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Sample records for agricultural fields based

  1. A ' SELECTED AGRICULTURAL FIELDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    collected from four in'igation sites were used in the evaluation. The soils particle .... comparing the model simulated outputs with measured/observed state variables the model ... The soils of the study area are classified as alfisols based on the USDA (1975). classification. .... under predict measured values. “A positive value ...

  2. Field-based evidence for consistent responses of bacterial communities to copper contamination in two contrasting agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing eLi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper contamination on China’s arable land could pose severe economic, ecological and healthy consequences in the coming decades. As the drivers in maintaining ecosystem functioning, the responses of soil microorganisms to long-term copper contamination in different soil ecosystems are still debated. This study investigated the impacts of copper gradients on soil bacterial communities in two agricultural fields with contrasting soil properties. Our results revealed consistent reduction in soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC with increasing copper levels in both soils, coupled by significant declines in bacterial abundance in most cases. Despite of contrasting bacterial community structures between the two soils, the bacterial diversity in the copper-contaminated soils showed considerably decreasing patterns when copper levels elevated. High-throughput sequencing revealed copper selection for major bacterial guilds, in particular, Actinobacteria showed tolerance, while Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi were highly sensitive to copper. The thresholds that bacterial communities changed sharply were 800 and 200 added copper mg kg-1 in the fluvo-aquic soil and red soil, respectively, which were similar to the toxicity thresholds (EC50 values characterized by SMBC. Structural equation model (SEM analysis ascertained that the shifts of bacterial community composition and diversity were closely related with the changes of SMBC in both soils. Our results provide field-based evidence that copper contamination exhibits consistently negative impacts on soil bacterial communities, and the shifts of bacterial communities could have largely determined the variations of the microbial biomass.

  3. A regional field-based assessment of organic C sequestration and GHG balances in irrigated agriculture in Mediterranean semi-arid land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virto, Inigo; Antón, Rodrigo; Arias, Nerea; Orcaray, Luis; Enrique, Alberto; Bescansa, Paloma

    2016-04-01

    In a context of global change and increasing food demand, agriculture faces the challenge of ensuring food security making a sustainable use of resources, especially arable land and water. This implies in many areas a transition towards agricultural systems with increased and stable productivity and a more efficient use of inputs. The introduction of irrigation is, within this framework, a widespread strategy. However, the C cycle and the net GHG emissions can be significantly affected by irrigation. The net effect of this change needs to be quantified at a regional scale. In the region of Navarra (NE Spain) more than 22,300 ha of rainfed agricultural land have been converted to irrigation in the last years, adding to the previous existing irrigated area of 70,000 ha. In this framework the project Life+ Regadiox (LIFE12 ENV/ES/000426, http://life-regadiox.es/) has the objective of evaluating the net GHG balances and atmospheric CO2 fixation rates of different management strategies in irrigated agriculture in the region. The project involved the identification of areas representative of the different pedocllimatic conditions in the region. This required soil and climate characterizations, and the design of a network of agricultural fields representative of the most common dryland and irrigation managements in these areas. This was done from available public datasets on climate and soil, and from soil pits especially sampled for this study. Two areas were then delimited, mostly based on their degree of aridity. Within each of those areas, fields were selected to allow for comparisons at three levels: (i) dryland vs irrigation, (ii) soil and crop management systems for non-permanent crops, and (iii) soil management strategies for permanent crops (namely olive orchards and vineyards). In a second step, the objective of this work was to quantify net SOC variations and GHG balances corresponding to the different managements identified in the previous step. These

  4. Study on the quantitative relationship between Agricultural water and fertilization process and non-point source pollution based on field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Chen, K.; Wu, Z.; Guan, X.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, with the prominent of water environment problem and the relative increase of point source pollution governance, especially the agricultural non-point source pollution problem caused by the extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides has become increasingly aroused people's concern and attention. In order to reveal the quantitative relationship between agriculture water and fertilizer and non-point source pollution, on the basis of elm field experiment and combined with agricultural drainage irrigation model, the agricultural irrigation water and the relationship between fertilizer and fertilization scheme and non-point source pollution were analyzed and calculated by field emission intensity index. The results show that the variation of displacement varies greatly under different irrigation conditions. When the irrigation water increased from 22cm to 42cm, the irrigation water increased by 20 cm while the field displacement increased by 11.92 cm, about 66.22% of the added value of irrigation water. Then the irrigation water increased from 42 to 68, irrigation water increased 26 cm, and the field displacement increased by 22.48 cm, accounting for 86.46% of irrigation water. So there is an "inflection point" between the irrigation water amount and field displacement amount. The load intensity increases with the increase of irrigation water and shows a significant power correlation. Under the different irrigation condition, the increase amplitude of load intensity with the increase of irrigation water is different. When the irrigation water is smaller, the load intensity increase relatively less, and when the irrigation water increased to about 42 cm, the load intensity will increase considerably. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the fertilization and load intensity. The load intensity had obvious difference in different fertilization modes even with same fertilization level, in which the fertilizer field unit load intensity

  5. Building Rural Communities through School-Based Agriculture Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Henry, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a substantive theory for community development by school-based agriculture programs through grounded theory methodology. Data for the study included in-depth interviews and field observations from three school-based agriculture programs in three non-metropolitan counties across a Midwestern state. The…

  6. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  7. Creating optimized machine working patterns on agricultural fields

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Spekken

    2015-01-01

    In the current agricultural context, agricultural machine unproductivity on fields and their impacts on soil along pathways are unavoidable. These machines have direct and indirect costs associated to their work in field, with non-productive time spent in manoeuvres when these are reaching field borders; likewise, there is a double application of product when machines are covering headlands while adding farm inputs. Both issues aggravate under irregular field geometry. Moreover, unproductive ...

  8. Laser-based agriculture system

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-03-31

    A system and method are provided for indoor agriculture using at least one growth chamber illuminated by laser light. In an example embodiment of the agriculture system, a growth chamber is provided having one or more walls defining an interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system may include a removable tray disposed within the interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system also includes a light source, which may be disposed outside the growth chamber. The one or more walls may include at least one aperture. The light source is configured to illuminate at least a part of the interior portion of the growth chamber. In embodiments in which the light source is disposed outside the growth chamber, the light source is configured to transmit the laser light to the interior portion of the growth chamber via the at least one aperture.

  9. Laser-based agriculture system

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Wong, Aloysius Tze; Ng, Tien Khee

    2016-01-01

    A system and method are provided for indoor agriculture using at least one growth chamber illuminated by laser light. In an example embodiment of the agriculture system, a growth chamber is provided having one or more walls defining an interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system may include a removable tray disposed within the interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system also includes a light source, which may be disposed outside the growth chamber. The one or more walls may include at least one aperture. The light source is configured to illuminate at least a part of the interior portion of the growth chamber. In embodiments in which the light source is disposed outside the growth chamber, the light source is configured to transmit the laser light to the interior portion of the growth chamber via the at least one aperture.

  10. Parkinson's Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitshak Sade, Maayan; Zlotnik, Yair; Kloog, Itai; Novack, Victor; Peretz, Chava; Ifergane, Gal

    2015-01-01

    The risk for developing Parkinson's disease (PD) is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel) contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF). We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population) between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs) for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012). Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79). In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk. PMID:26357584

  11. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  12. Remote sensing based evapotranspiration and runoff modeling of agricultural, forest and urban flux sites in Denmark: From field to macro-scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, E.; Poulsen, R.N.; Butts, M.

    2009-01-01

    representing agricultural, forest and urban land surfaces in physically based hydrological modeling makes it possible to reproduce much of the observed variability (48–73%) in stream flow (Q − Qb) when data and modeling is applied at an effective spatial resolution capable of representing land surface...... variability in eddy covariance latent heat fluxes. The “effective” spatial resolution needed to adopt local-scale model parameters for spatial-deterministic hydrological modeling was assessed using a high-spatial resolution (30 m) variogram analysis of the NDVI. The use of the NDVI variogram to evaluate land...

  13. A contemporary decennial global sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, E.; Roy, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    In the last several hundred years agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use Change (LCLUC) with dramatic cropland expansion and a marked increase in agricultural productivity. The size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLUC. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, diffusion of disease pathogens and pests, and loss or degradation in buffers to nutrient, herbicide and pesticide flows. In this study, globally distributed locations with significant contemporary field size change were selected guided by a global map of agricultural yield and literature review and were selected to be representative of different driving forces of field size change (associated with technological innovation, socio-economic conditions, government policy, historic patterns of land cover land use, and environmental setting). Seasonal Landsat data acquired on a decadal basis (for 1980, 1990, 2000 and 2010) were used to extract field boundaries and the temporal changes in field size quantified and their causes discussed.

  14. Addressing Issues of Malnutrition in Children through Public Nutrition using Local Resources of Agriculture and Land Use: Evidence from the Field Based Evaluation Study in Uttar Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemthianngai Guite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Public Nutrition refers to work in the interest of the public; with the participation of the public; and with all sectors involved in society, not just the health sector, nor mainly the health sector, though for the benefit of population health and nutrition. Action outside of the health sector, particularly with regard to food systems is required, such as capacitating women in agriculture and land use for increased vegetable production. Rationale: Adopting public health approach, an evidence from a field project wherein the evaluation study was conducted by Oxfam India (a leading non-profit organization, and where the authors coordinated and documented field evidence through conducting end line evaluation study is discussed in this paper, in order to highlight the achievement of women farmers in ensuring food and nutrition security by strengthening low cost vegetable production in Shaharanpur and Pilibhit, Uttar Pradesh. Objective of the study: To assess the success and impact of measures adopted under the project in order to enhance the capacity and skills of women vegetable farmers in sustainable farming practices. Materials and Methods: Purposive Non Probability Sampling adopted to include key set of stakeholders, which includes 100 women vegetable farmers, 8 NGO and 5 government officials respectively drawn from Shahjahanpur and Pilibhit district of Uttar Pradesh.  The methods which were used to gather quantitative and qualitative data for the study were: In-depth Interview, Focused Group Discussion (FGD, Case Studies. Results: Child nutrition is positively and independently associated with increased vegetable production through agriculture and land use by women in the villages. It enhanced the nutritional status of women and improved the health status of their family members as well. Conclusion: The public nutrition approach will make it possible to increase the impact of current initiatives which aim to reverse

  15. A contemporary decennial global Landsat sample of changing agricultural field sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Emma; Roy, David

    2014-05-01

    Agriculture has caused significant human induced Land Cover Land Use (LCLU) change, with dramatic cropland expansion in the last century and significant increases in productivity over the past few decades. Satellite data have been used for agricultural applications including cropland distribution mapping, crop condition monitoring, crop production assessment and yield prediction. Satellite based agricultural applications are less reliable when the sensor spatial resolution is small relative to the field size. However, to date, studies of agricultural field size distributions and their change have been limited, even though this information is needed to inform the design of agricultural satellite monitoring systems. Moreover, the size of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and provides an insight into the drivers of rural LCLU change. In many parts of the world field sizes may have increased. Increasing field sizes cause a subsequent decrease in the number of fields and therefore decreased landscape spatial complexity with impacts on biodiversity, habitat, soil erosion, plant-pollinator interactions, and impacts on the diffusion of herbicides, pesticides, disease pathogens, and pests. The Landsat series of satellites provide the longest record of global land observations, with 30m observations available since 1982. Landsat data are used to examine contemporary field size changes in a period (1980 to 2010) when significant global agricultural changes have occurred. A multi-scale sampling approach is used to locate global hotspots of field size change by examination of a recent global agricultural yield map and literature review. Nine hotspots are selected where significant field size change is apparent and where change has been driven by technological advancements (Argentina and U.S.), abrupt societal changes (Albania and Zimbabwe), government land use and agricultural policy changes (China, Malaysia, Brazil), and/or constrained by

  16. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    agriculturebased livelihoods, demands the integration of ICT knowledge with agriculture. .... (CGIAR) shows the vital role of Agricultural development in Rwanda's ... Network, Rwanda National Backbone Project, Regional Communication.

  17. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.

    2017-01-01

    of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing......) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look...... at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation....

  18. Forests to fields. Restoring tropical lands to agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D

    1993-04-01

    In discussing land use in tropical forest regions, there is an emphasis on the following topics: the need for the expansion of cropping areas, the precedent for use of the tropical forest for cropping based on past use patterns, the pressure from conservationists against cropping, debunking the mythology that forests are "natural" and refuting the claims that forest clearance is not reversible, the archeological evidence of past forest use for agricultural purposes, abandonment of tropical land to forest, and rotation of forest and field. The assumption is that the way to stop food importation is to increase crop production in the tropics. Crop production can be increased through 1) land intensification or clearing new land, 2) output per unit of land increases, or 3) reallocation to agriculture land previously cleared and overgrown with tropical forest. "Temporary" reuse of land, which reverted back to tropical forest, is recommended. This reuse would ease population pressure, and benefit bioconservation, while populations stabilize and further progress is made in international plant breeding. The land would eventually be returned to a forest state. Conservation of tropical forest areas should be accomplished, after an assessment has been made of its former uses. Primary forests need to identified and conversion to farming ceased. Research needs to be directed to understanding the process of past forest regeneration, and to devising cropping systems with longterm viability. The green revolution is unsuitable for traditional cropping systems, is contrary to demands of international funding agencies for sustainability, and is not affordable by most poor farmers. Only .48 million sq. km of closed forest loss was in tropical rainforests; 6.53 million sq. km was lost from temperate forests cleared for intensive small-scale peasant farming. The use of tropical forest land for farming has some benefits; crops in the wetter tropics are perennial, which would "reduce

  19. Spacial Variation in SAR Images of Different Resolution for Agricultural Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Skriver, Henning

    1999-01-01

    The spatial variation in two types of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images covering agricultural fields is analysed. C-band polarimetric SAR data from the Danish airborne SAR, EMISAR, have been compared to space based ERS-1 C-band SAR with respect to scale and effect of polarization. The general...

  20. Effects of fertilizers used in agricultural fields on algal blooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Subhendu; Tiwari, P. K.; Sasmal, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Chattopadhyay, Joydev

    2017-06-01

    The increasing occurrence of algal blooms and their negative ecological impacts have led to intensified monitoring activities. This needs the proper identification of the most responsible factor/factors for the bloom formation. However, in natural systems, algal blooms result from a combination of factors and from observation it is difficult to identify the most important one. In the present paper, using a mathematical model we compare the effects of three human induced factors (fertilizer input in agricultural field, eutrophication due to other sources than fertilizers, and overfishing) on the bloom dynamics and DO level. By applying a sophisticated sensitivity analysis technique, we found that the increasing use of fertilizers in agricultural field causes more rapid algal growth and decreases DO level much faster than eutrophication from other sources and overfishing. We also look at the mechanisms how fertilizer input rate affects the algal bloom dynamics and DO level. The model can be helpful for the policy makers in determining the influential factors responsible for the bloom formation.

  1. About soil cover heterogeneity of agricultural research stations' experimental fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannik, Kaire; Kõlli, Raimo; Kukk, Liia

    2013-04-01

    Depending on local pedo-ecological conditions (topography, (geo) diversity of soil parent material, meteorological conditions) the patterns of soil cover and plant cover determined by soils are very diverse. Formed in the course of soil-plant mutual relationship, the natural ecosystems are always influenced to certain extent by the other local soil forming conditions or they are site specific. The agricultural land use or the formation of agro-ecosystems depends foremost on the suitability of soils for the cultivation of feed and food crops. As a rule, the most fertile or the best soils of the area, which do not present any or present as little as possible constraints for agricultural land use, are selected for this purpose. Compared with conventional field soils, the requirements for the experimental fields' soil cover quality are much higher. Experimental area soils and soil cover composition should correspond to local pedo-ecological conditions and, in addition to that, represent the soil types dominating in the region, whereas the fields should be as homogeneous as possible. The soil cover heterogeneity of seven arable land blocks of three research stations (Jõgeva, Kuusiku and Olustvere) was studied 1) by examining the large scale (1:10 000) digital soil map (available via the internet), and 2) by field researches using the transect method. The stages of soils litho-genetic and moisture heterogeneities were estimated by using the Estonian normal soils matrix, however, the heterogeneity of top- and subsoil texture by using the soil texture matrix. The quality and variability of experimental fields' soils humus status, was studied more thoroughly from the aspect of humus concentration (g kg-1), humus cover thickness (cm) and humus stocks (Mg ha-1). The soil cover of Jõgeva experimental area, which presents an accumulative drumlin landscape (formed during the last glacial period), consist from loamy Luvisols and associated to this Cambisols. In Kuusiku area

  2. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  3. Automated Agricultural Field Extraction from Multi-temporal Web Enabled Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2012-12-01

    Agriculture has caused significant anthropogenic surface change. In many regions agricultural field sizes may be increasing to maximize yields and reduce costs resulting in decreased landscape spatial complexity and increased homogenization of land uses with potential for significant biogeochemical and ecological effects. To date, studies of the incidence, drivers and impacts of changing field sizes have not been undertaken over large areas because of computational constraints and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. The Landsat series of satellites provides near-global coverage, long term, and appropriate spatial resolution (30m) satellite data to document changing field sizes. The recent free availability of all the Landsat data in the U.S. Landsat archive now provides the opportunity to study field size changes in a global and consistent way. Commercial software can be used to extract fields from Landsat data but are inappropriate for large area application because they require considerable human interaction. This paper presents research to develop and validate an automated computational Geographic Object Based Image Analysis methodology to extract agricultural fields and derive field sizes from Web Enabled Landsat Data (WELD) (http://weld.cr.usgs.gov/). WELD weekly products (30m reflectance and brightness temperature) are classified into Satellite Image Automatic Mapper™ (SIAM™) spectral categories and an edge intensity map and a map of the probability of each pixel being agricultural are derived from five years of 52 weeks of WELD and corresponding SIAM™ data. These data are fused to derive candidate agriculture field segments using a variational region-based geometric active contour model. Geometry-based algorithms are used to decompose connected segments belonging to multiple fields into coherent isolated field objects with a divide and conquer strategy to detect and merge partial circle

  4. Optimization of agricultural field workability predictions for improved risk management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risks introduced by weather variability are key considerations in agricultural production. The sensitivity of agriculture to weather variability is of special concern in the face of climate change. In particular, the availability of workable days is an important consideration in agricultural practic...

  5. Mobile device-based optical instruments for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2013-05-01

    Realizing that a current smart-mobile device such as a cell phone and a tablet can be considered as a pocket-size computer embedded with a built-in digital camera, this paper reviews and demonstrates on how a mobile device can be specifically functioned as a portable optical instrument for agricultural applications. The paper highlights several mobile device-based optical instruments designed for searching small pests, measuring illumination level, analyzing spectrum of light, identifying nitrogen status in the rice field, estimating chlorine in water, and determining ripeness level of the fruit. They are suitable for individual use as well as for small and medium enterprises.

  6. The Role Played by Agricultural Policy-based Finance in New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of the agricultural policy-based finance in terms of supporting the new village construction is analyzed: in the first place, the theoretical roots of agricultural policy-based finance supporting new village construction are "market failure" and "government intervention"; in the second place, the continual decline of agriculture and the "rural financial market failure" in recent years have become the objective evidence and historical mission for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; in the third place, the combination of agricultural policy-based finance and new village construction is conducive to solving the "three agriculture" problems and facilitating the reform of new village construction. The feasibility of the support is analyzed: firstly, agricultural policy-based finance boasts the status and position of the "primary drive" in new village construction; secondly, the nation continuously deepens the reform of rural financial system and policy-based banks and strengthens the functions of Agricultural Development Bank, which provides policies for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; thirdly, the 14 years’ reform and development of Agricultural Development Bank and the eleventh five year plan lay sound practical basis for the support of agricultural policy-based finance to new village construction. Based on the necessity and feasibility, the following six aspects are analyzed to fully display the function of the "first engine" of agricultural policy-related finance to new village construction. Firstly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to grain and cotton and some other agricultural products in the circulation domain; secondly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to agricultural industrialization in processing field; thirdly, intensifying the credit and loan aid to agricultural comprehensive development, rural infrastructure construction, application and promotion of

  7. Vegetation Water Content Mapping in a Diverse Agricultural Landscape: National Airborne Field Experiment 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosh, Michael H.; Jing Tao; Jackson, Thomas J.; McKee, Lynn; O'Neill, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Mapping land cover and vegetation characteristics on a regional scale is critical to soil moisture retrieval using microwave remote sensing. In aircraft-based experiments such as the National Airborne Field Experiment 2006 (NAFE 06), it is challenging to provide accurate high resolution vegetation information, especially on a daily basis. A technique proposed in previous studies was adapted here to the heterogenous conditions encountered in NAFE 06, which included a hydrologically complex landscape consisting of both irrigated and dryland agriculture. Using field vegetation sampling and ground-based reflectance measurements, the knowledge base for relating the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the vegetation water content was extended to a greater diversity of agricultural crops, which included dryland and irrigated wheat, alfalfa, and canola. Critical to the generation of vegetation water content maps, the land cover for this region was determined from satellite visible/infrared imagery and ground surveys with an accuracy of 95.5% and a kappa coefficient of 0.95. The vegetation water content was estimated with a root mean square error of 0.33 kg/sq m. The results of this investigation contribute to a more robust database of global vegetation water content observations and demonstrate that the approach can be applied with high accuracy. Keywords: Vegetation, field experimentation, thematic mapper, NDWI, agriculture.

  8. Profiling nematode communities in unmanaged flowerbed and agricultural field soils in Japan by DNA barcode sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisashi Morise

    Full Text Available Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples and 48 (field samples isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs, indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis.

  9. Profiling Nematode Communities in Unmanaged Flowerbed and Agricultural Field Soils in Japan by DNA Barcode Sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morise, Hisashi; Miyazaki, Erika; Yoshimitsu, Shoko; Eki, Toshihiko

    2012-01-01

    Soil nematodes play crucial roles in the soil food web and are a suitable indicator for assessing soil environments and ecosystems. Previous nematode community analyses based on nematode morphology classification have been shown to be useful for assessing various soil environments. Here we have conducted DNA barcode analysis for soil nematode community analyses in Japanese soils. We isolated nematodes from two different environmental soils of an unmanaged flowerbed and an agricultural field using the improved flotation-sieving method. Small subunit (SSU) rDNA fragments were directly amplified from each of 68 (flowerbed samples) and 48 (field samples) isolated nematodes to determine the nucleotide sequence. Sixteen and thirteen operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained by multiple sequence alignment from the flowerbed and agricultural field nematodes, respectively. All 29 SSU rDNA-derived OTUs (rOTUs) were further mapped onto a phylogenetic tree with 107 known nematode species. Interestingly, the two nematode communities examined were clearly distinct from each other in terms of trophic groups: Animal predators and plant feeders were markedly abundant in the flowerbed soils, in contrast, bacterial feeders were dominantly observed in the agricultural field soils. The data from the flowerbed nematodes suggests a possible food web among two different trophic nematode groups and plants (weeds) in the closed soil environment. Finally, DNA sequences derived from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene were determined as a DNA barcode from 43 agricultural field soil nematodes. These nematodes were assigned to 13 rDNA-derived OTUs, but in the COI gene analysis were assigned to 23 COI gene-derived OTUs (cOTUs), indicating that COI gene-based barcoding may provide higher taxonomic resolution than conventional SSU rDNA-barcoding in soil nematode community analysis. PMID:23284767

  10. GAOS: Spatial optimisation of crop and nature within agricultural fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de S.; Janssen, H.; Klompe, A.; Lerink, P.; Vanmeulebrouk, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes and demonstrates a spatial optimiser that allocates areas of inefficient machine manoeuvring to field margins thus improving the use of available space and supporting map-based Controlled Traffic Farming. A prototype web service (GAOS) allows farmers to optimise tracks within

  11. Applied statistics for agriculture, veterinary, fishery, dairy and allied fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sahu, Pradip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at a wide range of readers who lack confidence in the mathematical and statistical sciences, particularly in the fields of Agriculture, Veterinary, Fishery, Dairy and other related areas. Its goal is to present the subject of statistics and its useful tools in various disciplines in such a manner that, after reading the book, readers will be equipped to apply the statistical tools to extract otherwise hidden information from their data sets with confidence. Starting with the meaning of statistics, the book introduces measures of central tendency, dispersion, association, sampling methods, probability, inference, designs of experiments and many other subjects of interest in a step-by-step and lucid manner. The relevant theories are described in detail, followed by a broad range of real-world worked-out examples, solved either manually or with the help of statistical packages. In closing, the book also includes a chapter on which statistical packages to use, depending on the user’s respecti...

  12. Mercury contamination in soil, tailing and plants on agricultural fields near closed gold mine in Buru Island, Maluku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reginawanti Hindersah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural productivity in Buru Island, Maluku is threatened by tailings which are generated from formerly gold mine in Botak Mountain in Wamsait Village. Gold that extracted by using mercury was carried out in mining area as well agricultural field.  High content of mercury in tailings and agricultural field pose a serious problem of food production and quality; and further endangers human health. The purpose of this research was to determine the contaminant level of mercury in tailing, soil and its accumulation in edible part of some food crops. Soil, tailing and plant samples for Hg testing were taken by purposive method based on mining activities in Waelata, Waeapo and Namlea sub district. Six soil samples had been analyzed for their chemical properties. Total mercury levels in tailings and plants were measured by Atomic Adsorption Spectrophotometer. This study showed that agricultural field where tailings were deposited contained Hg above the threshold but agricultural area which is far from hot spot did not. Most edible parts of food crops accumulated mercury more than Indonesian threshold for mercury content in food. This evidence explained that tailings deposited on the surface of agricultural field had an impact on soil quality and crop quality. Tailing accumulated on soil will decreased soil quality since naturally soil fertility in agricultural field in Buru is low.

  13. Preparing students for higher education and careers in agriculture and related fields: An ethnography of an urban charter school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kesha Atasha

    This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  14. A mobile app for delivering in-field soil data for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, John P.; Stojanovic, Vladeta; Falconer, Ruth E.

    2015-04-01

    In the last decade precision agriculture has grown from a concept to an emerging technology, largely due to the maturing of GPS and mobile mapping. We investigated methods for reliable delivery and display of appropriate and context aware in-field farm data on mobile devices by developing a prototype android mobile app. The 3D app was developed using OpenGL ES 2.0 and written in Java, using the Android Development Tools (ADT) SDK. The app is able to obtain GPS coordinates and automatically synchronise the view and load relevant data based on the user's location. The intended audience of the mobile app is farmers and agronomists. Apps are becoming an essential tool in an agricultural professional's arsenal however most existing apps are limited to 2D display of data even though the modern chips in mobile devices can support the display of 3D graphics at interactive rates using technologies such as webGL. This project investigated the use of games techniques in the delivery and 3D display of field data, recognising that this may be a departure from the way the field data is currently delivered and displayed to farmers and agronomists. Different interactive 3D visualisation methods presenting spatial and temporal variation in yield values were developed and tested. It is expected that this app can be used by farmers and agronomists to support decision making in the field of precision agriculture and this is a growing market in UK and Europe.

  15. System and Field Devices (non Nuclear) in Agriculture Research in Malaysian Nuclear Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2015-01-01

    Research to improve productivity on an ongoing basis in the agricultural sector is essential to ensure and guarantee the country's food security. Malaysian Nuclear Agency, agricultural research had begun in 1981 in which the focus of research is related to mutation breeding, irradiation and the use of isotopes in the study of plant nutrition. Although projects agricultural research carried out based on nuclear technology, other information relating to agricultural research such as agronomy, plant physiology, meteorology and ecology, soil characteristics and water is essential to obtain the understanding and research results that are relevant and significant. Data acquisition for other aspects also need a system and a modern and efficient equipment, in accordance with current technological developments. This paper describes the use, function and capabilities of the existing field equipment available in Agrotechnology and Biosciences Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency in acquiring data related to weather, measurement and control of ground water, soil nutrients assessment and monitoring of plant physiology. The latest technological developments in sensor technology, computer technology and communication is very helpful in getting data more easily, quickly and accurately. Equipment and the data obtained is also likely to be used by researchers in other fields in Nuclear Malaysia. (author)

  16. Agricultural terminology in Russian language on the Institute of field and vegetable crops example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savin Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary science demands that scientists are following domestic and foreign scientific and technical achievements through conference attendances and scientific and professional literature. Agricultural science is based on practical data, field experiments, but nevertheless it is essential to be up to date with the work of foreign researchers, scientific centers and institutions through their publications. The aim of this paper was to present a part of the agricultural lexicon (with the accent on the plant species names, as well as the general scientific and organizational terms with the equivalents in Russian - Serbian and Serbian - Russian, which is of the great importance in activities of Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, presented through perennial practices of translation. Those terms are recognized as important and frequent, without wishing to go into professional divisions in agriculture as science. This paper is dedicated to the scientists who posses basic linguistic knowledge of Russian language and are starting to use Russian scientific and professional literature in agriculture, as well as students of Russian language for the purpose of establishing and widening linguistic fund.

  17. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  18. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  19. Innovating for skills enhancement in agricultural sciences in Africa: The centrality of field attachment programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Egeru

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Africa remains an intensely agrarian continent, with two-thirds of its people directly or indirectly deriving their livelihood from agriculture. Higher agricultural education has thus emphasised production of graduates with the requisite skills to drive agricultural development. Despite these efforts, too few graduates in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA have the employable skills necessary to transition to the labour market. A similar situation is observable among agricultural science graduates, who are vital to serving rural smallholder farmers. Most Colleges of Agriculture in Africa offer field attachment internships in agriculture and related fields but they are largely designed to cater for undergraduate students and are not part of the training programs at graduate level. To ameliorate this gap, the Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM, a network of 55 member universities in SSA, designed and rolled out an innovative field attachment program award (FAPA, launched in 2010, to serve graduate students. The FAPA is competitively based and designed to encourage students to follow through with the dissemination of their research and to enable them to link more closely with the communities and agencies working in the geographical area where the research was undertaken. During the period 2010–2015, five grant cycles were successfully implemented and 114 graduate students from 17 countries in SSA awarded. This article discusses the lessons learned during this period by examining two key areas: (1 the application process and implementation of the awards; and (2 the reported outcomes and challenges for grantees. Establishing the award has generated key technical and implementation lessons that the network and individual universities have been able to use to improve and institutionalise processes. Grantees have reported gaining a range of cross-cutting skills in personal mastery, initiative leadership and innovativeness

  20. UAV Based Agricultural Planning and Landslide Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Servet Yaprak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV tools has become widespread in map production, land surveying, landslide, erosion monitoring, monitoring of agricultural activities, aerial crop surveying, forest fire detection and monitoring operations. In this study, GEO 2 UAV manufactured by TEKNOMER equipped with SONY A6000 camera has been used. The flight plan have been performed with 100 m altitude, with 80% longitudinal and 60% side overlapping. Ground Control Points (GCPs have been observed with Topcon and Trimble GNSS geodetic receivers. Recorded GNSS signals have been processed with LGO V.8.4 software to get sensitive location information. 985 photos have been taken for the 344 hectares the agricultural area. 291 photos have been taken for 50 hectares the landslide area. All photos were processed by PIX4D software. For the agricultural area, 25 GCPs and for the landslide area, 8 GCPs have been included in the evaluation. 3D images were produced with pixel matching algorithms. As a result, the RMS evaluation was obtained as ±0.054 m for the agricultural area and as ±0.018 m for the landslide area. UAV images have indisputable contributions to the management of catastrophes such as landslides and earthquakes, and it is impossible to make terrestrial measurements in areas where disaster impact continues.

  1. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaqubi, Morteza, E-mail: yaqubi@pgs.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahraki, Javad, E-mail: j.shahraki@eco.usb.ac.ir [Faculty of Management and Economics, Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan Zahedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood, E-mail: sabouhi@ferdowsi.um.ac.ir [Department of Agricultural Economics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Azadi Square, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. - Highlights: • To evaluate agricultural pollution costs, a combination of two DNDC and DEA models was introduced. • The shadow values of three main agricultural pollutants in paddy fields were evaluated. • In the study area, a high potential for pollution reduction is feasible. • The pollution cost of pesticides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gases. • From the farmers' viewpoint, a positive shadow value of undesirable outputs also is feasible. • To deal with the pollution costs, market-based instruments are preferred to command-and-control regulation.

  2. On dealing with the pollution costs in agriculture: A case study of paddy fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaqubi, Morteza; Shahraki, Javad; Sabouhi Sabouni, Mahmood

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to evaluate marginal abatement cost of the main agricultural pollutants. In this sense, we construct three indices including Net Global Warming Potential (NGWP) and Nitrogen Surplus (NS), simulated by a biogeochemistry model, and also an Environmental Impact Quotient (EQI) for paddy fields. Then, using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) model, we evaluate environmental inefficiencies and shadow values of these indices. The results show that there is still room for improvement at no extra cost just through a better input management. Besides, enormous potential for pollution reduction in the region is feasible. Moreover, in paddy cultivation, marginal abatement cost of pesticides and herbicides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gasses. In addition, in the status quo, the mitigation costs are irrelevant to production decisions. Finally, to deal with the private pollution costs, market-based instruments are proved to be better than command-and-control regulation. - Highlights: • To evaluate agricultural pollution costs, a combination of two DNDC and DEA models was introduced. • The shadow values of three main agricultural pollutants in paddy fields were evaluated. • In the study area, a high potential for pollution reduction is feasible. • The pollution cost of pesticides are much bigger than nitrogen surplus and greenhouse gases. • From the farmers' viewpoint, a positive shadow value of undesirable outputs also is feasible. • To deal with the pollution costs, market-based instruments are preferred to command-and-control regulation.

  3. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. 127 Field Practical Training Programme of Faculties of Agriculture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Practical training, students of agriculture faculty ... fertility, agronomy and horticultural practices, crop protection activities, ... and Frick (2004) submitted that companies of today want graduates with ... The State accounts for 2.3% of Nigeria's total population. ..... Carrying out appropriate husbandry measures for.

  5. Pesticide Leaching Models in a Brazilian Agricultural Field Scenario

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorza, R.P.; Oliveira Rigitano, de R.L.; Boesten, J.J.T.I.

    2011-01-01

    The use of Pesticide Leaching Models (PLM) for risk assessment may be an efficient and attractive way of assessing solutions to some agricultural and environmental problems. Many countries of the European Union and the USA have been using PLM for risk assessment already for a few decades. This

  6. Pre-Columbian Agriculture: Construction history of raised fields in Bermeo, in the Bolivian Lowlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Leonor; Fehr, Seraina; Lombardo, Umberto; Veit, Heinz

    2013-04-01

    Since the beginning of the 1960s, research in the Amazon has revealed that in Pre-Columbian times, landscapes that were viewed as challenging living environments were nevertheless altered in several ways. Raised fields agriculture is one of the most impressive phenomena that can be found in South-eastern Amazonia. Pre-Columbian raised fields are earth platforms of differing shape and dimension that are elevated above the landscape's natural surface. The Llanos de Moxos, situated in the Bolivian Lowlands is one of the areas with the highest density of raised fields. In spite of the high interest in raised field agriculture, very few field-based investigations have been performed. As a result, there remains little explanation as to how they were constructed, managed or for what time frame they were in use. Recently, more detailed investigations have been performed on raised fields located in the indigenous community of Bermeo, in the vicinity of San Ignacio de Moxos. Combined data from fieldwork and laboratory analysis including particle size distribution, thin section micromorphology and radiocarbon analyses as well as optically stimulated luminescence analysis has given an insight into the history of their construction. Applied to the Bolivian Lowlands, the current study provides for the first time data showing aspects of the Pre-Columbian management of the raised fields, and a chronological sequence of utilization and abandonment of these fields. Radiocarbon dating has shown that the raised fields had been in use since as early as 900 AD. Two distinct paleosols identified in the field sequence point to the existence of two separate prolonged soil formation periods. The paleosols are characterized by initial stages of Bt-horizons. Each soil sequence indicates therefore a particular stable period of the field during which no new earth was heaped up. This suggests that contrary to the well supported theory that raised fields were managed through continuous

  7. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent CMC based hydrogels for agriculture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raafat, Amany I.; Eid, Mona; El-Arnaouty, Magda B.

    2012-01-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) crosslinked with gamma irradiation have been proposed for agriculture application. The effect of preparation conditions such as feed solution composition and absorbed irradiation dose on the gelation and swelling degree was evaluated. The structure and the morphology of the superabsorbent CMC/PVP hydrogel were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Effect of ionic strength and cationic and anionic kinds on the swelling behavior of the obtained hydrogel was investigated. Urea as an agrochemical model was loaded onto the obtained hydrogel to provide nitrogen (N) nutrients. The water retention capability and the urea release behavior of the CMC/PVP hydrogels were investigated. It was found that, the obtained CMC/PVP hydrogels have good swelling degree that greatly affected by its composition and absorbed dose. The swelling was also extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cationic kind. Owing to its considerable slow urea release, good water retention capacity, being economical, and environment-friendly, it might be useful for its application in agriculture field.

  8. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent CMC based hydrogels for agriculture applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raafat, Amany I.; Eid, Mona; El-Arnaouty, Magda B.

    2012-07-01

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) crosslinked with gamma irradiation have been proposed for agriculture application. The effect of preparation conditions such as feed solution composition and absorbed irradiation dose on the gelation and swelling degree was evaluated. The structure and the morphology of the superabsorbent CMC/PVP hydrogel were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Effect of ionic strength and cationic and anionic kinds on the swelling behavior of the obtained hydrogel was investigated. Urea as an agrochemical model was loaded onto the obtained hydrogel to provide nitrogen (N) nutrients. The water retention capability and the urea release behavior of the CMC/PVP hydrogels were investigated. It was found that, the obtained CMC/PVP hydrogels have good swelling degree that greatly affected by its composition and absorbed dose. The swelling was also extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cationic kind. Owing to its considerable slow urea release, good water retention capacity, being economical, and environment-friendly, it might be useful for its application in agriculture field.

  9. Radiation synthesis of superabsorbent CMC based hydrogels for agriculture applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raafat, Amany I., E-mail: ismaelraafat_a@hotmail.com [Polymer Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt); Eid, Mona; El-Arnaouty, Magda B. [Polymer Chemistry Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, P.O. Box 29, Nasr City, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-07-15

    A series of superabsorbent hydrogel based on carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) crosslinked with gamma irradiation have been proposed for agriculture application. The effect of preparation conditions such as feed solution composition and absorbed irradiation dose on the gelation and swelling degree was evaluated. The structure and the morphology of the superabsorbent CMC/PVP hydrogel were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy technique (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Effect of ionic strength and cationic and anionic kinds on the swelling behavior of the obtained hydrogel was investigated. Urea as an agrochemical model was loaded onto the obtained hydrogel to provide nitrogen (N) nutrients. The water retention capability and the urea release behavior of the CMC/PVP hydrogels were investigated. It was found that, the obtained CMC/PVP hydrogels have good swelling degree that greatly affected by its composition and absorbed dose. The swelling was also extremely sensitive to the ionic strength and cationic kind. Owing to its considerable slow urea release, good water retention capacity, being economical, and environment-friendly, it might be useful for its application in agriculture field.

  10. An application to model traffic intensity of agricultural machinery at field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Katja; Kuhwald, Michael; Duttmann, Rainer

    2017-04-01

    Several soil-pressure-models deal with the impact of agricultural machines on soils. In many cases, these models were used for single spots and consider a static machine configuration. Therefore, a statement about the spatial distribution of soil compaction risk for entire working processes is limited. The aim of the study is the development of an application for the spatial modelling of traffic lanes from agricultural vehicles including wheel load, ground pressure and wheel passages at the field scale. The application is based on Open Source software, application and data formats, using python programming language. Minimum input parameters are GPS-positions, vehicles and tires (producer and model) and the tire inflation pressure. Five working processes were distinguished: soil tillage, manuring, plant protection, sowing and harvest. Currently, two different models (Diserens 2009, Rücknagel et al. 2015) were implemented to calculate the soil pressure. The application was tested at a study site in Lower Saxony, Germany. Since 2015, field traffic were recorded by RTK-GPS and used machine set ups were noted. Using these input information the traffic lanes, wheel load and soil pressure were calculated for all working processes. For instance, the maize harvest in 2016 with a crop chopper and one transport vehicle crossed about 55 % of the total field area. At some places the machines rolled over up to 46 times. Approximately 35 % of the total area was affected by wheel loads over 7 tons and soil pressures between 163 and 193 kPa. With the information about the spatial distribution of wheel passages, wheel load and soil pressure it is possible to identify hot spots of intensive field traffic. Additionally, the use of the application enables the analysis of soil compaction risk induced by agricultural machines for long- and short-term periods.

  11. Leaf Area Index Estimation Using Chinese GF-1 Wide Field View Data in an Agriculture Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangqin; Gu, Xingfa; Meng, Qingyan; Yu, Tao; Zhou, Xiang; Wei, Zheng; Jia, Kun; Wang, Chunmei

    2017-07-08

    Leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation parameter that characterizes leaf density and canopy structure, and plays an important role in global change study, land surface process simulation and agriculture monitoring. The wide field view (WFV) sensor on board the Chinese GF-1 satellite can acquire multi-spectral data with decametric spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and wide coverage, which are valuable data sources for dynamic monitoring of LAI. Therefore, an automatic LAI estimation algorithm for GF-1 WFV data was developed based on the radiative transfer model and LAI estimation accuracy of the developed algorithm was assessed in an agriculture region with maize as the dominated crop type. The radiative transfer model was firstly used to simulate the physical relationship between canopy reflectance and LAI under different soil and vegetation conditions, and then the training sample dataset was formed. Then, neural networks (NNs) were used to develop the LAI estimation algorithm using the training sample dataset. Green, red and near-infrared band reflectances of GF-1 WFV data were used as the input variables of the NNs, as well as the corresponding LAI was the output variable. The validation results using field LAI measurements in the agriculture region indicated that the LAI estimation algorithm could achieve satisfactory results (such as R² = 0.818, RMSE = 0.50). In addition, the developed LAI estimation algorithm had potential to operationally generate LAI datasets using GF-1 WFV land surface reflectance data, which could provide high spatial and temporal resolution LAI data for agriculture, ecosystem and environmental management researches.

  12. Assessing and modelling ecohydrologic processes at the agricultural field scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    One of the primary goals of agricultural management is to increase the amount of crop produced per unit of fertilizer and water used. World record corn yields demonstrated that water use efficiency can increase fourfold with improved agronomic management and cultivars able to tolerate high densities. Planting crops with higher plant density can lead to significant yield increases, and increase plant transpiration vs. soil water evaporation. Precision agriculture technologies have been adopted for the last twenty years but seldom have the data collected been converted to information that led farmers to different agronomic management. These methods are intuitively appealing, but yield maps and other spatial layers of data need to be properly analyzed and interpreted to truly become valuable. Current agro-mechanic and geospatial technologies allow us to implement a spatially variable plan for agronomic inputs including seeding rate, cultivars, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, and water. Crop models are valuable tools to evaluate the impact of management strategies (e.g., cover crops, tile drains, and genetically-improved cultivars) on yield, soil carbon sequestration, leaching and greenhouse gas emissions. They can help farmers identify adaptation strategies to current and future climate conditions. In this paper I illustrate the key role that precision agriculture technologies (yield mapping technologies, within season soil and crop sensing), crop modeling and weather can play in dealing with the impact of climate variability on soil ecohydrologic processes. Case studies are presented to illustrate this concept.

  13. Research on Intelligent Agriculture Greenhouses Based on Internet of Things Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Shang Ying; Fu An-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Internet of things is a hot topic in the field of research, get a lot of attention, On behalf of the future development trend of the network, Internet of Things has a wide range of applications, because of the efficient and reliable information transmission in modern agriculture. In the greenhouse, the conditions of the Greenhouse determine the quality of crops, high yield and many other aspects. Research on Intelligent Agriculture Greenhouses based on Internet of Things, mainly Research on h...

  14. Alternative agricultures: Emphasis in contributions of the people of field of southwestern sector of Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia Gutierrez, M.

    1995-01-01

    It offers a definition of alternative agricultures. Some antecedents are mentioned about the evolution of the Colombian movements from the chemical agriculture toward alternative forms. Some Colombian experiences are enumerated, making emphasis in people of field of the southwestern sector of the country contributions. Some conclusions settle down

  15. Parkinson’s Disease Prevalence and Proximity to Agricultural Cultivated Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maayan Yitshak Sade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk for developing Parkinson’s disease (PD is a combination of multiple environmental and genetic factors. The Negev (Southern Israel contains approximately 252.5 km2 of agricultural cultivated fields (ACF. We aimed to estimate the prevalence and incidence of PD and to examine possible geographical clustering and associations with agricultural exposures. We screened all “Clalit” Health Services members in the Negev (70% of the population between the years 2000 and 2012. Individual demographic, clinical, and medication prescription data were available. We used a refined medication tracer algorithm to identify PD patients. We used mixed Poisson models to calculate the smoothed standardized incidence rates (SIRs for each locality. We identified ACF and calculate the size and distance of the fields from each locality. We identified 3,792 cases of PD. SIRs were higher than expected in Jewish rural localities (median SIR [95% CI]: 1.41 [1.28; 1.53] in 2001–2004, 1.62 [1.48; 1.76] in 2005–2008, and 1.57 [1.44; 1.80] in 2009–2012. Highest SIR was observed in localities located in proximity to large ACF (SIR 1.54, 95% CI 1.32; 1.79. In conclusion, in this population based study we found that PD SIRs were higher than expected in rural localities. Furthermore, it appears that proximity to ACF and the field size contribute to PD risk.

  16. Regional markets with agricultural workforce based on Labour offices' data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Nohel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in Czech agriculture over the past twenty years have had their impact on the agricultural labour market, too. The regional differentiation of the chances of applicants on the labour market as well as the agricultural enterprises’ chances of hiring employees fitting their requirements, are, among others, influenced by the specific conditions of agricultural production. The aim of this paper pertains to two basic problem areas: first, the differentiation of respective regions based on the number of agricultural applicants and job vacancies, and second, the identification of disequilibrium on the agricultural labour market. The latter is based on a theoretical framework defined by approaches in economy dealing with labour market equilibrium. Due to the unavailability of economic data (including wages, economic performance, etc. on the regional level, authors develop their own methodological approach, based on the number of applicants per job vacancy. A database of applicants and vacancies available from the Labour Offices is used as a source for the analysis and interpretation of data, enabling us to study the agricultural labour market not only sector-wise but also region-wise.

  17. Assessing of energy policies based on Turkish agriculture:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, Cengiz; Nisa Mencet, M.; Ozkan, Burhan

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the current energy status of Turkey and the effects of national energy policies on Turkish agricultural support policies are discussed for both current and future requirements. Turkey is an energy-importing country producing 30 mtoe (million tons of oil equivalent) energy but consuming 80 mtoe. The energy import ratio of Turkey is 65-70% and the majority of this import is based on petroleum and natural gas. Furthermore, while world energy demand increases by 1.8% annually, Turkey's energy demand increases by about 8%. Although energy consumption in agriculture is much lower than the other sectors in Turkey, energy use as both input and output of agricultural sector is a very important issue due to its large agricultural potential and rural area. Total agricultural land area is 27.8 million hectares and about 66.5% of this area is devoted for cereal production. On the other hand, Turkey has over 4 million agricultural farm holdings of which 70-75% is engaged in cereal production. Machinery expenses, mainly diesel, constitute 30-50% of total variable expenses in cereal production costs. It is observed that energy policies pursued in agriculture have been directly affected by diesel prices in Turkey. Therefore, support policy tools for using diesel and electricity in agriculture are being pursued by the Turkish government

  18. Application of remote sensing to agricultural field trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clevers, J.G.P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Remote sensing techniques enable quantitative information about a field trial to be obtained instantaneously and non-destructively. The aim of this study was to identify a method that can reduce inaccuracies in field trial analysis, and to identify how remote sensing can support and/or

  19. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda

    SERVICE ROBOTS in precision agriculture have the potential to ensure a more competitive and sustainable production, but the lack of skilled engineers within this area is limiting the industry’s ability to develop new and innovative agricultural technology products. Part of the reason...... is that engineers and scientists have little knowledge about agricultural technology, and they therefore choose to work in other domains. It is hypothesised that introducing engineering students to precision agriculture through practical work with small-scale service robots will increase their interest...... in agriculture and agricultural technology. This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary extracurricular activity for first year engineering students carried out in the Fall 2012 at the University of Southern Denmark. The case was based on practical group-work centered around an agricultural mobile...

  20. In pursuit of a science of agriculture: the role of statistics in field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolini, Giuditta

    2015-09-01

    Since the beginning of the twentieth century statistics has reshaped the experimental cultures of agricultural research taking part in the subtle dialectic between the epistemic and the material that is proper to experimental systems. This transformation has become especially relevant in field trials and the paper will examine the British agricultural institution, Rothamsted Experimental Station, where statistical methods nowadays popular in the planning and analysis of field experiments were developed in the 1920s. At Rothamsted statistics promoted randomisation over systematic arrangements, factorisation over one-question trials, and emphasised the importance of the experimental error in assessing field trials. These changes in methodology transformed also the material culture of agricultural science, and a new body, the Field Plots Committee, was created to manage the field research of the agricultural institution. Although successful, the vision of field experimentation proposed by the Rothamsted statisticians was not unproblematic. Experimental scientists closely linked to the farming community questioned it in favour of a field research that could be more easily understood by farmers. The clash between the two agendas reveals how the role attributed to statistics in field experimentation defined different pursuits of agricultural research, alternately conceived of as a scientists' science or as a farmers' science.

  1. Radio-Agriculture - Ground and Space-Based Determination of Agricultural Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, C. S.

