve the binary classification accuracy of cropland, but also to isolate distinct fields, thereby capturing crucial information on size and geometry. Our research focuses on the development of descriptive features across scales to increase the accuracy and geographic range of our computer vision algorithm. Relevant data sets include high-resolution remote sensing imagery and Landsat (30-m) multi-spectral imagery. Training data for field boundaries is derived from hand-digitized data sets as well as crowdsourcing.

  6. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei[1,2,3; LI Gan-qiong[1,2,3; LI Zhe-min[1,2,3

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientific work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as well as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamically project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The following conclusions are drawn: i) The production of major agricultural products will continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield, ii) The growth of agricultural consumption will be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufficiency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. iii) Agricultural trade will continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im- ports will slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  7. China agricultural outlook for 2015-2024 based on China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shi-wei; LI Gan-qiong; LI Zhe-min

    2015-01-01

    The primary goal of Chinese agricultural development is to guarantee national food security and supply of major agricultural products. Hence, the scientiifc work on agricultural monitoring and early warning as wel as agricultural outlook must be strengthened. In this study, we develop the China Agricultural Monitoring and Early-warning System (CAMES) on the basis of a comparative study of domestic and international agricultural outlook models. The system is a dynamic and multi-market partial equilibrium model that integrates biological mechanisms with economic mechanisms. This system, which includes 11 categories of 953 kinds of agricultural products, could dynamical y project agricultural market supply and demand, assess food security, and conduct scenario analysis at different spatial levels, time scale levels, and macro-micro levels. Based on the CAMES, the production, consumption, and trade of the major agricultural products in China over the next decade are projected. The fol owing conclusions are drawn:i) The production of major agricultural products wil continue to grow steadily, mainly because of the increase in yield. i ) The growth of agricultural consumption wil be slightly higher than that of agricultural production. Meanwhile, a high self-sufifciency rate is expected for cereals such as rice, wheat, and maize, with the rate being stable at around 97%. i i) Agricultural trade wil continue to thrive. The growth of soybean and milk im-ports wil slow down, but the growth of traditional agricultural exports such as vegetables and fruits is expected to continue.

  8. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  9. Joint IAEA/FAO evaluation the Agency's activities in some sectors of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on field evaluation in Kenya, Senegal, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. Special evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A desk review was completed in 1995 of the Agency's activities in the Sub-Saharan region during the previous ten years, covering soil science, irrigation and plant nutrition, plant breeding and genetics, and agricultural biochemistry. As a follow-up of the recommendations of this review, a field evaluation covering activities in Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, as four of the six participants in the first phase of the ongoing regional project ''Increasing Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa'', was conducted in 1996 jointly with the FAO Programme and Budget Evaluation. Ethiopia and Niger were not included in the field evaluation. To date, total disbursement during the last ten years in the 19 projects considered in this evaluation amounted to $2.5 million, evenly distributed in the four countries, plus about $500,000 for training funded outside the projects. Agency inputs included isotope analysers, sample preparation equipment, moisture and density gauges, labelled fertilizers, isotopes and supporting soil laboratory equipment, training of researchers and technicians and expert advice on research trials and on-the-job training on the use of laboratory equipment. Figs, tabs

  10. Lunar base agriculture: Soils for plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Douglas W. (Editor); Henninger, Donald L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    This work provides information on research and experimentation concerning various aspects of food production in space and particularly on the moon. Options for human settlement of the moon and Mars and strategies for a lunar base are discussed. The lunar environment, including the mineralogical and chemical properties of lunar regolith are investigated and chemical and physical considerations for a lunar-derived soil are considered. It is noted that biological considerations for such a soil include controlled-environment crop production, both hydroponic and lunar regolith-based; microorganisms and the growth of higher plants in lunar-derived soils; and the role of microbes to condition lunar regolith for plant cultivation. Current research in the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) project is presented in detail and future research areas, such as the growth of higher research plants in CELSS are considered. Optimum plant and microbiological considerations for lunar derived soils are examined.

  11. The Use of Solar Cell in Ground Water Irrigation to Support Agricultural Cultivation in Rainfed Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delvi Yanti

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at developing the use of solar cell to water the ground water irrigation in order to support agricultural cultivation in rain-fed field. The location of this research was agricultural land (ricefield in Singkarak village, X Koto Singkarak sub-district, Solok district. This research was conducted with the design and technical test of ground water irrigation with solar cell, the analysis of irrigation water demand with crop-wat and the analysis of financial feasibility. The result of analysis showed that the potential of solar energy in Singkarak village could be used to activate the water pump of irrigation. The result of measurement showed that battery which its capacity was 12 V and 100 Ah needed four hours to be charged by five units of 50 Wp panel PV. Battery as the source of power was able to activate water pump of 125 Watt for 7,52 hours and mean debit that was able to be pumped is 17,45 litre/minute. From 24 periods of plantation time planned in rain-fed field, there were only three periods of plantation that the operational hours of their water pumps were able to be covered by the battery namely January 2, February 2, and November 2. Based on the result of financial analysis, these three periods of plantation were financially feasible in their implementation because the value of B/C ratio > 1 and NPV > 0.

  12. Successional trends in Sonoran Desert abandoned agricultural fields in northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, A.E.; Martinez, M.J.; Llano, J.M.; Halvorson, W.L.; Espiricueta, M.; Espejel, I.

    2005-01-01

    Excessive ground-water use and saline intrusion to the aquifer led, in less than three decades, to an increase in abandoned agricultural fields at La Costa de Hermosillo, within the Sonoran Desert. Using a chronosequence from years since abandonment, patterns of field succession were developed. Contrary to most desert literature, species replacement was found, both in fields with and without saline intrusion. Seasonal photosynthetic capacity as well as water and nitrogen use efficiencies were different in dominant early and late successional plant species. These ecological findings provided a framework for a general explanation of species dominance and replacement within abandoned agricultural fields in the Sonoran Desert. ?? 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Passive microwave response to vegetation and soil moisture on agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B.; Bullock, Paul R.

    2014-10-01

    The SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active/Passive Validation Experiment) was carried out over the summer of 2012 in Manitoba, Canada. The goal of the project was to improve the accuracy of satellite based remote sensing of soil moisture. Data were gathered during a 42-day field campaign with surface measurements on 55 different agricultural fields in south-western Manitoba. The extended duration of the campaign, contrast in soil textures, and variety of crop types over the study region provided an excellent range of soil moisture and vegetation conditions. The study fields ranged from bare to fully vegetated, with volumetric soil moisture levels spanning almost 50%. Remotely sensed data were collected on 17 days by aircraft at 1.4 Ghz with a microwave radiometer at two different resolutions. Observed brightness temperatures from the radiometer showed a typical inverse relationship to the near simultaneous soil moisture measurements from the field. This study will focus on improving existing models for passive microwave retrieval of soil moisture using a more extensive data set of field-measured soil temperature, soil moisture and vegetation biomass from a wider range of crops than has been available in previous studies. The extensive ground data collected will allow for both a validation of the high-resolution passive soil moisture estimate, as well as an analysis on the effect of scaling to a lower resolution passive measurement.

  14. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  15. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  16. Scaling preferential flow processes in agricultural soils affected by tillage and trafficking at the field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Coquet, Yves

    2016-04-01

    There is an accumulation of experimental evidences that agricultural soils, at least the top horizons affected by tillage practices, are not homogeneous and present a structure that is strongly dependent on farming practices like tillage and trafficking. Soil tillage and trafficking can create compacted zones in the soil with hydraulic properties and porosity which are different from those of the non-compacted zones. This spatial variability can strongly influence transport processes and initiate preferential flow. Two or three dimensional models can be used to account for spatial variability created by agricultural practices, but such models need a detailed assessment of spatial heterogeneity which can be rather impractical to provide. This logically raises the question whether and how one dimensional model may be designed and used to account for the within-field spatial variability in soil structure created by agricultural practices. Preferential flow (dual-permeability) modelling performed with HYDRUS-1D will be confronted to classical modelling based on the Richards and convection-dispersion equations using HYDRUS-2D taking into account the various soil heterogeneities created by agricultural practices. Our goal is to derive one set of equivalent 1D soil hydraulic parameters from 2D simulations which accounts for soil heterogeneities created by agricultural operations. A field experiment was carried out in two phases: infiltration and redistribution on a plot by uniform sprinkle irrigation with water or bromide solution. Prior to the field experiment the soil structure of the tilled layer was determined along the face of a large trench perpendicular to the tillage direction (0.7 m depth and 3.1 m wide). Thirty TDR probes and tensiometers were installed in different soil structural zones (Δ compacted soil and Γ macroporous soil) which ensured soil water monitoring throughout the experiment. A map of bromide was constructed from small core samples (4 cm diam

  17. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tracy R; Mahoney, Meredith J; Cashatt, Everett D; Noordijk, Jinze; de Snoo, Geert; Musters, C J M

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study.

  18. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. PMID:26998602

  19. Risk as Impediment to Privatization? The Role of Collective Fields in Extended Agricultural Households

    OpenAIRE

    Matthieu Delpierre; Catherine Guirkinger; Jean-Philippe Platteau

    2012-01-01

    As in the case of agricultural cooperatives, collective fields in extended agricultural households act as an insurance device, by redistributing income between household members. At the same time they entail inefficiencies arising from the incentives to free ride on co-workers efforts. Privatization solves the latter problem but comes at a cost of lower risk-sharing (Carter, 1987). The classic analysis of the trade-off between efficiency and risk-sharing rules out another major risk-sharing m...

  20. Risk as Impediment to Privatization? The Role of Collective Fields in Extended Agricultural Households

    OpenAIRE

    DELPIERRE Matthieu; Guirkinger, Catherine; Platteau, Jean-Philippe; Central European Program in Economic Theory (CEPET) Workshop

    2014-01-01

    As in the case of agricultural cooperatives, collective fields in extended agricultural households act as an insurance device, by redistributing income between household members. At the same time they entail inefficiencies arising from the incentives to free ride on co-workers efforts. Privatization solves the latter problem but comes at a cost of lower risk-sharing (Carter, 1987). The classic analysis of the trade-off between efficiency and risk-sharing rules out another major risk-sharing m...

  1. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeld Jensen; Morten Larsen; Nielsen, Søren H.; Leon B. Larsen; Kent S. Olsen; Jørgensen, Rasmus N.

    2014-01-01

    Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to ena...

  2. The Use of Solar Cell in Ground Water Irrigation to Support Agricultural Cultivation in Rainfed Field

    OpenAIRE

    Delvi Yanti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at developing the use of solar cell to water the ground water irrigation in order to support agricultural cultivation in rain-fed field. The location of this research was agricultural land (ricefield) in Singkarak village, X Koto Singkarak sub-district, Solok district. This research was conducted with the design and technical test of ground water irrigation with solar cell, the analysis of irrigation water demand with crop-wat and the analysis of financial feasibility. The ...

  3. PRECISION AGRICULTURE, WHOLE FIELD FARMING AND IRRIGATION PRACTICES: A FINANCIAL RISK ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gandonou, Jean-Marc; Dillon, Carl R.

    2003-01-01

    One of the main advantages of precision agriculture (PA) is its potential to increase profitability by optimizing the productivity of each section of the field. Incorporating irrigation practices to the PA technology could further increase profitability. However, investing in a complete set of precision agriculture (PA) and/or irrigation equipment represents for the average Kentuckian grain producer a substantial investment that can have a significant impact on the financial risk the he/she f...

  4. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy R. Evans; Mahoney, Meredith J.; Cashatt, Everett D.; Jinze Noordijk; Geert de Snoo; Musters, C. J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to ...

  5. Resources based factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyja Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many different definitions of competitiveness it is difficult to pinpoint the most appropriate one. In the paper it was defined as the ability to be profitable by effective use of available resources. The profitability ratios (ROS, ROA, ROE and value index were proposed as measures of competitiveness and resources were indicated as one of the group of factors that has an impact on it. Precisely, the purpose of the paper was to examine the relationship between selected resourced based factors and competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The study was done with the use of correlation analysis on the basis of statistical data on selected Polish companies operating in agriculture. The main finding was that the analyzed resources (the level of labour, size and quality of agricultural land and size of assets were weakly correlated with competitiveness. This observation means that other factors have stronger impact on agricultural company’s competitiveness. They can refer to intangible resources (such as relational capital, know-how, managerial competencies, technological resources etc. and external conditions (such as climate, legal issues of agricultural enterprises.

  6. Opportunities and constraints for using gene-based technologies in animal agriculture in developing countries and possible role of international donor agencies in promoting R and D in this field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gene-based technologies for livestock are in varying stages of development and implementation mainly focussed on analysis of individual components of complex animal system. Most of these technologies, evolved through International initiatives in the developed countries, have found limited application for the livestock of developing world. Several genes and traits of excellence have been associated with livestock of developing countries of Asia and Africa. High milk fat in buffaloes, protein quality for mozzarella cheese in buffalo milk, the fiber of 'Pashmina' and 'Toos' in the hair coat of goats in cold dry regions, the high prolificacy gene in Black Bengal goats, twinning genes in Garole sheep, high salt tolerance of Andaman goats, high altitude mountain adaptability of Yak and Mithun, high lignin content feed utilization in tropical arid ecology by camel, sheep and goat and disease as well as stress resistance by different species are examples where livestock of developing world has a global advantage. Efficient epidemiology, disease surveillance and monitoring, value addition in meat, leather and diary industry, economic biopharmaceutical production from transgenic livestock and developing of comprehensive data base, are other areas in which gene-based technologies are directly involved and hold great prospect in developing economies. Animal owners in the developing world are resource poor, small scale operators, mostly landless or with marginal lands, having limited animal holdings, dependent on agro-ecology of temperate climate, with limited purchasing power and having little opportunity to access resources or make resource allocation decisions for animal production. This situation, for the poorest of the poor who live on livestock, is fast deteriorating mainly due to fragmentation of limited holdings, exhaustion of land resource, fatiguing of green revolution and increasing human and animal population pressure. Biotechnologies in the developing world have to

  7. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  8. The Ecological Bases Of The Rational Use Of Agricultural Land

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksiy Stepenko

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of an ecological condition of the land of agricultural purpose in Ukraine is carried out. On the basis of the analysis of a current state of structure of land fund and the recommended ecological parametres availability ecological destructiveness in land tenure system in Ukraine is proved. On the basis of coefficient of ecological stability level of equation of the territorial organisation in regions of Ukraine is specified. Scientific-theoretical bases of balanced development are...

  9. Toward Future Photovoltaic-Based Agriculture in Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    To meet the challenges of climate change and water shortages, combining solar energy-based seawater desalination technologies with floating agriculture stations in one innovative hybrid system would be worthy of investigation for dry and sunny regions for seawater desalination and crop production within the same platform. Here, I discuss the feasibility of such a 'floating farm' or 'bluehouse' in the sea, by comparing it with the use of terrestrial greenhouses. I also debate the potential advantages and shortcomings of such a system.

  10. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  11. New field-based agricultural biomass burning trace gas, PM2.5, and black carbon emission ratios and factors measured in situ at crop residue fires in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianran; Wooster, Martin J.; Green, David C.; Main, Bruce

    2015-11-01

    Despite policy attempts to limit or prevent agricultural burning, its use to remove crop residues either immediately after harvest (e.g. field burning of wheat stubble) or after subsequent crop processing (e.g. "bonfires" of rice straw and rapeseed residues) appears to remain widespread across parts of China. Emission factors for these types of small but highly numerous fire are therefore required to fully assess their impact on atmospheric composition and air pollution. Here we describe the design and deployment of a new smoke measurement system for the close-range sampling of key gases and particles within smoke from crop residue fires, using it to assess instantaneous mixing ratios of CO and CO2 and mass concentrations of black carbon (BC) and PM2.5 from wheat stubble, rice straw, and rapeseed residue fires. Using data of our new smoke sampling system, we find a strong linear correlation between the PM2.5 mass and BC, with very high PM2.5 to BC emission ratios found in the smouldering phase (up to 80.7 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1) compared to the flaming phase (2.0 mg m-3.(mg m-3)-1). We conclude that the contribution of BC to PM2.5 mass was as high as 50% in the flaming phase of some burns, whilst during smouldering it sometimes decreased to little over one percent. A linear mixing model is used to quantify the relative contribution of each combustion phase to the overall measured smoke composition, and we find that flaming combustion dominated the total emission of most species assessed. Using time series of trace gas concentrations from different fire cases, we calculated 'fire integrated' trace gas emission factors (EFs) for wheat, rice and rapeseed residue burns as 1739 ± 19 g kg-1, 1761 ± 30 g kg-1and 1704 ± 27 g kg-1 respectively for CO2, and 60 ± 12 g kg-1, 47 ± 19 g kg-1 and 82 ± 17 g kg-1 respectively for CO. Where comparisons were possible, our EFs agreed well with those derived via a simultaneously-deployed open path Fourier transform infrared (OP

  12. Link-up between Farmers and Supermarket based on China’s Fresh Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jian-ying; TANG Bu-long

    2012-01-01

    Link-up between farmers and supermarket is a new move adopted actively by the current government, conducive to consumers, farmers and circulation enterprises. At present, link-up between farmers and supermarket is launched in China’s 15 provinces and cities, which will set off the revolution in the field of agricultural circulation. Based on the current situation of link-up between farmers and supermarket and the existing problems, we put forth the following recommendations: promoting the quality of farmers’ cooperative organizations; establishing the logistics center of fresh agricultural products; using economies of scale to reduce the fresh logistics costs; improving the operation and management level of fresh agricultural products in supermarket.

  13. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  14. Performance evaluation of natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patil, K.N.; Ramana, P.V.; Singh, R.N. [Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Inst., Gujarat (India)

    2000-07-01

    A natural draft based agricultural residues charcoal reactor has been described herein along with its performance details. Instead of releasing pyrogases into the atmosphere, these gases are burnt inside the charcoal reactor, offering better energy efficiency and environmental acceptability. Agricultural residues like arhar stalks (Cajanus cajan), saw mill woody waste, Ipomoea (Ipomoea fistulasa, Syn. Ipomoea Carnea) and babul wood (Acacia nilotica), all sun dried, were used as the feedstocks for charcoal making. Saleable charcoal (SC) yield was in the range of 28 to 47% dry basis (db) with the maximum from saw mill woody waste and the minimum from Ipomoea. Fixed carbon (FC) content in the SC varies from 69 to 77% (db) in the agricultural residues based charcoal. Babul wood charring gave the highest SC yield (50%, db) and the best quality charcoal in terms of FC (80%, db). Economic analysis revealed that if the system developed was operated annually for 4000 h, the user could have a net profit of around Rs.l,00,000/-(US $2500). (author)

  15. [Contribution of Base Flow to Total Nitrogen Loading in Subtropical Agricultural Catchments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qiu-mei; Li, Wei; Wang, Yi; Liu, Xin-liang; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-shui

    2016-04-15

    With the fast development of economics and improvement of people's living standard, non-point source pollution of the agricultural catchments in subtropical China has become more and more severe, where water quality deterioration has become a main barrier for sustainable development and ecological restoration. The process of ecohydrology in catchment is greatly influenced by the process of base flow in channel. This study selected the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments located in Changsha County, Hunan Province, to quantify and compare the contribution of base flow to total nitrogen (TN) loading from January 2011 to December 2013, through field observation and model estimation. The results suggested that the Tuojia catchment with higher intensity of rice agriculture had the greater volume of base flow, higher average flow-weighted TN concentration in base flow, and greater monthly TN loading via base flow [15.2 mm · month⁻¹, 4.14 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.54 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively] than those in the Jianshan catchment with lower intensity [11.4 mm · month⁻¹, 1.72 mg · L⁻¹ and 0.20 kg · (hm² · month)⁻¹, respectively]. The base flow contribution to TN loading showed an apparently seasonal pattern. During rice-growing seasons, the contributions of base flow to TN loading were 23.2% and 18.6% in the Tuojia and Jianshan catchments, respectively, lower than those in the fallow seasons (46.9% and 40.0% correspondingly. These results suggested that rice agriculture increased the contribution of base flow in the fallow season to TN loading. Therefore, to alleviate the suffering of non-point source pollution in the rice agriculture catchments, reasonable management measure of rice fields should be implemented to decrease contrihution of base flow to TN loading. PMID:27548958

  16. A note on elevated total gaseous mercury concentrations downwind from an agriculture field during tilling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bash, Jesse O; Miller, David R

    2007-12-15

    Elevated mercury concentrations were measured at the University of Connecticut's mercury forest flux tower during spring agricultural field operations on an adjacent corn field. Concentrations at the tower were elevated, a peak of 7.03 ng m(-3) over the background concentration of 1.74+/-0.26 ng m(-3), during times when the prevailing wind was from the direction of the corn field and during periods when the soil was disturbed by tilling. Strong deposition to the forest was recorded at the point of measurement when atmospheric mercury concentrations were elevated. The strongest deposition rate was a 1 hour maximum of -4011 ng m(-2) h(-1) following the initial peak in atmospheric concentrations, Analyses of the meteorological conditions and mercury content in agricultural soil, manure and the diesel consumed in the tilling operation indicate that the source of the mercury was from the agricultural tilling operations and it was advected over the tower enriching the atmospheric concentrations above the forest canopy leading to deposition. These results indicate that agriculture operations resulting in a disturbed soil surface may be a source of atmospheric mercury originating from the pool of mercury bound in the soil. This represents a previously undocumented source of mercury emissions resulting from anthropogenic activities.

  17. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored to field robots in precision agriculture will significantly decrease development time and resources required to perform experiments due to efficient reuse of existing work across projects and robot platforms. In this work we present the FroboMind software platform and evaluate the performance when applied to precision agriculture tasks.

  18. Temporal Patterns of Glyphosate Leaching at a Loamy Agricultural Field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Olsen, Preben;

    2013-01-01

    Glyphosate is a herbicide used worldwide for weed control in agriculture. Glyphosate is believed to pose a low risk for groundwater reservoirs due to its strong sorption to soil minerals and fast degradation. However, during the last ten years several studies have shown detections of glyphosate...... in drainage water and groundwater at concentrations exceeding the EU drinking water quality criterion of 0.1 µg L-1. This study presents a unique 12-year time series of monitoring results for glyphosate (applied five times during the period) and its degradation product (AMPA) at a cultivated, highly......-structured loamy field (Estrup) located in southern Denmark. The Estrup field is part of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Program (PLAP), which monitors and evaluates pesticide leaching from five differently textured agricultural fields in Denmark. The study investigates the effect of successive glyphosate...

  19. The Impact of Landscape Complexity on Invertebrate Diversity in Edges and Fields in an Agricultural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy R. Evans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Invertebrate diversity is important for a multitude of ecosystem services and as a component of the larger ecological food web. A better understanding of the factors influencing invertebrate taxonomic richness and diversity at both local and landscape scales is important for conserving biodiversity within the agricultural landscape. The aim of this study was to determine if invertebrate richness and diversity in agricultural field interiors and edges in central Illinois, USA, were related to the complexity of the surrounding landscape. Our results show taxonomic richness and diversity in field edges is positively related to large scale landscape complexity, but the relationship is negative for field interiors. These unexpected results need further study.

  20. Improving Agricultural Drought Monitoring in East Africa with Unbiased Rainfall Fields and Detailed Land Surface Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, A.; Yatheendradas, S.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Michaelsen, J.

    2010-12-01

    Monitoring drought is particularly challenging within rainfed agricultural and pastoral systems, where it can serve the greatest need. Such locations often have sparse or non-existent ground based measurements of precipitation, evapotranspiration (ET), and soil moisture. For more effective drought monitoring with limited hydroclimate observations, we simulate land surface states using the Community Noah Land Surface Model forced with different merged rainfall products inside a Land Information System (LIS). Using model outputs we will answer the questions: How sensitive are soil moisture and ET fields to differences in rainfall forcing and model physics? What are acceptable drought-specific tradeoffs between near-real time availability and skill of rainfall data? Preliminary results with the African Rainfall Estimation Algorithm Version 2 (RFE2.0) outperformed global products, suggesting that sub-global rainfall estimates are the way forward for regional drought monitoring. Specifically, the Noah model forced with RFE2.0 better resolved the heterogeneous patterns in crop stress than the Famine Early Warning System Network (FEWS NET) operational Water Requirement Satisfaction Index (WRSI) model. To further investigate the improvement in drought monitoring while maintaining timeliness, we unbias (using Africa specific climatology) the precipitation products from CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation (CMAP), Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM), and RFE2.0. The skill (relative accuracy) and reliability (average agreement) of the unbiased rainfall are calculated against an unbiased precipitation product augmented with station data from Ethiopia and Kenya. Soil moisture and ET fields from Noah are compared to the operational FEWS NET WRSI, soil water anomaly index, and the World Food Program’s Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission reports. We anticipate that the unbiased rainfall fields will improve the accuracy, spatio-temporal resolution, and

  1. Strategies for Cultivating New Peasants Based on Modern Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fanxing; MENG; Jianguo; ZHOU

    2013-01-01

    Development of modern agriculture has higher and higher requirements on quality of peasants.This study,on the basis of connotations of modern agriculture,current situation and problems of Chinese peasants,and contradictions between modern agricultural development and peasants’ quality,specifies requirements of modern agriculture on new peasants,proposes corresponding suggestions to promote the cultivation of new Chinese peasants.

  2. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  3. Research on Supply Chain Performance Evaluation of Fresh Agriculture Products Based on BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hankun Ye

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agricultural products is one of the key techniques and a research hotspot in supply chain management and in fields related. The paper designs a new evaluation indicator system and presents a new model for evaluating supply chain performance of fresh agriculture product companies. First, based on analyzing the specific characteristics of the supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture products, the paper designs a new evaluation indicator system including external and internal performance. Second, some improvements, such as adjusting dynamic strategy and the value of momentum factor, are taken to speed up calculation convergence and simplify the structure and to improve evaluating accuracy of the original BP evaluation model. Finally the model is realized with the data from certain supply chains of three fresh agriculture product companies and the experimental results show that the algorithm can improve calculation efficiency and evaluation accuracy when used for supply chain performance evaluation of fresh agriculture product companies practically.

  4. Toward Future Photovoltaic-Based Agriculture in Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    To meet the challenges of climate change and water shortages, combining solar energy-based seawater desalination technologies with floating agriculture stations in one innovative hybrid system would be worthy of investigation for dry and sunny regions for seawater desalination and crop production within the same platform. Here, I discuss the feasibility of such a 'floating farm' or 'bluehouse' in the sea, by comparing it with the use of terrestrial greenhouses. I also debate the potential advantages and shortcomings of such a system. PMID:26810043

  5. Fields of dreams: Agriculture, economy and nature in Midwest United States biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillon, Sean Thomas

    . I describe how biofuel governance focuses on scientific practices that legitimize biofuel production for their capacity to marginally reduce greenhouse gas emissions, despite biofuels' agroecological consequences outside this regulatory purview. These consequences include pressure on conservation and agrienvironmental practice, which could be better supported through existing, highly effective, place-based, democratic institutions dedicated to stewarding the resources upon which agricultural livelihoods depend.

  6. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  7. Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Seo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Detailed data on land use and land cover constitutes important information for Earth system models, environmental monitoring and ecosystem services research. Global land cover products are evolving rapidly, however, there is still a lack of information particularly for heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We censused land use and land cover field by field in an agricultural mosaic catchment Haean, South Korea. We recorded the land cover types with additional information on agricultural practice and make this data available at the public repository Pangaea (doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.823677. In this paper we introduce the data, its collection and the post-processing protocol. During the studied period, a large portion of dry fields was converted to perennial crops. A comparison between our dataset and MODIS Land Cover Type (MCD12Q1 suggested that the MODIS product was restricted in this area since it does not distinguish irrigated fields from general croplands. In addition, linear landscape elements such as water bodies were not detected in the MODIS product due to its coarse spatial resolution. The data presented here can be useful for earth science and ecosystem services research.

  8. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Sichuan Province Based on the Coefficient of Variation

    OpenAIRE

    ZHOU, Fangying; SUN, Shunqiang; Joseph J., Molnar

    2015-01-01

    Circular agriculture helps to solve the drawbacks of traditional agricultural production and achieve unified economic and ecological benefits, consistent with the concept of sustainable development. Based on the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture, this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture in Sichuan Province, and uses the coefficient of variation to evaluate the current situation of development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province from 2000...

  9. FATE OF ATRAZINE IN THE AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF CORN FIELDS IN FARS PROVINCE OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nasseri ، M. Dehghani ، S. Amin ، K. Naddafi ، Z. Zamanian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected as pesticide in water resources. In this research, four agricultural fields with a long history of atrazine application in Shiraz and its vicinity in Fars province of Iran, have been studied to determine the fate of atrazine through the passage of time. These four farms were cultivated under a crop rotation (corn-wheat during the past 10 years. Samples were collected from four soil profiles of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm soil depth at different times. The time intervals for soil sampling started before atrazine application and continued until no atrazine was detected. According to the general linear model, there was no significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the soil moisture and depth (p≥0.05. But, significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the sampling regions was observed (p<0.001. Based on the data, atrazine leaching and dissipation rate in different soil profiles in the four sampling regions were high and significant. Therefore, there is a high risk of atrazine pollution in groundwater resources of the region.

  10. Development of a field worthy sensor system to monitor gaseous nitrogen transfer from agricultural cropland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer accounts for 25 to 33% of the energy requirements in modern crop agriculture in the world today. Energy input for the manufacture of these N fertilizers is in the range of 460 [times] 10[sup 12] Btu per year. Unfortunately, for some N sources up to 70% of this energy in the form of NK can be lost through improper application techniques and poor N management strategies. Anhydrous NH[sub 3] may be lost to the atmosphere during and after placement due to soil conditions placement. Measurement of volatile N is difficult, especially under field conditions. A precise and convenient method of measuring gaseous NH[sub 3] near and above the soil surface is prerequisite to the development and evaluation of altemative fertilizer management strategies and application techniques which can reduce the potential for significant loss. Recent advances in integrated-optic (IO) based sensing offers the potential of measuring low levels of NH[sub 3] loss from a cropping system in the range of 100 ppB. The integrated design of an IO system allows for a more durable device that can be mass produced at low cost. Under Phase I of this project, two IO devices were designed and tested: an absorption device using an oxazine dye as a waveguide coating and an interferometric device using an anilinium salt as a waveguide coating.

  11. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  12. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  13. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Nielsen, Søren H;

    2014-01-01

    Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached...... the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing...... software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored...

  14. Strategies for soil-based precision agriculture in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Haly L.; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Stanislav, Scott; Rouze, Gregory; Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The goal of precision agriculture is to increase crop yield while maximizing the use efficiency of farm resources. In this application, UAV-based systems are presenting agricultural researchers with an opportunity to study crop response to environmental and management factors in real-time without disturbing the crop. The spatial variability soil properties, which drive crop yield and quality, cannot be changed and thus keen agronomic choices with soil variability in mind have the potential to increase profits. Additionally, measuring crop stress over time and in response to management and environmental conditions may enable agronomists and plant breeders to make more informed decisions about variety selection than the traditional end-of-season yield and quality measurements. In a previous study, seed-cotton yield was measured over 4 years and compared with soil variability as mapped by a proximal soil sensor. It was found that soil properties had a significant effect on seed-cotton yield and the effect was not consistent across years due to different precipitation conditions. However, when seed-cotton yield was compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as measured using a multispectral camera from a UAV, predictions improved. Further improvement was seen when soil-only pixels were removed from the analysis. On-going studies are using UAV-based data to uncover the thresholds for stress and yield potential. Long-term goals of this research include detecting stress before yield is reduced and selecting better adapted varieties.

  15. Autonomous Indoor Localization via Field Mapping Techniques, with Agricultural Big Data Application

    OpenAIRE

    Cui, Yan; Ariyur, Kartik; Branch, Benjamin D

    2014-01-01

    This joint collaboration between the library, the Mechanical Engineering department shows the current research of localizing an Android smartphone using big data collection and sensor fusion techniques. The original work is Autonomous Indoor Localization via Field Mapping Techniques which primarily designed as indoor fire and safety aid. For Agricultural Big Data Use, the Android smartphone is being applied to in indoor greenhouse fire, safety and data knowledge design. Such may aid big da...

  16. Agricultural PM 10 emissions from cotton field disking in Las Cruces, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumba, John; Holmén, Britt A.; Hiscox, April; Wang, Junming; Miller, David

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have shown a relationship between elevated levels of inhalable particulate matter (PM) and agricultural practices, especially in the vicinity of agricultural fields. Airborne particle concentrations and meteorological variables were measured during nine agricultural field events on a cotton field in Las Cruces, NM in March 2008. A variety of real-time and integrated PM 10 and total suspended particles (TSP) samplers were used during sampling. The field events were designed to measure particle concentrations at different heights, near (4 m) and far (20-100 m) from a disking tractor. Particle concentrations decreased with increasing distance from the ground for near-source disking events, whereas particle concentrations were almost independent of height for background events. Near-source disking event particle concentrations were 4-7 times higher than those for far-source disking and background events. Near-source disking events had PM 10 emission factors ranging from 78 to 239 mg m -2, while those for far-source disking events ranged from 8 to 89 mg m -2. PM 10 plume heights for near-source disking events were between 4 and 5.7 m, whereas those for far-source disking events were between 12 and 15 m. Meteorological variables were found to influence emission factors, with wind speed showing a nonlinear relationship with emission factors. No clear relationship was found between soil moisture content and emission factors probably because the range of soil moisture was small. Impactor data indicated 10-40% of the total mass of agricultural PM collected was less than 1 μm in diameter for the clay loam soil type. Vertical PM 10 concentration profiles showed maxima at sampling heights between 1 and 2 m above the ground.

  17. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The field of Archaeology remains focused on historical issues while underexploring its potential contribution on currently existing societal problems, e.g. climate change. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of archeological studies for the research of the 'human species as a significant moving agent' in terms of the changing natural environment during a much earlier time frame. This research is based on the study area of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region in the Netherlands and Belgium and exhibits the period from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Roman period. This period is characterized by the widespread introduction and use of an agricultural system, often referred to as the Celtic Field system that served as one of the most modifying systems in terms of anthropogenic-environmental change during this period. Emphasis in this research is given to results generated by the use of the remote sensing technology, LiDAR. New information is reported considering a correlation between singular field size and the overall surface of the agricultural complexes and secondly, the presentation of newly identified Celtic field systems in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region are presented. The study of the dynamics of the Celtic Field agricultural system provides evidence for a significant anthropogenic footprint on the natural environment due to land cover dominance, soil degeneration, increased soil acidification and forest clearance. Soil exhaustion forced the inhabitants to re-establish their relationship with the landscape in terms of fundamental changes in the habitation pattern and the agrarian exploitations of the land.

  18. Interactively Improving Agricultural Field Mapping in Sub-Saharan Africa with Crowd-Sourcing and Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, S. R.; Estes, L. D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2015-12-01

    As satellite imagery becomes increasingly available, management of large image databases becomes more important for efficient image processing. We have developed a computer vision-based classification algorithm to distinguish smallholder agricultural land cover in Sub-Saharan Africa, using a group of high-resolution images from South Africa as a case study. For supervised classification, smallholder agriculture, with ambiguous patterns of small, irregular fields, requires a wide range of training data samples to adequately describe the variability in appearance. We employ crowd-sourcing to obtain new training data to expand the geographic range of our algorithm. A crowd-sourcing user is asked to hand-digitize the boundaries of agricultural fields in an assigned 1 km2 image. Yet random assignment of images to users could result in a highly redundant training data set with limited discriminative power. Furthermore, larger training data sets require a greater number of users to hand-digitize fields, which increases costs through crowd-sourcing engines like Amazon Mechanical Turk, as well as longer algorithm training times, which increases computing costs. Therefore, we employ an active learning approach to interactively select the most informative images to be hand-digitized for training data by crowd-sourcing users, based on changes in algorithm accuracy. We investigate the use of various image similarity measures used in content-based image retrieval systems, which quantify the distance, such as Euclidean distance or Manhattan distance, between a variety of extracted feature spaces to determine how similar the content of two images are. We determine the minimum training data set needed to maximize algorithm accuracy, as well as automate the selection of additional training images to classify a new target image that expands the geographic range of our algorithm.

  19. The Effects of Agricultural Informatization on Agricultural Economic Growth: An Empirical Analysis Based on Regression Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lingling; TAN

    2013-01-01

    This article selects some major factors influencing the agricultural economic growth are selected,such as labor,capital input,farmland area,fertilizer input and information input.And it selects some factors to explain information input,such as the number of website ownership,types of books,magazines and newspapers published,the number of telephone ownership per 100 households,the number of home computers ownership per 100 households,farmers’ spending on transportation and communication,culture,education,entertainment and services, and the total number of agricultural science and technology service personnel.Using regression model,this article conducts regression analysis of the cross-section data on 31 provinces,autonomous regions and municipalities in 2010.The results show that the building of information infrastructure,the use of means of information,the popularization and promotion of knowledge of agricultural science and technology,play an important role in promoting agricultural economic growth.

  20. Iron coated sand/glauconite filters for phosphorus removal from artificially drained agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Stany; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    Flanders (Belgium) is confronted with reactive phosphorus concentrations in streams and lakes which are three to four times higher than the 0.1 ppm P limit set by the Water Framework Directive. Much of the excessive P input in surface waters is derived from agriculture. Direct P input from artificially drained fields (short-circuiting the buffering capacity of the subsoil) is suspected to be one of the major sources. We aim to develop simple and cheap filters that can be directly installed in the field to reduce P concentration from the drain water. Here we report on the performance of such filters tested at lab scale. As starting materials for the P filter, iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were used. These materials, both rich in Fe, were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35, 50/50 and 0/100 (iron coated sand/glauconite ratio based on weight basis) and filled in plastic tubes. A screening experiment using the constant head method with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P showed that all four types of mixtures reduced the P concentration in the outflowing water to almost zero, and that the 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 mixtures had a sufficiently large hydraulic conductivity of 0.9 to 6.0 cm/min, while the hydraulic conductivity of the 50/50 mixture was too low (solution containing 1 ppm P was passed through the filters over several days, in amounts equivalent to half of the yearly water volume passing through the drains. This experiment firstly showed that in all cases the hydraulic conductivity fluctuated strongly: it decreased from 4.0-6.0 cm/min to 2.0-1.5 cm/min for the 75/25 filter, and to values < 0.4 cm/min for the 65/35 filter, whereas it increased from 0.8 to 1.4 cm/min for the 0/100 filter. Secondly, we observed a decrease in the P removal efficiency with time on each day for all filters: from 90% removal to 80% removal for the 75/25 and 65/35 filters, while for the 0/100 filter the P removal almost reduced to 0%. Based on these results the 75

  1. Non-destructive monitoring of agricultural product (lettuce [Lactuca sativa]) based on laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quality control of agricultural products in process of cultivation and distribution has become an important problem. This paper describes a field measuring method of lettuce based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for growth monitoring. Intensity at 460nm of LIF spectra showed characteristic variations of near harvest time. The results of chemical analysis confirmed that sucrose and chlorogenic acid are origins of the 460nm fluorescence. The prediction of harvest time and the possibility of quality monitoring are discussed based on the experimental data

  2. Chitosan nanoparticle based delivery systems for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Xiang, Xu; Heiden, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Development of technologies that improve food productivity without any adverse impact on the ecosystem is the need of hour. In this context, development of controlled delivery systems for slow and sustained release of agrochemicals or genetic materials is crucial. Chitosan has emerged as a valuable carrier for controlled delivery of agrochemicals and genetic materials because of its proven biocompatibility, biodegradability, non-toxicity, and adsorption abilities. The major advantages of encapsulating agrochemicals and genetic material in a chitosan matrix include its ability to function as a protective reservoir for the active ingredients, protecting the ingredients from the surrounding environment while they are in the chitosan domain, and then controlling their release, allowing them to serve as efficient gene delivery systems for plant transformation or controlled release of pesticides. Despite the great progress in the use of chitosan in the area of medical and pharmaceutical sciences, there is still a wide knowledge gap regarding the potential application of chitosan for encapsulation of active ingredients in agriculture. Hence, the present article describes the current status of chitosan nanoparticle-based delivery systems in agriculture, and to highlight challenges that need to be overcome.