    The decision to sow seeds in a field, either on a local level (such as on an individual plot) or on vast agricultural complexes, is irreversible. Once the seed is sown, provided there is liquid water, tem- perature conditions are adequate and in some cases light is available, it will germinate. The timing of seed sowing has important effects on subsequent agricultural productivity [1-4]. The correlation between time of sowing and productivity causes several problems. Firstly, sowing seed depends absolutely upon a correct judgement on weather conditions, sometimes to the day. Secondly, not all crops need to be sown at the same time and so resources in manpower and equipment must be available for sowing different crops at different times. Great im- provements in resource allocation could be made if all seeds could be sown at the same time. Thirdly, there is no flexibility once resources to sowing have been committed. For example, in large agricultural areas manpower and machinery might be committed at particular times of the year to sowing, but if the weather conditions are not correct either they must be re-scheduled or productivity is lost. Local factors such as irrigation system availability might also impose upon a farmer a wish to be able to regulate the germination of particular fields, particularly in developing countries.

  2. Joint IAEA/FAO evaluation the Agency's activities in some sectors of agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa. Based on field evaluation in Kenya, Senegal, United Republic of Tanzania and Zambia. Special evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    A desk review was completed in 1995 of the Agency's activities in the Sub-Saharan region during the previous ten years, covering soil science, irrigation and plant nutrition, plant breeding and genetics, and agricultural biochemistry. As a follow-up of the recommendations of this review, a field evaluation covering activities in Kenya, Senegal, Tanzania and Zambia, as four of the six participants in the first phase of the ongoing regional project ''Increasing Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa'', was conducted in 1996 jointly with the FAO Programme and Budget Evaluation. Ethiopia and Niger were not included in the field evaluation. To date, total disbursement during the last ten years in the 19 projects considered in this evaluation amounted to $2.5 million, evenly distributed in the four countries, plus about $500,000 for training funded outside the projects. Agency inputs included isotope analysers, sample preparation equipment, moisture and density gauges, labelled fertilizers, isotopes and supporting soil laboratory equipment, training of researchers and technicians and expert advice on research trials and on-the-job training on the use of laboratory equipment. Figs, tabs

  3. An Algorithm and Implementation Based on an Agricultural EOQ Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhineng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the improvement of living quality, the agricultural supermarket gradually take the place of the farmers market as the trend. But the agricultural supermarkets’ inappropriate inventory strategies are wasteful and inefficient. So this paper will put forward an inventory strategy for the agricultural supermarkets to lead the conductor decides when and how much to shelve the product. This strategy has significant meaning that it can reduce the loss and get more profit. The research methods are based on the inventory theory and the EOQ model, but the authors add multiple cycles’ theory to them because of the agricultural products’ decreasing characteristics. The research procedures are shown as follows. First, the authors do research in the agricultural supermarket to find their real conduction, and then put forward the new strategy in this paper. Second, the authors found out the model. At last, the authors search the specialty agriculture document to find the data such as the loss rate and the fresh parameters, and solve it out by MATLAB. The numerical result proves that the strategy is better than the real conduction in agricultural supermarket, and it also proves the feasibility.

  4. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Peter Christiansen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35–0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0–300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS and the Point Cloud Library (PCL. Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  5. Designing and Testing a UAV Mapping System for Agricultural Field Surveying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Martin Peter; Laursen, Morten Stigaard; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Skovsen, Søren; Gislum, René

    2017-11-23

    A Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) sensor mounted on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) can map the overflown environment in point clouds. Mapped canopy heights allow for the estimation of crop biomass in agriculture. The work presented in this paper contributes to sensory UAV setup design for mapping and textual analysis of agricultural fields. LiDAR data are combined with data from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors to conduct environment mapping for point clouds. The proposed method facilitates LiDAR recordings in an experimental winter wheat field. Crop height estimates ranging from 0.35-0.58 m are correlated to the applied nitrogen treatments of 0-300 kg N ha . The LiDAR point clouds are recorded, mapped, and analysed using the functionalities of the Robot Operating System (ROS) and the Point Cloud Library (PCL). Crop volume estimation is based on a voxel grid with a spatial resolution of 0.04 × 0.04 × 0.001 m. Two different flight patterns are evaluated at an altitude of 6 m to determine the impacts of the mapped LiDAR measurements on crop volume estimations.

  6. Energy Savings from Optimised In-Field Route Planning for Agricultural Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymios Rodias

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Various types of sensors technologies, such as machine vision and global positioning system (GPS have been implemented in navigation of agricultural vehicles. Automated navigation systems have proved the potential for the execution of optimised route plans for field area coverage. This paper presents an assessment of the reduction of the energy requirements derived from the implementation of optimised field area coverage planning. The assessment regards the analysis of the energy requirements and the comparison between the non-optimised and optimised plans for field area coverage in the whole sequence of operations required in two different cropping systems: Miscanthus and Switchgrass production. An algorithmic approach for the simulation of the executed field operations by following both non-optimised and optimised field-work patterns was developed. As a result, the corresponding time requirements were estimated as the basis of the subsequent energy cost analysis. Based on the results, the optimised routes reduce the fuel energy consumption up to 8%, the embodied energy consumption up to 7%, and the total energy consumption from 3% up to 8%.

  7. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuan; Wang, Jin-Liang; Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  8. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Mao, Li-Juan; Feng, Xiao-Xiao; Zhang, Chu-Long; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota) biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn), 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates), T. asperellum (425), T. hamatum (397), T. virens (340), T. koningiopsis (248), T. brevicompactum (73), T. atroviride (73), T. fertile (26), T. longibrachiatum (22), T. pleuroticola (16), T. erinaceum (16), T. oblongisporum (2), T. polysporum (2), T. spirale (2), T. capillare (2), T. velutinum (2), and T. saturnisporum (1). T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y) values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14) and the highest Shannon–Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46). We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area) had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province), not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  9. Trichoderma Biodiversity of Agricultural Fields in East China Reveals a Gradient Distribution of Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    Full Text Available We surveyed the Trichoderma (Hypocreales, Ascomycota biodiversity in agricultural fields in four major agricultural provinces of East China. Trichoderma strains were identified based on molecular approaches and morphological characteristics. In three sampled seasons (spring, summer and autumn, 2078 strains were isolated and identified to 17 known species: T. harzianum (429 isolates, T. asperellum (425, T. hamatum (397, T. virens (340, T. koningiopsis (248, T. brevicompactum (73, T. atroviride (73, T. fertile (26, T. longibrachiatum (22, T. pleuroticola (16, T. erinaceum (16, T. oblongisporum (2, T. polysporum (2, T. spirale (2, T. capillare (2, T. velutinum (2, and T. saturnisporum (1. T. harzianum, T. asperellum, T. hamatum, and T. virens were identified as the dominant species with dominance (Y values of 0.057, 0.052, 0.048, and 0.039, respectively. The species amount, isolate numbers and the dominant species of Trichoderma varied between provinces. Zhejiang Province has shown the highest diversity, which was reflected in the highest species amount (14 and the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index of Trichoderma haplotypes (1.46. We observed that relative frequencies of T. hamatum and T. koningiopsis under rice soil were higher than those under wheat and maize soil, indicating the preference of Trichoderma to different crops. Remarkable seasonal variation was shown, with summer exhibiting the highest biodiversity of the studied seasons. These results show that Trichoderma biodiversity in agricultural fields varies by region, crop, and season. Zhejiang Province (the southernmost province in the investigated area had more T. hamatum than Shandong Province (the northernmost province, not only in isolate amounts but also in haplotype amounts. Furthermore, at haplotype level, only T. hamatum showed a gradient distribution from south to north in correspondence analysis among the four dominant species. The above results would contribute to the

  10. A process-based agricultural model for the irrigated agriculture sector in Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, M. E.; Davies, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Connections between land and water, irrigation, agricultural productivity and profitability, policy alternatives, and climate change and variability are complex, poorly understood, and unpredictable. Policy assessment for agriculture presents a large potential for development of broad-based simulation models that can aid assessment and quantification of policy alternatives over longer temporal scales. The Canadian irrigated agriculture sector is concentrated in Alberta, where it represents two thirds of the irrigated land-base in Canada and is the largest consumer of surface water. Despite interest in irrigation expansion, its potential in Alberta is uncertain given a constrained water supply, significant social and economic development and increasing demands for both land and water, and climate change. This paper therefore introduces a system dynamics model as a decision support tool to provide insights into irrigation expansion in Alberta, and into trade-offs and risks associated with that expansion. It is intended to be used by a wide variety of users including researchers, policy analysts and planners, and irrigation managers. A process-based cropping system approach is at the core of the model and uses a water-driven crop growth mechanism described by AquaCrop. The tool goes beyond a representation of crop phenology and cropping systems by permitting assessment and quantification of the broader, long-term consequences of agricultural policies for Alberta's irrigation sector. It also encourages collaboration and provides a degree of transparency that gives confidence in simulation results. The paper focuses on the agricultural component of the systems model, describing the process involved; soil water and nutrients balance, crop growth, and water, temperature, salinity, and nutrients stresses, and how other disciplines can be integrated to account for the effects of interactions and feedbacks in the whole system. In later stages, other components such as

  11. A method of detecting a structure in a field, a method of steering an agricultural vehicle and an agricultural vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    An agricultural vehicle (2) comprises a steering system providing steering signals, said steering system comprising an imaging device (11) for imaging surroundings of the vehicle and an image processing device (13), said steering system operating to provide by means of the imaging device (11......) an image of the field (21), analyse the image to obtain texture information, assign to a plurality of areas of the image probability-values reflecting the likelihood that the respective area relates to a specific structure (12), assume at least one geometric property of said specific structure (12...

  12. Image-based particle filtering for navigation in a semi-structured agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiremath, S.; van Evert, F.K.; ter Braak, C.J.F.; Stein, A.; van der Heijden, G.

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous navigation of field robots in an agricultural environment is a difficult task due to the inherent uncertainty in the environment. The drawback of existing systems is the lack of robustness to these uncertainties. In this study we propose a vision-based navigation method to address these

  13. Research on Agricultural Development Based on “Internet +”

    OpenAIRE

    Feng , Wenjie; Wang , Lei; Zhao , Jia; Ruan , Huaijun

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Agricultural modernization is an important way to construct modern agriculture. The development of intelligent terminal, mobile internet, communication technology, internet of things is being applied to agricultural production. It will greatly improve the level and degree of agricultural informatization, promote agricultural informatization development, improve agricultural production efficiency and improve agricultural production efficiency and promote the development...

  14. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the partheno-genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency.

  15. Improving the efficiency of spatially selective operations for agricultural robotics in cropping field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Y. L.; Yi, S. P.

    2013-05-01

    Cropping fields often have well-defined poor-performing patches due to spatial and temporal variability. In an attempt to increase crop performance on poor patches, spatially selective field operations may be performed by agricultural robotics to apply additional inputs with targeted requirements. This paper addresses the route planning problem for an agricultural robot that has to treat some poor-patches in a field with row crops, with respect to the minimization of the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance. The traversal of patches in the field is expressed as the traversal of a mixed weighted graph, and then the problem of finding an optimal patch sequence is formulated as an asymmetric traveling salesman problem and solved by the parthenogenetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on a cropping field located in Northwestern China. Research results show that by using optimum patch sequences, the total non-working distance travelled during headland turnings and in-field travel distance can be reduced. But the savings on the non-working distance inside the field interior depend on the size and location of patches in the field, and the introduction of agricultural robotics is beneficial to increase field efficiency. (Author) 21 refs.

  16. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-11-10

    Xinjiang's agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991-2014. The agriculture belonged to the "low emissions and high efficiency" agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas.

  17. Changes in agricultural carbon emissions and factors that influence agricultural carbon emissions based on different stages in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Chuanhe; Yang, Degang; Xia, Fuqiang; Huo, Jinwei

    2016-01-01

    Xinjiang’s agricultural carbon emissions showed three stages of change, i.e., continued to rise, declined and continued to rise, during 1991–2014. The agriculture belonged to the “low emissions and high efficiency” agriculture category, with a lower agricultural carbon emission intensity. By using the logarithmic mean divisia index decomposition method, agricultural carbon emissions were decomposed into an efficiency factor, a structure factor, an economy factor, and a labour factor. We divided the study period into five stages based on the changes in efficiency factor and economy factor. Xinjiang showed different agricultural carbon emission characteristics at different stages. The degree of impact on agricultural carbon emissions at these stages depended on the combined effect of planting-animal husbandry carbon intensity and agricultural labour productivity. The economy factor was the critical factor to promote the increase in agricultural carbon emissions, while the main inhibiting factor for agricultural carbon emissions was the efficiency factor. The labour factor became more and more obvious in increasing agricultural carbon emissions. Finally, we discuss policy recommendations in terms of the main factors, including the development of agricultural science and technology (S&T), the establishment of three major mechanisms and transfer of rural labour in ethnic areas. PMID:27830739

  18. A review of Agent Based Modeling for agricultural policy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremmydas, Dimitris; Athanasiadis, I.N.; Rozakis, Stelios

    2018-01-01

    Farm level scale policy analysis is receiving increased attention due to a changing agricultural policy orientation. Agent based models (ABM) are farm level models that have appeared in the end of 1990's, having several differences from traditional farm level models, like the consideration of

  19. A Comparison between Standard and Functional Clustering Methodologies: Application to Agricultural Fields for Yield Pattern Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Pascucci

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of spatial patterns within agricultural fields, presenting similar yield potential areas, stable through time, is very important for optimizing agricultural practices. This study proposes the evaluation of different clustering methodologies applied to multispectral satellite time series for retrieving temporally stable (constant patterns in agricultural fields, related to within-field yield spatial distribution. The ability of different clustering procedures for the recognition and mapping of constant patterns in fields of cereal crops was assessed. Crop vigor patterns, considered to be related to soils characteristics, and possibly indicative of yield potential, were derived by applying the different clustering algorithms to time series of Landsat images acquired on 94 agricultural fields near Rome (Italy. Two different approaches were applied and validated using Landsat 7 and 8 archived imagery. The first approach automatically extracts and calculates for each field of interest (FOI the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, then exploits the standard K-means clustering algorithm to derive constant patterns at the field level. The second approach applies novel clustering procedures directly to spectral reflectance time series, in particular: (1 standard K-means; (2 functional K-means; (3 multivariate functional principal components clustering analysis; (4 hierarchical clustering. The different approaches were validated through cluster accuracy estimates on a reference set of FOIs for which yield maps were available for some years. Results show that multivariate functional principal components clustering, with an a priori determination of the optimal number of classes for each FOI, provides a better accuracy than those of standard clustering algorithms. The proposed novel functional clustering methodologies are effective and efficient for constant pattern retrieval and can be used for a sustainable management of

  20. Resources based factors of competitiveness of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matyja Małgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Among many different definitions of competitiveness it is difficult to pinpoint the most appropriate one. In the paper it was defined as the ability to be profitable by effective use of available resources. The profitability ratios (ROS, ROA, ROE and value index were proposed as measures of competitiveness and resources were indicated as one of the group of factors that has an impact on it. Precisely, the purpose of the paper was to examine the relationship between selected resourced based factors and competitiveness of agricultural enterprises. The study was done with the use of correlation analysis on the basis of statistical data on selected Polish companies operating in agriculture. The main finding was that the analyzed resources (the level of labour, size and quality of agricultural land and size of assets were weakly correlated with competitiveness. This observation means that other factors have stronger impact on agricultural company’s competitiveness. They can refer to intangible resources (such as relational capital, know-how, managerial competencies, technological resources etc. and external conditions (such as climate, legal issues of agricultural enterprises.

  1. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  2. Prediction of the glyphosate sorption coefficient across two loamy agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paradelo Pérez, Marcos; Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per

    2015-01-01

    , suggesting that different properties control glyphosate sorption in different locations and at different scales of analysis. Better predictions were obtained for the best-four set for the field in Estrup (R2 = 0.87) and for both fields (R2 = 0.70), while the field in Silstrup showed a lower predictability (R......2 = 0.36). Possibly, the low predictability for the field in Silstrup originated from opposing gradients in clay and oxalate-extractable Fe across the field. Also, whereas a lower clay content in Estrup may be the limiting variable for glyphosate sorption, the field in Silstrup has a higher clay...... sorption coefficient, Kd, from easily measurable soil properties in two loamy, agricultural fields in Denmark: Estrup and Silstrup. Forty-five soil samples in Estrup and 65 in Silstrup were collected fromthe surface in a rectangular grid of 15 × 15-mfromeach field, and selected soil properties...

  3. Effects of microelements on soil nematode assemblages seven years after contaminating an agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagy, P.; Bakonyi, G.; Bongers, A.M.T.; Kádár, I.; Fábián, M.; Kiss, I.

    2004-01-01

    Long-term effects of Cd, Cr, Cu, Se and Zn were studied 7 years after artificially contaminating plots of an agricultural field on a calcareous chernozem soil. Effects of three to four different contamination levels (originally 10, 30, 90 and 270 mg kg(-1)) were studied. Nematode density was

  4. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) detects fine roots of agricultural crops in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiuwei Liu; Xuejun Dong; Qingwu Xue; Daniel I. Leskovar; John Jifon; John R. Butnor; Thomas Marek

    2018-01-01

    Aim Ground penetrating radar (GPR) as a non-invasive technique is widely used in coarse root detection. However, the applicability of the technique to detect fine roots of agricultural crops is unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of utilizing GPR to detect fine roots in the field.

  5. Use of hyperspectral remote sensing to estimate the gross photosynthesis of agricultural fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, I.B.; Pattey, E.; Salustro, C.; Miller, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Optimization of crop growth and yield is achieved through the use of effective management practices. However, transient weather conditions will modify crop growth and yield. To assess crop development it is therefore essential to understand the current crop ecophysiological status. Such information can be monitored continuously using micrometeorological instrumented towers over agricultural surfaces. The spatial coverage of this approach is limited to the upwind area contributing to the flux. Remote sensing becomes key in deriving carbon exchanges and crop vigour over larger spatial areas. Derived from ground-based hyperspectral reflectance measurements from five growing seasons, a relationship between the eddy covariance estimates of gross photosynthesis and the product of the standardized photochemical reflectance index and the integrated modified triangular index was expanded to the field scale through the use of Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) data for corn and wheat over two consecutive seasons in the same field. Imagery-derived maps of gross photosynthesis successfully identified areas of potential stress that were known to be correlated with lower yield. Results were further verified using an independent flux dataset. This approach, modified from previous attempts in natural ecosystems, offers additional promise for managed systems. (author)

  6. Status of Job Motivation and Job Performance of Field Level Extension Agents in Ogun State: Implications for Agricultural Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabusoro, E.; Awotunde, J. A.; Sodiya, C. I.; Alarima, C. I.

    2008-01-01

    The field level extension agents (FLEAs) are the lifeline of the agricultural extension system in Nigeria. Their motivation and job performance are therefore important to achieving faster agricultural development in Nigeria. The study identified the factors motivating the FLEAs working with Ogun State Agricultural development programme (OGADEP)…

  7. Deriving a per-field land use and land cover map in an agricultural mosaic catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, B.; Bogner, C.; Poppenborg, P.; Martin, E.; Hoffmeister, M.; Jun, M.; Koellner, T.; Reineking, B.; Shope, C. L.; Tenhunen, J.

    2014-09-01

    Detailed data on land use and land cover constitute important information for Earth system models, environmental monitoring and ecosystem services research. Global land cover products are evolving rapidly; however, there is still a lack of information particularly for heterogeneous agricultural landscapes. We censused land use and land cover field by field in the agricultural mosaic catchment Haean in South Korea. We recorded the land cover types with additional information on agricultural practice. In this paper we introduce the data, their collection and the post-processing protocol. Furthermore, because it is important to quantitatively evaluate available land use and land cover products, we compared our data with the MODIS Land Cover Type product (MCD12Q1). During the studied period, a large portion of dry fields was converted to perennial crops. Compared to our data, the forested area was underrepresented and the agricultural area overrepresented in MCD12Q1. In addition, linear landscape elements such as waterbodies were missing in the MODIS product due to its coarse spatial resolution. The data presented here can be useful for earth science and ecosystem services research. The data are available at the public repository Pangaea (doi:110.1594/PANGAEA.823677).

  8. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Jensen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored to field robots in precision agriculture will significantly decrease development time and resources required to perform experiments due to efficient reuse of existing work across projects and robot platforms. In this work we present the FroboMind software platform and evaluate the performance when applied to precision agriculture tasks.

  9. Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework: 3. Land Use and Field Boundary Database Development and Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomer, Mark D; James, David E; Sandoval-Green, Claudette M J

    2017-05-01

    Conservation planning information is important for identifying options for watershed water quality improvement and can be developed for use at field, farm, and watershed scales. Translation across scales is a key issue impeding progress at watershed scales because watershed improvement goals must be connected with implementation of farm- and field-level conservation practices to demonstrate success. This is particularly true when examining alternatives for "trap and treat" practices implemented at agricultural-field edges to control (or influence) water flows through fields, landscapes, and riparian corridors within agricultural watersheds. We propose that database structures used in developing conservation planning information can achieve translation across conservation-planning scales, and we developed the Agricultural Conservation Planning Framework (ACPF) to enable practical planning applications. The ACPF comprises a planning concept, a database to facilitate field-level and watershed-scale analyses, and an ArcGIS toolbox with Python scripts to identify specific options for placement of conservation practices. This paper appends two prior publications and describes the structure of the ACPF database, which contains land use, crop history, and soils information and is available for download for 6091 HUC12 watersheds located across Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota, and parts of Kansas, Missouri, Nebraska, and Wisconsin and comprises information on 2.74 × 10 agricultural fields (available through /). Sample results examining land use trends across Iowa and Illinois are presented here to demonstrate potential uses of the database. While designed for use with the ACPF toolbox, users are welcome to use the ACPF watershed data in a variety of planning and modeling approaches. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  10. A MCIN-based architecture of smart agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Material conscious and information network (MCIN is a kind of cyber physics social system. This paper aims to study the MCIN modeling method and design the MCIN-based architecture of smart agriculture (MCIN-ASA which is different from current vertical architecture and involves production, management and commerce. Architecture is composed of three MCIN-ASA participants which are MCIN-ASA enterprises, individuals and commodity. Design/methodology/approach – Architecture uses enterprises and individuals personalized portals as the carriers which are linked precisely with each other through a peer-to-peer network called six-degrees-of-separation block-chain. The authors want to establish a self-organization, open and ecological operational system which includes active, personalized consumption, direct, centralized distribution, distributed and smart production. Findings – The paper models three main MCIN-ASA participants, namely, design the smart supply, demand and management functions, which show the feasibility innovation and high efficiency of implementing MCIN on agriculture. At the same time, the paper presents a prototype system based on the architecture. Originality/value – The authors think that MCIN-ASA improves current agriculture greatly and inspires a lot in production-marketing-combined electronic commerce.

  11. Evaluation of the APEX Model to Simulate Runoff Quality from Agricultural Fields in the Southern Region of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Avila, John J; Radcliffe, David E; Osmond, Deanna; Bolster, Carl; Sharpley, Andrew; Ortega-Achury, Sandra L; Forsberg, Adam; Oldham, J Larry

    2017-11-01

    The Agricultural Policy Environmental eXtender (APEX) model has been widely applied to assess phosphorus (P) loss in runoff water and has been proposed as a model to support practical decisions regarding agricultural P management, as well as a model to evaluate tools such as the P Index. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of APEX to simulate P losses from agricultural systems to determine its potential use for refinement or replacement of the P Index in the southern region of the United States. Uncalibrated and calibrated APEX model predictions were compared against measured water quality data from row crop fields in North Carolina and Mississippi and pasture fields in Arkansas and Georgia. Calibrated models satisfactorily predicted event-based surface runoff volumes at all sites (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency [NSE] > 0.47, |percent bias [PBIAS]| < 34) except Arkansas (NSE < 0.11, |PBIAS| < 50) but did not satisfactory simulate sediment, dissolved P, or total P losses in runoff water. The APEX model tended to underestimate dissolved and total P losses from fields where manure was surface applied. The model also overestimated sediments and total P loads during irrigation events. We conclude that the capability of APEX to predict sediment and P losses is limited, and consequently so is the potential for using APEX to make P management recommendations to improve P Indices in the southern United States. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT PLANNING BASED ON LOCAL RESOURCES IN DEPOK CITY, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurahim A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The background of this study is that Dewa Starfruit as a local resource in Depok City is threatened with extinction. The absence of regulations that protect these local resources and high rate of land use conversion causes decreasing number of starfruit plants and production. Starfruit farmers tend to switch professions to non-agricultural occupations. In national level, the largest number of agricultural business households experienced the greatest decline in horticulture subsector by 37.4% (Agricultural Census 2013. The elected regional head has branded Depok City with the tagline "friendly city" replacing Dewa Starfruit. The government's orientation and support for Dewa starfruit is fading away. Therefore, Depok City Government, especially DKP3, need to develop local resource-based agriculture development plan in order to be able to maintain local resources while improving it for society welfare. This research uses qualitative approach. The research informants were DKP3 apparatus of Depok City, Bappeda (Regional Government apparatus of Depok City, field officer and farmer group. Data collection techniques used in-depth interviews and documentary studies. Data analysis utilized interactive model. Research results indicate that the development of local resource-based agricultural development plans has not gone well. Despite various supporting factors, there are existing inhibiting factors which are land use conversion had never been discussed; DKP3 Depok City efforts to safeguard agricultural issues in musrenbang has not been optimal; no field data update, either by couseling workers or farmers; DKP3 Depok City prioritized RPL activity; uneducated farmers; and absence of regional head support.

  13. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  14. An optimized field coverage planning approach for navigation of agricultural robots in fields involving obstacle areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibahim; Bochtis, D.; Sørensen, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    -field obstacle areas, the headland paths generation for the field and each obstacle area, the implementation of a genetic algorithm to optimize the sequence that the field robot vehicle will follow to visit the blocks, and an algorithmically generation of the task sequences derived from the farmer practices......Technological advances combined with the demand of cost efficiency and environmental considerations lead farmers to review their practices towards the adoption of new managerial approaches including enhanced automation. The application of field robots is one of the most promising advances among....... This approach has proven that it is possible to capture the practices of farmers and embed these practices in an algorithmic description providing a complete field area coverage plan in a form prepared for execution by the navigation system of a field robot....

  15. Proximity to agricultural fields as proxy for environmental exposure to pesticides among children : The PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bukalasa, Joseph S; Brunekreef, Bert; Brouwer, Maartje; Vermeulen, Roel; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M.; Wijga, Alet; Huss, Anke; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Agricultural pesticides are frequently used for crop protection. Residents living in close proximity to treated fields may be exposed to these pesticides. There is some indication that children living near agricultural fields have an increased risk of developing asthma and decreased lung

  16. Linking field observations, Landsat and MODIS data to estimate agricultural change in European Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beurs, K. M.; Ioffe, G.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural reform has been one of the most important anthropogenic change processes in European Russia that has been unfolding since the formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991. Widespread land abandonment is perhaps the most vivid side effect of the reform, even visible in synoptic imagery. Currently, Russia is transitioning into a country with an internal "archipelago" of islands of productive agriculture around cities embedded in a matrix of unproductive, abandoned lands. This heterogeneous spatial pattern is mainly driven by depopulation of the least favorable parts of the countryside, where "least favorable" is a function of fertility, remoteness, and their interaction. In this work we provide a satellite, GIS and field based overview of the current agricultural developments in Russia and look beyond the unstable period immediately following the collapse of the Soviet Union. We apply Landsat images in one of Russia's oblasts to create a detailed land cover map. We then use a logistic model to link the Landsat land cover map with the inter-annual variability in key phenological parameters calculated from MODIS to derive the percent of cropland per 500m MODIS pixel. By evaluating the phenological characteristics of the MODIS curves for each year we determine whether a pixel was actually cropped or left fallow. A comparison of satellite-estimated cropped areas with regional statistics (by rayon) revealed that the satellite estimates are highly correlated with the regional statistics for both arable lands and successfully cropped areas. We use the crop maps to determine the number of times a particular area was cropped between 2002 and 2009 by summing all the years with crops per pixel. This variable provides a good indication about the intensification and de-intensification of the Russian croplands over the last decade. We have visited several rural areas in Russia and we link the satellite data with information acquired through field interviews

  17. Effects of agricultural practices of three crops on the soil communities under Mediterranean conditions: field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Sara; José Cerejeira, Maria; Abreu, Manuela; Sousa, José Paulo

    2014-05-01

    Sustainable agricultural production relies on soil communities as the main actors in key soil processes necessary to maintain sustainable soil functioning. Soil biodiversity influences soil physical and chemical characteristics and thus the sustainability of crop and agro-ecosystems functioning. Agricultural practices (e.g.: soil tillage, pesticides and fertilizer applications, irrigation) may affects negatively or positively soil biodiversity and abundances by modifying the relationships between organisms in the soil ecosystem. The present study aimed to study the influence of agricultural practices of three crops (potato, onion and maize) under Mediterranean climate conditions on soil macro- and mesofauna during their entire crop cycles. Effects on soil communities were assessed at a higher tier of environmental risk assessment comprising field testing of indigenous edaphic communities in a selected study-site located in a major agriculture region of Central Portugal, Ribatejo e Oeste, neighbouring protected wetlands. A reference site near the agricultural field site was selected as a Control site to compare the terrestrial communities' composition and variation along the crop cycle. The field soil and Control site soil are sandy loam soils. Crops irrigation was performed by center-pivot (automated sprinkler that rotates in a half a circle area) and by sprinklers. Soil macro- and mesofauna were collected at both sites (field and Control) using two methodologies through pitfall trapping and soil sampling. The community of soil macro- and mesofauna of the three crops field varied versus control site along the crops cycles. Main differences were due to arachnids, coleopterans, ants and adult Diptera presence and abundance. The feeding activity of soil fauna between control site and crop areas varied only for potato and onion crops vs. control site but not among crops. Concentration of pesticides residues in soil did not cause apparent negative effects on the soil

  18. FATE OF ATRAZINE IN THE AGRICULTURAL SOIL OF CORN FIELDS IN FARS PROVINCE OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nasseri ، M. Dehghani ، S. Amin ، K. Naddafi ، Z. Zamanian

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in corn production, is frequently detected as pesticide in water resources. In this research, four agricultural fields with a long history of atrazine application in Shiraz and its vicinity in Fars province of Iran, have been studied to determine the fate of atrazine through the passage of time. These four farms were cultivated under a crop rotation (corn-wheat during the past 10 years. Samples were collected from four soil profiles of 0-10, 10-20, 20-40, and 40-60 cm soil depth at different times. The time intervals for soil sampling started before atrazine application and continued until no atrazine was detected. According to the general linear model, there was no significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the soil moisture and depth (p≥0.05. But, significant difference between atrazine residual concentrations and the sampling regions was observed (p<0.001. Based on the data, atrazine leaching and dissipation rate in different soil profiles in the four sampling regions were high and significant. Therefore, there is a high risk of atrazine pollution in groundwater resources of the region.

  19. Towards an Open Software Platform for Field Robots in Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Larsen, Morten; Nielsen, Søren H

    2014-01-01

    Robotics in precision agriculture has the potential to improve competitiveness and increase sustainability compared to current crop production methods and has become an increasingly active area of research. Tractor guidance systems for supervised navigation and implement control have reached...... the market, and prototypes of field robots performing precision agriculture tasks without human intervention also exist. But research in advanced cognitive perception and behaviour that is required to enable a more efficient, reliable and safe autonomy becomes increasingly demanding due to the growing...... software complexity. A lack of collaboration between research groups contributes to the problem. Scientific publications describe methods and results from the work, but little field robot software is released and documented for others to use. We hypothesize that a common open software platform tailored...

  20. The dominant factors affecting agricultural land use (rice field change in Yogyakarta Special Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Sabari Yunus

    2013-07-01

    The research shows that the period of 1980 - 2000 in Yogyakarta Special Province has indicated very significantly the increase in population, the development of road and the extension of built up area. For the time being, agricultural land mainly in Sleman Regency, Bantul Regency and Yogyakarta Municipality has decreased. Sleman regency performed the largest decrease of rice field and followed after then by Bantul regency and Yogyakarta Municipality. The regency of Kulon Progo and Gunung Kidul have experienced reverse phenomenon i.e. the increase of rice field during this period. Individually or simultaneously, three variables used in this research (number of people, road's length and built up area have significantly influenced the agricultural land use.

  1. Vision-based control in driving assistance of agricultural vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khadraoui, D.; Martinet, P.; Bonton, P.; Gallice, J. [Univ. Blaise Pascal, Aubiere (France). Lab. des Sciences et Materiaux pour l`Electronique et d`Automatique; Debain, C. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Montoldre (France). Div. Techniques du Machinisme Agricole; Rouveure, R. [Inst. de Recherche pour l`Ingenierie de l`Agriculture et de l`Environment, Antony (France). Div. Electronique et Intelligence Artificielle

    1998-10-01

    This article presents a real-time control system for an agricultural mobile machine (vehicle) based on an on-board vision system using a single camera. This system has been designed to help humans in repetitive and difficult tasks in the agricultural domain. The aim of the robotics application concerns the control of the vehicle with regard to the reap limit detected in image space. The perception aspect in relation to the application has been described in previous work, and here the authors deal with the control aspect. They integrate image features issues from the modeling of the scene in the control loop to perform an image-based servoing technique. The vehicle behavior described here concerns bicycle and neural models, and three control laws are then synthesized. The first and the second are modeling approaches and use an interaction between the scene and the image space. They are based on the regulation of a task function. The third is a black-box modeling technique, and is based on a neural network. Finally, experimental results obtained with these different control laws in different conditions are presented and discussed.

  2. Agricultural biomass monitoring on watersheds based on remotely sensed data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, János; Nagy, Attila; Fehér, János

    2015-01-01

    There is a close quality relationship between the harmful levels of all three drought indicator groups (meteorological, hydrological and agricultural). However, the numerical scale of the relationships between them is unclear and the conversion of indicators is unsolved. Different areas or an area with different forms of drought cannot be compared. For example, from the evaluation of meteorological drought using the standardized precipitation index (SPI) values of a river basin, it cannot be stated how many tonnes of maize will be lost during a given drought period. A reliable estimated rate of yield loss would be very important information for the planned interventions (i.e. by farmers or river basin management organisations) in terms of time and cost. The aim of our research project was to develop a process which could provide information for estimating relevant drought indexes and drought related yield losses more effectively from remotely sensed spectral data and to determine the congruency of data derived from spectral data and from field measurements. The paper discusses a new calculation method, which provides early information on physical implementation of drought risk levels. The elaborated method provides improvement in setting up a complex drought monitoring system, which could assist hydrologists, meteorologists and farmers to predict and more precisely quantify the yield loss and the role of vegetation in the hydrological cycle. The results also allow the conversion of different-purpose drought indices, such as meteorological, agricultural and hydrological ones, as well as allow more water-saving agricultural land use alternatives to be planned in the river basins.

  3. Toward Future Photovoltaic-Based Agriculture in Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-04-01

    To meet the challenges of climate change and water shortages, combining solar energy-based seawater desalination technologies with floating agriculture stations in one innovative hybrid system would be worthy of investigation for dry and sunny regions for seawater desalination and crop production within the same platform. Here, I discuss the feasibility of such a 'floating farm' or 'bluehouse' in the sea, by comparing it with the use of terrestrial greenhouses. I also debate the potential advantages and shortcomings of such a system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2016-04-01

    The field of Archaeology remains focused on historical issues while underexploring its potential contribution on currently existing societal problems, e.g. climate change. The aim of this paper is to show the relevance of archeological studies for the research of the 'human species as a significant moving agent' in terms of the changing natural environment during a much earlier time frame. This research is based on the study area of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region in the Netherlands and Belgium and exhibits the period from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Roman period. This period is characterized by the widespread introduction and use of an agricultural system, often referred to as the Celtic Field system that served as one of the most modifying systems in terms of anthropogenic-environmental change during this period. Emphasis in this research is given to results generated by the use of the remote sensing technology, LiDAR. New information is reported considering a correlation between singular field size and the overall surface of the agricultural complexes and secondly, the presentation of newly identified Celtic field systems in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region are presented. The study of the dynamics of the Celtic Field agricultural system provides evidence for a significant anthropogenic footprint on the natural environment due to land cover dominance, soil degeneration, increased soil acidification and forest clearance. Soil exhaustion forced the inhabitants to re-establish their relationship with the landscape in terms of fundamental changes in the habitation pattern and the agrarian exploitations of the land.

  5. Trade and agriculture policy conditions for the use of plant oils in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerdens, R.

    1994-01-01

    Preservation of resources, ecology and agricultural policy supply the most important argument for an increased use of raw materials which grow again. Regenerative raw materials are at present grown on about 2.5% of the arable land area in Germany, where production for the chemical technical field is to the fore. Access to the energy field is, however, difficult due to the considerable economic deficit compared to fossil fuels. Possibilities of use exist mainly in heating plant and in Diesel engines. (BWI) [de

  6. Soil nutrient content of old-field and agricultural ecosystems exposed to chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentano, T.V.; Holt, B.R.; Bottino, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Soil nutrients (extractable P. and NO 3 -N, exchangeable Ca, Mg and K), exchangeable Al, pH and organic matter content were measured over the top six inches of the soils of the seven-year old-field portion and the cultivated portion of the Brookhaven gamma field. Although concentrations of all nutrient elements were higher in the agricultural soil, the distributions of Ca, P, Al, pH and organic matter were similar along the radiation gradient in both fields. There was also a regular reduction in the phosphorus with decreasing exposure, but distribution of other elements was not clearly related to radiation effects. The distribution of all elements except K was significantly correlated with pH in the agricultural soil. In the old-field only Ca, Mg and Al showed this relationship. The most conspicuous effects of nearly 25 yr of chronic irradiation of the site were a reduction in soil organic matter content and an increase in soil P in both fields. (author)

  7. Selection of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes by female northern pintails wintering in Tulare Basin, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleskes, Joseph P.; Jarvis, Robert L.; Gilmer, David S.

    2003-01-01

    Habitat selection and use are measures of relative importance of habitats to wildlife and necessary information for effective wildlife conservation. To measure the relative importance of flooded agricultural fields and other landscapes to northern pintails (Anas acuta) wintering in Tulare Basin (TB), California, we radiotagged female pintails during late August-early October, 1991-1993 in TB and other San Joaquin Valley areas and determined use and selection of these TB landscapes through March each year. Availability of landscape and field types in TB changed within and among years. Pintail use and selection (based upon use-to-availability log ratios) of landscape and field types differed among seasons, years, and diel periods. Fields flooded after harvest and before planting (i.e., pre-irrigated) were the most available, used, and selected landscape type before the hunting season (Prehunt). Safflower was the most available, used, and-except in 1993, when pre-irrigated fallow was available-selected pre-irrigated field type during Prehunt. Pre-irrigated barley-wheat received 19-22% of use before hunting season, but selection varied greatly among years and diel periods. During and after hunting season, managed marsh was the most available, used, and, along with floodwater areas, selected landscape type; pre-irrigated cotton and alfalfa were the least selected field types and accounted for <13% of pintail use. Agricultural drainwater evaporation ponds, sewage treatment ponds, and reservoirs accounted for 42-48% of flooded landscape available but were little used and least selected. Exodus of pintails from TB coincided with drying of pre-irrigated fallow, safflower, and barley-wheat fields early in winter, indicating that preferred habitats were lacking in TB during late winter. Agriculture conservation programs could improve TB for pintails by increasing flooding of fallow and harvested safflower and grain fields. Conservation of remaining wetlands should concentrate

  8. Rainfall-runoff of anthropogenic waste indicators from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L.; Borch, Thomas; Furlong, Edward T.; Davis, Jessica; Yager, Tracy; Yang, Yun-Ya; Kolpin, Dana W.

    2017-01-01

    The presence of anthropogenic contaminants such as antimicrobials, flame-retardants, and plasticizers in runoff from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids may pose a potential threat to the environment. This study assesses the potential for rainfall-induced runoff of 69 anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), widely found in household and industrial products, from biosolids amended field plots. The agricultural field containing the test plots was treated with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. AWIs present in soil and biosolids were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results for 18 AWIs were not evaluated due to their presence in field blank QC samples, and another 34 did not have sufficient detection frequency in samples to analyze trends in data. A total of 17 AWIs, including 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, were present in runoff with acceptable data quality and frequency for subsequent interpretation. Runoff samples were collected 5 days prior to and 1, 9, and 35 days after biosolids application. Of the 17 AWIs considered, 14 were not detected in pre-application samples, or their concentrations were much smaller than in the sample collected one day after application. A range of trends was observed for individual AWI concentrations (typically from 0.1 to 10 μg/L) over the course of the study, depending on the combination of partitioning and degradation mechanisms affecting each compound most strongly. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize anthropogenic contaminants from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters and redistribute them to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. For 14 of 17 compounds examined, the potential for runoff remobilization during rainstorms persists even after three 100-year rainstorm-equivalent simulations and the

  9. Rainfall-runoff of anthropogenic waste indicators from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, James L; Borch, Thomas; Furlong, Edward T; Davis, Jessica G; Yager, Tracy J; Yang, Yun-Ya; Kolpin, Dana W

    2017-02-15

    The presence of anthropogenic contaminants such as antimicrobials, flame-retardants, and plasticizers in runoff from agricultural fields applied with municipal biosolids may pose a potential threat to the environment. This study assesses the potential for rainfall-induced runoff of 69 anthropogenic waste indicators (AWIs), widely found in household and industrial products, from biosolids amended field plots. The agricultural field containing the test plots was treated with biosolids for the first time immediately prior to this study. AWIs present in soil and biosolids were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction and analyzed by full-scan gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results for 18 AWIs were not evaluated due to their presence in field blank QC samples, and another 34 did not have sufficient detection frequency in samples to analyze trends in data. A total of 17 AWIs, including 4-nonylphenol, triclosan, and tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, were present in runoff with acceptable data quality and frequency for subsequent interpretation. Runoff samples were collected 5days prior to and 1, 9, and 35days after biosolids application. Of the 17 AWIs considered, 14 were not detected in pre-application samples, or their concentrations were much smaller than in the sample collected one day after application. A range of trends was observed for individual AWI concentrations (typically from 0.1 to 10μg/L) over the course of the study, depending on the combination of partitioning and degradation mechanisms affecting each compound most strongly. Overall, these results indicate that rainfall can mobilize anthropogenic contaminants from biosolids-amended agricultural fields, directly to surface waters and redistribute them to terrestrial sites away from the point of application via runoff. For 14 of 17 compounds examined, the potential for runoff remobilization during rainstorms persists even after three 100-year rainstorm-equivalent simulations and the passage of a

  10. Strategies for soil-based precision agriculture in cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Haly L.; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Stanislav, Scott; Rouze, Gregory; Shi, Yeyin; Thomasson, J. Alex; Valasek, John; Olsenholler, Jeff

    2016-05-01

    The goal of precision agriculture is to increase crop yield while maximizing the use efficiency of farm resources. In this application, UAV-based systems are presenting agricultural researchers with an opportunity to study crop response to environmental and management factors in real-time without disturbing the crop. The spatial variability soil properties, which drive crop yield and quality, cannot be changed and thus keen agronomic choices with soil variability in mind have the potential to increase profits. Additionally, measuring crop stress over time and in response to management and environmental conditions may enable agronomists and plant breeders to make more informed decisions about variety selection than the traditional end-of-season yield and quality measurements. In a previous study, seed-cotton yield was measured over 4 years and compared with soil variability as mapped by a proximal soil sensor. It was found that soil properties had a significant effect on seed-cotton yield and the effect was not consistent across years due to different precipitation conditions. However, when seed-cotton yield was compared to the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as measured using a multispectral camera from a UAV, predictions improved. Further improvement was seen when soil-only pixels were removed from the analysis. On-going studies are using UAV-based data to uncover the thresholds for stress and yield potential. Long-term goals of this research include detecting stress before yield is reduced and selecting better adapted varieties.

  11. Assessment of Agricultural Water Productivity for Tea Production in Tea Fields of Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water productivity index is one of the main factors in efficient use of water for agricultural products. In this study, the rate of water productivity (WP in six irrigated tea fields and three rainfed (no irrigation were assessed by farmer’s management for two years (2009-2010. Yield of each tea field in successive harvests, soil moisture monitoring by gravimetric soil and use of water balance equation was conducted during the growing seasons. Volume of water entered to irrigation system and amount of water reached to surface level were also measured. Tea mean yield in irrigated and rainfed field were 2843 and 1095 Kg. ha-1, respectively. Average of gross irrigation and effective rainfall (WP and irrigation water productivity (IWP in the irrigated fields were 4.39 and 4.55 kg (made tea ha-1 mm-1 and average of net WP (actual evaportanspiration and net IWP was 5.18 and 6.61 kg ha-1 mm-1, respectively. Average WP in rainfed tea fields was 3.4 kg ha-1 for each mm of effective rainfall. The most effective factors on WP reduction in tea fields were improper harvesting operations (un standard plucking and economic problems. Moreover, improper operation and maintenance and old irrigation systems and unprincipled irrigation scheduling in irrigated tea fields were also effective on WP reduction. Comparing the results of this study with other studies in past, showed that by implementing the proper methods in irrigation management and appropriate agricultural practices can improve water productivity in tea fields.

  12. Construction of Agricultural University Students’ Entrepreneurship Incubation Base – Taking Sichuan Agricultural University as a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yao; Jianping Xie; Linchun He

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, as an effective practice in university students’ entrepreneurship education, construction of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base has been rapidly developed in different universities. This paper takes construction of the entrepreneurship incubation base in Sichuan Agricultural University as a case study, analyzes the current status of university students’ entrepreneurship incubation base and makes a discussion on establishment of management institution, f...

  13. The development of halophyte-based agriculture: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Yvonne; Eshel, Amram; Pasternak, Dov; Sagi, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    Freshwater comprises about a mere 2·5% of total global water, of which approximately two-thirds is locked into glaciers at the polar ice caps and on mountains. In conjunction with this, in many instances irrigation with freshwater causes an increase in soil salinity due to overirrigation of agricultural land, inefficient water use and poor drainage of unsuitable soils. The problem of salinity was recognized a long time ago and, due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, numerous efforts have been devoted towards improving crop species for better utilization of saline soils and water. Irrigating plants with saline water is a challenge for practitioners and researchers throughout the world. Recruiting wild halophytes with economic potential was suggested several decades ago as a way to reduce the damage caused by salinization of soil and water. A range of cultivation systems for the utilization of halophytes have been developed, for the production of biofuel, purification of saline effluent in constructed wetlands, landscaping, cultivation of gourmet vegetables, and more. This review critically analyses past and present halophyte-based production systems in the context of genetics, physiology, agrotechnical issues and product value. There are still difficulties that need to be overcome, such as direct germination in saline conditions or genotype selection. However, more and more research is being directed not only towards determining salt tolerance of halophytes, but also to the improvement of agricultural traits for long-term progress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Rapid mineralisation of the herbicide isoproturon in soil from a previously treated Danish agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Sebastian R; Aamand, Jens

    2003-10-01

    Mineralisation of the phenylurea herbicide isoproturon (3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea) and two of its known metabolites, 3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1-methylurea (monodesmethyl-isoproturon) and 4-isopropylaniline, was studied in Danish agricultural soils with or without previous exposure to isoproturon. A potential for rapid mineralisation of isoproturon and the two metabolites was present in soils sampled from three plots within an agricultural field previously treated regularly with the herbicide, with 34-45%, 51-58% and 33-36% of the added [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon, [phenyl-U-14C]monodesmethyl-isoproturon and [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline metabolised to [14C]carbon dioxide within 30 days at 20 degrees C. In contrast, such extensive mineralisation of these three compounds was not observed within this period in soils sampled from two other agricultural fields without previous treatment with isoproturon. The mineralisation patterns indicated growth-linked metabolism of the three compounds in the previously exposed soils, and doubling times for [14C]carbon dioxide production ranged from 1.6 to 3.2, 1.0 to 2.1 and 1.3 to 1.7 days for isoproturon, monodesmethyl-isoproturon and 4-isopropylaniline, respectively. The ability to mineralise [phenyl-U-14C]isoproturon to [14C]carbon dioxide was successfully sub-cultured to a fresh mineral medium which provided isoproturon as sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One of the soils sampled from an agricultural field not previously treated with isoproturon showed accelerated mineralisation of [phenyl-U-14C]4-isopropylaniline toward the end of the experiment, with a doubling time for [14C]carbon dioxide production of 7.4days. This study indicates that the occurrence of rapid mineralisation of the phenyl ring of isoproturon to carbon dioxide is related to previous exposure to the herbicide, which suggests that microbial adaptation upon repeated isoproturon use may occur within agricultural fields.

  15. Satellite Images-Based Obstacle Recognition and Trajectory Generation for Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Bodur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method for the generation of tracking trajectory points, detection and positioning of obstacles in agricultural fields have been presented. Our principal contribution is to produce traceable GPS trajectories for agricultural vehicles to be utilized by path planning algorithms, rather than a new path planning algorithm. The proposed system works with minimal initialization requirements, specifically, a single geographical coordinate entry of an agricultural field. The automation of agricultural plantation requires many aspects to be addressed, many of which have been covered in previous studies. Depending on the type of crop, different agricultural vehicles may be used in the field. However, regardless of their application, they all follow a specified trajectory in the field. This study takes advantage of satellite images for the detection and positioning of obstacles, and the generation of GPS trajectories in the agricultural realm. A set of image processing techniques is applied in Matlab for detection and positioning.

  16. Integrating ICT in Agriculture for Knowledge-Based Economy | Balraj ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... demands the integration of ICT knowledge with agriculture. Already projects such as Agriculture Management Information System (AMIS), and e-Soko (which means electronic marketing) – which provides farmers with the price decision making tools enlightens the path to socio-economic development through agriculture.

  17. Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H Krupke

    Full Text Available Populations of honey bees and other pollinators have declined worldwide in recent years. A variety of stressors have been implicated as potential causes, including agricultural pesticides. Neonicotinoid insecticides, which are widely used and highly toxic to honey bees, have been found in previous analyses of honey bee pollen and comb material. However, the routes of exposure have remained largely undefined. We used LC/MS-MS to analyze samples of honey bees, pollen stored in the hive and several potential exposure routes associated with plantings of neonicotinoid treated maize. Our results demonstrate that bees are exposed to these compounds and several other agricultural pesticides in several ways throughout the foraging period. During spring, extremely high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in planter exhaust material produced during the planting of treated maize seed. We also found neonicotinoids in the soil of each field we sampled, including unplanted fields. Plants visited by foraging bees (dandelions growing near these fields were found to contain neonicotinoids as well. This indicates deposition of neonicotinoids on the flowers, uptake by the root system, or both. Dead bees collected near hive entrances during the spring sampling period were found to contain clothianidin as well, although whether exposure was oral (consuming pollen or by contact (soil/planter dust is unclear. We also detected the insecticide clothianidin in pollen collected by bees and stored in the hive. When maize plants in our field reached anthesis, maize pollen from treated seed was found to contain clothianidin and other pesticides; and honey bees in our study readily collected maize pollen. These findings clarify some of the mechanisms by which honey bees may be exposed to agricultural pesticides throughout the growing season. These results have implications for a wide range of large-scale annual cropping systems that utilize neonicotinoid seed

  18. Development and field testing of agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, T.; Hasegawa, M.; Tanaka, H.; Suzuki, S.; Tadano, T.

    2008-01-01

    In snow-covering region of Japan, the promotion of snowmelting with application of agricultural snowmelting agents ('Yusetsuzai' in Japanese) has been widely carried out by farmers at the snowmelting season. When black colored materials with albedo-lowering effect are spread on snow surface, absorption of solar radiation by snow is increased, the snowmelting is promoted and snow thawing date becomes earlier. As a result, the growing season of crop plants is extended. Existing agricultural snowmelting agents have been mostly made from industrial waste materials or industrial processed products due to requirement for the low cost of the raw materials. These agents may contain harmful heavy metal elements and may lead to environmental pollution. To solve these problems, we developed the new agricultural snowmelting agents made from recycled bio-waste materials generated from the fields of agriculture and fishery. The developed snowmelting agents were made from shells of Patinopecten yessoensis, fowl droppings and processed wastes of fish and shellfish, etc. Especially, the shells of Patinopecten yessoensis has problems due to generation of a huge quantity in Hokkaido. Therefore, the recycling-use of these waste materials was strongly requested and expected. The developed snowmelting agents were possible to spread efficiently and safely on the snow-surface without wide scattering by controlling the particle size within the range larger than 100 microm and smaller than 1180 microm. Results obtained from the field experiment showed that the albedo was decreased from 0.70 for natural snow to 0.20 and the promotion of snowmelting for 11 days was recognized when 100 kg/10a of developed agent was spread. The promoting ability of the developed agent was equivalent to those of the existing commercial snowmelting agents. (author)

  19. Non-destructive monitoring of agricultural product (lettuce [Lactuca sativa]) based on laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizawa, H.; Saito, Y.; Amemiya, T.; Komatu, K.

    2002-01-01

    Quality control of agricultural products in process of cultivation and distribution has become an important problem. This paper describes a field measuring method of lettuce based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy for growth monitoring. Intensity at 460nm of LIF spectra showed characteristic variations of near harvest time. The results of chemical analysis confirmed that sucrose and chlorogenic acid are origins of the 460nm fluorescence. The prediction of harvest time and the possibility of quality monitoring are discussed based on the experimental data

  20. The effectiveness of agrobusiness technical training and education model for the field agricultural extension officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiyo Sumarwono

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was to: (1 find the most effective agrobusiness technical training and education model for the Field Agricultural Extension Officers to be implemented; and (2 to identify the knowledge level, the highest agrobusiness skills and the strongest self-confidence that might be achieved by the participants through the implemented training and education patterns. The study was conducted by means of experiment method with the regular pattern of training and education program as the control and the mentoring pattern of training and education program as the treatment. The three patterns of training and education programs served as the independent variables while the knowledge, the skills and the self-confidence served as the dependent variables. The study was conducted in three locations namely: the Institution of Agricultural Human Resources Development in the Province of Yogyakarta Special Region (Balai Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia Pertanian Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta – BPSMP DIY; the Institution of Agricultural Human Resources Empowerment (Balai Pemberdayaan Sumber Daya Manusia Pertanian – BPSDMTAN Soropadan Temanggung Provinsi Jawa Tengah in Soropadan, Temanggung, the Province of Central Java; and the Institution of Training and Education in Semarang, the Province of Central Java (Badan Pendidikan dan Pelatihan Semarang Provinsi Jawa Tengah. The study was conducted to all of the participants who attended the agrobusiness technical training and education program and, therefore, all of the participants became the subjects of the study. The study was conducted from October 2013 until March 2014. The results of the study showed that: (1 there had not been any significant difference on the knowledge and the skills of the participants who attended the regular pattern in training and education programs and those who attended the mentoring pattern in training and education programs; (2 the regular pattern in training and education programs

  1. Factors influencing the survival and leaching of tetracycline-resistant bacteria and Escherichia coli through structured agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Tina B.; Rosenbom, Annette E.; Kjaer, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense use of antibiotics in agricultural production may lead to the contamination of surface and groundwater by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In the present study, the survival and leaching of E. coli and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were monitored at two well-structured agricultural fields...

  2. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kangjoo [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kangjoo@kunsan.ac.kr; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Kunsan National University, Jeonbuk 573-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eungyu [Department of Geology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Dong-Chan [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon 305-350 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Seong-Taek [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-01-15

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO{sub 4} concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO{sub 4}, supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO{sub 3} at shallow depths and by SO{sub 4} reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO{sub 3} and SO{sub 4} in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area.

  3. Spatial Variability of Physical Soil Quality Index of an Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M. Fazle Rabbi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A field investigation was carried out to evaluate the spatial variability of physical indicators of soil quality of an agricultural field and to construct a physical soil quality index (SQIP map. Surface soil samples were collected using 10  m×10 m grid from an Inceptisol on Ganges Tidal Floodplain of Bangladesh. Five physical soil quality indicators, soil texture, bulk density, porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity (KS, and aggregate stability (measured as mean weight diameter, MWD were determined. The spatial structures of sand, clay, and KS were moderate but the structure was strong for silt, bulk density, porosity, and MWD. Each of the physical soil quality indicators was transformed into 0 and 1 using threshold criteria which are required for crop production. The transformed indicators were the combined into SQIP. The kriged SQIP map showed that the agricultural field studied could be divided into two parts having “good physical quality” and “poor physical soil quality.”

  4. Emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from fields fertilized with digestate from an agricultural biogas plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubaszek, Robert; Wysocka-Czubaszek, Agnieszka

    2018-01-01

    Digestate from biogas plants can play important role in agriculture by providing nutrients, improving soil structure and reducing the use of mineral fertilizers. Still, less is known about greenhouse gas emissions from soil during and after digestate application. The aim of the study was to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from a field which was fertilized with digestate. The gas fluxes were measured with the eddy covariance system. Each day, the eddy covariance system was installed in various places of the field, depending on the dominant wind direction, so that each time the results were obtained from an area where the digestate was distributed. The results showed the relatively low impact of the studied gases emissions on total greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Maximum values of the CO2 and CH4 fluxes, 79.62 and 3.049 µmol s-1 m-2, respectively, were observed during digestate spreading on the surface of the field. On the same day, the digestate was mixed with the topsoil layer using a disc harrow. This resulted in increased CO2 emissions the following day. Intense mineralization of digestate, observed after fertilization may not give the expected effects in terms of protection and enrichment of soil organic matter.

  5. Fe and Mn levels regulated by agricultural activities in alluvial groundwaters underneath a flooded paddy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Choi, Byoung-Young; Kim, Seok-Hwi; Park, Ki-hoon; Park, Eungyu; Koh, Dong-Chan; Yun, Seong-Taek

    2008-01-01

    Iron and Mn concentrations in fresh groundwaters of alluvial aquifers are generally high in reducing conditions reflecting low SO 4 concentrations. The mass balance and isotopic approaches of this study demonstrate that reduction of SO 4 , supplied from agricultural activities such as fertilization and irrigation, is important in lowering Fe and Mn levels in alluvial groundwaters underneath a paddy field. This study was performed to investigate the processes regulating Fe and Mn levels in groundwaters of a point bar area, which has been intensively used for flood cultivation. Four multilevel-groundwater samplers were installed to examine the relationship between geology and the vertical changes in water chemistry. The results show that Fe and Mn levels are regulated by the presence of NO 3 at shallow depths and by SO 4 reduction at the greater depths. Isotopic and mass balance analyses revealed that NO 3 and SO 4 in groundwater are mostly supplied from the paddy field, suggesting that the Fe-and Mn-rich zone of the study area is confined by the agricultural activities. For this reason, the geologic conditions controlling the infiltration of agrochemicals are also important for the occurrence of Fe/Mn-rich groundwaters in the paddy field area

  6. Education and Training Needs in the Field of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Lower Danube Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Istudor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the conditions of European Strategy for Labour which was ratified also by Romania, that states an intensifying implementation at national level of labour policies and especially those regarding young person labour market integration, and taking into consideration the great human and agricultural potential of Lower Danube Region, we consider the implementation of national and regional programmes in order to train agriculture and rural development specialists to be very necessary. This article inquires the necessity of training agriculture and rural development specialists within Lower Danube Region in the context of cross-border cooperation between Romania and Bulgaria. This research starts by analysing the European and national legal framework of adult training in those two fields. Subsequently, the main premises and advantages of those activities were emphasized. It is good to mention that the Academy of Economic Studies in Bucharest, Romania, and the D. Tsenov Academy of Economics in Svishtov, Bulgaria, proposed themselves to cooperate in the field of “human resources development – common development of skills and knowledge”. The legal base exists as the Romania-Bulgaria Cross-border Cooperation Programme 2007-2013 is enforced. Furthermore, a four years comparative study of the number of persons trained for the main jobs in rural area, including farmer, in Lower Danube Region was conducted. All these led to the idea that it is necessary to continue and to stress adult training of farmers and rural specialists as a solution for rural economy development and social welfare. Also, comparative analysis of supply and demand of professionals in the field of agriculture was elaborated. The main educational programs in training agriculture and rural development specialists were identified and some problems and perspectives were worked out. This research can be considered as a first step of future deeper and profound collaboration of Tsenov

  7. Utilization of radiation in industrial, agricultural and medical fields and its perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Tokushi

    2008-01-01

    The current status for the utilization of radiation in Japan was given from the view point of the economic scale. The topics which will be developed in near future such as lithography, radiation processing, radiation analysis in the industry, mutation breeding, sterile insect technique, food irradiation in agriculture, and radiation diagnosis, radiation therapy in medical field were presented. The important techniques for the further development of utilization of radiation will be the techniques related to the fabrication of semiconductor, developments of small accelerators and compact neutron generators. (author)

  8. A novel application for concentrator photovoltaic in the field of agriculture photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luqing; Guan, Chenggang; Zhang, Fangxin; Li, Ming; Lv, Hui; Liu, Yang; Yao, Peijun; Ingenhoff, Jan; Liu, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Agriculture photovoltaics is a trend setting area which has already led to a new industrial revolution. Shortage of land in some countries and desertification of land where regular solar panels are deployed are some of the major problems in the photovoltaic industry. Concentrator photovoltaics experienced a decline in applicability after the cost erosion of regular solar panels at the end of the last decade. We demonstrate a novel and unique application for concentrator photovoltaics tackling at a same time the issue of conventional photovoltaics preventing the land being used for agricultural purpose where ever solar panels are installed. We leverage the principle of diffractive and interference technology to split the sun light into transmitted wavelengths necessary for plant growth and reflected wavelengths useful for solar energy generation. The technology has been successfully implemented in field trials and sophisticated scientific studies have been undertaken to evaluate the suitability of this technology for competitive solar power generation and simultaneous high-quality plant growth. The average efficiency of the agriculture photovoltaic system has reached more than 8% and the average efficiency of the CPV system is 6.80%.

  9. Research on Intelligent Agriculture Greenhouses Based on Internet of Things Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Ying

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of things is a hot topic in the field of research, get a lot of attention, On behalf of the future development trend of the network, Internet of Things has a wide range of applications, because of the efficient and reliable information transmission in modern agriculture. In the greenhouse, the conditions of the Greenhouse determine the quality of crops, high yield and many other aspects. Research on Intelligent Agriculture Greenhouses based on Internet of Things, mainly Research on how to control the conditions of the greenhouses, So that the indoor conditions suitable for crop growth. In the pater, we study of Zigbee technology, Designed the solar power supply module, greenhouse hardware and software part, And the system was tested by experiment, The analysis of the experimental data shows that the system can provide good conditions for the growth of crops to achieve the high yield and high quality of crops.

  10. Master of Professional Studies in Agriculture and Life Sciences Offered through the Field of Food Science and Technology at Cornell University: A Model for the Development of a Course-Based Graduate Degree in Food Science and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Robbins, Janette; Elmore, Andrea; Wiedmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The shortage of highly qualified graduates with advanced training in food science is a pressing problem facing government agencies and the food industry. This has created a need to recruit and train food scientists at the graduate level. However, most graduate level programs are research-based and do not meet the needs of many students. The…

  11. Weather based risks and insurances for agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    Extreme weather events such as frost, drought, heat waves and rain storms can have devastating effects on cropping systems. According to both the agriculture and finance sectors, a risk assessment of extreme weather events and their impact on cropping systems is needed. The principle of return periods or frequencies of natural hazards is adopted in many countries as the basis of eligibility for the compensation of associated losses. For adequate risk management and eligibility, hazard maps for events with a 20-year return period are often used. Damages due to extreme events are strongly dependent on crop type, crop stage, soil type and soil conditions. The impact of extreme weather events particularly during the sensitive periods of the farming calendar therefore requires a modelling approach to capture the mixture of non-linear interactions between the crop, its environment and the occurrence of the meteorological event in the farming calendar. Physically based crop models such as REGCROP (Gobin, 2010) assist in understanding the links between different factors causing crop damage. Subsequent examination of the frequency, magnitude and impacts of frost, drought, heat stress and soil moisture stress in relation to the cropping season and crop sensitive stages allows for risk profiles to be confronted with yields, yield losses and insurance claims. The methodology is demonstrated for arable food crops, bio-energy crops and fruit. The perspective of rising risk-exposure is exacerbated further by limited aid received for agricultural damage, an overall reduction of direct income support to farmers and projected intensification of weather extremes with climate change. Though average yields have risen continuously due to technological advances, there is no evidence that relative tolerance to adverse weather events has improved. The research is funded by the Belgian Science Policy Organisation (Belspo) under contract nr SD/RI/03A.

  12. The floristic changes on excluded from agricultural production field after single Roundup spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Jabłoński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of experiment conducting on the field, weedy by Agropyron repens (L. P. B. was established what is the degree of elimination of Agropyron repens plants from experimental plots by single Roundup spraying. The changes of the species composition on the fields with different clover-grass mixtures or with Phacelia tanacaetifolia Benth. were studied as well. The stand tables have been made in the first year of the conducting experiment, to determination the density of weeds, after different agricultural practices. It has been found the great elimination of Agropyron repens (L. P. B. plants after Roundup spraying and the great density of Echinochloa crus-galli (L. P. B. plants. It has been found the great density of Chenopodium album L. at VII treatment and Galinsoga parviflora Cav. at III, V, VII and VIII treatments as well (Table I.

  13. Agricultural and Social Resiliency of Small-Scale Agriculture to Economic and Climatic Shocks: A Comparison of Subsistence versus Market-Based Agricultural Approaches in Rural Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malard, J. J.; Melgar-Quiñonez, H.; Pineda, P.; Gálvez, J.; Adamowski, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural production is heavily dependent not only on climate but also on markets as well as on the social and community systems managing the agroecosystem. In addition, the ultimate goal of agricultural production, human food security, is also affected not only by net agricultural production but also by similar economic and social factors. These complex feedbacks assume a particular importance in the case of smallholder farms in the tropics, where alternative rural development policies have led to different and contrasting agricultural management systems. Current approaches at comparing such systems generally study their environmental, economic or social components in isolation, potentially missing important interconnections. This research uses a participatory systems dynamics modelling (SDM) framework to compare two small-scale agricultural approaches in rural Guatemala which differ in their social, economic and ecosystem management decisions. The first case study community, in Quiché, has adopted a subsistence-based system that aims to use low levels of outside inputs to produce food for their own consumption, while the second, in Sololá, has opted for market-based agriculture that uses high input levels to obtain marketable crops in order to assure income for the purchase of food and other necessities. Each of these systems has its respective vulnerabilities; while the Sololá community suffers from more environmental degradation issues (soils and pests), the Quiché community, given lower monetary incomes, is more vulnerable to events whose responses require a significant monetary expenditure. Through the SDM approach, we incorporate local stakeholder knowledge of the respective systems, including biophysical and socioeconomic variables, into a joint biophysical and socioeconomic model for each community. These models then allow for the comparison of the resilience of both types of socio-agroecosystems in the face of climatic, economic and biological

  14. Research on the Optimization of Agricultural Supply Chain Based on Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang , Guangsheng

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Technology of IOT which used in agricultural supply chain can help to improve operational efficiency and reduce supply chain costs. This paper analyzes the basic structure of agricultural supply chain, current status of the research, and summarizes major obstacles of the development process. The paper also describes application of IOT principle, as well as agricultural supply chain optimization approach based on internet of things, including agricultural production, pr...

  15. An Early Historical Examination of the Educational Intent of Supervised Agricultural Experiences (SAEs) and Project-Based Learning in Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kasee L.; Rayfield, John

    2016-01-01

    Project-based learning has been a component of agricultural education since its inception. In light of the current call for additional emphasis of the Supervised Agricultural Experience (SAE) component of agricultural education, there is a need to revisit the roots of project-based learning. This early historical research study was conducted to…

  16. An ontology-based collaborative service framework for agricultural information

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, China has developed modern agriculture energetically. An effective information framework is an important way to provide farms with agricultural information services and improve farmer's production technology and their income. The mountain areas in central China are dominated by agri...

  17. PestLCI - a model for estimating field emissions of pesticides in agricultural LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2006-01-01

    of a product or service is a specific element of LCA termed life cycle inventory (LCI). Estimation of chemical emissions in agricultural LCA is typically based on standard emission factors which at best are determined by a few physical-chemical substance properties and the use scenario of the chemical compound...... to the different environmental compartments. It estimates the fractions of the applied quantity which is emitted to the air, surface water, and groundwater compartment based on information which will normally be available to the model user about: type and time of application, crop species and development stage...... for other regions of the world. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  18. A GIS-based hedonic price model for agricultural land

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriou, Demetris

    2015-06-01

    Land consolidation is a very effective land management planning approach that aims towards rural/agricultural sustainable development. Land reallocation which involves land tenure restructuring is the most important, complex and time consuming component of land consolidation. Land reallocation relies on land valuation since its fundamental principle provides that after consolidation, each landowner shall be granted a property of an aggregate value that is approximately the same as the value of the property owned prior to consolidation. Therefore, land value is the crucial factor for the land reallocation process and hence for the success and acceptance of the final land consolidation plan. Land valuation is a process of assigning values to all parcels (and its contents) and it is usually carried out by an ad-hoc committee. However, the process faces some problems such as it is time consuming hence costly, outcomes may present inconsistency since it is carried out manually and empirically without employing systematic analytical tools and in particular spatial analysis tools and techniques such as statistical/mathematical. A solution to these problems can be the employment of mass appraisal land valuation methods using automated valuation models (AVM) based on international standards. In this context, this paper presents a spatial based linear hedonic price model which has been developed and tested in a case study land consolidation area in Cyprus. Results showed that the AVM is capable to produce acceptable in terms of accuracy and reliability land values and to reduce time hence cost required by around 80%.

  19. Study of agricultural waste treatment in China and Russia-based on the agriculture environment sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaeva, Victoria A.; Teng, Xiuyi; Sergio

    2017-06-01

    China and Russia are both agriculture countries, agricultural environment sustainable development is very important for them. The paper studies three main agricultural wastes: straw, organic waste and plastic waste, and analyzes their treatments with the view of agricultural sustainable development.

  20. Carbon Stock in Integrated Field Laboratory Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the amount of carbon stock and CO2 plant uptake in the Integrated Field Laboratory (IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung. The research was conducted from April to November 2015. The study was arranged in a completely randomized block design (CRBD, consisting of five land units as treatment with four replications for each treatment. Biomass of woody plants was estimated using allometric equation, biomass of understorey plants was estimated using plant dry weight equation, and organic C content in plants and soils were analyzed using a Walkey and Black method. The results showed that land unit consisting of densely woody plants significantly affects total biomass of woody plants, organic C content in woody plants and total carbon content (above and below ground. The highest amount of woody plant biomass was observed in land unit 5, i.e. 1,196.88 Mg ha-1, and above ground total carbon was 437.19 Mg ha-1. IFL Faculty of Agriculture University of Lampung has a total carbon stock of 2,051.90 Mg and capacity to take up total CO2 of 6,656.88 Mg.

  1. Monitoring soil moisture dynamics via ground-penetrating radar survey of agriculture fields after irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muro, G.

    2015-12-01

    It is possible to examine the quality of ground-penetrating radar (GPR) as a measure of soil moisture content in the shallow vadose zone, where roots are most abundant and water conservation best management practices are critical in active agricultural fields. By analyzing temporal samplings of 100 Mhz reflection profiles and common-midpoint (CMP) soundings over a full growing season, the variability of vertical soil moisture distribution directly after irrigation events are characterized throughout the lifecycle of a production crop. Reflection profiles produce high-resolution travel time data and summed results of CMP sounding data provide sampling depth estimates for the weak, but coherent reflections amid strong point scatterers. The high ratio of clay in the soil limits the resolution of downward propagation of infiltrating moisture after irrigation; synthetic data analysis compared against soil moisture lysimeter logs throughout the profile allow identification of the discrete soil moisture content variation in the measured GPR data. The nature of short duration irrigation events, evapotranspiration, and drainage behavior in relation to root depths observed in the GPR temporal data allow further examination and comparison with the variable saturation model HYDRUS-1D. After retrieving soil hydraulic properties derived from laboratory measured soil samples and simplified assumptions about boundary conditions, the project aims to achieve good agreement between simulated and measured soil moisture profiles without the need for excessive model calibration for GPR-derived soil moisture estimates in an agricultural setting.

  2. Monitoring-based analysis of agriculture in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Tokareva, Olga Sergeevna; Pasko, Olga Anatolievna; Alshaibi, A.; Mochalov, M.

    2016-01-01

    The paper deals with change in area and structure of Iraq agricultural lands. It revealed the main reasons for the change: crisis (war, sanctions, etc.); economic (swamp and lake drainage, melioration, etc.); weather condition. Land-use intensification as a reason for reduction of agricultural land areas was not proved. The area of cultivated lands proved to correlate significantly with the level of precipitation, wheat productivity -with the average temperature in Iraq.

  3. Development of the ClearSky smoke dispersion forecast system for agricultural field burning in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rahul; Vaughan, Joseph; Heitkamp, Kyle; Ramos, Charleston; Claiborn, Candis; Schreuder, Maarten; Schaaf, Mark; Lamb, Brian

    The post-harvest burning of agricultural fields is commonly used to dispose of crop residue and provide other desired services such as pest control. Despite careful regulation of burning, smoke plumes from field burning in the Pacific Northwest commonly degrade air quality, particularly for rural populations. In this paper, ClearSky, a numerical smoke dispersion forecast system for agricultural field burning that was developed to support smoke management in the Inland Pacific Northwest, is described. ClearSky began operation during the summer through fall burn season of 2002 and continues to the present. ClearSky utilizes Mesoscale Meteorological Model version 5 (MM5v3) forecasts from the University of Washington, data on agricultural fields, a web-based user interface for defining burn scenarios, the Lagrangian CALPUFF dispersion model and web-served animations of plume forecasts. The ClearSky system employs a unique hybrid source configuration, which treats the flaming portion of a field as a buoyant line source and the smoldering portion of the field as a buoyant area source. Limited field observations show that this hybrid approach yields reasonable plume rise estimates using source parameters derived from recent field burning emission field studies. The performance of this modeling system was evaluated for 2003 by comparing forecast meteorology against meteorological observations, and comparing model-predicted hourly averaged PM 2.5 concentrations against observations. Examples from this evaluation illustrate that while the ClearSky system can accurately predict PM 2.5 surface concentrations due to field burning, the overall model performance depends strongly on meteorological forecast error. Statistical evaluation of the meteorological forecast at seven surface stations indicates a strong relationship between topographical complexity near the station and absolute wind direction error with wind direction errors increasing from approximately 20° for sites in

  4. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC BASES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian agricultural production at current stage is very energy intensive. At the cost of agricultural production overall cost of energy resources is growing: in 2000 was 36.5 billion rubles, 2008 - 92 billion rubles, 2009 - 110.6 billion rubles, and in 2010 rose to 119.8 billion rubles, or increased by 3.3 times. The analysis of consumption of the main energy sources for the period from 1990 to 2010 showed a decrease in general and the specific consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity by 5-7 times. Reducing energy consumption is explained as a forced saving resources because of lack of funds for the acquisition and implementation of agricultural enterprises of energy and resource saving measures (resource-saving technologies in the production process, motor fuel, biofuels and alternative energy sources. To solve this problem State and business in a matter of priority should be to build an effective system of innovation development for agriculture, promote the participation of agricultural science and education system in this process, modernize the domestic agricultural machinery, engineering and technology infrastructure.

  5. The sustainability, base for the agriculture of next century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero Haeberlin, I.B.

    1997-01-01

    It is defined the sustainability concept, their origin and the operation form to the interior of CORPOICA. It discusses the concept of sustained development and the characteristics that it should have the agricultural technology to involve the concept in the agricultural development, under the perspective of satisfying the necessities of people presently, maintaining options for the future generations. The sustainable agricultural development is analyzed in connection with the ecological, economic and social sustainability and the situation of the agricultural producer in the application of the concept. It thinks about the agriculture ecology like strategy guided to achieve a sustainable agriculture by means of the knowledge of the relationships that they are given among the production systems and the processes that govern the behavior and offer of the intervened ecosystems. Complementarity the technology use of under environmental impact and the development of productive systems adapted to the environment, taking advantage of the biodiversity. It concludes that the sustainability should be above all an ethical concept that makes part of the investigator's formation inside a holistic and interdisciplinary context

  6. Study on the manganese distribution in the soil of an agricultural field using neutron activation analysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Marcos P. de; Armelin, Maria J.A.; Cruvinel, Paulo E.

    1997-01-01

    Manganese distribution in the soil of an agricultural field was evaluated by neutron activation analysis. The accuracy and precision of the method were verified by the analysis of two Standard Reference Materials with different manganese concentration in the experimental field, through one schematic diagram. (author). 7 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  7. Road verges and winter wheat fields as resources for wild bees in agricultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Casper Christian I; Langer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based on the perce......The effects of farming system on plant density and flowering of dicotyledonous herbs of high value for bees were investigated in 14 organic and 14 conventional winter wheat fields and adjacent road verges. The organic and conventional winter wheat fields/road verges were paired based...... on the percentage of semi-natural habitats in the surrounding landscape at 1-km scale. Mean density of high value bee plants per Raunkiaer circle was significantly higher in organic winter wheat fields and their adjacent road verges than in their conventionally farmed counterparts. The effect of organic farming...... was even more pronounced on the flowering stage of high value bee plants, with 10-fold higher mean density of flowering plants in organic fields than in conventional fields and 1.9-fold higher in road verges bordering organic fields than in those bordering conventional fields. In summary, organic farming...

  8. Pretreatment of agriculture field water for improving membrane flux during pesticide removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Romil; Saha, N. K.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2017-10-01

    Pretreatment of feed water to improve membrane flux during filtration of agriculture field water containing substituted phenyl urea pesticide diuron has been reported. Laboratory-made reverse osmosis membrane was used for filtration. Preliminary experiments were conducted with model solution containing natural organic matter extracted from commercial humic acids, divalent ions Ca2+, Mg2+. Membrane fouling was characterized by pure water flux decline, change in membrane hydrophilicity and infrared spectroscopy. Natural organic matter present in field water causes severe membrane fouling. The presence of divalent cations further aggravated fouling. Use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and polyacrylic acids (PAA) in feed resulted in the decrease in membrane fouling. Pretreatment of field water is a must if it is contaminated with micro-organism having membrane fouling potential. Feed water pretreatment and use of PAA restricted membrane fouling to 16 % after 60 h of filtration. Membrane permeate flux decline was maximum at the first 12 h and thereafter remained steady at around 45-46 lm-2h-1 till the end of 60 h. Diuron rejection remained consistently greater than 93 % throughout the experiment. Diuron rejection was found to be unaffected by membrane fouling.

  9. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  10. Use of Airborne Hyperspectral Imagery to Map Soil Properties in Tilled Agricultural Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hively, W.D; McCarty, G.W; Reeves, J.B; Lang, M.W; Oesterling, R.A; Delwiche, S.R

    2011-01-01

    Soil hyperspectral reflectance imagery was obtained for six tilled (soil) agricultural fields using an airborne imaging spectrometer (400-2450 nm, -10 nm resolution, 2.5 m spatial resolution). Surface soil samples (n=315) were analyzed for carbon content, particle size distribution, and 15 agronomically important elements (Mehlich-III extraction). When partial least squares (PLS) regression of imagery-derived reflectance spectra was used to predict analyte concentrations, 13 of the 19 analytes were predicted with R 2 >0.50, including carbon (0.65), aluminum (0.76), iron (0.75), and silt content (0.79). Comparison of 15 spectral math preprocessing treatments showed that a simple first derivative worked well for nearly all analytes. The resulting PLS factors were exported as a vector of coefficients and used to calculate predicted maps of soil properties for each field. Image smoothing with a 3 x 3 low-pass filter prior to spectral data extraction improved prediction accuracy. The resulting raster maps showed variation associated with topographic factors, indicating the effect of soil redistribution and moisture regime on in-field spatial variability. High-resolution maps of soil analyte concentrations can be used to improve precision environmental management of farmlands.

  11. Long-term monitoring of nitrate-N transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-01-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is necessary to sustain most modern crop production, but poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is imperative if there is to be differentiated N-regulation in future. This study describes nitrate-N leaching to drainage based on coherent monitoring of nitrate-N concentrations, the climate, the groundwater table and crop-specific parameters obtained over eleven years (2001-2011) at three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha). The monitoring results showed significant field differences in nitrate-N transport to drainage. Not only were these caused by periods of bare soil after short-season crops and N-fixing crops (pea), which have been shown to generate high nitrate-N concentrations in drainage, but by the hydrogeological field conditions that were shown to be the controlling factor of nitrate-N transport to drainage. The fields had the following characteristics: (A) the lowest mass transport (13 kg N ha-1) and fertiliser input had short-term and low-intensity drainage with the highest nitrate-N concentrations detected, representing 40% of net precipitation (226 mm) combined with low air temperatures, (B) the medium mass transport (14 kg N ha-1) had medium-term and medium-intensity drainage, representing 42% of net precipitation (471 mm) combined with periods of both low and higher air temperatures, (C) the highest mass transport (19 kg N ha-1) had long-term drainage, representing 68% of net precipitation (617 mm), but had the highest potential for in-situ soil denitrification and post-treatment (e.g. constructed wetlands) due to long periods with both high water

  12. Evaluation of Three Models for Simulating Pesticide Runoff from Irrigated Agricultural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuyang; Goh, Kean S

    2015-11-01

    Three models were evaluated for their accuracy in simulating pesticide runoff at the edge of agricultural fields: Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), Root Zone Water Quality Model (RZWQM), and OpusCZ. Modeling results on runoff volume, sediment erosion, and pesticide loss were compared with measurements taken from field studies. Models were also compared on their theoretical foundations and ease of use. For runoff events generated by sprinkler irrigation and rainfall, all models performed equally well with small errors in simulating water, sediment, and pesticide runoff. The mean absolute percentage errors (MAPEs) were between 3 and 161%. For flood irrigation, OpusCZ simulated runoff and pesticide mass with the highest accuracy, followed by RZWQM and PRZM, likely owning to its unique hydrological algorithm for runoff simulations during flood irrigation. Simulation results from cold model runs by OpusCZ and RZWQM using measured values for model inputs matched closely to the observed values. The MAPE ranged from 28 to 384 and 42 to 168% for OpusCZ and RZWQM, respectively. These satisfactory model outputs showed the models' abilities in mimicking reality. Theoretical evaluations indicated that OpusCZ and RZWQM use mechanistic approaches for hydrology simulation, output data on a subdaily time-step, and were able to simulate management practices and subsurface flow via tile drainage. In contrast, PRZM operates at daily time-step and simulates surface runoff using the USDA Soil Conservation Service's curve number method. Among the three models, OpusCZ and RZWQM were suitable for simulating pesticide runoff in semiarid areas where agriculture is heavily dependent on irrigation. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Natural regeneration in abandoned fields following intensive agricultural land use in an Atlantic Forest Island, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milene Silvestrini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The time required to regrowth a forest in degraded areas depends on how the forest is removed and on the type of land use following removal. Natural regeneration was studied in abandoned old fields after intensive agricultural land use in areas originally covered by Brazilian Atlantic Forests of the Anchieta Island, Brazil in order to understand how plant communities reassemble following human disturbances as well as to determine suitable strategies of forest restoration. The fields were classified into three vegetation types according to the dominant plant species in: 1 Miconia albicans (Sw. Triana (Melastomataceae fields, 2 Dicranopteris flexuosa (Schrader Underw. (Gleicheniaceae thickets, and 3 Gleichenella pectinata (Willd. Ching. (Gleicheniaceae thickets. Both composition and structure of natural regeneration were compared among the three dominant vegetation types by establishing randomly three plots of 1 x 3 m in five sites of the island. A gradient in composition and abundance of species in natural regeneration could be observed along vegetation types from Dicranopteris fern thickets to Miconia fields. The gradient did not accurately follow the pattern of spatial distribution of the three dominant vegetation types in the island regarding their proximity of the remnant forests. A complex association of biotic and abiotic factors seems to be affecting the seedling recruitment and establishment in the study plots. The lowest plant regeneration found in Dicranopteris and Gleichenella thickets suggests that the ferns inhibit the recruitment of woody and herbaceous species. Otherwise, we could not distinguish different patterns of tree regeneration among the three vegetation types. Our results showed that forest recovery following severe anthropogenic disturbances is not direct, predictable or even achievable on its own. Appropriated actions and methods such as fern removal, planting ground covers, and enrichment planting with tree species were

  14. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationship for a drained agricultural field in Eastern North Carolina Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Youssef, M.; Birgand, F.; Chescheir, G. M.; Maxwell, B.; Tian, S.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural drainage is a practice used to artificially enhance drainage characteristics of naturally poorly drained soils via subsurface drain tubing or open-ditch systems. Approximately 25% of the U.S. agricultural land requires improved drainage for economic crop production. However, drainage increases the transport of dissolved agricultural chemicals, particularly nitrates to downstream surface waters. Nutrient export from artificially drained agricultural landscapes has been identified as the leading source of elevated nutrient levels in major surface water bodies in the U.S. Controlled drainage has long been practiced to reduce nitrogen export from agricultural fields to downstream receiving waters. It has been hypothesized that controlled drainage reduces nitrogen losses by promoting denitrification, reducing drainage outflow from the field, and increasing plant uptake. The documented performance of the practice was widely variable as it depends on several site-specific factors. The goal of this research was to utilize high frequency measurements to investigate the effect of agricultural drainage and related management practices on nitrate fate and transport for an artificially drained agricultural field in eastern North Carolina. We deployed a field spectrophotometer to measure nitrate concentration every 45 minutes and measured drainage flow rate using a V-notch weir every 15 minutes. Furthermore, we measured groundwater level, precipitation, irrigation amount, temperature to characterize antecedent conditions for each event. Nitrate concentration-drainage flow (C-Q) relationships generated from the high frequency measurements illustrated anti-clockwise hysteresis loops and nitrate flushing mechanism in response to most precipitation and irrigation events. Statistical evaluation will be carried out for the C-Q relationships. The results of our analysis, combined with numerical modeling, will provide a better understanding of hydrological and

  15. Identifying diffused nitrate sources in a stream in an agricultural field using a dual isotopic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Jingtao; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; He, Liansheng; Liu, Hongliang; Dai, Xuanli; Yu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate (NO 3 − ) pollution is a severe problem in aquatic systems in Taihu Lake Basin in China. A dual isotope approach (δ 15 N-NO 3 − and δ 18 O-NO 3 − ) was applied to identify diffused NO 3 − inputs in a stream in an agricultural field at the basin in 2013. The site-specific isotopic characteristics of five NO 3 − sources (atmospheric deposition, AD; NO 3 − derived from soil organic matter nitrification, NS; NO 3 − derived from chemical fertilizer nitrification, NF; groundwater, GW; and manure and sewage, M and S) were identified. NO 3 − concentrations in the stream during the rainy season [mean ± standard deviation (SD) = 2.5 ± 0.4 mg/L] were lower than those during the dry season (mean ± SD = 4.0 ± 0.5 mg/L), whereas the δ 18 O-NO 3 − values during the rainy season (mean ± SD = + 12.3 ± 3.6‰) were higher than those during the dry season (mean ± SD = + 0.9 ± 1.9‰). Both chemical and isotopic characteristics indicated that mixing with atmospheric NO 3 − resulted in the high δ 18 O values during the rainy season, whereas NS and M and S were the dominant NO 3 − sources during the dry season. A Bayesian model was used to determine the contribution of each NO 3 − source to total stream NO 3 − . Results showed that reduced N nitrification in soil zones (including soil organic matter and fertilizer) was the main NO 3 − source throughout the year. M and S contributed more NO 3 − during the dry season (22.4%) than during the rainy season (17.8%). AD generated substantial amounts of NO 3 − in May (18.4%), June (29.8%), and July (24.5%). With the assessment of temporal variation of diffused NO 3 − sources in agricultural field, improved agricultural management practices can be implemented to protect the water resource and avoid further water quality deterioration in Taihu Lake Basin. - Highlights: • The isotopic characteristics of potential NO 3 − sources were identified. • Mixing with atmospheric NO 3 − resulted

  16. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmansour, M; Mabit, L; Nouira, A; Moussadek, R; Bouksirate, H; Duchemin, M; Benkdad, A

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation - mainly caused by soil erosion - is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42' W, 33° 47' N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of (137)Cs, (210)Pb(ex) as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha(-1) yr(-1) and 12.1 ha(-1) yr(-1) for (137)Cs and (210)Pb(ex) respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the (137)Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  18. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Hernandez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV. The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1 the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU sensors and image processing; (2 a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3 the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC. Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  19. Towards the Development of a Smart Flying Sensor: Illustration in the Field of Precision Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Andres; Murcia, Harold; Copot, Cosmin; De Keyser, Robin

    2015-07-10

    Sensing is an important element to quantify productivity, product quality and to make decisions. Applications, such as mapping, surveillance, exploration and precision agriculture, require a reliable platform for remote sensing. This paper presents the first steps towards the development of a smart flying sensor based on an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The concept of smart remote sensing is illustrated and its performance tested for the task of mapping the volume of grain inside a trailer during forage harvesting. Novelty lies in: (1) the development of a position-estimation method with time delay compensation based on inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensors and image processing; (2) a method to build a 3D map using information obtained from a regular camera; and (3) the design and implementation of a path-following control algorithm using model predictive control (MPC). Experimental results on a lab-scale system validate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  20. Estimating Impacts of Agricultural Subsurface Drainage on Evapotranspiration Using the Landsat Imagery-Based METRIC Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kul Khand

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural subsurface drainage changes the field hydrology and potentially the amount of water available to the crop by altering the flow path and the rate and timing of water removal. Evapotranspiration (ET is normally among the largest components of the field water budget, and the changes in ET from the introduction of subsurface drainage are likely to have a greater influence on the overall water yield (surface runoff plus subsurface drainage from subsurface drained (TD fields compared to fields without subsurface drainage (UD. To test this hypothesis, we examined the impact of subsurface drainage on ET at two sites located in the Upper Midwest (North Dakota-Site 1 and South Dakota-Site 2 using the Landsat imagery-based METRIC (Mapping Evapotranspiration at high Resolution with Internalized Calibration model. Site 1 was planted with corn (Zea mays L. and soybean (Glycine max L. during the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons, respectively. Site 2 was planted with corn for the 2013 growing season. During the corn growing seasons (2009 and 2013, differences between the total ET from TD and UD fields were less than 5 mm. For the soybean year (2010, ET from the UD field was 10% (53 mm greater than that from the TD field. During the peak ET period from June to September for all study years, ET differences from TD and UD fields were within 15 mm (<3%. Overall, differences between daily ET from TD and UD fields were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 and showed no consistent relationship.

  1. Curriculum Guidelines for a Distance Education Course in Urban Agriculture Based on an Eclectic Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaum, Wilma G.; van Rooyen, Hugo G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes research to develop curriculum guidelines for a distance education course in urban agriculture. The course, designed to train the teacher, is based on an eclectic curriculum design model. The course is aimed at the socioeconomic empowerment of urban farmers and is based on sustainable ecological-agricultural principles, an…

  2. Accuracy of topographic index models at identifying ephemeral gully trajectories on agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheshukov, Aleksey Y.; Sekaluvu, Lawrence; Hutchinson, Stacy L.

    2018-04-01

    Topographic index (TI) models have been widely used to predict trajectories and initiation points of ephemeral gullies (EGs) in agricultural landscapes. Prediction of EGs strongly relies on the selected value of critical TI threshold, and the accuracy depends on topographic features, agricultural management, and datasets of observed EGs. This study statistically evaluated the predictions by TI models in two paired watersheds in Central Kansas that had different levels of structural disturbances due to implemented conservation practices. Four TI models with sole dependency on topographic factors of slope, contributing area, and planform curvature were used in this study. The observed EGs were obtained by field reconnaissance and through the process of hydrological reconditioning of digital elevation models (DEMs). The Kernel Density Estimation analysis was used to evaluate TI distribution within a 10-m buffer of the observed EG trajectories. The EG occurrence within catchments was analyzed using kappa statistics of the error matrix approach, while the lengths of predicted EGs were compared with the observed dataset using the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) statistics. The TI frequency analysis produced bi-modal distribution of topographic indexes with the pixels within the EG trajectory having a higher peak. The graphs of kappa and NSE versus critical TI threshold showed similar profile for all four TI models and both watersheds with the maximum value representing the best comparison with the observed data. The Compound Topographic Index (CTI) model presented the overall best accuracy with NSE of 0.55 and kappa of 0.32. The statistics for the disturbed watershed showed higher best critical TI threshold values than for the undisturbed watershed. Structural conservation practices implemented in the disturbed watershed reduced ephemeral channels in headwater catchments, thus producing less variability in catchments with EGs. The variation in critical thresholds for all

  3. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  4. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Pan, Tian; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-19

    Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture.

  5. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture.

  6. Building SDN-Based Agricultural Vehicular Sensor Networks Based on Extended Open vSwitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Yan, Siyu; Yang, Fan; Pan, Tian; Liu, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Software-defined vehicular sensor networks in agriculture, such as autonomous vehicle navigation based on wireless multi-sensor networks, can lead to more efficient precision agriculture. In SDN-based vehicle sensor networks, the data plane is simplified and becomes more efficient by introducing a centralized controller. However, in a wireless environment, the main controller node may leave the sensor network due to the dynamic topology change or the unstable wireless signal, leaving the rest of network devices without control, e.g., a sensor node as a switch may forward packets according to stale rules until the controller updates the flow table entries. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a novel SDN-based vehicular sensor networks architecture which can minimize the performance penalty of controller connection loss. We achieve this by designing a connection state detection and self-learning mechanism. We build prototypes based on extended Open vSwitch and Ryu. The experimental results show that the recovery time from controller connection loss is under 100 ms and it keeps rule updating in real time with a stable throughput. This architecture enhances the survivability and stability of SDN-based vehicular sensor networks in precision agriculture. PMID:26797616

  7. Maize production and land degradation: a Portuguese agriculture field case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Pato, João V.; Moreira, Pedro M.; Valério, Luís M.; Guilherme, Rosa; Casau, Fernando J.; Santos, Daniela; Keizer, Jacob J.; Ferreira, António J. D.

    2016-04-01

    While food security is a main challenge faced by human kind, intensive agriculture often leads to soil degradation which then can threaten productivity. Maize is one of the most important crops across the world, with 869 million tons produced worldwide in 2012/2013 (IGC 2015), of which 929.5 thousand tons in Portugal (INE 2014). In Portugal, maize is sown in April/May and harvest occurs generally in October. Conventional maize production requires high inputs of water and fertilizers to achieve higher yields. As Portuguese farmers are typically rather old (on average, 63 years) and typically have a low education level (INE 2014), sustainability of their land management practises is often not a principal concern. This could explain why, in 2009, only 4% of the Portuguese temporary crops were under no-tillage, why only 8% of the farmers performed soil analyses in the previous three years, and why many soils have a low organic matter content (INE 2014). Nonetheless, sustainable land management practices are generally accepted to be the key to reducing agricultural soil degradation, preventing water pollution, and assuring long-term crop production objectives and food security. Sustainable land management should therefore not only be a concern for policy makers but also for farmers, since land degradation will have negative repercussions on the productivity, thus, on their economical income. This paper aims to assess the impact of maize production on soil properties. The study focusses on an 8 ha maize field located in central Portugal, with a Mediterranean climate on a gently sloping terrain (<3%) and with a soil classified as Eutric Fluvisol. On the field, several experiments were carried out with different maize varieties as well as with different fertilizers (solid, liquid and both). Centre pivot irrigation was largely used. Data is available from 2003, and concerns crop yield, fertilization and irrigation practices, as well as soil properties assessed through

  8. Biochar-based functional materials in the purification of agricultural wastewater: Fabrication, application and future research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dongning; Li, Bingyu; Huang, Hongli; Luo, Lin; Zhang, Jiachao; Yang, Yuan; Guo, Jiajun; Tang, Lin; Zeng, Guangming; Zhou, Yaoyu

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, agricultural contamination is becoming more and more serious due to the rapid growth of agricultural industry, which discharged antibiotics, pesticides or toxic metals into farmlands. A large number of researchers have applied biochar-based functional materials to the treatment of agricultural wastewater contamination. Meanwhile, biochar has also proved to be a very promising and effective technology in water purification field due to its various beneficial properties (e.g., cost effective, high specific surface area, and surface reactive groups). The focus of this review is to highlight the fabrication methods and application of biochar-based functional materials with the removal of different agricultural contaminants, and discuss the underlying mechanisms. However, the application of biochar-based functional materials is currently under its infancy, with the main hindrance is identified as the gap between laboratory scale and field application, immaturity of engineered biochar production technologies, and lack of quality standards. In order to fill these knowledge gaps, more efforts should be made to pay for the relevant research in future studies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Agricultural Library Information Retrieval Based on Improved Semantic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Meiling , Xie

    2014-01-01

    International audience; To support users to quickly access information they need from the agricultural library’s vast information and to improve the low intelligence query service, a model for intelligent library information retrieval was constructed. The semantic web mode was introduced and the information retrieval framework was designed. The model structure consisted of three parts: Information data integration, user interface and information retrieval match. The key method supporting retr...

  10. DeepAnomaly: Combining Background Subtraction and Deep Learning for Detecting Obstacles and Anomalies in an Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Christiansen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Convolutional neural network (CNN-based systems are increasingly used in autonomous vehicles for detecting obstacles. CNN-based object detection and per-pixel classification (semantic segmentation algorithms are trained for detecting and classifying a predefined set of object types. These algorithms have difficulties in detecting distant and heavily occluded objects and are, by definition, not capable of detecting unknown object types or unusual scenarios. The visual characteristics of an agriculture field is homogeneous, and obstacles, like people, animals and other obstacles, occur rarely and are of distinct appearance compared to the field. This paper introduces DeepAnomaly, an algorithm combining deep learning and anomaly detection to exploit the homogenous characteristics of a field to perform anomaly detection. We demonstrate DeepAnomaly as a fast state-of-the-art detector for obstacles that are distant, heavily occluded and unknown. DeepAnomaly is compared to state-of-the-art obstacle detectors including “Faster R-CNN: Towards Real-Time Object Detection with Region Proposal Networks” (RCNN. In a human detector test case, we demonstrate that DeepAnomaly detects humans at longer ranges (45–90 m than RCNN. RCNN has a similar performance at a short range (0–30 m. However, DeepAnomaly has much fewer model parameters and (182 ms/25 ms = a 7.28-times faster processing time per image. Unlike most CNN-based methods, the high accuracy, the low computation time and the low memory footprint make it suitable for a real-time system running on a embedded GPU (Graphics Processing Unit.

  11. FroboMind, proposing a conceptual architecture for agricultural field robot navigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kjeld; Bøgild, Anders; Nielsen, Søren Hundevadt

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to propose a conceptual system architecture Field Robot Cognitive System Architecture (FroboMind). which can provide the flexibility and extend ability required for further research and development within cognition based navigation of plant nursing robots....

  12. Emissions from Prescribed Burning of Agricultural Fields in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescribed burns of winter wheat stubble and Kentucky bluegrass fields in northern Idaho and eastern Washington states (U.S.A.) were sampled using ground-, aerostat-, airplane-, and laboratory-based measurement platforms to determine emission factors, compare methods, and provide...