  3. Assessment of the predictive quality of simple indicator approaches for nitrate leaching from agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczko, Uwe; Kuchenbuch, Rolf

    2010-05-01

    Diffuse N losses from agriculture are a major cause of excessive nitrate concentrations in surface and groundwaters. Leaching through the soil is the main pathway of nitrate loss. For environmental management, an anticipatory assessment and monitoring of nitrate leaching risk by indicator (index) approaches is increasingly being used. Although complex Nitrogen Loss Indicator (NLI) approaches may provide more information, relatively simple NLIs may have advantages in many practical situations, for instance, when data availability is restricted. In this study, we tested four simple NLIs to asses their predictive properties: 1. N balance (Nbal); 2. exchange frequency of soil solution (EF); 3. potential nitrate concentration in leachate (PNCL); 4. a composite NLI (balance exchange frequency product, BEP). Field data of nitrate leaching from two sites in northeast Germany along with published data from several sites in Germany, Scotland and the USA were utilized. Nbal proved to be a relatively poor indicator of N loss for the time frame of one year, whereas its prediction accuracy improved for longterm averaged data. Correlation between calculated EF and experimental data was high for single year data, whereas it was lower for longterm averaged data. PNCL gave no significant correlations with measured data and high deviations. The results for BEP were intermediate between those for Nbal and EF. The results suggest that the use of EF is appropriate for assessing N leaching loss for single year data and specific sites with comparable N input and management practices, whereas for long-term averaged data, Nbal is better suited. BEP is an appropriate NLI both for single year and longterm data which accounts for source and transport factors and thus is more flexible than source based Nbal and transport based EF. However, such simplified NLIs have limitations: 1. the N cycle is not covered completely; 2. processes in the vadose zone and the aquifer are neglected, 3. assessment

  4. Prediction of the glyphosate sorption coefficient across two loamy agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Norgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    Sorption is considered one of the most important processes controlling pesticide mobility in agricultural soils. Accurate predictions of sorption coefficients are needed for reliable risk assessments of groundwater contamination from pesticides. In this work, we aim to estimate the glyphosate...... and glyphosate sorption coefficients were determined. Multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were performed using nine geo-referenced soil properties as variables to identify the parameters related with glyphosate sorption. Scenarios considered in the analyses included: (i) each field separately, (ii) both...... scenario, suggesting that different properties control glyphosate sorption in different locations and at different scales of analysis. Better predictions were obtained for the best-four set for the field in Estrup (R2=0.87) and for both fields (R2=0.70), while the field in Silstrup showed a lower...

  5. Research and Practice of the Construction Mode of the Practical Training Base for Agriculture and Forestry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guiying; LIU; Junjie; WANG; Xuebin; LI; Jian; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    In response to bottlenecks and dilemmas faced by institutions for agricultural and forestry practical training base construction, and based on Agriculture practical training base of Langfang Polytechnic Institute, this article illustrates the effective exploration and practice of the mode and ways for the construction of the practical training base,which provides some useful experience for the construction of the training base in agricultural and forestry institutions.

  6. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H Krupke

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen or by contact (soil/planter dust is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed

  7. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupke, Christian H; Hunt, Greg J; Eitzer, Brian D; Andino, Gladys; Given, Krispn

    2012-01-01

    Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions) growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen) or by contact (soil/planter dust) is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed treatments. PMID

  8. The Estimation Methods for Agricultural Surplus Labor Based on Stochastic Frontier Production Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaozhou; LU; Yanfen; LUO

    2014-01-01

    The existing calculation methods for the number of agricultural surplus labor have a common flaw,that is,they can not reflect the impact of technical efficiency changes in agricultural production on the surplus labor. Based on the basic principle of stochastic frontier production function,this paper calculates the agricultural production technical efficiency of various provinces,and selects the province with the highest technical efficiency to assume that its agricultural labor is fully utilized,and there is no agricultural surplus labor. With the ratio of agricultural labor number to agricultural output value in this province as a reference,this paper calculates the number of agricultural surplus labor in other provinces. This calculation method makes up for the shortcomings of the existing calculation methods; it reflects the relationship between the number of agricultural surplus labor and production technical efficiency.

  9. Evaluation on the Development of Circular Agriculture in Guizhou Province Based on Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo; CAO; Shunqiang; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Vigorously developing agricultural circular economy is an effective way to achieve sustainable agricultural development,and a strategic measure to ease the pressure on agricultural resources,protect ecological and clean resources,and promote sustainable agricultural and rural economic development. From the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the development level of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province from 2003 to 2012. At the same time,this paper analyzes the obstacles to the development of agricultural circular economy in Guizhou Province in 2012,and sets forth the relevant recommendations based on these limitations,in order to improve the development level of circular agriculture in Guizhou Province.

  10. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Chongqing City Based on Entropy Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangying; ZHOU; Shunqiang; SUN; Guiying; ZHU

    2014-01-01

    The circular agriculture is conducive to achieving the purpose of efficient agricultural economy and environment- friendliness.Based on the perspective of circular agriculture theory,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture,and uses entropy method and Matlab analysis tool to carry out the comprehensive evaluation of the level of agricultural development in Chongqing City during the period 2003- 2012. It analyzes the obstacles to the development of circular agricultural economy in Chongqing City in 2012,and finally puts forward the corresponding recommendations.

  11. Research on Novel Pattern of Agricultural Economy based on Accurate Information Management System: A Survey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liang Wang; Mengyan Liu

    2015-01-01

    The agricultural development in the less developed districts is a big challenge as they are resource poor regions and crops are grown under more risky agro-ecological conditions. In this paper, we conduct research on novel pattern of agricultural economy based on accurate information management system. Agricultural information is the agriculture prenatal, during and aider the information process, mainly to solve the problems in the development of agricultural production. Rural information includes rural economic information, rural management and related information, rural information culture and the rural social service information. Our system modifies the efficiency of managing materials which will largely enhance the economical result for the agricultural activities.

  12. Evaluation of the Development of Circular Agriculture in Sichuan Province Based on the Coefficient of Variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fangying; ZHOU; Shunqiang; SUN; Joseph; J.Molnar

    2015-01-01

    Circular agriculture helps to solve the drawbacks of traditional agricultural production and achieve unified economic and ecological benefits,consistent with the concept of sustainable development.Based on the theoretical perspective of circular agriculture,this paper builds the evaluation indicator system for circular agriculture in Sichuan Province,and uses the coefficient of variation to evaluate the current situation of development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province from 2000 to 2012.Then it analyzes the obstacles to the development of circular agriculture in Sichuan Province in 2012,and sets forth the targeted recommendations.

  13. Development and field testing of agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In snow-covering region of Japan, the promotion of snowmelting with application of agricultural snowmelting agents ('Yusetsuzai' in Japanese) has been widely carried out by farmers at the snowmelting season. When black colored materials with albedo-lowering effect are spread on snow surface, absorption of solar radiation by snow is increased, the snowmelting is promoted and snow thawing date becomes earlier. As a result, the growing season of crop plants is extended. Existing agricultural snowmelting agents have been mostly made from industrial waste materials or industrial processed products due to requirement for the low cost of the raw materials. These agents may contain harmful heavy metal elements and may lead to environmental pollution. To solve these problems, we developed the new agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials generated from the fields of agriculture and fishery. The developed snowmelting agents were made from shells of Patinopecten yessoensis, fowl droppings and processed wastes of fish and shellfish, etc. Especially, the shells of Patinopecten yessoensis has problems due to generation of a huge quantity in Hokkaido. Therefore, the recycling-use of these waste materials was strongly requested and expected. The developed snowmelting agents were possible to spread efficiently and safely on the snow-surface without wide scattering by controlling the particle size within the range larger than 100 microm and smaller than 1180 microm. Results obtained from the field experiment showed that the albedo was decreased from 0.70 for natural snow to 0.20 and the promotion of snowmelting for 11 days was recognized when 100 kg/10a of developed agent was spread. The promoting ability of the developed agent was equivalent to those of the existing commercial snowmelting agents. (author)

  14. Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and LMDI-Based Impact Factor Decomposition of Agricultural Carbon Emissions in Hotan Prefecture, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhe Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse gas emissions from the agricultural ecosystem account for 7%–20% of the world’s total greenhouse gas emissions, while approximately 17% of China’s carbon emissions are from agriculture. In this study, based on the scientific calculation system of carbon emissions in agriculture, we calculated the carbon emissions of agriculture in the Hotan prefecture between 1999 and 2013 and analyzed their spatial-temporal characteristics; next, we used the LMDI model to study the driving factors of agricultural carbon emissions. The results demonstrated the following: (1 in time series, the agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., “decline, continued to rise and decline”, during the period of 1999 to 2013 in the Hotan prefecture; (2 In space, the carbon emissions from agricultural land use, paddy fields, enteric fermentation, and manure management were different due to the different sizes of cities and counties. The intensity of agricultural carbon emissions was varied and high, but the agricultural production structure, agricultural carbon emissions structure and other aspects had a high degree of consistency and homogeneity in the cities and counties of the Hotan prefecture; (3 Regarding the driving mechanism, the labor factor, agricultural labor productivity, and planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity are the main factors that increase agricultural carbon emissions in the Hotan prefecture. Compared with 1999, three major factors cumulatively achieved a 199.68% carbon emission increment from 2000 to 2013, of which the labor factor cumulatively increased by 120.04%, the agricultural labor productivity factor cumulatively increased by 54.94% and the planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity factor cumulatively increased by 24.70%. The agricultural production structure factor largely inhibited agricultural carbon emissions of the Hotan prefecture, which cut 99.74% of the carbon emissions from 2000 to 2013

  15. Research on Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Based on SCP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the SCP mode of industrial organization theory as the starting point,the paper analyzes Chinese agricultural market structure,market conduct and conduct performance and draws lessons from foreign experiences in developing agriculture.In the process of agricultural industrialization,Chinese agricultural development exists the problems of low intensive degree,low degree of differential products,surplus labor forces,low agricultural profit rate and low industrial contribution rate and farmers’ difficultly in adapting to market competition.The paper puts forward suggestions for addressing the problems,which include underpinning the cooperation of operation main bodies and developing rural cooperative organizations;promoting land transfer and clarifying land property;accelerating rural surplus labors transfer and abating trade barriers;increasing technology input and improving the contribution rate of technologies;improving circulation channels and intensifying agricultural competitiveness.

  16. Multiple Encryption-based Algorithm of Agricultural Product Trace Code

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hua; Wu, Zhen-hua

    2012-01-01

    To establish a sound traceability system of agricultural products, guarantee security of agricultural products, an algorithm is proposed to encrypt trace code of agricultural products. Original trace code consists of 34 digits indicating such information as place of origin, name of product, date of production and authentication. Area code is used to indicate enterprise information, the encrypted algorithm is designed because of the increasing code length, such coding algorithms as system conv...

  17. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Lower Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Istudor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the conditions of European Strategy for Labour which was ratified also by Romania, that states an intensifying implementation at national level of labour policies and especially those regarding young person labour market integration, and taking into consideration the great human and agricultural potential of Lower Danube Region, we consider the implementation of national and regional programmes in order to train agriculture and rural development specialists to be very necessary. This article inquires the necessity of training agriculture and rural development specialists within Lower Danube Region in the context of cross-border cooperation between Romania and Bulgaria. This research starts by analysing the European and national legal framework of adult training in those two fields. Subsequently, the main premises and advantages of those activities were emphasized. It is good to mention that the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, Romania, and the D. Tsenov Academy of Economics in Svishtov, Bulgaria, proposed themselves to cooperate in the field of “human resources development – common development of skills and knowledge”. The legal base exists as the Romania-Bulgaria Cross-border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013 is enforced. Furthermore, a four years comparative study of the number of persons trained for the main jobs in rural area, including farmer, in Lower Danube Region was conducted. All these led to the idea that it is necessary to continue and to stress adult training of farmers and rural specialists as a solution for rural economy development and social welfare. Also, comparative analysis of supply and demand of professionals in the field of agriculture was elaborated. The main educational programs in training agriculture and rural development specialists were identified and some problems and perspectives were worked out. This research can be considered as a first step of future deeper and profound collaboration of Tsenov

  18. Weather based risks and insurances for agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as frost, drought, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The principle of return periods or frequencies of natural hazards is adopted in many countries as the basis of eligibility for the compensation of associated losses. For adequate risk management and eligibility, hazard maps for events with a 20-year return period are often used. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar therefore requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event in the farming calendar. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage. Subsequent examination of the frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and soil moisture stress in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages allows for risk profiles to be confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims. The methodology is demonstrated for arable food crops, bio-energy crops and fruit. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. Though average yields have risen continuously due to technological advances, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to adverse weather events has improved. The research is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Organisation (Belspo) under contract nr SD/RI/03A.

  19. Responses of ground-dwelling spiders to four hedgerow species on sloped agricultural fields in Southwest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuhong Wu; Qingnian Cai; Chaowen Lin; Yibing Chen; Yuying Li; Xu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Spiders are important predators in aeroecosystems and contribute to the control of agricultural nect nnnulatinns.Hahitat manage-ment such as the creation of new semi-natural habitats around or within fields enhances spider abundance and species diversity.Using pitfall traps,we investigated the effects of four hedgerow plant svecies.which serve as undisturhed and permanent semi-narimal habitats,on ground-dwelling spider activity density(a parameter of nonulation density and relative activitv)and species richness.Samples were ollected over two winter wheat and two summer maize growing seasons druing 2005-2007 in trial field 1(slope gradient of 20%)and field 2(slope gradient of 12%)at the Ziyane Experimental Site in Sichuan Province,China.The hedgerow species evaluated were Amorpha fruticosa(field 1).Vetiveria zizanioides(field 1),EulahODsis binata (field 2),and Afediraon sativa(field 2).CnmnareA to rnntrnl plots,hedgerow plots had significantly higher activity density and species richness of ground-dwelling spiders within strips in both fields 1 and 2 during the wheat growing season.The presence of hedgerow strins did not augment the activity density and species richness of ground-dwelling spiders within the crop fields during the wheat or maize growing seasons.The ground-dwelling spider activity density within hedgerow strips was significantly higher in the Vetiveria than in the AmorDha nlots and in the Medicago than in the Eulaliopsis plots,and the species richness was significantly higher in the Vetiveria than in the Amornha plots during the wheat season. Our results suggest that hedgerows may serve as important overwinterine sites for ground-dwelling spiders durinjthe wheat growing season.In addition,the diversification of agroecosystems by using hedgerow strips may be a viable strategy for maintaining ground-dwelling spider populations in agricultural areas.However,ground-dwelling spiders did not move into adiacent crop fields;therefore,future work should

  20. Observation of soil moisture variability in agricultural and grassland field soils using a wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesack, Eckart; Schuh, Max

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture dynamics is a key factor of energy and matter exchange between land surface and atmosphere. Therefore long-term observation of temporal and spatial soil moisture variability is important in studying impacts of climate change on terrestrial ecosystems and their possible feedbacks to the atmosphere. Within the framework of the network of terrestrial environmental observatories TERENO we installed at the research farm Scheyern in soils of two fields (of ca. 5 ha size each) the SoilNet wireless sensor network (Biogena et al. 2010). The SoilNet in Scheyern consists of 94 sensor units, 45 for the agricultural field site and 49 for the grassland site. Each sensor unit comprises 6 SPADE sensors, two sensors placed at the depths 10, 30 and 50 cm. The SPADE sensor (sceme.de GmbH, Horn-Bad Meinberg Germany) consists of a TDT sensor to estimate volumetric soil water content from soil electrical permittivity by sending an electromagnetic signal and measuring its propagation time, which depends on the soil dielectric properties and hence on soil water content. Additionally the SPADE sensor contains a temperature sensor (DS18B20). First results obtained from the SoilNet measurements at both fields sites will be presented and discussed. The observed high temporal and spatial variability will be analysed and related to agricultural management and basic soil properties (bulk density, soil texture, organic matter content and soil hydraulic characteristics).

  1. Towards the development of a smart flying sensor: illustration in the field of precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Andres Hernandez; Harold Murcia; Cosmin Copot; Robin De Keyser

    2015-01-01

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer d...

  2. Research on the Optimization of Agricultural Supply Chain Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Technology of IOT which used in agricultural supply chain can help to improve operational efficiency and reduce supply chain costs. This paper analyzes the basic structure of agricultural supply chain, current status of the research, and summarizes major obstacles of the development process. The paper also describes application of IOT principle, as well as agricultural supply chain optimization approach based on internet of things, including agricultural production, pr...

  3. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanwen; MOU, Xinli; Xie, Hui; Lu, Hong; YAN, Xingyun

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model, for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index system model framework, combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues, we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system, and then study the agricultural system pressure, agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories, develope an agricultural non-p...

  4. Agricultural Eco-efficiency Evaluation in Anhui Province: An Empirical Analysis Based on DEA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zunyi; CHEN

    2013-01-01

    According to the eco-efficiency theory, combined with agricultural production characteristics, I point out the environmental impact and substance energy consumption characteristics of agricultural production. Based on this, I establish the eco-efficiency evaluation indicator system for agricultural production, and conduct a comprehensive analysis on the agricultural eco-efficiency of 17 prefecture-level cities in Anhui Province, using data envelopment analysis method.

  5. Sustainable Agricultural Model of High Output, Low Input and Less Pollution in Paddy Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Long-fei; HUANG Yi-bin; WENG Bo-qi; LIU Zhong-zhu; LIU Xia-shi

    2001-01-01

    A model of sustainable agriculture of "high output, low input and less pollution" (HLL model)in paddy (Oryza L. )fields has been developed. About 10 - 13t/ha of rice and 3 - 4t/ha of fish were harvested by adopting the comprehensive technical system. The amount of chemical fertilizer and pesticide decreased by about 50%, thus greatly controlled the environmental pollution, and simultaneously decreased the methane emission. It was concluded that these comprehensive techniques for this model should be popularized.

  6. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  7. Iron coated sand/glauconite filters for phosphorus removal from artificially drained agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermoere, Stany; De Neve, Stefaan

    2016-04-01

    Flanders (Belgium) is confronted with reactive phosphorus concentrations in streams and lakes which are three to four times higher than the 0.1 ppm P limit set by the Water Framework Directive. Much of the excessive P input in surface waters is derived from agriculture. Direct P input from artificially drained fields (short-circuiting the buffering capacity of the subsoil) is suspected to be one of the major sources. We aim to develop simple and cheap filters that can be directly installed in the field to reduce P concentration from the drain water. Here we report on the performance of such filters tested at lab scale. As starting materials for the P filter, iron coated sand and acid pre-treated glauconite were used. These materials, both rich in Fe, were mixed in ratios of 75/25, 65/35, 50/50 and 0/100 (iron coated sand/glauconite ratio based on weight basis) and filled in plastic tubes. A screening experiment using the constant head method with a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P showed that all four types of mixtures reduced the P concentration in the outflowing water to almost zero, and that the 75/25, 65/35 and 0/100 mixtures had a sufficiently large hydraulic conductivity of 0.9 to 6.0 cm/min, while the hydraulic conductivity of the 50/50 mixture was too low (plastic tubes as in the first experiment. Subsequently a 0.01 M CaCl2 solution containing 1 ppm P was passed through the filters over several days, in amounts equivalent to half of the yearly water volume passing through the drains. This experiment firstly showed that in all cases the hydraulic conductivity fluctuated strongly: it decreased from 4.0-6.0 cm/min to 2.0-1.5 cm/min for the 75/25 filter, and to values conductivity of the filter materials.

  8. Field experiments to evaluate nitrate-leaching from drained agriculturally used areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednorz, Denise; Tauchnitz, Nadine; Christen, Olaf; Rupp, Holger; Meissner, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural land use is one of the main sources for diffuse nitrogen (N) inputs into surface- and groundwater. To fulfill the objectives of the European water protection policy it is mandatory to optimize agricultural management and to adopt it to site specific conditions. N present in soil is dominated by organic N, and after mineralization inorganic plant available N, obtaining the components ammonia and nitrate (NO3-N). In the environment, NO3-N occurs as the negatively charged ion NO3- which is generally solved. Thus, NO3-N is the major N-species in waters, whereas its transport is directly influenced by the flow regime. In dependence of soil type and meteorological conditions, subsurface drainage was often installed to prevent water logged zones as a requirement for agricultural use. But drainage systems were often discussed as one of the main sources for NO3-N inputs into surface water due to temporary high discharge rates and short residence time of soil water resulting in limited conditions for NO3-N degradation via denitrification. In the study presented herein, two adjacent tile-drained agriculturally used areas with adjusted agronomic conditions but different soil properties were investigated regarding their flow regime and their N-kinetic from 11/1/2013 until 10/31/2015. Both fields obtained the same size and drainage network (drain depth 0.8 m, gab distance 10 m). Field I was influenced by confined groundwater conditions due to an alternating strata of sandy and loamy layers. Field II was impermeable from a depth of one meter, showing a backwater influenced flow regime. The temporal course of soil moisture (35, 60 and 85 cm depth), drain rate as well as ground- and backwater head was registered continuously at both sites. Furthermore NH4-N- and NO3-N-concentrations (cNO3-N) in each compartment were measured. The experimental results showed that field I revealed significantly lower discharged drain rates and NO3-N-loads (17.1 mm and 2.5 kg N

  9. Master of Professional Studies in Agriculture and Life Sciences Offered through the Field of Food Science and Technology at Cornell University: A Model for the Development of a Course-Based Graduate Degree in Food Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Robbins, Janette; Elmore, Andrea; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of highly qualified graduates with advanced training in food science is a pressing problem facing government agencies and the food industry. This has created a need to recruit and train food scientists at the graduate level. However, most graduate level programs are research-based and do not meet the needs of many students. The…

  10. An ontology-based collaborative service framework for agricultural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, China has developed modern agriculture energetically. An effective information framework is an important way to provide farms with agricultural information services and improve farmer's production technology and their income. The mountain areas in central China are dominated by agri...

  11. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  12. Modelling Water Flow, Heat Transport, Soil Freezing and Thawing, and Snow Processes in a Clayey, Subsurface Drained Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warsta, L.; Turunen, M.; Koivusalo, H. J.; Paasonen-Kivekäs, M.; Karvonen, T.; Taskinen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Simulation of hydrological processes for the purposes of agricultural water management and protection in boreal environment requires description of winter time processes, including heat transport, soil freezing and thawing, and snow accumulation and melt. Finland is located north of the latitude of 60 degrees and has one third to one fourth of the total agricultural land area (2.3 milj. ha) on clay soils (> 30% of clay). Most of the clayey fields are subsurface drained to provide efficient drainage and to enable heavy machines to operate on the fields as soon as possible after the spring snowmelt. Generation of drainflow and surface runoff in cultivated fields leads to nutrient and sediment load, which forms the major share of the total load reaching surface waters at the national level. Water, suspended sediment, and soluble nutrients on clayey field surface are conveyed through the soil profile to the subsurface drains via macropore pathways as the clayey soil matrix is almost impermeable. The objective of the study was to develop the missing winter related processes into the FLUSH model, including soil heat transport, snow pack simulation and the effects of soil freezing and thawing on the soil hydraulic conductivity. FLUSH is an open source (MIT license), distributed, process-based model designed to simulate surface runoff and drainflow in clayey, subsurface drained agricultural fields. 2-D overland flow is described with the diffuse wave approximation of the Saint Venant equations and 3-D subsurface flow with a dual-permeability model. Both macropores and soil matrix are simulated with the Richards equation. Soil heat transport is described with a modified 3-D convection-diffusion equation. Runoff and groundwater data was available from different periods from January 1994 to April 1999 measured in a clayey, subsurface drained field section (3.6 ha) in southern Finland. Soil temperature data was collected in two locations (to a depth of 0.8 m) next to the

  13. Analysis of Operating Costs of Subsidies in the Field of Agriculture of EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mics, University of South Bohemia, České Budějo vice, Czech RepublicJ. Svoboda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with comparison of agricultural subsidies in the member states of the EU in the period 2004-2012 based on the database Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. During the monitored period we found a slight increase of operational subsidies with the fact that variability shows a decreasing trend. In the structure of subsidies we can see a clear transition to payments separated from production with significant differences between original member states and new member states (NMS. With the help of cluster analysis the member states were divided into groups according to their operational subsidies, total production and costs. With the use of correlation analysis we assessed the relationships between production, costs and operational subsidies re-counted per ha of utilised agricultural area. The increase of subsidies will not occur in higher cost productivity and only very slightly will it occur in the higher share of subsidized costs.

  14. The floristic changes on excluded from agricultural production field after single Roundup spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jabłoński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of experiment conducting on the field, weedy by Agropyron repens (L. P. B. was established what is the degree of elimination of Agropyron repens plants from experimental plots by single Roundup spraying. The changes of the species composition on the fields with different clover-grass mixtures or with Phacelia tanacaetifolia Benth. were studied as well. The stand tables have been made in the first year of the conducting experiment, to determination the density of weeds, after different agricultural practices. It has been found the great elimination of Agropyron repens (L. P. B. plants after Roundup spraying and the great density of Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. B. plants. It has been found the great density of Chenopodium album L. at VII treatment and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. at III, V, VII and VIII treatments as well (Table I.

  15. Evaluation of the Performance of Financial Support for Agriculture in Guizhou Province Using Secondary Relative Benefit Model Based on DEA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We use the secondary relative benefit model based on DEA to evaluate the performance of agricultural financial expenditure in Guizhou Province, which can give due consideration to the production effectiveness determined by objective natural conditions, and management effectiveness of all regions (as decision-making body) in the use of financial fund for supporting agriculture. In general, there is north-south gradient difference in the performance of financial support for agriculture between regions in Guizhou Province. The drought in 2010 has significant impact on the technical efficiency in the whole province; the performance score of each item in Liupanshui City and Southwest Guizhou is very low; the technical efficiency and management efficiency in most regions need to be improved. In order to improve the performance of financial support for agriculture, we need to ensure the scale of input; at the same time, provide appropriate preferential financial policies for agricultural infrastructure, especially the construction of rural water conservancy, development and promotion of agricultural science and technology, and other fields; adopt the way of special check and acceptance of supporting projects to strengthen the use management of the fund for agriculture.

  16. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination: field and experimental assessment of detoxification capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara; Wiegand, Claudia

    2014-09-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g(-1) dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities of soluble glutathione-S-transferases (sGST) and catalase increased with soil pesticide contamination in A. caliginosa. Pesticide stress was reflected in depletion of energy reserves in A. chlorotica. Acute exposure of pre-adapted and naïve A. caliginosa to pesticides (fungicide Opus(®), 0.1 μg active ingredient epoxiconazole g(-1) dry soil, RoundUp Flash(®), 2.5 μg active ingredient glyphosate g(-1) dry soil, and their mixture), revealed that environmental pre-exposure accelerated activation of the detoxification enzyme sGST towards epoxiconazole. PMID:24874794

  17. [Division of agricultural areas based on the level of pollution with industrial toxic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonnikova, S M; Maksimova, G F; Iakhina, M P; Magzhanova, S A

    1993-10-01

    Investigation of soil in the region with oil processing industry showed that soil of agricultural fields 10 km around is much polluted and can be used only for growing of technical crops and perennial grasses for seeds. Soil 15-20 km around is less polluted, but also demands limitation in agricultural use, especially on low riverside parts.

  18. Multiple Encryption-based Algorithm of Agricultural Product Trace Code

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To establish a sound traceability system of agricultural products and guarantee security of agricultural products,an algorithm is proposed to encrypt trace code of agricultural products.Original trace code consists of 34 digits indicating such information as place of origin,name of product,date of production and authentication.Area code is used to indicate enterprise information,the encrypted algorithm is designed because of the increasing code length,such coding algorithms as system conversion and section division are applied for the encrypted conversion of code of origin place and production date code,moreover,section identification code and authentication code are permutated and combined to produce check code.Through the multiple encryption and code length compression,34 digits are compressed to 20 on the basis of ensuring complete coding information,shorter code length and better encryption enable the public to know information about agricultural products without consulting professional database.

  19. Agricultural Ecological Zoning Plan of Old Industrial Bases in Liaoning Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of brief description of current situation of old industrial bases and primary industry of Liaoning Province, the paper introduces the general situation of agriculture-ecological zoning plan in Liaoning Province. First, the ecological bases of agricultural zoning plan are introduced through various topographic and geomorphic types, regional climate differences and imbalanced distribution of natural resources; Second, in accordance with the theory of comparative advantage, distribution of production and resource economics, on the basis of comprehensive evaluation of agricultural natural resources, with the principle of fully excavating economic function of different natural resources, and in order to improve allocation efficiency of the two resources of market and government, the formation of ecological zoning plan of agriculture in Liaoning Province is analyzed; Third, according to Regional Layout Planning of Characteristic Agricultural Products of Liaoning Province (2006-2010), the paper describes basic layout of agriculture-ecological zoning plan in Liaoning Province. The policy support of agriculture-ecological zoning plan in Liaoning Province is analyzed from three aspects-support policy of functional zone major in producing grain, support policy of other characteristic agriculture-ecological zone and support measures of development of agriculture-ecological zone. The paper also analyzes experiences of agricultural development of old industrial bases in ecological zoning plan: First, agriculture-ecological zoning plan is a effective way of the revitalization of old industrial bases; Second, scientificity of plan is the basis of improving competitiveness of regional agriculture; Third, multi-input mechanism guiding by government is the key of agricultural packing effect; Fourth, integrated agricultural industrial chain is guarantee of realizing industrialization in ecological zone.

  20. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC BASES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian agricultural production at current stage is very energy intensive. At the cost of agricultural production overall cost of energy resources is growing: in 2000 was 36.5 billion rubles, 2008 - 92 billion rubles, 2009 - 110.6 billion rubles, and in 2010 rose to 119.8 billion rubles, or increased by 3.3 times. The analysis of consumption of the main energy sources for the period from 1990 to 2010 showed a decrease in general and the specific consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity by 5-7 times. Reducing energy consumption is explained as a forced saving resources because of lack of funds for the acquisition and implementation of agricultural enterprises of energy and resource saving measures (resource-saving technologies in the production process, motor fuel, biofuels and alternative energy sources. To solve this problem State and business in a matter of priority should be to build an effective system of innovation development for agriculture, promote the participation of agricultural science and education system in this process, modernize the domestic agricultural machinery, engineering and technology infrastructure.

  1. Lead Isotopic Tracing of Coal-Based Anthropogenic Pollution in Agricultural Soils in Jianghan Plain, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J. N.; Ying, S.; Zhao, R.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Weiss, D. J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese demand for energy is one of the greatest in the world, and the vast majority of it is generated through coal combustion - a process by which diverse pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Due to the relative proximity of croplands to power plants in much of China, these pollutants can be deposited onto agricultural soils via atmospheric transport. Relative amounts of lead (Pb) isotopes in airborne anthropogenic coal-based contaminants (fly ash) are currently understood. However, contaminants' effects on agricultural soil composition are less clear. We investigate the prevalence of anthropogenic contaminants in cropland soils using lead (Pb) isotope ratios as a tracer. Surface soil samples and deep core samples, taken from Chinese field sites in proximity to a coal combustion plant, undergo an acid extraction process and lead (Pb) isotope concentrations are measured. The results of this study illustrate the extent to which airborne contaminants have entered cropland soils and integrated themselves into the chemical processes at work. They further expand our understanding of the impacts of human coal combustion activities on the biogeochemistry of agricultural soils.

  2. Exposure of farm workers to electromagnetic radiation from cellular network radio base stations situated on rural agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuzzi, Simone; Santoro, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The electromagnetic field (EMF) levels generated by mobile telephone radio base stations (RBS) situated on rural-agricultural lands were assessed in order to evaluate the exposure of farm workers in the surrounding area. The expected EMF at various distances from a mobile telephone RBS was calculated using an ad hoc numerical forecast model. Subsequently, the electric fields around some RBS on agricultural lands were measured, in order to obtain a good approximation of the effective conditions at the investigated sites. The viability of this study was tested according to the Italian Regulations concerning general and occupational public exposure to time-varying EMFs. The calculated E-field values were obtained with the RBS working constantly at full power, but during the in situ measurements the actual power emitted by RBS antennas was lower than the maximum level, and the E-field values actually registered were much lower than the calculated values.

  3. Ecological and economic principles of rational agricultural lands use based on landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryndzya, Olena

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the analysis of the methodological providing and real state of agricultural lands and agrolandscape use in Ukraine. Basic directions of agricultural earth use organization are investigated on landscape basis. The experience of native scientists in forming and developing the theory and practice of landscape approach in agriculture is worked out. Basic directions of the agrolandscape planning are determined. The agricultural typology of land is considered in details and that allows to divide the lands according to their descriptions and constituents. The methodology of the landscape contour and land-reclamation agriculture systems is investigated. Positions of this methodology were put into the Conception of high productive ecologically permanent agrolandscapes forming and improvement of the of agriculture systems based on landscape. The value of the adaptive landscape agricultural system mechanism of forming is reflected. The direction of ecological landscape use and its basic constituents are examined.

  4. Phosphorus export by runoff from agricultural field plots with different crop cover in Lake Taihu watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Runoff and soil losses from agricultural fields are investigated as major nonpoint sources of phosphorus (P) entering lakes of Eastern China. There is relatively little information on P transport from ricefield and cropland of Lake Taihu watershed in Eastern China. Soil and P in surface runoff from a series of plots in the watershed were evaluated under simulated rainfall conditions. The objectives of this study were to evaluate theeffects of crop cover, slope, and fertilizer application on P concentrations in surface runoff and eroded soil. Accumulated sediment yields varied from 7.1 to 300 g/m2 for croplands, depending on management practices. For all experiment plots, weighted average concentrations of total-P (TP), dissolved P (DP) and particulate P (PP) are much higher than 0.02 mg/L, the limiting concentration in lake water. This result showed the potential contamination of lake water from agricultural surface runoff. Accumulated TP losses were 3.8 and 18.8 mg/m2 for ricefield and cropland, respectively. The estimated annual loss of TP was 0.74 kg/(hm2鷄) for cropland. Most of P loss is in PP form, which accounts for more than 90% of TP loss for cropland.

  5. Mycotoxins in the environment: I. Production and emission from an agricultural test field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenzel, Judith; Forrer, Hans-Rudolf; Vogelgsang, Susanne; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2012-12-18

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites that are naturally produced by fungi which infest and contaminate agricultural crops and commodities (e.g., small grain cereals, fruits, vegetables, and organic soil material). Although these compounds have extensively been studied in food and feed, only little is known about their environmental fate. Therefore, we investigated over nearly two years the occurrence of various mycotoxins in a field cropped with winter wheat of the variety Levis, which was artificially inoculated with Fusarium spp., as well as their emission via drainage water. Mycotoxins were regularly quantified in whole wheat plants (0.1-133 mg/kg(dry weight), for deoxynivalenol), and drainage water samples (0.8 ng/L to 1.14 μg/L, for deoxynivalenol). From the mycotoxins quantified in wheat (3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenone-X, nivalenol, HT-2 toxin, T-2 toxin, beauvericin, and zearalenone), only the more hydrophilic ones or those prevailing at high concentrations were detected in drainage water. Of the total amounts produced in wheat plants (min: 2.3; max: 292 g/ha/y), 0.5-354 mg/ha/y, i.e. 0.002-0.12%, were emitted via drainage water. Hence, these compounds add to the complex mixture of natural and anthropogenic micropollutants particularly in small rural water bodies, receiving mainly runoff from agricultural areas. PMID:23145781

  6. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.

  7. Study on the manganese distribution in the soil of an agricultural field using neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manganese distribution in the soil of an agricultural field was evaluated by neutron activation analysis. The accuracy and precision of the method were verified by the analysis of two Standard Reference Materials with different manganese concentration in the experimental field, through one schematic diagram. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  8. Impact of Agricultural Modernization,Economic Growth and Industrialization on the International Competitiveness of Agricultural Products:Based on the Empirical Analysis of Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2015-01-01

    The expanded agricultural trade deficit in recent years has caused widespread concern about the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.In this paper,guided by Michael Porter’s diamond model theory,based on agricultural production and trade data in China and the world from 1986 to 2011,we use principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model,to perform an empirical analysis of the impact of agricultural modernization,economic growth and industrialization on the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.The results show that China’s agricultural modernization is slow,the demand for agricultural products caused by economic growth is increased,and excessive rural labor transfer due to industrialization leads to decline in the international competitiveness of Chinese agricultural products.China should increase its efforts to promote the modernization of agriculture and level of industry nurturing agriculture;use WTO rules to create a good international and domestic environment for the development of China’s agriculture and improvement of the international competitiveness of agricultural products;give full play to the role of demand in boosting the industrial upgrading of domestic agriculture.

  9. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based on the perce......The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based...... on the percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming...... was even more pronounced on the flowering stage of high value bee plants, with 10-fold higher mean density of flowering plants in organic fields than in conventional fields and 1.9-fold higher in road verges bordering organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. In summary, organic farming...

  10. An Multi-agent Agricultural DDSS Based on Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JieShen; JianliLuo; YueqinHang; YouzhiXu

    2004-01-01

    This paper propos-nology in terms of the characters of agricultural decision support, and designs a model of DSS about production and sales of agricultural products. The model adopts decentralized+ centralized distributed network topology. In the distributed network, each node is a DSS.Every DSS is made up of multiple agents, which can enhance the interactivity and intel-lectuality among DSS. In the multi-agent system, we embed ontology in the agent system,which has the following advantages: enhancing the coordination and communication between agents, and strengthening the semantics of information and improving knowledge share and reuse.