  13. Nanotechnologies in agriculture and food - an overview of different fields of application, risk assessment and public perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobe, Antje; Rissanen, Mikko E

    2012-12-01

    Nanomaterials in agriculture and food are key issues of public and regulatory interest. Over the past ten years, patents for nanotechnological applications in the field of food and agriculture have become abundant. Uncertainty prevails however regarding their current development status and presence in the consumer market. Thus, the discussion on nanotechnologies in the food sector with its specific public perception of benefits and risks and the patterns of communication are becoming similar to the debate on genetically modified organisms. The food industry's silence in communication increased mistrust of consumer organisations and policy makers. The article discusses the background of the current regulatory debates, starting with the EU recommendation for defining nanomaterials, provides an overview of possible fields of application in agriculture and food industries and discusses risk assessment and the public debate on benefits and risks. Communicative recommendations are directed at researchers, the food industry and regulators in order to increase trust both in stakeholders, risk management and regulatory processes.

  14. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saricks, C.L.; Williams, R.G.; Hopf, M.R.

    1989-11-01

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. Data base of accident and agricultural statistics for transportation risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.L.; Williams, R.G.; Hopf, M.R.

    1989-11-01

    A state-level data base of accident and agricultural statistics has been developed to support risk assessment for transportation of spent nuclear fuels and high-level radioactive wastes. This data base will enhance the modeling capabilities for more route-specific analyses of potential risks associated with transportation of these wastes to a disposal site. The data base and methodology used to develop state-specific accident and agricultural data bases are described, and summaries of accident and agricultural statistics are provided. 27 refs., 9 tabs

  16. Spatial probability of soil water repellency in an abandoned agricultural field in Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Misiūnė, Ieva

    2015-04-01

    Water repellency is a natural soil property with implications on infiltration, erosion and plant growth. It depends on soil texture, type and amount of organic matter, fungi, microorganisms, and vegetation cover (Doerr et al., 2000). Human activities as agriculture can have implications on soil water repellency (SWR) due tillage and addition of organic compounds and fertilizers (Blanco-Canqui and Lal, 2009; Gonzalez-Penaloza et al., 2012). It is also assumed that SWR has a high small-scale variability (Doerr et al., 2000). The aim of this work is to study the spatial probability of SWR in an abandoned field testing several geostatistical methods, Organic Kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK), Indicator Kriging (IK), Probability Kriging (PK) and Disjunctive Kriging (DK). The study area it is located near Vilnius urban area at (54 49' N, 25 22', 104 masl) in Lithuania (Pereira and Oliva, 2013). It was designed a experimental plot with 21 m2 (07x03 m). Inside this area it was measured SWR was measured every 50 cm using the water drop penetration time (WDPT) (Wessel, 1998). A total of 105 points were measured. The probability of SWR was classified in 0 (No probability) to 1 (High probability). The methods accuracy was assessed with the cross validation method. The best interpolation method was the one with the lowest Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results showed that the most accurate probability method was SK (RMSE=0.436), followed by DK (RMSE=0.437), IK (RMSE=0.448), PK (RMSE=0.452) and OK (RMSE=0.537). Significant differences were identified among probability tests (Kruskal-Wallis test =199.7597 ptested technique. Simple Kriging, DK, IK and PK methods identified the high SWR probabilities in the northeast and central part of the plot, while OK observed mainly in the south-western part of the plot. In conclusion, before predict the spatial probability of SWR it is important to test several methods in order to identify the most accurate. Acknowledgments COST action ES

  17. Study on Web-Based Tool for Regional Agriculture Industry Structure Optimization Using Ajax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yeping

    According to the research status of regional agriculture industry structure adjustment information system and the current development of information technology, this paper takes web-based regional agriculture industry structure optimization tool as research target. This paper introduces Ajax technology and related application frameworks to build an auxiliary toolkit of decision support system for agricultural policy maker and economy researcher. The toolkit includes a “one page” style component of regional agriculture industry structure optimization which provides agile arguments setting method that enables applying sensitivity analysis and usage of data and comparative advantage analysis result, and a component that can solve the linear programming model and its dual problem by simplex method.

  18. A statistical approach to estimating soil-to-plant transfer factor of strontium in agricultural fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Nao; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2009-01-01

    Soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF) is one of the important parameters in radiation dose assessment models for the environmental transfer of radionuclides. Since TFs are affected by several factors, including radionuclides, plant species and soil properties, development of a method for estimation of TF using some soil and plant properties would be useful. In this study, we took a statistical approach to estimating the TF of stable strontium (TF Sr ) from selected soil properties and element concentrations in plants, which was used as an analogue of 90 Sr. We collected the plant and soil samples used for the study from 142 agricultural fields throughout Japan. We applied a multiple linear regression analysis in order to get an empirical equation to estimate TF Sr . TF Sr could be estimated from the Sr concentration in soil (C Sr soil ) and Ca concentration in crop (C Ca crop ) using the following equation: log TF Sr =-0.88·log C Sr soil +0.93·log C Ca crop -2.53. Then, we replaced our data with Ca concentrations in crops from a food composition database compiled by the Japanese government. Finally, we predicted TF Sr using Sr concentration in soil from our data and Ca concentration in crops from the database of food composition. (author)

  19. Assessment of soil erosion and deposition rates in a Moroccan agricultural field using fallout 137Cs and 210Pbex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmansour, M.; Mabit, L.; Nouira, A.; Moussadek, R.; Bouksirate, H.; Duchemin, M.; Benkdad, A.

    2013-01-01

    In Morocco land degradation – mainly caused by soil erosion – is one of the most serious agroenvironmental threats encountered. However, only limited data are available on the actual magnitude of soil erosion. The study site investigated was an agricultural field located in Marchouch (6°42′ W, 33° 47′ N) at 68 km south east from Rabat. This work demonstrates the potential of the combined use of 137 Cs, 210 Pb ex as radioisotopic soil tracers to estimate mid and long term erosion and deposition rates under Mediterranean agricultural areas. The net soil erosion rates obtained were comparable, 14.3 t ha −1 yr −1 and 12.1 ha −1 yr −1 for 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex respectively, resulting in a similar sediment delivery ratio of about 92%. Soil redistribution patterns of the study field were established using a simple spatialisation approach. The resulting maps generated by the use of both radionuclides were similar, indicating that the soil erosion processes has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. Over the previous 10 year period, the additional results provided by the test of the prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of magnitude. Based on the 137 Cs dataset established, the contribution of the tillage erosion impact has been evaluated with the Mass Balance Model 3 and compared to the result obtained with the Mass Balance Model 2. The findings highlighted that water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field, tillage erosion under the experimental condition being the main translocation process within the site without a significant and major impact on the net erosion. - Highlights: ► Net erosion rates estimated by 137 Cs and 210 Pb ex techniques were found comparable. ► The water erosion is the leading process in this Moroccan cultivated field. ► Soil erosion process has not changed significantly over the last 100 years. ► The prediction model RUSLE 2 provided results of the same order of

  20. Fluxes of Nitrous Acid (HONO) above an Agricultural Field Side near Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufs, S.; Cazaunau, M.; Stella, P.; Loubet, B.; Kurtenbach, R.; Cellier, P.; Mellouki, W.; Kleffmann, J.

    2012-04-01

    HONO is an important precursor of the OH radical, the detergent of the atmosphere. Field measurements show high diurnal HONO mixing ratios that cannot be explained by chemical models with known gas phase chemistry. Therefore, daytime sources of HONO are still under discussion. During the last decade many experimental investigation were performed to study heterogeneous production of HONO like the photo enhanced reduction of NO2 on humic acids or photolysis of HNO3 on surfaces. Recently, nitrite produced by bacteria, present in soil, was discussed as a source of HONO as well. In addition gas phase sources like the photolysis of nitrophenols, or the reaction of excited NO2 are discussed. Gradient measurements show high mixing ratios of HONO even above the boundary layer. However, beside intensive investigations on the sources of HONO, it is still an open question whether heterogeneous or gas phase sources are more important in the atmosphere. Flux measurements could represent a method to find the origin of missing sources of HONO. Until now instruments are not sensitive and fast enough to do Eddy correlation measurements for HONO. Alternatively, HONO fluxes are estimated by the Aerodynamic Gradient (AGM), or Relaxed Eddy Accumulation (REA) methods. Here we present HONO fluxes estimated by AGM and the LOPAP technique (Long Path Absorption Photometer) above an agricultural field in Grignon, Paris (48°51'N, 1°58'E). Fluxes during different seasons and different types of vegetations including bare soil will be presented and compared with chemical corrected fluxes of NO, NO2 and O3, or other parameters.

  1. The Relationship between Agriculture Knowledge Bases for Teaching and Sources of Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Amber H.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the agriculture knowledge bases for teaching of agriculture teachers and to see if a relationship existed between years of teaching experience, sources of knowledge, and development of pedagogical content knowledge (PCK), using quantitative methods. A model of PCK from mathematics was utilized as a…

  2. An economic theory-based explanatory model of agricultural land-use patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Koomen, E.; Kuhlman, T.

    2015-01-01

    An economic theory-based land-use modelling framework is presented aiming to explain the causal link between economic decisions and resulting spatial patterns of agricultural land use. The framework assumes that farmers pursue utility maximisation in agricultural production systems, while

  3. Fast phosphorus loss by sediment resuspension in a re-established shallow lake on former agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Theis; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Petersen, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Lake restoration on fertilized agricultural fields can lead to extensive nutrient release from flooded soils which can maintain a poor ecological quality in the new lake. The period with high sediment release is poorly understood due to few detailed lake restorations studies. We conducted such a ...

  4. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  5. Fast phosphorus loss by sediment resuspension in a re-established shallow lake on former agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Theis; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Petersen, Kathrine

    2017-01-01

    Lake restoration on fertilized agricultural fields can lead to extensive nutrient release from flooded soils which can maintain a poor ecological quality in the new lake. The period with high sediment release is poorly understood due to few detailed lake restorations studies. We conducted...

  6. THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN THE FIELD OF FARM ANIMAL HEALTH (NUTRITION, ENTOMOLOGY, PATHOLOGY). AGRICULTURAL CHEMICALS TECHNOLOGY, NUMBER 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON THE BASIS OF STATE STUDIES, THIS MODULE IS ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO ASSIST TEACHERS IN PREPARING POST-SECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL CHEMICAL OCCUPATIONS. THE SPECIFIC OBJECTIVE OF THIS MODULE IS TO PREPARE TECHNICIANS IN THE FIELD OF THE USE OF CHEMICALS FOR ANIMAL HEALTH. SECTIONS INCLUDE -- (1)…

  7. Bringing diversity back to agriculture: Smaller fields and non-crop elements enhance biodiversity in intensively managed arable farmlands

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin; Hula, V.; Kipson, M.; Daňková, R.; Niedobová, J.; Gamero, A.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 90, July (2018), s. 65-73 ISSN 1470-160X Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Common Agricultural Policy * Conservation measures * Field size * Habitat heterogeneity * Species richness * Abundance * Biodiversity indicators Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2016

  8. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  9. Celtic field agriculture and Early Anthropogenic Environmental change in soil records of the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, NW Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Sanden, Germaine; Kluiving, Sjoerd; Roymans, Nico

    2017-04-01

    Archaeological research is fundamental in the process of obtaining a greater understanding on the intricate dynamics between the human species and the 'natural' environment. Deep historical processes can evaluate the complex interactions that eventually led to the human species as the dominating agent, in terms of the Earth's biotic and abiotic processes. Regional landscape studies can determine whether the human species can be evaluated as a formative element in soil formation processes during the Holocene. This study is directed to examine early anthropogenic land cover change (ALCC) in the Meuse-Demer-Scheldt region, in the southern Netherlands and northern Belgium, between the Late Bronze Age and Early Roman Period (1050-200 AD). The introduction of an extensive agricultural system, the Celtic field system, in co-relation with demographic rise, led to increased anthropogenic pressure on the MDS landscape. Throughout the Holocene, demographic rise pressured farmers to develop increasingly efficient and innovative methods of extracting more yields per unit area farmed resulting in a decrease in land use per capita over time (Kaplan et al. 2010; Boserup, 1965,1981)). The land use per capita under Celtic field technology was relatively high compared to contemporary numbers, based on the assumption that land use per capita did not remain constant. The MDS region is a clear example of early Holocene ALCC and modification of terrestrial ecosystems due to excessive clearance of vegetation. Early Holocene ALCC resulted in ecological deficiencies in the landscape, e.g. deforestation, acceleration of podzolisation and a decrease in terrestrial carbon storage as well as water retention capacity. ALCC can impact climate through biogeophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks to the atmosphere, and result in regional negative radiative forcing. Here we hypothesize that the previously presumed fundamental restructuring that led to a structural bipartition in the landscape due to

  10. Use of agricultural fields by ruffs staging in southwest Friesland in 2003–2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmaltz, Lucie E.; Vega, Marta L.; Verkuil, Yvonne I.; Hooijmeijer, Joslyn; Piersma, Theunis

    2016-01-01

    Intensive dairy farming has changed the agricultural grassland areas of The Netherlands profoundly, with negative impacts on the reproduction of the shorebirds breeding there. This modern agricultural landscape also forms a staging site for migrating shorebirds, where they moult and replenish fuel

  11. Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J

    2001-05-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and analyses of home-dust samples for pesticide residues of major organophosphates used in area crops. Results indicate that migrant farmworker housing is diverse, and the amounts and types of pesticide residues found in homes differ. Azinphos-methyl (AZM) was the pesticide residue found most often in both farmworker and grower homes. The median level of AZM in farmworker homes was 1.45 ppm compared to 1.64 ppm in the entry area of grower homes. The median level of AZM in the play areas of grower homes was 0.71 ppm. The levels of AZM in migrant farmworker homes were most associated with the distance from fields and the number of agricultural workers in the home. Although the levels of AZM in growers and farmworker homes were comparable in certain areas, potential for disproportionate exposures occur in areas of the homes where children are most likely to play. The relationship between home resident density, levels of pesticide residues, and play behaviors of children merit further attention.

  12. Construction of Network Management Information System of Agricultural Products Supply Chain Based on 3PLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The necessity to construct the network management information system of 3PLs agricultural supply chain is analyzed,showing that 3PLs can improve the overall competitive advantage of agricultural supply chain.3PLs changes the homogeneity management into specialized management of logistics service and achieves the alliance of the subjects at different nodes of agricultural products supply chain.Network management information system structure of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is constructed,including the four layers (the network communication layer,the hardware and software environment layer,the database layer,and the application layer) and 7 function modules (centralized control,transportation process management,material and vehicle scheduling,customer relationship,storage management,customer inquiry,and financial management).Framework for the network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs is put forward.The management of 3PLs mainly includes purchasing management,supplier relationship management,planning management,customer relationship management,storage management and distribution management.Thus,a management system of internal and external integrated agricultural enterprises is obtained.The network management information system of agricultural products supply chain based on 3PLs has realized the effective sharing of enterprise information of agricultural products supply chain at different nodes,establishing a long-term partnership revolving around the 3PLs core enterprise,as well as a supply chain with stable relationship based on the supply chain network system,so as to improve the circulation efficiency of agricultural products,and to explore the sales market for agricultural products.

  13. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  14. CLOUD-BASED AGRICULTURAL SOLUTION: A CASE STUDY OF NEAR REAL-TIME REGIONAL AGRICULTURAL CROP GROWTH INFORMATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hiestermann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in cloud-based technology has led to the rapid increase of geospatial web-based applications. The combination of GIS and cloud-based solutions is revolutionizing product development in the geospatial industry and is facilitating accessibility to a wider range of users, planners and decision makers. Accessible through an internet browser, web applications are an effective and convenient method to disseminate information in multiple formats, and they provide an interface offering interactive access to geospatial data, real-time integration and data processing, and application specific analysis tools. An example of such a web application is GeoTerraImage’s monthly crop monitoring tool called GeoFarmer. This tool uses climatic data and satellite imagery processed through a complex rule-based algorithms to determine monthly climatic averages and anomalies, and most importantly the field specific crop status (i.e. is the field fallow, or is the crop emerging, or if the field has been harvested. Monthly field verification has formed a part of calibrating the growth classification outputs to further improve the accuracy of its monthly agricultural reporting. The goal of this application is to provide timely data to decision makers to assist them in field-level and regional crop growth monitoring, crop production and management, financial risk assessment and insurance, and food security applications. This web application has the unique advantage of being highly transportable to other regions, since it has been designed so it can easily be adapted to other seasonal growth response patterns, and up-scaled to regional or national coverages for operational use.

  15. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  16. Field studies on the behaviour of radiocaesium in agricultural environments after the Chernobyl accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, K

    1996-05-01

    This thesis deals with the occurrence of Chernobyl {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs in cultivated, semi-natural and natural agricultural areas of five Swedish counties. The investigations were carried out under field conditions 1986 to 1995 on farms where transfer to grass and milk during the first years were high. Vertical migration rate in soil profiles, the practical value of countermeasures to reduce transfer to feed and food and the impact of passing time were important aims for the study. The transfer of Cs was higher on permanent pasture than on temporary grassland and much lower to barley grain. Stubble and grass swards kept Cs available for transfer to grass. High organic matter contents in the surface soil also caused high transfer during a lag period of some years. Soil texture, grass sward, K-fertilization and growth dilution explained the variation in Cs transfer and its reduction rate. A case study on transfer of Cs to vegetation and to grazing lambs was made on a mountain farm. High transfer to vegetation was found, 510-2260 Bq/kg d.w.. Mean transfer soil to plant (TFg,m{sup 2}/kg) was 67 and plant to muscle 0.7 during 1990-1993. The effect of K-fertilization on soil-plant transfer was studied on 15 soils. A dose of 100 to 200 kg/ha K decreased the transfer on sandy soils with a factor of up to 10. Liming was effective on soils that were originally low in pH. Adding zeolite on the surface of pastures did not reduce the root uptake of Cs. Ploughing down the contaminated surface was effective in reducing the transfer. Downward migration of Cs was usually less on mineral soils than or organic or podsolized soils. 68 refs, 9 figs, 13 tabs.

  17. Field studies on the behaviour of radiocaesium in agricultural environments after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, K.

    1996-05-01

    This thesis deals with the occurrence of Chernobyl 137 Cs and 134 Cs in cultivated, semi-natural and natural agricultural areas of five Swedish counties. The investigations were carried out under field conditions 1986 to 1995 on farms where transfer to grass and milk during the first years were high. Vertical migration rate in soil profiles, the practical value of countermeasures to reduce transfer to feed and food and the impact of passing time were important aims for the study. The transfer of Cs was higher on permanent pasture than on temporary grassland and much lower to barley grain. Stubble and grass swards kept Cs available for transfer to grass. High organic matter contents in the surface soil also caused high transfer during a lag period of some years. Soil texture, grass sward, K-fertilization and growth dilution explained the variation in Cs transfer and its reduction rate. A case study on transfer of Cs to vegetation and to grazing lambs was made on a mountain farm. High transfer to vegetation was found, 510-2260 Bq/kg d.w.. Mean transfer soil to plant (TFg,m 2 /kg) was 67 and plant to muscle 0.7 during 1990-1993. The effect of K-fertilization on soil-plant transfer was studied on 15 soils. A dose of 100 to 200 kg/ha K decreased the transfer on sandy soils with a factor of up to 10. Liming was effective on soils that were originally low in pH. Adding zeolite on the surface of pastures did not reduce the root uptake of Cs. Ploughing down the contaminated surface was effective in reducing the transfer. Downward migration of Cs was usually less on mineral soils than or organic or podsolized soils. 68 refs, 9 figs, 13 tabs

  18. Effects of Mechanical Site Preparation on Growth of Oaks Planted on Former Agricultural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John D. Hodges

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical site preparation is frequently proposed to alleviate problematic soil conditions when afforesting retired agricultural fields. Without management of soil problems, any seedlings planted in these areas may exhibit poor growth and survival. While mechanical site preparation methods currently employed in hardwood afforestation are proven, there is a substantial void in research comparing subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing treatments. A total of 4,320 bare-root Nuttall oak (Quercus texana Buckley, Shumard oak (Quercus shumardii Buckley, and swamp chestnut oak (Quercus michauxii Nutt. seedlings were planted in February 2008 on three Mississippi sites. All sites were of comparable soils and received above average precipitation throughout the three-year duration of the study. Four site preparation treatments were replicated at each site, with 480 seedlings planted in each of nine replications, and a total of 1,440 seedlings per species planted across all sites. Mechanical treatments were installed using 3.1 m row centers, with treatments as follows: control, subsoiling, bedding, and combination plowing. Treatment effects on seedling height, groundline diameter (GLD, and survival were analyzed. Seedlings exhibited greater height in bedded and combination plowed areas (79.7 cm to 102.7 cm and 82.6 cm to 100.1 cm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (70.4 cm to 84.6 cm and 71.4 cm to 86.9 cm, respectively. Greater GLD was observed in bedded and combination plowed areas (11.9 mm to 18.4 mm and 12.2 mm to 18.3 mm, respectively compared to subsoiled or control areas (10.2 mm to 14.6 mm and 10.5 mm to 15.6 mm, respectively. Survival was high for this study (94.%, and no differences were detected among treatments.

  19. Hand Gesture Based Wireless Robotic Arm Control for Agricultural Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan Megalingam, Rajesh; Bandhyopadhyay, Shiva; Vamsy Vivek, Gedela; Juned Rahi, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    One of the major challenges in agriculture is harvesting. It is very hard and sometimes even unsafe for workers to go to each plant and pluck fruits. Robotic systems are increasingly combined with new technologies to automate or semi automate labour intensive work, such as e.g. grape harvesting. In this work we propose a semi-automatic method for aid in harvesting fruits and hence increase productivity per man hour. A robotic arm fixed to a rover roams in the in orchard and the user can control it remotely using the hand glove fixed with various sensors. These sensors can position the robotic arm remotely to harvest the fruits. In this paper we discuss the design of hand glove fixed with various sensors, design of 4 DoF robotic arm and the wireless control interface. In addition the setup of the system and the testing and evaluation under lab conditions are also presented in this paper.

  20. A component-based system for agricultural drought monitoring by remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Heng; Li, Jun; Yuan, Yanbin; You, Lin; Chen, Chao

    2017-01-01

    In recent decades, various kinds of remote sensing-based drought indexes have been proposed and widely used in the field of drought monitoring. However, the drought-related software and platform development lag behind the theoretical research. The current drought monitoring systems focus mainly on information management and publishing, and cannot implement professional drought monitoring or parameter inversion modelling, especially the models based on multi-dimensional feature space. In view of the above problems, this paper aims at fixing this gap with a component-based system named RSDMS to facilitate the application of drought monitoring by remote sensing. The system is designed and developed based on Component Object Model (COM) to ensure the flexibility and extendibility of modules. RSDMS realizes general image-related functions such as data management, image display, spatial reference management, image processing and analysis, and further provides drought monitoring and evaluation functions based on internal and external models. Finally, China's Ningxia region is selected as the study area to validate the performance of RSDMS. The experimental results show that RSDMS provide an efficient and scalable support to agricultural drought monitoring.

  1. A component-based system for agricultural drought monitoring by remote sensing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Dong

    Full Text Available In recent decades, various kinds of remote sensing-based drought indexes have been proposed and widely used in the field of drought monitoring. However, the drought-related software and platform development lag behind the theoretical research. The current drought monitoring systems focus mainly on information management and publishing, and cannot implement professional drought monitoring or parameter inversion modelling, especially the models based on multi-dimensional feature space. In view of the above problems, this paper aims at fixing this gap with a component-based system named RSDMS to facilitate the application of drought monitoring by remote sensing. The system is designed and developed based on Component Object Model (COM to ensure the flexibility and extendibility of modules. RSDMS realizes general image-related functions such as data management, image display, spatial reference management, image processing and analysis, and further provides drought monitoring and evaluation functions based on internal and external models. Finally, China's Ningxia region is selected as the study area to validate the performance of RSDMS. The experimental results show that RSDMS provide an efficient and scalable support to agricultural drought monitoring.

  2. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  3. The Infusion of Inquiry-Based Learning into School-Based Agricultural Education: A Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Trent; Matthews, Jennifer; Caudle, Lawrence; Lunceford, Casey; Clement, Brian; Anderson, Ryan

    2015-01-01

    Demands for increases in student achievement have led education professionals to incorporate various and rigorous teaching strategies into classrooms across the United States. Within school-based agricultural education (SBAE), agriculture teachers have responded to these challenges quite well. SBAE incorporates a wide variety of teaching and…

  4. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  5. Electronic Field Data Collection in Support of Satellite-Based Food Security Monitoring in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, C. L.; Dempewolf, J.; Justice, C. J.; Becker-Reshef, I.; Tumbo, S.; Maurice, S.; Mbilinyi, B.; Ibrahim, K.; Materu, S.

    2016-12-01

    In Tanzania agricultural extension agents traditionally collect field data on agriculture and food security on paper, covering most villages throughout the country. The process is expensive, slow and cumbersome and prone to data transcription errors when the data get entered at the district offices into electronic spreadsheets. Field data on the status and condition of agricultural crops, the population's nutritional status, food storage levels and other parameters are needed in near realtime for early warning to make critical but most importantly timely and appropriate decisions that are informed with verified data from the ground. With the ubiquitous distribution of cell phones, which are now used by the vast majority of the population in Tanzania including most farmers, new, efficient and cost-effective methods for field data collection have become available. Using smartphones and tablets data on crop conditions, pest and diseases, natural disasters and livelihoods can be collected and made available and easily accessible in near realtime. In this project we implemented a process for obtaining high quality electronic field data using the GeoODK application with a large network of field extension agents in Tanzania and Uganda. These efforts contribute to work being done on developing an advanced agriculture monitoring system for Tanzania, incorporating traditional data collection with satellite information and field data. The outcomes feed directly into the National Food Security Bulletin for Tanzania produced by the Ministry of Agriculture as well as a form a firm evidence base and field scale monitoring of the disaster risk financing in Uganda.

  6. World Reference Base | FAO SOILS PORTAL | Food and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    > Soil classification > World Reference Base FAO SOILS PORTAL Survey Assessment Biodiversity Management Degradation/Restoration Policies/Governance Publications Soil properties Soil classification World Soil Maps and Databases World Reference Base Dominant soils of the world The World Reference Base (WRB

  7. Research on prediction of agricultural machinery total power based on grey model optimized by genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yan; Li, Mu; Zhou, Jin; Zheng, Chang-zheng

    2009-07-01

    Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflex and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. It is the power source of agricultural production, and is the main factors to enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity expand production scale and increase the income of the farmers. Its demand is affected by natural, economic, technological and social and other "grey" factors. Therefore, grey system theory can be used to analyze the development of agricultural machinery total power. A method based on genetic algorithm optimizing grey modeling process is introduced in this paper. This method makes full use of the advantages of the grey prediction model and characteristics of genetic algorithm to find global optimization. So the prediction model is more accurate. According to data from a province, the GM (1, 1) model for predicting agricultural machinery total power was given based on the grey system theories and genetic algorithm. The result indicates that the model can be used as agricultural machinery total power an effective tool for prediction.

  8. Geospatial field applications within United States Department of Agriculture, Veterinary Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzMaurice, Priscilla L; Freier, Jerome E; Geter, Kenneth D

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists, veterinary medical officers and animal health technicians within Veterinary Services (VS) are actively utilising global positioning system (GPS) technology to obtain positional data on livestock and poultry operations throughout the United States. Geospatial data, if acquired for monitoring and surveillance purposes, are stored within the VS Generic Database (GDB). If the information is collected in response to an animal disease outbreak, the data are entered into the Emergency Management Response System (EMRS). The Spatial Epidemiology group within the Centers for Epidemiology and Animal Health (CEAH) has established minimum data accuracy standards for geodata acquisition. To ensure that field-collected geographic coordinates meet these minimum standards, field personnel are trained in proper data collection procedures. Positional accuracy is validated with digital atlases, aerial photographs, Web-based parcel maps, or address geocoding. Several geospatial methods and technologies are under investigation for future use within VS. These include the direct transfer of coordinates from GPS receivers to computers, GPS-enabled digital cameras, tablet PCs, and GPS receivers preloaded with custom ArcGIS maps - all with the objective of reducing transcription and data entry errors and improving the ease of data collection in the field.

  9. Accidental Strangulation Due to Entrapment of Saree in Crop Thrasher Machine in an Elderly Women Working at Agricultural Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchake, Manoj Bhausaheb; Kumre, Vikas; Kachare, Rajesh V

    2016-09-01

    Strangulation is generally considered as homicidal death and in accidental strangulation circumstantial evidence alone can point toward the accidental nature of incidence. In present case, a 71-year-old woman, wearing a saree (garment worn by traditional women in India) working in agricultural field, got entangled in the crop thrasher machine and got strangled. Immediately, she was taken to the nearest hospital, where she survived for 6 to 8 hours and then died. The autopsy reveals cross ribbon-shaped ligature mark on neck and anterior chest along with 1 puncture wound at the right lateral aspect of the neck. A lack of proper precaution and safety measures at agricultural field are other contributing factors. Accidental strangulation by saree is extremely rare, hence, this case is presented for its rarity and pattern of injury.

  10. Mitigation of dimethazone residues in soil and runoff water from agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonious, George F

    2011-01-01

    Dimethazone, also known as clomazone [2-[(2-chlorophenyl) methyl]- 4,4-dimethyl-3-isoxaolidinone] is a pre-emergent nonionic herbicide commonly used in agriculture. A field study was conducted on a silty-loam soil of 10 % slope to monitor off-site movement and persistence of dimethazone in soil under three management practices. Eighteen plots of 22 x 3.7 m each were separated using stainless steel metal borders and the soil in six plots was mixed with municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and yard waste (YW) compost (MSS+YW) at 15 t acre⁻¹ on dry weight basis, six plots were mixed with MSS at 15 t acre⁻¹, and six unamended plots (NM) were used for comparison purposes. The objectives of this investigation were to: (i) monitor the dissipation and half-life (T₁/₂) of dimethazone in soil under three management practices; (ii) determine the concentration of dimethazone residues in runoff and infiltration water following natural rainfall events; and (iii) assess the impact of soil amendments on the transport of NO₃, NH₄, and P into surface and subsurface water. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometery (GC/MS) analyses of soil extracts indicated the presence of ion fragments at m/z 125 and 204 that can be used for identification of dimethazone residues. Intitial deposits of dimethazone varied from 1.3 μg g⁻¹ dry native soil to 3.2 and 11.8 μg g⁻¹ dry soil in MSS and MSS+YW amended soil, respectively. Decline of dimethazone residues in the top 15 cm native soil and soil incorporated with amendments revealed half-life (T₁/₂) values of 18.8, 25.1, and 43.0 days in MSS+YW, MSS, and NM treatments, respectively. Addition of MSS+YW mix and MSS alone to native soil increased water infiltration, lowering surface runoff water volume and dimethazone residues in runoff following natural rainfall events.

  11. Wind dispersal of alien plant species into remnant natural vegetation from adjacent agricultural fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chika Egawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge regarding the seed dispersal of alien species is crucial to manage invasion risk in fragmented natural habitats. Focusing on wind dispersal, this study assessed the spatial and quantitative extents to which a remnant natural fen receives the seeds of alien species dispersed from adjacent hay meadows in Hokkaido, northern Japan. I established a total of 80 funnel seed traps in the fen at distances of 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, and 100 m from the meadows. The proportion of alien species in the seed rain at each distance was quantified, and the 99th-percentile dispersal distance from the meadows was estimated for each alien species by constructing dispersal kernels. Despite the presence of a marginal ditch and an elevational difference between the fen and the meadows, five alien species, including four grasses that do not have modified seed structures for wind dispersal, dispersed their seeds into the fen. These alien species accounted for up to 65.9% of the seed rain in terms of quantity. The 99th-percentile dispersal distances of the alien species ranged from 3.8 m to 309.3 m, and these distances were longer than the values predicted on the basis of their functional traits, such as terminal velocity. The results of this study demonstrated that numerous seeds of farmland-derived alien species were transported into the remnant vegetation via wind dispersal, and that simple predictions of dispersal distance based on functional traits could underestimate the potential area that alien species can reach. Continuous management both in farmland (to reduce seed escape and in remnant vegetation (to prevent the establishment of alien species is necessary to protect native vegetation from biological invasion in agricultural landscapes.

  12. Biogeosystem technique as a base of Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batukaev, Abdulmalik

    2016-04-01

    the stomatal apparatus of leaf regulate the water flow through plant, transpiration rate is reduced, soil solution concentration increases, plant nutrition supply rate becomes higher than at a stage of water field capacity. The rate of plant biomass growth is highest at water thermodynamic potential of -0.2-0.4 MPa. No excessive irrigation intra-soil mass transfer, nor excessive transpiration, evaporation and seepage. New intra-soil pulse discrete paradigm of irrigation optimizes the plant organogenesis, reduces consumption of water per unit of biological product. The biological productivity increases. Fresh water saving is up to 20 times. The new sustainable world strategy of Ecosystem Maintaining Productivity is to be based on the Biogeosystem Technique, it suits well the robotic nowadays noosphere technological platform and implements the principals of Geoethics in technologies of Biosphere. Key words: Paradigm, Biogeosystem technique, intra-soil pulse discrete watering. SSS8.1 Restoration and rehabilitation of degraded lands in arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean environments Batukaev Abdulmalik A. Chechen State University, Agrotechnological Institute, Dr Sc (Agric), Professor, Director, 364907, Sheripova st., 32, Grozny, Russia, batukaevmalik@mail.ru Kalinichenko Valery P. Institute of Fertility of Soils of South Russia, Dr Sc (Biol), Professor, Director, 346493, Krivoshlikova st., 2, Persianovka, Rostov region. Russia, kalinitch@mail.ru Minkina Tatiana M., Southern Federal University, Dr Sc (Biol), Head of the Soil Science Chair, 344006, Bolshaja Sadovaja st., 105/42, Rostov-on-Don, Russia, tminkina@mail.ru Zarmaev Ali A. Agrotechnological Institute of Chechen State University, Head of the Agrotechnology Chair, Dr Sc (Agric), Professor, 364907, Sheripova st., 32, Grozny, Russia, ali5073@mail.ru Skovpen Andrey N. Don State Agrarian University, PhD, Ass. Professor of Ecology Chair, 346493, Krivoshlikova st., 2, Persianovka, Rostov region, Russia, instit03@mail

  13. Low field pulsed NMR- a mass screening tool in agricultural research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.N.

    1994-01-01

    One of the main requirements in agricultural research is to analyse large number of samples for their one or more chemical constituents and physical properties. In plant breeding programmes and germplasm evaluation, it is necessary that the analysis is fast as many samples are to be analysed. Pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a potential tool for developing rapid and nondestructive method of analysis. Various applications of low resolution pulsed NMR in agricultural research, which are generally used as screening method are briefly described. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Monitoring and Analysis of Nonpoint Source Pollution - Case study on terraced paddy fields in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Yeh, Chun-Lin

    2013-04-01

    The intensive use of chemical fertilizer has negatively impacted environments in recent decades, mainly through water pollution by nitrogen (N) and phosphate (P) originating from agricultural activities. As a main crop with the largest cultivation area about 0.25 million ha per year in Taiwan, rice paddies account for a significant share of fertilizer consumption among agriculture crops. This study evaluated the fertilization of paddy fields impacting return flow water quality in an agricultural watershed located at Hsinchu County, northern Taiwan. Water quality monitoring continued for two crop-periods in 2012, around subject to different water bodies, including the irrigation water, drainage water, and shallow groundwater. The results indicated that obviously increasing of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP concentrations in the surface drainage water were observed immediately following three times of fertilizer applications (including basal, tillering, and panicle fertilizer application), but reduced to relatively low concentrations after 7-10 days after each fertilizer application. Groundwater quality monitoring showed that the observation wells with the more shallow water depth, the more significant variation of concentrations of ammonium-N, nitrate-N and TP could be observed, which means that the contamination potential of nutrient of groundwater is related not only to the impermeable plow sole layer but also to the length of percolation route in this area. The study also showed that the potential pollution load of nutrient could be further reduced by well drainage water control and rational fertilizer management, such as deep-water irrigation, reuse of return flow, the rational application of fertilizers, and the SRI (The System of Rice Intensification) method. The results of this study can provide as an evaluation basis to formulate effective measures for agricultural non-point source pollution control and the reuse of agricultural return flow. Keywords

  15. Polylactide-based renewable green composites from agricultural residues and their hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyambo, Calistor; Mohanty, Amar K; Misra, Manjusri

    2010-06-14

    Agricultural natural fibers like jute, kenaf, sisal, flax, and industrial hemp have been extensively studied in green composites. The continuous supply of biofibers in high volumes to automotive part makers has raised concerns. Because extrusion followed by injection molding drastically reduces the aspect ratio of biofibers, the mechanical performance of injection molded agricultural residue and agricultural fiber-based composites are comparable. Here, the use of inexpensive agricultural residues and their hybrids that are 8-10 times cheaper than agricultural fibers is demonstrated to be a better way of getting sustainable materials with better performance. Green renewable composites from polylactide (PLA), agricultural residues (wheat straw, corn stover, soy stalks, and their hybrids) were successfully prepared through twin-screw extrusion, followed by injection molding. The effect on mechanical properties of varying the wheat straw amount from 10 to 40 wt % in PLA-wheat straw composites was studied. Tensile moduli were compared with theoretical calculations from the rule of mixture (ROM). Combination of agricultural residues as hybrids is proved to reduce the supply chain concerns for injection molded green composites. Densities of the green composites were found to be lower than those of conventional glass fiber composites.

  16. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture - an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, R M; Agustin, J; Alberti, G

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experime......Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot...

  17. Mass balance and swath displacement evaluations from agricultural application field trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spray drift is on an ongoing concern for any agricultural application and continues to be the focus for new developments and research efforts dealing with drift reduction technologies, best management application practices and the development of new decision support systems for applicators. Typical...

  18. Risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Lian, Xin-Ying; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Xi, Bei-Dou; He, Xiao-Song

    2017-11-01

    Agricultural regions are a significant source of groundwater pesticide pollution. To ensure that agricultural regions with a significantly high risk of groundwater pesticide contamination are properly managed, a risk-based ranking method related to groundwater pesticide contamination is needed. In the present paper, a risk-based prioritization method for the classification of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions was established. The method encompasses 3 phases, including indicator selection, characterization, and classification. In the risk ranking index system employed here, 17 indicators involving the physicochemical properties, environmental behavior characteristics, pesticide application methods, and inherent vulnerability of groundwater in the agricultural region were selected. The boundary of each indicator was determined using K-means cluster analysis based on a survey of a typical agricultural region and the physical and chemical properties of 300 typical pesticides. The total risk characterization was calculated by multiplying the risk value of each indicator, which could effectively avoid the subjectivity of index weight calculation and identify the main factors associated with the risk. The results indicated that the risk for groundwater pesticide contamination from agriculture in a region could be ranked into 4 classes from low to high risk. This method was applied to an agricultural region in Jiangsu Province, China, and it showed that this region had a relatively high risk for groundwater contamination from pesticides, and that the pesticide application method was the primary factor contributing to the relatively high risk. The risk ranking method was determined to be feasible, valid, and able to provide reference data related to the risk management of groundwater pesticide pollution from agricultural regions. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:1052-1059. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  19. Mapping Soil Physical Structure of Loamy Agricultural Fields for Assessing Localised Potential Leaching Risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Olsen, Preben

    in Silstrup was evaluated based on soil texture, structural parameters, tritium breakthrough curves, and colloid- and phosphorus leaching to investigate the link between the leaching of pesticides such as TFMP and soil structure. Bulk soil was sampled from the A-horizon in a 15 x 15 m grid across the field......, and according to soil texture analyses the clay content was ranging from 14.2 to 18.9%, whereas the organic carbon (OC) content was ranging between 1.7 and 2.2%. Clay content increased to the North and OC content to the South. It was found that there is a risk for pronounced leaching to take place from......During the last decades detection of pesticides and their metabolites in groundwater has increased, forcing several drinking water wells to shut down. The Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme (PLAP), initiated in 1998, evaluates the leaching risk of pesticides and their metabolites...

  20. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  1. AMINO ACID-BASED FERTILIZER AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO CALDA VIÇOSA IN ORGANIC AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fontebasso Pelizari Pinto

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to propose a mixture of micronutrients with amino acid-based foliar fertilizer as an alternative to calda viçosa for application in organic agriculture. The study was conducted in two simultaneous trials in an experimental field in Ipeúna, SP, Brazil. The test plant was carioca type dry edible bean cv. Pérola. The treatments in trial 1 were: Control 1 = water; FA = JK® amino acid-based foliar fertilizer; and FA+Mi = FA + CuSO4 + ZnSO4 + MnSO4 + H3BO3. In trial 2, the FA treatment was substituted by calda viçosa (CVi. The treatments were through spray application three times. Dry edible bean leaves were sampled for determination of macronutrient and micronutrient concentrations. Platings of the application rates used in the treatments were performed in the laboratory in a mixture with Bacillus thuringiensis and with Beauveria bassiana to compare the degree of compatibility by means of colony forming units (CFU. The FA+Mi and CVi treatments raised the concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Mn in the leaves. The FA+Mi was compatible, the FA was a stimulant, and the CVi was noxious to B. bassiana and to B. thuringiensis when integrated in the spray mixture.

  2. Pilot utilization plan for satellite data-based service for agriculture in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatkowska, Martyna; Paradowski, Karol; Wróbel, Karolina

    2017-10-01

    The paper aims at demonstrating the assumptions and achievements of the Pilot Utilization Plan Activities performed within the Project ASAP "Advanced Sustainable Agricultural Production", co-financed by European Space Agency under the ARTES IAP Programme. Within the course of the project, the Pilot Utilization Plan (PilUP) activities are performed in order to develop the remote sensing based models, and further calibrate and validate them in order to achieve the accuracy, which meets the requirements of paying customers. The completion of the first PilUP resulted in development of the following models based of Landsat 8 and Sentinel 2 satellite data: model of homogenous polygons demarcation on the basis of comparison of electromagnetic scanning results and bare soil spectral reflectance, model of problematic areas indication and model for yield potential, delivered on the basis of NDVI map developed 1 month before harvest and the map of yield/collected yield derived from Users participating in PilUP. The second edition of the PilUP is being conducted between March 2017 until the end of 2017. This edition includes farmers and insurance companies. The following activities are planned: development of model for delimitation of loses due to unfavorable wintering of winter crops and validation of the model with in-situ data collected by the insurance companies in-field investigators, further enhancement of the model for homogenous polygons delimitation and primary indication of soil productivity and testing of the applicability and viability of map of problematic areas with the farmers.

  3. UAV BASED BRDF-MEASUREMENTS OF AGRICULTURAL SURFACES WITH PFIFFIKUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Grenzdörffer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BRDF is a common problem in remote sensing and also in oblique photogrammetry. Common approaches of BRDF-measurement with a field goniometer are costly and rather cumbersome. UAVs may offer an interesting alternative by using a special flight pattern of oblique and converging images. The main part of this paper is the description of a photogrammetric workflow in order to determine the anisotropic reflection properties of a given surface. Due to the relatively low flying heights standard procedures from close range photogrammetry were adopted for outdoor usage. The photogrammetric processing delivered automatic and highly accurate orientation information with the aid of coded targets. The interior orientation of the consumer grade camera is more or less stable. The radiometrically corrected oblique images are converted into ortho photos. The azimuth and elevation angle of every point may then be computed. The calculated anisotropy of a winter wheat plot is shown. A system four diagonally-looking cameras (Four Vision and an additional nadir looking camera is under development. The multi camera system especially designed for a Micro- UAV with a payload of min 1 kg. The system is composed of five industrial digital frame cameras (1.3 Mpix CCD-chips, 15 fp/s with fixed lenses. Also special problems with the construction of a light weight housing of the multi camera solution are covered in the paper.

  4. Wavelet-Based Quantum Field Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail V. Altaisky

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Euclidean quantum field theory for the fields $phi_{Delta x}(x$, which depend on both the position $x$ and the resolution $Delta x$, constructed in SIGMA 2 (2006, 046, on the base of the continuous wavelet transform, is considered. The Feynman diagrams in such a theory become finite under the assumption there should be no scales in internal lines smaller than the minimal of scales of external lines. This regularisation agrees with the existing calculations of radiative corrections to the electron magnetic moment. The transition from the newly constructed theory to a standard Euclidean field theory is achieved by integration over the scale arguments.

  5. Distribution of uranium in soil components of agricultural fields after long-term application of phosphate fertilizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Kawasaki, A.; Iiyama, I.

    2009-01-01

    Long-term application of phosphate fertilizers causes accumulation of U in the surface soil of agricultural fields. We investigated the soil constituents that contribute to the accumulation of U by using chemical extraction methods. Surface soil samples were obtained from upland fields, pastures, and paddy fields cultivated without any phosphate fertilizer (control site), with NPK fertilizer (NPK site), and with both NPK fertilizer and compost (NPK + compost site) for more than 20 years. In addition to the total U (U t ) concentration in soil, the concentrations of pyrophosphate- and acid oxalate-extractable U were determined as a measure of U associated with soil organic matter and poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in soil, respectively. The total, pyrophosphate-extractable, and acid oxalate-extractable U concentrations were higher in the soil obtained from the NPK and NPK + compost sites than in that obtained from the control site. The difference in the U concentrations between the NPK or NPK + compost site and the control site corresponded with the increased U concentration observed after the application of the phosphate fertilizer or both the fertilizer and compost. In the upland field and pasture soil, the increase in pyrophosphate-extractable U was 83-94% of that in U t . On the other hand, the increase in acid oxalate-extractable U was 44-58% of that in U t in the upland field and pasture soil, but it was almost equivalent to the increase in U t in the paddy soil with NPK. In conclusion, most of the phosphate fertilizer-derived U was either incorporated into the soil organic matter or poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals in the surface soil of agricultural fields. Thus, soil organic matter is an important pool of U in upland field and pasture soil, whereas poorly crystalline Fe/Al minerals are important pools of U in paddy soil experiencing alternating changes in redox conditions

  6. A field method for soil erosion measurements in agricultural and natural lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.P. Hsieh; K.T. Grant; G.C. Bugna

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important watershed processes in nature, yet quantifying it under field conditions remains a challenge. The lack of soil erosion field data is a major factor hindering our ability to predict soil erosion in a watershed. We present here the development of a simple and sensitive field method that quantifies soil erosion and the resulting...

  7. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravind, K.R.; Raja, P.; Pérez-Ruiz, M.

    2017-01-01

    In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals), smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farming includes temporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  8. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaswamy R. Aravind

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals, smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farmingincludestemporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  9. Task-based agricultural mobile robots in arable farming: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravind, K.R.; Raja, P.; Pérez-Ruiz, M.

    2017-09-01

    In agriculture (in the context of this paper, the terms “agriculture” and “farming” refer to only the farming of crops and exclude the farming of animals), smart farming and automated agricultural technology have emerged as promising methodologies for increasing the crop productivity without sacrificing produce quality. The emergence of various robotics technologies has facilitated the application of these techniques in agricultural processes. However, incorporating this technology in farms has proven to be challenging because of the large variations in shape, size, rate and type of growth, type of produce, and environmental requirements for different types of crops. Agricultural processes are chains of systematic, repetitive, and time-dependent tasks. However, some agricultural processes differ based on the type of farming, namely permanent crop farming and arable farming. Permanent crop farming includes permanent crops or woody plants such as orchards and vineyards whereas arable farming includes temporary crops such as wheat and rice. Major operations in open arable farming include tilling, soil analysis, seeding, transplanting, crop scouting, pest control, weed removal and harvesting and robots can assist in performing all of these tasks. Each specific operation requires axillary devices and sensors with specific functions. This article reviews the latest advances in the application of mobile robots in these agricultural operations for open arable farming and provide an overview of the systems and techniques that are used. This article also discusses various challenges for future improvements in using reliable mobile robots for arable farming.

  10. Estimation of Soil Erosion by Using Magnetic Method: A Case Study of an Agricultural Field in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovsky, E.; Grison, H.; Kapicka, A.; Dlouha, S.; Kodesova, R.; Jaksik, O.