  11. Quality Management System of Agricultural Products Based on Spring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of important property of the integrated management of agricultural product quality safety system,analyzes the lightweight characteristics of Spring technical system,hierarchical organization of MVC,and the technology SSH+Ajax associated with the Spring framework system.On the basis of this technical system,we design the quality management system of agricultural products under B/S model.This article points out that this system is realized mainly through consumers’information feedback and order management;then discusses operation environment,expandability,portability and security of the system.

  12. Analysis of Input and Output of China’s Agriculture Based on Canonical Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    I select effective irrigated area, consumption of agricultural chemical fertilizer, electricity consumed in rural areas, and total power of agricultural machinery as input variables of China’s agriculture; I select grain, bean, tobacco, oil-bearing crop and fruit as output variables of China’s agriculture. By using the data of China Statistical Yearbook in 2010, based on the analysis method of canonical correlation, I conduct research on the input and output of China’s agriculture. The results show that consumption of chemical fertilizer has the biggest impact on the agricultural output of China, followed by the input of total power of agricultural machinery; the canonical variable of agricultural output of China is mainly impacted by grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit; in terms of the selected variables, the output increase of grain, oil-bearing crop and fruit in China arises from the input increase of agricultural chemical fertilizer and machinery, and there is high-degree correlation between the two. According to the conclusions, the policy suggestions are put forward as follows: gradually decrease consumption of chemical fertilizer; increase the use of modern agricultural machinery; increase agricultural irrigation input.

  13. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion.

  14. Pretreatment of agriculture field water for improving membrane flux during pesticide removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Romil; Saha, N. K.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2016-09-01

    Pretreatment of feed water to improve membrane flux during filtration of agriculture field water containing substituted phenyl urea pesticide diuron has been reported. Laboratory-made reverse osmosis membrane was used for filtration. Preliminary experiments were conducted with model solution containing natural organic matter extracted from commercial humic acids, divalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+. Membrane fouling was characterized by pure water flux decline, change in membrane hydrophilicity and infrared spectroscopy. Natural organic matter present in field water causes severe membrane fouling. The presence of divalent cations further aggravated fouling. Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and polyacrylic acids (PAA) in feed resulted in the decrease in membrane fouling. Pretreatment of field water is a must if it is contaminated with micro-organism having membrane fouling potential. Feed water pretreatment and use of PAA restricted membrane fouling to 16 % after 60 h of filtration. Membrane permeate flux decline was maximum at the first 12 h and thereafter remained steady at around 45-46 lm-2h-1 till the end of 60 h. Diuron rejection remained consistently greater than 93 % throughout the experiment. Diuron rejection was found to be unaffected by membrane fouling.

  15. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation.

  16. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Holvoet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive, Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7% versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%. The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  17. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  18. Use of airborne hyperspectral imagery to map soil parameters in tilled agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, W. Dean; McCarty, Gregory W.; Reeves, James B.; Lang, Megan W.; Oesterling, Robert A.; Delwiche, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400–2450 nm, ~10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n = 315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R2 > 0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 × 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  19. Green house gas emissions from open field burning of agricultural residues in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, S; Shrivastava, Rajnish; Saxena, Mohini

    2010-10-01

    In India, about 435.98 MMT of agro-residues are produced every year, out of which 313.62 MMT are surplus. These residues are either partially utilized or un-utilised due to various constraints. To pave the way for subsequent season for agriculture activity, the excess crop residues are burnt openly in the fields, unmindful of their ill effects on the environment. The present study has been undertaken to evaluate the severity of air pollution through emission of green house gases (GHGs) due to open field burning of agro-residues in India. Open field burning of surplus agro-residues in India results in the emission of GHG. Emissions of CH4 and N2O in 1997-98 and 2006-07 have been 3.73 and 4.06 MMT CO2 equivalent, which is an increase of 8.88% over a decade. About three-fourths of GHG emissions from agro-residues burning were CH4 and the remaining one-fourth were N2O. Burning of wheat and paddy straws alone contributes to about 42% of GHGs. These GHG emissions can be avoided once the agro-residues are employed for sustainable, cost-effective and environment- friendly options like power generation. PMID:22312795

  20. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation.

  1. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  2. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-06-15

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ(15)NNO3(-) and δ(18)ONO3(-)) was applied to identify diffused NO3(-) inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO3(-) sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO3(-) derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO3(-) derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M&S) were identified. NO3(-) concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean±standard deviation (SD)=2.5±0.4mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean±SD=4.0±0.5mg/L), whereas the δ(18)ONO3(-) values during the rainy season (mean±SD=+12.3±3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean±SD=+0.9±1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO3(-) resulted in the high δ(18)O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M&S were the dominant NO3(-) sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO3(-) source to total stream NO3(-). Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO3(-) source throughout the year. M&S contributed more NO3(-) during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO3(-) in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO3(-) sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin. PMID:24686140

  3. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture.

  4. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Pan, Tian; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-19

    Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture.

  5. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Pan, Tian; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture. PMID:26797616

  6. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability. PMID:26233921

  7. Thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in field-collected agricultural soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo, José; Ginocchio, Rosanna; Sauvé, Sébastien; Salgado, Eduardo; Neaman, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    It has been argued that the identification of the phytotoxic metal thresholds in soil should be based on field-collected soil rather than on artificially-contaminated soils. However, the use of field-collected soils presents several difficulties for interpretation because of mixed contamination and unavoidable covariance of metal contamination with other soil properties that affect plant growth. The objective of this study was to estimate thresholds of copper phytotoxicity in topsoils of 27 agricultural areas historically contaminated by mining activities in Chile. We performed emergence and early growth (21 days) tests (OECD 208 and ISO 11269-2) with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The total Cu content in soils was the best predictor of plant growth and shoot Cu concentrations, while soluble Cu and pCu(2+) did not well correlate with these biological responses. The effects of Pb, Zn, and As on plant responses were not significant, suggesting that Cu is a metal of prime concern for plant growth in soils exposed to copper mining activities in Chile. The effects of soil nutrient availability and shoot nutrient concentrations on ryegrass response were not significant. It was possible to determine EC10, EC25 and EC50 of total Cu in the soil of 327 mg kg(-1), 735 mg kg(-1) and 1144 mg kg(-1), respectively, using the shoot length as a response variable. However, the derived 95% confidence intervals for EC10, EC25 and EC50 values of total soil Cu were wide, and thus not allowing a robust assessment of metal toxicity for agricultural crops, based on total soil Cu concentrations. Thus, plant tests might need to be performed for metal toxicity assessment. This study suggests shoot length of ryegrass as a robust response variable for metal toxicity assessment in contaminated soils with different nutrient availability.

  8. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  9. Field-based transformation optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novitsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Instead of common definition of the transformation-optics devices via the coordinate transformation we offer the approach founded on boundary conditions for the fields. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach by two examples: two-shell cloak and concentrator of electric field. We believe...

  10. Characterization of Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity in an Agricultural Field Using Karhunen-Loève Expansion with MCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, B. P.; Das, N. N.; Efendiev, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Process-based soil hydrologic models require input of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). However, model users often have limited access to measured data and thus use published or estimated values for many site-specific hydrologic and environmental applications. We proposed an algorithm that uses the Karhunen-Loéve Expansion (KLE) in conjunction with Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique which employs measured soil moisture values to characterize the saturated hydraulic conductivity of an agricultural field at a fine resolution. The study domain is situated in the Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa with soybean crop (in 2005) and well defined top (atmospheric) and bottom (ground water) boundary conditions. The KLE algorithm parameterize and generates Ksat fields with random correlation length that is used in the SWMS_3D model for predicting soil moisture dynamics for two different scenarios: 1) the van Genuchten soil hydraulic parameters (except Ksat) are constant and are based on the soil type of the grid block within the domain; 2) Ksat is correlated with the van Genuchten parameter α, as Ksat α2. The predicted soil moisture for both scenarios are evaluated with the measured soil moisture in the MCMC algorithm for acceptance (or rejection) of the Ksat fields. The accepted Ksat fields are evaluated and validated against the laboratory measured Ksat at specific locations and the comparison shows reasonable agreement. The KLE- MCMC algorithm was further tested in the same study domain for another year (2002) having different vegetation (corn) and local forcings. The algorithm shows potential to characterize the saturated hydraulic conductivity fields at fine-scale using inexpensive and more regularly measured soil moisture measurements. Further studies are required to incorporate variability in different hydro-climatic regions and diverse topography to extend the application of this algorithm.

  11. Technology Innovation Mode of Agricultural Leading Enterprises - Based on the Virtual Organization Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Nian-hong; Cao, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of technology innovation of agricultural leading enterprises by domestic and foreign experts and scholars, technology innovation of agricultural enterprises is a process of new market increment, which uses new knowledge, technology, process and production mode, produces new products, offers new services and realizes commercialization. Characteristics of agricultural technology innovation are introduced, such as obvious regionality, relatively high risk, long-term perio...

  12. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hernandez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1 the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU sensors and image processing; (2 a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3 the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC. Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  13. Edge of Field Nitrate Loss and Oxygen-18 Dynamics in a Dryland Agriculture Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamaker, C. N.; Goodwin, A. J.; Keller, C.; Allen-King, R.; Smith, J. L.

    2004-12-01

    Four complete water years of nitrate concentrations and oxygen isotope (δ O18) ratios have been monitored in a tile drain and adjacent soil-water sampling lysimeters beneath a dryland, agricultural field in the Palouse Region of Washington State, USA. The Palouse is semi-arid and is characterized by undulating loess hills and swales drained by ephemeral to perennial streams. Soil type is dominated by silt-loam Mollisols. Our field is subject to typical farming practices and crop rotations, receiving ammonia fertilizer during fall and spring planting at a rate of ˜70kg of nitrogen per acre. Tile drains play an essential role in environmental nitrogen dynamics in this region as they are widely utilized to drain water from lower fields. Nitrate concentrations in tile drainage fluctuate on a seasonal basis ranging from low concentrations of ˜1mg/ NO3-N/L in late October/November to higher concentrations of 20-30mg NO3-N/L in late January/February. Rise in concentration occurs rapidly with the onset of high flow conditions differing from a typical dilution effect. Lysimeter waters show similar nitrate patterns ranging in concentration from ~10mg NO3-N/L to as high as 120mg NO3-N/L. In the lysimeters, nitrate concentrations are apparently positively correlated with δ O18 values. Precipitation collected at the field site shows a 12 per mil seasonal variation in δ O18. A seasonal pattern is also observed in soil water with a smaller range of about 6 per mil. These seasonal fluctuations are not observed in tile drainage, where values vary only 2 per mil with a mean of -15 per ml. We hypothesize that residence-time and scaling effects can explain the δ O18 fluctuation differences between soil water and tile drainage. The very large nitrate fluctuations throughout the system may be due in part to the seasonality of soil nitrogen cycling.

  14. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Williams, R.G.; Hopf, M.R.

    1989-11-01

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs

  16. Corn-based feedstock for biofuels: Implications for agricultural sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Crop residue as a source of feedstock for biofuels production must retain ecosystem services and be sustainable. The challenge is to develop cropping system management strategies that balance the demand for increasing biofuel needs with ecosystem sustainability. This study was designed to evaluate impacts of changes in land use and management caused by corn-based biofuel production (grain, cob, stover) on soil fertility and ecosystem sustainability. Our specific goal was to investigate how the levels of corn residue removal influence current soil carbon and nutrient budgets and how these budgets are maintained under proposed production scenarios. Soil organic carbon (SOC), an important carbon component in the life cycle of biofuel production, is a sensitive indicator of cropping system sustainability. We used a soil carbon and nutrient balance approach developed from published field observations and a validated mechanistic model to analyze historical corn grain yields and fertilizer usage associated with various management practices at the county scale across the United States. Our analyses show that ecosystem carbon flux demonstrates significant spatial variability, relying heavily on the total biomass production level and residue harvest intensity; SOC budgets depend mainly on the proportion of residue removal, tillage type, and previous SOC stock level. Our results also indicate that corn cob removal for biofuel has little effect on soil carbon and nutrient balances under conventional management practices, while necessary irrigation can contribute greatly to corn-based biofuel production and ecosystem sustainability in the western side of the Great Plains and the eastern foothills of the Rocky Mountains.

  17. Animal-agriculture Based Entrepreneurship: Descriptive Norms, Perceived Economic Viability and Behavioural Intention among Final Year Agriculture Related Students in Ibadan, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Osikabor

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture and entrepreneurship are tools of salvaging poverty, especially among agriculturally educated youths. This study therefore investigated descriptive norms, perceived economic viability and behavioural intention regarding animal-agriculture based entrepreneurship among final year agriculture related students in Ibadan, Nigeria. Four hundred and twenty one copies of randomly administered questionnaires yielded data whose analysis reveal that a little above half of the respondents have ‘serious’ behavioural intention to engage animal-agriculture based entrepreneurship. Marital status, institutional category and discipline affiliation had significant effects on this behavioural intention (p0.05. Age and descriptive norms are significantly related to this behavioural intention, but perceived economic viability is the best predictor of same (p<0.01. Being married, a college rather than a university student as well as being in animal-related discipline are associated with greater behavioural intention to engage in animal-agriculture based entrepreneurship.

  18. N-C isotopic investigation of a zeolite-amended agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Natali, Claudio; Faccini, Barbara; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Bianchini, Gianluca; Coltorti, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, a C and N isotopic investigation in the soil-plant system of the ZeoLIFE project experimental field have been carried out. Since many years, natural and NH4-enriched zeolites have been used as soil amendant in agricultural context in order to reduce N losses, increase NUE (Nitrogen Use Efficiency) and crop yield. Nevertheless up to now there are no studies that, using the stable isotopes approach, highlighted the interaction between zeolites and plants in agricultural systems. The main aims of this study is to verify if natural zeolites amendment can enhance chemical fertilization efficiency and if N transfer from NH4-enriched zeolites to plants really occurs. Plants grown following traditional cultivation methods (with no zeolite addition) and plants grown on soils amended with natural and NH4-enriched zeolites (the latter obtained after mixing with pig-slurry with a very high 15N) were compared for two cultivation cycles (maize and wheat). As widely known, plants grown under conventional farming systems (use of chemical fertilizers as urea) and plants grown under organic farming can be discriminated by the isotopic signatures of plant tissues. For both years the main results of the study reveals that plants grown on plots amended with natural zeolites generally have their nitrogen isotopic signature more similar to that of the chemical fertilizers employed during the cultivation with respect to the plants cultivated in the non-amended plot. This suggests an enhanced N uptake by the plant from this specific N source with respect to the non-amended plot. On the other hand, plants grown on NH4-enriched zeolites registered a higher 15N, approaching the pig-slurry isotopic signature, confirming that this material can constitute an N pool for plants at least for two cultivation cycles. The distinct agricultural practices seem to be reflected in the plant physiology as recorded by the carbon discrimination factor (13C) which generally increases

  19. Info Base of the Croatian Agricultural System at the Beginning of the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Grbavac

    1999-06-01

    Special attention is paid to reasons of broughting up new strategies of Croatian agricultural system development which would handle its info base on a systematical way. The attention is also paid to educational aspects in the Croatian agricultural domain in this historic transitional period.

  20. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  1. Actuality research on base of non-pollution agricultural products in Yilan county

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jun; LIU Jianping; BAI Xin; ZHANG Ying

    2007-01-01

    The base of non-pollution agricultural products is a prerequisite for the non-pollution agricultural production. Based on two factors, i.e., irrigation water and soil, the environmental quality of Yilan county's base of non-pollution agricultural products was evaluated by single pollution index. The main monitoring items included the content of Hg, Se, Cr, Pb, fluoride, and so on, and the evaluating results showed Pi<1 which indicated that this area was fit for developing not only non-pollution products but also greenfood of A level.

  2. The Impact of the Processing and Foreign Trade of Agricultural Products on Agricultural Modernization: An Empirical Analysis Based on Cointegration and VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; YAO

    2014-01-01

    Based on the data related to the Chinese and world agricultural production and trade from 1986 to 2011,this paper uses the principal component analysis,cointegration and vector error correction model to perform the empirical analysis of the impact of processing,import and export of agricultural products on the agricultural modernization in China. The results show that the processing and export of agricultural products play a role in promoting the agricultural modernization in China,while the import of agricultural products has some negative effects on the agricultural modernization in China. The negative effects of the import of agricultural products are from the limitations of farmers’ small-scale operation and foreign trading partners’ protectionism. China should further develop the processing industry of agricultural products,and strengthen the role of downstream industries in promoting the agricultural modernization; improve the level of large-scale and intensive operation,and make good use of WTO rules,in order to provide the necessary market conditions for the agricultural modernization.

  3. Maize production and land degradation: a Portuguese agriculture field case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Pato, João V.; Moreira, Pedro M.; Valério, Luís M.; Guilherme, Rosa; Casau, Fernando J.; Santos, Daniela; Keizer, Jacob J.; Ferreira, António J. D.

    2016-04-01

    While food security is a main challenge faced by human kind, intensive agriculture often leads to soil degradation which then can threaten productivity. Maize is one of the most important crops across the world, with 869 million tons produced worldwide in 2012/2013 (IGC 2015), of which 929.5 thousand tons in Portugal (INE 2014). In Portugal, maize is sown in April/May and harvest occurs generally in October. Conventional maize production requires high inputs of water and fertilizers to achieve higher yields. As Portuguese farmers are typically rather old (on average, 63 years) and typically have a low education level (INE 2014), sustainability of their land management practises is often not a principal concern. This could explain why, in 2009, only 4% of the Portuguese temporary crops were under no-tillage, why only 8% of the farmers performed soil analyses in the previous three years, and why many soils have a low organic matter content (INE 2014). Nonetheless, sustainable land management practices are generally accepted to be the key to reducing agricultural soil degradation, preventing water pollution, and assuring long-term crop production objectives and food security. Sustainable land management should therefore not only be a concern for policy makers but also for farmers, since land degradation will have negative repercussions on the productivity, thus, on their economical income. This paper aims to assess the impact of maize production on soil properties. The study focusses on an 8 ha maize field located in central Portugal, with a Mediterranean climate on a gently sloping terrain (<3%) and with a soil classified as Eutric Fluvisol. On the field, several experiments were carried out with different maize varieties as well as with different fertilizers (solid, liquid and both). Centre pivot irrigation was largely used. Data is available from 2003, and concerns crop yield, fertilization and irrigation practices, as well as soil properties assessed through

  4. FroboMind, proposing a conceptual architecture for agricultural field robot navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Bøgild, Anders; Nielsen, Søren Hundevadt;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a conceptual system architecture Field Robot Cognitive System Architecture (FroboMind). which can provide the flexibility and extend ability required for further research and development within cognition based navigation of plant nursing robots....

  5. Profit Distribution of Agricultural Supply Chain Based on Shapley Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper builds an agricultural supply chain and profit model between single farmer and single supermarket by following the game theory. On the basis of the economic purchasing quantity, it compares the profit difference between the cooperation and non-cooperation of the two parties. Study results demonstrate the profits for the whole supply chain are much bigger than that under non-cooperative circumstances when the two parties cooperate with the condition of negotiated purchasing quantity. An investment example using Shapley Value method is given to distribute the profit of each party under cooperation and prove the effectiveness of this method.

  6. Agriculture land suitability analysis evaluation based multi criteria and GIS approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedawi Ahmed, Goma; Shariff, Abdul Rashid M.; Balasundram, Siva Kumar; Abdullah, Ahmad Fikri bin

    2016-06-01

    Land suitability evaluation (LSE) is a valuable tool for land use planning in major countries of the world as well as in Malaysia. However, previous LSE studies have been conducted with the use of biophysical and ecological datasets for the design of equally important socio-economic variables. Therefore, this research has been conducted at the sub national level to estimate suitable agricultural land for rubber crops in Seremban, Malaysia by application of physical variables in combination with widely employed biophysical and ecological variables. The objective of this study has been to provide an up-to date GIS-based agricultural land suitability evaluation (ALSE) for determining suitable agricultural land for Rubber crops in Malaysia. Biophysical and ecological factors were assumed to influence agricultural land use were assembled and the weights of their respective contributions to land suitability for agricultural uses were assessed using an analytic hierarchical process. The result of this study found Senawang, Mambau, Sandakan and Rantau as the most suitable areas for cultivating Rubber; whereas, Nilai and Labu are moderately suitable for growing rubber. Lenggeng, Mantin and Pantai are not suitable for growing rubber as the study foresaw potential environmental degradation of these locations from agricultural intensification. While this study could be useful in assessing the potential agricultural yields and potential environmental degradation in the study area, it could also help to estimate the potential conversion of agricultural land to non-agricultural uses.

  7. Thinking on Promoting International Trade Competitive Advantage of Agricultural Products in Guangxi Based on CAFTA Framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the status quo and the existing problems of international trade development of agricultural products in Guangxi based on CAFTA framework as follows: the international trade of agricultural products in Guangxi shows a trend of rapid growth, but the structure of export products is simple; the distribution of export market is irrational; the export goods are mainly the resources-intensive goods and labor-intensive goods, with low added value of goods; the brand of agricultural products lacks strong overall international competitiveness. In the context of CAFTA framework, in order to foster the international trade competitive advantage of agricultural products in Guangxi, corresponding suggestions are put forward as follows: the structure of export market should change from the current simple status to diversified trend; the structure of export goods should gradually change from the current factor endowment to the orientation of international market demand; the agricultural production should change from the traditional agricultural products to advantageous complementary characteristic agricultural products; the trade structure should change from the land-intensive agricultural products to labor-intensive and technology-intensive agricultural products; the structure of merchandise trade should change from low-price vicious competition to high added-value competition; the governmental function should change from traditional one-way-direction-oriented function to modern integrated-service-and-supervision-oriented function that meets the requirements of export.

  8. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed,showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain.3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain.Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is constructed,including the four layers (the network communication layer,the hardware and software environment layer,the database layer,and the application layer) and 7 function modules (centralized control,transportation process management,material and vehicle scheduling,customer relationship,storage management,customer inquiry,and financial management).Framework for the network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is put forward.The management of 3PLs mainly includes purchasing management,supplier relationship management,planning management,customer relationship management,storage management and distribution management.Thus,a management system of internal and external integrated agricultural enterprises is obtained.The network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs has realized the effective sharing of enterprise information of agricultural products supply chain at different nodes,establishing a long-term partnership revolving around the 3PLs core enterprise,as well as a supply chain with stable relationship based on the supply chain network system,so as to improve the circulation efficiency of agricultural products,and to explore the sales market for agricultural products.

  9. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Jingtao [School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Xi, Beidou, E-mail: xbd100012@163.com [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang [Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun [Changzhou Environmental Monitoring Center, Jiangsu 213001 (China)

    2014-06-01

    Nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ{sup 15}N-NO{sub 3}{sup −} and δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −}) was applied to identify diffused NO{sub 3}{sup −} inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO{sub 3}{sup −} sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO{sub 3}{sup −} derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO{sub 3}{sup −} derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M and S) were identified. NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean ± standard deviation (SD) = 2.5 ± 0.4 mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean ± SD = 4.0 ± 0.5 mg/L), whereas the δ{sup 18}O-NO{sub 3}{sup −} values during the rainy season (mean ± SD = + 12.3 ± 3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean ± SD = + 0.9 ± 1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO{sub 3}{sup −} resulted in the high δ{sup 18}O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M and S were the dominant NO{sub 3}{sup −} sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO{sub 3}{sup −} source to total stream NO{sub 3}{sup −}. Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO{sub 3}{sup −} source throughout the year. M and S contributed more NO{sub 3}{sup −} during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO{sub 3}{sup −} sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water

  10. The Relationship between Low-carbon Agriculture and Agricultural Science and Technology Based on Gray Relational Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Ai-xiang

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural energy consumption per unit of GDP is selected as an indicator for measuring the development level of low-carbon agriculture. Using gray relational theory, I analyze the relationship between development level of agricultural science and technology and development level of low-carbon agriculture in China. The results show that the correlation between the two is prominent; the number of agricultural science and technology talents, the number of agricultural science and technology patents, and the number of agricultural science and technology input are three major factors influencing the development of low-carbon agriculture. On this basis, I propose to take further effective measures, and put forth corresponding recommendations, in order to improve the level of agricultural science and technology.

  11. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  12. Research on Correlation between Farmer’s Agricultural Income and Agricultural Output in China Based on Dynamic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,we study the decision mechanism of prices of agricultural products and output of agricultural products,and establish simultaneous equation model between farmers’ agricultural income and the total output of agricultural products,to analyse the dynamic relationship between the two.The results show that farmers’ agricultural income affects output of agricultural products via price,and is also affected by output of agricultural products;the output of agricultural products is determined by the prices of agricultural products in the previous period,and if the prices of agricultural products in the previous period rise,then the total output of agricultural products in the current period increases;the prices of agricultural products are affected by output of agricultural products and urban and rural residents’ income,the urban residents’ income having greater impact;the supply elasticity of agricultural products is greater than demand elasticity,therefore,the balance between price and output can not regress after being breached,needing the government to conduct macro-control.

  13. Improved temporal resolution in process-based modelling of agricultural soil ammonia emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuning, J. D.; Pattey, E.; Edwards, G.; Van Heyst, B. J.

    An emerging environmental issue in Canada is how to quantify the contribution of agricultural soil emissions of ammonia (NH 3) to environmental pollution. Emission inventories are essential to predict these emissions and their subsequent atmospheric transportation, transformation, and deposition. Due to the high spatial and temporal variability associated with NH 3 emissions, emission inventories based on measurements become expensive and emission factors lose accuracy. Process-based models are capable of accounting for the complex soil interactions, but current models lack temporal refinement and few models consider NH 3 emissions. This paper presents the development of a one-dimensional (vertical), time-dependent model capable of predicting NH 3 emissions from a slurry applied to a bare soil. The model is based on chemical, physical and biological relationships that govern soil heat, moisture, and nitrogen movement. Processes considered include convection, diffusion, decomposition, nitrification, denitrification, and surface to atmosphere transport. The model is tested with experimental data from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada which conducted NH 3 measurements following application of dairy cattle slurry to a bare field. An investigation into the sensitivity of emissions to pH and slurry infiltration rate is conducted and model predictions are best fit to measurements based on this investigation. Testing demonstrated the model's ability to predict the large NH 3 emissions immediately following application and subsequent emission trends associated with diurnal patterns that emission factors cannot capture. Results showed that model performance could benefit from a more in depth measurement program and empirical or process models of surface pH. Potential exists for the model to become a useful tool in predicting emissions on local, regional, or national scales.

  14. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  15. The effect of agricultural practices on the development of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. I. Field studies in an Indonesian ultisol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddington, C.L.; Dodd, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Two pre-established agricultural field trials were assessed for the abundance of arbuscularmycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the soil (density of spores, species richness and lengths of extra-radical mycelium [ERM]) in association with one of three tropical plant species (Gliricidia sepium, Peltophorum das

  16. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  17. Fluxes of Nitrous Acid (HONO) above an Agricultural Field Side near Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, S.; Cazaunau, M.; Stella, P.; Loubet, B.; Kurtenbach, R.; Cellier, P.; Mellouki, W.; Kleffmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    HONO is an important precursor of the OH radical, the detergent of the atmosphere. Field measurements show high diurnal HONO mixing ratios that cannot be explained by chemical models with known gas phase chemistry. Therefore, daytime sources of HONO are still under discussion. During the last decade many experimental investigation were performed to study heterogeneous production of HONO like the photo enhanced reduction of NO2 on humic acids or photolysis of HNO3 on surfaces. Recently, nitrite produced by bacteria, present in soil, was discussed as a source of HONO as well. In addition gas phase sources like the photolysis of nitrophenols, or the reaction of excited NO2 are discussed. Gradient measurements show high mixing ratios of HONO even above the boundary layer. However, beside intensive investigations on the sources of HONO, it is still an open question whether heterogeneous or gas phase sources are more important in the atmosphere. Flux measurements could represent a method to find the origin of missing sources of HONO. Until now instruments are not sensitive and fast enough to do Eddy correlation measurements for HONO. Alternatively, HONO fluxes are estimated by the Aerodynamic Gradient (AGM), or Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) methods. Here we present HONO fluxes estimated by AGM and the LOPAP technique (Long Path Absorption Photometer) above an agricultural field in Grignon, Paris (48°51'N, 1°58'E). Fluxes during different seasons and different types of vegetations including bare soil will be presented and compared with chemical corrected fluxes of NO, NO2 and O3, or other parameters.

  18. Operating Analysis of the Closed Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products Based on Logistics Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis gives the overview of concept and constitution of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products based on logistics center,and the necessity of regarding logistics center as core enterprise.Meanwhile,it analyzes the function of logistics center of agricultural products,namely functions of exchange,collection,distribution,storage and transportation.It also poses the prerequisites of logistics center.The logistics center of agricultural products must have stable profit expectancy,prominent scale,strong appealing power,capacity of bearing market risk and basic thoughts of supply chain management.The functional design of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products has been discussed in 5 aspects,namely logistics center,production base,providers of means of production,retailer and consumer.The operating thoughts of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products based on logistics center are put forward on the basis of the research of operating objective and service target of supply chain as follows:first,based on local principal agricultural products,the logistics center mainly distributes the massed agricultural products;second,it is necessary to choose appropriate strategic cooperative partners to sign contract;third,the operating procedure of supply chain entails bringing in professional managerial talents of supply chain;finally,the relationships of supply chain should be maintained.

  19. Testing the application of social accounting matrix-based structural path analysis to urban agriculture in the Eastern Cape, South Africa / Harrison Kasumba

    OpenAIRE

    Kasumba, Harrison

    2014-01-01

    The study was conducted in order to test the application of the social accounting matrix-based structural path analysis to urban agriculture at the local level. This was part of an attempt to advance an alternative methodology that could guarantee higher levels of precision and reliability in the measurement and analysis of the role of urban agriculture. A quantitative field survey research design characterised by stratified random sampling of respondents and consultation of se...

  20. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  1. Economic Analysis on Protection of Farmers’ Benefits Based on Market of Agricultural Means of Production and Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    De; CHEN; Dongmei; XIANG; Shengping; SHI

    2013-01-01

    Influenced by many factors,farmers remain very unfavorable position in market transaction and thus fail to ensure their reasonable benefits.In accordance with basic theory of microeconomics,this paper analyzes mutual relation between market of agricultural means of production and agricultural product market,compares economic decisions of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural product circulation service providers in monopoly condition and perfect competitive market,expounds influence of monopoly position of agricultural means of production enterprises and agricultural products service providers on economic benefits of farmers,and elaborates weak position and economic damage of farmers in transaction with various economic entities.Through analysis,it further recognizes necessity for protection of farmers’benefits and puts forward corresponding countermeasures:(1)regulating providers of agricultural means of production;(2)strengthening construction of agricultural product market circulation system;(3)improving organization of farmers;(4)setting up and improving production subsidy system of farmers.

  2. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minjun; DENG; Yan; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,this paper analyzed content of heavy metals,including arsenic(As),mercury(Hg),lead(Pb),cadmium(Cd),and chromium(Cr) in soil.After Pb,Cd,Cr,Hg and As content in soil is determined,it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard for soil pollution.Analysis results indicate that As,Hg,Pb,Cd,Cr content is different in pollution-free agricultural product bases,but all conform to related standards and there is no standard exceeding problem.It is concluded that the quality of soil in pollution-free agricultural product bases is excellent,not polluted and completely meet requirements of evaluation standards,and suitable for developing pollution-free agricultural products.

  3. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  4. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  5. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  6. Field studies on the behaviour of radiocaesium in agricultural environments after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K.

    1996-05-01

    This thesis deals with the occurrence of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in cultivated, semi-natural and natural agricultural areas of five Swedish counties. The investigations were carried out under field conditions 1986 to 1995 on farms where transfer to grass and milk during the first years were high. Vertical migration rate in soil profiles, the practical value of countermeasures to reduce transfer to feed and food and the impact of passing time were important aims for the study. The transfer of Cs was higher on permanent pasture than on temporary grassland and much lower to barley grain. Stubble and grass swards kept Cs available for transfer to grass. High organic matter contents in the surface soil also caused high transfer during a lag period of some years. Soil texture, grass sward, K-fertilization and growth dilution explained the variation in Cs transfer and its reduction rate. A case study on transfer of Cs to vegetation and to grazing lambs was made on a mountain farm. High transfer to vegetation was found, 510-2260 Bq/kg d.w.. Mean transfer soil to plant (TFg,m{sup 2}/kg) was 67 and plant to muscle 0.7 during 1990-1993. The effect of K-fertilization on soil-plant transfer was studied on 15 soils. A dose of 100 to 200 kg/ha K decreased the transfer on sandy soils with a factor of up to 10. Liming was effective on soils that were originally low in pH. Adding zeolite on the surface of pastures did not reduce the root uptake of Cs. Ploughing down the contaminated surface was effective in reducing the transfer. Downward migration of Cs was usually less on mineral soils than or organic or podsolized soils. 68 refs, 9 figs, 13 tabs.

  7. Sustainable Use of Agricultural Land in Zhoukou City Based on Emergy Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; WEN; Shuijuan; SUN; Qingsong; LI; Huiping; FAN

    2013-01-01

    Taking Zhoukou City in Henan Province as an example,we select the statistics during the period 2000-2009,and use emergy analysis method to research the sustainable use of agricultural land in Zhoukou City. The study results show that: ( i) The agricultural input is mainly based on resources purchase input,which accounts for more than 90% of total emergy input; the industrial energy input is to a large extent dependent on the input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide; precipitation significantly affects the input of renewable environmental resources. ( ii) The agricultural output is mainly based on farming and animal husbandry,with the proportion reaching 99% ; the proportion of fishery and forestry is too low; the agricultural output structure is relatively simple. ( iii) The use of agricultural land has achieved initial success in terms of economic sustainability,but in terms of ecological sustainability and social sustainability,it is at a low level; the sustainable use index shows the great vitality and development potential of agricultural system; unsustainability is reflected in considerable input of chemical fertilizer and pesticide,and simple agricultural output structure.

  8. A CommonKADS Model Framework for Web Based Agricultural Decision Support System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jignesh Patel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased demand of farm products and depletion of natural resources compel the agriculture community to increase the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT in various farming processes. Agricultural Decision Support Systems (DSS proved useful in this regard. The majority of available Agricultural DSSs are either crop or task specific. Less emphasis has been placed on the development of comprehensive DSS, which are non-specific regarding crops or farming processes. The crop or task specific DSSs are mainly developed with rule based or knowledge transfer based approaches. The DSSs based on these methodologies lack the ability for scaling up and generalization. The Knowledge engineering modeling approach is more suitable for the development of large and generalized DSS. Unfortunately the model based knowledge engineering approach is not much exploited for the development of Agricultural DSS. CommonKADS is one of the popular modeling frameworks used for the development of Knowledge Based System (KBS. The paper presents the organization, agent, task, communication, knowledge and design models based on the CommonKADS approach for the development of scalable Agricultural DSS. A specific web based DSS application is used for demonstrating the multi agent CommonKADS modeling approach. The system offers decision support for irrigation scheduling and weather based disease forecasting for the popular crops of India. The proposed framework along with the required expert knowledge, provides a platform on which the larger DSS can be built for any crop at a given location.

  9. Forecasting of Fresh Agricultural Products Demand Based on the ARIMA Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoxiong Yang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The price of fresh agricultural products changes up and down recently. In order to accurately forecast the agricultural precuts demand, a forecasting model based on ARIMA is provided in this study. It can be found that asymmetric information and unbalance about supply and demand exist in the market through analyzing the reasons. The ARIMA model for fresh agricultural products can forecast the demand in order to providing some guides for farmers. The results show that the predictive value are in good condition when compare with the actual data. Then this model is available.

  10. Design and Implementation of Agricultural Information Data-Delivery System Based on Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xinzhong; SUN Hongmin; HU Xinyi

    2009-01-01

    Data-delivery of agricultural information is a very tedious work, traditional data-delivery patterns and methods can not meet the requirements of the practical work. This paper provided the design idea and implement method for data-delivery system of agricultural information based on Web. Report and data will be separated in this system, and the person can change template and data at any time on demand. The problem that report template and data fixed together would be solved. The agricultural information resources sharing would be also implemented.

  11. Sustainable management of a coupled groundwater-agriculture hydrosystem using multi-criteria simulation based optimisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundmann, Jens; Schütze, Niels; Lennartz, Franz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present a new simulation-based integrated water management tool for sustainable water resources management in arid coastal environments. This tool delivers optimised groundwater withdrawal scenarios considering saltwater intrusion as a result of agricultural and municipal water abstraction. It also yields a substantially improved water use efficiency of irrigated agriculture. To allow for a robust and fast operation we unified process modelling with artificial intelligence tools and evolutionary optimisation techniques. The aquifer behaviour is represented using an artificial neural network (ANN) which emulates a numerical density-dependent groundwater flow model. The impact of agriculture is represented by stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). Simulation-based optimisation techniques together with the SCWPF and ANN deliver optimal groundwater abstraction and cropping patterns. To address contradicting objectives, e.g. profit-oriented agriculture vs. sustainable abstraction scenarios, we performed multi-objective optimisations using a multi-criteria optimisation algorithm.

  12. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    the stomatal apparatus of leaf regulate the water flow through plant, transpiration rate is reduced, soil solution concentration increases, plant nutrition supply rate becomes higher than at a stage of water field capacity. The rate of plant biomass growth is highest at water thermodynamic potential of -0.2-0.4 MPa. No excessive irrigation intra-soil mass transfer, nor excessive transpiration, evaporation and seepage. New intra-soil pulse discrete paradigm of irrigation optimizes the plant organogenesis, reduces consumption of water per unit of biological product. The biological productivity increases. Fresh water saving is up to 20 times. The new sustainable world strategy of Ecosystem Maintaining Productivity is to be based on the Biogeosystem Technique, it suits well the robotic nowadays noosphere technological platform and implements the principals of Geoethics in technologies of Biosphere. Key words: Paradigm, Biogeosystem technique, intra-soil pulse discrete watering. SSS8.1 Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded lands in arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean environments Batukaev Abdulmalik A. Chechen State University, Agrotechnological Institute, Dr Sc (Agric), Professor, Director, 364907, Sheripova st., 32, Grozny, Russia, batukaevmalik@mail.ru Kalinichenko Valery P. Institute of Fertility of Soils of South Russia, Dr Sc (Biol), Professor, Director, 346493, Krivoshlikova st., 2, Persianovka, Rostov region. Russia, kalinitch@mail.ru Minkina Tatiana M., Southern Federal University, Dr Sc (Biol), Head of the Soil Science Chair, 344006, Bolshaja Sadovaja st., 105/42, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, tminkina@mail.ru Zarmaev Ali A. Agrotechnological Institute of Chechen State University, Head of the Agrotechnology Chair, Dr Sc (Agric), Professor, 364907, Sheripova st., 32, Grozny, Russia, ali5073@mail.ru Skovpen Andrey N. Don State Agrarian University, PhD, Ass. Professor of Ecology Chair, 346493, Krivoshlikova st., 2, Persianovka, Rostov region, Russia, instit03@mail

  13. What is trust?: perspectives from farmers and other experts in the field of agriculture in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ezezika Obidimma C; Oh Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been recognized as necessary for improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are issues of public trust uniquely associated with PPPs involved in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops. Insight into how trust is understood by agbiotech stakeholders is needed to be able to promote and improve trust among actors comprising agbiotech PPPs...

  14. Normative, systemic and procedural aspects: a review of indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe

    2010-01-01

    Several methods for assessing the sustainability of agricultural systems have been developed. These methods do not fully: (i) take into account the multi‐functionality of agriculture; (ii) include multidimensionality; (iii) utilize and implement the assessment knowledge; and (iv) identify conflicting goals and trade‐offs. This paper reviews seven recently developed multidisciplinary indicator‐based assessment methods with respect to their contribution to these shortcomings. All approaches inc...

  15. Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model in combination with tool for multi-attributed decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoning of agricultural fields is an important task for utilization of precision farming technology. This paper extends previously published work entitled “Zoning of an agricultural field using a fuzzy indicator model” to a general case where there is disagreement between groups of managers or expert...

  16. Moving from pixels to parcels: Modeling agricultural scenarios in the northern Great Plains using a hybrid raster- and vector-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, T.; Wika, S.; Dornbierer, J.; Sayler, K. L.; Quenzer, R.

    2015-12-01

    Policy and economic driving forces have resulted in a higher demand for biofuel feedstocks in recent years, resulting in substantial increases in cultivated cropland in the northern Great Plains. A cellulosic-based biofuel industry could potentially further impact the region, with grassland and marginal agricultural land converted to perennial grasses or other feedstocks. Scenarios of projected land-use change are needed to enable regional stakeholders to plan for the potential consequences of expanded agricultural activity. Land-use models used to produce spatially explicit scenarios are typically raster-based and are poor at representing ownership units on which land-use change is based. This work describes a hybrid raster/vector-based modeling approach for modeling scenarios of agricultural change in the northern Great Plains. Regional scenarios of agricultural change from 2012 to 2050 were constructed, based partly on the U.S. Department of Energy's Billion Ton Update. Land-use data built from the 2012 Cropland Data Layer and the 2011 National Land Cover Database was used to establish initial conditions. Field boundaries from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Common Land Unit dataset were used to establish ownership units. A modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey's Forecasting Scenarios of land-use (FORE-SCE) model was used to ingest vector-based field boundaries to facilitate the modeling of a farmer's choice of land use for a given year, while patch-based raster methodologies were used to represent expansion of urban/developed lands and other land use conversions. All modeled data were merged to a common raster dataset representing annual land use from 2012 to 2050. The hybrid modeling approach enabled the use of traditional, raster-based methods while integrating vector-based data to represent agricultural fields and other ownership-based units upon which land-use decisions are typically made.

  17. ELABORATION OF METHODOLOGICAL TOOLS FOR AGRICULTURAL RISK MANAGEMENT BASED ON INNOVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voroshilova I. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the possibility of expanding of agricultural tools in risk management based on commodity financial instruments and weather derivatives. On the basis of summarizing the research results of domestic and foreign scholars and creative interpretation of the results the authors supplemented and refined definition of the category of "risk" and "risk of agricultural production” is obtained. The article supplements classification of risk in agricultural production and circulation of agricultural products, considers a proven techniques and methods of agricultural risk management, discusses the current trends of the global and domestic market of derivatives, gives a market segmentation by type of derivative instruments and the characteristics of the underlying assets, analyzes the reasons for the low level of development of derivatives markets at the meso level using the example of the Krasnodar Region, describes the potential derivatives in addressing management of agricultural risks on the basis of foreign sources, gives an insufficient level of financial literacy of potential participants, the lack of regulations and regulatory infrastructures, describe the problem of accounting and reporting of the results of operations in this segment, insufficient training of market operators and reveals the possibility of expanding the agricultural tools of risk management

  18. Technology Innovation Mode of Agricultural Leading Enterprise——Based on the Virtual Organization Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of technology innovation of agricultural leading enterprises by domestic and foreign experts and scholars,technology innovation of agricultural enterprises is a process of new market increment,which uses new knowledge,technology,process and production mode,produces new products,offers new services and realizes commercialization. Characteristics of agricultural technology innovation are introduced,such as obvious regionality,relatively high risk,long-term periodicity and public attribute. Predicament for technology innovation of leading enterprises is analyzed,such as technical constraints,financial constraints and personnel constraints. Technological Innovation Mode can be classified into three modes of independent innovation,imitative innovation and cooperative innovation by the method of technology innovation. Among them,since there are some defects in the technology innovation process,independent innovation and imitative innovation are generally not used for the innovation of agricultural enterprises. Cooperative Innovation Mode can rely on foreign aid,can realize complementary advantages and achievement sharing,and can be widely applied in the agricultural innovation enterprise. Virtual organization in cooperation innovation mode is described,which makes up for technology,capital and human resources barriers in the process of agricultural enterprise innovation. Therefore,this mode is popular among the agricultural innovation enterprise.

  19. Development of a field worthy sensor system to monitor gaseous nitrogen transfer from agricultural cropland. Phase 1, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    Nitrogen fertilizer accounts for 25 to 33% of the energy requirements in modern crop agriculture in the world today. Energy input for the manufacture of these N fertilizers is in the range of 460 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu per year. Unfortunately, for some N sources up to 70% of this energy in the form of NK can be lost through improper application techniques and poor N management strategies. Anhydrous NH{sub 3} may be lost to the atmosphere during and after placement due to soil conditions placement. Measurement of volatile N is difficult, especially under field conditions. A precise and convenient method of measuring gaseous NH{sub 3} near and above the soil surface is prerequisite to the development and evaluation of altemative fertilizer management strategies and application techniques which can reduce the potential for significant loss. Recent advances in integrated-optic (IO) based sensing offers the potential of measuring low levels of NH{sub 3} loss from a cropping system in the range of 100 ppB. The integrated design of an IO system allows for a more durable device that can be mass produced at low cost. Under Phase I of this project, two IO devices were designed and tested: an absorption device using an oxazine dye as a waveguide coating and an interferometric device using an anilinium salt as a waveguide coating.

  20. Agricultural Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ling; Zhang, Panpan; Shu, Huajie; Chang, Chein-Chi; Wang, Renqing; Zhang, Shuping

    2016-10-01

    In recent years, the quantity of agricultural waste has been rising rapidly all over the world. As a result, the environmental problems and negative impacts of agricultural waste are drawn more and more attention. Therefore, there is a need to adopt proper approaches to reduce and reuse agricultural waste. This review presented about 200 literatures published in 2015 relating to the topic of agricultural waste. The review examined research on agricultural waste in 2015 from the following four aspects: the characterization, reuse, treatment, and management. Researchers highlighted the importance to reuse agricultural waste and investigated the potential to utilize it as biofertilizers, cultivation material, soil amendments, adsorbent, material, energy recycling, enzyme and catalyst etc. The treatment of agricultural waste included carbonization, biodegradation, composting hydrolysis and pyrolysis. Moreover, this review analyzed the differences of the research progress in 2015 from 2014. It may help to reveal the new findings and new trends in this field in 2015 comparing to 2014. PMID:27620093

  1. Ecologies of Scale: Multifunctionality Connects Conservation and Agriculture across Fields, Farms, and Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devan Allen McGranahan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Agroecology and landscape ecology are two land-use sciences based on ecological principles, but have historically focused on fine and broad spatial scales, respectively. As global demand for food strains current resources and threatens biodiversity conservation, concepts such as multifunctional landscapes and ecologically-analogous agroecosystems integrate ecological concepts across multiple spatial scales. This paper reviews ecological principles behind several concepts crucial to the reconciliation of food production and biodiversity conservation, including relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functions such as productivity and stability; insect pest and pollinator management; integrated crop and livestock systems; countryside biogeography and heterogeneity-based rangeland management. Ecological principles are integrated across three spatial scales: fields, farms, and landscapes.

  2. Evaluation of 239+240Pu, 137Cs and natural 210Pb fallout in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The background distributions of 239+240Pu and 137Cs fallout in agricultural soil were investigated in Rokkasho where Japan's first commercial nuclear fuel reprocessing plant is now being constructed. The mean inventories of 239+240Pu and 137Cs in three fields with non-yam-cultivation history were 116 Bq x m-2 and 3.4 kBq x m-2, respectively. The mean atomic ratio of 240Pu/239Pu for all studied fields was 0.18±0.04, and was similar to that of global fallout. The 239+240Pu concentrations correlated very well with 137Cs (r = 0.97) in spite of heavy disturbance of the soil, and the activity ratio of 239+240Pu/137Cs was 0.037 ± 0.007, which is a typical value for global fallout. These results showed that the nuclides had similar behavior in agricultural upland fields in Rokkasho. Since 210Pb is steadily deposited from the atmosphere to the land, this nuclide could be an index for the degree of disturbance of a field and of soil lost from the field. The ratio of excess 210Pb inventory in the soil to the equivalent inventory of atmospheric 210Pb deposition was 96%, and indicated that soil was not lost from the cultivated fields. (author)

  3. Dissipation and effects of chlortetracycline and tylosin in two agricultural soils: A field-scale study in southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Jacobsen, Anne-Marie; Jensen, John;

    2005-01-01

    bacteria in the soil over time and soil fauna community was assessed in relation to application of manure containing antibacterial agents to the agricultural fields. The level of both CTC- and TYL-resistant bacteria was affected in the soil by amendment of manure, but declined during the study to the same......Presently, there is a basic lack of information concerning the accumulation of antibacterial agent residues in agricultural soils. In this field study, performed in southern Denmark, we assess the dissipation of chlortetracycline (CTC), and tylosin A (TYL A) as a function of time. Field soils were......-1/2 for CTC was 25 d (20-34) and 34 d (28-42) in fields A and B, respectively, and T-1/2 for TYL A was 67 d (54-86) and 49 d (40-64) in fields A and B, respectively. No significant difference was determined between compound half-lives on the two fields. The level of aerobic antibiotic-resistant...

  4. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2011-01-01

    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  5. Wave Superposition Based Sound Field Reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jia-qing; CHEN Jin; YANG Chao

    2008-01-01

    In order to overcome the obstacle of singular integral in boundary element method (BEM), wepresented an efficient sound field reconstruction technique based on the wave superposition method (WSM). Itsprinciple includes three steps: first, the sound pressure field of an arbitrary shaped radiator is measured witha microphone array; then, the exterior sound field of the radiator is computed backward and forward using theWSM; at last, the final results are visualized in terms of sound pressure contours or animations. With thesevisualized contours or animations, noise sources can be easily located and quantified; also noise transmissionpath can be found out. By numerical simulation and experimental results, we proved that the technique aresuitable and accurate for sound field reconstruction. In addition, we presented a sound field reconstruction sys-tem prototype on the basis of this technique. It makes a foundation for the application of wave superpositionin the sound field reconstruction in industry situations.

  6. Monitoring agricultural drought with climate-based drought indices in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Zhang, C., Sr.; Jeffery, R. C.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural drought monitoring significantly influences food security in recent decades. Soil moisture shortages adversely affecting agriculture is one important indicator for agricultural drought monitoring. Because of limited soil moisture observations, characterizing soil moisture using climate-based drought indices has great practical meaning. The agricultural area in China was identified by crop identification from remotely sensed data. Drought indices of multiple timescale or from two-layer bucket model were analyzed. In most agricultural areas of China, surface soil moisture is more affected by drought indices having shorter time scales while deep-layer soil moisture is more related on longer time scales. In general, multiscalar drought indices work better than drought indices from two-layer bucket models. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) works similarly or better than the standardized precipitation index (SPI) in characterizing soil moisture at different soil layers. In most stations in China, the Z index has a higher correlation with soil moisture at 0-5 cm than the Palmer drought severity index (PDSI), which in turn has a higher correlation with soil moisture at 90-100-cm depth than the Z index. Soil moisture-drought indices relationship was significantly affected by soil organic carbon density. Effective agriculture drought monitoring can be conducted with climate-based drought indices from widely available climatic data and crop area identification from remote sensing. Authors:Hongshuo wang1, Chao Zhang1, Jeffery C Rogers2 1 China agricultural university 2 Ohio state University Key words: Agricultural drought, SPI, SPEI, PDSI, Z index, crop identification

  7. Research on Performance Evaluation of Integrates with Agriculture Food Base and Supermarket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqiang Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of integrate with agriculture food base and supermarket is a research hotspot and difficulty in the theory and practice research of agriculture super-docking mode. The study presents an evaluation indicator system and a fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm for evaluating performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket. Firstly, a performance evaluation indicator system is designed through analyzing the similarities of general performance evaluation and the specialties of the evaluation of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket; Secondly, the study integrates the advantages of fuzzy evaluation methods and BP neural network evaluation methods, designs a new algorithm structure, selects different learning methods and analyzes the algorithm performance, then presents a new fuzzy neural network evaluation algorithm; Finally, three integrates are taken for experimental examples and the results illustrate that the improved algorithm can be used for evaluating the performance of integrates with agriculture food base and supermarket feasibly and effectively and can provide reference for evaluating other complex systems.

  8. UAV BASED BRDF-MEASUREMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL SURFACES WITH PFIFFIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Grenzdörffer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BRDF is a common problem in remote sensing and also in oblique photogrammetry. Common approaches of BRDF-measurement with a field goniometer are costly and rather cumbersome. UAVs may offer an interesting alternative by using a special flight pattern of oblique and converging images. The main part of this paper is the description of a photogrammetric workflow in order to determine the anisotropic reflection properties of a given surface. Due to the relatively low flying heights standard procedures from close range photogrammetry were adopted for outdoor usage. The photogrammetric processing delivered automatic and highly accurate orientation information with the aid of coded targets. The interior orientation of the consumer grade camera is more or less stable. The radiometrically corrected oblique images are converted into ortho photos. The azimuth and elevation angle of every point may then be computed. The calculated anisotropy of a winter wheat plot is shown. A system four diagonally-looking cameras (Four Vision and an additional nadir looking camera is under development. The multi camera system especially designed for a Micro- UAV with a payload of min 1 kg. The system is composed of five industrial digital frame cameras (1.3 Mpix CCD-chips, 15 fp/s with fixed lenses. Also special problems with the construction of a light weight housing of the multi camera solution are covered in the paper.

  9. Mechanism Research of Regional Brand Enhancement Based on Agricultural Industry Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article makes an integral and comprehensive study on the process of regional brand enhancement based on agricultural industry clusters using the theories of industrial clusters and regional brands.By analyzing the key determinants in the process of regional brand enhancement based on agricultural industry clusters,we establish a systemic theory system.The results show that as an important mediator in the process of regional brand enhancement based on agricultural industry clusters,the construction of value chain system is of vital importance.Other factors, such as the government guidance and service,the promotion of industry associations and professional cooperatives,play a key regulating role in this process.

  10. Forecasting and Analysis of Agricultural Product Logistics Demand in Tibet Based on Combination Forecasting Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenfeng; YANG

    2015-01-01

    Over the years,the logistics development in Tibet has fallen behind the transport. Since the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway in2006,the opportunity for development of modern logistics has been brought to Tibet. The logistics demand analysis and forecasting is a prerequisite for regional logistics planning. By establishing indicator system for logistics demand of agricultural products,agricultural product logistics principal component regression model,gray forecasting model,BP neural network forecasting model are built. Because of the single model’s limitations,quadratic-linear programming model is used to build combination forecasting model to predict the logistics demand scale of agricultural products in Tibet over the next five years. The empirical analysis results show that combination forecasting model is superior to single forecasting model,and it has higher precision,so combination forecasting model will have much wider application foreground and development potential in the field of logistics.

  11. Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment Scheme Evaluation and Selection Based on DEA Model for Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun

    2015-01-01

    DEA is a nonparametric method used in operation researches and economics fields for the evaluation of the production frontier. It has distinct intrinsic which is worth coping with assessment problems with multiple inputs in particular with multiple outputs. This paper usedDεC2R model of DEA to assess the comparative efficiency of the multiple schemes of agricultural industrial structure, at the end we chose the most favorable also known as "OPTIMAL" scheme. In addition to this, using some functional insights from DEA model non optimal schemes or less optimal schemes had also been improved to some extent. Assessment and selection of optimal schemes of agricultural industrial structure using DEA model gave a greater and better insight of agricultural industrial structure and was the first of such researches in Pakistan.

  12. Pesticide application to agricultural fields: effects on the reproduction and avoidance behaviour of Folsomia candida and Eisenia andrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M J G; Ferreira, M F L; Cachada, A; Duarte, A C; Sousa, J P

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the impact of pesticide application to non-target soil organisms simulating what happens following pesticide application in agricultural fields and thus obtaining higher realism on results obtained. For that purpose, three commercial formulations containing the insecticides chlorpyrifos and endosulfan and the herbicide glyphosate were applied to a Mediterranean agricultural field. The soil was collected after spraying and dilution series were prepared with untreated soil to determine the impact of the pesticides on the avoidance behaviour and reproduction of the earthworm Eisenia andrei and the collembolan Folsomia candida. A significant avoidance was observed at the recommended field dose in case of endosulfan by earthworms (60 %) and in case of chlorpyrifos by collembolans (64 %). In addition, both insecticides affected the number of juveniles produced by the earthworms (EC(50) were below the recommended field dose). Glyphosate did not seem to affect either earthworms or collembolans in the recommended field dose. Folsomia candida was more sensitive to pesticide application than Eisenia andrei, what was corroborated by the EC(50) and LC(50) values. In conclusion, insecticides may affect the structure of the soil community by reducing the survival of collembolans and the reproductive capacity of collembolans and earthworms. PMID:22711551

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, S M; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies......, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients...

  14. Barriers to the Adoption of Sustainable Agriculture on Rented Land: An Examination of Contesting Social Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolan, Michael S.

    2005-01-01

    While over half of the cropland in the United States is rented, interest in land tenancy within sociological circles has been sporadic at best. In light of the prevalence of rented land in agriculture--particularly in the Midwest--it is vital that further research be conducted to investigate the effect that the rental relationship has upon the…

  15. Forecasting the Feasibility of Implementing Isolation Perimeters Between GM and non-GM Maize Fields Under Agricultural Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Yann; Cougnon, Mathias; Thas, Olivier; De Clercq, Eva M.; Cordemans, Karl; Reheul, Dirk

    2008-10-01

    Although spatially isolating genetically modified (GM) maize fields from non-GM maize fields is a robust on-farm strategy to keep the adventitious presence of GM material in the harvests of neighboring non-GM maize fields due to cross-fertilizations below established labeling thresholds (and thus to ensure the spatial co-existence between maize cropping systems), the practical implementation of isolation perimeters attracted little research efforts. In this study, the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters around GM maize fields is investigated. Using Geographic Information System datasets and Monte Carlo simulations, various scenarios differing in shares and spatial distributions of GM maize were tested for various isolation perimeters in six agricultural areas in Flanders. Factors that affect the feasibility of implementing isolation perimeters are discussed.

  16. Studies on the Conservation Agriculture Based Practices under Maize (Zea Mays L. Based System in the Hills of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika Bahadur Karki

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A farmer’s field trial comparing the conservation tillage, where tillage was avoided and previous crops residues were kept and conventional tillage, where tillage was done and residues were removed from the field along with farmers practice of manual weeding and application of herbicides under maize-rapeseed based cropping system in the mid hills of Nepal was carried in collaboration with farmers during 2012 and 2013. Thus, three factors each having two levels was tested under randomized complete block design with five replications in each districts of Palpa and Gulmi. The effect of tillage methods and residue levels were not significant for yield and its’ contributing traits of maize and test weight along with seed yield of rapeseed. However, it was evident in the second year. The effect of herbicide over farmer’s practice of manual weeding on diameter and length of cob, test weight and grain yield of maize was obvious in both the years. The benefit cost ratio of 1.7 in conventional tillage with residue removed and 2.5 in no tillage with residue kept were recorded in the second year. Since, it reduced significantly the cost of production without severe yield penalties; farmers are interested to scale-up the conservation agricultural practices in the hills of Nepal.

  17. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Sources and sinks of nitrogen-E phosphorus-based nutrients in cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the report of an expert mission to assist in the initiation of research on sustainable agriculture in rice-based cropping systems as related to the flow of plant nutrients, and on the use of legumes in upland cropping systems. Experimental suggestions include an investigation of the acid tolerance of different soybean strains under upland conditions, an analysis of ways to replace fertilizer nitrogen for rice crops by a green manure such as azolla, and a study of the increase in nutrient availability due to th presence of fish in a paddy field

  18. Mapping Soil Physical Structure of Loamy Agricultural Fields for Assessing Localised Potential Leaching Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Olsen, Preben;

    , and according to soil texture analyses the clay content was ranging from 14.2 to 18.9%, whereas the organic carbon (OC) content was ranging between 1.7 and 2.2%. Clay content increased to the North and OC content to the South. It was found that there is a risk for pronounced leaching to take place from...... in Silstrup was evaluated based on soil texture, structural parameters, tritium breakthrough curves, and colloid- and phosphorus leaching to investigate the link between the leaching of pesticides such as TFMP and soil structure. Bulk soil was sampled from the A-horizon in a 15 x 15 m grid across the field...

  19. Wavelet-Based Quantum Field Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Altaisky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Euclidean quantum field theory for the fields $phi_{Delta x}(x$, which depend on both the position $x$ and the resolution $Delta x$, constructed in SIGMA 2 (2006, 046, on the base of the continuous wavelet transform, is considered. The Feynman diagrams in such a theory become finite under the assumption there should be no scales in internal lines smaller than the minimal of scales of external lines. This regularisation agrees with the existing calculations of radiative corrections to the electron magnetic moment. The transition from the newly constructed theory to a standard Euclidean field theory is achieved by integration over the scale arguments.

  20. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  1. Field Studies Show That In Situ Greenhouse Gas Emission Factors for East African Agriculture Are Less Than IPCC Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelster, D.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Rufino, M.; Rosenstock, T. S.; Wanyama, G.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from African agricultural systems are thought to comprise a large portion of total emissions from the continent, however these estimates have been calculated using emission factors (EF) from other regions due to the lack of field studies in Africa, which results in large uncertainties for these estimates. Field measurements from western Kenya calculating emissions over a year in 59 different sites found that GHG emissions from typical smallholder farms ranged from 2.8 to 15.0 Mg CO2-C ha-1, -6.0 to 2.4 kg CH4-C ha-1 and -0.1 to 1.8 kg N2O-N ha-1, and were not affected by management intensity. The lack of a response in N2O emissions to N fertilization suggests that the EF currently used in national inventories overestimates N2O emissions from typical smallholder agriculture. Another study measuring N2O and CH4 emissions from manure deposited by grazing cattle found that the N2O EF ranged from 0.1 to 0.2%, while the CH4 EF ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 Kg CH4-C per 173 kg animal. These suggest that the current IPCC EF overestimate agricultural soil and manure GHG emissions for Kenya, and likely for much of East Africa.

  2. Satellite-based estimation of watershed groundwater storage dynamics in a freeze-thaw area under intensive agricultural development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Liu, Bing; Wu, Yuyang

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the temporal-spatial characteristics of groundwater storage is critical for agricultural planning and management in the future, thereby causing more challenges in water resource management. However, the special hydrological features of the snow water equivalent, soil moisture, and total canopy water storage in the freeze-thawing agricultural area requires the innovative methods for the water resource analysis. The watershed land cover variation and the expanding pattern of the farmlands over a decade were identified using the TM-Landsat series data. Combined with the traditional measurements of the water resource, the monthly gravity field data from the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) was validated and applied. The water resources distribution based on the remotely sensed data demonstrated that the forest in the watershed center had a larger amount of water storage. The inter-annual and seasonal variability of total water storage (TWS) over the agricultural area was analyzed and the higher value appeared in the thawing period of April. The correlations of the TWS streamflow, soil moisture and snow water equivalent with precipitation were all identified. The precipitation was the dominant factor for the watershed TWS and the groundwater dynamics. Under the similar precipitation condition, the lower groundwater storage in recent years was the consequence of the expanding of farmland. The watershed averaged decrease rate of groundwater level from 2003 to 2012 was 1.06 mm/year, which was much lower than the rates in other agricultural areas. The freeze-thawing process with smelt snow and rainfall in summer had more time and chance to recharge the groundwater resource and provided the sustainable water resource. This study proved that the application of GRACE was an effective method for the temporal-spatial estimation of the TWS anomalies in the freeze-thawing agricultural area.

  3. The Rural Information-based Construction under the Perspective of Expanding Agricultural Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of expounding connotation and significance of expansion of agricultural industrial chain, coupled with the connotation of rural informatization connotation, this article analyses the role of rural informatization in expanding agricultural industrial chain: it can enhance market competitiveness of industry chain, improve the operational efficiency of industry chain, and promote the income and quality of farmers in industry chain. Under the perspective of expanding agricultural industrial chain, this article puts forwards thinking about the construction of rural informatization as follows: first, give full play to the leading role of the government; second, strengthen the construction of information-based network facility; third, integrate information resources in rural areas, and improve the quality of information; fourth, build comprehensive information service platform in rural areas; fifth, improve organizational level of production and management of individual farmers; sixth, strengthen the construction of information-based personnel in rural areas; seventh, strengthen publicity and training, promote overall cultural quality and information awareness of farmers.

  4. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    OpenAIRE

    Yichuan Zhang; Lei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat) analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture ...

  5. RESPONSE TO THE CRISIS OF THE FIELD: ALTERNATIVES AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF VILLAFLORES, CHIAPAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosey Obet Ruiz-González

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mexican countryside is a multifaceted crisis that is mainly due to the rise of a greater economic return-oriented capitalist development possible, regardless of the environmental and human health damage. The research was conducted during 2006 to 2008 in thev region Fraylesca, Chiapas, aiming to understand the nature of change in farming practices of the capitalist model towards alternative practices tending to the conservation of natural resources. We worked with 18 rural families who were beneficiaries of the capitalist model and are currently making changes in their production practices. Ethnography was used to understand the nature of changes in agricultural practices, in addition to the interviews, participant observation semi -structured and tours to family agro-ecosystems. Alternative practices, change cultural patterns of agricultural production adopted by the capitalist model.

  6. Proceedings of a Workshop on "Nanotechnology for the agricultural sector: from research to the field"

    OpenAIRE

    PARISI CLAUDIA; VIGANI MAURO; Rodriguez Cerezo, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Innovation is at the centre of the EU's growth strategy for the coming decade (EU2020). New technologies and their adoption by EU farmers are essential in maintaining European agriculture competitive in a global world. Within this context, nanotechnology represents an innovative technology with great potentials in many areas of applications as diverse as medicine, biotechnology, electronics, materials science and energy technologies. Furthermore, nanotechnology is showing a great potential in...

  7. Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)], E-mail: nyamag@affrc.go.jp; Kawasaki, A.; Iiyama, I. [National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3, Kan-nondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8604 (Japan)

    2009-02-01

    Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK + compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (U{sub t}) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK + compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK + compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in U{sub t}. On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in U{sub t} in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in U{sub t} in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions.

  8. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1 ± 43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6 ± 15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application

  9. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.-J. [Water Quality Center, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: jyang@trentu.ca; Metcalfe, Chris D. [Water Quality Center, Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, Ontario, K9J 7B8 (Canada)

    2006-06-15

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1 {+-} 43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6 {+-} 15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD{sub 5} and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 {mu}g/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application.

  10. The Development of Leisure Agriculture Based on Characteristics of Land Resource Utilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Based on analysis of geographical and location advantages of Qiaocheng District,we discussed characteristics of land utilization and local industry. In accordance with these characteristics,it is proposed to explore potential of farming land,speed up transfer of farming land in Qiaocheng District,and develop the leisure agriculture.

  11. 农地承包经营权纠纷的类型、特点、原因及解决策略——基于江苏省D市的实地调查%Agricultural Land Contractual Management Right Dispute's Types, Characteristics , Causes and Solutions --Based on the Field Survey in D City, Jiangsu Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关长坤; 黄美钧

    2011-01-01

    通过对江苏省D市农地承包经营权纠纷的实地调查,对农地承包经营权纠纷的类型、特点、原因进行了分析探讨,得出了以下结论:纠纷的主要类型5种;其特点主要是纠纷具有阶段性、纠纷的总体数量大增长速度较快、纠纷具有复杂难解性;形成原因主要是政策的调整、征占用农民承包地增加、流转行为的不规范;仲裁、司法比较困难,基层能力的制约;相应的解决策略是加强对流转行为的管理、完善并登记已发生的流转行为、规范并登记今后的流转行为、建立流转台帐的同时大力宣传农村土地承包经营权流转的相关政策和法律制度、培育流转中介服务组织、强化农村土地承包仲裁机构职能、完善相关法律、强化相关法律的操作性。%D City, Jiangsu Province, agricultural land disputes, contractual right of the field investigation, the paper disputes the right of agricultural land contracting and management types, characteristics, reasons discussed, reached the Mlowing conclusions : there are five main types of disputes ; the dispute is mainly characterized by a phase characteristics, the overall number of major disputes is faster, with intricate nature of the dispute ; mainly due to the formation of policy adjustment, Agricultural land signed increases, flow behavior is not standardized, the arbitration justice is more difficult, grassroors capacity constraints, appropriate solution strategy is to strengthen the management of the flow behavior, improve circulation and registration act has occurred, regulate and register the flow of future behavior, the establishment of circulation accounting at the same time vigorously promote the rural land contracting right related to the legal system, foster the transfer intermediary service organizations, and strengthen the rural land contract arbitration functions, improve relevant laws, strengthen the legal operational.

  12. Agricultural Supply Chain Traceability System Based on Multi-Agent System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to overcome defects in existing ASCTS(Agricultural Supply Chain Traceability System,a new traceability system based on Multi-Agent System(MAS) is put forward.By qualitative method,I analyze problems of application of Agent technology in tracing quality of agricultural products.Physical model is built for this system and structure of traceability system is determined.Finally,algorithm is presented for major entities.From analysis of algorithm,it is proved that this system has some reference value in improving breadth and depth of product traceability.

  13. Driving force analysis of the agricultural water footprint in China based on the LMDI method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunfu; Chen, Bin

    2014-11-01

    China's water scarcity problems have become more severe because of the unprecedented economic development and population explosion. Considering agriculture's large share of water consumption, obtaining a clear understanding of Chinese agricultural consumptive water use plays a key role in addressing China's water resource stress and providing appropriate water mitigation policies. We account for the Chinese agricultural water footprint from 1990 to 2009 based on bottom up approach. Then, the underlying driving forces are decomposed into diet structure effect, efficiency effect, economic activity effect, and population effect, and analyzed by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results reveal that the Chinese agricultural water footprint has risen from the 94.1 Gm3 in 1990 to 141 Gm3 in 2009. The economic activity effect is the largest positive contributor to promoting the water footprint growth, followed by the population effect and diet structure effect. Although water efficiency improvement as a significant negative effect has reduced overall water footprint, the water footprint decline from water efficiency improvement cannot compensate for the huge increase from the three positive driving factors. The combination of water efficiency improvement and dietary structure adjustment is the most effective approach for controlling the Chinese agricultural water footprint's further growth. PMID:25289879

  14. Problem-based, interdisciplinary field-based courses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Trevor; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Traynor, Catherine;

    2008-01-01

    Student field courses at Universities are increasingly incorporating problem-based interdisciplinary approaches to enhance learning opportunities. This paper reports upon seven field-based, problem-oriented, interdisciplinary courses held within southern Africa concerning natural resource...... in a positive manner and a strong respectful working relationship from the staff. We advocate this process as worthwhile as classroom theory becomes real in all applied and complex environment....

  15. Biodiversity in Organic Farmland - How Does Landscape Context Influence Species Diversity in Organic Vs. Conventional Agricultural Fields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seufert, V.; Wood, S.; Reid, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Rhemtulla, J.; Ramankutty, N.

    2014-12-01

    The most important current driver of biodiversity loss is the conversion of natural habitats for human land uses, mostly for the purpose of food production. However, by causing this biodiversity loss, food production is eroding the very same ecosystem services (e.g. pollination and soil fertility) that it depends on. We therefore need to adopt more wildlife-friendly agricultural practices that can contribute to preserving biodiversity. Organic farming has been shown to typically host higher biodiversity than conventional farming. But how is the biodiversity benefit of organic management dependent on the landscape context farms are situated in? To implement organic farming as an effective means for protecting biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem services we need to understand better under what conditions organic management is most beneficial for species. We conducted a meta-analysis of the literature to answer this question, compiling the most comprehensive database to date of studies that monitored biodiversity in organic vs. conventional fields. We also collected information about the landscape surrounding these fields from remote sensing products. Our database consists of 348 study sites across North America and Europe. Our analysis shows that organic management can improve biodiversity in agricultural fields substantially. It is especially effective at preserving biodiversity in homogeneous landscapes that are structurally simplified and dominated by either cropland or pasture. In heterogeneous landscapes conventional agriculture might instead already hold high biodiversity, and organic management does not appear to provide as much of a benefit for species richness as in simplified landscapes. Our results suggest that strategies to maintain biodiversity-dependent ecosystem services should include a combination of pristine natural habitats, wildlife-friendly farming systems like organic farming, and high-yielding conventional systems, interspersed in structurally

  16. What is trust?: perspectives from farmers and other experts in the field of agriculture in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as necessary for improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are issues of public trust uniquely associated with PPPs involved in the development of genetically modified (GM crops. Insight into how trust is understood by agbiotech stakeholders is needed to be able to promote and improve trust among actors comprising agbiotech PPPs. This study aimed to explore how stakeholders from the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa understood the concept of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Methods Our data collection relied on sixty-one semi-structured, face-to-face interviews conducted with agbiotech stakeholders as part of a larger study investigating the role of trust in eight agbiotech projects across Africa. Interview transcripts were analyzed to create a narrative on how trust is understood by the study’s participants. Results Responses to the question “what is trust?” were diverse. However, across interviewees’ responses we identified six themes. In order to build and foster trust in a partnership, partners reported that one must practice integrity and honesty; deliver results in an accountable manner; be capable and competent; share the same objectives and interests; be transparent about actions and intentions through clear communication; and target services toward the interests of the public. Conclusions Participants reported that trust is either a very important factor or the most important factor in the making or breaking of success in agbiotech PPPs. The six themes that emerged from the interview data form a concept of trust. We thereby propose the following definition of trust in the context of agricultural biotechnology: an expectation held by an individual that the performance and behaviour of another will be supported by tangible results

  17. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection.

  18. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  19. REMOTE CONTROLLING OF AN AGRICULTURAL PUMP SYSTEM BASED ON THE DUAL TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY (DTMF TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEZA N. GETU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern days, as a result of advances in technology, human beings are interested to remotely control different systems and applications. In this work, telephone signalling technique using Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF signalling, is used to control switching of electrical loads such as agricultural pumps located in remote areas. A DTMF tone command sent from a transmitting fixed or mobile phone terminal will be used to SWITCH ON/OFF the motors used to pump water for agricultural fields. A processing electronic system at the receiving side is designed to interpret the tone commands and sends an appropriate signal to the motor driving circuit to complete the pump switching states. In the design methodology, it is possible to control several water pumps distributed in a certain agricultural site, however, in this work we considered four pumps and the paper presents the complete electronic design and simulation results at the different stages of the design. The electronic design is based on discrete passive and active electronic components and the system is tested and simulated using Multism program. The results of the simulation show that the design is capable of controlling the switching state of the motors. For a certain DTMF command, it is possible to switch ON/OFF a specific motor pump or all of the four motors.

  20. Topology based methods for vector field comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, Rajesh Kumar

    Vector fields are commonly found in almost all branches of the physical sciences. Aerodynamics, dynamical systems, electromagnetism, and global climate modeling are a few examples. These multivariate data fields are often large, and no general, automated method exists for comparing these fields. Existing methods require either subjective visual judgments, or data interface compatibility, or domain specific knowledge. A topology based method intrinsically eliminates all of the above limitations and has the additional advantage of significantly compressing the vector field by representing only key features of the flow. Therefore, large databases are compactly represented and quickly searched. Topology is a natural framework for the study of many vector fields. It provides rules of an organizing principle, a flow grammar, that can describe and connect together the properties common to flows. Helman and Hesselink first introduced automated methods to extract and visualize this grammar. This work extends their method by introducing automated methods for vector topology comparison. Basic two-dimensional flows are first compared. The theory is extended to compare three-dimensional flow fields and the topology on no-slip surfaces. Concepts from graph theory and linear programming are utilized to solve these problems. Finally, the first automated method for higher order singularity comparisons is introduced using mathematical theories from geometric (Clifford) algebra.

  1. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    OpenAIRE

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S.; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P.; Baker, H

    2001-01-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health interve...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES ON DEVELOPMENT OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL-BASED ROAD TRANSPORT DEICING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter C. Taylor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Snow and ice removal on highways and public streets is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure. The issues to be addressed in selecting suitable deicing and anti-icing materials include cost, effectiveness, and damage to the pavement, vehicles and the environment. Considerable research has been carried out in recent years to develop alternative deicers with better performance and cost effectiveness. Among the developed deicer materials are agricultural based deicers that are considered to be sustainable and environmentally-beneficial materials. Iowa is one of the States that is rich in agricultural renewable resources, some of which are being processed for applications such as fuel. Any industrial process, including that of converting corn to ethanol or soy to bio-diesel, is likely to have a number of by-products generated. Rather than face disposal issues for these by-products, it would be desirable to find those that, with a minimum of additional processing, can be used as a deicing compound, either alone, or in combination with products currently in use. Currently, a number of agricultural based deicer materials have been developed or are still under development. However, little information is known about the actual manufacturing/refining process since most of the developed materials are all proprietary products (patented or commercial. Furthermore, no standard test specifying agricultural-based deicer is available. The study described in this paper focuses on the development of an improved agricultural based deicing product. The objective of this study was to evaluate deicer materials including traditional and alternative deicer materials on road skid resistance which is critical for safe operation of the road transportation infrastructure.