    2013-05-01

    In this study we have applied magnetism of soils for estimation of erosion at an agricultural land. The testing site is situated in loess region in Southern Moravia (in Central Europe). The approach is based on well-established method of differentiation of magnetic parameters of the topsoil and the subsoil horizons as a result of in situ formation of strongly magnetic iron oxides. Our founding is established on a simple tillage homogenization model described by Royall (2001) using magnetic susceptibility and its frequency dependence to estimate soil loss caused by the tillage and subsequent erosion. The original dominant Soil Unit in the investigated area is Haplic Chernozem, which is due to intensive erosion progressively transformed into different Soil Units. The site is characterized by a flat upper part while the middle part, formed by a substantive side valley, is steeper (up to 15°). The side valley represents a major line of concentrated runoff emptying into a colluvial fan. Field measurements of the topsoil volume magnetic susceptibility were carried out by the Bartington MS2D probe. Data are resulting in regular grid of 101 data points, where the bulk soil material was gathered for further laboratory investigations. Moreover, vertical distribution of magnetic susceptibility (deep to 40 cm) was measured on selected transects using the SM400 kappameter. In the laboratory, after drying and sieving of collected soil samples, mass-specific magnetic susceptibility and its frequency-dependent susceptibility was measured. In order to identify magnetic minerals the thermomagnetic analyses were performed using the AGICO KLY-4S Kappabridge with CS-3 furnace. Hysteresis loops were carried out on vibrating magnetometer ADE EV9 to assess the grain-size distribution of ferrimagnetic particles. Hereafter, the isothermal remanent magnetization acqusition followed by D.C. demagnetization were done. All these laboratory magnetic measurements were performed in order to

  11. Esophageal cancer among Brazilian agricultural workers: case-control study based on death certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Armando; Alexandre, Pedro Celso Braga; Chrisman, Juliana de Rezende; Markowitz, Steven B; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    Several studies suggest that agricultural workers are at higher risk to develop and die by certain types of cancer. Esophageal cancer is not commonly listed among these types. However, some recent studies indicated that if there is an association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer, it s more likely to be observed among workers highly exposed to pesticides. In the present study, the magnitude of the association between agricultural working and esophageal cancer mortality was evaluated in a high pesticide use area in Brazil, through a death certificate-based case-control study. Cases were individuals from both genders, 30-59 years old, for whom basic cause of death was ascertained as cancer of the esophagus. For each case, one control was randomly selected from all possible controls for which the basic cause of death was ascertained as different from neoplasm and diseases of the digestive system. In addition, controls matched their cases by sex, age, year of death, and state of residence. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were then calculated to estimate the magnitude of the risk. Results showed that, in general, agricultural workers were at significantly higher risk to die by esophageal cancer, when compared to non-agricultural workers. Stratified analysis also revealed that the magnitude of such risk was slightly higher among illiterate agricultural workers, and simultaneous adjustment for several covariates showed that the risk was quantitatively higher among younger southern agricultural workers. These results suggest the esophageal cancer may be included among those types of cancer etiologically associated to agricultural working. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Fate of synthetic musks in a domestic wastewater treatment plant and in an agricultural field amended with biosolids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.-J.; Metcalfe, Chris D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic musks are widely used as fragrance ingredients in personal care products, and they enter domestic wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) through discharges into municipal sewage systems. Samples of aqueous sewage and biosolids collected from the Peterborough Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Ontario, Canada were analyzed for 11 synthetic musk compounds using GC/MS. The results showed that 1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethyl-cyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyrane (HHCB, 173.1 ± 43.4 ng/L) and 7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyl-tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN, 41.6 ± 15.8 ng/L) were the dominant fragrances in sewage, but other polycyclic musks and nitro musks were present at lower concentrations. The concentrations of HHCB and AHTN in the aqueous phase of the sewage were highly correlated with both BOD 5 and TOC. The overall removal efficiency of synthetic musks from the aqueous sewage in the WWTP ranged from 43.3% to 56.9%, but removal occurred mainly by partitioning into the biosolids. Based on a mass balance model, the daily input and output of HHCB and AHTN in the Peterborough WWTP were 47 g and 46 g, respectively. In an agricultural field amended with biosolids from the Peterborough WWTP, HHCB and AHTN were detected in soil immediately after application at mean concentrations of 1.0 and 1.3 μg/kg, respectively, but concentrations declined relatively rapidly over the next 6 weeks, post-application

  13. Agricultural production - Phase 2. Indonesia. Sources and sinks of nitrogen-E phosphorus-based nutrients in cropping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetselaar, R.I.

    1992-01-01

    This document is the report of an expert mission to assist in the initiation of research on sustainable agriculture in rice-based cropping systems as related to the flow of plant nutrients, and on the use of legumes in upland cropping systems. Experimental suggestions include an investigation of the acid tolerance of different soybean strains under upland conditions, an analysis of ways to replace fertilizer nitrogen for rice crops by a green manure such as azolla, and a study of the increase in nutrient availability due to th presence of fish in a paddy field

  14. O2O - Based Agricultural Products Supply Chain Process Integration Optimization Based on Internet +

    OpenAIRE

    Li Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Traditional wholesale and retail, electricity supplier of agricultural products supply chain have many difficulties. The O2O supply chain of agricultural products of “Internet+”, committed to the integration of online and offline advantage process, has become the main direction of the agricultural products supply chain transformation. Practice operation results show that O2O supply chain can effectively play the advantages of online and offline process integration, but its further development...

  15. Environmental Fate of the Herbicide Fluazifop-P-butyl and Its Degradation Products in Two Loamy Agricultural Soils: A Combined Laboratory and Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badawi, Nora; Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    The herbicide fluazifop-P-butyl (FPB) is used against grasses in agricultural crops such as potato, oilseed rape and sugar beet. Limited information is available in Scientific literature on its environmental fate, therefore extensive monitoring at two agricultural test fields was combined...

  16. Effects of agricultural fungicides on microorganisms associated with floral nectar: susceptibility assays and field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewicz, Jacek; Pozo, María I; Honnay, Olivier; Lievens, Bart; Jacquemyn, Hans

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides have become an inseparable element of agricultural intensification. While the direct impact of pesticides on non-target organisms, such as pollinators, has recently received much attention, less consideration has been given to the microorganisms that are associated with them. Specialist yeasts and bacteria are known to commonly inhabit floral nectar and change its chemical characteristics in numerous ways, possibly influencing pollinator attraction. In this study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of nectar yeasts Metschnikowia gruessi, Metschnikowia reukaufii, and Candida bombi to six widely used agricultural fungicides (prothioconazole, tebuconazole, azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram). Next, a commercial antifungal mixture containing tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin was applied to natural populations of the plant Linaria vulgaris and the occurrence, abundance, and diversity of nectar-inhabiting yeasts and bacteria was compared between treated and untreated plants. The results showed that prothioconazole and tebuconazole were highly toxic to nectar yeasts, inhibiting their growth at concentrations varying between 0.06 and 0.5 mg/L. Azoxystrobin, fenamidone, boscalid, and fluopyram on the other hand exhibited considerably lower toxicity, inhibiting yeast growth at concentrations between 1 and 32 mg/L or in many cases not inhibiting microbial growth at all. The application of the antifungal mixture in natural plant populations resulted in a significant decrease in the occurrence and abundance of yeasts in individual flowers, but this did not translate into noticeable changes in bacterial incidence and abundance. Yeast and bacterial species richness and distribution did not also differ between treated and untreated plants. We conclude that the application of fungicides may have negative effects on the abundance of nectar yeasts in floral nectar. The consequences of these effects on plant pollination processes in agricultural

  17. Reliability of agriculture universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in universal joint bearing assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandar Asonja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research into reliability calculations of agriculture double universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in cardan-type universal joint bearing assemblies. Special laboratory equipment was developed for this research which is presented in the paper. The objective of this research was to test the real life span of universal joint shafts in the laboratory and in field, to obtain the results which can be used to improve the reliability of universal joint shafts. If the presented research were used along with maintenance measures recommended in the paper and with proper use, the level of reliability of the shafts would be 2.1 times higher. The presented results of the research showed that needle bearings, i.e. bearing assemblies of the joints, are the most critical elements on universal joint shafts and are possible causes of their lower reliability. The second universal joint is the part with the lowest reliability in the observed technical system.

  18. Application of radioisotopes and radiation in the field of agricultural engineering in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data have been published about the application of radioisotopes and radiation in Japan agricultural engineering. The radioisotopes have been used : 1 for measuring the humidity of the ground in the development of the irrigation and canalization of the cultivated areas; 2 for measuring i. the circulation rate of the ground water, ii. the porosity and the storing capacity of the water-carrier layers. iii. the drift and sand-transporting speed of the open canals; 3, for the control of the dam leaking in the ground water hydrology. (K.A.)

  19. What is trust?: perspectives from farmers and other experts in the field of agriculture in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agricultural biotechnology public-private partnerships (PPPs have been recognized as necessary for improving agricultural productivity and increasing food production in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are issues of public trust uniquely associated with PPPs involved in the development of genetically modified (GM crops. Insight into how trust is understood by agbiotech stakeholders is needed to be able to promote and improve trust among actors comprising agbiotech PPPs. This study aimed to explore how stakeholders from the agricultural sector in sub-Saharan Africa understood the concept of trust in general as well as in the context of agbiotech PPPs. Methods Our data collection relied on sixty-one semi-structured, face-to-face interviews conducted with agbiotech stakeholders as part of a larger study investigating the role of trust in eight agbiotech projects across Africa. Interview transcripts were analyzed to create a narrative on how trust is understood by the study’s participants. Results Responses to the question “what is trust?” were diverse. However, across interviewees’ responses we identified six themes. In order to build and foster trust in a partnership, partners reported that one must practice integrity and honesty; deliver results in an accountable manner; be capable and competent; share the same objectives and interests; be transparent about actions and intentions through clear communication; and target services toward the interests of the public. Conclusions Participants reported that trust is either a very important factor or the most important factor in the making or breaking of success in agbiotech PPPs. The six themes that emerged from the interview data form a concept of trust. We thereby propose the following definition of trust in the context of agricultural biotechnology: an expectation held by an individual that the performance and behaviour of another will be supported by tangible results

  20. The seasonal role of field characteristics on seed-eating bird abundances in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codesido, Mariano; Abba, Agustín M.; Bilenca, David

    2017-01-01

    Abstract In temperate agroecosystems, avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices. We assessed the seasonal roles of field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000 km2 study area in the Pampas of central Argentina. During spring-summer and autumn of 2011–2013, we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species. We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species. We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type, field use in the surroundings, and distance to the nearest woodlot. In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements. Species that build their nests in trees, such as eared doves Zenaida auriculata, picazuro pigeons Patagioenas picazuro, and monk parakeets Myiopsitta monachus, were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots, whereas grassland yellow-finches Sicalis luteola, which nest at areas with tall grasses, were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings. In autumn (non-breeding season), most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs. The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources. In addition, both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons Patagioenas maculosa were associated with woodlots, which provide suitable roosting sites. Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems, the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season. PMID

  1. Spatial variability of soil magnetic susceptibility in an agricultural field located in Eastern Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) have been used to characterize soil properties. It gives an indirect information about heavy metals content and degree of human impacts on soil contamination derived from atmospheric pollution (Girault et al., 2011). This method is inexpensive in relation to chemical analysis and very useful to track soil pollution, since several toxic components deposited on soil surface are rich in particulates produced by oxidation processes (Boyko et al., 2004; Morton-Bernea et al., 2009). Thus, identify the spatial distribution of MS is of major importance, since can give an indirect information of high metals content (Dankoub et al., 2012). This allows also to distinguish the pedogenic and technogenic origin magnetic signal. For example Ukraine chernozems contain fine-grained oxidized magnetite and maghemite of pedogenic origin formed by weathering of the parent material (Jeleńska et al., 2004). However, to a correct understanding of variables distribution, the identification of the most accurate interpolation method is fundamental for a better interpretation of map information (Pereira et al., 2013). The objective of this work is to study the spatial variability of soil MS in an agricultural fields located in the Tcherkascy Tishki area (50.11°N, 36.43 °E, 162 m a.s.l), Ukraine. Soil MS was measured in 77 sampling points in a north facing slope. To estimate the best interpolation method, several interpolation methods were tested, as inverse distance to a weight (IDW) with the power of 1,2,3,4 and 5, Local Polynomial (LP) with the power of 1 and 2, Global Polynomial (GP), radial basis functions - spline with tension (SPT), completely regularized spline (CRS), multiquatratic (MTQ), inverse multiquatratic (IMTQ), and thin plate spline (TPS) - and some geostatistical methods as, ordinary kriging (OK), Simple Kriging (SK) and Universal Kriging (UK), used in previous works (Pereira et al., 2014). On average, the soil MS of the studied plot had 686

  2. Improving Agricultural Water Resources Management Using Ground-based Infrared Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaeian, S.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the largest user of freshwater resources in arid/semi-arid parts of the world. Meeting rapidly growing demands in food, feed, fiber, and fuel while minimizing environmental pollution under a changing climate requires significant improvements in agricultural water management and irrigation scheduling. Although recent advances in remote sensing techniques and hydrological modeling has provided valuable information on agricultural water resources and their management, real improvements will only occur if farmers, the decision makers on the ground, are provided with simple, affordable, and practical tools to schedule irrigation events. This presentation reviews efforts in developing methods based on ground-based infrared thermometry and thermography for day-to-day management of irrigation systems. The results of research studies conducted in Colorado and Oklahoma show that ground-based remote sensing methods can be used effectively in quantifying water stress and consequently triggering irrigation events. Crop water use estimates based on stress indices have also showed to be in good agreement with estimates based on other methods (e.g. surface energy balance, root zone soil water balance, etc.). Major challenges toward the adoption of this approach by agricultural producers include the reduced accuracy under cloudy and humid conditions and its inability to forecast irrigation date, which is a critical knowledge since many irrigators need to decide about irrigations a few days in advance.

  3. "Green technology": Bio-stimulation by an electric field for textile reactive dye contaminated agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annamalai, Sivasankar; Santhanam, Manikandan; Selvaraj, Subbulakshmi; Sundaram, Maruthamuthu; Pandian, Kannan; Pazos, Marta

    2018-05-15

    The aim of the study is to degrade pollutants as well as to increase the fertility of agricultural soil by starch enhancing electrokinetic (EKA) and electro-bio-stimulation (EBS) processes. Starch solution was used as an anolyte and voltage gradient was about 0.5V/cm. The influence of bacterial mediated process was evaluated in real contaminated farming soil followed by pilot scale experiment. The in-situ formation of β-cyclodextrin from starch in the treatments had also influence on the significant removal of the pollutants from the farming soil. The conductivity of the soil was effectively reduced from 15.5dS/m to 1.5dS/m which corroborates well with the agricultural norms. The bio-stimulation was confirmed by the increase of the phosphorus content in the treated soil. Finally, phytotoxicity assays demonstrated the viability of the developed technique for soil remediation because plant germination percentage was higher in the treated soil in comparison to untreated soil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Utilization of Edge-of-Field Monitoring of Agricultural Runoff in Addressing Nonpoint Source Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    While basin-scale studies and modeling are important tools in relating land uses to water quality concerns, edge-of-field monitoring (EOFM) provides the necessary resolution to spatially target, design, and evaluate in-field conservation practices for reducing nutrient and sediment loading from agri...

  5. Sustainable dairy manure-based biogas? : A perspective from the combined biogas and agricultural production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, Dieu Linh; Davis, Christopher Bryan; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2017-01-01

    Dairy manure-based biogas, an emerging source of renewable energy, is a result of a recycling process which often leads to the thought that manure production is the beginning of this biogas supply chain by energy producers. However, dairy manure is only a byproduct of an agricultural system whose

  6. The Role of Community Based Orgs (Cbos) In Rural and Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result showed that community based organizations are veritable agents of development in ensuring the agricultural and rural transformation of Delta State. The study recommended that there is need to develop a link between the state and community us so as to increase the managerial and professional capabilities of ...

  7. Voice-Based Marketing for Agricultural Products : A Case Study in Rural Northern Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dittoh, Francis; Aart, Chris Van; Boer, Victor De

    2013-01-01

    We present a study conducted in rural Northern Ghana about issues around the marketing of agricultural products and the need of mobile-based ICT solutions. The need for the spread of information and web access to communities in developing countries has given rise to the design and development of

  8. The seasonal role of field characteristics on seed-eating bird abundances in agricultural landscapes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanuel ZUFIAURRE; Mariano CODESIDO; Agustín M.ABBA; David BILENCA

    2017-01-01

    In temperate agroecosystems,avian responses in abundance and distribution to landscape attributes may be exacerbated by the coupling of natural seasons and farming practices.We assessed the seasonal roles of field WPe,field use in the surroundings,and distance from a field to the nearest woodlot on the abundance of seed-eating birds in a 225,000 km2 study area in the Pampas of central Argentina.During spring-summer and autumn of 2011-2013,we randomly selected 392 fields and used transect samples to collect data on abundance and presence of seed-eating bird species.We recorded a total of 11,579 individuals belonging to 15 seed-eating bird species.We used generalized lineal mixed models to relate bird abundance to field type,field use in the surroundings,and distance to the nearest woodlot.In spring-summer (breeding season) most bird responses were associated with their nesting requirements.Species that build their nests in trees,such as eared doves Zenaida auriculata,picazuro pigeons Patagioenas picazuro,and monk parakeets Myiopsitta monachus,were more abundant in fields closer to woodlots,whereas grassland yellow-finches Sicalis luteola,which nest at areas with tall grasses,were more abundant in fields with livestock use patches in the field surroundings.In autumn (non-breeding season),most bird responses were associated with foraging and refuge needs.The high abundance of eared doves in crop stubbles and the association of pigeons at field surroundings dominated by croplands or at crop stubbles surrounded by livestock use fields revealed the intimate association of these species to sites with high availability of food resources.In addition,both picazuro pigeons and spot-winged pigeons Patagioenas maculosa were associated with woodlots,which provide suitable roosting sites.Our results show that in temperate agroecosystems,the relationships between field characteristics and seed-eating bird abundances vary with season.

  9. Investigating summer flow paths in a Dutch agricultural field using high frequency direct measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delsman, J. R.; Waterloo, M. J.; Groen, M. M. A.; Groen, J.; Stuyfzand, P. J.

    2014-11-01

    The search for management strategies to cope with projected water scarcity and water quality deterioration calls for a better understanding of the complex interaction between groundwater and surface water in agricultural catchments. We separately measured flow routes to tile drains and an agricultural ditch in a deep polder in the coastal region of the Netherlands, characterized by exfiltration of brackish regional groundwater flow and intake of diverted river water for irrigation and water quality improvement purposes. We simultaneously measured discharge, electrical conductivity and temperature of these separate flow routes at hourly frequencies, disclosing the complex and time-varying patterns and origins of tile drain and ditch exfiltration. Tile drainage could be characterized as a shallow flow system, showing a non-linear response to groundwater level changes. Tile drainage was fed primarily by meteoric water, but still transported the majority (80%) of groundwater-derived salt to surface water. In contrast, deep brackish groundwater exfiltrating directly in the ditch responded linearly to groundwater level variations and is part of a regional groundwater flow system. We could explain the observed salinity of exfiltrating drain and ditch water from the interaction between the fast-responding pressure distribution in the subsurface that determined groundwater flow paths (wave celerity), and the slow-responding groundwater salinity distribution (water velocity). We found water demand for maintaining water levels and diluting salinity through flushing to greatly exceed the actual sprinkling demand. Counterintuitively, flushing demand was found to be largest during precipitation events, suggesting the possibility of water savings by operational flushing control.

  10. The Added Utility of Hydrological Model and Satellite Based Datasets in Agricultural Drought Analysis over Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, B.; Hüsami Afşar, M.; Yilmaz, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of agricultural drought, which causes substantial socioeconomically costs in Turkey and in the world, is critical in terms of understanding this natural disaster's characteristics (intensity, duration, influence area) and research on possible precautions. Soil moisture is one of the most important parameters which is used to observe agricultural drought, can be obtained using different methods. The most common, consistent and reliable soil moisture datasets used for large scale analysis are obtained from hydrologic models and remote sensing retrievals. On the other hand, Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and gauge based precipitation observations are also commonly used for drought analysis. In this study, soil moisture products obtained from different platforms, NDVI and precipitation datasets over several different agricultural regions under various climate conditions in Turkey are obtained in growth season period. These datasets are later used to investigate agricultural drought by the help of annual crop yield data of selected agricultural lands. The type of vegetation over these regions are obtained using CORINE Land Cover (CLC 2012) data. The crop yield data were taken from the record of related district's statistics which is provided by Turkish Statistical Institute (TÜİK). This project is supported by TÜBİTAK project number 114Y676.

  11. Recent advancement on chemical arsenal of Bt toxin and its application in pest management system in agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Pritam; Banerjee, Goutam

    2018-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) is a Gram-positive, spore-forming, soil bacterium, which is very popular bio-control agent in agricultural and forestry. In general, B. thuringiensis secretes an array of insecticidal proteins including toxins produced during vegetative growth phase (such as secreted insecticidal protein, Sip; vegetative insecticidal proteins, Vip), parasporal crystalline δ-endotoxins produced during vegetative stationary phase (such as cytolytic toxin, Cyt; and crystal toxin, Cry), and β-exotoxins. Till date, a wide spectrum of Cry proteins has been reported and most of them belong to three-domain-Cry toxins, Bin-like toxin, and Etx_Mtx2-like toxins. To the best of our knowledge, neither Bt insecticidal toxins are exclusive to Bt nor all the strains of Bt are capable of producing insecticidal Bt toxins. The lacuna in their latest classification has also been discussed. In this review, the updated information regarding the insecticidal Bt toxins and their different mode of actions were summarized. Before applying the Bt toxins on agricultural field, the non-specific effects of toxins should be investigated. We also have summarized the problem of insect resistance and the strategies to combat with this problem. We strongly believe that this information will help a lot to the budding researchers in the field of modern pest control biotechnology.

  12. Assessment of soil redistribution rates by (137)Cs and (210)Pbex in a typical Malagasy agricultural field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabesiranana, N; Rasolonirina, M; Solonjara, A F; Ravoson, H N; Raoelina Andriambololona; Mabit, L

    2016-02-01

    Soil degradation processes affect more than one-third of the Malagasy territory and are considered as the major environmental threat impacting the natural resources of the island. This innovative study reports about a pioneer test and use of radio-isotopic techniques (i.e. Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) under Madagascar agroclimatic condition to evaluate soil erosion magnitude. This preliminary investigation has been conducted in a small agricultural field situated in the eastern central highland of Madagascar, 40 km East from Antananarivo. Both anthropogenic Cs-137 and geogenic Pb-210 soil tracers provided similar results highlighting soil erosion rates reaching locally 18 t ha(-1) yr(-1,) a level almost two times higher than the sustainable soil loss rate under Madagascar agroclimatic condition. The sediment delivery ratio established with both radiotracers was above 80% indicating that most of the mobilized sediment exits the field. Assessing soil erosion rate through fallout radionuclides in Madagascar is a first step towards an efficient land and water resource management policy to optimise the effectiveness of future agricultural soil conservation practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a global Agricultural Stress Index System (ASIS) based on remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoolst, R.

    2016-12-01

    According to the 2012 IPCC SREX report, extreme drought events are projected to become more frequent and intense in several regions of the world. Wide and timely monitoring systems are required to mitigate the impact of agricultural drought. Therefore, FAO's Global Information and Early Warning System (GIEWS) and the Climate, Energy and Tenure Division (NRC) have established the `Agricultural Stress Index System' (ASIS). The ASIS is a remote sensing application that provides early warnings of agricultural drought at a global scale. The ASIS has first been designed and described by Rojas et al. (2011). This study focused on the African continent and was based on the back processing of low resolution data of the NOAA-satellites. In the current setup, developed by VITO (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), the system operates in Near Real Time using data from the METOP-AVHRR sensor. The Agricultural Stress Index (ASI) is the percentage of agricultural area affected by drought in the course of the growing season within a given administrative unit. The start and end of the growing season are derived per pixel from the long term NDVI average of SPOT-VEGETATION. The Global Administrative Unit Layer (GAUL) defines the administrative boundaries at level 0, 1 and 2. A global cropland and grassland map eliminates non-agricultural areas. Temperature and NDVI anomalies are used as drought indicators and calculated at a per pixel base. The ASIS aggregates this information and produces every dekad global maps to highlight hotspots of drought stress. New developments are ongoing to strengthen the ASIS to produce country specific outputs, improve existing drought indicators and estimate production deficits using a probabilistic approach.

  14. REMOTE CONTROLLING OF AN AGRICULTURAL PUMP SYSTEM BASED ON THE DUAL TONE MULTI-FREQUENCY (DTMF TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEZA N. GETU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In modern days, as a result of advances in technology, human beings are interested to remotely control different systems and applications. In this work, telephone signalling technique using Dual Tone Multi-Frequency (DTMF signalling, is used to control switching of electrical loads such as agricultural pumps located in remote areas. A DTMF tone command sent from a transmitting fixed or mobile phone terminal will be used to SWITCH ON/OFF the motors used to pump water for agricultural fields. A processing electronic system at the receiving side is designed to interpret the tone commands and sends an appropriate signal to the motor driving circuit to complete the pump switching states. In the design methodology, it is possible to control several water pumps distributed in a certain agricultural site, however, in this work we considered four pumps and the paper presents the complete electronic design and simulation results at the different stages of the design. The electronic design is based on discrete passive and active electronic components and the system is tested and simulated using Multism program. The results of the simulation show that the design is capable of controlling the switching state of the motors. For a certain DTMF command, it is possible to switch ON/OFF a specific motor pump or all of the four motors.

  15. Effects of low concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicide factor 540® on an agricultural stream freshwater phytoplankton community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedbol, Élise; Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Paquet, Serge; Labrecque, Michel; Lepage, Laurent; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2018-02-01

    Residual glyphosate from glyphosate based herbicides (GBH) are ubiquitously detected in streams draining agricultural fields, and may affect phytoplankton communities present in these ecosystems. Here, the effects of the exposure (96 h) of a phytoplankton community collected in an agricultural stream to various glyphosate concentrations (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 μg l -1 ) of Factor 540 ® GBH were investigated. The lowest GBH concentration of 1 μg l -1 reduced chlorophyll a and carotenoid contents. Low glyphosate concentrations, such as 5 and 10 μg l -1 , promoted changes in the community's structure and reduced the diversity of the main algal species. At glyphosate concentrations ranging from 50 to 1000 μg l -1 , the phytoplankton community's composition was modified and new main species appeared. The highest glyphosate concentrations (500 and 1000 μg l -1 ) affected the shikimate content, the lipid peroxidation and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase). These results indicate that GBH can modify structural and functional properties of freshwater phytoplankton communities living in streams located in agricultural areas at glyphosate concentrations much inferior to the 800 μg l -1 threshold set by the Canadian guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. UAV-Based Hyperspectral Remote Sensing for Precision Agriculture: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Y.; Parkes, S. D.; Turner, D.; Houborg, R.; Lucieer, A.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    Modern agricultural production relies on monitoring crop status by observing and measuring variables such as soil condition, plant health, fertilizer and pesticide effect, irrigation and crop yield. Managing all of these factors is a considerable challenge for crop producers. As such, providing integrated technological solutions that enable improved diagnostics of field condition to maximize profits, while minimizing environmental impacts, would be of much interest. Such challenges can be addressed by implementing remote sensing systems such as hyperspectral imaging to produce precise biophysical indicator maps across the various cycles of crop development. Recent progress in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advanced traditional satellite-based capabilities, providing a capacity for high-spatial, spectral and temporal response. However, while some hyperspectral sensors have been developed for use onboard UAVs, significant investment is required to develop a system and data processing workflow that retrieves accurately georeferenced mosaics. Here we explore the use of a pushbroom hyperspectral camera that is integrated on-board a multi-rotor UAV system to measure the surface reflectance in 272 distinct spectral bands across a wavelengths range spanning 400-1000 nm, and outline the requirement for sensor calibration, integration onto a stable UAV platform enabling accurate positional data, flight planning, and development of data post-processing workflows for georeferenced mosaics. The provision of high-quality and geo-corrected imagery facilitates the development of metrics of vegetation health that can be used to identify potential problems such as production inefficiencies, diseases and nutrient deficiencies and other data-streams to enable improved crop management. Immense opportunities remain to be exploited in the implementation of UAV-based hyperspectral sensing (and its combination with other imaging systems) to provide a transferable and scalable

  17. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Vanzyl, Jakob J.

    1991-01-01

    Polarimetric signatures from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert show systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright 'spokes', which seems to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripple on the relatively vegetationless fields. A Late Pleistocene/Holocene sand bar deposit, which can be identified in the radar images, is probably responsible for the failure of three fields to match the age sequence patterns in roughness and peak shift.

  18. O2O - Based Agricultural Products Supply Chain Process Integration Optimization Based on Internet +

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Huijuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional wholesale and retail, electricity supplier of agricultural products supply chain have many difficulties. The O2O supply chain of agricultural products of “Internet+”, committed to the integration of online and offline advantage process, has become the main direction of the agricultural products supply chain transformation. Practice operation results show that O2O supply chain can effectively play the advantages of online and offline process integration, but its further development is still subject to the logistics, information flow of the dispersion, fracture and high cost. The integrated optimization of various regions and various enterprises and all sectors of the supply chain process is the key to optimize the process Internet plus era of agricultural products supply chain.

  19. Some results from a temperature evaluation of a cotton field with infrared thermometer for agricultural use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovcharova, A.; Kolev, N.; Nedkov, N.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the present study were connected with evaluation of the basic soil properties, distribution of thermal, hydrological and electronic soil properties and criteria for minimization of the measurement points, obtained in the cotton non-irrigated field of the Institute of durum wheat and cotton near Chirpan. It were measured crop temperature of cotton field and soil surface temperature distribution during the main vegetative stages. Using the energy balance equation and soil water balance equation was calculated the intensity of evapotranspiration during the days of measurements

  20. Identification of High-Variation Fields based on Open Satellite Imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jacob Høxbroe; Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Nyholm Jørgensen, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    . The categorization is based on vegetation indices derived from Sentinel-2 satellite imagery. A case study on 7678 winter wheat fields is presented, which employs open data and open source software to analyze the satellite imagery. Furthermore, the method can be automated to deliver categorizations at every update......This paper proposes a simple method for categorizing fields on a regional level, with respect to intra-field variations. It aims to identify fields where the potential benefits of applying precision agricultural practices are highest from an economic and environmental perspective...

  1. Field-based systems and advanced diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eryurek, E.

    1998-01-01

    Detection and characterization of anomalies in an industrial plant provide improved plant availability and plant efficiency thus yielding increased economic efficiency. Traditionally, detection of process anomalies is done at a high-level control system through various signal validation methods. These signal validation techniques rely on data from transmitters, which measure related process variables. Correlating these signals and deducing anomalies often is a very time consuming and a difficult task. Delays in detecting these anomalies can be costly during plant operation. Conventional centralized approaches also suffer from their dependence on detailed mathematical models of the processes. Smart field devices have the advantage of providing the necessary information directly to the control system as anomalies develop during operation of the processes enabling operators to take necessary steps to either prevent an unnecessary shut down before the problem becomes serious or schedule maintenance on the problematic loop. Fisher-Rosemount's PlantWeb TM architecture addresses 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field'. PlantWeb TM builds open process management systems by networking intelligent field devices, scalable control and systems platforms, and integrated modular software. A description of PlantWeb TM and how it improves various process conditions and reduces operating cost of a plant as well as a high level description of 'Enhanced Measurement, Advanced Diagnostics and Control in the Field', will be provided in this paper. PlantWeb TM is the trademark for Fisher-Rosemount's new field-based architecture that uses emerging technologies to utilize the power of intelligent field devices and deliver critical process and equipment information to improve plant performance. (author)

  2. Field tracer investigation of unsaturated zone flow paths and mechanisms in agricultural soils of northwestern Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, K.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Rose, C.E.; Coupe, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    In many farmed areas, intensive application of agricultural chemicals and withdrawal of groundwater for irrigation have led to water quality and supply issues. Unsaturated-zone processes, including preferential flow, play a major role in these effects but are not well understood. In the Bogue Phalia basin, an intensely agricultural area in the Delta region of northwestern Mississippi, the fine-textured soils often exhibit surface ponding and runoff after irrigation and rainfall as well as extensive surface cracking during prolonged dry periods. Fields are typically land-formed to promote surface flow into drainage ditches and streams that feed into larger river ecosystems. Downward flow of water below the root zone is considered minimal; regional groundwater models predict only 5% or less of precipitation recharges the heavily used alluvial aquifer. In this study transport mechanisms within and below the root zone of a fallow soybean field were assessed by performing a 2-m ring infiltration test with tracers and subsurface monitoring instruments. Seven months after tracer application, 48 continuous cores were collected for tracer extraction to define the extent of water movement and quantify preferential flow using a mass-balance approach. Vertical water movement was rapid below the pond indicating the importance of vertical preferential flow paths in the shallow unsaturated zone, especially to depths where agricultural disturbance occurs. Lateral flow of water at shallow depths was extensive and spatially non-uniform, reaching up to 10. m from the pond within 2. months. Within 1. month, the wetting front reached a textural boundary at 4-5. m between the fine-textured soil and sandy alluvium, now a potential capillary barrier which, prior to extensive irrigation withdrawals, was below the water table. Within 10. weeks, tracer was detectable at the water table which is presently about 12. m below land surface. Results indicate that 43% of percolation may be through

  3. Ionizing radiation in the field of hydrogels used for agriculture and medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radoiu, M.; Martin, D.; Oproiu, C.; Indreias, I; Toma, M.; Dragusin, M.; Moraru, R.; Manea, A.

    1998-01-01

    The hydrogels, such as homopolymers of acrylamide (AHH type), co-polymers of acrylamide-sodium acrylate (ANACH type) and homopolymers of sodium acrylate (NAHH type), obtained by gamma ray and accelerated electron beam are presented. The effects of the solution chemical composition, swelling medium nature, radiation absorbed dose and radiation absorbed dose rate upon the swelling degree and mechanical strength of these hydrogel types are discussed. Distilled water, physiological serum and 4 N NaCl aqueous solution were used as swelling medium. Radiation absorbed dose has an important effect upon the swelling degree of AHH and ANACH types especially when distilled water is used as swelling medium while the NAHH swelling degree presents a small dependence versus absorbed dose for all swelling medium types. Usually, the swelling degree for all hydrogel types decreases versus absorbed dose and absorbed dose rate and exhibits the higher values for distilled water as swelling medium. The hydrogels mechanical strength exhibits a maximum value versus absorbed dose. The best values for mechanical strength depend on hydrogel type and swelling medium. The used range for absorbed dose was from 2 kGy to 16 kGy. Our types of hydrogels were developed for some applications such as in agriculture (AHH and ANACH types) to maintain soil humidity and in medicine as absorption material for dressing (NAHH types). (author)

  4. Evaluation of Physic-chemical Parameters of Water Quality on Agricultural Fields of Western Bahia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoc Lima do Rego

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available For the diagnosis of the quality of water it is necessary to execute a set of analyzes (physical and chemical of the body of water that will provide information that integrate biotic and abiotic factors that govern the functioning of the ecosystem. The objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of water from wells and rivers of Urucuia aquifer region for investigation of contamination or contamination risks. Were realize collections in nine (9 areas of western Bahia, which were collect in each area, two points of well water samples and a river, and determining the electrical conductivity, pH, dissolved ions and metals. The results were compare with the maximum permissible values (MPV for human consumption by Ordinance No. 2914/11 of the Ministry of Health and National Environment Counsel - CONAMA (Resolution 357 and supplementary resolutions. The quantitative results of the analysis showed that the surface and well waters that are part of the aquifer Urucuia within the parameters investigated are below the values recommended by the legislation showing that the agricultural activities in the region has not affected to the evaluated parameters, the quality of water for human consumption. However, it is necessary a monitoring of surface and groundwater in the region with expansion parameters evaluated. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v9i2.880

  5. Soil organic carbon mapping of partially vegetated agricultural fields with imaging spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartholomeus, H.; Kooistra, L.; Stevens, A.; Leeuwen, van M.; Wesemael, van B.; Ben-Dor, E.; Tychon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) is one of the key soil properties, but the large spatial variation makes continuous mapping a complex task. Imaging spectroscopy has proven to be an useful technique for mapping of soil properties, but the applicability decreases rapidly when fields are partially covered

  6. Entomopathogenic fungi in predatory beetles (Col: Carabidae and Staphylinidae) from agricultural fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, T; Langer, V; Esbjerg, P

    1995-01-01

    Prevalence of entomopathogenic fungi was studied in overwintering ground beetles (Col.: Carabidae) and rove beetles (Col.: Staphylinidae) collected from fields of lucerne, white cabbage and white cabbage undersown with white clover. In general infection levels in adult ground beetles and rove bee...

  7. ANALYSIS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND NOISE IN THE AREA OF AGRICUL-TURAL BIOGAS PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł A. Mazurek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electro-magnetic and acoustic fields were analysed at the bioenergy and biogas production plant of 0.999 MW operational power, localized in Piaski. Measured values were compared with valid national norms and did not exceed limiting values in zones of people’s permanent residence.

  8. Tetracyclines and tetracycline resistance in agricultural soils: microcosm and field studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Heike; Stoob, Krispin; Hamscher, Gerd; Smit, Eric; Seinen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the use of antibiotics on the prevalence of resistance genes in the environment is still poorly understood. We studied the diversity of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes as influenced by fertilization with pig manure in soil microcosms and at two field locations. Manure

  9. A Risk-Based Interval Two-Stage Programming Model for Agricultural System Management under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpoint source (NPS pollution caused by agricultural activities is main reason that water quality in watershed becomes worse, even leading to deterioration. Moreover, pollution control is accompanied with revenue’s fall for agricultural system. How to design and generate a cost-effective and environmentally friendly agricultural production pattern is a critical issue for local managers. In this study, a risk-based interval two-stage programming model (RBITSP was developed. Compared to general ITSP model, significant contribution made by RBITSP model was that it emphasized importance of financial risk under various probabilistic levels, rather than only being concentrated on expected economic benefit, where risk is expressed as the probability of not meeting target profit under each individual scenario realization. This way effectively avoided solutions’ inaccuracy caused by traditional expected objective function and generated a variety of solutions through adjusting weight coefficients, which reflected trade-off between system economy and reliability. A case study of agricultural production management with the Tai Lake watershed was used to demonstrate superiority of proposed model. Obtained results could be a base for designing land-structure adjustment patterns and farmland retirement schemes and realizing balance of system benefit, system-failure risk, and water-body protection.

  10. Estimation of Tree Cover in an Agricultural Parkland of Senegal Using Rule-Based Regression Tree Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie M. Herrmann

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Field trees are an integral part of the farmed parkland landscape in West Africa and provide multiple benefits to the local environment and livelihoods. While field trees have received increasing interest in the context of strengthening resilience to climate variability and change, the actual extent of farmed parkland and spatial patterns of tree cover are largely unknown. We used the rule-based predictive modeling tool Cubist® to estimate field tree cover in the west-central agricultural region of Senegal. A collection of rules and associated multiple linear regression models was constructed from (1 a reference dataset of percent tree cover derived from very high spatial resolution data (2 m Orbview as the dependent variable, and (2 ten years of 10-day 250 m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI composites and derived phenological metrics as independent variables. Correlation coefficients between modeled and reference percent tree cover of 0.88 and 0.77 were achieved for training and validation data respectively, with absolute mean errors of 1.07 and 1.03 percent tree cover. The resulting map shows a west-east gradient from high tree cover in the peri-urban areas of horticulture and arboriculture to low tree cover in the more sparsely populated eastern part of the study area. A comparison of current (2000s tree cover along this gradient with historic cover as seen on Corona images reveals dynamics of change but also areas of remarkable stability of field tree cover since 1968. The proposed modeling approach can help to identify locations of high and low tree cover in dryland environments and guide ground studies and management interventions aimed at promoting the integration of field trees in agricultural systems.

  11. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Suneetha; Morgan, Emily H; Cyriac, Shruthi; Margolies, Amy; Roopnaraine, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members to champion nutrition

  12. Adapting Agriculture Platforms for Nutrition: A Case Study of a Participatory, Video-Based Agricultural Extension Platform in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneetha Kadiyala

    Full Text Available Successful integration of nutrition interventions into large-scale development programmes from nutrition-relevant sectors, such as agriculture, can address critical underlying determinants of undernutrition and enhance the coverage and effectiveness of on-going nutrition-specific activities. However, evidence on how this can be done is limited. This study examines the feasibility of delivering maternal, infant, and young child nutrition behaviour change communication through an innovative agricultural extension programme serving nutritionally vulnerable groups in rural India. The existing agriculture programme involves participatory production of low-cost videos promoting best practices and broad dissemination through village-level women's self-help groups. For the nutrition intervention, 10 videos promoting specific maternal, infant, and young child nutrition practices were produced and disseminated in 30 villages. A range of methods was used to collect data, including in-depth interviews with project staff, frontline health workers, and self-help group members and their families; structured observations of mediated video dissemination sessions; nutrition knowledge tests with project staff and self-help group members; and a social network questionnaire to assess diffusion of promoted nutrition messages. We found the nutrition intervention to be well-received by rural communities and viewed as complementary to existing frontline health services. However, compared to agriculture, nutrition content required more time, creativity, and technical support to develop and deliver. Experimentation with promoted nutrition behaviours was high, but sharing of information from the videos with non-viewers was limited. Key lessons learned include the benefits of and need for collaboration with existing health services; continued technical support for implementing partners; engagement with local cultural norms and beliefs; empowerment of women's group members

  13. Drought characterisation based on an agriculture-oriented standardised precipitation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigkas, Dimitris; Vangelis, Harris; Tsakiris, George

    2018-03-01

    Drought is a major natural hazard with significant effects in the agricultural sector, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. The accurate and timely characterisation of agricultural drought is crucial for devising contingency plans, including the necessary mitigation measures. Many drought indices have been developed during the last decades for drought characterisation and analysis. One of the most widely used indices worldwide is the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). Although other comprehensive indices have been introduced over the years, SPI remains the most broadly accepted index due to a number of reasons, the most important of which are its simple structure and the fact that it uses only precipitation data. In this paper, a modified version of SPI is proposed, namely the Agricultural Standardised Precipitation Index (aSPI), based on the substitution of the total precipitation by the effective precipitation, which describes more accurately the amount of water that can be used productively by the plants. Further, the selection of the most suitable reference periods and time steps for agricultural drought identification using aSPI is discussed. This conceptual enhancement of SPI aims at improving the suitability of the index for agricultural drought characterisation, while retaining the advantages of the original index, including its dependence only on precipitation data. The evaluation of the performance of both SPI and aSPI in terms of correlating drought magnitude with crop yield response in four regions of Greece under Mediterranean conditions indicated that aSPI is more robust than the original index in identifying agricultural drought.

  14. Standardization of doctoral study in agricultural and extension education: is the field of study mature enough for achievement of the optimum degree of order?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briers, G E; Lindner, J R; Shinn, G C; Wingenbach, G W; Baker, M T

    2010-01-01

    Agricultural and extension education--or some derivative name--is a field of study leading to the doctoral degree in universities around the world. Is there are body of knowledge or a taxonomy of the knowledge--e.g., a knowledge domain--that one should possess with a doctorate in agricultural and extension education? The purpose of this paper was to synthesize the work of researchers who attempted to define the field of study, with a taxonomy comprising the knowledge domains (standards) and knowledge objects--structured interrelated sets of data, knowledge, and wisdom--of the field of study. Doctoral study in agricultural and extension education needs a document that provides for rules and guidelines--rules and guidelines that in turn provide for common and repeated use--all leading to achievement of an optimum degree of order in the context of academic, scholarly, and professional practice in agricultural and extension education. Thus, one would know in broad categories the knowledge, skills, and abilities possessed by one who holds a doctoral degree in agricultural and extension education. That is, there would exist a standard for doctoral degrees in agricultural and extension education. A content analysis of three previous attempts to categorize knowledge in agricultural and extension education served as the primary technique to create a new taxonomy--or to confirm an existing taxonomy--for doctoral study in agricultural and extension education. The following coalesced as nine essential knowledge domains for a doctorate in agricultural and extension education: (1) history, philosophy, ethics, and policy; (2) agricultural/rural development; (3) organizational development and change management; (4) planning, needs assessment, and evaluation; (5) learning theory; (6) curriculum development and instructional design; (7) teaching methods and delivery strategies; (8) research methods and tools; and, (9) scholarship and communications.

  15. Discrete phase space based on finite fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, Kathleen S.; Hoffman, Matthew J.; Wootters, William K.

    2004-01-01

    The original Wigner function provides a way of representing in phase space the quantum states of systems with continuous degrees of freedom. Wigner functions have also been developed for discrete quantum systems, one popular version being defined on a 2Nx2N discrete phase space for a system with N orthogonal states. Here we investigate an alternative class of discrete Wigner functions, in which the field of real numbers that labels the axes of continuous phase space is replaced by a finite field having N elements. There exists such a field if and only if N is a power of a prime; so our formulation can be applied directly only to systems for which the state-space dimension takes such a value. Though this condition may seem limiting, we note that any quantum computer based on qubits meets the condition and can thus be accommodated within our scheme. The geometry of our NxN phase space also leads naturally to a method of constructing a complete set of N+1 mutually unbiased bases for the state space

  16. Overview of the Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08): A field experiment evaluating methods for quantifying ET at multiple scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evett, Steven R.; Kustas, William P.; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Anderson, Martha C.; Prueger, John H.; Howell, Terry A.

    2012-12-01

    In 2008, scientists from seven federal and state institutions worked together to investigate temporal and spatial variations of evapotranspiration (ET) and surface energy balance in a semi-arid irrigated and dryland agricultural region of the Southern High Plains in the Texas Panhandle. This Bushland Evapotranspiration and Agricultural Remote sensing EXperiment 2008 (BEAREX08) involved determination of micrometeorological fluxes (surface energy balance) in four weighing lysimeter fields (each 4.7 ha) containing irrigated and dryland cotton and in nearby bare soil, wheat stubble and rangeland fields using nine eddy covariance stations, three large aperture scintillometers, and three Bowen ratio systems. In coordination with satellite overpasses, flux and remote sensing aircraft flew transects over the surrounding fields and region encompassing an area contributing fluxes from 10 to 30 km upwind of the USDA-ARS lysimeter site. Tethered balloon soundings were conducted over the irrigated fields to investigate the effect of advection on local boundary layer development. Local ET was measured using four large weighing lysimeters, while field scale estimates were made by soil water balance with a network of neutron probe profile water sites and from the stationary flux systems. Aircraft and satellite imagery were obtained at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Plot-scale experiments dealt with row orientation and crop height effects on spatial and temporal patterns of soil surface temperature, soil water content, soil heat flux, evaporation from soil in the interrow, plant transpiration and canopy and soil radiation fluxes. The BEAREX08 field experiment was unique in its assessment of ET fluxes over a broad range in spatial scales; comparing direct and indirect methods at local scales with remote sensing based methods and models using aircraft and satellite imagery at local to regional scales, and comparing mass balance-based ET ground truth with eddy covariance

  17. Long-term field-scale experiment on using lime filters in an agricultural catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkkala, Teija; Ventelä, Anne-Mari; Tarvainen, Marjo

    2012-01-01

    The River Yläneenjoki catchment in southwest Finland is an area with a high agricultural nutrient load. We report here on the nutrient removal performance of three on-site lime-sand filters (F1, F2, and F3), established within or on the edge of the buffer zones. The filters contain burnt lime (CaO) or spent lime [CaO, Ca(OH), and CaCO]. Easily soluble lime results in a high pH level (>11) and leads to an efficient precipitation of soluble phosphorus (P) from the runoff. Water samples were taken from the inflow and outflow of each site in different hydrological situations. The length of the monitoring period was 4 yr for F1, 6 yr for F2, and 1.5 yr for F3. F1 and F2 significantly reduced the suspended solids (SS), total P (PTOT), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) in the treated water. The proportional reduction (%) varied but was usually clearly positive. Filter F3 was divided into two equal parts, one containing burnt lime and the other spent lime. Both filter parts removed PTOT and SS efficiently from the water; the burnt-lime part also removed DRP. The mixed-lime part removed DRP for a year, but then the efficiency decreased. The effect of filters on nitrogen compounds varied. We conclude that sand filters incorporating lime can be used together with buffer zones to reduce both P and SS load to watercourses. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  18. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  19. Tetracyclines and tetracycline resistance in agricultural soils: microcosm and field studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmitt, Heike; Stoob, Krispin; Hamscher, Gerd; Smit, Eric; Seinen, Willem

    2006-01-01

    The influence of the use of antibiotics on the prevalence of resistance genes in the environment is still poorly understood. We studied the diversity of tetracycline and sulfonamide resistance genes as influenced by fertilization with pig manure in soil microcosms and at two field locations. Manure contained a high diversity of resistance genes, regardless of whether it stemmed from a farm operation with low or regular use of antibiotics. In the microcosm soils, the influence of fertilization...

  20. Chemical and biological characterization of products of incomplete combustion from the simulated field burning of agricultural plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linak, W P; Ryan, J V; Perry, E; Williams, R W; DeMarini, D M

    1989-06-01

    Chemical and biological analyses were performed to characterize products of incomplete combustion emitted during the simulated open field burning of agricultural plastic. A small utility shed equipped with an air delivery system was used to simulate pile burning and forced-air-curtain incineration of a nonhalogenated agricultural plastic that reportedly consisted of polyethylene and carbon black. Emissions were analyzed for combustion gases; volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate organics; and toxic and mutagenic properties. Emission samples, as well as samples of the used (possibly pesticide-contaminated) plastic, were analyzed for the presence of several pesticides to which the plastic may have been exposed. Although a variety of alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were identified in the volatile, semi-volatile, and particulate fractions of these emissions, a substantial fraction of higher molecular weight organic material was not identified. No pesticides were identified in either combustion emission samples or dichloromethane washes of the used plastic. When mutagenicity was evaluated by exposing Salmonella bacteria (Ames assay) to whole vapor and vapor/particulate emissions, no toxic or mutagenic effects were observed. However, organic extracts of the particulate samples were moderately mutagenic. This mutagenicity compares approximately to that measured from residential wood heating on a revertant per unit heat release basis. Compared to pile burning, forced air slightly decreased the time necessary to burn a charge of plastic. There was not a substantial difference, however, in the variety or concentrations of organic compounds identified in samples from these two burn conditions. This study highlights the benefits of a combined chemical/biological approach to the characterization of complex, multi-component combustion emissions. These results may not reflect those of other types of plastic that may be used

  1. Nutrient uptake by agricultural crops from biochar-amended soils: results from two field experiments in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karer, Jasmin; Zehetner, Franz; Kloss, Stefanie; Wimmer, Bernhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    The use of biochar as soil amendment is considered as a promising agricultural soil management technique, combining carbon sequestration and soil fertility improvements. These expectations are largely founded on positive experiences with biochar applications to impoverished or degraded tropical soils. The validity of these results for soils in temperate climates needs confirmation from field experiments with typical soils representative for intensive agricultural production areas. Frequently biochar is mixed with other organic additives like compost. As these two materials interact with each other and each one may vary considerably in its basic characteristics, it is difficult to attribute the effects of the combined additive to one of its components and to a specific physico-chemical parameter. Therefore investigations of the amendment efficacy require the study of the pure components to characterize their specific behavior in soil. This is especially important for adsorption behavior of biochar for macro- and micronutrients because in soil there are multiple nutrient sinks that compete with plant roots for vital elements. Therefore this contribution presents results from a field amendment study with pure biochar that had the objective to characterize the macro- and microelement uptake of crops from different soils in two typical Austrian areas of agricultural production. At two locations in North and South-East Austria, two identical field experiments on different soils (Chernozem and Cambisol) were installed in 2011 with varying biochar additions (0, 30 and 90 t/ha) and two nitrogen levels. The biochar was a product from slow pyrolysis of wood (SC Romchar SRL). During the installation of the experiments, the biochar fraction of corn). An omission of biochar addition at the same nitrogen addition rate resulted in a yield decrease of 10 % for barley although the total N uptake was 11 % higher but P and K uptake decreased by 14 and 6 %. This indicates that the

  2. Vision-Based Leader Vehicle Trajectory Tracking for Multiple Agricultural Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linhuan; Ahamed, Tofael; Zhang, Yan; Gao, Pengbo; Takigawa, Tomohiro

    2016-04-22

    The aim of this study was to design a navigation system composed of a human-controlled leader vehicle and a follower vehicle. The follower vehicle automatically tracks the leader vehicle. With such a system, a human driver can control two vehicles efficiently in agricultural operations. The tracking system was developed for the leader and the follower vehicle, and control of the follower was performed using a camera vision system. A stable and accurate monocular vision-based sensing system was designed, consisting of a camera and rectangular markers. Noise in the data acquisition was reduced by using the least-squares method. A feedback control algorithm was used to allow the follower vehicle to track the trajectory of the leader vehicle. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was introduced to maintain the required distance between the leader and the follower vehicle. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the sensing and tracking performances of the leader-follower system while the leader vehicle was driven at an average speed of 0.3 m/s. In the case of linear trajectory tracking, the RMS errors were 6.5 cm, 8.9 cm and 16.4 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. Again, for parallel trajectory tracking, the root mean square (RMS) errors were found to be 7.1 cm, 14.6 cm and 14.0 cm for straight, turning and zigzag paths, respectively. The navigation performances indicated that the autonomous follower vehicle was able to follow the leader vehicle, and the tracking accuracy was found to be satisfactory. Therefore, the developed leader-follower system can be implemented for the harvesting of grains, using a combine as the leader and an unloader as the autonomous follower vehicle.