  3. Field evaluation of willow under short rotation coppice for phytomanagement of metal-polluted agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Slycken, Stijn; Witters, Nele; Meiresonne, Linda; Meers, Erik; Ruttens, Ann; Van Peteghem, Pierre; Weyens, Nele; Tack, Filip M G; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2013-01-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) of willow and poplar might be a promising phytoremediation option since it uses fast growing, high biomass producing tree species with often a sufficient metal uptake. This study evaluates growth, metal uptake and extraction potentials of eight willow clones (Belders, Belgisch Rood, Christina, Inger, Jorr, Loden, Tora and Zwarte Driebast) on a metal-contaminated agricultural soil, with total cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) concentrations of 6.5 +/- 0.8 and 377 +/- 69 mg kg(-1) soil, respectively. Although, during the first cycle, on average generally low productivity levels (3.7 ton DM (dry matter) ha(-1) y(-1)) were obtained on this sandy soil, certain clones exhibited quite acceptable productivity levels (e.g. Zwarte Driebast 12.5 ton DM ha(-1) y(-1)). Even at low biomass productivity levels, SRC of willow showed promising removal potentials of 72 g Cd and 2.0 kg Zn ha(-1) y(-1), which is much higher than e.g. energy maize or rapeseed grown on the same soil Cd and Zn removal can be increased by 40% if leaves are harvested as well. Nevertheless, nowadays the wood price remains the most critical factor in order to implement SRC as an acceptable, economically feasible alternative crop on metal-contaminated agricultural soils.

  4. Magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087244; Arpaia, Pasquale

    This thesis presents a magnetic field mapper based on rotating coils. The requirements, the architecture, the conceptual design, and the prototype for straight magnets were shown. The proposed system is made up of a rotating coil transducer and a train-like system for longitudinal motion and positioning inside magnet bore. The mapper allows a localized measurement of magnetic fields and the variation of the harmonic multipole content in the magnet ends. The proof-of-principle demonstration and the experimental characterization of the rotating-coil transducer specifically conceived for mapping validated the main objective of satisfying the magnetic measurement needs of the next generation of compact accelerators.

  5. The Development of a Web-service-based On-demand Global Agriculture Drought Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, M.; Di, L.; Han, W.; Yagci, A.; Peng, C.

    2011-12-01

    The growing demand on detailed and accurate assessments of agriculture drought from local to global scales has made drought monitoring and forecasting a hot research topic in recent years. However, many challenges in this area still remain. One of such challenges is to how to let world-wide decision makers obtain accurate and timely drought information. Current agriculture drought information systems in the world are limited in many aspects, such as only regional or country level coverage, very coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, no on-demand drought information product generation and download services, no online analysis tools, no interoperability with other systems, and ineffective agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting. Leveraging the latest advances in geospatial Web service, interoperability and cyber-infrastructure technologies and the availability of near real-time global remote sensing data, we aims at providing a solution to those problems by building an open, interoperable, standard-compliant, and Web-service-based global agriculture drought monitoring and forecasting system (GADMFS) (http://gis.csiss.gmu.edu/GADMFS/). GADMFS will provide world-wide users with timely, on-demand, and ready-to-use agricultural drought data and information products as well as improved global agriculture drought monitoring, prediction and analysis services. For the monitoring purpose, the system lively links to near real-time satellite remote sensing data sources from NASA and NOAA and relies on drought related remotely sensed physical and biophysical parameters, such as soil moisture and drought-related vegetation indices (VIs, e.g., NDVI) to provide the current conditions of global agricultural drought at high resolutions (up to 500m spatial and daily temporal) to world-wide users on demand. For drought prediction, the system utilizes a neural network based modeling algorithm, trained with current and historic vegetation-based and climate-based drought index

  6. APPLICATION AND PERSPECTIVES OF GIS IN FIELD OF AGRICULTURAL HERITAGE%农业文化遗产研究的GIS应用前景分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 何露

    2015-01-01

    , medium -view and micro -view, respectively. In terms of macro -view, GIS is mainly used in agricultural resources management and regionalization. In terms of medium-view, GIS was used to yield estimation and disaster management. In terms of micro-view, GIS was applied in precision agriculture with the aid of Remote Sensing, Global Positioning System, Expert System and Decision Support System. And the appli-cation of GIS in the field of historical/cultural geography can be divided into three categories according to its func-tion, i. e. , the data management, spatial analysis and visualization. This paper also analyzed the current status of GIS application in agricultural heritage research. The results showed that literature research, field interviews and questionnaires were mainly current research methods but lack of systematic, quantitative and visualization research tools. And then the paper indicated that the main application of GIS in the field of agricultural heritage should in-clude five aspects as follows:information management of agricultural heritage, spatial information measurement and evaluation of resources, spatial analysis, visualization and thematic mapping, and auxiliary functions of heritage sites protection planning. In the end, the paper discussed the perspectives of pervasive application of GIS based on the analysis of the potential restraining factors during research, such as the limitation of data, technical difficulty and limitation of funds. With the deepening of the study, as an important research method of quantification and in-formation, GIS will play an important role in agricultural heritage research in the future.

  7. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  8. Estimation of Tree Cover in an Agricultural Parkland of Senegal Using Rule-Based Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field trees are an integral part of the farmed parkland landscape in West Africa and provide multiple benefits to the local environment and livelihoods. While field trees have received increasing interest in the context of strengthening resilience to climate variability and change, the actual extent of farmed parkland and spatial patterns of tree cover are largely unknown. We used the rule-based predictive modeling tool Cubist® to estimate field tree cover in the west-central agricultural region of Senegal. A collection of rules and associated multiple linear regression models was constructed from (1 a reference dataset of percent tree cover derived from very high spatial resolution data (2 m Orbview as the dependent variable, and (2 ten years of 10-day 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composites and derived phenological metrics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients between modeled and reference percent tree cover of 0.88 and 0.77 were achieved for training and validation data respectively, with absolute mean errors of 1.07 and 1.03 percent tree cover. The resulting map shows a west-east gradient from high tree cover in the peri-urban areas of horticulture and arboriculture to low tree cover in the more sparsely populated eastern part of the study area. A comparison of current (2000s tree cover along this gradient with historic cover as seen on Corona images reveals dynamics of change but also areas of remarkable stability of field tree cover since 1968. The proposed modeling approach can help to identify locations of high and low tree cover in dryland environments and guide ground studies and management interventions aimed at promoting the integration of field trees in agricultural systems.

  9. An Agricultural Land Resource Assessment Study Based on GIS-An Example from Guiyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 李春来; 万鹰昕

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the agricultural land resources of Guiyang City by means of GIS,on the basis of the pressure-state-response model in which soil heavy metal contamination is selected as a pressure indicator. The results suggest that most of the agricultural land resources are of good quality. However, there are 17.11 km2 dry land and paddy field, which belong to the region of serious heavy metal contamination and are not fit for planting crops. At the same time, the high quality plowland, which is suitable for cultivation, has decreased nearly by 1/3due to soil heavy metal contamination. These findings may improve our understanding that it is very important to prevent and cure heavy metal contamination of Guiyang City.

  10. An Agricultural Land Resource Assessment Study Based on GIS—An Example from Guiyang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建军; 李春来; 等

    2002-01-01

    This paper assesses the agricultural land resources of Guiyang City by means of GIS,on the basis of the pressure-state-response model in which soil heavy metal contamination is selected as a pressure indicatror.he results suggest that most of the agricultural land resources are of good quality,However,there are 17.11km2 dry land and paddy field,which belong to the region of serious heavy metal contamination and are not fit for planting crops.At the same time,the high quality plowland,which is suitable for cultivation,has decreased nearly by 1/3 due to soil heavy metal contamination.These findings may improve our understanding that it is very important to prevent and cure heavy metal contamination of Guiyang City.

  11. Enhancement of the Initial Growth Rate of Agricultural Plants by Using Static Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung C; Mason, Alex; Im, Wooseok

    2016-01-01

    Electronic devices and high-voltage wires induce magnetic fields. A magnetic field of 1,300-2,500 Gauss (0.2 Tesla) was applied to Petri dishes containing seeds of Garden Balsam (Impatiens balsamina), Mizuna (Brassica rapa var. japonica), Komatsuna (Brassica rapa var. perviridis), and Mescluns (Lepidium sativum). We applied magnets under the culture dish. During the 4 days of application, we observed that the stem and root length increased. The group subjected to magnetic field treatment (n = 10) showed a 1.4 times faster rate of growth compared with the control group (n = 11) in a total of 8 days (p <0.0005). This rate is 20% higher than that reported in previous studies. The tubulin complex lines did not have connecting points, but connecting points occur upon the application of magnets. This shows complete difference from the control, which means abnormal arrangements. However, the exact cause remains unclear. These results of growth enhancement of applying magnets suggest that it is possible to enhance the growth rate, increase productivity, or control the speed of germination of plants by applying static magnetic fields. Also, magnetic fields can cause physiological changes in plant cells and can induce growth. Therefore, stimulation with a magnetic field can have possible effects that are similar to those of chemical fertilizers, which means that the use of fertilizers can be avoided. PMID:27500712

  12. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-04-22

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS) errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle.

  13. Characterization of effective saturated hydraulic conductivity in an agricultural field using Karhunen-Loève expansion with the Markov chain Monte Carlo technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, N. N.; Mohanty, B. P.; Efendiev, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Process-based soil hydrologic models require input of saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat). However, model users often have limited access to measured data and thus use published or estimated values for many site-specific hydrologic and environmental applications. We proposed an algorithm that uses the Karhunen-Loève expansion (KLE) in conjunction with the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique, which employs measured soil moisture values to characterize the saturated hydraulic conductivity of an agricultural field at a 30 m resolution. The study domain is situated in the Walnut Creek watershed, Iowa, with soybean crop (in 2005) and well-defined top (atmospheric) and bottom (groundwater) boundary conditions. The KLE algorithm parameterizes and generates Ksat fields with random correlation lengths that are used in the SWMS_3D model for predicting the soil moisture dynamics for two different scenarios: (1) the van Genuchten soil hydraulic parameters (except Ksat) are constant and are based on the soil type of the grid block within the domain, and (2) Ksat is correlated with the van Genuchten parameter α as Ksat ∝ α2. The predicted soil moisture fields for both the scenarios are evaluated with the measured soil moisture in the MCMC algorithm for acceptance (or rejection) of the Ksat fields. The accepted Ksat fields are evaluated against the laboratory-measured Ksat at specific locations as well as with a large Ksat data set measured in situ in a nearby field with similar hydrologic conditions, and the comparisons show reasonably good agreement. The KLE-MCMC algorithm was further tested in the same study domain for another year (2002) having different vegetation (corn) and local forcings. The algorithm shows potential to characterize the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity fields at 30 m resolution using inexpensive and more regularly measured soil moisture measurements. Further studies are required to incorporate variability in different

  14. The Potential of Sustainable Agriculture for Climate Change Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Adrian; Niggli, Urs

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation in agriculture needs to be based on foru pillars: - Increasing soil fertility - Increasing biodiversity - Providing information and extension services to support sustainable agriculture practices and organic agriculture, agroecology and agroforestry - Geating a level playing field for sustainable agriculture at the gobal level. Organic agriculture is an ideal solution as it responds to the first three pillars. In addition, global policies, and trade and competition i...

  15. Hydrological and erosion processes in terraced agricultural fields: observations from a wet Mediterranean region in northern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Rodriguez-Blanco, María Luz; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Oliveira Alves Coelho, Celeste; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2015-04-01

    Traditional agriculture in the mountainous humid regions of the northwestern Iberian peninsula has relied on terraces for soil retention. In the last decades, a strong afforestation (in many cases with commercial species) has led to the appearance of large forest areas coexisting with traditional agricultural landscapes. Soil erosion research in this region has therefore focused on the impact of forest management practices and associated disturbances such as wildfires. However, there has been little research on the impacts of traditional terracing practices on erosion, and therefore it has been difficult to connect forest research with the wider issue of sediment connectivity in this complex agroforestry landscape. This work tried to address this research gap by monitoring an agricultural terrace in the Caramulo mountains, northern Portugal, during two years. The field site is located in a humid Mediterranean climate region, with c. 1500 mm/y rainfall, overlaying granite bedrock; agricultural practices are a traditional rotation between winter pasture and summer (irrigated) corn cultivation. During this period, the soil properties of the terrace were characterized, and there was a continuous monitoring of rainfall, soil moisture and surface runoff at the outlet, as well as 1 or 2-weekly collections of runoff to measure sediment yield. Occasional measurements of vegetation cover and erosion features (rills) within the plot were also made. Preliminary results indicate that runoff generation occurred mostly due to saturation-excess, possibly linked with the accumulation of groundwater in the lower layers of the soil. After one of the largest events, there was a clear inflow of runoff from outside the terrace, through either the irrigation network linking all terraces or by resurfacing of groundwater. Sediment yield was linked with runoff, but sediment concentration was linked with vegetation cover and was highest during the early stages of pasture growth. However

  16. Climate Effect of Bioenergy and Agriculture Integration Based on Lowtar Gasification of Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurjonsson, Hafthor Ægir; Elmegaard, Brian; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2015-01-01

    bioenergy and agricultural system through a polygenerating energy system, producing electricity, district heatand fertile biocharfor agricultural soil application. The case analysisis based on utilization of forest residues from a sustainably harvested forest. Quantification of the biogenic global warming......To mitigate the increasing pressure on Earth ́s biosphere through increased concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, processes in the anthroposphere must change from being fossil-to renewable resource driven. Bioenergy utilization of forest residues can be a step towards achieving...... potential is included in the analysis, by accounting for both the atmospheric load of biogenic carbon emissions and the carbon captured by forest re-growth. The energy conversion is based on thermal gasification. The gasifier allows changing the carbon conversion fraction, from the conventional maximum...

  17. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  18. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kim S.; Nimmo, John R.; Rose, Claire E.; Coupe, Richard H.

    2011-01-01

    SummaryIn many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10 m from the pond within 2 months. Within 1 month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5 m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10 weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12 m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  19. Standardization of doctoral study in agricultural and extension education: is the field of study mature enough for achievement of the optimum degree of order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, G E; Lindner, J R; Shinn, G C; Wingenbach, G W; Baker, M T

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and extension education--or some derivative name--is a field of study leading to the doctoral degree in universities around the world. Is there are body of knowledge or a taxonomy of the knowledge--e.g., a knowledge domain--that one should possess with a doctorate in agricultural and extension education? The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the work of researchers who attempted to define the field of study, with a taxonomy comprising the knowledge domains (standards) and knowledge objects--structured interrelated sets of data, knowledge, and wisdom--of the field of study. Doctoral study in agricultural and extension education needs a document that provides for rules and guidelines--rules and guidelines that in turn provide for common and repeated use--all leading to achievement of an optimum degree of order in the context of academic, scholarly, and professional practice in agricultural and extension education. Thus, one would know in broad categories the knowledge, skills, and abilities possessed by one who holds a doctoral degree in agricultural and extension education. That is, there would exist a standard for doctoral degrees in agricultural and extension education. A content analysis of three previous attempts to categorize knowledge in agricultural and extension education served as the primary technique to create a new taxonomy--or to confirm an existing taxonomy--for doctoral study in agricultural and extension education. The following coalesced as nine essential knowledge domains for a doctorate in agricultural and extension education: (1) history, philosophy, ethics, and policy; (2) agricultural/rural development; (3) organizational development and change management; (4) planning, needs assessment, and evaluation; (5) learning theory; (6) curriculum development and instructional design; (7) teaching methods and delivery strategies; (8) research methods and tools; and, (9) scholarship and communications.

  20. Potential of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels as Water Reservoir in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Demitri, C.; F. Scalera; M. Madaghiele; A. Sannino; Maffezzoli, A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work deals with the development of a biodegradable superabsorbent hydrogel, based on cellulose derivatives, for the optimization of water resources in agriculture, horticulture and, more in general, for instilling a wiser and savvier approach to water consumption. The sorption capability of the proposed hydrogel was firstly assessed, with specific regard to two variables that might play a key role in the soil environment, that is, ionic strength and pH. Moreover, a preliminary eva...

  1. Development of a Component-Based Modeling Framework for Agricultural Water-Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Moon-Seong Kang; Puneet Srivastava; Jung-Hun Song; Jihoon Park; Younggu Her; Sang Min Kim; Inhong Song

    2016-01-01

    Because hydrologic responses of an agricultural watershed are influenced by many natural and man-made factors including pond/reservoir, management practices, and/or irrigation/drainage, strategies of hydrological modeling for the watershed must be case-dependent and thus carefully designed to effectively reflect their roles as critical hydrologic components in simulation processes. In this study, we propose a component-based modeling framework that accommodates a flexible modeling approach to...

  2. Evaluation on Heavy Metal Pollution of Soil in Pollution-free Agricultural Product Bases in Guangxi

    OpenAIRE

    DENG, Minjun; Luo, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Using data of 6 pollution-free agricultural product bases in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, this paper analyzed content of heavy metals, including arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr) in soil. After Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As content in soil is determined, it evaluated the pollution of soil using single factor pollution index method and Nemerow synthetic pollution index method in combination with evaluation standard of heavy metals in soil and grading standard ...

  3. THE ROLE OF BUDGET PLANNING IN INNOVATION AND SCIENCE-BASED DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL HOLDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Говдя Виктор Виленович; Дегальцева Жанна Владимировна

    2015-01-01

    The article deals with the problem of inventory and costs management in agricultural holdings based on the use of budgeting, innovation and high-tech methods. It is proved that in modern agrobusinesses, planning and budgeting tools, as well as farm management accounts should have a rational number of descriptors, i.e. natural and cost parameters. The study found that the key performance indicators are the availability of working capital, a higher rate of productivity growth compared to the gr...

  4. A population based case-control study of agricultural injuries in children.

    OpenAIRE

    Stueland, D. T.; Lee, B.C.; Nordstrom, D L; Layde, P M; Wittman, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To identify preventable risk factors related to agricultural injuries occurring to children on family farms. SETTING: A geographically defined central region of Wisconsin, USA with nearly 1800 family dairy farms. METHODS: A two year, population based incidence study of occupational injuries among farm residents was conducted. For cases, trained staff abstracted information on the nature, severity, and treatment of the injury from the patient's medical record. Staff also administer...

  5. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Chenghai Yang; Westbrook, John K.; Charles P.-C. Suh; Martin, Daniel E.; W. Clint Hoffmann; Yubin Lan; Bradley K. Fritz; John A. Goolsby

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR) images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control ...

  6. Ionizing radiation in the field of hydrogels used for agriculture and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hydrogels, such as homopolymers of acrylamide (AHH type), co-polymers of acrylamide-sodium acrylate (ANACH type) and homopolymers of sodium acrylate (NAHH type), obtained by gamma ray and accelerated electron beam are presented. The effects of the solution chemical composition, swelling medium nature, radiation absorbed dose and radiation absorbed dose rate upon the swelling degree and mechanical strength of these hydrogel types are discussed. Distilled water, physiological serum and 4 N NaCl aqueous solution were used as swelling medium. Radiation absorbed dose has an important effect upon the swelling degree of AHH and ANACH types especially when distilled water is used as swelling medium while the NAHH swelling degree presents a small dependence versus absorbed dose for all swelling medium types. Usually, the swelling degree for all hydrogel types decreases versus absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate and exhibits the higher values for distilled water as swelling medium. The hydrogels mechanical strength exhibits a maximum value versus absorbed dose. The best values for mechanical strength depend on hydrogel type and swelling medium. The used range for absorbed dose was from 2 kGy to 16 kGy. Our types of hydrogels were developed for some applications such as in agriculture (AHH and ANACH types) to maintain soil humidity and in medicine as absorption material for dressing (NAHH types). (author)

  7. Temporal stability of estimated soil water flux patterns across agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    When a field or a small watershed is repeatedly surveyed for soil water content, sites often can be spotted where soil is consistently wetter or consistently dryer than average across the study area. This phenomenon has been called time stability, temporal stability, temporal persistence, or rank st...

  8. Discrete phase space based on finite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space

  9. Flood damage modeling based on expert knowledge: Insights from French damage model for agricultural sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelot, Frédéric; Agenais, Anne-Laurence; Brémond, Pauline

    2015-04-01

    In France, since 2011, it is mandatory for local communities to conduct cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of their flood management projects, to make them eligible for financial support from the State. Meanwhile, as a support, the French Ministry in charge of Environment proposed a methodology to fulfill CBA. Like for many other countries, this methodology is based on the estimation of flood damage. However, existing models to estimate flood damage were judged not convenient for a national-wide use. As a consequence, the French Ministry in charge of Environment launched studies to develop damage models for different sectors, such as: residential sector, public infrastructures, agricultural sector, and commercial and industrial sector. In this presentation, we aim at presenting and discussing methodological choices of those damage models. They all share the same principle: no sufficient data from past events were available to build damage models on a statistical analysis, so modeling was based on expert knowledge. We will focus on the model built for agricultural activities and more precisely for agricultural lands. This model was based on feedback from 30 agricultural experts who experienced floods in their geographical areas. They were selected to have a representative experience of crops and flood conditions in France. The model is composed of: (i) damaging functions, which reveal physiological vulnerability of crops, (ii) action functions, which correspond to farmers' decision rules for carrying on crops after a flood, and (iii) economic agricultural data, which correspond to featured characteristics of crops in the geographical area where the flood management project studied takes place. The two first components are generic and the third one is specific to the area studied. It is, thus, possible to produce flood damage functions adapted to different agronomic and geographical contexts. In the end, the model was applied to obtain a pool of damage functions giving

  10. Individual SWCNT based ionic field effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Pei; He, Jin; Park, Jae Hyun; Krstic, Predrag; Lindsay, Stuart

    2011-03-01

    Here we report that the ionic current through a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) can be effectively gated by a perpendicular electrical field from a top gate electrode, working as ionic field effect transistor. Both our experiment and simulation confirms that the electroosmotic current (EOF) is the main component in the ionic current through the SWCNT and is responsible for the gating effect. We also studied the gating efficiency as a function of solution concentration and pH and demonstrated that the device can work effectively in the physiological relevant condition. This work opens the door to use CNT based nanofluidics for ion and molecule manipulation. This work was supported by the DNA Sequencing Technology Program of the National Human Genome Research Institute (1RC2HG005625-01, 1R21HG004770-01), Arizona Technology Enterprises and the Biodesign Institute.

  11. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  12. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  13. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A;

    2014-01-01

    The globally-used herbicide glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine) and its most frequently detected metabolite, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), were studied in a unique 12-year field-scale monitoring program. The leaching of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particles were studied in a shallow...... drainage system beneath a 1.26 ha field. Five annual glyphosate applications were applied with different autumn application dates. Solute mass flux from the drain system following the five glyphosate applications were compared to determine how different factors affect the leaching of glyphosate, AMPA......, and particles. Glyphosate and AMPA leaching were highly event driven, controlled by the time and intensity of the first precipitation event after glyphosate application. A high similarity in time-accumulated curves for drainage and leached pesticide masses suggests near-constant drainage and leaching rates...

  14. Copper amendment of agricultural soil selects for bacterial antibiotic resistance in the field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, J.; Tom-Petersen, A.; Nybroe, O.

    2005-01-01

    Aims: The objective of this study was to determine whether Cu-amendment of field plots affects the frequency of Cu resistance, and antibiotic resistance patterns in indigenous soil bacteria. Methods and Results: Soil bacteria were isolated from untreated and Cu-amended field plots. Cu......-amendment significantly increased the frequency of Cu-resistant isolates. A panel of isolates were characterized by Gram-reaction, amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and resistance profiling against seven antibiotics. More than 95% of the Cu-resistant isolates were Gram-negative. Cu-resistant Gram......-negative isolates had significantly higher incidence of resistance to ampicillin, sulphanilamide and multiple (greater than or equal to3) antibiotics than Cu-sensitive Gram-negative isolates. Furthermore, Cu-resistant Gram-negative isolates from Cu-contaminated plots had significantly higher incidence of resistance...

  15. Impact of farmer field schools on agricultural productivity and poverty in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Kristin; Nkonya, Ephraim; Kato, Edward; Mekonnen, Daniel Ayalew; Odendo, Martins; Miiro, Richard; Nkuba, Jackson

    2010-01-01

    Farmer field schools (FFSs) are a popular education and extension approach worldwide. Such schools use experiential learning and a group approach to facilitate farmers in making decisions, solving problems, and learning new techniques. However, there is limited or conflicting evidence as to their effect on productivity and poverty, especially in East Africa. This study is unique in that it uses a longitudinal impact evaluation (difference in difference approach) with quasi-experimental method...

  16. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  17. A field-scale study of cadmium phytoremediation in a contaminated agricultural soil at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand: (1) Determination of Cd-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokaew, Saengdao; Landrot, Gautier

    2015-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) phytoremediation capabilities of Gynura pseudochina, Chromolaena odorata, Conyza sumatrensis, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Nicotiana tabacum were determined by conducting in-situ experiments in a highly Cd-contaminated agricultural field at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Most of these five plant species, which are commonly found in Thailand, previously demonstrated Cd-hyperaccumulating capacities under greenhouse conditions. This study represented an important initial step in determining if any of these plants could, under field-conditions, effectively remove Cd from the Mae Sot contaminated fields, which represent a health threat to thousands of local villagers. All plant species had at least a 95% survival rate on the final harvest day. Additionally, all plant species, except C. odorata, could hyperaccumulate the extractable Cd amounts present in the soil, based on their associated Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF), Translocation Factor (TF), and background Vegetation Factor (VF). Therefore, the four Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species identified in this study may successfully treat a majority of contaminated fields at Mae Sot, as it was previously reported that Cd amounts present in a number of these soils were mostly available. PMID:25454203

  18. A field-scale study of cadmium phytoremediation in a contaminated agricultural soil at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand: (1) Determination of Cd-hyperaccumulating plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaokaew, Saengdao; Landrot, Gautier

    2015-11-01

    The cadmium (Cd) phytoremediation capabilities of Gynura pseudochina, Chromolaena odorata, Conyza sumatrensis, Crassocephalum crepidioides and Nicotiana tabacum were determined by conducting in-situ experiments in a highly Cd-contaminated agricultural field at Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Most of these five plant species, which are commonly found in Thailand, previously demonstrated Cd-hyperaccumulating capacities under greenhouse conditions. This study represented an important initial step in determining if any of these plants could, under field-conditions, effectively remove Cd from the Mae Sot contaminated fields, which represent a health threat to thousands of local villagers. All plant species had at least a 95% survival rate on the final harvest day. Additionally, all plant species, except C. odorata, could hyperaccumulate the extractable Cd amounts present in the soil, based on their associated Bioaccumulation Factor (BAF), Translocation Factor (TF), and background Vegetation Factor (VF). Therefore, the four Cd-hyperaccumulating plant species identified in this study may successfully treat a majority of contaminated fields at Mae Sot, as it was previously reported that Cd amounts present in a number of these soils were mostly available.

  19. Study on Supply-chain of Modern Agricultural Products Based on IOT in Order to Guarantee the Quality and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo Lianguang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture features industrialization, marketized industrial structure, intensive production pattern and high digitization; farm produce logistics are characterized by wide range, large quantity, relative independence, consumable as well as value-added processing. In this study, in view of the features of modern agriculture and farm produce logistics, a SCOR model (Supply-Chain Operations Reference-model of agricultural products based on the Internet of things has been put forward through the improvement of the logistics model of traditional agricultural products. The advantages of this model have also been analyzed.

  20. Evaluating the Impacts of an Agricultural Water Market in the Guadalupe River Basin, Texas: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, E.; Cai, X.; Minsker, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture comprises about 80 percent of the total water consumption in the US. Under conditions of water shortage and fully committed water rights, market-based water allocations could be promising instruments for agricultural water redistribution from marginally profitable areas to more profitable ones. Previous studies on water market have mainly focused on theoretical or statistical analysis. However, how water users' heterogeneous physical attributes and decision rules about water use and water right trading will affect water market efficiency has been less addressed. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to evaluate the benefits of an agricultural water market in the Guadalupe River Basin during drought events. Agricultural agents with different attributes (i.e., soil type for crops, annual water diversion permit and precipitation) are defined to simulate the dynamic feedback between water availability, irrigation demand and water trading activity. Diversified crop irrigation rules and water bidding rules are tested in terms of crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. The model was coupled with a real-time hydrologic model and run under different water scarcity scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that an agricultural water market is capable of increasing crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. This capability is more significant under moderate drought scenarios than in mild and severe drought scenarios. The water market mechanism also increases agricultural resilience to climate uncertainty by reducing crop yield variance in drought events. The challenges of implementing an agricultural water market under climate uncertainty are also discussed.

  1. Study on High-efficiency Ecological Agricultural Development Based on Science and Technology in the Yellow River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping; YANG; Mingchuan; JI; Xiangfeng; WANG

    2013-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the status, characteristics and technological functions of high-efficiency ecological agricultural development in the Yellow river delta, the paper pointed out technological bottlenecks of the high-efficiency ecological agricultural development in the Yellow river delta. Some suggestions were proposed including changing the development concept, implementing nine projects, increasing capital investment, focusing on demonstration, and strengthening human resources.

  2. Organic agriculture in the municipality of Alta Floresta-MT: case study on family based properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Caroline de Lima Proença

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Family farming has distinct characteristics in their organization and reproduction, such as the use of labor, family labor, the smallest territorial dimension of the plant and crop diversity. Organic agriculture has great potential for family farms, establishing more harmonious relationships between natural ecosystems and agricultural activities. In this context, this paper aims to study five units of organic farming family based in the municipality of Alta Floresta, state of Mato Grosso, making the general characterization of it and trying to identify the reality and the difficulties faced by these farmers. Data were made from semi-structured interviews and observation. It was found that the lack of technical assistance, the lack of access to rural credit facilities and lack of family labor are limiting factors that directly interfere with the management of agroecosystems. Furthermore, the great diversity of species managed is a key success factor in seeking and maintaining the stability of agroecosystems.

  3. Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment - Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.

  4. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  5. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  6. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  7. Evaluation of Growth of Agricultural Listed Companies Based on AHP Weighting Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong; LU; Yan; CHENG; Huan; GAO; Changhai; ZHOU; Qinqin; WANG

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is the foundation of national economy,and agricultural development is related to the rapid development of long-term stability of the society and economy. Agriculture includes farming,forestry,animal husbandry,and fisheries. Agricultural listed company as an agricultural enterprise " leader",which directly affects the development of the entire growth of the agricultural industry development and policy,so the study of agricultural listed company’s growth is particularly important. This paper uses AHP weighting method to evaluate 2012 financial data on the growth of agricultural listed companies.

  8. Experimental monitoring and numerical study of pesticide (carbofuran) transfer in an agricultural soil at a field site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hmimou, Abderrahim; Maslouhi, Abdellatif; Tamoh, Karim; Candela, Lucila

    2014-09-01

    We studied the transport of a pesticide at field scale, namely carbofuran molecule, which is known for its high mobility, especially in sandy soils with high hydraulic conductivity and low organic matter. To add to our knowledge of the future of this high-mobility molecule in this type of soils, we developed a mechanistic numerical model allowing the simulation of hydric and solute transfers (bromide and carbofuran) in the soil. We carried out this study in an agricultural plot in the region of Mnasra in Morocco. Confrontation of the measured and simulated values allowed the calibration of the parameters of hydric transfer and carbofuran. The developed model accurately reproduces the measured values. Despite a weak irrigation and precipitation regime, carbofuran was practically leached beyond the root zone. Prospective simulations show that under a more important irrigation regime, carbofuran reaches a 100-cm depth, whereas it does not exceed 60 cm under a deficit regime.

  9. Optimization of dairy based farming agricultural in critical land area of Yogyakarta Special Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elan Masbula

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A study has been done to provide a conceptual basis for the development of agricultural system in critical land area in Yogyakarta Special Teritory as the smallest production unit to (1 determine optimum dairy farming based agriculture for the area and income maximization on either farmer own inputs or with CAFlTAL aid provided by a funding party, (2 to develop a model for developing farming system based on dairy farming in critical land area in Yogyakarta Special Teritory.Methods being used multistage problem solving approach to the problem encountered in farming system as practiced in Glagaharjo Village, Sub District of Cangkringan, Sleman with Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA and Agro-ecosystem Analysis as diagnostic activities. Farm record keeping and survey to fourty respondents purposively selected were then conducted. Using Linear Programming (LPM, a normative solution, under the imposed constraints for each activity, was obtained to see development effectivity of dairy based farming agricultural system. The result indicated that land resources had not managed optimally. Out of an average possession of 1,5 ha dry land, only 0,6 ha was cultivated, leading to relativelly low yield and income. Optimum dairy farming agriculture migh be an option to develop the area. Dairy farm Cooperative Agency (Model of Scenario I can play important role to improve farmer income. With an average of 1,5 ha dry land and an average of 3 Animal Unit raised would optimized the resources allocation and income of Rp.20,385,340 for a period of eight years. The income rnigh be further increased to Rp.36,176,070 for similar production period with soft loan provided by ventura fund (Model of Scenario ll to optimize land resources and family labor force use and a farmer was able to raised an average of 4 Animal Unit. If as being planned - such as scheme is adopted by 1,400 farmer, 230 worker will be employed in the first years. Employement need is increasing with time and

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F. G.; Pedersen, S. M.; Kjaergaard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  12. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter Engelund;

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly...... speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have...

  13. Competitiveness of Characteristic Agriculture in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Based on Explanatory Indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The five explanatory indicators of the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture are the agricultural science and technology,the cultural quality of agricultural labor force,the agricultural infrastructure,the resource endowment,and the agricultural management scale.According to these explanatory indicators,competitiveness of characteristic agriculture is relatively strong in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China,which is mainly reflected in the resource advantage,irrigation degree,and road construction level.However,the agricultural technology level,the cultural quality of agricultural labor force,the agricultural mechanization,and the agricultural management scale have relatively poor competitiveness.Therefore,more attention should be paid in these aspects,in order to improve the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture in Guangxi.

  14. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelliher, F M; Cox, N; van der Weerden, T J; de Klein, C A M; Luo, J; Cameron, K C; Di, H J; Giltrap, D; Rys, G

    2014-03-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N2O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. PMID:24361566

  15. PestLCI - a model for estimating field emissions of pesticides in agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2006-01-01

    to the different environmental compartments. It estimates the fractions of the applied quantity which is emitted to the air, surface water, and groundwater compartment based on information which will normally be available to the model user about: type and time of application, crop species and development stage...... for other regions of the world. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of <2 mm was mixed with surface soil to a depth of 15 cm in plots of 33 m2 each (n=4). Barley (at the Chernozem soil) and maize (at the Cambisol) were cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both

  17. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of cultivated according to standard agricultural practices. The highest crop yields at both study sites were observed after a biochar application rate of 90 t/ha and an abundant nitrogen supply (mineral N fertilizer rates: 120 kg/ha for

  18. Ground-Based Robotic Sensing of an Agricultural Sub-Canopy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, A.; Peschel, J.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne remote sensing is a useful method for measuring agricultural crop parameters over large areas; however, the approach becomes limited to above-canopy characterization as a crop matures due to reduced visual access of the sub-canopy environment. During the growth cycle of an agricultural crop, such as soybeans, the micrometeorology of the sub-canopy environment can significantly impact pod development and reduced yields may result. Larger-scale environmental conditions aside, the physical structure and configuration of the sub-canopy matrix will logically influence local climate conditions for a single plant; understanding the state and development of the sub-canopy could inform crop models and improve best practices but there are currently no low-cost methods to quantify the sub-canopy environment at a high spatial and temporal resolution over an entire growth cycle. This work describes the modification of a small tactical and semi-autonomous, ground-based robotic platform with sensors capable of mapping the physical structure of an agricultural row crop sub-canopy; a soybean crop is used as a case study. Point cloud data representing the sub-canopy structure are stored in LAS format and can be used for modeling and visualization in standard GIS software packages.

  19. The Advantage and Limitation of Agriculture Byproduct and Feeding Strategy Based on Agriculture Byproduct for Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed supply is getting limited since the use of land for forages has been replaced by building industries big plantation, agriculture. Sustainable integration between animal and food crop and plantation is efficient and gives advantage for both. Rice, cassava soybean, groundnut, palm oil, coconut, coffee, cocoa and sugar cane are food crop and plantation which their byproducts are generally used or modified/processed for ruminant production. This paper describes optimization on the use of these byproducts to decrease feed cost without ignoring the feed quality. These byproducts have special characteristic and limitation with fluctuated price. Their nutritive values vary and they can be grouped into fiber, fiber-energy, fiber-protein, protein or energy sources. Therefore, special strategy for each location and purpose of livestock industry is required to get an efficient and optimal feed composition.

  20. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  1. Number of Bovine Animals in Provinces Incoming Working Field GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Han

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the share in total and the presence of cattle in provinces of GAPUTAEM has been referred. According to official data of 2012 of TUIK, when number of cattle was 11.972.923 heads in 1991, in 2012 years increased 13.914.912 heads. According to year of 1991, number of cattle increased 16%. In our country, the number of Anatolian Water Buffalo declined from 366.150 heads to 107.435 heads during 1991-2012 and this reduction is 70.6%. 15.977.838 tons milk was obtained from dairy cattle of 5.431.400 heads and average milk yield was 2.942 kg/head. 46.989 tons milk was produced from 46.959 heads of Anatolian Water Buffaloes and average milk yield was 1.006 kg/head. However, there were totally cattle of 1.173.008 heads in study field of Institute. 1.098.895 tons milk was produced from cattle of 451.039 heads. Totally, there were 15.478 heads Anatolian Water Buffaloes in 11 provinces. 6.384 tons milk was produced from 6.738 heads Anatolian Water Buffaloes in 2012. Across the country, despite cattle (domestic decreased, cattle (cross-bred and cattle (culture had increased. The possibility of breeding of native cattle should be investigated. Also, growers and technical staffs should be trained that affected by entering of culture breeds.

  2. Instantaneous and daily values of the surface energy balance over agricultural fields using remote sensing and a reference field in an arid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustas, W.P.; Moran, M.S.; Jackson, R. D.; Gay, L.W.; Duell, L.F.W.; Kunkel, K.E.; Matthias, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperature and reflectance in the visible and near infrared wavebands along with ancilliary meteorological data provide the capability of computing three of the four surface energy balance components (i.e., net radiation, soil heat flux, and sensible heat flux) at different spatial and temporal scales. As a result, under nonadvective conditions, this enables the estimation of the remaining term (i.e., the latent heat flux). One of the practical applications with this approach is to produce evapotranspiration (ET) maps for agricultural regions which consist of an array of fields containing different crops at varying stages of growth and soil moisture conditions. Such a situation exists in the semiarid southwest at the University of Arizona Maricopa Agricultural Center, south of Phoenix. For one day (14 June 1987), surface temperature and reflectance measurements from an aircraft 150 m above ground level (agl) were acquired over fields from zero to nearly full cover at four times between 1000 MST and 1130 MST. The diurnal pattern of the surface energy balance was measured over four fields, which included alfalfa at 60% cover, furrowed cotton at 20% and 30% cover, and partially plowed what stubble. Instantaneous and daily values of ET were estimated for a representative area around each flux site with an energy balance model that relies on a reference ET. This reference value was determined with remotely sensed data and several meteorological inputs. The reference ET was adjusted to account for the different surface conditions in the other fields using only remotely sensed variables. A comparison with the flux measurements suggests the model has difficulties with partial canopy conditions, especially related to the estimation of the sensible heat flux. The resulting errors for instantaneous ET were on the order of 100 W m-2 and for daily values of order 2 mm day-1. These findings suggest future research should involve development of methods to

  3. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. PMID:24509365

  4. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter E; Nybroe, Ole; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed

    2014-11-01

    Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu speciation and bioavailability artifacts during Leu-PICT detection. Hence, the agricultural application of urban wastes (sewage sludge or composted municipal waste) simulating more than 100 years of use did not result in sufficient accumulation of Cu to select for Cu resistance. Our findings also have implications for previously published PICT field studies and demonstrate that stringent PICT detection criteria are needed for field identification of specific toxicants.

  5. Assessment on the rates and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan using a process-based model and spatially explicit land-use change inventories - Part 2: Future potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Future potentials of the sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural lands in Japan were estimated using a simulation system we recently developed to simulate SOC stock change at country-scale under varying land-use change, climate, soil, and agricultural practices, in a spatially explicit manner. Simulation was run from 1970 to 2006 with historical inventories, and subsequently to 2020 with future scenarios of agricultural activity comprised of various agricultural policy targets advocated by the Japanese government. Furthermore, the simulation was run subsequently until 2100 while forcing no temporal changes in land-use and agricultural activity to investigate duration and course of SOC stock change at country scale. A scenario with an increased rate of organic carbon input to agricultural fields by intensified crop rotation in combination with the suppression of conversion of agricultural lands to other land-use types was found to have a greater reduction of CO2 emission by enhanced soil carbon sequestration, but only under a circumstance in which the converted agricultural lands will become settlements that were considered to have a relatively lower rate of organic carbon input. The size of relative reduction of CO2 emission in this scenario was comparable to that in another contrasting scenario (business-as-usual scenario of agricultural activity) in which a relatively lower rate of organic matter input to agricultural fields was assumed in combination with an increased rate of conversion of the agricultural fields to unmanaged grasslands through abandonment. Our simulation experiment clearly demonstrated that net-net-based accounting on SOC stock change, defined as the differences between the emissions and removals during the commitment period and the emissions and removals during a previous period (base year or base period of Kyoto Protocol), can be largely influenced by variations in future climate. Whereas baseline-based accounting, defined

  6. Evaluation of Comprehensive Agricultural Production Capacity Based on Factor Analysis:A Case Study of Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenzhu; RAO

    2013-01-01

    Based on the basic connotation of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,this article establishes the comprehensive agricultural production capacity indicator system on the basis of statistics. This indicator system consists of 5 parts ( input scale of factors,output scale of factors,output rate of factors,ability to resist disaster and ensure production,and modern operation level) and 14 specific indicators. Based on factor analysis method,we use this indicator system to conduct systematic empirical analysis of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in 14 cities and prefectures of Hunan Province. The results show that although the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity in Hunan Province tends to grow continuously and steadily,there are significant inter-regional differences in the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; in terms of the level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity,there is great room for improvement. Finally the following policy recommendations are put forward: strengthening balanced regional development and improving the overall level of comprehensive agricultural production capacity; strengthening the building of land carrying capacity; strengthening the building of agricultural ecological balance; strengthening the building of the scientific and technological support capacity.

  7. Study on the Agricultural Biotechnology Innovation Based on the Product Differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang; WU; Yong; DU

    2014-01-01

    Based on product differentiation,this paper researches the innovation of agricultural biotechnology. In the duopoly structure,the company’s investment in innovation is affected by the product differentiation,and the greater the difference,the greater the willingness to increase investment and improve quality; at the same time,low innovative cost companies will choose a higher level of investment in innovation and quality. If there is no difference between the products,the companies with high cost of innovation abandon quality competition,and the companies with low cost of innovation " monopolize" the market.

  8. INNOVATIONS IN AGRICULTURE AND MANUFACTURING IN SELECTED EU COUNTRIES: A STUDY BASED ON INPUT-OUTPUT TABLES

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Diniz; Pradip Biswas

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to analyse patterns of innovations in Agricultural and agro-based industries (like agricultural products, food products, textiles, leather, paper, publishing and printing), Mineral based industries (like chemicals, rubber and plastic products, basic metals, fabricated metals) and Machinery including electrical machinery, electronic goods and communications equipment, and transport vehicles industries in selected EU countries, namely France, Germany, Italy, Po...

  9. Assessing the mitigation potential of agricultural systems by optimization of the agricultural management: A modeling study on 8 agricultural observation sites across Europe with the process based model LandscapeDNDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Herrera, Saul; Haas, Edwin; Klatt, Steffen; Kraus, David; Kiese, Ralf; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    The use of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizers increase crop yields but cause the biggest anthropogenic source of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and strongly contribute to surface water eutrophication (e.g. nitrate leaching). The necessity to identify affordable strategies that improve crop production while improving ecosystem services are in continuous debate between policy decision makers and farmers. In this line, a lack commitment from farmers to enforce laws might result in the reduction of benefits. For this reason, farmers should aim to increase crop production and to reduce environmental harm by the adoption of precision climate smart agriculture tools applied to management practices for instance. In this study we present optimized strategies for 8 sites (agricultural and grassland ecosystems) with long term field observation across Europe to show the mitigation potential to reduce reactive nitrogen losses under the constrain of keeping yields at observed levels. LandscapeDNDC simulations of crop yields and associated nitrogen losses (N2O emissions and NO3 leaching) were evaluated against long term field measurements. The sites presented different management regimes including the main commodity crops (maize, wheat, barley, rape seeds, etc) and fertilization amendments (synthetic and organic fertilizers) in Europe. The simulations reproduced the observed yields, captured N2O emissions and NO3 leaching losses with high statistical presicion (r2), acurrency (ME) and agreement (RMSPEn). The mitigation potentials to reduce N losses while keeping yields at observed levels for all 8 sites were assesed by Monte Carlo optimizations of the individual underlying multi year agricultural management options (timings of planting and harvest, fertilization & manure applications and rates, residues management). In this study we present for all 8 agricultural observations sites their individual mitigation potentials to reduce N losses for multi year rotations. The conclusions

  10. Modelling in situ enzyme potential of soils: a tool to predict soil respiration from agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbaz Ali, Rana; Poll, Christian; Demyan, Scott; Nkwain Funkuin, Yvonne; Ingwersen, Joachim; Wizemann, Hans-Dieter; Kandeler, Ellen

    2014-05-01

    The fate of soil organic carbon (SOC) is one of the largest uncertainties in predicting future climate and terrestrial ecosystem functions. Extra-cellular enzymes, produced by microorganisms, perform the very first step in SOC degradation and serve as key components in global carbon cycling. Very little information is available about the seasonal variation in the temperature sensitivity of soil enzymes. Here we aim to model in situ enzyme potentials involved in the degradation of either labile or recalcitrant organic compounds to understand the temporal variability of degradation processes. To identify the similarities in seasonal patterns of soil respiration and in situ enzyme potentials, we compared the modelled in situ enzyme activities with weekly measured soil CO2 emissions. Arable soil samples from two different treatments (4 years fallow and currently vegetated plots; treatments represent range of carbon input into soil) were collected every month from April, 2012 to April, 2013, from two different study regions (Kraichgau and Swabian Alb) in Southwest Germany. The vegetation plots were under crop rotation in both study areas. We measured activities of three enzymes including β-glucosidase, xylanase and phenoloxidase at five different temperatures. We also measured soil microbial biomass in form of microbial carbon (Cmic). Land-use and area had significant effects (P < 0.001) on the microbial biomass; fallow plots having less Cmic than vegetation plots. Potential activities of β-glucosidase (P < 0.001) and xylanase (P < 0.01) were significantly higher in the vegetation plots of the Swabian Alb region than in the Kraichgau region. In both study areas, enzyme activities were higher during vegetation period and lower during winter which points to the importance of carbon input and/or temperature and soil moisture. We calculated the temperature sensitivity (Q10) of enzyme activities based on laboratory measurements of enzyme activities at a range of incubation

  11. The Supply and Demand of Agricultural Products in China Based on Balanced Diet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Promoting agricultural production and ensuring the supply of agricultural products has always been the main task of agricultural development in China,but the agricultural production in China has not yet been combined with the Chinese residents’ dietary needs to formulate reasonable development goals,with a certain blindness in production. According to the dietary standards in The Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents developed by the Chinese Nutrition Society,we calculate the demand of various types of agricultural products in China under the conditions of balanced diet. In comparison with the output of various types of agricultural products in China at present,we find that the output of most of agricultural products in China has exceeded the reasonable demand of the Chinese residents under the conditions of balanced diet. Therefore,adjusting the agricultural production structure in China and advocating balanced diet has become an important way to solve the problem of balance between supply and demand of agricultural products.

  12. Optimizing intermediate ecosystem services in agriculture using rules based on landscape composition and configuration indices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Ekroos, Johan; Smith, Henrik G.;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Important intermediate ecosystem services (ES) such as crop pollination and biological control of pests, which underpin the final ES agricultural yields, are mediated by mobile organisms that depend on availability of habitat and its arrangement in the landscape. It has been suggested that...... landscape-scale management (LSM) of habitat in a multi-farm setting results in higher provisioning of such ES compared to farm-scale management (FSM). However, to achieve the LSM solution, farmers' land-use decisions need to be coordinated. To this end, we develop rules based on novel landscape composition...... and configuration indices. We model farmers' interdependencies through ES in an agent-based model (ABM) and optimize land use at both the farm and landscape scales for comparison. Our analysis is based on a simple artificial landscape with homogeneous soil quality and uses crop pollination as an...

  13. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m-2 h-1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m-2 h-1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately.

  14. Demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data for the majority of United States harvested cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning, and may be indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization, and labor intensity. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints, the complexity of the extraction task, and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields from weekly 30 m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series was refined and applied to 14 states that cover 70% of harvested U.S. cropland (USDA 2012 Census). The methodology was applied to 2010 combined weekly Landsat 5 and 7 WELD data. The field extraction and quantitative validation results are presented for the following 14 states: Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, South Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and Michigan (sorted by area of harvested cropland). These states include the top 11 U.S states by harvested cropland area. Implications and recommendations for systematic application to global coverage Landsat data are discussed.

  15. CROPCAST - A Review Of An Existing Remote Sensor-Based Agricultural Information System With A View Toward Future Remote Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Earl S.; Heitkemper, Lawrence; Marcus, Kevin

    1984-08-01

    Global agricultural production information is the key to many economic decisions. National level planners use it to plan imports or to assess balance of payments, farmers use it to make planting decisions, lending and aid institutions use it to plan loans and aid needs, commodity buyers use it to plan purchases. Traditional information systems are slow, offer little confidence and may be inaccurate; systems based on the use of space remote sensor systems are, on the other hand, fast, provide good confidence and are demonstrating improving accuracies. The system structure for remote sensor assisted agricultural information systems is centered on a geobased structure, mapped outputs pinpoint locations where plant stress is impacting yields. Meteorological satellite assessments pinpoint where rainfall and significant solar radiation is impacting the plant environment. The CROPCAST Agricultural Information System offers an opportunity to examine an operating system which contains characteristics essential to all future systems. CROPCAST's use of a grid/cell geobased structure provides a mechanism to effectively use remote-sensor derived data of all types, i.e., Landsats, metsats, aircraft and human eyeball derived data. Predictive models operating in CROPCAST provide updated agricultural assessments in the time intervals when no Landsat or other field observation data are available. Economic models provide the opportunity to merge CROPCAST diagnostic and predictive output with the market place at both the cash and futures level. This presentation will examine the CROPCAST structure as a model for future uses of remote sensing data from civil remote sensing systems in assessing global agricultural production. A review of the future direction to be taken by the CROPCAST System will be included to identify new avenues for remote sensor-based agricultural information system growth over the coming decade of change in remote sensor systems.

  16. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  17. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, Dale K. (Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID); Morgan, John P,. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    A magnetic field controller for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage.

  18. DC-based magnetic field controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.; Morgan, J.P.

    1994-05-31

    A magnetic field controller is described for laboratory devices and in particular to dc operated magnetic field controllers for mass spectrometers, comprising a dc power supply in combination with improvements to a Hall probe subsystem, display subsystem, preamplifier, field control subsystem, and an output stage. 1 fig.

  19. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  20. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  1. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  2. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  3. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  4. Wi-Fi and Satellite-Based Location Techniques for Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Controlled by a Human Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjanac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the new agricultural scenarios, the interaction between autonomous tractors and a human operator is important when they jointly perform a task. Obtaining and exchanging accurate localization information between autonomous tractors and the human operator, working as a team, is a critical to maintaining safety, synchronization, and efficiency during the execution of a mission. An advanced localization system for both entities involved in the joint work, i.e., the autonomous tractors and the human operator, provides a basis for meeting the task requirements. In this paper, different localization techniques for a human operator and an autonomous tractor in a field environment were tested. First, we compared the localization performances of two global navigation satellite systems’ (GNSS receivers carried by the human operator: (1 an internal GNSS receiver built into a handheld device; and (2 an external DGNSS receiver with centimeter-level accuracy. To investigate autonomous tractor localization, a real-time kinematic (RTK-based localization system installed on autonomous tractor developed for agricultural applications was evaluated. Finally, a hybrid localization approach, which combines distance estimates obtained using a wireless scheme with the position of an autonomous tractor obtained using an RTK-GNSS system, is proposed. The hybrid solution is intended for user localization in unstructured environments in which the GNSS signal is obstructed. The hybrid localization approach has two components: (1 a localization algorithm based on the received signal strength indication (RSSI from the wireless environment; and (2 the acquisition of the tractor RTK coordinates when the human operator is near the tractor. In five RSSI tests, the best result achieved was an average localization error of 4 m. In tests of real-time position correction between rows, RMS error of 2.4 cm demonstrated that the passes were straight, as was desired for the

  5. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  6. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae) against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elumalai Arumugam; Backiyaraj Muthusamy; Kasinathan Dhamodaran; Mathivanan Thangarasu; Krishnappa Kaliyamoorthy; Elumalai Kuppusamy

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) (S. litura). Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990), with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths) S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925); the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  7. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  8. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex, through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps.Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages.Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%.Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.Abbreviations used: Ectomycorrhiza (ECM fungus; Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM; Operational taxonomic unit (OTU.

  9. Impact of Brick Kilns’ Emission on Soil Quality of Agriculture Fields in the Vicinity of Selected Bhaktapur Area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate soil quality and impact of brick kiln on different physicochemical parameters of soils of agricultural field, located in the vicinity of Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study was carried out by determining the physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil fertility, and heavy metal contamination of soil. During the entire study period, water absorptivity of soil ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mg/L, pH varies from 5.885 to 7.64, and organic carbon content and organic matter varied from 0.277 to 0.93%, from 0.477% to 1.603%, respectively. Nutrient content, that is, sulfate and nitrate concentration, in the soil ranged from 0.829 to 3.764 mol/L and from 0.984 to 29.99 mol/L, respectively. The findings revealed that concentrations of heavy metals (chromium and lead were within permissible limit, although the levels were higher in soil at 50 m and decrease farther from brick kiln. However, the physical parameters and nutrient content were deficient in soil at 50 m while increasing gradually at distances of 100 m and 150 m. The variation of result obtained for physical parameters supports the fact that quality of soil in terms of heavy metal content and nutrient content was directly proportional to the distance from the kiln; that is, the quality of soil increased with increasing distance.

  10. Intermittent spring flooding of agricultural fields will increase net global-warming potential of greenhouse gas fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. F.; Smyth, E. M.; Smith, C. M.; Kantola, I. B.; Krichels, A.; Yang, W. H.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2014-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt is currently a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous dioxide to the atmosphere but is also a weak sink for methane. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and duration of spring precipitation in the North American Midwest, resulting in intermittent flooding and ponding in agricultural fields. Inundation changes the greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of the soil, especially by promoting methanogenesis under anoxic conditions. DNA and 16S cDNA sequencing results of earlier, similar experiments confirmed the presence of methanogens in soil samples, albeit in low abundance (representing reads per sample). We installed collars into bare ground of a central Illinois research field to experiment with flooding conditions and observe changes in gas fluxes, microbial community, and soil chemistry. We established three treatments of five replicates—control, continuously flooded, and intermittently flooded—each with separate collars for gas flux measurements, soil sample collection, and soil probe measurements. A drip irrigation system flooded the headspaces of the collars to produce flooding events. The continuously flooded collars were maintained in a flooded condition for the duration of the experiment, and the intermittently flooded collars were flooded for 72 hours per flooding event and then kept dry for at least 5 days before the next flooding event. We measured net concentrations of N2O, CH4, and CO2 in situ using a static chamber connected to a cavity ringdown spectrometer. We found that the periodicity of wetting and drying events induces hysteresis effects that push GHG shifts to occur rapidly (impact of increasing the soil GHG emissions from the U.S. Corn Belt region.

  11. Panel Data Based Dynamic Evaluation of Agricultural Resource Utilization Efficiency: A Case Study of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yajuan; TIAN; Li; ZHEN

    2013-01-01

    Resource utilization efficiency is one of important factors influencing modern agricultural development. This paper evaluates agricultural resource utilization efficiency of Hebei Province in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period by dynamic comprehensive evaluation method. Evaluation results indicate that regional disparity in agricultural resource utilization efficiency is significant, and the disparity is increasing year by year.

  12. Improving soil moisture simulation to support Agricultural Water Resource Management using Satellite-based water cycle observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manika; Bolten, John; Lakshmi, Venkat

    2016-04-01

    Efficient and sustainable irrigation systems require optimization of operational parameters such as irrigation amount which are dependent on the soil hydraulic parameters that affect the model's accuracy in simulating soil water content. However, it is a scientific challenge to provide reliable estimates of soil hydraulic parameters and irrigation estimates, given the absence of continuously operating soil moisture and rain gauge network. For agricultural water resource management, the in-situ measurements of soil moisture are currently limited to discrete measurements at specific locations, and such point-based measurements do not represent the spatial distribution at a larger scale accurately, as soil moisture is highly variable both spatially and temporally (Wang and Qu 2009). In the current study, flood irrigation scheme within the land surface model is triggered when the root-zone soil moisture deficit reaches below a threshold of 25%, 50% and 75% with respect to the maximum available water capacity (difference between field capacity and wilting point) and applied until the top layer is saturated. An additional important criterion needed to activate the irrigation scheme is to ensure that it is irrigation season by assuming that the greenness vegetation fraction (GVF) of the pixel exceed 0.40 of the climatological annual range of GVF (Ozdogan et al. 2010). The main hypothesis used in this study is that near-surface remote sensing soil moisture data contain useful information that can describe the effective hydrological conditions of the basin such that when appropriately inverted, it would provide field capacity and wilting point soil moisture, which may be representative of that basin. Thus, genetic algorithm inverse method is employed to derive the effective parameters and derive the soil moisture deficit for the root zone by coupling of AMSR-E soil moisture with the physically based hydrological model. Model performance is evaluated using MODIS

  13. Explosive Field Visualization Based on Image Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wen-yao; JIANG Ling-shuang

    2009-01-01

    m the composite sequence. Experimental results show that the new images integrate the advantages of sources, effectively improve the visualization, and disclose more information about explosive field.

  14. Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium are inversely correlated and related to agricultural practices in long-term field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateryna eZhalnina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural land management, such as fertilization, liming, and tillage affects soil properties, including pH, organic matter content, nitrification rates, and the microbial community. Three different study sites were used to identify microorganisms that correlate with agricultural land use and to determine which factors regulate the relative abundance of the microbial signatures of the agricultural land-use. The three sites included in this study are the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research, UK, the Everglades Agricultural Area, Florida, USA and the Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan, USA. The effects of agricultural management on the abundance and diversity of bacteria and archaea were determined using high throughput, barcoded 16S rRNA sequencing. In addition, the relative abundance of these organisms was correlated with soil features. Two groups of microorganisms involved in nitrogen cycle were highly correlated with land use at all three sites. The ammonia oxidizing-archaea, dominated by Ca. Nitrososphaera, were positively correlated with agriculture while a ubiquitous group of soil bacteria closely related to the diazotrophic symbiont, Bradyrhizobium, was negatively correlated with agricultural management. Analysis of successional plots showed that the abundance of ammonia oxidizing-archaea declined and the abundance of bradyrhizobia increased with time away from agriculture. This observation suggests that the effect of agriculture on the relative abundance of these genera is reversible. Soil pH and NH3 concentrations were positively correlated with archaeal abundance but negatively correlated with the abundance of Bradyrhizobium. The high correlations of Ca. Nitrososphaera and Bradyrhizobium abundances with agricultural management at three long-term experiments with different edaphoclimatic conditions allowed us to suggest these two genera as signature microorganisms for agricultural land use.

  15. A center for commercial development of space: Real-time satellite mapping. Remote sensing-based agricultural information expert system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadipriono, Fabian C.; Diaz, Carlos F.; Merritt, Earl S.

    1989-01-01

    The research project results in a powerful yet user friendly CROPCAST expert system for use by a client to determine the crop yield production of a certain crop field. The study is based on the facts that heuristic assessment and decision making in agriculture are significant and dominate much of agribusiness. Transfer of the expert knowledge concerning remote sensing based crop yield production into a specific expert system is the key program in this study. A knowledge base consisting of a root frame, CROP-YIELD-FORECAST, and four subframes, namely, SATELLITE, PLANT-PHYSIOLOGY, GROUND, and MODEL were developed to accommodate the production rules obtained from the domain expert. The expert system shell Personal Consultant Plus version 4.0. was used for this purpose. An external geographic program was integrated to the system. This project is the first part of a completely built expert system. The study reveals that much effort was given to the development of the rules. Such effort is inevitable if workable, efficient, and accurate rules are desired. Furthermore, abundant help statements and graphics were included. Internal and external display routines add to the visual capability of the system. The work results in a useful tool for the client for making decisions on crop yield production.

  16. Coupled planning of water resources and agricultural landuse based on an inexact-stochastic programming model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Cong; Huang, Guohe; Tan, Qian; Cai, Yanpeng

    2014-03-01

    Water resources are fundamental for support of regional development. Effective planning can facilitate sustainable management of water resources to balance socioeconomic development and water conservation. In this research, coupled planning of water resources and agricultural land use was undertaken through the development of an inexact-stochastic programming approach. Such an inexact modeling approach was the integration of interval linear programming and chance-constraint programming methods. It was employed to successfully tackle uncertainty in the form of interval numbers and probabilistic distributions existing in water resource systems. Then it was applied to a typical regional water resource system for demonstrating its applicability and validity through generating efficient system solutions. Based on the process of modeling formulation and result analysis, the developed model could be used for helping identify optimal water resource utilization patterns and the corresponding agricultural land-use schemes in three sub-regions. Furthermore, a number of decision alternatives were generated under multiple water-supply conditions, which could help decision makers identify desired management policies.

  17. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghai Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control is used to trigger both cameras simultaneously. Images are stored in 14-bit RAW and 8-bit JPEG files in CompactFlash cards. The second-order transformation was used to align the color and NIR images to achieve subpixel alignment in four-band images. The imaging system was tested under various flight and land cover conditions and optimal camera settings were determined for airborne image acquisition. Images were captured at altitudes of 305–3050 m (1000–10,000 ft and pixel sizes of 0.1–1.0 m were achieved. Four practical application examples are presented to illustrate how the imaging system was used to estimate cotton canopy cover, detect cotton root rot, and map henbit and giant reed infestations. Preliminary analysis of example images has shown that this system has potential for crop condition assessment, pest detection, and other agricultural applications.

  18. Self-adaptive Decision Model based on Agricultural Knowledge%面向农业领域知识的自适应决策模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 邓寒冰; 朴在林; 谭东明; 杨萍; 刘君

    2016-01-01

    随着信息技术的快速发展,农业知识和数据在互联网中呈现爆发式增长,如何实现农业信息的精准推送是农业信息化领域所面临的重要问题。为此,提出一种面向农业领域知识的自适应决策模型,设计了面向农业领域知识的思维决策模型AKDM (agriculture knowledge decision-making model),利用软件Agent主动采集网络环境中的知识信息,基于信息内容来推理、分析并导出结果,进而指导知识推送行为。结果表明:将农业本体知识转换成信念、愿望和意图集合,同时利用三者之间的决策推理关系指导知识推送行为,可以实现基于农业领域知识的自适应决策推理过程,且涉及的试验过程为实现农业信息的个性化智能推送提供了一个可行模型参考。%With the rapid development of information technology, agricultural knowledge and data have seen explosive growth in the internet. It has become a major problem facing the field of agricultural informatization to realize the precise pushing of agricultural information. This paper proposes an agricultural knowledge-oriented self-adaption decision-making model, the AKDM (agriculture knowledge decision-making model), which actively collects knowledge and information in the internet using Agent software, and performs reasoning, analyzing and result delivering based on the information collected, and finally giving instructions on knowledge pushing. The result showed it was possible to realize the self-adaption decision-making with regard to agricultural knowledge by converting agricultural knowledge into a cluster of faith, will and intention and guiding information pushing behavior by the relations of decision-making and reasoning among them. Thus, the experiment in this paper provides a feasible model for the intelligent personalized pushing of agricultural information.

  19. The Changes of Fiscal Agriculture-Supporting Expenditure and Farmers’ Income Based on Grey Correlation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the relevant data of China Statistical Yearbook and Chinese Rural Statistical Yearbook in the year of 2009,the changes of grey correlation degree of farmers’ net income,various items of incomes,national gross agriculture-supporting expenditure and various items of expenditures,farmers’ net income and various items of fiscal agriculture-supporting expenditure in the Eighth Five-Year Plan,Ninth Five-Year Plan and Tenth Five-Year Plan by using grey correlation degree and the by choosing seven indicators covering income from wage and salary,income from household business,transfer income and property income,agricultural production-supporting expenditure,agricultural basic construction expenditure,expenses of three items of agricultural technology and the fee of rural relief.The results show that the grey correlation degree of each time period and household net income shows the downward trend;from overall perspective,the grey correlation degree of national gross agriculture-supporting expenditure,agricultural basic construction expenditure and agricultural production-supporting expenditure shows the descending trend;the grey correlation degree of fiscal agricultural supporting expenditure and the expenditure of three items of agricultural technology and fee of rural relief show the upward trend;the influence of agricultural production-supporting expenditure on farmers’ income shows downward trend;the influence of agricultural basic construction on farmers’ income shows upward trend;the fee of rural relief play an active role in the promoting the farmers’ income increase;the role played by fee of rural relief in promoting farmers’ income increase should be further increased;the increase of farmers’ income shows great reliance on agricultural science and technology.In the end,the relevant suggestions on establishing stable increase mechanism of fiscal agricultural support and insisting on the dynamic adjustment of the structure of fiscal

  20. Polyoxyethylene Tallow Amine, a Glyphosate Formulation Adjuvant: Soil Adsorption Characteristics, Degradation Profile, and Occurrence on Selected Soils from Agricultural Fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tush, Daniel; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-01

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season. PMID:27163278

  1. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  2. Vertical distribution of heavy metals in soil profile in a seasonally waterlogging agriculture field in Eastern Ganges Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, N; Prathapar, S A; Jayaprakash, M; Nagarajan, R

    2014-09-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soil and water is a serious concern due to their persistence and toxicity. This study investigated the vertical distribution of heavy metals, possible sources and their relation with soil texture in a soil profile from seasonally waterlogged agriculture fields of Eastern Ganges basin. Fifteen samples were collected at ~0.90-m interval during drilling of 13.11 mbgl and analysed for physical parameters (moisture content and grain size parameters: sand, silt, clay ratio) and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, Ni and Cd). The average metal content was in the decreasing order of Fe > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd. Vertical distribution of Fe, Mn, Zn and Ni shows more or less similar trends, and clay zone records high concentration of heavy metals. The enrichment of heavy metals in clay zone with alkaline pH strongly implies that the heavy metal distributions in the study site are effectively regulated by soil texture and reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxy-hydroxides. Correlation coefficient analysis indicates that most of the metals correlate with Fe, Mn and soil texture (clay and silt). Soil quality assessment was carried out using geoaccumulation index (I(geo)), enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). The enrichment factor values were ranged between 0.66 (Mn) and 2.34 (Co) for the studied metals, and the contamination factor values varied between 0.79 (Mn) and 2.55 (Co). Results suggest that the elements such as Cu and Co are categorized as moderate to moderately severe contamination, which are further confirmed by I(geo) values (0.69 for Cu and 0.78 for Co). The concentration of Ni exceeded the effects-range median values, and the biological adverse effect of this metal is 87%. The average concentration of heavy metals was compared with published data such as concentration of heavy metals in Ganga River sediments, Ganga Delta sediments and upper continental crust (UCC

  3. Benchmarking water productivity in agriculture and the scope for improvement - remote sensing modelling from field to global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer and water. In the context of an increasing population and less water available for the agricultural sector, the water productivity needs to be sustained or increased to secure food security. This study provides benchmark values for water productivity for the major

  4. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO3 by 61 or 59% and N2O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha−1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha−1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits. - Highlights: • Design of a multifunctional landscape by integrating cellulosic biofuel production into an existing agricultural system. • The design does not adversely offset current grain production for bioenergy crops. • Maps of concentrated flow paths, subsurface flow direction, NO3–N hotspots, and intra-field corn yield variability.

  5. Dual-permeability modeling of preferential bromide leaching from a tile-drained glacial till agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Horst H.; Maximilian Köhne, J.

    2004-04-01

    A tile-drained agricultural field can be regarded as a 'field-scale' lysimeter that may be used to study soil water and chemical transport under relatively natural conditions. Tile discharge and effluent bromide concentrations measured in a previous field tracer experiment for a structured clayey loam at Bokhorst, Northern Germany, indicated strong preferential flow. Simulation using single domain HYDRUS numerical flow and transport model could nevertheless explain water outflow, however, completely failed to describe tile-drain leaching patterns of the conservative tracer. The objective of this paper was to analyze whether the nonequilibrium-type dual-permeability model concept could better capture soil structure related principle mechanisms of preferential leaching in the unsaturated soil at that study site. The dual-permeability model (DUAL) describes for soil matrix and fracture pore systems Darcian flow with coupled Richards' equations and convective-dispersive (CD) solute transport with coupled CD equations. The hydraulic parameters of the dual-permeability model were obtained from standard soil hydraulic measurements by adopting a bimodal fitting procedure, whereas transport parameters were inferred from soil column tracer experiments and geometrical transfer term parameters were derived using qualitative soil structure descriptions. The hydraulic conductivity Ka in the inter-domain water transfer term and the effective diffusion coefficient Da in the solute mass transfer term were calibrated by comparing simulated with measured tile flow and effluent concentrations. The DUAL approach described water flow similarly well as the single-domain model. Bromide concentrations in the tile effluent could be approximated with DUAL when decreasing the Ka and Da values by three orders of magnitude compared with the values of the soil matrix domain. The dual-permeability approach seems to reflect nonequilibrium transport mechanisms at this structured soil since it not

  6. SOME NORMATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES ON THE PROTECTION OF THE EUROPEAN CITIZENS’ INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alexandra Oanta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to briefly comment on some changes in the field of Common Agricultural Policy, especially regarding the safety of agricultural products and foodstuff. Within the framework of the CAP the food safety has managed to progressively constitute its third pillar, currently boasting an outstanding place in the attainment of its objectives. CAP has been progressing in its mechanisms and legal instruments towards a more relevant integration of the concerns relative to the consumer’s health protection and to the food safety in the objectives to be reached.

  7. Preliminary Evaluation of a Field and Non-Field Based Social Studies Preservice Teacher Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, John D.; Vansickle, Ronald L.

    1978-01-01

    Comparison of pre-service social studies teachers in field and non-field based methods courses indicated no significant differences with regard to teaching skills, attitudes, or behaviors teachers should exhibit in the classroom. (Author/DB)

  8. SIMULATION MODEL BASED ON IACS DATA; ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ANALYSE SECTORAL INCOME RISK IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaka ZGAJNAR

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We develop a static simulation model to analyse income losses and income risks at aggregated agriculture sector level. Our empirical case study is based on farm level records for direct payments claims (IACS data and covers the period 2010–2011. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we investigate the impact of different levels of risk on income trends. Results show that 80% of farms are extremely dependent on direct payments. Farm production types highly supported by direct payments consequentially fall into the low-risk group. Results show that a significant share of income loss at sector level is carried by small farms (by economic class. Average probability of larger losses at the sector level ranges between 2% and 64%. Our results also indicate that larger farms often have better risk-return ratios and thus face lower relative income risks.

  9. Safety Prediction Analysis of the Agricultural Products Processing Based on the BP Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available By using BP neural network algorithm, this study aims at prompting the accuracy of safety prediction of the agriculture products processing. The science prediction of the deep-frozen dumplings' shelf-life has an important guiding significance for human health and the safety of quick-frozen food. Artificial Neural Network (ANN is a kind of information processing system which is established by simulating the human nervous system. Based on these, by using the effective theory of integrated temperature combined with BP neural network method to predict the shelf-life of the frozen dumplings in this study, we aim at providing a theory basis for monitoring and controlling the quality change in the storage process of deep-frozen dumplings’ temperature fluctuations. Finally, an example is given to show that it is very effective by using the method adopted in this study.

  10. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture in Henan province were systematically analyzed using SWOT method in our study. The aspects including location, resources, traffic, population, economy, urbanization, industrialization, market, policy, capital, product, technology, management, marketing and environment were involved. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat were quantified in this study using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Findings and Originality/value: The result showed that the total strength and total opportunity of Henan leisure agriculture are much greater than that of total weakness and total threat, which suggests that the opportunities outweigh threats, and advantage outweigh disadvantage. The growth-oriented strategy combining the external opportunities and its own advantages shall be employed in development of Henan leisure agriculture as indicated by the strategy strength coefficient in strategy quadrangle we have constructed. The barriers to the development need to be overcome while strengthening competitive advantages. Originality/value: New ideas for working out the developmental strategy for Henan leisure agriculture is provided by SWOT-AHP method.

  11. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  12. Short-term temporal and spatial variability of soil hydrophobicity in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Burguet, Maria; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Soil water repellency (SWR) is a natural property of soils. Among other factors, SWR depends on soil moisture, mineralogy, texture, pH, organic matter, aggregate stability, fungal and microbiological activity and plant cover. It has implications on plant growth, superficial and subsurface hydrology and soil erosion. It is well known that SWR is temporarily, increasing when soils are dry and decreasing when moist. In agriculture, soil micro-topography is very heterogeneous with implications on surface water distribution and wettability. Normally, SWR studies are focused on large interval time (e.g, monthly or seasonally). The objective of this work is the study of SWR in a temporal scale and its variability in an abandoned agriculture field in Lithuania. An experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m) was designed in a flat area. Inside this plot SWR was measured in the field, placing three droplets of water on the soil surface and counting the time that takes to infiltrate. A total of 105 sampling points were measured per sampling period. Soil water repellency was measured after a period of 14 days without rainfall and in the seven consequent weeks (one measurement per week between 28th May and 07th of July 2012). The results showed that in this small plot, SWR was observed in the first (May 28), third and fourth measurements (08th of June and 16th). It was observed an increasing of the percentage of hydrophobic points (Water Drop Penetration Test ≥5 seconds) between the first and the fourth measurement, decreasing thereafter. Significant differences of SWR were observed among all periods (F=78.32, p<0.0001). The coefficient of variation (CV%) changed strikingly, 361.10 % (8th of May), 151.78 % (01st of June), 83.77% (08th of June), 125.87% (16th of June), 0.45 (22nd of June), 121%(31st of June) and 67.13% (7th of July). The correlation between the mean SWR and the CV% is 0.75, p<0.05. The changes were attributed to different soil moisture conditions. The differences

  13. Field Experience Exchange Meeting for the Southern Region of National Agricultural Standardization Demonstration Area Held in Chengdu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ An Experience Exchange Meeting of National Agricultural Standardization Demonstration Area was held in Chengdu, Sichuan Province during May 18~21,2004. This meeting was of great importance to the overall promotion of agricultural standardization demonstration area work, more than 100 representatives from quality & technology supervision bureaus of 15 provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and some cities independently listed city in the state plan, the Ministry of Agriculture, the Ministry of Water Resources, All-China Federation of Supply and Marketing Cooperatives, State Forestry Administration, State Grain Administration, State Tobacco Monopoly Administration etc.

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture – an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p 2O emissions within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site-to-site and year-to-year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  15. Lattice-based flow field modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoming; Zhao, Ye; Fan, Zhe; Li, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Yoakum-Stover, Suzanne; Kaufman, Arie E

    2004-01-01

    We present an approach for simulating the natural dynamics that emerge from the interaction between a flow field and immersed objects. We model the flow field using the Lattice Boltzmann Model (LBM) with boundary conditions appropriate for moving objects and accelerate the computation on commodity graphics hardware (GPU) to achieve real-time performance. The boundary conditions mediate the exchange of momentum between the flow field and the moving objects resulting in forces exerted by the flow on the objects as well as the back-coupling on the flow. We demonstrate our approach using soap bubbles and a feather. The soap bubbles illustrate Fresnel reflection, reveal the dynamics of the unseen flow field in which they travel, and display spherical harmonics in their undulations. Our simulation allows the user to directly interact with the flow field to influence the dynamics in real time. The free feather flutters and gyrates in response to lift and drag forces created by its motion relative to the flow. Vortices are created as the free feather falls in an otherwise quiescent flow. PMID:15527053

  16. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  17. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongyi; Wang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates. PMID:26808718

  18. On Competitiveness of Agricultural Industrial Clusters in Hubei Province Based on GEM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN De-gang

    2012-01-01

    Firstly, this paper summarizes concept of the agricultural industrial cluster and GEM model. Then, it analyzes the competitiveness of agricultural industrial clusters in Hubei Province from three aspects, namely, the foundation, enterprises and market. In the aspect of the foundation, Hubei Province has superior geographical location, rich natural resources, abundant human resources, diversified capital sources, and hardware and software facilities. In the aspect of enterprises, agricultural suppliers (farmers) are relatively scattered in Hubei Province, organizational level of relevant enterprises is constantly improved, and structure and strategy of enterprises are constantly innovated. In the aspect of market, the competition of agricultural products is fierce in local market, and it is difficult to explore external market. Finally, it presents countermeasures to improve the competitiveness of agricultural industrial clusters in Hubei Province, including building agricultural industrial park and cultivating key leading enterprises, strengthening innovation management, and increasing financial support.