  3. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  4. Laboratory and field based evaluation of chromatography ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Monitor for AeRosols and GAses in ambient air (MARGA) is an on-line ion-chromatography-based instrument designed for speciation of the inorganic gas and aerosol ammonium-nitrate-sulfate system. Previous work to characterize the performance of the MARGA has been primarily based on field comparison to other measurement methods to evaluate accuracy. While such studies are useful, the underlying reasons for disagreement among methods are not always clear. This study examines aspects of MARGA accuracy and precision specifically related to automated chromatography analysis. Using laboratory standards, analytical accuracy, precision, and method detection limits derived from the MARGA chromatography software are compared to an alternative software package (Chromeleon, Thermo Scientific Dionex). Field measurements are used to further evaluate instrument performance, including the MARGA’s use of an internal LiBr standard to control accuracy. Using gas/aerosol ratios and aerosol neutralization state as a case study, the impact of chromatography on measurement error is assessed. The new generation of on-line chromatography-based gas and particle measurement systems have many advantages, including simultaneous analysis of multiple pollutants. The Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in Ambient Air (MARGA) is such an instrument that is used in North America, Europe, and Asia for atmospheric process studies as well as routine monitoring. While the instrument has been evaluat

  5. Applications of Smartphone-Based Sensors in Agriculture: A Systematic Review of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suporn Pongnumkul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones have become a useful tool in agriculture because their mobility matches the nature of farming, the cost of the device is highly accessible, and their computing power allows a variety of practical applications to be created. Moreover, smartphones are nowadays equipped with various types of physical sensors which make them a promising tool to assist diverse farming tasks. This paper systematically reviews smartphone applications mentioned in research literature that utilize smartphone built-in sensors to provide agricultural solutions. The initial 1,500 articles identified through database search were screened based on exclusion criteria and then reviewed thoroughly in full text, resulting in 22 articles included in this review. The applications are categorized according to their agricultural functions. Those articles reviewed describe 12 farming applications, 6 farm management applications, 3 information system applications, and 4 extension service applications. GPS and cameras are the most popular sensors used in the reviewed papers. This shows an opportunity for future applications to utilize other sensors such as accelerometer to provide advanced agricultural solutions.

  6. Earthworms influenced by reduced tillage, conventional tillage and energy forest in Swedish agricultural field experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerloef, Jan (SLU, Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)), Email: Jan.Lagerlof@ekol.slu.se; Paalsson, Olof; Arvidsson, Johan (SLU, Department of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden))

    2012-03-15

    We compared earthworm density, depth distribution and species composition in three soil cultivation experiments including the treatments ploughless tillage and mouldboard ploughing. Sampling was done in September 2005 and for one experiment also in 1994. By yearly sampling 1995-2005, earthworms in an energy forest of Salix viminalis were compared with those in an adjacent arable field. Sampling method was digging of soil blocks and hand sorting and formalin sampling in one cultivation experiment. Both methods were used in the energy forest and arable land comparison. In two soil cultivation experiments, highest abundances or biomass were found in ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was higher in the upper 10 cm, especially in the ploughless tillage. Earthworm density was significantly higher in the energy forest than in the arable field. Formalin sampling revealed c. 36% of the earthworm numbers found by digging in the energy forest and gave almost no earthworms in the arable field. In all treatments with soil cultivation, species living and feeding in the rhizosphere and soil dominated. One such species, Allolobophora chlorotica, was more abundant under mouldboard ploughing than ploughless tillage. Lumbricus terrestris, browsing on the surface and producing deep vertical burrows, was more common in the ploughless tillage. Species living and feeding close to the soil surface were almost only found in the energy forest, which had not been soil cultivated since 1984. The findings support earlier studies pointing out possibilities to encourage earthworms by reduced soil cultivation. This is one of the first published studies that followed earthworm populations in an energy forest plantation during several years. Explanation of earthworm reactions to management and environmental impacts should be done with consideration of the ecology of species or species groups. Earthworm sampling by formalin must always be interpreted with caution and calibrated by digging and

  7. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelliher, F.M.; Cox, N.; Weerden, T.J. van der; Klein, C.A.M. de; Luo, J.; Cameron, K.C.; Di, H.J.; Giltrap, D.; Rys, G.

    2014-01-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  8. Temporal Patterns of Glyphosate Leaching at a Loamy Agricultural Field in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Olsen, Preben

    2013-01-01

    applications in combination with the effect of precipitation events, drain water runoff, soil water content at 25 cm soil depth, management, and particle leaching patterns, and compares this with monitored field-scale glyphosate and AMPA leaching to a tile drainage system. Preliminary findings indicate...... that there is an accumulation of glyphosate and AMPA in the soil after the successive applications of glyphosate, as the level of the peaking concentrations right after applications increases. Furthermore, large precipitation events with subsequent high drain water runoff together with management, especially plowing...

  9. Evaluation of a model framework to estimate soil and soil organic carbon redistribution by water and tillage using 137Cs in two U.S. Midwest agricultural fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Claudia J.; Liu, Shuguang; Schumacher, Joseph A.; Schumacher, Thomas E.; Kaspar, Thomas C.; McCarty, Gregory W.; Napton, Darrell; Jaynes, Dan B.

    2014-01-01

    Cultivated lands in the U.S. Midwest have been affected by soil erosion, causing soil organic carbon (SOC) redistribution in the landscape and other environmental and agricultural problems. The importance of SOC redistribution on soil productivity and crop yield, however, is still uncertain. In this study, we used a model framework, which includes the Unit Stream Power-based Erosion Deposition (USPED) and the Tillage Erosion Prediction (TEP) models, to understand the soil and SOC redistribution caused by water and tillage erosion in two agricultural fields in the U.S. Midwest. This model framework was evaluated for different digital elevation model (DEM) spatial resolutions (10-m, 24-m, 30-m, and 56-m) and topographic exponents (m = 1.0–1.6 and n = 1.0–1.3) using soil redistribution rates from 137Cs measurements. The results showed that the aggregated 24-m DEM, m = 1.4 and n = 1.0 for rill erosion, and m = 1.0 and n = 1.0 for sheet erosion, provided the best fit with the observation data at both sites. Moreover, estimated average SOC redistributions were 1.3 ± 9.8 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 1 and 3.6 ± 14.3 g C m− 2 yr− 1 in field site 2. Spatial distribution patterns showed SOC loss (negative values) in the eroded areas and SOC gain (positive value) in the deposition areas. This study demonstrated the importance of the spatial resolution and the topographic exponents to estimate and map soil redistribution and the SOC dynamics throughout the landscape, helping to identify places where erosion and deposition from water and tillage are occurring at high rates. Additional research is needed to improve the application of the model framework for use in local and regional studies where rainfall erosivity and cover management factors vary. Therefore, using this model framework can help to improve the information about the spatial distribution of soil erosion across agricultural landscapes and to gain a better understanding of SOC

  10. Assessment of soil redistribution rates by 137Cs and 210Pbex in a typical Malagasy agricultural field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabesiranana, N.; Rasolonirina, M.; Solonjara, A.F.; Ravoson, H.N.; Raoelina Andriambololona; Mabit, L.

    2016-01-01

    Soil degradation processes affect more than one-third of the Malagasy territory and are considered as the major environmental threat impacting the natural resources of the island. This innovative study reports about a pioneer test and use of radio-isotopic techniques (i.e. Cs-137 and Pb-210ex) under Madagascar agroclimatic condition to evaluate soil erosion magnitude. This preliminary investigation has been conducted in a small agricultural field situated in the eastern central highland of Madagascar, 40 km East from Antananarivo. Both anthropogenic Cs-137 and geogenic Pb-210 soil tracers provided similar results highlighting soil erosion rates reaching locally 18 t ha −1  yr −1, a level almost two times higher than the sustainable soil loss rate under Madagascar agroclimatic condition. The sediment delivery ratio established with both radiotracers was above 80% indicating that most of the mobilized sediment exits the field. Assessing soil erosion rate through fallout radionuclides in Madagascar is a first step towards an efficient land and water resource management policy to optimise the effectiveness of future agricultural soil conservation practices. - Highlights: • A pioneer test of radioisotopic techniques under Madagascar agroclimatic condition for estimating soil erosion magnitude. • Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex Mass Balance Models (MBM) conjointly used to highlight timescale discrimination of erosion process. • Timescale discrimination suggests significant increase of erosion magnitude during the last 50 years. • Estimated erosion rates above 10 t ha −1 yr −1 indicate a clear threat for the sustainability of Malagasy soil resources. • Findings indicate the potential of using jointly Cs-137 and Pb-210 ex under local agroecological conditions.

  11. TractorEYE: Vision-based Real-time Detection for Autonomous Vehicles in Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter

    ) using a smaller memory footprint and 7.3-times faster processing. Low memory footprint and fast processing makes DeepAnomaly suitable for real-time applications running on an embedded GPU. FieldSAFE is a multi-modal dataset for detection of static and moving obstacles in agriculture. The dataset...... (four for rgb camera, one for thermal camera and one for a Multi-beam lidar) and fuse detection information in a common format using either 3D positions or Inverse Sensor Models. A GPU powered computational platform is able to run detection algorithms online. For the rgb camera, a deep learning...... algorithm is proposed DeepAnomaly to perform real-time anomaly detection of distant, heavy occluded and unknown obstacles in agriculture. DeepAnomaly is - compared to a state-of-the-art object detector Faster R-CNN - for an agricultural use-case able to detect humans better and at longer ranges (45-90m...

  12. Work characteristics and pesticide exposures among migrant agricultural families: a community-based research approach.

    OpenAIRE

    McCauley, L A; Lasarev, M R; Higgins, G; Rothlein, J; Muniz, J; Ebbert, C; Phillips, J

    2001-01-01

    There are few data on pesticide exposures of migrant Latino farmworker children, and access to this vulnerable population is often difficult. In this paper we describe a community-based approach to implement culturally appropriate research methods with a migrant Latino farmworker community in Oregon. Assessments were conducted in 96 farmworker homes and 24 grower homes in two agricultural communities in Oregon. Measurements included surveys of pesticide use and work protection practices and a...

  13. Controlling factors of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions at the field-scale in an agricultural slope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilain, Guillaume; Garnier, Josette; Tallec, Gaëlle; Tournebize, Julien; Cellier, Pierre; Flipo, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Agricultural practices widely contribute to the atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) concentration increase and are the major source of N2O which account for 24% of the global annual emission (IPCC, 2007). Soil nitrification and denitrification are the microbial processes responsible for the production of N2O, which also depends on soil characteristics and management. Besides their control by various factors, such as climate, soil conditions and management (content of NO3- and NH4+, soil water content, presence of degradable organic material…), the role of topography is less known although it can play an important role on N2O emissions (Izaurralde et al., 2004). Due to the scarcity of data on N2O direct vs. indirect emission rate from agriculture in the Seine Basin (Garnier et al., 2009), one of the objectives of the study conducted here was to determine the N2O emission rates of the various land use representative for the Seine Basin, in order to better assess the direct N2O emissions, and to explore controlling factor such as meteorology, topography, soil properties and crop successions. The main objective of this study was at the same time to characterize N2O fluxes variability along a transect from an agricultural plateau to a river and to analyze the influence of landscape position on these emissions. We conducted this study in the Orgeval catchment (Seine basin, France; between 48°47' and 48°55' N, and 03°00' and 03°55' E) from May 2008 to August 2009 on two agricultural fields cropped with wheat, barley, oats, corn. N2O fluxes were monitored from weekly to bimonthly using static manual chambers placed along the chosen transect in five different landscape positions from the plateau to the River. This study has shown that soil moisture (expressed as Water Filled Pore Space) and NO3- soil concentrations explained most of the N2O flux variability during the sampling period. Most of N2O was emitted directly after N fertilization application during a relatively

  14. Development of Field Information Monitoring System Based on the Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ken; Liang, Xiaoying; Wang, Keqiang

    With the rapid development and wide application of electronics, communication and embedded system technologies, the global agriculture is changing from traditional agriculture that is to improve the production relying on the increase of labor, agricultural inputs to the new stage of modern agriculture with low yields, high efficiency, real-time and accuracy. On the other hand the research and development of the Internet of Things, which is an information network to connect objects, with the full capacity to perceive objects, and having the capabilities of reliable transmission and intelligence processing for information, allows us to obtain real-time information of anything. The application of the Internet of Things in field information online monitoring is an effective solution for present wired sensor monitoring system, which has much more disadvantages, such as high cost, the problems of laying lines and so on. In this paper, a novel field information monitoring system based on the Internet of Things is proposed. It can satisfy the requirements of multi-point measurement, mobility, convenience in the field information monitoring process. The whole structure of system is given and the key designs of system design are described in the hardware and software aspect. The studies have expanded current field information measurement methods and strengthen the application of the Internet of Things.

  15. Measurements of the effectiveness of conservation agriculture at the field scale using radioisotopic techniques and runoff plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabit, L.; Klik, A.; Toloza, A.; Benmansour, M.; Geisler, A.; Gerstmann, U. C.

    2009-04-01

    Growing evidence of the cost of soil erosion on agricultural land and off site impact of associated processes has emphasized the needs for quantitative assessment of erosion rates to develop and assess erosion control technology and to allocate conservation resources and development of conservation regulation, policies and programmes. Our main study goal was to assess the magnitude of deposition rates using Fallout Radionuclides ‘FRNs' (137-Cs and 210-Pb) and the mid-term (13 years) erosion rates using conventional runoff plot measurements in a small agricultural watershed under conventional and conservation tillage practices. The tillage treatments were conventional tillage system (CT), mechanical plough to 30 cm depth (the most common tillage system within the watershed); conservation tillage (CS) with cover crops during winter; and direct seeding (DS) no tillage with cover crops during winter. The experimental design - located in Mistelbach watershed 60 km north of Vienna/Austria - consists of one 3-metre-wide and 15-metre-long runoff plot (silt loam - slope of 14%) for each tillage system (CT, CS and DS) with the plots placed in the upper part of an agricultural field. 76 soil samples were collected to evaluate the initial fallout of 137-Cs and 210-Pb in a small forested area close to the experimental field, along a systematic multi-grid design,. In the sedimentation area of the watershed and down slope the agricultural field, 2 additional soil profiles were collected to 1 m depth. All soil samples were air dried, sieved to 2mm and analysed for their 137-Cs and 210-Pb contents using gamma detector. The main results and conclusion can be summarised as following: i) The initial 137-Cs fallout as measured in the 76 forested soil samples ranged from 1123 to 3354 Bq/m2 for an average of 1954 Bq/m2 with a coefficient of variation of 20.4 %. ii) Long-term erosion measurements (1994-2006) from runoff plots located in the upper part of the agricultural field just up

  16. Soil-to-crop transfer factors of radium in Japanese agricultural fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, S.; Tagami, K.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 226 Ra in upland field crops (e.g., cabbage, leek, onion, potato, and so on) and associated soils collected from 45 locations throughout Japan were determined in order to obtain soil-to-crop transfer factors (TFs). Concentrations of 226 Ra in the soils collected in southwestern Japan were higher than those in northeastern Japan; however, no correlations between 226 Ra concentrations in crops and soils were observed. The TFs ranged from -3 to 5.8 x 10 -2 with a geometric mean of 6.4 x 10 -3 . These data were within the 95% confidential range of TF-Ra for several crops as reported in the IAEA Technical Reports Series No.364. Among the alkaline earth metals. TF-Ba was similar to TF-Ra. (author)

  17. Considering the normative, systemic and procedural dimensions in indicator-based sustainability assessments in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, Claudia R.; Feola, Giuseppe; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for evaluating sustainability assessment methods by separately analyzing their normative, systemic and procedural dimensions as suggested by Wiek and Binder [Wiek, A, Binder, C. Solution spaces for decision-making - a sustainability assessment tool for city-regions. Environ Impact Asses Rev 2005, 25: 589-608.]. The framework is then used to characterize indicator-based sustainability assessment methods in agriculture. For a long time, sustainability assessment in agriculture has focused mostly on environmental and technical issues, thus neglecting the economic and, above all, the social aspects of sustainability, the multi-functionality of agriculture and the applicability of the results. In response to these shortcomings, several integrative sustainability assessment methods have been developed for the agricultural sector. This paper reviews seven of these that represent the diversity of tools developed in this area. The reviewed assessment methods can be categorized into three types: (i) top-down farm assessment methods; (ii) top-down regional assessment methods with some stakeholder participation; (iii) bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods with stakeholder participation throughout the process. The results readily show the trade-offs encountered when selecting an assessment method. A clear, standardized, top-down procedure allows for potentially benchmarking and comparing results across regions and sites. However, this comes at the cost of system specificity. As the top-down methods often have low stakeholder involvement, the application and implementation of the results might be difficult. Our analysis suggests that to include the aspects mentioned above in agricultural sustainability assessment, the bottom-up, integrated participatory or transdisciplinary methods are the most suitable ones.

  18. Agricultural implications of providing soil-based constraints on urban expansion: Land use forecasts to 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Samuel J; Tayyebi, Amin; Kendall, Anthony D; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Hyndman, David W

    2018-07-01

    Urbanization onto adjacent farmlands directly reduces the agricultural area available to meet the resource needs of a growing society. Soil conservation is a common objective in urban planning, but little focus has been placed on targeting soil value as a metric for conservation. This study assigns commodity and water storage values to the agricultural soils across all of the watersheds in Michigan's Lower Peninsula to evaluate how cities might respond to a soil conservation-based urbanization strategy. Land Transformation Model (LTM) simulations representing both traditional and soil conservation-based urbanization, are used to forecast urban area growth from 2010 to 2050 at five year intervals. The expansion of urban areas onto adjacent farmland is then evaluated to quantify the conservation effects of soil-based development. Results indicate that a soil-based protection strategy significantly conserves total farmland, especially more fertile soils within each soil type. In terms of revenue, ∼$88 million (in current dollars) would be conserved in 2050 using soil-based constraints, with the projected savings from 2011 to 2050 totaling more than $1.5 billion. Soil-based urbanization also increased urban density for each major metropolitan area. For example, there were 94,640 more acres directly adjacent to urban land by 2050 under traditional development compared to the soil-based urbanization strategy, indicating that urban sprawl was more tightly contained when including soil value as a metric to guide development. This study indicates that implementing a soil-based urbanization strategy would better satisfy future agricultural resource needs than traditional urban planning. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Lessons From Watershed-Based Climate Smart Agricultural Practices In Jogo-Gudedo Watershed Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abera Assefa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Land degradation is the most chronic problem in the Ethiopia. Soil erosion and denudation of vegetation covers are tending to enlarge the area of degraded and west land in semi-arid watersheds. It is therefore watershed management is believed as a holistic approach to create a climate smart landscape that integrate forestry agriculture pasture and soil water management with an objective of sustainable management of natural resources to improve livelihood. This approach pursues to promote interactions among multiple stakeholders and their interests within and between the upstream and downstream locations of a watershed. Melkassa Agricultural Research Centre MARC has been implementing integrated watershed management research project in the Jogo-gudedo watershed from 2010-2014 and lessons from Jogo-gudedo watershed are presented in this research report. Participatory action research PAR was implemented on Soil and Water Conservation SWC area enclosure Agroforestry AF Conservation Tillage CT energy saving stove drought resistance crop varieties in the Jogo-gudedo watershed. Empirical research and action research at plot level and evaluation of introduced technologies with farmers through experimental learning approach and documentation were employed. The participatory evaluation and collective action of SWC and improved practices brought high degree of acceptance of the practices and technologies. This had been ratified by the implementation of comprehensive watershed management action research which in turn enabled to taste and exploit benefits of climate-smart agricultural practices. Eventually significant reduction on soil loss and fuel wood consumption improvements on vegetation cover and crop production were quantitatively recorded as a good indicator and success. Field visit meetings trainings and frequent dialogues between practitioners and communities at watershed level have had a help in promoting the climate smart agriculture

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  1. Cost-effectiveness analysis of surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) for nutrient reduction in drainage discharge from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies......, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients...... reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW...

  2. Cloud field classification based on textural features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Sailes Kumar

    1989-01-01

    An essential component in global climate research is accurate cloud cover and type determination. Of the two approaches to texture-based classification (statistical and textural), only the former is effective in the classification of natural scenes such as land, ocean, and atmosphere. In the statistical approach that was adopted, parameters characterizing the stochastic properties of the spatial distribution of grey levels in an image are estimated and then used as features for cloud classification. Two types of textural measures were used. One is based on the distribution of the grey level difference vector (GLDV), and the other on a set of textural features derived from the MaxMin cooccurrence matrix (MMCM). The GLDV method looks at the difference D of grey levels at pixels separated by a horizontal distance d and computes several statistics based on this distribution. These are then used as features in subsequent classification. The MaxMin tectural features on the other hand are based on the MMCM, a matrix whose (I,J)th entry give the relative frequency of occurrences of the grey level pair (I,J) that are consecutive and thresholded local extremes separated by a given pixel distance d. Textural measures are then computed based on this matrix in much the same manner as is done in texture computation using the grey level cooccurrence matrix. The database consists of 37 cloud field scenes from LANDSAT imagery using a near IR visible channel. The classification algorithm used is the well known Stepwise Discriminant Analysis. The overall accuracy was estimated by the percentage or correct classifications in each case. It turns out that both types of classifiers, at their best combination of features, and at any given spatial resolution give approximately the same classification accuracy. A neural network based classifier with a feed forward architecture and a back propagation training algorithm is used to increase the classification accuracy, using these two classes

  3. Instructional Competencies Needed to Develop Instructional Strategies for Mobile Learning in Fields of Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Travis; Strong, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Mobile learning is an evolving form of technology-based learning. The novelty of mobile learning gives educators a new tool for evaluating how to develop effective instruction for this new medium. A Delphi study was conducted using a 30-member panel comprised of experts across 20 states. The purpose was to determine the competencies needed to…

  4. Antimicrobial peptide production and plant-based expression systems for medical and agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holaskova, Edita; Galuszka, Petr; Frebort, Ivo; Oz, M Tufan

    2015-11-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are vital components of the innate immune system of nearly all living organisms. They generally act in the first line of defense against various pathogenic bacteria, parasites, enveloped viruses and fungi. These low molecular mass peptides are considered prospective therapeutic agents due to their broad-spectrum rapid activity, low cytotoxicity to mammalian cells and unique mode of action which hinders emergence of pathogen resistance. In addition to medical use, AMPs can also be employed for development of innovative approaches for plant protection in agriculture. Conferred disease resistance by AMPs might help us surmount losses in yield, quality and safety of agricultural products due to plant pathogens. Heterologous expression in plant-based systems, also called plant molecular farming, offers cost-effective large-scale production which is regarded as one of the most important factors for clinical or agricultural use of AMPs. This review presents various types of AMPs as well as plant-based platforms ranging from cell suspensions to whole plants employed for peptide production. Although AMP production in plants holds great promises for medicine and agriculture, specific technical limitations regarding product yield, function and stability still remain. Additionally, establishment of particular stable expression systems employing plants or plant tissues generally requires extended time scale for platform development compared to certain other heterologous systems. Therefore, fast and promising tools for evaluation of plant-based expression strategies and assessment of function and stability of the heterologously produced AMPs are critical for molecular farming and plant protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Using possibilities of some agricultural wastes in open-field banana cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ÖTEN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Usage of farmyard manure is the one of the major factors to increase production cost in banana cultivation. Besides increasing the production costs, other disadvantages of farmyard manure are playing active role on carrying diseases and pests and also difficulty in obtaining. Due to the stated disadvantages, the use farmyard manure of banana farmers is decreasing. Therefore, we need alternative ways to increase the organic matter capacity of the soil. The effects of alternative applications to farmyard manure, namely banana waste and mushroom compost were investigated. The objective of the study was to evaluate effects of these applications on some morphological properties (plant height, plant circumference and number of leaves, yield (number of hands, number of fingers, bunch weight, finger weight and length and quality properties (flesh/skin ratio, total soluble solids matter, sugars etc. under open-field banana cultivation. The experiment was conducted in Kargıcak location of Alanya in randomized complete block design (RCBD with 3 replications. Experimental results revealed that using of farmyard manure and waste treatments positively affected the yield parameters like the number of hands and fingers, finger length, finger weight and bunch weight. On the other hand, treatments did not have a statistically significant effect on fruit quality parameters like soluble solids content, titratable acidity, pH and ash.

  6. Keeping agricultural soil out of rivers: evidence of sediment and nutrient accumulation within field wetlands in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenden, Mary C; Deasy, Clare; Quinton, John N; Surridge, Ben; Stoate, Chris

    2014-03-15

    Intensification of agriculture has resulted in increased soil degradation and erosion, with associated pollution of surface waters. Small field wetlands, constructed along runoff pathways, offer one option for slowing down and storing runoff in order to allow more time for sedimentation and for nutrients to be taken up by plants or micro-organisms. This paper describes research to provide quantitative evidence for the effectiveness of small field wetlands in the UK landscape. Ten wetlands were built on four farms in Cumbria and Leicestershire, UK. Annual surveys of sediment and nutrient accumulation in 2010, 2011 and 2012 indicated that most sediment was trapped at a sandy site (70 tonnes over 3 years), compared to a silty site (40 tonnes over 3 years) and a clay site (2 tonnes over 3 years). The timing of rainfall was more important than total annual rainfall for sediment accumulation, with most sediment transported in a few intense rainfall events, especially when these coincided with bare soil or poor crop cover. Nutrient concentration within sediments was inversely related to median particle size, but the total mass of nutrients trapped was dependent on the total mass of sediment trapped. Ratios of nutrient elements in the wetland sediments were consistent between sites, despite different catchment characteristics across the individual wetlands. The nutrient value of sediment collected from the wetlands was similar to that of soil in the surrounding fields; dredged sediment was considered to have value as soil replacement but not as fertiliser. Overall, small field wetlands can make a valuable contribution to keeping soil out of rivers. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimal Scheme Selection of Agricultural Production Structure Adjustment - Based on DEA Model; Punjab (Pakistan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeeshan Ahmad; Meng Jun; Muhammad Abdullah; Mazhar Nadeem Ishaq; Majid Lateef; Imran Khan

    2015-01-01

    This paper used the modern evaluation method of DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) to assess the comparative efficiency and then on the basis of this among multiple schemes chose the optimal scheme of agricultural production structure adjustment. Based on the results of DEA model, we dissected scale advantages of each discretionary scheme or plan. We examined scale advantages of each discretionary scheme, tested profoundly a definitive purpose behind not-DEA efficient, which elucidated the system and methodology to enhance these discretionary plans. At the end, another method had been proposed to rank and select the optimal scheme. The research was important to guide the practice if the modification of agricultural production industrial structure was carried on.

  8. Leaching of Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid from an Agricultural Field over a Twelve-Year Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, Trine; Moldrup, Per; Ferré, Ty P A

    2014-01-01

    content at the time of application and the level of the groundwater table relative to the drain depth was essential for whether solutes were detected in the drainage runoff. We present a leaching risk chart to illustrate the dependence of glyphosate, AMPA, and soil particle leaching based on precipitation......, and particles. Glyphosate and AMPA leaching were highly event driven, controlled by the time and intensity of the first precipitation event after glyphosate application. A high similarity in time-accumulated curves for drainage and leached pesticide masses suggests near-constant drainage and leaching rates...

  9. Place-Based Picture Books as an Adult Learning Tool: Supporting Agricultural Learning in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoncini, Kym; Pamphilon, Barbara; Mikhailovich, Katja

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the rationale, development, and outcomes of two place-based, dual-language picture books with agricultural messages for women farmers and their families in Papua New Guinea. The purpose of the books was to disseminate better agricultural and livelihood practices to women farmers with low literacy. The books were designed and…

  10. An economic theory-based explanatory model of agricultural land-use patterns: The Netherlands as a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diogo, V.; Koomen, E.; Kuhlman, T.

    2015-01-01

    An economic theory-based land-use modelling framework is presented aiming to explain the causal link between economic decisions and resulting spatial patterns of agricultural land use. The framework assumes that farmers pursue utility maximisation in agricultural production systems, while

  11. Towards a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils for the Swiss greenhouse gas reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, K.; Leifeld, J.; Bretscher, D.; Fuhrer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Swiss inventory submission under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) reports on changes in soil organic carbon stocks under different land-uses and land-use changes. The approach currently employed for cropland and grassland soils combines Tier 1 and Tier 2 methods and is considered overly simplistic. As the UNFCC encourages countries to develop Tier 3 methods for national greenhouse gas reporting, we aim to build up a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. We conducted a literature research on currently employed higher-tier methods using process-based models in four countries: Denmark, Sweden, Finland and the USA. The applied models stem from two major groups differing in complexity - those belonging to the group of general ecosystem models that include a plant-growth submodel, e.g. Century, and those that simulate soil organic matter turnover but not plant-growth, e.g. ICBM. For the latter group, carbon inputs to the soil from plant residues and roots have to be determined separately. We will present some aspects of the development of a model-based inventory of soil organic carbon in agricultural soils in Switzerland. Criteria for model evaluation are, among others, modeled land-use classes and land-use changes, spatial and temporal resolution, and coverage of relevant processes. For model parameterization and model evaluation at the field scale, data from several long-term agricultural experiments and monitoring sites in Switzerland is available. A subsequent regional application of a model requires the preparation of regional input data for the whole country - among others spatio-temporal meteorological data, agricultural and soil data. Following the evaluation of possible models and of available data, preference for application in the Swiss inventory will be given to simpler model structures, i.e. models without a plant-growth module. Thus, we compared different allometric relations

  12. Field microcomputerized multichannel γ ray spectrometer based on notebook computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenyi; Wei Biao; Zhou Rongsheng; Li Guodong; Tang Hong

    1996-01-01

    Currently, field γ ray spectrometry can not rapidly measure γ ray full spectrum, so a field microcomputerized multichannel γ ray spectrometer based on notebook computer is described, and the γ ray full spectrum can be rapidly measured in the field

  13. KSC ADVANCED GROUND BASED FIELD MILL V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Ground Based Field Mill (AGBFM) network consists of 34 (31 operational) field mills located at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The field mills...

  14. The Advantage and Limitation of Agriculture Byproduct and Feeding Strategy Based on Agriculture Byproduct for Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariyono

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed supply is getting limited since the use of land for forages has been replaced by building industries big plantation, agriculture. Sustainable integration between animal and food crop and plantation is efficient and gives advantage for both. Rice, cassava soybean, groundnut, palm oil, coconut, coffee, cocoa and sugar cane are food crop and plantation which their byproducts are generally used or modified/processed for ruminant production. This paper describes optimization on the use of these byproducts to decrease feed cost without ignoring the feed quality. These byproducts have special characteristic and limitation with fluctuated price. Their nutritive values vary and they can be grouped into fiber, fiber-energy, fiber-protein, protein or energy sources. Therefore, special strategy for each location and purpose of livestock industry is required to get an efficient and optimal feed composition.

  15. Potential of Cellulose-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogels as Water Reservoir in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Demitri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the development of a biodegradable superabsorbent hydrogel, based on cellulose derivatives, for the optimization of water resources in agriculture, horticulture and, more in general, for instilling a wiser and savvier approach to water consumption. The sorption capability of the proposed hydrogel was firstly assessed, with specific regard to two variables that might play a key role in the soil environment, that is, ionic strength and pH. Moreover, a preliminary evaluation of the hydrogel potential as water reservoir in agriculture was performed by using the hydrogel in experimental greenhouses, for the cultivation of tomatoes. The soil-water retention curve, in the presence of different hydrogel amounts, was also analysed. The preliminary results showed that the material allowed an efficient storage and sustained release of water to the soil and the plant roots. Although further investigations should be performed to completely characterize the interaction between the hydrogel and the soil, such findings suggest that the envisaged use of the hydrogel on a large scale might have a revolutionary impact on the optimization of water resources management in agriculture.

  16. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  17. Sensitivity-based virtual fields for the non-linear virtual fields method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, Aleksander; Davis, Frances M.; Pierron, Fabrice

    2017-09-01

    The virtual fields method is an approach to inversely identify material parameters using full-field deformation data. In this manuscript, a new set of automatically-defined virtual fields for non-linear constitutive models has been proposed. These new sensitivity-based virtual fields reduce the influence of noise on the parameter identification. The sensitivity-based virtual fields were applied to a numerical example involving small strain plasticity; however, the general formulation derived for these virtual fields is applicable to any non-linear constitutive model. To quantify the improvement offered by these new virtual fields, they were compared with stiffness-based and manually defined virtual fields. The proposed sensitivity-based virtual fields were consistently able to identify plastic model parameters and outperform the stiffness-based and manually defined virtual fields when the data was corrupted by noise.

  18. First results of tall tower based nitrous oxide flux monitoring over an agricultural region in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszpra, László; Hidy, Dóra; Taligás, Tímea; Barcza, Zoltán

    2018-03-01

    Nitrous oxide is one of the atmospheric greenhouse gases whose amount is significantly influenced by human activity. Its major anthropogenic sources are the agricultural soils but the emission is known only with large uncertainty yet. The paper presents a tall tower based measuring system installed in Hungary, which is designed for the long-term monitoring of nitrous oxide emission of a regionally typical composition of agricultural fields by means of eddy covariance technique. Due to the careful calibration of the gas analyzer applied the measuring system is also suitable for the recording of the atmospheric concentration of nitrous oxide on the globally compatible scale (WMO X2006A). The paper reports the results of the first two years of the monitoring program, which is the first of its kind in Central Europe. For the period of July 2015-June 2017 the concentration measurements indicate an increasing trend of 0.91 nmol mol-1 year-1 with an average concentration of 330.64 nmol mol-1. During the two years of the project, the monitoring system recorded a total of 441 ± 195 mg N2O-N m-2 nitrous oxide emission with late spring/early summer maximum. The measurements also revealed the episodic nature of the emission typically triggered by major precipitation events.

  19. Simulation and optimization of agricultural product supply chain system based on Witness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiandong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Researches on agricultural product supply chain have important implications for improving the efficiency of agricultural products circulation, strengthening the construction of agricultural market system, promoting agricultural modernization and solving the three rural issues. Agricultural product supply chain system has begun to be optimized through simulation technique. In this paper, agricultural product supply chain system is reasonably simplified and assumed. A simulation model was developed by using the simulation software Wit-ness to study agricultural product supply chain. Through the analysis of the simulation output data, improvement suggestions were also proposed as follows: improving the organization degree of agricultural products, improving the agricultural products processing, establishing strategic partnership and scientifically developing agricultural products logistics.

  20. Climate-Agriculture-Modeling and Decision Tool for Disease (CAMDT-Disease) for seasonal climate forecast-based crop disease risk management in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Lee, S.; Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2017-12-01

    Climate-Agriculture-Modeling and Decision Tool (CAMDT) is a decision support system (DSS) tool that aims to facilitate translations of probabilistic seasonal climate forecasts (SCF) to crop responses such as yield and water stress. Since CAMDT is a software framework connecting different models and algorithms with SCF information, it can be easily customized for different types of agriculture models. In this study, we replaced the DSSAT-CSM-Rice model originally incorporated in CAMDT with a generic epidemiological model, EPIRICE, to generate a seasonal pest outlook. The resulting CAMDT-Disease generates potential risks for selected fungal, viral, and bacterial diseases of rice over the next months by translating SCFs into agriculturally-relevant risk information. The integrated modeling procedure of CAMDT-Disease first disaggregates a given SCF using temporal downscaling methods (predictWTD or FResampler1), runs EPIRICE with the downscaled weather inputs, and finally visualizes the EPIRICE outputs as disease risk compared to that of the previous year and the 30-year-climatological average. In addition, the easy-to-use graphical user interface adopted from CAMDT allows users to simulate "what-if" scenarios of disease risks over different planting dates with given SCFs. Our future work includes the simulation of the effect of crop disease on yields through the disease simulation models with the DSSAT-CSM-Rice model, as disease remains one of the most critical yield-reducing factors in the field.

  1. Demonstration and validation of automated agricultural field extraction from multi-temporal Landsat data for the majority of United States harvested cropland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L.; Roy, D. P.

    2014-12-01

    The spatial distribution of agricultural fields is a fundamental description of rural landscapes and the location and extent of fields is important to establish the area of land utilized for agricultural yield prediction, resource allocation, and for economic planning, and may be indicative of the degree of agricultural capital investment, mechanization, and labor intensity. To date, field objects have not been extracted from satellite data over large areas because of computational constraints, the complexity of the extraction task, and because consistently processed appropriate resolution data have not been available or affordable. A recently published automated methodology to extract agricultural crop fields from weekly 30 m Web Enabled Landsat data (WELD) time series was refined and applied to 14 states that cover 70% of harvested U.S. cropland (USDA 2012 Census). The methodology was applied to 2010 combined weekly Landsat 5 and 7 WELD data. The field extraction and quantitative validation results are presented for the following 14 states: Iowa, North Dakota, Illinois, Kansas, Minnesota, Nebraska, Texas, South Dakota, Missouri, Indiana, Ohio, Wisconsin, Oklahoma and Michigan (sorted by area of harvested cropland). These states include the top 11 U.S states by harvested cropland area. Implications and recommendations for systematic application to global coverage Landsat data are discussed.

  2. Transfer of 137Cs, essential and trace elements from soil to potato plants in an agricultural field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukada, H.; Hasegawa, H.

    2000-01-01

    The concentrations of 137 Cs, essential and trace elements were measured in soils and potato tubers collected from 26 agricultural fields in Aomori, Japan, and soil-to-potato transfer factors were determined. The elements were divided into two groups. The first group (Cl, K, Ca, etc.) showed an inverse correlation between the transfer factors and the concentrations of the elements in the soils, while for the second group (Sc, Co, etc.) the transfer factors were independent of the soil concentrations of the elements. The transfer factors of 137 Cs (0.0037-0.16), derived from global fallout, were well correlated with those of naturally stable Cs (0.00052-0.080). These transfer factors showed a negative correlation with the soil concentrations of K and Cs, but they were independent of the organic material contents in the soils. These results suggest that the transfer of stable Cs could serve as a natural analog to predict the behavior of radiocesium in the soil-plant pathway. The distributions of these elements were determined for the entire potato plant. The concentrations of the elements were lower in the tubers than in leaves, petioles and stems. During the harvesting of potatoes the elements in the non-edible portions of the potato plants are returned to the soil, where they may again be utilized in the soil-potato pathways. Therefore, the distributions of elements in plant components can provide useful information for understanding the transfer of radionuclides and elements from the soil to plants in agricultural fields. The concentration ratios for Sr/Ca in potato plant components showed relatively constant values while those for Cs/K varied. These findings suggest that the translocation rates of both Ca and Sr were similar within a potato plant, whereas those of K and Cs were different. Consequently, the transfers of both Ca and Sr may predict the behavior of radiostrontium. The transfer of Cs could be used to predict the behavior of radiocesium, whereas the

  3. TECHNICAL ADVANCE AS A BASES DYNAMIC DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY AGRICULTURAL ENTERPRISES REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.I. Ogorodnikov

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article coordinate together technical advance and economic indicators of agricultural enterprise. Justified, that lowering equipment branch crop production and cattle breeding result in considerable loss productiveness and rise expense. Necessity cost cutout determine application more high-performance machine and state-of-the-art technology on output of products agricultural industry. Underline practicability of active state support grower of agricultural produce agricultural commodities inclusive of securing social setting conditions of life man agricultural enterprise.

  4. Assessment on the rates and potentials of soil organic carbon sequestration in agricultural lands in Japan using a process-based model and spatially explicit land-use change inventories - Part 2: Future potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagasaki, Y.; Shirato, Y.

    2014-08-01

    Future potentials of the sequestration of soil organic carbon (SOC) in agricultural lands in Japan were estimated using a simulation system we recently developed to simulate SOC stock change at country-scale under varying land-use change, climate, soil, and agricultural practices, in a spatially explicit manner. Simulation was run from 1970 to 2006 with historical inventories, and subsequently to 2020 with future scenarios of agricultural activity comprised of various agricultural policy targets advocated by the Japanese government. Furthermore, the simulation was run subsequently until 2100 while forcing no temporal changes in land-use and agricultural activity to investigate duration and course of SOC stock change at country scale. A scenario with an increased rate of organic carbon input to agricultural fields by intensified crop rotation in combination with the suppression of conversion of agricultural lands to other land-use types was found to have a greater reduction of CO2 emission by enhanced soil carbon sequestration, but only under a circumstance in which the converted agricultural lands will become settlements that were considered to have a relatively lower rate of organic carbon input. The size of relative reduction of CO2 emission in this scenario was comparable to that in another contrasting scenario (business-as-usual scenario of agricultural activity) in which a relatively lower rate of organic matter input to agricultural fields was assumed in combination with an increased rate of conversion of the agricultural fields to unmanaged grasslands through abandonment. Our simulation experiment clearly demonstrated that net-net-based accounting on SOC stock change, defined as the differences between the emissions and removals during the commitment period and the emissions and removals during a previous period (base year or base period of Kyoto Protocol), can be largely influenced by variations in future climate. Whereas baseline-based accounting, defined

  5. Design and Concept of an Energy System Based on Renewable Sources for Greenhouse Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Aschilean

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-organic greenhouses that are based on alternative resources for producing heat and electricity stand out as an efficient option for the sustainable development of agriculture, thus ensuring good growth and development of plants in all seasons, especially during the cold season. Greenhouses can be used with maximum efficiency in various agricultural lands, providing ideal conditions of temperature and humidity for short-term plant growing, thereby increasing the local production of fruit and vegetables. This paper presents the development of a durable greenhouse concept that is based on complex energy system integrating fuel cells and solar panels. Approaching this innovative concept encountered a major problem in terms of local implementation of this type of greenhouses because of the difficulty in providing electrical and thermal energy from conventional sources to ensure an optimal climate for plant growing. The project result consists in the design and implementation of a sustainable greenhouse energy system that is based on fuel cells and solar panels.

  6. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  7. Restrictive Factors and Output Forecast of Green Development of Agricultural Industry Based on Gray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengru

    2018-01-01

    This paper analyzes the characteristics of agricultural products from the perspective of agricultural production, farmers’ income, adjustment of agricultural structure and environmental improvement, and analyzes the characteristics of agricultural products in LanZhou area. Through data mining and empirical analysis, the regional agriculture (1) forecasting model of gray system with dynamic data processing, combined with the output data of lily in 2004-2003, the yield prediction is predicted and the fitting state is good and the error is small. Finally, combined with the relevant characteristics of the local characteristics of the agricultural industry to make reference, by changing the characteristics of agricultural production as the center of the mindset, and agricultural industrialization and organic combination, take the characteristics of efficient industrialization of agricultural products.

  8. Pesticidal activity of Rivina humilis L. (Phytolaccaceae against important agricultural polyphagous field pest, Spodoptera litura (Fab. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elumalai Arumugam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the pesticidal activity of antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities of benzene, dichloromethane, diethylether, ethylacetate and methanol extracts of Rivina humilis at different concentrations against agricultural polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae (S. litura. Methods: Antifeedant activities of the selected plant extract were studied as described by Isman et al. (1990, with slight modifications. For oviposition deterrent activity, ten pairs of (adult moths S. litura were subjected in five replicates. After 48 h, the numbers of eggs masses laid on treated and control leaves were recorded and the percentage of oviposition deterrence was calculated. The ovicidal activity was determined against the eggs of S. litura. Twenty five early fourth instar larvae of S. litura were exposed to various concentrations and was assayed by using the protocol of Abbott’s formula (1925; the 24 h LC50 values of the Rivina humilis leaf extract was determined by probit analysis. Results: All the extracts showed moderate antifeedant activitiy; however, significant antifeedant, ovicidal, oviposition deterrent and larvicidal activities were observed in methanol extract. Conclusions: This study showed that the selected plant can be a potent source of natural antifeedant, oviposition deterrent, ovicidal and larvicidal activities against field pest S. litura.

  9. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bing, L.; Fischer, C.R.; Bonet, J.A.; Castaño, C.; Colinas, C.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex), through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps. Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain). Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages. Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies) and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%). Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands. (Author)

  10. A Combined Approach of Sensor Data Fusion and Multivariate Geostatistics for Delineation of Homogeneous Zones in an Agricultural Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Castrignanò

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management. Such a data fusion approach with geophysical sensors was applied in a soil of an agronomic field cropped with tomato. The synthetic regionalized factors determined, contributed to split the 3D edaphic environment into two main horizontal structures with different hydraulic properties and to disclose two main horizons in the 0–1.0-m depth with a discontinuity probably occurring between 0.40 m and 0.70 m. Comparing this partition with the soil properties measured with a shallow sampling, it was possible to verify the coherence in the topsoil between the dielectric properties and other properties more directly related to agronomic management. These results confirm the advantages of using proximal sensing as a preliminary step in the application of site-specific management. Combining disparate spatial data (data fusion is not at all a naive problem and novel and powerful methods need to be developed.

  11. Impact of Brick Kilns’ Emission on Soil Quality of Agriculture Fields in the Vicinity of Selected Bhaktapur Area of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunjan Bisht

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate soil quality and impact of brick kiln on different physicochemical parameters of soils of agricultural field, located in the vicinity of Bhaktapur, Nepal. The study was carried out by determining the physicochemical characteristics of soil, soil fertility, and heavy metal contamination of soil. During the entire study period, water absorptivity of soil ranged from 2.4 to 3.3 mg/L, pH varies from 5.885 to 7.64, and organic carbon content and organic matter varied from 0.277 to 0.93%, from 0.477% to 1.603%, respectively. Nutrient content, that is, sulfate and nitrate concentration, in the soil ranged from 0.829 to 3.764 mol/L and from 0.984 to 29.99 mol/L, respectively. The findings revealed that concentrations of heavy metals (chromium and lead were within permissible limit, although the levels were higher in soil at 50 m and decrease farther from brick kiln. However, the physical parameters and nutrient content were deficient in soil at 50 m while increasing gradually at distances of 100 m and 150 m. The variation of result obtained for physical parameters supports the fact that quality of soil in terms of heavy metal content and nutrient content was directly proportional to the distance from the kiln; that is, the quality of soil increased with increasing distance.

  12. Impact of dicyandiamide on emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and ammonia from agricultural field in the North China Plain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yizhen; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Tian, Di; Mu, Yujing

    2016-02-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O), nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH3) emissions from an agricultural field in the North China Plain were compared for three treatments during a whole maize growing period from 26 June to 11 October, 2012. Compared with the control treatment (without fertilization, designated as CK), remarkable pulse emissions of N2O, NO and NH3 were observed from the normal fertilization treatment (designated as NP) just after fertilization, whereas only N2O and NH3 pulse emissions were evident from the nitrification inhibitor treatment (designated as ND). The reduction proportions of N2O and NO emissions from the ND treatment compared to those from the NP treatment during the whole maize growing period were 31% and 100%, respectively. A measurable increase of NH3 emission from the ND treatment was found with a cumulative NH3 emission of 3.8 ± 1.2 kg N/ha, which was 1.4 times greater than that from the NP treatment (2.7 ± 0.7 kg N/ha). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Identification, measurement, and assessment of water cycle of unhusked rice agricultural phases: Case study at Tangerang paddy field, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartono, N.; Laurence; Johannes, H. P.

    2017-11-01

    According to one of UN reports, water scarcity has happened all around the world, including Indonesia. Irrigation sector takes up 70% of world water consumption and potentially increases 20% due to the population explosion. Rice is accounted for 69% of agricultural products contributions in Indonesia’s water footprint. Therefore, evaluation of water cycle was essential to raise awareness among practitioners. Data collections were conducted in the functional unit of one-hectare rice field located in Tangerang. This study used CropWat 8.0 and SimaPro software. Identification involved data such as climate, crop, and soil. Nursery became the highest water consumed phase, requiring 419 mm in height. Measurement through water footprint resulted in consumption of green water footprint for 8,183,618.5 liters (62.9%), followed by grey for 4,805,733.2 liters (36.9%) and blue for 23,902.36 liters (0.2%). The grey consumption was exceeding the average, which indicated high doses of pesticides. Life Cycle Assessment showed negative impacts of fertilizers that caused damages like fossil depletion, respiratory health, and eutrophication.

  14. Shifts in soil fungal communities in Tuber melanosporum plantations over a 20-year transition from agriculture fields to oak woodlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Bing

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To explore the diversity of soil fungi found in black truffle (Tuber melanosporum plantations following the introduction of the mycorrhizal-colonized host tree, (Quercus ilex, through the development of the brûlé and production of mature sporocarps.Area of study: This research was carried out province of Teruel, Aragon (central eastern Spain.Material and Methods: Soil samples from 6 plantations were collected beneath Q. ilex trees inoculated with T. melanosporum, of 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 and 20 years after out planting in truffle plantations. Soil DNA was extracted, PCR-amplified and sequenced to compare soil fungi present at different ages.Main results: As tree age increased, we observed an increased frequency of T. melanosporum (from 8% to 71% of sequenced colonies and concomitant decrease in the combined frequency of Fusarium spp. and Phoma spp. (from 64% to 3%.Research highlights: There are important shifts in species richness and in functional groups in the soil fungal communities in maturing black truffle-oak woodland plantations. The observed inverse relationship between the frequency of soil endophytic and/or pathogenic fungi and that of the mycorrhizal mutualist T. melanosporum provides support to continue a deeper analysis of shifts in fungal communities and functional groups where there is a transition from agriculture fields to woodlands.Abbreviations used: Ectomycorrhiza (ECM fungus; Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM; Operational taxonomic unit (OTU.

  15. A Combined Approach of Sensor Data Fusion and Multivariate Geostatistics for Delineation of Homogeneous Zones in an Agricultural Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castrignanò, Annamaria; Buttafuoco, Gabriele; Quarto, Ruggiero; Vitti, Carolina; Langella, Giuliano; Terribile, Fabio; Venezia, Accursio

    2017-12-03

    To assess spatial variability at the very fine scale required by Precision Agriculture, different proximal and remote sensors have been used. They provide large amounts and different types of data which need to be combined. An integrated approach, using multivariate geostatistical data-fusion techniques and multi-source geophysical sensor data to determine simple summary scale-dependent indices, is described here. These indices can be used to delineate management zones to be submitted to differential management. Such a data fusion approach with geophysical sensors was applied in a soil of an agronomic field cropped with tomato. The synthetic regionalized factors determined, contributed to split the 3D edaphic environment into two main horizontal structures with different hydraulic properties and to disclose two main horizons in the 0-1.0-m depth with a discontinuity probably occurring between 0.40 m and 0.70 m. Comparing this partition with the soil properties measured with a shallow sampling, it was possible to verify the coherence in the topsoil between the dielectric properties and other properties more directly related to agronomic management. These results confirm the advantages of using proximal sensing as a preliminary step in the application of site-specific management. Combining disparate spatial data (data fusion) is not at all a naive problem and novel and powerful methods need to be developed.

  16. Vegetation index-based crop coefficients to estimate evapotranspiration by remote sensing in agricultural and natural ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.P.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hunsaker, D.J.; Nagler, P.L.

    2011-01-01

    Crop coefficients were developed to determine crop water needs based on the evapotranspiration (ET) of a reference crop under a given set of meteorological conditions. Starting in the 1980s, crop coefficients developed through lysimeter studies or set by expert opinion began to be supplemented by remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI) that measured the actual status of the crop on a field-by-field basis. VIs measure the density of green foliage based on the reflectance of visible and near infrared (NIR) light from the canopy, and are highly correlated with plant physiological processes that depend on light absorption by a canopy such as ET and photosynthesis. Reflectance-based crop coefficients have now been developed for numerous individual crops, including corn, wheat, alfalfa, cotton, potato, sugar beet, vegetables, grapes and orchard crops. Other research has shown that VIs can be used to predict ET over fields of mixed crops, allowing them to be used to monitor ET over entire irrigation districts. VI-based crop coefficients can help reduce agricultural water use by matching irrigation rates to the actual water needs of a crop as it grows instead of to a modeled crop growing under optimal conditions. Recently, the concept has been applied to natural ecosystems at the local, regional and continental scales of measurement, using time-series satellite data from the MODIS sensors on the Terra satellite. VIs or other visible-NIR band algorithms are combined with meteorological data to predict ET in numerous biome types, from deserts, to arctic tundra, to tropical rainforests. These methods often closely match ET measured on the ground at the global FluxNet array of eddy covariance moisture and carbon flux towers. The primary advantage of VI methods for estimating ET is that transpiration is closely related to radiation absorbed by the plant canopy, which is closely related to VIs. The primary disadvantage is that they cannot capture stress effects or soil

  17. Super-Resolution of Plant Disease Images for the Acceleration of Image-based Phenotyping and Vigor Diagnosis in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kyosuke; Togami, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Norio

    2017-11-06

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones) are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture-in cooperation with image processing technologies-for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs. We also conducted disease classification using high-resolution, low-resolution, and super-resolution images to evaluate the effectiveness of super-resolution methods in disease classification. Our results indicated that the super-resolution method outperformed conventional image scaling methods in spatial resolution enhancement of tomato disease images. The results of disease classification showed that the accuracy attained was also better by a large margin with super-resolution images than with low-resolution images. These results indicated that our approach not only recovered the information lost in low-resolution images, but also exerted a beneficial influence on further image analysis. The proposed approach will accelerate image-based phenotyping and vigor diagnosis in the field, because it not only saves time to capture images of a crop in a cultivation field but also secures the accuracy of these images for further analysis.

  18. Root-collar diameter and third-year survival of three bottomland hardwoods planted on former agricultural fields in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emile S. Gardiner; Douglass F. Jacobs; Ronald P. Overton; George Hernandez

    2009-01-01

    Athough the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley (LMAV) has experienced substantial afforestation of former agricultural fields during the past 2 decades, seedling standards that support satisfactory outplanting performance of bottomland hardwood tree species are not available. A series of experimental plantations, established on three afforestation sites in the LMAV,...

  19. Web-based information system design of agricultural management towards self-sufficiency local food in North Aceh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salahuddin; Husaini; Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The agricultural sector, especially food crops and horticulture, is one of the sectors driving regional economic pillars in Aceh Utara Regency of Aceh Province. Some agricultural products and food crops that become excellent products in North Aceh regency are: rice, corn, peanuts, long beans, cassava and soybeans. The Local Government of North Aceh Regency has not been optimal in empowering and maximizing the potential of agriculture resources. One of the obstacles is caused by the North Aceh Regency Government does not have an adequate database and web information system/GIS (Geographic Information System) for data management of agricultural centre in North Aceh Regency. This research is expected to assist local government of North Aceh Regency in managing agriculture sector to realize local food independence the region in supporting national food security program. The method in this research is using waterfall method for designing and making information system by conducting sequential process starting from data collection stage, requirement analysis, design, coding, testing and implementation system. The result of this research is a web-based information system for the management of agriculture superior agricultural product centre in North Aceh. This application provides information mapping the location of agricultural superior product producers and mapping of potential locations for the development of certain commodities in North Aceh Regency region in realizing food self-sufficiency in the region.

  20. Third cycle university studies in Europe in the field of agricultural engineering and in the emerging discipline of biosystems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuga, F; Briassoulis, D; Aguado, P; Farkas, I; Griepentrog, H; Lorencowicz, E

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of European Thematic Network entitled 'Education and Research in Agricultural for Biosystems Engineering in Europe (ERABEE-TN)' is to initiate and contribute to the structural development and the assurance of the quality assessment of the emerging discipline of Biosystems Engineering in Europe. ERABEE is co-financed by the European Community in the framework of the LLP Programme. The partnership consists of 35 participants from 27 Erasmus countries, out of which 33 are Higher Education Area Institutions (EDU) and 2 are Student Associations (ASS). 13 Erasmus participants (e.g. Thematic Networks, Professional Associations, and Institutions from Brazil, Croatia, Russia and Serbia) are also involved in the Thematic Network through synergies. To date, very few Biosystems Engineering programs exist in Europe and those that are initiated are at a very primitive stage of development. The innovative and novel goal of the Thematic Network is to promote this critical transition, which requires major restructuring in Europe, exploiting along this direction the outcomes accomplished by its predecessor; the USAEE-TN (University Studies in Agricultural Engineering in Europe). It also aims at enhancing the compatibility among the new programmes of Biosystems Engineering, aiding their recognition and accreditation at European and International level and facilitating greater mobility of skilled personnel, researchers and students. One of the technical objectives of ERABEE is dealing with mapping and promoting the third cycle studies (including European PhDs) and supporting the integration of research at the 1st and 2nd cycle regarding European Biosystems Engineering university studies. During the winter 2008 - spring 2009 period, members of ERABEE conducted a survey on the contemporary status of doctoral studies in Europe, and on a possible scheme for promotion of cooperation and synergies in the framework of the third cycle of studies and the European Doctorate

  1. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades

  2. Evaluating the impacts of farmers' behaviors on a hypothetical agricultural water market based on double auction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Erhu; Cai, Ximing; Brozović, Nicholas; Minsker, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    Agricultural water markets are considered effective instruments to mitigate the impacts of water scarcity and to increase crop production. However, previous studies have limited understanding of how farmers' behaviors affect the performance of water markets. This study develops an agent-based model to explicitly incorporate farmers' behaviors, namely irrigation behavior (represented by farmers' sensitivity to soil water deficit λ) and bidding behavior (represented by farmers' rent seeking μ and learning rate β), in a hypothetical water market based on a double auction. The model is applied to the Guadalupe River Basin in Texas to simulate a hypothetical agricultural water market under various hydrological conditions. It is found that the joint impacts of the behavioral parameters on the water market are strong and complex. In particular, among the three behavioral parameters, λ affects the water market potential and its impacts on the performance of the water market are significant under most scenarios. The impacts of μ or β on the performance of the water market depend on the other two parameters. The water market could significantly increase crop production only when the following conditions are satisfied: (1) λ is small and (2) μ is small and/or β is large. The first condition requires efficient irrigation scheduling, and the second requires well-developed water market institutions that provide incentives to bid true valuation of water permits.

  3. Development and Implementation of Production Area of Agricultural Product Data Collection System Based on Embedded System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lei; Guo, Wei; Che, Yinchao; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Qiang; Ma, Xinming

    To solve problems in detecting the origin of agricultural products, this paper brings about an embedded data-based terminal, applies middleware thinking, and provides reusable long-range two-way data exchange module between business equipment and data acquisition systems. The system is constructed by data collection node and data center nodes. Data collection nodes taking embedded data terminal NetBoxII as the core, consisting of data acquisition interface layer, controlling information layer and data exchange layer, completing the data reading of different front-end acquisition equipments, and packing the data TCP to realize the data exchange between data center nodes according to the physical link (GPRS / CDMA / Ethernet). Data center node consists of the data exchange layer, the data persistence layer, and the business interface layer, which make the data collecting durable, and provide standardized data for business systems based on mapping relationship of collected data and business data. Relying on public communications networks, application of the system could establish the road of flow of information between the scene of origin certification and management center, and could realize the real-time collection, storage and processing between data of origin certification scene and databases of certification organization, and could achieve needs of long-range detection of agricultural origin.

  4. Adaptive Sliding Mode Control Method Based on Nonlinear Integral Sliding Surface for Agricultural Vehicle Steering Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taochang Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic steering control is the key factor and essential condition in the realization of the automatic navigation control of agricultural vehicles. In order to get satisfactory steering control performance, an adaptive sliding mode control method based on a nonlinear integral sliding surface is proposed in this paper for agricultural vehicle steering control. First, the vehicle steering system is modeled as a second-order mathematic model; the system uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics as well as the external disturbances are regarded as the equivalent disturbances satisfying a certain boundary. Second, a transient process of the desired system response is constructed in each navigation control period. Based on the transient process, a nonlinear integral sliding surface is designed. Then the corresponding sliding mode control law is proposed to guarantee the fast response characteristics with no overshoot in the closed-loop steering control system. Meanwhile, the switching gain of sliding mode control is adaptively adjusted to alleviate the control input chattering by using the fuzzy control method. Finally, the effectiveness and the superiority of the proposed method are verified by a series of simulation and actual steering control experiments.

  5. Polyoxyethylene Tallow Amine, a Glyphosate Formulation Adjuvant: Soil Adsorption Characteristics, Degradation Profile, and Occurrence on Selected Soils from Agricultural Fields in Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Mississippi, and Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tush, Daniel; Meyer, Michael T

    2016-06-07

    Polyoxyethylene tallow amine (POEA) is an inert ingredient added to formulations of glyphosate, the most widely applied agricultural herbicide. POEA has been shown to have toxic effects to some aquatic organisms making the potential transport of POEA from the application site into the environment an important concern. This study characterized the adsorption of POEA to soils and assessed its occurrence and homologue distribution in agricultural soils from six states. Adsorption experiments of POEA to selected soils showed that POEA adsorbed much stronger than glyphosate; calcium chloride increased the binding of POEA; and the binding of POEA was stronger in low pH conditions. POEA was detected on a soil sample from an agricultural field near Lawrence, Kansas, but with a loss of homologues that contain alkenes. POEA was also detected on soil samples collected between February and early March from corn and soybean fields from ten different sites in five other states (Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Mississippi). This is the first study to characterize the adsorption of POEA to soil, the potential widespread occurrence of POEA on agricultural soils, and the persistence of the POEA homologues on agricultural soils into the following growing season.

  6. Using a Mobile Device “App” and Proximal Remote Sensing Technologies to Assess Soil Cover Fractions on Agricultural Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Laamrani

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the amount of crop residue left in the field after harvest is a key issue for sustainability. Conventional assessment approaches (e.g., line-transect are labor intensive, time-consuming and costly. Many proximal remote sensing devices and systems have been developed for agricultural applications such as cover crop and residue mapping. For instance, current mobile devices (smartphones & tablets are usually equipped with digital cameras and global positioning systems and use applications (apps for in-field data collection and analysis. In this study, we assess the feasibility and strength of a mobile device app developed to estimate crop residue cover. The performance of this novel technique (from here on referred to as “app” method was compared against two point counting approaches: an established digital photograph-grid method and a new automated residue counting script developed in MATLAB at the University of Guelph. Both photograph-grid and script methods were used to count residue under 100 grid points. Residue percent cover was estimated using the app, script and photograph-grid methods on 54 vertical digital photographs (images of the ground taken from above at a height of 1.5 m collected from eighteen fields (9 corn and 9 soybean, 3 samples each located in southern Ontario. Results showed that residue estimates from the app method were in good agreement with those obtained from both photograph–grid and script methods (R2 = 0.86 and 0.84, respectively. This study has found that the app underestimates the residue coverage by −6.3% and −10.8% when compared to the photograph-grid and script methods, respectively. With regards to residue type, soybean has a slightly lower bias than corn (i.e., −5.3% vs. −7.4%. For photos with residue <30%, the app derived residue measurements are within ±5% difference (bias of both photograph-grid- and script-derived residue measurements. These methods could therefore be used to track

  7. Using a Mobile Device "App" and Proximal Remote Sensing Technologies to Assess Soil Cover Fractions on Agricultural Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laamrani, Ahmed; Pardo Lara, Renato; Berg, Aaron A; Branson, Dave; Joosse, Pamela

    2018-02-27

    Quantifying the amount of crop residue left in the field after harvest is a key issue for sustainability. Conventional assessment approaches (e.g., line-transect) are labor intensive, time-consuming and costly. Many proximal remote sensing devices and systems have been developed for agricultural applications such as cover crop and residue mapping. For instance, current mobile devices (smartphones & tablets) are usually equipped with digital cameras and global positioning systems and use applications (apps) for in-field data collection and analysis. In this study, we assess the feasibility and strength of a mobile device app developed to estimate crop residue cover. The performance of this novel technique (from here on referred to as "app" method) was compared against two point counting approaches: an established digital photograph-grid method and a new automated residue counting script developed in MATLAB at the University of Guelph. Both photograph-grid and script methods were used to count residue under 100 grid points. Residue percent cover was estimated using the app, script and photograph-grid methods on 54 vertical digital photographs (images of the ground taken from above at a height of 1.5 m) collected from eighteen fields (9 corn and 9 soybean, 3 samples each) located in southern Ontario. Results showed that residue estimates from the app method were in good agreement with those obtained from both photograph-grid and script methods (R² = 0.86 and 0.84, respectively). This study has found that the app underestimates the residue coverage by -6.3% and -10.8% when compared to the photograph-grid and script methods, respectively. With regards to residue type, soybean has a slightly lower bias than corn (i.e., -5.3% vs. -7.4%). For photos with residue <30%, the app derived residue measurements are within ±5% difference (bias) of both photograph-grid- and script-derived residue measurements. These methods could therefore be used to track the recommended minimum

  8. Multifunctional landscapes: Site characterization and field-scale design to incorporate biomass production into an agricultural system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ssegane, Herbert; Negri, M. Cristina; Quinn, John; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2015-01-01

    Current and future demand for food, feed, fiber, and energy require novel approaches to land management, which demands that multifunctional landscapes are created to integrate various ecosystem functions into a sustainable land use. We developed an approach to design such landscapes at a field scale to minimize concerns of land use change, water quality, and greenhouse gas emissions associated with production of food and bioenergy. This study leverages concepts of nutrient recovery and phytoremediation to place bioenergy crops on the landscape to recover nutrients released to watersheds by commodity crops. Crop placement is determined by evaluating spatial variability of: 1) soils, 2) surface flow pathways, 3) shallow groundwater flow gradients, 4) subsurface nitrate concentrations, and 5) primary crop yield. A 0.8 ha bioenergy buffer was designed within a 6.5 ha field to intercept concentrated surface flow, capture and use nitrate leachate, and minimize use of productive areas. Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC) simulations show that on average, a switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) or willow (Salix spp.) buffer within this catchment according to this design could reduce annual leached NO 3 by 61 or 59% and N 2 O emission by 5.5 or 10.8%, respectively, produce 8.7 or 9.7 Mg ha −1 of biomass respectively, and displace 6.7 Mg ha −1 of corn (Zea mays L.) grain. Therefore, placement of bioenergy crops has the potential to increase environmental sustainability when the pairing of location and crop type result in minimal disruption of current food production systems and provides additional environmental benefits. - Highlights: • Design of a multifunctional landscape by integrating cellulosic biofuel production into an existing agricultural system. • The design does not adversely offset current grain production for bioenergy crops. • Maps of concentrated flow paths, subsurface flow direction, NO 3 –N hotspots, and intra-field corn yield variability.

  9. Conservation agriculture practices in rainfed uplands of India improve maize-based system productivity and profitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Pradhan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift towards more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPS may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over three years (2011-2014 of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation i.e. minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e. conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  10. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer’s net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011–2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize–cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs. PMID:27471508

  11. Conservation Agriculture Practices in Rainfed Uplands of India Improve Maize-Based System Productivity and Profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Aliza; Idol, Travis; Roul, Pravat K

    2016-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in rainfed uplands of India has been experiencing low agricultural productivity as the lands suffer from poor soil fertility, susceptibility to water erosion and other external pressures of development and climate change. A shift toward more sustainable cropping systems such as conservation agriculture production systems (CAPSs) may help in maintaining soil quality as well as improving crop production and farmer's net economic benefit. This research assessed the effects over 3 years (2011-2014) of reduced tillage, intercropping, and cover cropping practices customized for maize-based production systems in upland areas of Odisha, India. The study focused on crop yield, system productivity and profitability through maize equivalent yield and dominance analysis. Results showed that maize grain yield did not differ significantly over time or among CAPS treatments while cowpea yield was considered as an additional yield in intercropping systems. Mustard and horsegram grown in plots after maize cowpea intercropping recorded higher grain yields of 25 and 37%, respectively, as compared to those without intercropping. Overall, the full CAPS implementation, i.e., minimum tillage, maize-cowpea intercropping and mustard residue retention had significantly higher system productivity and net benefits than traditional farmer practices, i.e., conventional tillage, sole maize cropping, and no mustard residue retention. The dominance analysis demonstrated increasing benefits of combining conservation practices that exceeded thresholds for farmer adoption. Given the use of familiar crops and technologies and the magnitude of yield and income improvements, these types of CAPS should be acceptable and attractive for smallholder farmers in the area. This in turn should support a move toward sustainable intensification of crop production to meet future household income and nutritional needs.

  12. Process Reengineering of Cold Chain Logistics of Agricultural Products Based on Low-carbon Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Hong-xia; Shao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Through the process analysis of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, we find that cold chain logistics of agricultural products contradict the development model of low-carbon economy to some extent. We apply the development idea of low-carbon economy, introduce the third-party logistics companies, establish distribution center of cold chain logistics of agricultural products, and strengthen information sharing, to reengineer the process of cold chain logistics of agricultural produc...

  13. Digital soil mapping as a basis for climatically oriented agriculture a thematic on the territory of the national crop testing fields of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahabiev, I. A.; Giniyatullin, K. G.; Ryazanov, S. S.

    2018-01-01

    The concept of climate-optimized agriculture (COA) of the UN FAO implies the transformation of agriculture techniques in conditions of changing climate. It is important to implement a timely transition to the concept of COA and sustainable development of soil resources, accurate digital maps of spatial distribution of soils and soil properties are needed. Digital mapping of soil humus content was carried out on the territory of the national crop testing fields (NCTF) of the Republic of Tatarstan (Russian Federation) and the accuracy of the maps obtained was estimated.

  14. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2014-01-01

    increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu......Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly...

  15. SOME NORMATIVE AND INSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENTS IN THE FIELD OF COMMON AGRICULTURAL POLICY AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES ON THE PROTECTION OF THE EUROPEAN CITIZENS’ INTERESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Alexandra Oanta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper intends to briefly comment on some changes in the field of Common Agricultural Policy, especially regarding the safety of agricultural products and foodstuff. Within the framework of the CAP the food safety has managed to progressively constitute its third pillar, currently boasting an outstanding place in the attainment of its objectives. CAP has been progressing in its mechanisms and legal instruments towards a more relevant integration of the concerns relative to the consumer’s health protection and to the food safety in the objectives to be reached.

  16. A Remote Sensing Approach for Regional-Scale Mapping of Agricultural Land-Use Systems Based on NDVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Bellón

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to the need for generic remote sensing tools to support large-scale agricultural monitoring, we present a new approach for regional-scale mapping of agricultural land-use systems (ALUS based on object-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time series analysis. The approach consists of two main steps. First, to obtain relatively homogeneous land units in terms of phenological patterns, a principal component analysis (PCA is applied to an annual MODIS NDVI time series, and an automatic segmentation is performed on the resulting high-order principal component images. Second, the resulting land units are classified into the crop agriculture domain or the livestock domain based on their land-cover characteristics. The crop agriculture domain land units are further classified into different cropping systems based on the correspondence of their NDVI temporal profiles with the phenological patterns associated with the cropping systems of the study area. A map of the main ALUS of the Brazilian state of Tocantins was produced for the 2013–2014 growing season with the new approach, and a significant coherence was observed between the spatial distribution of the cropping systems in the final ALUS map and in a reference map extracted from the official agricultural statistics of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE. This study shows the potential of remote sensing techniques to provide valuable baseline spatial information for supporting agricultural monitoring and for large-scale land-use systems analysis.

  17. A review of nitrous oxide mitigation by farm nitrogen management in temperate grassland-based agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dejun; Watson, Catherine J; Yan, Ming Jia; Lalor, Stan; Rafique, Rashid; Hyde, Bernard; Lanigan, Gary; Richards, Karl G; Holden, Nicholas M; Humphreys, James

    2013-10-15

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from grassland-based agriculture is an important source of atmospheric N2O. It is hence crucial to explore various solutions including farm nitrogen (N) management to mitigate N2O emissions without sacrificing farm profitability and food supply. This paper reviews major N management practices to lower N2O emission from grassland-based agriculture. Restricted grazing by reducing grazing time is an effective way to decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Balancing the protein-to-energy ratios in the diets of ruminants can also decrease N2O emissions from excreta patches. Among the managements of synthetic fertilizer N application, only adjusting fertilizer N rate and slow-released fertilizers are proven to be effective in lowering N2O emissions. Use of bedding materials may increase N2O emissions from animal houses. Manure storage as slurry, manipulating slurry pH to values lower than 6 and storage as solid manure under anaerobic conditions help to reduce N2O emissions during manure storage stage. For manure land application, N2O emissions can be mitigated by reducing manure N inputs to levels that satisfy grass needs. Use of nitrification inhibitors can substantially lower N2O emissions associated with applications of fertilizers and manures and from urine patches. N2O emissions from legume based grasslands are generally lower than fertilizer-based systems. In conclusion, effective measures should be taken at each step during N flow or combined options should be used in order to mitigate N2O emission at the farm level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrogen losses to the environment following food-based digestate and compost applications to agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Fiona; Bhogal, Anne; Cardenas, Laura; Chadwick, Dave; Misselbrook, Tom; Rollett, Alison; Taylor, Matt; Thorman, Rachel; Williams, John

    2017-09-01

    The anaerobic digestion of food waste for energy recovery produces a nutrient-rich digestate which is a valuable source of crop available nitrogen (N). As with any 'new' material being recycled to agricultural land it is important to develop best management practices that maximise crop available N supply, whilst minimising emissions to the environment. In this study, ammonia (NH 3 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions to air and nitrate (NO 3 - ) leaching losses to water following digestate, compost and livestock manure applications to agricultural land were measured at 3 sites in England and Wales. Ammonia emissions were greater from applications of food-based digestate (c.40% of total N applied) than from livestock slurry (c.30% of total N applied) due to its higher ammonium-N content (mean 5.6 kg/t compared with 1-2 kg/t for slurry) and elevated pH (mean 8.3 compared with 7.7 for slurry). Whilst bandspreading was effective at reducing NH 3 emissions from slurry compared with surface broadcasting it was not found to be an effective mitigation option for food-based digestate in this study. The majority of the NH 3 losses occurred within 6 h of spreading highlighting the importance of rapid soil incorporation as a method for reducing NH 3 emissions. Nitrous oxide losses from food-based digestates were low, with emission factors all less than the IPCC default value of 1% (mean 0.45 ± 0.15%). Overwinter NO 3 - leaching losses from food-based digestate were similar to those from pig slurry, but much greater than from pig farmyard manure or compost. Both gaseous N losses and NO 3 - leaching from green and green/food composts were low, indicating that, in these terms, compost can be considered as an 'environmentally benign' material. These findings have been used in the development of best practice guidelines which provide a framework for the responsible use of digestates and composts in agriculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. An Airborne Multispectral Imaging System Based on Two Consumer-Grade Cameras for Agricultural Remote Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghai Yang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and evaluation of an airborne multispectral imaging system based on two identical consumer-grade cameras for agricultural remote sensing. The cameras are equipped with a full-frame complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS sensor with 5616 × 3744 pixels. One camera captures normal color images, while the other is modified to obtain near-infrared (NIR images. The color camera is also equipped with a GPS receiver to allow geotagged images. A remote control is used to trigger both cameras simultaneously. Images are stored in 14-bit RAW and 8-bit JPEG files in CompactFlash cards. The second-order transformation was used to align the color and NIR images to achieve subpixel alignment in four-band images. The imaging system was tested under various flight and land cover conditions and optimal camera settings were determined for airborne image acquisition. Images were captured at altitudes of 305–3050 m (1000–10,000 ft and pixel sizes of 0.1–1.0 m were achieved. Four practical application examples are presented to illustrate how the imaging system was used to estimate cotton canopy cover, detect cotton root rot, and map henbit and giant reed infestations. Preliminary analysis of example images has shown that this system has potential for crop condition assessment, pest detection, and other agricultural applications.

  20. GEODATA: Information System Based on Geospatial for Early Warning Tracking and Analysis Agricultural Plant Diseases in Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, S. Y. J.; Agus, Y. H.; Dewi, C.; Simanjuntak, B. H.; Hartomo, K. D.

    2017-03-01

    The Government of Indonesia is currently faced with the problems of food, especially rice. It needs in large numbers that have to import from neighboring countries. Actually, the Indonesian government has the ability to produce rice to meet national needs but is still faced with the problem of pest attack rice annually increasing extent. One of the factors is that geographically Indonesia located on the migration path of world rice insect pests (called BPH or Brown Planthoppers) (Nilaparvata lugens Stal.) It leads endemic status annually. One proposed strategy to be applied is to use an early warning system based on a specific region of the main pest population. The proposed information system called GEODATA. GEODATA is Geospatial Outbreak of Disease Tracking and Analysis. The system works using a library ESSA (Exponential Smoothing - Spatial Autocorrelation) developed in previous studies in Satya Wacana Christian University. GEODATA built to meet the qualifications required surveillance device by BMKG (Indonesian Agency of Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics’ Central Java Provinces), BPTPH (Indonesian Agency of Plant Protection and Horticulture) Central Java Provinces, BKP-KP District Boyolali, Central Java, (Indonesian Agency of Food Security and Agriculture Field Supervisor, District Boyolali, Central Java Provinces) and farmer groups. GIS GEODATA meets the needs of surveillance devices that include: (1) mapping of the disease, (2) analysis of the dynamics of the disease, and (3) prediction of attacks / disease outbreaks in a particular region. GIS GEODATA is currently under implementation in the laboratory field observations of plant pest in Central Java province, Indonesia.

  1. Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongyi Li

    Full Text Available Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspective of wind force driving ocean waves. We introduce wind force to the construction of the ocean surface height field through applying wind field data and wind-driven wave particles. Continual and realistic ocean waves result from the overlap of wind-driven wave particles, and a strategy was proposed to control these discrete wave particles and simulate an endless ocean surface. The results showed that the new method is capable of obtaining a realistic ocean scene under the influence of wind fields at real time rates.

  2. Research on Agricultural Product Options Pricing Based on Lévy Copula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Hong

    2017-11-01

    China is a large agricultural country, and the healthy development of agriculture is related to the stability of the whole society. With the advancement of modern agriculture and the expansion of agricultural scale, the demand for farmers to avoid market risks is increasingly urgent. Option trading has the effect of attracting farmers’ intervention, promoting order agriculture development, perfecting agricultural support policy and promoting the development of agricultural futures market. Relative to the futures, the option transaction because the margin is low, reducing the trader’s entry threshold, you can make more small and medium investors to participate. This is not only active in the futures market, but also for many small and medium investors to provide effective financial management tools.

  3. Nitrous oxide emissions from European agriculture – an analysis of variability and drivers of emissions from field experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Rees

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrous oxide emissions from a network of agricultural experiments in Europe were used to explore the relative importance of site and management controls of emissions. At each site, a selection of management interventions were compared within replicated experimental designs in plot-based experiments. Arable experiments were conducted at Beano in Italy, El Encin in Spain, Foulum in Denmark, Logården in Sweden, Maulde in Belgium, Paulinenaue in Germany, and Tulloch in the UK. Grassland experiments were conducted at Crichton, Nafferton and Peaknaze in the UK, Gödöllö in Hungary, Rzecin in Poland, Zarnekow in Germany and Theix in France. Nitrous oxide emissions were measured at each site over a period of at least two years using static chambers. Emissions varied widely between sites and as a result of manipulation treatments. Average site emissions (throughout the study period varied between 0.04 and 21.21 kg N2O-N ha−1 yr−1, with the largest fluxes and variability associated with the grassland sites. Total nitrogen addition was found to be the single most important determinant of emissions, accounting for 15% of the variance (using linear regression in the data from the arable sites (p 2O emissions within sites that occurred as a result of manipulation treatments was greater than that resulting from site-to-site and year-to-year variation, highlighting the importance of management interventions in contributing to greenhouse gas mitigation.

  4. Per-field crop classification in irrigated agricultural regions in middle Asia using random forest and support vector machine ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, Fabian; Schorcht, Gunther; Michel, Ulrich; Dech, Stefan; Conrad, Christopher

    2012-10-01

    Accurate crop identification and crop area estimation are important for studies on irrigated agricultural systems, yield and water demand modeling, and agrarian policy development. In this study a novel combination of Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers is presented that (i) enhances crop classification accuracy and (ii) provides spatial information on map uncertainty. The methodology was implemented over four distinct irrigated sites in Middle Asia using RapidEye time series data. The RF feature importance statistics was used as feature-selection strategy for the SVM to assess possible negative effects on classification accuracy caused by an oversized feature space. The results of the individual RF and SVM classifications were combined with rules based on posterior classification probability and estimates of classification probability entropy. SVM classification performance was increased by feature selection through RF. Further experimental results indicate that the hybrid classifier improves overall classification accuracy in comparison to the single classifiers as well as useŕs and produceŕs accuracy.

  5. Response of ground-nesting farmland birds to agricultural intensification across Europe: Landscape and field level management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guerrero, I.; Morales, M.B.; Onate, J.J.; Geiger, F.; Berendse, F.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2012-01-01

    European farmland bird populations have decreased dramatically in recent decades and agricultural intensification has been identified as the main cause contributing to these declines. Identifying which specific intensification pressures are driving those population trends seems vital for bird

  6. Presentation of a Modified Boustrophedon Decomposition Algorithm for Optimal Configuration of Flat Fields to use in Path Planning Systems of Agricultural Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Goudarzi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The demand of pre-determined optimal coverage paths in agricultural environments have been increased due to the growing application of field robots and autonomous field machines. Also coverage path planning problem (CPP has been extensively studied in robotics and many algorithms have been provided in many topics, but differences and limitations in agriculture lead to several different heuristic and modified adaptive methods from robotics. In this paper, a modified and enhanced version of currently used decomposition algorithm in robotics (boustrophedon cellular decomposition has been presented as a main part of path planning systems of agricultural vehicles. Developed algorithm is based on the parallelization of the edges of the polygon representing the environment to satisfy the requirements of the problem as far as possible. This idea is based on "minimum facing to the cost making condition" in turn, it is derived from encounter concept as a basis of cost making factors. Materials and Methods Generally, a line termed as a slice in boustrophedon cellular decomposition (BCD, sweeps an area in a pre-determined direction and decomposes the area only at critical points (where two segments can be extended to top and bottom of the point. Furthermore, sweep line direction does not change until the decomposition finish. To implement the BCD for parallelization method, two modifications were applied in order to provide a modified version of the boustrophedon cellular decomposition (M-BCD. In the first modification, the longest edge (base edge is targeted, and sweep line direction is set in line with the base edge direction (sweep direction is set perpendicular to the sweep line direction. Then Sweep line moves through the environment and stops at the first (nearest critical point. Next sweep direction will be the same as previous, If the length of those polygon's newly added edges, during the decomposition, are less than or equal to the

  7. Development assessment of leisure agriculture in Henan province of China based on SWOT-AHP method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yichuan Zhang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The development of leisure agriculture is an important means of agricultural industry structure adjustment of Henan province, China, to realize the transition from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture. Design/methodology/approach: The SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threat analysis of Henan leisure agriculture will contribute to the sustainable development of Henan leisure agriculture. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat of developing leisure agriculture in Henan province were systematically analyzed using SWOT method in our study. The aspects including location, resources, traffic, population, economy, urbanization, industrialization, market, policy, capital, product, technology, management, marketing and environment were involved. The strength, weakness, opportunity and threat were quantified in this study using AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process method. Findings and Originality/value: The result showed that the total strength and total opportunity of Henan leisure agriculture are much greater than that of total weakness and total threat, which suggests that the opportunities outweigh threats, and advantage outweigh disadvantage. The growth-oriented strategy combining the external opportunities and its own advantages shall be employed in development of Henan leisure agriculture as indicated by the strategy strength coefficient in strategy quadrangle we have constructed. The barriers to the development need to be overcome while strengthening competitive advantages. Originality/value: New ideas for working out the developmental strategy for Henan leisure agriculture is provided by SWOT-AHP method.

  8. Enhanced levels of atmospheric low-molecular weight monocarboxylic acids in gas and particulates over Mt. Tai, North China, during field burning of agricultural wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Nakamura, Shinnosuke; Kanaya, Yugo; Wang, Zifa

    2017-12-01

    To understand the source and atmospheric behaviour of low molecular weight monocarboxylic acids (monoacids), gaseous (G) and particulate (P) organic acids were collected at the summit of Mt. Tai in the North China Plain (NCP) during field burning of agricultural waste (wheat straw). Particulate organic acids were collected with neutral quartz filter whereas gaseous organic acids were collected with KOH-impregnated quartz filter. Normal (C1-C10), branched (iC4-iC6), hydroxy (lactic and glycolic), and aromatic (benzoic) monoacids were determined with a capillary gas chromatography employing p-bromophenacyl esters. We found acetic acid as the most abundant gas-phase species whereas formic acid is the dominant particle-phase species. Concentrations of formic (G/P 1 570/1 410 ng m-3) and acetic (3 960/1 120 ng m-3) acids significantly increased during the enhanced field burning of agricultural wastes. Concentrations of formic and acetic acids in daytime were found to increase in both G and P phases with those of K+, a field-burning tracer (r = 0.32-0.64). Primary emission and secondary formation of acetic acid is linked with field burning of agricultural wastes. In addition, we found that particle-phase fractions (Fp = P/(G + P)) of formic (0.50) and acetic (0.31) acids are significantly high, indicating that semi-volatile organic acids largely exist as particles. Field burning of agricultural wastes may play an important role in the formation of particulate monoacids in the NCP. High levels (917 ng m-3) of particle-phase lactic acid, which is characteristic of microorganisms, suggest that microbial activity associated with terrestrial ecosystem significantly contributes to the formation of organic aerosols.

  9. Rapid core field variations during the satellite era: Investigations using stochastic process based field models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finlay, Chris; Olsen, Nils; Gillet, Nicolas

    We present a new ensemble of time-dependent magnetic field models constructed from satellite and observatory data spanning 1997-2013 that are compatible with prior information concerning the temporal spectrum of core field variations. These models allow sharper field changes compared to tradition...... physical hypotheses can be tested by asking questions of the entire ensemble of core field models, rather than by interpreting any single model.......We present a new ensemble of time-dependent magnetic field models constructed from satellite and observatory data spanning 1997-2013 that are compatible with prior information concerning the temporal spectrum of core field variations. These models allow sharper field changes compared to traditional...... regularization methods based on minimizing the square of second or third time derivative. We invert satellite and observatory data directly by adopting the external field and crustal field modelling framework of the CHAOS model, but apply the stochastic process method of Gillet et al. (2013) to the core field...

  10. The potential of standards-based agriculture biology as an alternative to traditional biology in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellu, George Sahr

    schools. Thoron & Meyer (2011) suggested that research into the contribution of integrated science courses toward higher test scores yielded mixed results. This finding may have been due in part to the fact that integrated science courses only incorporate select topics into agriculture education courses. In California, however, agriculture educators have developed standards-based courses such as Agriculture Biology (AgBio) that cover the same content standards as core traditional courses such as traditional biology. Students in both AgBio and traditional biology take the same standardized biology test. This is the first time there has been an opportunity for a fair comparison and a uniform metric for an agriscience course such as AgBio to be directly compared to traditional biology. This study will examine whether there are differences between AgBio and traditional biology with regard to standardized test scores in biology. Furthermore, the study examines differences in perception between teachers and students regarding teaching and learning activities associated with higher achievement in science. The findings of the study could provide a basis for presenting AgBio as a potential alternative to traditional biology. The findings of this study suggest that there are no differences between AgBio and traditional biology students with regard to standardized biology test scores. Additionally, the findings indicate that co-curricular activities in AgBio could contribute higher student achievement in biology. However, further research is required to identify specific activities in AgBio that contribute to higher achievement in science.

  11. Forecasting of development of acute poisonings in agricultural workers while using combined formulations based on difenoconazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavnichenko P.V.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In the general structure of occupational diseases, a large proportion belongs to acute poisoning with pesticides (mainly group cases. However, today it is impossible to drop the use of pesticides in agriculture. Their application ensures high biological and economic efficiency of the latter, reduces losses of the yield. The purpose of the work was to predict the possibility of acute toxic effects in agricultural workers when working with combined formulations based on difenoconazole. Materials and methods. To assess the influence on the organism of the workers of the above-mentioned substances and formulations on their basis, the coefficient of inhalation poisoning possibility (CIPP, the coefficient of selective action of the pesticide in inhalation effect (CSAing and the selective action of the pesticide in the dermal effect (CSAderm were calculated. Results. Calculated values of CSAing (103.4-4701.2 and CSAderm (237.4-12345.7 for all investigated active substances were more than 100, this indicates to a rather high selectivity of their action. By the CSAing value formulations Celeste Top, Celeste Trio, Dinali, Cydeli Top belong to pesticides with a relatively low selectivity of action when they are inhaled by workers in the process of crops treating, the remaining formulations have a sufficient selectivity of action in inhalation intake. In addition, it should be noted that in general, for all combined preparations CSA values are significantly lower than for separate active ingredients, in addition to the above assumption, can be explained by the presence of other formulants in the preparation that may have not significant but toxic effect on the body of workers. All investigated substances in the probability of occurrence of acute poisoning with the use of combined preparations on their basis are related to the 4th grade of danger according to State Standards 8.8.1.002-98. There was proved relative safety in case of penetration into the

  12. Conditions and factors promoting the movement of agricultural producers towards innovation-based development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Mikhailovich Sovetov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the results of a questionnaire survey carried out in 2011 –2013 by the Department of Production Management at the Vologda State Dairy Farming Academy Named after N.V. Vereshchagin. The survey was supported by the Vologda Oblast Department of Agriculture, Food Stocks and Trade in the framework of ongoing research into the issues of transition of agricultural economy to innovation development. The authors present and systematize the opinions of the heads of the region’s agricultural enterprises concerning the challenges and opportunities of innovation-investment activity of agricultural organizations

  13. The Role of Cash Flow in Financial Early Warning of Agricultural Enterprises Based on Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fengru

    2018-01-01

    This paper chooses the agricultural listed companies as the research object, compares the financial situation of the enterprise and the theory of financial early warning, combines the financial status of the agricultural listed companies, selects the relevant cash flow indicators, discusses the application of the Logistic financial early warning model in the agricultural listed companies, Agricultural enterprises get better development. Research on financial early warning of agricultural listed companies will help the agricultural listed companies to predict the financial crisis. Financial early warning model is simple to establish, operational and strong, the use of financial early warning model, to help enterprises in the financial crisis before taking rapid and effective measures, which can avoid losses. Help enterprises to discover signs of deterioration of the financial situation in time to maintain the sustainable development of agricultural enterprises. In addition, through the financial early warning model, investors can correctly identify the financial situation of agricultural enterprises, and can evaluate the financial situation of agricultural enterprises and to help investors to invest in scientific and rational, beneficial to investors to analyze the safety of investment. But also help the relevant regulatory agencies to effectively monitor the market and promote the healthy and stable development of the market.

  14. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  15. A Qualitative Study of Technology-Based Training in Organizations that Hire Agriculture and Life Sciences Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Leslie; Murphrey, Theresa Pesl; Dooley, Kim E.

    2008-01-01

    Technological advances have created unlimited opportunities in education. Training and technology have merged to create new methods referred to as technology-based training. The purpose of this study was to identify organizations that hire agriculture and life sciences students for positions involving technology-based training and identify…

  16. A special vegetation index for the weed detection in sensor based precision agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Hans-R; Böttger, Hartmut; Schmidt, Helmut

    2006-06-01

    Many technologies in precision agriculture (PA) require image analysis and image- processing with weed and background differentiations. The detection of weeds on mulched cropland is one important image-processing task for sensor based precision herbicide applications. The article introduces a special vegetation index, the Difference Index with Red Threshold (DIRT), for the weed detection on mulched croplands. Experimental investigations in weed detection on mulched areas point out that the DIRT performs better than the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The result of the evaluation with four different decision criteria indicate, that the new DIRT gives the highest reliability in weed/background differentiation on mulched areas. While using the same spectral bands (infrared and red) as the NDVI, the new DIRT is more suitable for weed detection than the other vegetation indices and requires only a small amount of additional calculation power. The new vegetation index DIRT was tested on mulched areas during automatic ratings with a special weed camera system. The test results compare the new DIRT and three other decision criteria: the difference between infrared and red intensity (Diff), the soil-adjusted quotient between infrared and red intensity (Quotient) and the NDVI. The decision criteria were compared with the definition of a worse case decision quality parameter Q, suitable for mulched croplands. Although this new index DIRT needs further testing, the index seems to be a good decision criterion for the weed detection on mulched areas and should also be useful for other image processing applications in precision agriculture. The weed detection hardware and the PC program for the weed image processing were developed with funds from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF).

  17. A Vision-Based Counting and Recognition System for Flying Insects in Intelligent Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhong Zhong

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate counting and recognition of flying insects are of great importance, especially for pest control. Traditional manual identification and counting of flying insects is labor intensive and inefficient. In this study, a vision-based counting and classification system for flying insects is designed and implemented. The system is constructed as follows: firstly, a yellow sticky trap is installed in the surveillance area to trap flying insects and a camera is set up to collect real-time images. Then the detection and coarse counting method based on You Only Look Once (YOLO object detection, the classification method and fine counting based on Support Vector Machines (SVM using global features are designed. Finally, the insect counting and recognition system is implemented on Raspberry PI. Six species of flying insects including bee, fly, mosquito, moth, chafer and fruit fly are selected to assess the effectiveness of the system. Compared with the conventional methods, the test results show promising performance. The average counting accuracy is 92.50% and average classifying accuracy is 90.18% on Raspberry PI. The proposed system is easy-to-use and provides efficient and accurate recognition data, therefore, it can be used for intelligent agriculture applications.

  18. Unexpected stimulation of soil methane uptake as emergent property of agricultural soils following bio-based residue application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Adrian; Reim, Andreas; Kim, Sang Yoon; Meima-Franke, Marion; Termorshuizen, Aad; de Boer, Wietse; van der Putten, Wim H; Bodelier, Paul L E

    2015-10-01

    Intensification of agriculture to meet the global food, feed, and bioenergy demand entail increasing re-investment of carbon compounds (residues) into agro-systems to prevent decline of soil quality and fertility. However, agricultural intensification decreases soil methane uptake, reducing, and even causing the loss of the methane sink function. In contrast to wetland agricultural soils (rice paddies), the methanotrophic potential in well-aerated agricultural soils have received little attention, presumably due to the anticipated low or negligible methane uptake capacity in these soils. Consequently, a detailed study verifying or refuting this assumption is still lacking. Exemplifying a typical agricultural practice, we determined the impact of bio-based residue application on soil methane flux, and determined the methanotrophic potential, including a qualitative (diagnostic microarray) and quantitative (group-specific qPCR assays) analysis of the methanotrophic community after residue amendments over 2 months. Unexpectedly, after amendments with specific residues, we detected a significant transient stimulation of methane uptake confirmed by both the methane flux measurements and methane oxidation assay. This stimulation was apparently a result of induced cell-specific activity, rather than growth of the methanotroph population. Although transient, the heightened methane uptake offsets up to 16% of total gaseous CO2 emitted during the incubation. The methanotrophic community, predominantly comprised of Methylosinus may facilitate methane oxidation in the agricultural soils. While agricultural soils are generally regarded as a net methane source or a relatively weak methane sink, our results show that methane oxidation rate can be stimulated, leading to higher soil methane uptake. Hence, even if agriculture exerts an adverse impact on soil methane uptake, implementing carefully designed management strategies (e.g. repeated application of specific residues) may

  19. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  20. Mapping of Agricultural Crops from Single High-Resolution Multispectral Images—Data-Driven Smoothing vs. Parcel-Based Smoothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Ozdarici-Ok

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mapping agricultural crops is an important application of remote sensing. However, in many cases it is based either on hyperspectral imagery or on multitemporal coverage, both of which are difficult to scale up to large-scale deployment at high spatial resolution. In the present paper, we evaluate the possibility of crop classification based on single images from very high-resolution (VHR satellite sensors. The main objective of this work is to expose performance difference between state-of-the-art parcel-based smoothing and purely data-driven conditional random field (CRF smoothing, which is yet unknown. To fulfill this objective, we perform extensive tests with four different classification methods (Support Vector Machines, Random Forest, Gaussian Mixtures, and Maximum Likelihood to compute the pixel-wise data term; and we also test two different definitions of the pairwise smoothness term. We have performed a detailed evaluation on different multispectral VHR images (Ikonos, QuickBird, Kompsat-2. The main finding of this study is that pairwise CRF smoothing comes close to the state-of-the-art parcel-based method that requires parcel boundaries (average difference ≈ 2.5%. Our results indicate that a single multispectral (R, G, B, NIR image is enough to reach satisfactory classification accuracy for six crop classes (corn, pasture, rice, sugar beet, wheat, and tomato in Mediterranean climate. Overall, it appears that crop mapping using only one-shot VHR imagery taken at the right time may be a viable alternative, especially since high-resolution multitemporal or hyperspectral coverage as well as parcel boundaries are in practice often not available.

  1. Implementation monitoring temperature, humidity and mositure soil based on wireless sensor network for e-agriculture technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarudin, A.; Ghozali, A. L.; Hasyim, A.; Effendi, A.

    2016-04-01

    Indonesian agriculture has great potensial for development. Agriculture a lot yet based on data collection for soil or plant, data soil can use for analys soil fertility. We propose e-agriculture system for monitoring soil. This system can monitoring soil status. Monitoring system based on wireless sensor mote that sensing soil status. Sensor monitoring utilize soil moisture, humidity and temperature. System monitoring design with mote based on microcontroler and xbee connection. Data sensing send to gateway with star topology with one gateway. Gateway utilize with mini personal computer and connect to xbee cordinator mode. On gateway, gateway include apache server for store data based on My-SQL. System web base with YII framework. System done implementation and can show soil status real time. Result the system can connection other mote 40 meters and mote lifetime 7 hours and minimum voltage 7 volt. The system can help famer for monitoring soil and farmer can making decision for treatment soil based on data. It can improve the quality in agricultural production and would decrease the management and farming costs.