  19. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent.We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy,introduce the thirdparty logistics companies,establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,and strengthen information sharing,to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural products in China.The results show that applying low-carbon economy to process reengineering of cold chain logistics of agricultural products,has advantages of increasing added value of products,promoting scale merit and abating lag,plays a role in promoting emission reduction,high efficiency and environmental protection in the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural products in China.

  20. Countermeasures for Circular Agricultural Development of Chongqing Based on AHP Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taiyan; YANG; Shuo; BAI; Shunqiang; SUN

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development,resource and environment problems become more and more prominent. Chongqing Municipality, as a city focusing on industrial development in the past,has serious problem of environmental pollution and scarce agricultural resources. At present,it is urgent to find out how to develop circular agriculture and coordinate economic,social,environmental development. On the basis of understanding the intension of circular agriculture,this paper built evaluation indicator system for development of circular agriculture from social and economic development,resource reduction input,resource recycling use,and resource and environment safety. Then,it made an evaluation of circular agricultural development of Chongqing Municipality by AHP approach combined with gray correlation analysis. Finally,it came up with countermeasures,including reducing input of agricultural production materials,strengthening land management,promoting scientific and technological progress,and improving policy systems.

  1. Risk Evaluation on Logistics Finance of Agricultural Products Based on Fuzzy-AHP Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; PANG; Yangkun; XIA

    2015-01-01

    The development of logistics finance business for agricultural products is the best way to realize the common interests of logistics enterprises,small and medium-sized agricultural product enterprises and financial institutions,which will contribute to the development of China’s new socialist rural economy and the construction of " two-oriented society". As the agricultural products have some special attributes,it’s easy to create the risk in carrying out the logistics finance business. The paper constructs a risk evaluation indicator system for logistics finance of agricultural product,and uses the Fuzzy-AHP model to evaluate. The results show that the comprehensive risk level is normal risk,which shows that third-party logistics enterprises can carry out the logistics financial business of agricultural products,but the risks from logistics enterprises and agricultural collateral need to be prevented.

  2. A model of Dutch agriculture based on Positive Mathematical Programming with regional and environmental applications

    OpenAIRE

    Helming, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands few sectors are in the news as often as the agricultural sector is, and the news is rarely good. Nearly every day, in newspapers, on television and on the radio we are confronted with BSE, foot and mouth disease, swine and chicken fever, polluted animal feed, manure surpluses, subsidies, European Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), farmers' incomes and rural poverty. A lot of people in the Netherlands have written off the Dutch agricultural sector and believe that, as an econ...

  3. Countermeasures for Circular Agricultural Development of Chongqing Based on AHP Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Taiyan; Bai, Shuo; SUN, Shunqiang

    2014-01-01

    With rapid economic development, resource and environment problems become more and more prominent. Chongqing Municipality, as a city focusing on industrial development in the past, has serious problem of environmental pollution and scarce agricultural resources. At present, it is urgent to find out how to develop circular agriculture and coordinate economic, social, environmental development. On the basis of understanding the intension of circular agriculture, this paper built evaluation indi...

  4. Operating Analysis of the Closed Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products Based on Logistics Center

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Duo-hong; Li, Yu; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Jiang-quan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis gives the overview of concept and constitution of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products on logistics center, and the necessity of regarding logistics center as core enterprises. Meanwhile, it analyzes the function of logistic center of agricultural products, namely functions of exchange, collection, distribution, storage and transportation. It also poses the prerequisites of logistics center. The logistics center of agricultural products must have stable profit ex...

  5. Magnetic field reconstruction based on sunspot oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Löhner-Böttcher, J; Schmidt, W

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic field of a sunspot guides magnetohydrodynamic waves toward higher atmospheric layers. In the upper photosphere and lower chromosphere, wave modes with periods longer than the acoustic cut-off period become evanescent. The cut-off period essentially changes due to the atmospheric properties, e.g., increases for larger zenith inclinations of the magnetic field. In this work, we aim at introducing a novel technique of reconstructing the magnetic field inclination on the basis of the dominating wave periods in the sunspot chromosphere and upper photosphere. On 2013 August 21st, we observed an isolated, circular sunspot (NOAA11823) for 58 min in a purely spectroscopic multi-wavelength mode with the Interferometric Bidimensional Spectro-polarimeter (IBIS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope. By means of a wavelet power analysis, we retrieved the dominating wave periods and reconstructed the zenith inclinations in the chromosphere and upper photosphere. The results are in good agreement with the lower photosphe...

  6. Surface Drainage, Field Ditches on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 607

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP607), Surface...

  7. The Market Demand of LED Light Source in the Field of Agricultural Lighting%LED光源在农业照明领域的市场需求分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李效民

    2012-01-01

    基于LED光源的农业照明在欧美国家得到了大力发展,各国政府都在积极推广LED农业照明,中国在农业照明领域的LED技术兴起于最近几年.实践证明,LED光源可以完全替代自然照明和传统人工照明,并根据农作物不同的生理时段调节光照波长,缩短了农作物的生长周期、增加产量、减少病害、提高了农产品品质.研究了LED光源在农业照明领域的优势,并对LED光源在农业照明领域的市场潜在需求进行分析和统计,结果表明LED光源在农业照明领域的应用前景广阔,市场潜力巨大.%The agricultural lighting based on the LED lighting technology has been developed in developed countries. Many countries are actively promoting agricultural LED lighting.Through the practical application, LED light source can completely replace traditional natural and artificial lighting, shorten the crop growth cycle time, increase production, reduce disease and improve the quality of agricultural products. The advantage of LED light source in the agricultural field was studied, and the market demand of LED light source in the agricultural areas was analyzed and counted. The results showed that there were broad prospects and huge market potential of LED in agricultural lighting applications.

  8. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Financial Support to Agriculture Based on the DEA Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO Ruixia; WANG Fulin

    2009-01-01

    Financial support to agriculture is the main driving force to increase farmers' income. This paper applied the evaluation DEA (Data-embrasing Analysis) method to evaluate the effectiveness of financial support to agriculture from 1990 to 2005. It is found that the trend of the financial support to agricultural effectiveness in China presented a downward trend in recent years. The results showed that the overall trend of the financial support to agriculture in China wasn't high, and some corresponding proposals were put forward to optimized.

  9. The Analysis on the Influence of Water Conservancy Investment on Agricultural Economic Growth: An Empirical Study Based on the Boom Period of Shandong Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping; CAO; Zhe; FENG; Jilian; HU

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses econometric methods to carry out a Granger causality test on the construction of water conservancy infrastructure construction and agricultural economic growth in the boom period(1981- 2002) of Shandong agriculture. Empirical results indicate that there exists two-way Granger causality between Shandong water conservancy infrastructure construction and Shandong agricultural economic growth.Therefore,water conservancy infrastructure construction has a significant influence on agricultural economic growth in Shandong.

  10. Mappings of Fields Based on Nominations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenk, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Graphical representations of nominations and citations of colleagues in seven scientific fields--information science, human systems management, future studies, general systems, topology and differential geometry, and polymer chemistry--are presented. Conomination analysis and cocitation analysis are compared as techniques to study structure of…

  11. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  12. Implementation monitoring temperature, humidity and mositure soil based on wireless sensor network for e-agriculture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarudin, A.; Ghozali, A. L.; Hasyim, A.; Effendi, A.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesian agriculture has great potensial for development. Agriculture a lot yet based on data collection for soil or plant, data soil can use for analys soil fertility. We propose e-agriculture system for monitoring soil. This system can monitoring soil status. Monitoring system based on wireless sensor mote that sensing soil status. Sensor monitoring utilize soil moisture, humidity and temperature. System monitoring design with mote based on microcontroler and xbee connection. Data sensing send to gateway with star topology with one gateway. Gateway utilize with mini personal computer and connect to xbee cordinator mode. On gateway, gateway include apache server for store data based on My-SQL. System web base with YII framework. System done implementation and can show soil status real time. Result the system can connection other mote 40 meters and mote lifetime 7 hours and minimum voltage 7 volt. The system can help famer for monitoring soil and farmer can making decision for treatment soil based on data. It can improve the quality in agricultural production and would decrease the management and farming costs.

  13. Twitter Micro-Blogging Based Mobile Learning Approach to Enhance the Agriculture Education Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissanayeke, Uvasara; Hewagamage, K. P.; Ramberg, Robert; Wikramanayake, G. N.

    2013-01-01

    The study intends to see how to introduce mobile learning within the domain of agriculture so as to enhance the agriculture education process. We propose to use the Activity theory together with other methodologies such as participatory methods to design, implement, and evaluate mLearning activities. The study explores the process of introducing…

  14. Environmental Fate of the Herbicide Fluazifop-P-butyl and Its Degradation Products in Two Loamy Agricultural Soils: A Combined Laboratory and Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben;

    2015-01-01

    The herbicide fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is used against grasses in agricultural crops such as potato, oilseed rape and sugar beet. Limited information is available in Scientific literature on its environmental fate, therefore extensive monitoring at two agricultural test fields was combined...... with laboratory studies to determine leaching and the underlying degradation and sorption processes. Water samples from drains, suction cups, and groundwater wells showed leaching of the degradation products fluazifop-P (FP) and 2- hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-pyridin (TFMP) following FPB treatment. Laboratory...... experiments with soil from each field revealed a rapid degradation of FPB to FP. The degradation was almost exclusively microbial, and further biodegradation to TFMP occurred at a slower rate. Both degradation products were sorbed to the two soils to a small extent and were fairly persistent to degradation...

  15. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture; an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe and Zimbabwe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, Harare in Zimbabwe and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p < 0.0001, and 77% in the grassland sites. The annual emissions from arable sites were significantly greater than those that would be predicted by IPCC default emission factors. Variability in N2O within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site to site and year to year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  16. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  17. Agent农业土地变化模型研究进展%Progress of agent-based agricultural land change modeling: a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余强毅; 吴文斌; 杨鹏; 唐华俊; 周清波; 陈仲新

    2013-01-01

    model series in the agricultural land change modeling community, which are called as Agri-ABM/LUCCs.Progress in this field can be summarized as: (1 ) Based on the complexity system theory, most of these models bring theoretical and methodological innovations in analyzing the complexity of agricultural land systems.(2) These models innovatively take land use decisions at individual level into consideration, based on which to recognize the role of decision makers bringing about changes, through their choices, on regional level landscapes.Such "modeling with stakeholders" underlines the role of farmers in agricultural transformation, facilitating the expression of diversified decisions on agricultural land use from heterogeneous farmers.(3) Agri-ABM/LUCC links "land change driving forces" with "land use consequences" as an endogenous feedback loop in agricultural land change processes.This tightly coupled method describes a better feature of agricultural land dynamics, which is essential for analyzing the vulnerabilities, impacts, and adaptation in agricultural land change context.(4) From the recent literature, a wild range of issues related to farmer's decisions on their land were discussed, including deforestation, agricultural expansion, crop allocation, resource management, and settlement and livelihood decisions.In these studies, various methods and approaches were used in representing farmer's decisions.Methods include linear programming model, optimization model, heuristic imitative and innovative decision-making algorithms, utility function, decision tree, evolutionary programming, probabilistic method, participator)' modeling, role playing game, bounded-rational approach, spatial multi-nominal logistic functions, among others.(5) This new perspective provides a way to dynamically link agricultural land change assessments for integrated human-natural studies.On one hand, consequence of agricultural land change can be used to forecast crop production then to

  18. Model based wind vector field reconstruction from lidar data

    OpenAIRE

    Schlipf, David; Rettenmeier, Andreas; Haizmann, Florian; Hofsäß, Martin; Courtney, Mike; Cheng, Po Wen

    2012-01-01

    In recent years lidar technology found its way into wind energy for resource assessment and control. For both fields of application it is crucial to reconstruct the wind field from the limited information provided by a lidar system. For lidar assisted wind turbine control model based wind field reconstruction is used to obtain signals from wind characteristics such as wind speed, direction and shears in a high temporal resolution. This work shows how these methods can be used for lidar based ...

  19. Adapting an Outcome-Based Education Development Process to Meet Near Real-Time Challenges to Sustainable Agricultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbleib, Mary L.; Jepson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines the benefits of using an outcome-based education (OBE) method within agricultural extension outreach programmes for professional and farmer audiences. Design/Methodology/Approach: The method is elaborated through two practical examples, which show that focused, short-duration programmes can produce meaningful skill…

  20. An improved data base for the description of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus;

    2010-01-01

    The application of the previously published detailed model describing dairy cow husbandry in the German agricultural emission model requires an extended and improved data base. This concerns animal weights, weight gains, regional feed regimes, feeding requirements and feed properties as well...... of animal performance. The knowledge of hitherto unpublished data allows for a recalculation and revaluation of nitrogen excretions and ammonia emission factors....

  1. Geothermal emissions data base, Wairakei geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, S.R. (comp.)

    1978-04-01

    A database subset on the gaseous emissions from the Wairakei geothermal field is presented. Properties and states of the reservoir fluid such as flow rates, wellhead pressure, and enthalpy are included in the file along with the well name and constituent measurement. This subset is the result of an initial screening of the data covering 1965 to 1971, and new additions will be appended periodically to the file. The data is accessed by a database management system as are all other subsets in the file. Thereby, one may search the database for specific data requirements and print selective output. For example, one may wish to locate reservoir conditions for cases only when the level of the constituent exceeded a designated value. Data output is available in the form of numerical compilations such as the attached, or graphical displays disposed to paper, film or magnetic tape.

  2. Low - energy Accelerator - based Nuclear Biotechnology for Applications in Agriculture and Biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel biotechnology based on low-energy-accelerator nuclear technology has recently been rapidly developed internationally. Low-energy ion beams with energy in a range of 10-100 keV generated from ion accelerators bombard plant seeds or tissues for mutation induction and plant or mammalian cells for gene transfection induction to benefit to agriculture and biomedicine. In Thailand, centered at Chiang Mai University, this so-called low-energy ion beam biotechnology has been explored and developed for more than a decade. Bioengineering-specialized ion implanters have been constructed and utilized for both research and applications. Certain Thai local rice mutants have been induced and achieved with improved characters of dwarf, photo-insensitivity, enriched nutrients and higher yields. Mutants of other plants such as flowers, vegetables and microorganisms have also been induced with improved properties. DNA transfer into bacterial and mammalian cells has been induced by ion beams. Particularly, ion-beam-induced gene transfection into human cells succeeded to initiate a new non-viral gene transfection method for potential gene therapy.

  3. New mixes based on collagen extracts with bioactive properties, for treatment of seeds in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidau, Carmen; Niculescu, Mihaela; Stepan, Emil; Epure, Doru-Gabriel; Gidea, Mihai

    2013-01-01

    The world's population, areas intended for the production of bio-mass and bio-fuels and the food demand of mankind are on a continuous ascending trend. In this context, an increased efficiency in obtaining large and steady productions, in compliance with the requirements of sustainable development of the agricultural eco-system, is a priority. To be effective, the seed treatment will fulfill the following requirements: shall disinfect and protect the seeds against the pests and pathogen agents found in the soil, shall ensure the system protection, shall not pollute the soil, water and environment, shall have no remnant effect onto the environment and onto the crops and shall be bio-degradable, easy to transport and to use. This paper aims at presenting new collagen based materials for cereal seed treatment, which generates an increase of the quality and protection indicators for treated seeds. Creation of a new and advanced technology for treatment of cereal seeds, by using pesticide-collagen hydrolysate mixes has the objectives of increasing seed quality indexes; reducing pesticide consumption, which will in turn decrease environmental pollution and the cost of treatment for cereal seeds; achieving a better management of resources; reducing production expenses while preserving the environment. The technologies developed for protein raw material processing and characteristics of collagen hydrolysates with bioactive properties are presented. The future route for ecological treatment of seeds is the use of microencapsulated plant extracts (thyme and cinnamon essential oils) with insecticidal and antifungal properties in a shell made using collagen hydrolysate.

  4. Object-Based Land Use Classification of Agricultural Land by Coupling Multi-Temporal Spectral Characteristics and Phenological Events in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Loew, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Crop maps based on classification of remotely sensed data are of increased attendance in agricultural management. This induces a more detailed knowledge about the reliability of such spatial information. However, classification of agricultural land use is often limited by high spectral similarities of the studied crop types. More, spatially and temporally varying agro-ecological conditions can introduce confusion in crop mapping. Classification errors in crop maps in turn may have influence on model outputs, like agricultural production monitoring. One major goal of the PhenoS project ("Phenological structuring to determine optimal acquisition dates for Sentinel-2 data for field crop classification"), is the detection of optimal phenological time windows for land cover classification purposes. Since many crop species are spectrally highly similar, accurate classification requires the right selection of satellite images for a certain classification task. In the course of one growing season, phenological phases exist where crops are separable with higher accuracies. For this purpose, coupling of multi-temporal spectral characteristics and phenological events is promising. The focus of this study is set on the separation of spectrally similar cereal crops like winter wheat, barley, and rye of two test sites in Germany called "Harz/Central German Lowland" and "Demmin". However, this study uses object based random forest (RF) classification to investigate the impact of image acquisition frequency and timing on crop classification uncertainty by permuting all possible combinations of available RapidEye time series recorded on the test sites between 2010 and 2014. The permutations were applied to different segmentation parameters. Then, classification uncertainty was assessed and analysed, based on the probabilistic soft-output from the RF algorithm at the per-field basis. From this soft output, entropy was calculated as a spatial measure of classification uncertainty

  5. Understanding the ecological background of rice agriculture on the Ningshao Plain during the Neolithic Age: pollen evidence from a buried paddy field at the Tianluoshan cultural site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhai; Zheng, Yunfei; Yu, Shiyong; Li, Yongxiang; Shen, Huadong

    2012-03-01

    The progressive rise of atmospheric CH4 level since 5 ka has been hypothesized to result from human agricultural activities that turned forested lands, which would otherwise be a carbon sink, into paddy fields. Increasing numbers of Neolithic cultural sites unearthed in coastal eastern China, providing unique opportunities to test this hypothesis. Here, we present detailed pollen data from a buried paddy field at Tianluoshan cultural site on the Ningshao Plain, eastern China, to reconstruct the ecological conditions associated with the establishment of paddy fields. Stratigraphic data, radiocarbon ages, and pollen analyses show that vegetation underwent six phases of evolution and paddy fields were developed from 7000 to 4200 cal. yr BP. We found no evidence of slash-and-burn agriculture at the study site. Together with no presence of the irrigation system, our pollen data suggest the paddy fields at this site originated from wetlands. Hence, our findings do not support the hypothesis that anthropogenic-induced deforestation play ed a significant role in the rise of the atmospheric CH4 rise since the middle Holocene.

  6. Analysis on the Development Status of Transgenic Biotechnology in Agricultural Field%转基因生物技术在农业领域的发展现状分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何礼健; 周玉婷; 左停

    2011-01-01

    The development status, superiorities and potential risks of transgenic biotechnology in agricultural field were summarized, based on which the development prospect and trend of GM crop were briefly analyzed.%概述了转基因生物技术在农业领域的发展现状,拥有的发展优势及其可能带来的风险,在此基础上简要分析了转基因农作物的发展前景和趋势.

  7. Description of chemical and biological soil characteristics of two fields subjected to different agricultural management under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Gennari

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Several factors such as soil pollution and intensive agricultural management continuously damage the sustainability of agricultural production, with potentially adverse effects on soil quality. It is important to create applicable and valid soil quality indicators in order to both identify areas with potential productivity problems and monitor soil quality changes due to a range of perturbations. In this work we compared several chemical and biological variables between a Mediterranean soil characterized by intensive horticulture that has been irrigated for 20 years with moderately saline waters (IM and an adjacent soil, subjected to a sustainable agricultural production management and irrigated with plain water (SM. Soil sampling was repeated three times during a year in both sites. IM soil had lower pH, organic carbon and total nitrogen compared to SM soil at all sampling times, while its electrical conductivity was significantly higher at two sampling times only. Potentially mineralizable nitrogen pointed out significant differences only at the first sampling time, with lower levels in the SM soil. β-sitosterol, cholesterol and ergosterol varied significantly with sampling time and were influenced also by management. Statistical approach by Principal Component Analysis highlighted a contrast between two groups of soil variables: potentially mineralizable nitrogen and sterols mainly weighted on the first axis, while chemical properties, weighted on the second one. Moreover, the second axis separated the soil subjected to a sustainable agricultural production system from that subjected to intensive practice management, while the first axis separated the third sampling data from the first two.

  8. Rainwater lens dynamics and mixing between infiltrating rainwater and upward saline groundwater seepage beneath a tile-drained agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Oude Essink, Gualbert; Vermue, Esther; Post, Vincent E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin rainwater lenses (RW-lenses) near the land surface are often the only source of freshwater in agricultural areas with regionally-extensive brackish to saline groundwater. The seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of these lenses are poorly known. Here this knowledge gap is addressed by investigati

  9. Social innovation and sustainability; how to disentangle the buzzword and its application in the field of agriculture and rural development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, B.B.

    2012-01-01

    Social innovation is often appointed as an essential part of agricultural and rural innovation. Everybody seems to agree that social innovation is important but what exactly is meant by the term remains often unclear. This paper aims at clarifying the meaning and signifi cance of the concept by goin

  10. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  11. Comparative Analysis and Cultivation of New Agricultural Business Entities Based on Comparison of Family Farms and Professional Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang; YANG; Xingxi; LIU; Yingliang; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Cultivating new bussiness entities is the key to speeding up improving new agricultural production and operating system.This study discussed two representative entities under the agricultural production and operating system based on household contract management,namely,family farms and cooperatives.It introduced current development status of these two entities in Chongqing region,and discussed prominent problems of understanding,management,fund,personnel,technology,information,and system in the development process.In line with common problems such as single production structure and short supply of agricultural insurance,and different problems like organizational degree,it made comparative analysis.Finally,it is concluded that different institutional arrangement and pertinent support policy according to different development characteristics.

  12. Agricultural Production Intensification in Ukraine: Decision Support of Agricultural Policies Based On the Assessment of Ecological and Social Impacts in Rural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Frayer, O.

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the major economic sectors of Ukraine. Therefore, improving agricultural practices is of critical importance for economy, environment, and society in Ukraine. Rapidly increasing intensification of agricultural production promotes large agrarian enterprises. These processes lead to certain consequences. An export-oriented business has a raw character, doesn't fulfill its social role and carries environmental risks. The main goal of these studies is to investigate flexible...

  13. Radiofrequency fields: Bases for exposure limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolo Vecchia [Department of Technologies and Health National Institute of Health, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Several biological effects have been reported at exposure levels below the threshold for thermal effects, but most of them require independent confirmation before being accepted as established. However, no seems to have relevant implications for human health. Precautionary measures should be based on a cost/benefit analysis, and be proportionate on one side to the risk they aim at preventing and on the other side to actions taken in other areas to prevent comparable risks. (N.C.)

  14. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF AMELIORATIVE WORKS ON SOME SOIL QUALITY PARAMETERS FROM BAIA –MOLDOVA EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil-climatic conditions from Baia Depression – the hydrographical basin from the extra-Carpathian area of the Moldova River - have frequently determined the presence, under different forms, intensities and periods, of temporary water excess from soil. The underground drainage, as a measure of water excess control, with stagnant character, caused mainly by rainfall amounts registered for 1-5 consecutive days, was firstly arranged in pilot-experimental fields during 1972-1978. We followed the behaviour in exploitation of underground drainage technical solutions, as concerns the functional efficiency of the means of water excess removal and of the improved soil favourableness and/or suitability for crop growing.In order to assess the long-term effects of ameliorating works, applied in 1978 in the drainage field of Baia, on an area of 3.50 ha, we have qualitatively classified and estimated the albic stagnic glossic Luvosoil (S.R.T.S. – 2003, improved and unimproved. Based on this study, we have estimated the present favourableness for crops of the improved soil, as compared to unimproved soil, used as natural grassland, after an exploitation cycle of 30 years (1978- 2008.

  15. Energy and greenhouse gas balance of decentralized energy supply systems based on organic agricultural biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Kimming, Marie

    2011-01-01

    More and more farms apply organic production methods to reduce their environmental impact, but currently even organic farms are mainly using fossil fuels. Technologies available today or in the near future make it possible to produce heat, electricity and fuels from agricultural residues or woody biomass. The agricultural sector can thereby contribute to the fulfillment of climate goals and energy security without reducing the output of food products. The thesis describes and assesses possibl...

  16. A control method for agricultural greenhouses heating based on computational fluid dynamics and energy prediction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel control method for the heating greenhouse with SWSHPS is proposed. • CFD is employed to predict the priorities of FCU loops for thermal performance. • EPM is act as an on-line tool to predict the total energy demand of greenhouse. • The CFD–EPM-based method can save energy and improve control accuracy. • The energy savings potential is between 8.7% and 15.1%. - Abstract: As energy heating is one of the main production costs, many efforts have been made to reduce the energy consumption of agricultural greenhouses. Herein, a novel control method of greenhouse heating using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and energy prediction model (EPM) is proposed for energy savings and system performance. Based on the low-Reynolds number k–ε turbulence principle, a CFD model of heating greenhouse is developed, applying the discrete ordinates model for the radiative heat transfers and porous medium approach for plants considering plants sensible and latent heat exchanges. The CFD simulations have been validated, and used to analyze the greenhouse thermal performance and the priority of fan coil units (FCU) loops under the various heating conditions. According to the heating efficiency and temperature uniformity, the priorities of each FCU loop can be predicted to generate a database with priorities for control system. EPM is built up based on the thermal balance, and used to predict and optimize the energy demand of the greenhouse online. Combined with the priorities of FCU loops from CFD simulations offline, we have developed the CFD–EPM-based heating control system of greenhouse with surface water source heat pumps system (SWSHPS). Compared with conventional multi-zone independent control (CMIC) method, the energy savings potential is between 8.7% and 15.1%, and the control temperature deviation is decreased to between 0.1 °C and 0.6 °C in the investigated greenhouse. These results show the CFD–EPM-based method can improve system

  17. Effect of Tillage and Non-tillage Agricultural Practice on Nitrogen Losses as NO and N2O in Tropical Corn Fields at Guarico State, Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquina, S.; Rojas, A.; Donoso, L.; Rasse, R.; Giuliante, A.; Corona, O.; Perez, T.

    2007-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of agricultural practices on NO and N2O emissions from corn fields at Northern Guárico, one of Venezuelan largest cereal production regions. Historically, the most common agricultural practice in these regions has been mono cropping. Tillage (T) and non-tillage (NT) of soils represent approximately 30 and 70% of the planted area, respectively. Comparative studies of the nitrogen losses associated with these agricultural practices are not available for these regions. This study was conducted at the farm "Tierra Nueva", Guárico State (9° 23' 33'' N, 66° 38' 30'' W) in two corn fields under tillage and non-tillage agricultural practice during the growing season (June-August 2006). A dry tropical forest, the primary ecosystem of the region, was evaluated for the same period of time. The corn and the forest fields were adjacent; therefore, they were exposed to the same meteorological conditions. The mean annual precipitation of the area is 622±97.3 mm (last 5 years). The soils are Vertisols (Typic Haplusterts). Nutrient soil concentrations (as nitrate and ammonium), water soil content and pH soil were measured in the fields for the same period of time. Soils were fertilized and planted simultaneously by a planting machine provided with a furrow opener where the fertilizer and seeds are incorporated between 0-10 cm depths. Tillage soils were fertilized on June 1st 2006 with 65 kgN/ha of NPK (13:18:16/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl), whereas non-tillage soils were fertilized the next day with 56 kgN/ha of NPK (12:25:12/3MgO, 3S; N as NH4Cl). Second fertilization of both fields was done thirty-seven days later by broadcast adding 58 kgN/ha approximately, using nitrophosphate as fertilizer (NP 33-3: 33% N total; 16.7% N- NO3- and 16.6% N- NH4+). In general, NO and N2O soil emissions from both corn fields increased after fertilization events, and depend on water soil content and nutrient soil concentration. N2O soil emissions were 11 and 9 times larger in

  18. Establishment and Analysis of the Sales Model of Fresh Agriculture Food Based on Business to Business E-commerce Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuehui Jiang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study introduced the network sales model of agricultural products from the view of business to business e-commerce and analyzed the features, we found the sales model was featured by pattern diversity which was however of low level; the existing e-commerce operation scale of agricultural products is small and the anti-risk capacity is weak; its resource integration capacity is insufficient and thus it can’t make full use of the advantages of e-commerce. Based on this, this study established sales chain of fresh agriculture products based on business to business e-commerce, i.e., to trade on the internet; the products are delivered to consumers by third-party according to the delivery of producing area and wholesale market of sales area and then collected by consumers themselves. Meanwhile, we should establish information center of price demand for online trading market and modern refrigeration base of wholesale market, accelerate the development of specialized rural cooperative or industrial company and assure the long-term operation of e-commerce of agricultural products circulation in the future.

  19. Performance Evaluation of China’s Agricultural Listed Companies Based on DEA Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the performance of China’s agricultural listed companies,we analyze the overall efficiency,pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency of China’s agricultural listed companies on the basis of input-output data concerning 34 agricultural listed companies,using BCC model in data envelopment analysis ( DEA) model. Then we analyze input-output redundancy situation using the slack variable derived from the model. The results show that the overall efficiency of China’s agricultural listed companies is good,and the gap in efficiency between sub-industries is small; there is significant difference in performance between listed companies engaged in the same sub-industry,and the reason for invalid DEA in companies within the industry is complex; total assets and asset-liability ratio are high,and the effective output is not fully realized. Finally corresponding recommendations are put forward for promoting the performance of agricultural listed companies as follows: strengthening brand awareness; promoting the level of production technology; adjusting the input structure; transforming the agricultural growth mode.

  20. Investigating the sources of sediment in a Canadian agricultural watershed using a colour-based fingerprinting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthod, Louise; Lobb, David; Owens, Philip; Martinez-Carreras, Nuria; Koiter, Alexander; Petticrew, Ellen; McCullough, Gregory

    2014-05-01

    The development of beneficial management practises to minimize adverse impacts of agriculture on soil and water quality requires information on the sources of sediment at the watershed scale. Sediment fingerprinting allows for the determination of sediment sources and apportionment of their contribution within a watershed, using unique physical, radiochemical or biogeochemical properties, or fingerprints, of the potential sediment sources. The use of sediment colour as a fingerprint is an emerging technique that can provide a rapid and inexpensive means of investigating sediment sources. This technique is currently being utilized to determine sediment sources within the South Tobacco Creek Watershed, an agricultural watershed located in the Canadian prairies (south-central Manitoba). Suspended sediment and potential source (topsoil, channel bank and shale bedrock material) samples were collected between 2009 and 2011 at six locations along the main stem of the creek. Sample colour was quantified from diffuse reflectance spectrometry measurements over the visible wavelength range using a spectroradiometer (ASD Field Spec Pro, 400-2500 nm). Sixteen colour coefficients were derived from several colour space models (CIE XYZ, CIE xyY, CIE Lab, CIE Luv, CIE Lch, Landsat RGB, Redness Index). The individual discrimination power of the colour coefficients, after passing several prerequisite tests (e.g., linearly additive behaviour), was assessed using discriminant function analysis. A stepwise discriminant analysis, based on the Wilk's lambda criterion, was then performed in order to determine the best-suited colour coefficient fingerprints which maximized the discrimination between the potential sources. The selected fingerprints classified the source samples in the correct category 86% of the time. The misclassification is due to intra-source variability and source overlap which can lead to higher uncertainty in sediment source apportionment. The selected fingerprints

  1. Watershed-based natural resource management in small-scale agriculture: Sloped areas of the Andean Region

    OpenAIRE

    Alwang, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the long term research activities of the SANREM project "Watershed-based NRM for Small-scale Agriculture" from 2004-2009. Research findings highlight the role of national institutions such as national research and extension systems, participatory learning based in trust, the useful applications of watershed modeling, a need to focus on risk and efficiency in working with smallholders and the importance of developing forward and backward linkages in the market to t...

  2. Comparing Cell Phone-Based and Traditional Lecture-Based Teaching Methods' Effects on Agricultural Students' Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Papzan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increased speed of creating new knowledge and the development of communication technologies, like cell phone, which makes it possible the access to various unlimited resources and data in an unlimited time and place, and regarding many positive aspects of applying it in schools and the necessity of adjusting with changes and the correct use of this new technology, the present research was conducted to examine the effect of teaching via cell phone on students learning in Khooshehaye Zarin agricultural school in Rawansar, Kermanshah province, and comparing it with traditional lecture method. In a semi-experimental research method, 30 male students were selected through random sampling method as the research sample, divided into two paired groups, 15 for experimental group and 15 for control group, based on age, educational status, previous grade point average and family economical status. Data collection tool was a 10 item test based on behavioral objectives. The experimental group was taught in two sessions of two hours through cell phone, and the control group was taught the same topic through traditional lecture method in exactly the same amount of time. Post–test was performed on two groups through the above-mentioned 10 item test and the results were analyzed through t test method. The results showed that teaching via cell phone has more effects on students learning compared with traditional lecture method.

  3. Studying the spatial variability of Cr in agricultural field using both particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruvinel, Paulo E.; Crestana, Sílvio; Artaxo, Paulo; Martins, JoséV.; Armelin, Maria JoséA.

    1996-04-01

    In the field of soil physics, a technique which permits a non-destructive, accurate and fast elemental analysis with a minimum of sample preparation effort is often desired. Although trace elements are minor components of the solid phase, they play an important role in soil fertility. Cr is of nutritional importance because it is a required element in human and animal nutrition. The immobility of Cr may be responsible for an inadequate Cr supply to plants. This work not only demonstrates the suitability of PIXE as a fast and non-destructive technique, useful to measure Cr content in soil samples, but also outlines a study of spatial variability of that element in agricultural field. To demonstrate the capability of the method soil samples were collected in a 5000 m 2 agricultural field. The soil samples were analyzed using both PIXE and INAA techniques. Besides, a Fourier interpolation technique was used to verify the distribution of Cr along of the sampled field. INAA was carried out by means of the γ-ray emitted by 51Cr(320 keV). Results show that there is a good linear relationship between the elemental concentration of Cr obtained using those techniques, i.e. a correlation coefficient of r2 = 0.82 was achieved.

  4. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Samborski; Dariusz Gozdowski

    2007-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM). Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing yield monitors. Because...

  5. Factors influencing the survival and leaching of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and Escherichia coli through structured agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina B.; Rosenbom, Annette E.; Kjaer, Jeanne;

    2014-01-01

    Intense use of antibiotics in agricultural production may lead to the contamination of surface and groundwater by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the present study, the survival and leaching of E. coli and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were monitored at two well-structured agricultural fields...... preferential transport through macropores, it was found that faecal bacteria were only leached to drainage water at Estrup. Here E. coli and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were detected at concentrations up to 3 CFU mL-1 and 130 CFU mL-1 respectively. A PCA plot revealed that leaching of faecal bacteria was...... negatively correlated to soil water content and number of days after slurry application. At Silstrup, the drainage system remained hydraulically inactive until two months after the second slurry application and resulted in undetectable leaching to the aquatic environment. There were indications that factors...

  6. Spatio-temporal analysis of discharge regimes based on hydrograph classification techniques in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaofei; Bloeschl, Guenter; Blaschke, Alfred Paul; Silasari, Rasmiaditya; Exner-Kittridge, Mike

    2016-04-01

    The stream, discharges and groundwater hydro-graphs is an integration in spatial and temporal variations for small-scale hydrological response. Characterizing discharges response regime in a drainage farmland is essential to irrigation strategies and hydrologic modeling. Especially for agricultural basins, diurnal hydro-graphs from drainage discharges have been investigated to achieve drainage process inferences in varying magnitudes. To explore the variability of discharge responses, we developed an impersonal method to characterize and classify discharge hydrograph based on features of magnitude and time-series. A cluster analysis (hierarchical k-means) and principal components analysis techniques are used for discharge time-series and groundwater level hydro-graphs to analyze their event characteristics, using 8 different discharge and 18 groundwater level hydro-graphs to test. As the variability of rainfall activity, system location, discharge regime and soil moisture pre-event condition in the catchment, three main clusters of discharge hydro-graph are identified from the test. The results show that : (1) the hydro-graphs from these drainage discharges had similar shapes but different magnitudes for individual rainstorm; the similarity is also showed in overland flow discharge and spring system; (2) for each cluster, the similarity of shape insisted, but the rising slope are different due to different antecedent wetness condition and the rain accumulation meanwhile the difference of regression slope can be explained by system location and discharge area; and (3) surface water always has a close proportional relation with soil moisture throughout the year, while only after the soil moisture exceeds a certain threshold does the outflow of tile drainage systems have a direct ratio relationship with soil moisture and a inverse relationship with the groundwater levels. Finally, we discussed the potential application of hydrograph classification in a wider range of

  7. Radiocesium and radioiodine in soil particles agitated by agricultural practices: Field observation after the Fukushima nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three weeks after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, we determined the activity concentrations of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs in atmospheric dust fugitively resuspended from soil particles due to soil surface perturbation by agricultural practices. The atmospheric concentrations of 131I, 134Cs and 137Cs increased because of the agitation of soil particles by a hammer-knife mower and a rotary tiller. Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of the soil surface of Andosols. For dust particles smaller than 10 μm, the resuspension factors of radiocesium during the operation of agricultural equipment were 16-times higher than those under background condition. Before tillage, most of the radionuclides accumulated within a few cm of the soil surface. Tillage diluted their concentration in the uppermost soil layer. - Highlights: ► Agricultural practices transmit soil-derived radionuclides to the atmosphere. ► Coarse soil particles were primarily agitated by the perturbation of soil surface. ► Tillage diluted the concentrations of radionuclides in the uppermost soil layer.

  8. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  9. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  10. Climate Information and Agricultural Practice in Adaptation to Climate Variability: The Case of Climate Field Schools in Indramayu, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crane, T.A.; Siregar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the Farmer Field School methodology, a “Climate Field School” was conducted with farmers in the Indramayu region of Indonesia in 2003 to promote adaptive application of climate forecasts to crop selection decisions. However, five years after the Climate Field School, use of the forecasts

  11. Assessment of agricultural drought vulnerability in the Philippines using remote sensing and GIS-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drought is a recurrent extreme climate event that can cause crop damage and yield loss, thereby inflicting negative socioeconomic impacts all over the world. According to several climate studies, drought events may be more frequent and more severe as global warming progresses. As an agricultural country, the Philippines is highly susceptible to adverse impacts of drought using remotely sensed information and geographic processing techniques. An agricultural drought vulnerability map identifying croplands that are least vulnerable, moderately vulnerable, and most vulnerable to crop water-related stress, was developed. Vulnerability factors, including land use system, irrigation support. Available soil-water holding capacity, as well as satellite-derived evapotranspiration and rainfall, were taken into consideration in classifying and mapping agricultural drought vulnerability at a national level. (author)

  12. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-11-12

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  13. Exploration and Practice of Customized Agricultural Meteorological Service Based on Short Message Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinqiang; CUI; Xuemei; GUO; Jun; TANG; Jing; XU; Min; SHEN

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of main problems existing in current agricultural meteorological service in China,for the purpose of exploring a solution to the "last kilometer" problem in rural meteorological service,this article designed four short message service products with the business brand name "meteorology for agricultural condition",including "weather prediction for farming season","weather forecast for farming","weather alert",and "meteorological hazards of agriculture".By taking advantage of telecom operators’ market,these products have been spread to more than 1 million rural mobile phone users and widely welcomed.They also contributed enormously to disaster prevention and peasants’ income growth,and achieved good social and economic benefits.

  14. Fingerprint Matching Based on Local Relative Orientation Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU En; YIN Jian-ping; ZHANG Guo-min

    2004-01-01

    A fingerprint matching method based on local relative orientation field is proposed. It extracts local relative orientation field around each minutia for minutiae matching. Local orientation features are also used to sorting minutiae in order to speed up searching a minutia when pairing minutiae. The experimental result reveals that this method achieves improved recognition accuracy.

  15. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  16. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  17. Research on Fresh Agricultural Product Based on the Retailer's Overconfidence under Options and Spot Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Nie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we analyze the application of options contract in the special commodity supply chainsuch asfresh agricultural products. This problem is discussed from the point of the retailer. When spot market andfuture market are both available, we discuss how the retailer chooses the optimal production. Furthermore,overconfidence is introduced to the supply chain ofthe fresh agricultural products, which has not happenedbefore. Thenbased on the overconfidence of the retailer, we explore how overconfidence affects the supplychain system under different circumstances. At last, we get the conclusion that different overconfidencelevel has different affection on retailer’s optimalordering quantity and profit.

  18. Graphene-based field effect transistors for radiation-induced field sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gaspare, Alessandra; Valletta, Antonio; Fortunato, Guglielmo; Larciprete, Rosanna; Mariucci, Luigi; Notargiacomo, Andrea; Cimino, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    We propose the implementation of graphene-based field effect transistor (FET) as radiation sensor. In the proposed detector, graphene obtained via chemical vapor deposition is integrated into a Si-based field effect device as the gate readout electrode, able to sense any change in the field distribution induced by ionization in the underneath absorber, because of the strong variation in the graphene conductivity close to the charge neutrality point. Different 2-dimensional layered materials can be envisaged in this kind of device.

  19. Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation on agricultural terraces of DOURO VALLEY (PORTUGAL), using physically based mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana; Bateira, Carlos; Laura, Soares; Fernandes, Joana; Gonçalves, José; Marques, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The work focuses the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Douro Region agricultural terraces, supported by dry stone walls and earth embankments, using two physically based models. The applied models, SHALSTAB (Montgomery et al.,1994; Dietrich et al., 1995) and SINMAP (PACK et al., 2005), combine an infinite slope stability model with a steady state hydrological model, and both use the following geophysical parameters: cohesion, friction angle, specific weight and soil thickness. The definition of the contributing areas is different in both models. The D∞ methodology used by SINMAP model suggests a great influence of the terraces morphology, providing a much more diffuse flow on the internal flow modelling. The MD8 used in SHALSTAB promotes an important degree of flow concentration, representing an internal flow based on preferential paths of the runoff as the areas more susceptible to saturation processes. The model validation is made through the contingency matrix method (Fawcett, 2006; Raia et al., 2014) and implies the confrontation with the inventory of past landslides. The True Positive Rate shows that SHALSTAB classifies 77% of the landslides on the high susceptibility areas, while SINMAP reaches 90%. The SINMAP has a False Positive Rate (represents the percentage of the slipped area that is classified as unstable but without landslides) of 83% and the SHALSTAB has 67%. The reliability (analyzes the areas that were correctly classified on the total area) of SHALSTAB is better (33% against 18% of SINMAP). Relative to Precision (refers to the ratio of the slipped area correctly classified over the whole area classified as unstable) SHALSTAB has better results (0.00298 against 0.00283 of SINMAP). It was elaborate the index TPR/FPR and better results obtained by SHALSTAB (1.14 against 1.09 of SINMAP). SHALSTAB shows a better performance in the definition of susceptibility most prone areas to instability processes. One of the reasons for the difference of

  20. Environmental Fate of the Herbicide Fluazifop-P-butyl and Its Degradation Products in Two Loamy Agricultural Soils: A Combined Laboratory and Field Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Nora; Rosenbom, Annette E; Olsen, Preben; Sørensen, Sebastian R

    2015-08-01

    The herbicide fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is used against grasses in agricultural crops such as potato, oilseed rape, and sugar beet. Limited information is available in scientific literature on its environmental fate, therefore extensive monitoring at two agricultural test fields was combined with laboratory studies to determine leaching and the underlying degradation and sorption processes. Water samples from drains, suction cups, and groundwater wells showed leaching of the degradation products fluazifop-P (FP) and 2-hydroxy-5-trifluoromethyl-pyridin (TFMP) following FPB treatment. Laboratory experiments with soil from each field revealed a rapid degradation of FPB to FP. The degradation was almost exclusively microbial, and further biodegradation to TFMP occurred at a slower rate. Both degradation products were sorbed to the two soils to a small extent and were fairly persistent to degradation during the two-month incubation period. Together, the field and laboratory results from this study showed that the biodegradation of FPB in loamy soils gave rise to the production of two major degradation products that sorbed to a small extent. In this study, both degradation products leached to drainage and groundwater during precipitation. It is therefore recommended that these degradation products be included in programs monitoring water quality in areas with FPB use.

  1. NEAR-FIELD ACOUSTIC HOLOGRAPHY FOR SEMI-FREE ACOUSTIC FIELD BASED ON WAVE SUPERPOSITION APPROACH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Weibing; CHEN Jian; YU Fei; CHEN Xinzhao

    2006-01-01

    In the semi-free acoustic field, the actual acoustic pressure at any point is composed of two parts: The direct acoustic pressure and the reflected acoustic pressure. The general acoustic holographic theories and algorithms request that there is only the direct acoustic pressure contained in the pressure at any point on the hologram surface, consequently, they cannot be used to reconstruct acoustic source and predict acoustic field directly. To take the reflected pressure into consideration, near-field acoustic holography for semi-free acoustic field based on wave superposition approach is proposed to realize the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field, and the wave superposition approach is adopted as a holographic transform algorithm. The proposed theory and algorithm are realized and verified with a numerical example,and the drawbacks of the general theories and algorithms in the holographic reconstruction and prediction of the semi-free acoustic field are also demonstrated by this numerical example.

  2. Application of swine manure on agricultural fields contributes to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli spread in Tai’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili eGao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli is increasing rapidly in both hospital environments and animal farms. A lot of animal manure has been directly applied into arable fields in the developing countries. But the impact of ESBL-positive bacteria from animal manure on the agricultural fields is sparse, especially in the rural regions of Tai’an, China. Here, we collected 29, 3, and 10 ESBL-producing E. coli from pig manure, compost, and soil samples, respectively. To track ESBL-harboring E. coli from agricultural soil, these isolates of different sources were analyzed with regard to antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL genes, plasmid replicons, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing. The results showed that all the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. CTX-M gene was the predominant ESBL gene in the isolates from pig farm samples (30/32, 93.8% and soil samples (7/10, 70.0%, but no SHV gene was detected. 25 isolates contained the IncF-type replicon of plasmid, including 18 strains (18/32, 56.3% from the pig farm and 7 (7/10, 70.0% from the soil samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated that 3 isolates from the soil had above 90% genetic similarity with strains from pig farm samples. In conclusion, application of animal manure carrying drug-resistant bacteria on agricultural fields is a likely contributor to antibiotic resistance gene spread.

  3. Differentiated Gender Ownership of Cassava Fields and Implications for Root Yield Variations in Small Holder Agriculture of Southeast Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enete, AA.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available As a result of their relatively limited access to production resources, it has been variously reported that women obtain lower yields from their individual crop fields than men. Cassava root yields obtained from farmers' fields in three villages of southeast Nigeria were compared using separate ownership of fields by gender as a factor. The result of the analysis fails to confirm lower yields from women's fields. Instead, mean fresh root yield was lower for fields owned individually by men than for those owned individually by women, and about the same for fields owned jointly by the whole family and those owned individually by women. This was apparently because of differences in the use of purchased inputs, especially hired labor and improved cassava varieties, and perhaps also due to differences in the age of cassava at harvest and the intercropping of cassava as a minor crop with yam.

  4. A model of Dutch agriculture based on Positive Mathematical Programming with regional and environmental applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the Netherlands few sectors are in the news as often as the agricultural sector is, and the news is rarely good. Nearly every day, in newspapers, on television and on the radio we are confronted with BSE, foot and mouth disease, swine and chicken fever, polluted animal feed, manure surpluses, sub

  5. MICRO UAV BASED GEOREFERENCED ORTHOPHOTO GENERATION IN VIS + NIR FOR PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    F. Bachmann; Herbst, R.; Gebbers, R.; Hafner, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents technical details about georeferenced orthophoto generation for precision agriculture with a dedicated selfconstructed camera system and a commercial micro UAV as carrier platform. The paper describes the camera system (VIS + NIR) in detail and focusses on three issues concerning the generation and processing of the aerial images related to: (i) camera exposure time; (ii) vignetting correction; (iii) orthophoto generation.

  6. Evaluation of agricultural ecosystem services in fallowing land based on farmers' participation and model simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Yen Lan,; Chang Kang-tsung,; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Verburg, P.H.; Sun Chin Hong,

    2012-01-01

    Fallowing with green fertilizer can benefit agricultural ecosystem services (AES). Farmers in Taiwan do not implement fallow practices and plant green fertilizer because the current subsidy level (46,000 NT$ per ha) is too low to manage fallowing. This paper defines the objective of government agric

  7. Afforest sDSS: a metamodel based spatial decision support system for afforestation of agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilliams, S.; Orshoven, van J.; Muys, B.; Kros, J.; Heil, G.W.; Deursen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    The concept and structure of the Spatial Decision Support System AFFOREST sDSS dealing with environmental performance (EP) of afforestation on agricultural land in northwestern Europe, is presented. EP is defined in terms of three environmental impact categories: (1) carbon sequestration (2) groundw

  8. Rice Crop Field Monitoring System with Radio Controlled Helicopter Based Near Infrared Cameras Through Nitrogen Content Estimation and Its Distribution Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Kohei Arai; Yuko Miura; Osamu Shigetomi; Hideaki Munemoto

    2013-01-01

    Rice crop field monitoring system with radio controlled helicopter based near infrared cameras is proposed together with nitrogen content estimation method for monitoring its distribution in the field in concern. Through experiments at the Saga Prefectural Agricultural Research Institute: SPARI, it is found that the proposed system works well for monitoring nitrogen content in the rice crop which indicates quality of the rice crop and its distribution in the field in concern. Therefore, it be...

  9. Evaluation on the Sustainable Development of Agricultural Industrialization Based on DPSIR Model - A Case of North Bay Economic Zone in Guangxi Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qiang; Huang, Hu

    2009-01-01

    According to the connotation of agricultural industrialization, the DPSIR model based on agricultural industrialization is introduced from the five aspects of driving fore, pressure, state, impact and response. Taking the North Bay Economic Zone of Guangxi Province as an example, a total of 23 indices are selected to construct the evaluation index system of sustainable development for agricultural industrialization by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. And the sustainable development level...

  10. STUDY ON POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL STRATEGIES OF AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE IN CHINA BASED ON US-JAPAN EXPERIENCE AND ENLIGHTENMENT FOR THE PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    GAO QIANG; ZHAO FEI

    2014-01-01

    In United States, Japan and other developed countries in the agricultural nonpoint source pollution control and governance key policy and technical measures have achieved some success, compared to Chinese agricultural nonpoint source pollution and problems of the major causes and actively learning from the developed countries succeed agricultural nonpoint source pollution control practices and experiences, based on the actual situation, from the establishment of a sound related policies and r...

  11. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui; LI; Atsushi; TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru; TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security.Because the relationships among short-term rainfall,soil moisture,and crop growth are complex,accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult.In this study,using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction,we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region,Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region,China.To quantify drought,we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI),the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index(CMI),as well as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index(NDVI).Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season(May–September)and final yield,according to data collection from 2000 to 2010.The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July,but no correlation with SPI.Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad,particularly in July.To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale,a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years.The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area.Therefore,the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  12. Index-based assessment of agricultural drought in a semi-arid region of Inner Mongolia, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui LI; Atsushi TSUNEKAWA; Mitsuru TSUBO

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural drought is a type of natural disaster that seriously impacts food security. Because the rela-tionships among short-term rainfall, soil moisture, and crop growth are complex, accurate identification of a drought situation is difficult. In this study, using a conceptual model based on the relationship between water deficit and crop yield reduction, we evaluated the drought process in a typical rainfed agricultural region, Hailar county in Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China. To quantify drought, we used the precipitation-based Standardized Precipita-tion Index (SPI), the soil moisture-based Crop Moisture Index (CMI), as well as the Normalized Difference Vegeta-tion Index (NDVI). Correlation analysis was conducted to examine the relationships between dekad-scale drought indices during the growing season (May-September) and final yield, according to data collection from 2000 to 2010. The results show that crop yield has positive relationships with CMI from mid-June to mid-July and with the NDVI anomaly throughout July, but no correlation with SPI. Further analysis of the relationship between the two drought indices shows that the NDVI anomaly responds to CMI with a lag of 1 dekad, particularly in July. To examine the feasibility of employing these indices for monitoring the drought process at a dekad time scale, a detailed drought assessment was carried out for selected drought years. The results confirm that the soil moisture-based vegetation indices in the late vegetative to early reproductive growth stages can be used to detect agricultural drought in the study area. Therefore, the framework of the conceptual model developed for drought monitoring can be employed to support drought mitigation in the rainfed agricultural region of Northern China.

  13. Study on Venture Capital Investment Risk Avoiding Base on Option Pricing in Agricultural Production and Processing Enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xubo

    This paper uses the approaches and models of option theory to analyze two-stage venture capital investment in agricultural production and processing enterprises decision-making under uncertainty. Mathematics expressions of this two-stage venture capital investment decision-making are presented. An option value model about two-stage venture capital investment decision-making base on options pricing theory under the uncertainty is presented. Get the solution of option pricing model which we present.

  14. Adaptive overcurrent relay for the rural Agricultural feeder Based on Niranthara Jyothi Yojana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish.K,

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In certain states like Karnataka and Gujarat of India, farmers are provided with free 3-phase power supply to run their irrigation pump-sets under schemes like Niranthara Jyothi Yojana (NJY. Under this scheme, the rural feeders were bifurcated into agricultural feeders and non-agricultural feeders in order to facilitate 24 hours Supply for Non-agricultural Consumers and 8-10Hrs Supply for Agricultural Consumers. Due to power shortage, the 3-phase supply at the agricultural feeder is given only during the off-peak hours. Rest of the time, the supply is either 2-phase or the feeder is under Load Shedding. 2-phase supply at the station is given exclusively for lighting purpose at Farm houses. But, this 2-phase supply is being illegally tapped and converted to 3-phase by using condensers. Although, this is reflected in the sub-station load curve, it often takes time to detect such misuses. The conventional Overcurrent relay fails to respond to this misuse, unless the set points or pick up values are changed appropriately by human intervention, often the locals influence the substation personnel to keep the set points in such a way that the misuse is not reported. This, at times, may cause cascading disasters in the power system. The proposed relay would not only act as a protective element at the feeder, but also detect the misuse and trip the respective feeder by changing the set points appropriately without involving any human activity, eventually increasing the security of the system. Proposed relay has two working states namely active state and the event log state. The Event log keeps record of the events with real time and date by making use of Real time clock (RTC. This relay also consists of a GSM module which sends SMS to farmers and utility heads regarding the supply status.

  15. Russian Observations of European Experience in Agricultural Development in 1840s (based on the printed output of the Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.

  16. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heim, Wesley A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007–2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed — drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay — led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands — slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife — may enhance microbial

  17. Monitoring agricultural crop growth: comparison of high spatial-temporal satellite imagery versus UAV-based imaging spectrometer time series measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucher, Sander; Roerink, Gerbert; Franke, Jappe; Suomalainen, Juha; Kooistra, Lammert

    2014-05-01

    In 2012, the Dutch National Satellite Data Portal (NSD) was launched as a preparation to the launch of the European SENTINEL satellites in the framework of the Copernicus Programme. At the same time the Unmanned Aerial Remote Sensing Facility (UARSF: www.wageningenUR.nl/uarsf) has been established as research facility at Wageningen University and Research Centre. The NSD became available for the development of services and advice through an investment from the Dutch government in collaboration with the Netherlands Space Office (NSO) in order to develop new services for precision agriculture. The NSD contains Formosat, Radarsat as well as DMC satellite imagery. The processing of the DMC imagery resulted in the Greenmonitor service (www.groenmonitor.nl). The Greenmonitor is an unique product that covers the Netherlands with a high spatial and temporal resolution. The Greenmonitor is now being exploited for various applications, amongst others crop identification, crop phenology, and identification of management activities. The UARSF of Wageningen UR has three objectives: 1) to develop innovation in the field of remote sensing science using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) by providing a platform for dedicated and high-quality experiments; 2) to support high quality UAV services by providing calibration facilities and disseminating processing procedures to the UAV user community; 3) to promote and test the use of UAV in a broad range of application fields such as precision agriculture and habitat monitoring. Through this coincidence of new developments the goal of our study was to compare the information for the measurements of spatial variation in crops and soils as derived from high spatial-temporal satellite imagery from the national data portal compared to the exploitation of UAVs, in our case an Altura octocopter with a hyperspectral camera. As such, the focus is on the applications in precision agriculture. Both primary producers and chain partners and service

  18. An Automated Approach to Agricultural Tile Drain Detection and Extraction Utilizing High Resolution Aerial Imagery and Object-Based Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Richard A.

    Subsurface drainage from agricultural fields in the Maumee River watershed is suspected to adversely impact the water quality and contribute to the formation of harmful algal blooms (HABs) in Lake Erie. In early August of 2014, a HAB developed in the western Lake Erie Basin that resulted in over 400,000 people being unable to drink their tap water due to the presence of a toxin from the bloom. HAB development in Lake Erie is aided by excess nutrients from agricultural fields, which are transported through subsurface tile and enter the watershed. Compounding the issue within the Maumee watershed, the trend within the watershed has been to increase the installation of tile drains in both total extent and density. Due to the immense area of drained fields, there is a need to establish an accurate and effective technique to monitor subsurface farmland tile installations and their associated impacts. This thesis aimed at developing an automated method in order to identify subsurface tile locations from high resolution aerial imagery by applying an object-based image analysis (OBIA) approach utilizing eCognition. This process was accomplished through a set of algorithms and image filters, which segment and classify image objects by their spectral and geometric characteristics. The algorithms utilized were based on the relative location of image objects and pixels, in order to maximize the robustness and transferability of the final rule-set. These algorithms were coupled with convolution and histogram image filters to generate results for a 10km2 study area located within Clay Township in Ottawa County, Ohio. The eCognition results were compared to previously collected tile locations from an associated project that applied heads-up digitizing of aerial photography to map field tile. The heads-up digitized locations were used as a baseline for the accuracy assessment. The accuracy assessment generated a range of agreement values from 67.20% - 71.20%, and an average

  19. Soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventory and Ecological-Economic Zoning as a basis for agricultural suitability of lands in Minas Gerais elaborated in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Antonio Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lands (broader concept than soils, including all elements of the environment: soils, geology, topography, climate, water resources, flora and fauna, and the effects of anthropogenic activities of the state of Minas Gerais are in different soil, climate and socio-economics conditions and suitability for the production of agricultural goods is therefore distinct and mapping of agricultural suitability of the state lands is crucial for planning guided sustainability. Geoprocessing uses geographic information treatment techniques and GIS allows to evaluate geographic phenomena and their interrelationships using digital maps. To evaluate the agricultural suitability of state lands, we used soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventories and databases related to Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ of Minas Gerais, to develop a map of land suitability in GIS. To do this, we have combined the maps of soil fertility, water stress, oxygen deficiency, vulnerability to erosion and impediments to mechanization. In terms of geographical expression, the main limiting factor of lands is soil fertility, followed by lack of water, impediments to mechanization and vulnerability to erosion. Regarding agricultural suitability, the group 2 (regular suitability for crops is the most comprehensive, representing 45.13% of the state. For management levels A and B, low and moderate technological level, respectively, the most expressive suitability class is the regular, followed by the restricted class and last, the adequate class, while for the management level C (high technological level the predominant class is the restricted. The predominant most intensive use type is for crops, whose area increases substantially with capital investment and technology (management levels B and C.

  20. Proposal for field-based definition of soil bound pesticide residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesten, J J T I

    2016-02-15

    The environmental significance of soil bound pesticide residues (SBPR) is potentially large because approximately one third of the applied mass of the pesticides in agriculture ends up as SBPR. At EU level, there is little regulatory guidance available on the environmental risk assessment of SBPR in spite of some 50 years of SBPR research. This lack of guidance is partially caused by the fact that the current definitions of SBPR are founded on non-extractability in soil in the laboratory whereas for the environmental risk assessment not the soil in the laboratory but the soil in the field is the system of interest. Therefore a definition of SBPR is proposed that is based on the field soil: a molecule (further called 'the mother molecule') is soil bound if a relevant part of this molecule has become part of the solid phase in the soil and if this relevant part will never be released again to the liquid phase in soil under relevant field conditions in the form of this mother molecule or in the form of another molecule that may possibly raise environmental or human toxicological concerns. This mother molecule may be the parent substance that is applied to the soil but it may also be a metabolite of this parent substance. A consequence of the definition is that the SBPR terminology becomes more precise because the mother molecule of the soil bound residue has to be specified. A further consequence is that very strong but reversible sorption of molecules such as paraquat is not considered soil-bound residue anymore (as may be demonstrated by a self-exchange extraction procedure). Furthermore, the definition requires that risk managers have to define what they consider as 'relevant field conditions' (e.g. include also changes of agricultural fields into forests?).

  1. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Soleri

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit–cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  2. Tail Lobe Revisited: Magnetic Field Modeling Based on Plasma Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, S. B. P.; Tsyganenko, N. A.

    1999-01-01

    Plasma data from the ISEE-1 and -2 spacecraft during 1977-1980 have been used to determine the distribution of data points in the magnetotail in the range of distances -20 magnetic field data for the records in the tail lobe were then used to model the tail lobe magnetic field dependence on the solar wind dynamic pressure, on the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) and on the Dst index. The tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be dependent on the square root of the dynamic pressure based on the balance between the total magnetic pressure in the tail lobes and the dynamic pressure of the solar wind. The IMF dependent terms, added to the pressure term, were sought in many different forms while the Dst dependence of the tail lobe magnetic field was assumed to be linear. The field shows a strong dependence on the square root of the dynamic pressure and the different IMF dependent terms all constitute a significant contribution to the total field. However, the dependence on the Dst index turned out to be very weak at those down-tail distances. The results of this study are intended to be used for parameterizing future versions of the data-based models of the global magnetospheric magnetic field.

  3. Ultra-Sensitivity Glucose Sensor Based on Field Emitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yinglin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new glucose sensor based on field emitter of ZnO nanorod arrays (ZNA was fabricated. This new type of ZNA field emitter-based sensor shows high sensitivity with experimental limit of detection of 1 nM glucose solution and a detection range from 1 nM to 50 μM in air at room temperature, which is lower than that of glucose sensors based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, fluorescence signal transmission, and electrochemical signal transduction. The new glucose sensor provides a key technique for promising consuming application in biological system for detecting low levels of glucose on single cells or bacterial cultures.

  4. Empirical Study on the Impact of Rural Labor Force Flow on the Price of Agricultural Products——A Method Based on VEC Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the research introduction of domestic and foreign scholars,dynamic equilibrium between the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural product is analyzed by VEC model,according to the data of the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural products in the years 1990-2007.Chows breakpoint test is used to measure the stage characteristics of the impact of rural labor force flow on the price of agricultural product.Result shows that there is a long-term and stationary relationship between the flow quantity of rural labor force and the price of agricultural product.Rural labor force flow,as an exogenous force,affects the agricultural production,and further influences the price fluctuation of agricultural products.Impact of rural labor force flow on the price of agricultural product is from weak to strong,then grows gradually weaker,and reaches its peak value at the year 1998.With the development of rural society and economy and the market process,rural labor force flow endogenously affects the price of agricultural product,which has periodic characteristics.In order to achieve a dual stabilization of the rural labor force flow and the price of agricultural products,the following countermeasures are put forward:vigorously developing vocational education,increasing the support for agricultural production,and making active employment measures.

  5. Preliminary assessment of DOC and THM precursor loads from a freshwater restored wetland, an agricultural field, and a tidal wetland in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, R.; Bergamaschi, B.A.; Ganju, N.K.; Fleck, J.A.; Burow-Fogg, K.R.; Schoellhamer, D.; Deverel, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Water exported from the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta supplies drinking water to more than 22 million people in California. At certain times of the year, Delta waters contain relatively high concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and bromide. During these times, chlorination of Delta water for drinking water disinfection will form disinfection byproducts, such as trihalomethanes (THMs), that can exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's maximum contaminant level for THMs of 80 mg/L. Important sources of DOC and THM precursors (types of DOC that form THMs when chlorinated) to the Delta include rivers, drainage water from peat islands, water from wetlands and areas with extensive riparian vegetation, and in-channel growth of algae and macrophytes. Due to proposed ecosystem restoration and creation of wetlands in the Delta, there is an urgent need for information on the relative loads of DOC and THM precursors produced from three different land uses: restored wetlands constructed for subsidence mitigation, tidal wetlands, and agricultural operations. We have been conducting research in the Delta to provide this information. A restored wetland and agricultural field located on Twitchell Island, and a tidal wetland on Browns Island have been monitored for flow, DOC, and THM precursors. Initial results indicate that the loads of DOC and THM precursors are similar for the restored wetland (surface water only) and the agricultural field. These land uses produce DOC loads of about 14 and 11 g C/m2/yr, respectively, and THM precursor loads of about 1.7 and 1.0 g THM/m2/yr, respectively. Estimates of DOC and THM precursor loads for the tidal wetland site on Browns Island and seepage associated with the restored wetland are being developed.

  6. Effects of organic amendments on natural organic matter in bulk soils from an italian agricultural area as assessed by Fast Field Cycling NMR relaxometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Conte, Pellegrino; Alonzo, Giuseppe; Rao, Maria A.

    2010-05-01

    Losses of soil organic carbon often occur in soil because of intensive agricultural practices. This is due both to removal of organic carbon following harvest production and to insufficient inputs of organic amendments. Natural organic matter (NOM) can be a very appropriate material for enhancing organic carbon content in very stressed agricultural soils. In general, NOM plays an important role in environmental matrices due, for example, to its capacity in retaining water, in interacting with organic and inorganic pollutants, and in enhancing nutrient availability to plants. For this reason, the understanding of the mechanisms with which NOM interacts with other chemicals in the environment is of paramount importance. Structural and conformational NOM characteristics can be analysed by high field (HF) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy either in the solid or in the liquid state. In both cases, information on the chemical nature of NOM can be achieved. Moreover, relaxometry studies can be also conducted to provide information on the molecular dynamics of natural organic matter. However, HF-NMR relaxometry limitations are related to the strength of the magnetic fields which limits the range of relaxation rates that can be investigated. In fact, high magnetic fields (e.g. ≥108 Hz) reduce the possibilities to observe molecular dynamics at very low frequencies such as those between 106 and 103 Hz. To this aim, nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry at low fields and in the fast field cycling (FFC) setup is the most powerful way to retrieve information on the dynamics at low frequencies. Here, FFC-NMR relaxometry studies on soils subjected to different organic amendements are presented. Two farms, in an important agricultural area of Campania Region, Italy, were selected in order to study the effect of different organic amendments on bulk soils. Namely, a compost from municipal solid wastes and wood-wastes (scraps of poplars pruning) were applied in

  7. Model-based predictions of anaerobic digestion of agricultural substrates for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Haidong; Löffler, Daniel; Kranert, Martin

    2011-12-01

    A modified Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1), calibrated on a laboratory digester with a feeding mix of 30% weight of cow manure and 70% weight of corn silage, was implemented, showing its performances of simulation as a decision-making and planning-supporting tool for the anaerobic digestion of agricultural substrates. The virtual fermenter obtained was used to conduct simulations with different feeding compositions and loading rates of cow manure, corn silage, grass silage and rape oil. All simulations were started at the same initial state which was represented by a steady state with an organic loading rate of 2.5 kg ODM/(mdigester3∗d). The effects of the different feeding combinations on biogas composition and biogas yield were predicted reasonably, and partly verified with the available literature data. Results demonstrated that the simulations could be helpful for taking decisions on agricultural biogas plant operation or experimental set-ups, if used advisedly.

  8. The Industrial Cluster of the Primary Agriculture Based on "Diamond Model"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The status quo and problems of industrial cluster of the primary agriculture is discussed by dividing the cluster into primary cluster and advanced cluster and by using Michael Porter’s Diamond Model from the five aspects including production factors, demand factors, relevant industry and supporting industry, the strategy and structure of enterprises and horizontal competition and opportunities and government. In the end, the countermeasures on promoting the development and expansion of industrial cluster of primary agriculture are put forward. Firstly, intensifying the training on farmers and introduce into advanced science and technology results; secondly, perfecting the construction of infrastructure, creating famous brand and widening the channels for funding; thirdly, strengthening the development of relevant industries and supporting industries; fourthly, perfecting land transfer system; improving the degree of systematization and cultivating pillar industries; fifthly, intensifying the government’ support on industrial cluster.

  9. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pilon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI and Giussago (PV (Lombardy, Italy. In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amara littorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  10. Reformed poacher now basing his livelihood on sustainable agriculture and ecotourism

    OpenAIRE

    Travis, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The man in the middle of the photo is a reformed poacher who has spent over 15 years in jail for his illegal hunting activities. Since deforestation is being reduced and game populations are rising in the Luangwa Valley, he is now able to make more income by raising bees for honey production and by giving tours for wildlife tourists. LTRA-2 (An Agricultural Markets Model for Biodiversity Conservation)

  11. Applications of Smartphone-Based Sensors in Agriculture: A Systematic Review of Research

    OpenAIRE

    Suporn Pongnumkul; Pimwadee Chaovalit; Navaporn Surasvadi

    2015-01-01

    Smartphones have become a useful tool in agriculture because their mobility matches the nature of farming, the cost of the device is highly accessible, and their computing power allows a variety of practical applications to be created. Moreover, smartphones are nowadays equipped with various types of physical sensors which make them a promising tool to assist diverse farming tasks. This paper systematically reviews smartphone applications mentioned in research literature that utilize smartpho...

  12. Estimating the Agricultural Water Productivity of the Yellow River Basin Based on Remote Sensing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoqiang; Xue, Baolin; Yu, Jingshan; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    Water shortage for agricultural water use is a major problem in the Yellow River basin. This research use NDVI value, meteorological data, supervised classification in remote sensing image and actual statistical data to estimate and verify the wheat and maize distribution and the relevant crop water productivity values in the Yellow River basin. The validation of the method is performed by comparing the results with the distribution of CIESIN statistic data for 1990. To obtain the accurate cr...

  13. Optimizing intermediate ecosystem services in agriculture using rules based on landscape composition and configuration indices

    OpenAIRE

    Cong, Rong-Gang; Ekroos, Johan; Smith, Henrik G.; Brady, Mark V.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Important intermediate ecosystem services (ES) such as crop pollination and biological control of pests, which underpin the final ES agricultural yields, are mediated by mobile organisms that depend on availability of habitat and its arrangement in the landscape. It has been suggested that landscape-scale management (LSM) of habitat in a multi-farm setting results in higher provisioning of such ES compared to farm-scale management (FSM). However, to achieve the LSM solution, farmers'...

  14. Assessing Agricultural Sustainable Development Based on the DPSIR Approach:Case Study in Jiangsu, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shu-dong; Felix Mueller; Benjamin Burkhard; CAO Xing-jin; HOU Ying

    2013-01-01

    According to the contemporary ecosystem approach, the linkages of human actions with their environment have to be assessed in an integrative manner. The Driver-Pressure-State-Impact-Response (DPSIR) model is applied to identify and describe processes and interactions in human-environmental systems. An example application from a research project dealing with the development of sustainable management strategies for the agriculture in Jiangsu, China, illustrates the potentials and limitations of its sustainable development. The concept and indicators of ecological integrity are used to assess the indicators in the dimensions of DPSIR between 2003 and 2006. The main drivers included population growth which caused increasing demand for food, growing environmental demands, and rapidly decreasing of land and other natural resources. The main environmental problem was water pollution. The results show that in the dimension of driver, total grain output and agricultural land productivity both increased. Labor intensive agriculture has been promoted to increase agricultural land productivity. In the dimension of pressure, on the positive side, infrastructure got greatly improved, the input level such as total power of machinery, and level of fertilizer use increased, and level of pesticides use decreased, but on the negative side, cultivated land per capita and irrigation rate decreased, natural resources keep decreased. Environmental pollution indicators such as industrial wastewater discharge and acid rain rate increased in Jiangsu Province. In the aspect of state, ecosystem state was improved, plant coverage index increased, biological abundance index increased, fertilizer productivity increased, eco-environmental quality index increased, but land degradation index also increased. In the aspect of impact, output level increased, output efficiency enhanced, farmer’s social economic benefit improved. In the aspect of response, social support was greatly improved, input

  15. Security Guarantee of Agriculture Industry Based on the Improvement of Legal System of Peasant Specialized Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of several management models of the agriculture industry is introduced,as well as its impacts on industrial security.The management models are mainly the enterprise-like operation model,"enterprise + peasant household" model,small-scale peasants’ operation model,and peasant specialized cooperative model.Functions of peasant specialized cooperative in ensuring the security of agricultural industry are introduced,which are enhancing the industrial security by organization degree,promoting the industrial security by scale economy formed by cooperative organizations,fully utilizing the resources by the factor allocation capability,and ensuring the industrial security by industrial chain improvement.Development predicaments of the peasant specialized cooperative at present are analyzed,such as small scale,poor economic benefits,and non-standard operation.Analysis shows that institutional absence is the main reason causing these predicaments.And suggestions on improving the cooperatives system in the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Peasants Specialized Cooperatives are put forward,in order to better ensure the security of agriculture industry

  16. HUMAN RESOURCES – A BASE FOR GROWING WORK PRODUCTIVITY IN AGRICULTURAL EXPLOITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMINA – SIMONA TOADER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural exploitations are often characterized by major changes, by priorities which many times are conflicting, by pressures for obtaining results. The manager has to reduce the costs, has to be all the time informed about the technological progresses and to understand the dynamic of the fast changes of the market and of the clients demand. The success or failure of an agricultural exploitation is related to the way of acting of its employees. The managers can hide in the apparent security of their “bunker” from where they can give orders. In the present time they have to be conscious that they con no longer use the authority and the coercion as it happened once. This is the reason why the word implication characterizes the solution applied in this context. The managers must motivate the employees, inspiring the commitment and the desire for action and encouraging the creativity, they have to exploit the experience, the energy and the skills of different employee groups and to build first class teams for solving the problems, for identifying the opportunities and for give sense to the huge volume of information which is available today. The role of the manager of an agricultural exploitation is not that to make the employees work but to make them work well, to determine them to use all their intellectual and physical resources. Where there is motivation, there is also productivity and performance and the employees are happy.

  17. Magnetic field measurements based on Terfenol coated photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Sully M M; Martelli, Cicero; Braga, Arthur M B; Valente, Luiz C G; Kato, Carla C

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic field sensor based on the integration of a high birefringence photonic crystal fiber and a composite material made of Terfenol particles and an epoxy resin is proposed. An in-fiber modal interferometer is assembled by evenly exciting both eigenemodes of the HiBi fiber. Changes in the cavity length as well as the effective refractive index are induced by exposing the sensor head to magnetic fields. The magnetic field sensor has a sensitivity of 0.006 (nm/mT) over a range from 0 to 300 mT with a resolution about ±1 mT. A fiber Bragg grating magnetic field sensor is also fabricated and employed to characterize the response of Terfenol composite to the magnetic field.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DIVERSIFICATION EFFORTS IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PROCHÁZKA, Petr

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Study of agriculture enjoys less popularity over time in most of the developed countries, including Canada and the Czech Republic. Analysis in this paper provides interesting findings about activities of agricultural universities to increase enrollment into their programs. While the study is focused on Canada, it is possible to draw implications also for the Czech Republic as many of the characteristics pertaining to the education and agricultural sectors are similar. Enrollment into educational programs in agriculture in North America has been steadily declining in the last several decades. While the overall share of agriculture on national gross domestic product has also been falling, the need for qualified people in agriculture is still eminent as the shift to sustainable agriculture appears to be one of the key priorities of governments in the US and Canada. One of the ways how to facilitate interest of prospective students to study agriculture is to diversify the programs through offering of more major options. It is important to study the motivation and other stimuli for the choice of major in order to adapt the educational programs and attract more students. In the paper, factors influencing the choice of major are studied by analyzing survey data from the only agricultural college in Atlantic Canada. The results show significant differences in the socio-economic background among the prospective students based on the choice of major. For example, students interested in social sciences much more appraise more choices of major than students in biophysical fields. Based on the findings from the analysis, several recommendations are made. It is suggested, for example, that for students interested in biophysical sciences, sport plays an important role and thus, appropriate promotional campaign about recreation and sport facilities of a post-secondary agricultural educational institutions should be conducted. Analysis in this paper may serve

  19. Organic Field-effect Transistors Based on Tetrathiafulvalene Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    1 Restults Tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) and its derivatives have been extensively investigated in the field of organic conductors and superconductors since 1973. Recently, their application in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) has attracted considerable attention. So far, on the one hand, the fabrication techniques of the TTF-based FETs have been primarily limited to high vacuum evaporation, which is a relatively expensive process. On the other hand, low FET performances, such as the low on/off ratio...

  20. Finite Field Arithmetic Architecture Based on Cellular Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kee-Won Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, various finite field arithmetic structures are introduced for VLSI circuit implementation on cryptosystems and error correcting codes. In this study, we present an efficient finite field arithmetic architecture based on cellular semi-systolic array for Montgomery multiplication by choosing a proper Montgomery factor which is highly suitable for the design on parallel structures. Therefore, our architecture has reduced a time complexity by 50% compared to typical architecture.