  2. Introducing Field-Based Geologic Research Using Soil Geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppes, Martha Cary

    2009-01-01

    A field-based study of soils and the factors that influence their development is a strong, broad introduction to geologic concepts and research. A course blueprint is detailed where students design and complete a semester-long field-based soil geomorphology project. Students are first taught basic soil concepts and to describe soil, sediment and…

  3. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  4. Rainwater lens dynamics and mixing between infiltrating rainwater and upward saline groundwater seepage beneath a tile-drained agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.; Vermue, E.; Post, V.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Thin rainwater lenses (RW-lenses) near the land surface are often the only source of freshwater in agricultural areas with regionally-extensive brackish to saline groundwater. The seasonal and inter-annual dynamics of these lenses are poorly known. Here this knowledge gap is addressed by

  5. Evaluation of the APEX model to simulate runoff quality from agricultural fields in the southern region of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phosphorus (P) Index (PI) is the risk assessment tool approved in the NRCS 590 standard used to target critical source areas and practices to reduce P losses. A revision of the 590 standard, suggested using the Agricultural Policy/Environmental eXtender (APEX) model to assess the risk of nitroge...

  6. Field emitters with low turn on electric field based on carbon fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qilong; Mu Hui; Zhang Xiaobing; Lei Wei; Wang Jinchan; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    Field emitters of vertical carbon fibers on a silicon substrate are fabricated by catalytic chemical vapor deposition. After an ageing process of 150 min, field emission measurement of the fibers is carried out in a vacuum chamber with a base pressure of 5.0 x 10 -4 Pa. The experimental results display that field emission performance of the carbon fibers depends strongly on the vacuum level during the experiments. After the field emission measurement, damage to the carbon fiber field emitters is observed from the scanning electron microscopic images

  7. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF AMELIORATIVE WORKS ON SOME SOIL QUALITY PARAMETERS FROM BAIA –MOLDOVA EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil-climatic conditions from Baia Depression – the hydrographical basin from the extra-Carpathian area of the Moldova River - have frequently determined the presence, under different forms, intensities and periods, of temporary water excess from soil. The underground drainage, as a measure of water excess control, with stagnant character, caused mainly by rainfall amounts registered for 1-5 consecutive days, was firstly arranged in pilot-experimental fields during 1972-1978. We followed the behaviour in exploitation of underground drainage technical solutions, as concerns the functional efficiency of the means of water excess removal and of the improved soil favourableness and/or suitability for crop growing.In order to assess the long-term effects of ameliorating works, applied in 1978 in the drainage field of Baia, on an area of 3.50 ha, we have qualitatively classified and estimated the albic stagnic glossic Luvosoil (S.R.T.S. – 2003, improved and unimproved. Based on this study, we have estimated the present favourableness for crops of the improved soil, as compared to unimproved soil, used as natural grassland, after an exploitation cycle of 30 years (1978- 2008.

  8. Radiofrequency fields: Bases for exposure limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paolo Vecchia [Department of Technologies and Health National Institute of Health, Rome (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    Several biological effects have been reported at exposure levels below the threshold for thermal effects, but most of them require independent confirmation before being accepted as established. However, no seems to have relevant implications for human health. Precautionary measures should be based on a cost/benefit analysis, and be proportionate on one side to the risk they aim at preventing and on the other side to actions taken in other areas to prevent comparable risks. (N.C.)

  9. Radiofrequency fields: Bases for exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paolo Vecchia

    2006-01-01

    Several biological effects have been reported at exposure levels below the threshold for thermal effects, but most of them require independent confirmation before being accepted as established. However, no seems to have relevant implications for human health. Precautionary measures should be based on a cost/benefit analysis, and be proportionate on one side to the risk they aim at preventing and on the other side to actions taken in other areas to prevent comparable risks. (N.C.)

  10. Utilizing Secondary Agricultural Education Programs to Deliver Evidence-Based Grain Safety Training for Young and Beginning Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan-Hsin; Field, William E; Tormoehlen, Roger L; French, Brian F

    2017-01-01

    Purdue University's Agricultural Safety and Health Program (PUASHP) has collaborated with secondary agricultural education programs, including FFA Chapters, for over 70 years to deliver and promote agricultural safety and health programming. With support from a U.S. Department of Labor Susan Harwood Program grant, PUASHP utilized a Developing a Curriculum (DACUM) process to develop, implement, and evaluate an evidence-based curriculum for use with young and beginning workers, ages 16-20, exposed to hazards associated with grain storage and handling. The primary audience was students enrolled in secondary agricultural education programs. A review of the literature identified a gap in educational resources that specifically addresses this target population. The curriculum developed was based on fatality and injury incident data mined from Purdue's Agricultural Confined Space Incident Database and input from a panel of experts. The process identified 27 learning outcomes and finalized a pool of test questions, supported by empirical evidence and confirmed by a panel of experts. An alignment process was then completed with the current national standards for secondary agricultural education programs. Seventy-two youth, ages 16-20, enrolled in secondary-school agricultural education programs, and a smaller group of post-secondary students under the age of 21 interested in working in the grain industry pilot tested the curriculum. Based on student and instructor feedback, the curriculum was refined and submitted to OSHA for approval as part of OSHA's online training resources. The curriculum was delivered to 3,665 students, ages 16-20. A total of 346 pre- and post-tests were analyzed, and the results used to confirm content validity and assess knowledge gain. Findings led to additional modifications to curriculum content, affirmed knowledge gain, and confirmed appropriateness for use with secondary agricultural education programs. The curriculum has been promoted

  11. Super-Resolution of Plant Disease Images for the Acceleration of Image-based Phenotyping and Vigor Diagnosis in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyosuke Yamamoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs or drones are a very promising branch of technology, and they have been utilized in agriculture—in cooperation with image processing technologies—for phenotyping and vigor diagnosis. One of the problems in the utilization of UAVs for agricultural purposes is the limitation in flight time. It is necessary to fly at a high altitude to capture the maximum number of plants in the limited time available, but this reduces the spatial resolution of the captured images. In this study, we applied a super-resolution method to the low-resolution images of tomato diseases to recover detailed appearances, such as lesions on plant organs. We also conducted disease classification using high-resolution, low-resolution, and super-resolution images to evaluate the effectiveness of super-resolution methods in disease classification. Our results indicated that the super-resolution method outperformed conventional image scaling methods in spatial resolution enhancement of tomato disease images. The results of disease classification showed that the accuracy attained was also better by a large margin with super-resolution images than with low-resolution images. These results indicated that our approach not only recovered the information lost in low-resolution images, but also exerted a beneficial influence on further image analysis. The proposed approach will accelerate image-based phenotyping and vigor diagnosis in the field, because it not only saves time to capture images of a crop in a cultivation field but also secures the accuracy of these images for further analysis.

  12. US-Based Food and Agricultural Value Chains and Their Relevance to Healthy Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gereffi, Gary; Lee, Joonkoo; Christian, Michelle

    2009-07-01

    This article examines the structure and health implications of two industries, chicken and tomatoes, that play prominent roles in US food and agricultural competitiveness. Both industries have become more concentrated over time, with powerful "lead firms" driving geographical, technological, and marketing changes. Overall, a processed food revolution has taken place in agricultural products that transforms the types of food and dietary options available to consumers. The nature of contemporary food and agricultural value chains affects the strategies and policies that can be effectively employed to address major health goals such as improved nutrition, food safety, and food security.

  13. Harmonization of customs policy of the Republic of Serbia in the field of agriculture as a condition for accession to the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Đurica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union wants to expand its market in order to qualify their products, and one way is to carry out the admission of new member states into the European Union. Some Balkan countries that are also used to be the former Yugoslav Republic want to become a full member of the European Union. In order to become an inclusive member, the Republic of Serbia must adjust economic, foreign trade, customs, security and other policies. The aim is to indicate how and in which way to harmonize customs policy of the European Union and of the Republic of Serbia. Comparing the tariff policy in the field of Agriculture of the Republic of Serbia and the European Union we want to point out the similarities and differences in the measures of protection of domestic agriculture in the Republic of Serbia and in the European Union, with the desire the Republic of Serbia, as far as possible, harmonize customs policies in the field of agriculture with policy of the European Union, in order to, among other conditions, allow for accession to the European Union. The process of harmonization is time consuming, requires knowledge, skill and expertise of the people at the Ministry of Finance and the Customs Administration. It is very important that all the recommendations given by the competent bodies of the European Union are implemented in a timely manner by the Republic of Serbia.

  14. Multisource Data-Based Integrated Agricultural Drought Monitoring in the Huai River Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peng; Zhang, Qiang; Wen, Qingzhi; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun

    2017-10-01

    Drought monitoring is critical for early warning of drought hazard. This study attempted to develop an integrated remote sensing drought monitoring index (IRSDI), based on meteorological data for 2003-2013 from 40 meteorological stations and soil moisture data from 16 observatory stations, as well as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer data using a linear trend detection method, and standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index. The objective was to investigate drought conditions across the Huai River basin in both space and time. Results indicate that (1) the proposed IRSDI monitors and describes drought conditions across the Huai River basin reasonably well in both space and time; (2) frequency of drought and severe drought are observed during April-May and July-September. The northeastern and eastern parts of Huai River basin are dominated by frequent droughts and intensified drought events. These regions are dominated by dry croplands, grasslands, and highly dense population and are hence more sensitive to drought hazards; (3) intensified droughts are detected during almost all months except January, August, October, and December. Besides, significant intensification of droughts is discerned mainly in eastern and western Huai River basin. The duration and regions dominated by intensified drought events would be a challenge for water resources management in view of agricultural and other activities in these regions in a changing climate.

  15. Developing GIS based decision-support tools for agricultural counter-measurements after radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kepka, Pavel; Prochazka, Jan; Brom, Jakub; Pecharova, Emilie

    2009-01-01

    There is a whole variety of possibilities proposed by EURANOS data sheets for agriculture, for mid-term and long-term counter-measures after contamination of crops by radiation. We have developed a set of supportive tools for decision-makers within the project 'Methods of evaluation of contaminated territory after radiation accident - the importance of structure and functioning of a land cover'. Our TM tools are based on ArcGIS platform and Python programming language. We have developed a simple model for estimating the current biomass of the polluted crops. Inputs for this model are: a shape file of land cover data, database table with customisable plant growth characteristics and shape file of polluted areas. The model provides a shape file data set of estimated amounts of biomass of selected crops per hectare for a given day. The results are helpful for better performing of the countermeasure 'Early removal of crops'. The total amount of polluted waste, logistic costs (transport of people and material; required time; other costs) could be estimated only with basic GIS tools. The number of days expected for the harvest can be also calculated and compared with the dose and half-lives of the contaminating radionuclides. This analysis could also lead to a 'Do nothing' decision, especially in case of radionuclides with short times of half-life. (author)

  16. Analysis of potency and development of renewable energy based on agricultural biomass waste in Jambi province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devita, W. H.; Fauzi, A. M.; Purwanto, Y. A.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has the big potency of biomass. The source of biomass energy is scattered all over the country. The big potential in concentrated scale is on the island of Sumatera. Jambi province which is located in Sumatra Island has the potency of biomass energy due to a huge area for estate crop and agriculture. The Indonesian government had issued several policies which put a higher priority on the utilization of renewable energy. This study aimed to identify the conditions and distribution of biomass waste potential in Jambi province. The potential biomass waste in Jambi province was 27,407,183 tons per year which dominated of oil palm residue (46.16%), rice husk and straw (3.52%), replanting rubberwood (50.32%). The total power generated from biomass waste was 129 GWhth per year which is consisted of palm oil residue (56 GWhth per year), rice husk and straw (3.22 GWhth per year), rubberwood (70.56 GWhth per year). Based on the potential of biomass waste, then the province of Jambi could obtain supplies of renewable energy from waste biomass with electricity generated amount to 32.34 GWhe per year.

  17. Low - energy Accelerator - based Nuclear Biotechnology for Applications in Agriculture and Biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, L.D.; Anuntalabhochai, S.; Phanchaisri, B.; Wongkham, W.; Vilaithong, T.

    2014-01-01

    A novel biotechnology based on low-energy-accelerator nuclear technology has recently been rapidly developed internationally. Low-energy ion beams with energy in a range of 10-100 keV generated from ion accelerators bombard plant seeds or tissues for mutation induction and plant or mammalian cells for gene transfection induction to benefit to agriculture and biomedicine. In Thailand, centered at Chiang Mai University, this so-called low-energy ion beam biotechnology has been explored and developed for more than a decade. Bioengineering-specialized ion implanters have been constructed and utilized for both research and applications. Certain Thai local rice mutants have been induced and achieved with improved characters of dwarf, photo-insensitivity, enriched nutrients and higher yields. Mutants of other plants such as flowers, vegetables and microorganisms have also been induced with improved properties. DNA transfer into bacterial and mammalian cells has been induced by ion beams. Particularly, ion-beam-induced gene transfection into human cells succeeded to initiate a new non-viral gene transfection method for potential gene therapy.

  18. Adapting an Outcome-Based Education Development Process to Meet Near Real-Time Challenges to Sustainable Agricultural Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbleib, Mary L.; Jepson, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper examines the benefits of using an outcome-based education (OBE) method within agricultural extension outreach programmes for professional and farmer audiences. Design/Methodology/Approach: The method is elaborated through two practical examples, which show that focused, short-duration programmes can produce meaningful skill…

  19. A sensitive monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for chlorpyrifos residue determination in Chinese agricultural smaples

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monoclonal antibody-based competitive antibody-coated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and optimized for determining chlorpyrifos residue in agricultural products. The IC50 and IC10 of this ELISA were 3.3 ng/mL and 0.1 ng/mL respectively. The average recoveries recovery rate...

  20. An Agent-Based Assessment of Land Use and Ecosystem Changes in Traditional Agricultural Landscape of Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acosta, L.; Rounsevell, M.D.A.; Bakker, M.M.; Doorn, van A.M.; Gómez-Delgado, M.; Delgado, M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of land use changes and their impacts on the ecosystem in the Montado, a traditional agricultural landscape of Portugal in response to global environmental change. The assessment uses an agent- based model (ABM) of the adaptive decisions of farmers to simulate the

  1. Comparison of models used for national agricultural ammonia emission inventories in Europe: Litter-based manure systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reidy, B.; Webb, J.; Misselbrook, T.H.; Menzi, H.; Luesink, H.H.; Hutchings, N.J.; Eurich-Menden, B.; Dohler, H.; Dammgen, U.

    2009-01-01

    Six N-flow models, used to calculate national ammonia (NH3) emissions from agriculture in different European countries, were compared using standard data sets. Scenarios for litter-based systems were run separately for beef cattle and for broilers, with three different levels of model

  2. You Seize What Pops Up: A Qualitative Investigation of the Core Features of School-Based Agricultural Education Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterly, R.G., III.; Myers, Brian E.

    2017-01-01

    Desimone's core features of professional development (PD) guides the PD for teachers. The purpose of this study was to examine the PD practice of School-Based Agricultural Education (SBAE) teachers in the enthusiastic and growing career stage. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with five teachers from five different states. The…

  3. An improved data base for the description of dairy cows in the German agricultural emission model GAS-EM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The application of the previously published detailed model describing dairy cow husbandry in the German agricultural emission model requires an extended and improved data base. This concerns animal weights, weight gains, regional feed regimes, feeding requirements and feed properties as well...... of animal performance. The knowledge of hitherto unpublished data allows for a recalculation and revaluation of nitrogen excretions and ammonia emission factors....

  4. Effects of bio-based residue amendments on greenhouse gas emission from agricultural soil are stronger than effects of soil type with different microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Adrian; Ijaz, Umer Z.; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Ruijs, Rienke; Kim, Sang Yoon; de Boer, Wietse; Termorshuizen, Aad; van der Putten, Wim H.; Bodelier, Paul L.E.

    2017-01-01

    With the projected rise in the global human population, agriculture intensification and land-use conversion to arable fields is anticipated to meet the food and bio-energy demand to sustain a growing population. Moving towards a circular economy, agricultural intensification results in the increased

  5. Effects of bio-based residue amendments on greenhouse gas emission from agricultural soil are stronger than effects of soil type with different microbial community composition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, A.; Ijaz, Umer Zeeshan; Janssens, Thierry; Ruijs, Rienke; Kim, Sang Yoon; De Boer, W.; Termorshuizen, Aad J; van der Putten, W.H.; Bodelier, P.L.E.

    2017-01-01

    With the projected rise in the global human population, agriculture intensification and land-use conversion to arable fields is anticipated to meet the food and bio-energy demand to sustain a growing population. Moving towards a circular economy, agricultural intensification results in the increased

  6. Effects of bio-based residue amendments on greenhouse gas emission from agricultural soil are stronger than effects of soil type with different microbial community composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ho, Adrian; Ijaz, Umer Z.; Janssens, Thierry K.S.; Ruijs, Rienke; Kim, Sang Yoon; Boer, de Wietse; Termorshuizen, Aad; Putten, van der Wim H.; Bodelier, Paul L.E.

    2017-01-01

    With the projected rise in the global human population, agriculture intensification and land-use conversion to arable fields is anticipated to meet the food and bio-energy demand to sustain a growing population. Moving towards a circular economy, agricultural intensification results in the

  7. Development of a multimetric index based on macroinvertebrates for drainage ditch networks in agricultural areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2012-01-01

    Drainage ditches are a prominent feature of many intensively managed agricultural areas. These small, shallow, line-shaped waterbodies could harbor a rich macroinvertebrate community, resembling that of natural small lentic ecosystems. Despite their high biodiversity potential, many ditch ecosystems

  8. Object-Based Land Use Classification of Agricultural Land by Coupling Multi-Temporal Spectral Characteristics and Phenological Events in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoefel, Patrick; Loew, Fabian; Conrad, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Crop maps based on classification of remotely sensed data are of increased attendance in agricultural management. This induces a more detailed knowledge about the reliability of such spatial information. However, classification of agricultural land use is often limited by high spectral similarities of the studied crop types. More, spatially and temporally varying agro-ecological conditions can introduce confusion in crop mapping. Classification errors in crop maps in turn may have influence on model outputs, like agricultural production monitoring. One major goal of the PhenoS project ("Phenological structuring to determine optimal acquisition dates for Sentinel-2 data for field crop classification"), is the detection of optimal phenological time windows for land cover classification purposes. Since many crop species are spectrally highly similar, accurate classification requires the right selection of satellite images for a certain classification task. In the course of one growing season, phenological phases exist where crops are separable with higher accuracies. For this purpose, coupling of multi-temporal spectral characteristics and phenological events is promising. The focus of this study is set on the separation of spectrally similar cereal crops like winter wheat, barley, and rye of two test sites in Germany called "Harz/Central German Lowland" and "Demmin". However, this study uses object based random forest (RF) classification to investigate the impact of image acquisition frequency and timing on crop classification uncertainty by permuting all possible combinations of available RapidEye time series recorded on the test sites between 2010 and 2014. The permutations were applied to different segmentation parameters. Then, classification uncertainty was assessed and analysed, based on the probabilistic soft-output from the RF algorithm at the per-field basis. From this soft output, entropy was calculated as a spatial measure of classification uncertainty

  9. Evapotranspiration from selected fallowed agricultural fields on the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, California, during May to October 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, W.R.

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of evapotranspiration, vegetation quantity and composition, and depth to the water table below the land surface was made at three sites in two fallowed agricultural lots on the 15,800-hectare Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge in northern California during the 2000 growing season. All three sites had been farmed during 1999, but were not irrigated since the 1999 growing season. Vegetation at the lot C1B and lot 6 stubble sites included weedy species and small grain plants. The lot 6 cover crop site supported a crop of cereal rye that had been planted during the previous winter. Percentage of coverage by live vegetation ranged from 0 to 43.2 percent at the lot C1B site, from approximately 0 to 63.2 percent at the lot 6 stubble site, and it was estimated to range from 0 to greater than 90 percent at the lot 6 cover crop site. Evapotranspiration was measured using the Bowen ratio energy balance technique and it was estimated using a model that was based on the Priestley-Taylor equation and a model that was based on reference evapotranspiration with grass as the reference crop. Total evapotranspiration during May to October varied little among the three evapotranspiration measurement sites, although the timing of evapotranspiration losses did vary among the sites. Total evapotranspiration from the lot C1B site was 426 millimeters, total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 stubble site was 444 millimeters, and total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 cover crop site was 435 millimeters. The months of May to July accounted for approximately 78 percent of the total evapotranspiration from the lot C1B site, approximately 63 percent of the evapotranspiration from the lot 6 stubble site, and approximately 86 percent of the total evapotranspiration from the lot 6 cover crop site. Estimated growing season precipitation accounted for 16 percent of the growing-season evapotranspiration at the lot C1B site and for 17 percent of the growing-season evapotranspiration

  10. Animal-based agriculture, phosphorus management and water quality in Brazil: options for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Shigaki Francirose; Sharpley Andrew; Prochnow Luís Ignácio

    2006-01-01

    Eutrophication has become a major threat to water quality in the U.S., Europe, and Australasia. In most cases, freshwater eutrophication is accelerated by increased inputs of phosphorus (P), of which agricultural runoff is now a major contributor, due to intensification of crop and animal production systems since the early 1990s'. Once little information is available on the impacts of Brazilian agriculture in water quality, recent changes in crop and animal production systems in Brazil were e...

  11. Climate Information and Agricultural Practice in Adaptation to Climate Variability: The Case of Climate Field Schools in Indramayu, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crane, T.A.; Siregar, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the Farmer Field School methodology, a “Climate Field School” was conducted with farmers in the Indramayu region of Indonesia in 2003 to promote adaptive application of climate forecasts to crop selection decisions. However, five years after the Climate Field School, use of the forecasts

  12. A simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic model for agricultural nonpoint source pollution control through land retirement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Li, J.B.; Huang, G.H.; Li, H.L.

    2006-01-01

    This study presents a simulation-based interval two-stage stochastic programming (SITSP) model for agricultural nonpoint source (NPS) pollution control through land retirement under uncertain conditions. The modeling framework was established by the development of an interval two-stage stochastic program, with its random parameters being provided by the statistical analysis of the simulation outcomes of a distributed water quality approach. The developed model can deal with the tradeoff between agricultural revenue and 'off-site' water quality concern under random effluent discharge for a land retirement scheme through minimizing the expected value of long-term total economic and environmental cost. In addition, the uncertainties presented as interval numbers in the agriculture-water system can be effectively quantified with the interval programming. By subdividing the whole agricultural watershed into different zones, the most pollution-related sensitive cropland can be identified and an optimal land retirement scheme can be obtained through the modeling approach. The developed method was applied to the Swift Current Creek watershed in Canada for soil erosion control through land retirement. The Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate the sediment information for this case study. Obtained results indicate that the total economic and environmental cost of the entire agriculture-water system can be limited within an interval value for the optimal land retirement schemes. Meanwhile, a best and worst land retirement scheme was obtained for the study watershed under various uncertainties

  13. Agricultural response functions to changes in carbon, temperature, and water based on the C3MP data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A.; Ruane, A. C.; Phillips, M.; Calvin, K. V.; Clarke, L.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural yields vary depending on temperature, precipitation/irrigation conditions, fertilizer application, and CO2 concentration. The Coordinated Climate-Crop Modeling Project (C3MP), conducted as a component of the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP), organized a sensitivity experiments across carbon-temperature-water (CTW) space across 1100 management conditions in 50+ countries, sampling 15 crop species and 20 crop models. Such coordinated sensitivity tests allow for the building of emulators of yield response to changes in CTW values, allowing rapid estimation of yield changes from the types of climate changes projected by the climate modeling community. The resulting emulator may be used to supply agricultural responses to climate change in any user-defined scenario, rather than the restriction to the RCPs in many past works. We present the resulting emulators built from the C3MP output data set for use in the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) integrated assessment model that allows for the co-evolution of socioeconomic development, greenhouse gas emissions, climate change, and agricultural sector ramifications. C3MP-based emulators may be of use in designing agricultural impact studies in other IAMs, and we place them in the context of past crop modeling efforts, including the Challinor et al. Meta-analysis, the AgMIP Wheat team results, the AgMIP Global Gridded Crop Model Intercomparison (GGCMI) fast-track modeling results, and the MACSUR impact response surface results.

  14. Simulation-based optimization framework for reuse of agricultural drainage water in irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, A; Tawfik, A; Yoshimura, C; Fleifle, A

    2016-05-01

    A simulation-based optimization framework for agricultural drainage water (ADW) reuse has been developed through the integration of a water quality model (QUAL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm. This framework was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, in summer and winter 2012. First, the water quantity and quality of the drain was simulated using the QUAL2Kw model. Second, uncertainty analysis and sensitivity analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation were performed to assess QUAL2Kw's performance and to identify the most critical variables for determination of water quality, respectively. Finally, a genetic algorithm was applied to maximize the total reuse quantity from seven reuse locations with the condition not to violate the standards for using mixed water in irrigation. The water quality simulations showed that organic matter concentrations are critical management variables in the Gharbia drain. The uncertainty analysis showed the reliability of QUAL2Kw to simulate water quality and quantity along the drain. Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis showed that the 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total nitrogen and total phosphorous are highly sensitive to point source flow and quality. Additionally, the optimization results revealed that the reuse quantities of ADW can reach 36.3% and 40.4% of the available ADW in the drain during summer and winter, respectively. These quantities meet 30.8% and 29.1% of the drainage basin requirements for fresh irrigation water in the respective seasons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A control method for agricultural greenhouses heating based on computational fluid dynamics and energy prediction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiaoliao; Xu, Fang; Tan, Dapeng; Shen, Zheng; Zhang, Libin; Ai, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel control method for the heating greenhouse with SWSHPS is proposed. • CFD is employed to predict the priorities of FCU loops for thermal performance. • EPM is act as an on-line tool to predict the total energy demand of greenhouse. • The CFD–EPM-based method can save energy and improve control accuracy. • The energy savings potential is between 8.7% and 15.1%. - Abstract: As energy heating is one of the main production costs, many efforts have been made to reduce the energy consumption of agricultural greenhouses. Herein, a novel control method of greenhouse heating using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and energy prediction model (EPM) is proposed for energy savings and system performance. Based on the low-Reynolds number k–ε turbulence principle, a CFD model of heating greenhouse is developed, applying the discrete ordinates model for the radiative heat transfers and porous medium approach for plants considering plants sensible and latent heat exchanges. The CFD simulations have been validated, and used to analyze the greenhouse thermal performance and the priority of fan coil units (FCU) loops under the various heating conditions. According to the heating efficiency and temperature uniformity, the priorities of each FCU loop can be predicted to generate a database with priorities for control system. EPM is built up based on the thermal balance, and used to predict and optimize the energy demand of the greenhouse online. Combined with the priorities of FCU loops from CFD simulations offline, we have developed the CFD–EPM-based heating control system of greenhouse with surface water source heat pumps system (SWSHPS). Compared with conventional multi-zone independent control (CMIC) method, the energy savings potential is between 8.7% and 15.1%, and the control temperature deviation is decreased to between 0.1 °C and 0.6 °C in the investigated greenhouse. These results show the CFD–EPM-based method can improve system

  16. Near-Field Nanolasers based on Nonradiating Anapole Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2016-05-31

    By employing ab-initio simulations of Maxwell-Bloch equations with a source of quantum noise, we study a new laser concept based on photonic dark-matter nanostructures that emit only in the near-field, with no far-field radiation pattern.

  17. Near-Field Nanolasers based on Nonradiating Anapole Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    By employing ab-initio simulations of Maxwell-Bloch equations with a source of quantum noise, we study a new laser concept based on photonic dark-matter nanostructures that emit only in the near-field, with no far-field radiation pattern.

  18. External Mask Based Depth and Light Field Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-08

    External mask based depth and light field camera Dikpal Reddy NVIDIA Research Santa Clara, CA dikpalr@nvidia.com Jiamin Bai University of California...passive depth acquisition technology is illustrated by the emergence of light field camera companies like Lytro [1], Raytrix [2] and Pelican Imaging

  19. ANALYTIC WORD RECOGNITION WITHOUT SEGMENTATION BASED ON MARKOV RANDOM FIELDS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coisy, C.; Belaid, A.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a method for analytic handwritten word recognition based on causal Markov random fields is described. The words models are HMMs where each state corresponds to a letter; each letter is modelled by a NSHP­HMM (Markov field). Global models are build dynamically, and used for recognition

  20. Graphene-based field-effect transistor biosensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen; , Junhong; Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua

    2017-06-14

    The disclosure provides a field-effect transistor (FET)-based biosensor and uses thereof. In particular, to FET-based biosensors using thermally reduced graphene-based sheets as a conducting channel decorated with nanoparticle-biomolecule conjugates. The present disclosure also relates to FET-based biosensors using metal nitride/graphene hybrid sheets. The disclosure provides a method for detecting a target biomolecule in a sample using the FET-based biosensor described herein.

  1. Application of swine manure on agricultural fields contributes to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli spread in Tai’an, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili eGao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (E. coli is increasing rapidly in both hospital environments and animal farms. A lot of animal manure has been directly applied into arable fields in the developing countries. But the impact of ESBL-positive bacteria from animal manure on the agricultural fields is sparse, especially in the rural regions of Tai’an, China. Here, we collected 29, 3, and 10 ESBL-producing E. coli from pig manure, compost, and soil samples, respectively. To track ESBL-harboring E. coli from agricultural soil, these isolates of different sources were analyzed with regard to antibiotic resistance profiles, ESBL genes, plasmid replicons, and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC-polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing. The results showed that all the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. CTX-M gene was the predominant ESBL gene in the isolates from pig farm samples (30/32, 93.8% and soil samples (7/10, 70.0%, but no SHV gene was detected. 25 isolates contained the IncF-type replicon of plasmid, including 18 strains (18/32, 56.3% from the pig farm and 7 (7/10, 70.0% from the soil samples. ERIC-PCR demonstrated that 3 isolates from the soil had above 90% genetic similarity with strains from pig farm samples. In conclusion, application of animal manure carrying drug-resistant bacteria on agricultural fields is a likely contributor to antibiotic resistance gene spread.

  2. Life Cycle Based Evaluation of Environmental and Economic Impacts of Agricultural Productions in the Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tamburini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA applied to estimate the cradle-to-grave environmental impact of agricultural products or processes. Furthermore, including in the analysis an economic evaluation, from the perspective of an integrated life cycle approach, appears nowadays as a fundamental improvement. In particular, Life Cycle Costing (LCC, is a method that could integrate financial data and cost information with metrics of life cycle approaches. In this study, LCA in conjunction with LCC methods were used, with the aim to evaluate the main cost drivers—environmental and economic—of five widely diffused and market-valued agricultural productions (organic tomato and pear, integrated wheat, apple and chicory and to combine the results in order to understand the long-term externalities impacts of agricultural productions. Data obtained in local assessment show a wide margin of improvement of resources management at farms level in the short-term, but also allow for the investigation of future effects of environmental impacts not expressed in product price on the market. Reaching a real sustainable model for agriculture could be a value added approach firstly for farmers, but also for all the people who live in rural areas or use agricultural products.

  3. Prevention of agricultural injuries: an evaluation of an education-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagel, L M; Pickett, W; Pahwa, P; Day, L; Brison, R J; Marlenga, B; Crowe, T; Snodgrass, P; Ulmer, K; Dosman, J A

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an agricultural health and safety program in reducing risks of injury. Cross-sectional survey. 50 rural municipalities in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada. The Agricultural Health and Safety Network (AHSN), a mainly educational program that administered 112 farm safety interventions over 19 years. 5292 farm people associated with 2392 Saskatchewan farms. Farms and associated farm people were categorized into three groups according to years of participation in the AHSN. self-reported prevalence of: (1) farm safety practices; (2) physical farm hazards. (1) self-reported agricultural injuries. After adjustment for group imbalances and clustering at the rural municipality level, the prevalence of all impact and outcome measures was not significantly different on farms grouped according to years of AHSN participation. To illustrate, the adjusted relative risk of reporting no rollover protection on tractors among farms with none (0 years) versus high (>8 years) levels of AHSN participation was 0.95 (95% CI 0.69 to 1.30). The adjusted relative risk for agricultural injuries (all types) reported for the year before the survey was 0.99 (95% CI 0.74 to 1.32). Educational interventions delivered via the AHSN program were not associated with observable differences in farm safety practices, physical farm hazards, or farm-related injury outcomes. There is a need for the agricultural sector to extend the scope of its injury prevention initiatives to include the full public health model of education, engineering, and regulation.

  4. A GIS-based fuzzy classification for mapping the agricultural soils for N-fertilizers use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assimakopoulos, J H; Kalivas, D P; Kollias, V J

    2003-06-20

    Special attention should be paid to the choice of the proper N-fertilizer, in order to avoid a further acidification and degradation of acid soils and at the same time to improve nitrogen use efficiency and to limit the nitrate pollution of the ground waters. Therefore, the risk of leaching of the fertilizer and of the acidification of the soils must be considered prior to any N-fertilizer application. The application of N-fertilizers to the soil requires a good knowledge of the soil-fertilizer relationship, which those who are planning the fertilization policy and/or applying it might not have. In this study, a fuzzy classification methodology is presented for mapping the agricultural soils according to the kind and the rate of application of N-fertilizer that should be used. The values of pH, clay, sand and carbonates soil variables are estimated at each point of an area by applying geostatistical techniques. Using the pH values three fuzzy sets: "no-risk-acidification"; "low-risk-acidification"; and "high-risk-acidification" are produced and the memberships of each point to the three sets are estimated. Additionally, from the clay and sand values the membership grade to the fuzzy set "risk-of-leaching" is calculated. The parameters and their values, which are used for the construction of the fuzzy sets, are based on the literature, the existing knowledge and the experimentation, of the soil-fertilizer relationships and provide a consistent mechanism for mapping the soils according to the type of N-fertilizers that should be applied and the rate of applications. The maps produced can easily be interpreted and used by non-experts in the application of the fertilization policy at national, local and farm level. The methodology is presented through a case study using data from the Amfilochia area, west Greece.

  5. Thermogravimetric kinetic study of agricultural residue biomass pyrolysis based on combined kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Hu, Mian; Hu, Wanyong; Chen, Zhihua; Liu, Shiming; Hu, Zhiquan; Xiao, Bo

    2016-11-01

    Pyrolytic kinetic of an agricultural residue (AR) feedstock, a mixture of plants (cotton, wheat, rich, corn) stems, was investigated based on combined kinetics. The most suitable mechanism for AR one-step pyrolysis was f(α)=(1-α)(1.1816)α(-1.8428) with kinetic parameters of: apparent activation energy 221.7kJ/mol, pre-exponential factor 4.17E16s(-1). Pyrolysis of AR feedstock could not be described by one-step reaction attributes to heterogeneous features of pyrolysis processes. Combined kinetics three-parallel-reaction (CK-TPR) model fitted the pyrolysis experimental data very well. Reaction mechanisms for pseudo hemicelluloses, cellulose, lignin in CK-TPR model was f(α)=(1-α)(1.6244)α(-0.3371)[-ln(1-α)](-0.0515), f(α)=(1-α)(1.0597)α(-0.6909)[-ln(1-α)](0.9026) and f(α)=(1-α)(2.9577)α(-4.7719), respectively. Apparent activation energy of three pseudo components followed the order of Elignin(197.3kJ/mol)>Ecellulose(176.3kJ/mol)>Ehemicelluloses (151.1kJ/mol). Mechanism of hemicelluloses pyrolysis could be further expressed as f(α)=(1-α)(1.4). The pyrolytic mechanism of cellulose met the Nucleation well. However, mechanism of lignin pyrolysis was complex, which possibly was the combined effects of Nucleation, Diffusion, Geometrical contraction, and Power law. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Irrigated Agriculture in Morocco: An Agent-Based Model of Adaptation and Decision Making Amid Increasingly Frequent Drought Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past 100 years, Morocco has undertaken a heavy investment in developing water infrastructure that has led to a dramatic expansion of irrigated agriculture. Irrigated agriculture is the primary user of water in many arid countries, often accounting for 80-90% of total water usage. Irrigation is adopted by farmers not only because it leads to increased production, but also because it improves resilience to an uncertain climate. However, the Mediterranean region as a whole has also seen an increase in the frequency and severity of drought events. These droughts have had a dramatic impact on farmer livelihoods and have led to a number of coping strategies, including the adoption or disadoption of irrigation. In this study, we use a record of the annual extent of irrigated agriculture in Morocco to model the effect of drought on the extent of irrigated agriculture. Using an agent-based socioeconomic model, we seek to answer the following questions: 1) Do farmers expand irrigated agriculture in response to droughts? 2) Do drought events entail the removal of perennial crops like orchards? 3) Can we detect the retreat of irrigated agriculture in the more fragile watersheds of Morocco? Understanding the determinants of irrigated crop expansion and contractions will help us understand how agro-ecological systems transition from 20th century paradigms of expansion of water supply to a 21st century paradigm of water use efficiency. The answers will become important as countries learn how to manage water in new climate regimes characterized by less reliable and available precipitation.

  7. Source apportionment of heavy metals in agricultural soil based on PMF: A case study in Hexi Corridor, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Qingyu; Wang, Feifei; Xu, Chuanqi; Pan, Ninghui; Lin, Jinkuo; Zhao, Rui; Yang, Yanyan; Luo, Haiping

    2018-02-01

    Hexi Corridor is the most important base of commodity grain and producing area for cash crops. However, the rapid development of agriculture and industry has inevitably led to heavy metal contamination in the soils. Multivariate statistical analysis, GIS-based geostatistical methods and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modeling techniques were used to understand the levels of heavy metals and their source apportionment for agricultural soil in Hexi Corridor. The results showed that the average concentrations of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were lower than the secondary standard of soil environmental quality; however, the concentrations of eight metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn) were higher than background values, and their corresponding enrichment factor values were significantly greater than 1. Different degrees of heavy metal pollution occurred in the agricultural soils; specifically, Ni had the most potential for impacting human health. The results from the multivariate statistical analysis and GIS-based geostatistical methods indicated both natural sources (Co and W) and anthropogenic sources (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Ti, V and Zn). To better identify pollution sources of heavy metals in the agricultural soils, the PMF model was applied. Further source apportionment revealed that enrichments of Pb and Zn were attributed to traffic sources; Cr and Ni were closely related to industrial activities, including mining, smelting, coal combustion, iron and steel production and metal processing; Zn and Cu originated from agricultural activities; and V, Ti and Mn were derived from oil- and coal-related activities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  9. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew; Houborg, Rasmus; Rosas, Jorge; Ershadi, Ali; Anderson, Martha; Hain, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  10. Assessment of agricultural drought vulnerability in the Philippines using remote sensing and GIS-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macapagal, Marco D.; Olivares, Resi O.; Perez, Gay Jane P.

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a recurrent extreme climate event that can cause crop damage and yield loss, thereby inflicting negative socioeconomic impacts all over the world. According to several climate studies, drought events may be more frequent and more severe as global warming progresses. As an agricultural country, the Philippines is highly susceptible to adverse impacts of drought using remotely sensed information and geographic processing techniques. An agricultural drought vulnerability map identifying croplands that are least vulnerable, moderately vulnerable, and most vulnerable to crop water-related stress, was developed. Vulnerability factors, including land use system, irrigation support. Available soil-water holding capacity, as well as satellite-derived evapotranspiration and rainfall, were taken into consideration in classifying and mapping agricultural drought vulnerability at a national level. (author)

  11. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-11-12

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  12. Underwater electric field detection system based on weakly electric fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Wei; Wang, Tianyu; Wang, Qi

    2018-04-01

    Weakly electric fish sense their surroundings in complete darkness by their active electric field detection system. However, due to the insufficient detection capacity of the electric field, the detection distance is not enough, and the detection accuracy is not high. In this paper, a method of underwater detection based on rotating current field theory is proposed to improve the performance of underwater electric field detection system. First of all, we built underwater detection system based on the theory of the spin current field mathematical model with the help of the results of previous researchers. Then we completed the principle prototype and finished the metal objects in the water environment detection experiments, laid the foundation for the further experiments.

  13. Mapping daily evapotranspiration at field scales over rainfed and irrigated agricultural areas using remote sensing data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A continuous monitoring of daily evapotranspiration (ET) at field scale can be achieved by combining thermal infrared remote sensing data information from multiple satellite platforms. Here, an integrated approach to field scale ET mapping is described, combining multi-scale surface energy balance e...

  14. Depth profiles of radioactive cesium and iodine released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in different agricultural fields and forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Takeshi; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Oda, Kazumasa; Inagawa, Naoya; Ogawa, Hiromu; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Toyama, Chiaki; Miura, Yoshinori; Sato, Mutsuto

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the behavior of radionuclides released from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the depth distributions of radiocesium and radioiodine were investigated in a wheat field, a rice paddy, an orchard, and a cedar forest in Koriyama, Fukushima Prefecture. Our results demonstrate that, following the nuclear power plant disaster, more than 90% of the radionuclides were distributed in the upper 6 cm of the soil column in the wheat field and within 4 cm of the surface in the rice paddy, orchard, and cedar forest. According to the measurement of radionuclides in the three adjacent agricultural fields, the variation of deposition densities in the wheat field was smaller than that of the orchard and rice paddy, suggesting that the low permeability of the orchard and paddy soils may cause horizontal migration of radionuclides during the initial deposition. This result indicates that the deposition densities in the wheat field should be appropriate for estimating the amount of fallout in the area. The deposition densities of 134 Cs, 137 Cs, and 131 I in this area were estimated to be 512 ± 76 (SD, n = 5), 522 ± 80 (SD, n = 5), and 608 ± 79 (SD, n = 5) kBq/m 2 (decay corrected to April 1, 2011), respectively. A comparison of the deposition density between the wheat field and the cedar forest suggests that more than half of the radionuclides are distributed in the tree canopies of the evergreen forestland. (author)

  15. A major challenge for modeling conservation-based water use reductions in aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture: The specific yield quandary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J. J., Jr.; Whittemore, D. O.; Wilson, B. B.; Bohling, G.

    2017-12-01

    Many large regional aquifers supporting irrigated agriculture are experiencing high rates of water-level decline. The primary means of moderating these rates is to reduce pumping. The key question is what percent pumping reduction will significantly impact decline rates. We have recently developed a water-balance approach to address this question for subareas (100s to 1000s km2 in size) of seasonally pumped aquifers (Butler et al., GRL, 2016). This approach also provides an estimate of specific yield (Sy), which has been difficult to estimate from field data at the scale of modeling analyses. When applied to subareas of the High Plains aquifer in Kansas, this approach reveals that the Sy estimate is much lower (as much as a factor of five or more) than expected for an unconsolidated aquifer. One explanation is that the aquifer is heterogeneous with considerable amounts of fine material, whereas field data, such as drillers' logs, are often biased towards coarser intervals. An additional explanation, which appears to have received little attention, is the impact of entrapped air. In seasonally pumped systems, water levels pass through the same aquifer intervals multiple times, giving ample opportunity for air to be entrapped. This entrapped air imbues the aquifer with a specific yield that is considerably lower than what would be expected from lithology. If unrecognized, a larger-than-actual Sy value is input into the aquifer model. This can lead to the inadvertent use of the same-year recharge assumption, which may not be appropriate for many conditions (e.g., large depths to water), and can also result in artificially low estimates of net inflow for a depleting aquifer. Moreover, failure to recognize this condition can bedevil efforts to model conservation-based water use reductions. In that case, models will leave the range of conditions for which they have been calibrated and can become more vulnerable to parameter errors. Conservation-based water use reductions

  16. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands: a synthesis of methylmercury production, hydrologic export, and bioaccumulation from an integrated field study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Fleck, Jacob A.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Heim, Wesley A.; Bachand, Philip A.M.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gill, Gary; Stephenson, Mark; Alpers, Charles N.

    2014-01-01

    With seasonal wetting and drying, and high biological productivity, agricultural wetlands (rice paddies) may enhance the conversion of inorganic mercury (Hg(II)) to methylmercury (MeHg), the more toxic, organic form that biomagnifies through food webs. Yet, the net balance of MeHg sources and sinks in seasonal wetland environments is poorly understood because it requires an annual, integrated assessment across biota, sediment, and water components. We examined a suite of wetlands managed for rice crops or wildlife during 2007–2008 in California's Central Valley, in an area affected by Hg contamination from historic mining practices. Hydrologic management of agricultural wetlands for rice, wild rice, or fallowed — drying for field preparation and harvest, and flooding for crop growth and post-harvest rice straw decay — led to pronounced seasonality in sediment and aqueous MeHg concentrations that were up to 95-fold higher than those measured concurrently in adjacent, non-agricultural permanently-flooded and seasonally-flooded wetlands. Flooding promoted microbial MeHg production in surface sediment of all wetlands, but extended water residence time appeared to preferentially enhance MeHg degradation and storage. When incoming MeHg loads were elevated, individual fields often served as a MeHg sink, rather than a source. Slow, horizontal flow of shallow water in the agricultural wetlands led to increased importance of vertical hydrologic fluxes, including evapoconcentration of surface water MeHg and transpiration-driven advection into the root zone, promoting temporary soil storage of MeHg. Although this hydrology limited MeHg export from wetlands, it also increased MeHg exposure to resident fish via greater in situ aqueous MeHg concentrations. Our results suggest that the combined traits of agricultural wetlands — slow-moving shallow water, manipulated flooding and drying, abundant labile plant matter, and management for wildlife — may enhance microbial

  17. Ranking provinces based on development scale in agriculture sector using taxonomy technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Rostampour

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine comparative ranking of agricultural development in different provinces of Iran using taxonomy technique. The independent variables are amount of annual rainfall amount, the number of permanent rivers, the width of pastures and forest, cultivated level of agricultural harvests and garden harvests, number of beehives, the number of fish farming ranches, the number of tractors and combines, the number of cooperative production societies, the number of industrial cattle breeding and aviculture. The results indicate that the maximum development coefficient value is associated with Razavi Khorasan province followed by Mazandaran, East Azarbayjan while the minimum ranking value belongs to Bushehr province.

  18. Comparative susceptibility of bemisia tabaci to imidacloprid in field- and laboratory-based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemisia tabaci biotype B is a resistance-prone pest of protected and open agriculture. Systemic uptake bioassays used in resistance monitoring programs have provided important information on susceptibility to neonicotinoid insecticides, but have remained decoupled from field performance. Simultaneou...

  19. Soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventory and Ecological-Economic Zoning as a basis for agricultural suitability of lands in Minas Gerais elaborated in GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Antonio Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lands (broader concept than soils, including all elements of the environment: soils, geology, topography, climate, water resources, flora and fauna, and the effects of anthropogenic activities of the state of Minas Gerais are in different soil, climate and socio-economics conditions and suitability for the production of agricultural goods is therefore distinct and mapping of agricultural suitability of the state lands is crucial for planning guided sustainability. Geoprocessing uses geographic information treatment techniques and GIS allows to evaluate geographic phenomena and their interrelationships using digital maps. To evaluate the agricultural suitability of state lands, we used soil maps, field knowledge, forest inventories and databases related to Ecological-Economic Zoning (EEZ of Minas Gerais, to develop a map of land suitability in GIS. To do this, we have combined the maps of soil fertility, water stress, oxygen deficiency, vulnerability to erosion and impediments to mechanization. In terms of geographical expression, the main limiting factor of lands is soil fertility, followed by lack of water, impediments to mechanization and vulnerability to erosion. Regarding agricultural suitability, the group 2 (regular suitability for crops is the most comprehensive, representing 45.13% of the state. For management levels A and B, low and moderate technological level, respectively, the most expressive suitability class is the regular, followed by the restricted class and last, the adequate class, while for the management level C (high technological level the predominant class is the restricted. The predominant most intensive use type is for crops, whose area increases substantially with capital investment and technology (management levels B and C.

  20. Anisotropy in wavelet-based phase field models

    KAUST Repository

    Korzec, Maciek; Mü nch, Andreas; Sü li, Endre; Wagner, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    When describing the anisotropic evolution of microstructures in solids using phase-field models, the anisotropy of the crystalline phases is usually introduced into the interfacial energy by directional dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients. We consider an alternative approach based on a wavelet analogue of the Laplace operator that is intrinsically anisotropic and linear. The paper focuses on the classical coupled temperature/Ginzburg--Landau type phase-field model for dendritic growth. For the model based on the wavelet analogue, existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data are proved for weak solutions. Numerical studies of the wavelet based phase-field model show dendritic growth similar to the results obtained for classical phase-field models.

  1. Anisotropy in wavelet-based phase field models

    KAUST Repository

    Korzec, Maciek

    2016-04-01

    When describing the anisotropic evolution of microstructures in solids using phase-field models, the anisotropy of the crystalline phases is usually introduced into the interfacial energy by directional dependencies of the gradient energy coefficients. We consider an alternative approach based on a wavelet analogue of the Laplace operator that is intrinsically anisotropic and linear. The paper focuses on the classical coupled temperature/Ginzburg--Landau type phase-field model for dendritic growth. For the model based on the wavelet analogue, existence, uniqueness and continuous dependence on initial data are proved for weak solutions. Numerical studies of the wavelet based phase-field model show dendritic growth similar to the results obtained for classical phase-field models.

  2. Landslide Susceptibility Evaluation on agricultural terraces of DOURO VALLEY (PORTUGAL), using physically based mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Ana; Bateira, Carlos; Laura, Soares; Fernandes, Joana; Gonçalves, José; Marques, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    The work focuses the evaluation of landslide susceptibility in Douro Region agricultural terraces, supported by dry stone walls and earth embankments, using two physically based models. The applied models, SHALSTAB (Montgomery et al.,1994; Dietrich et al., 1995) and SINMAP (PACK et al., 2005), combine an infinite slope stability model with a steady state hydrological model, and both use the following geophysical parameters: cohesion, friction angle, specific weight and soil thickness. The definition of the contributing areas is different in both models. The D∞ methodology used by SINMAP model suggests a great influence of the terraces morphology, providing a much more diffuse flow on the internal flow modelling. The MD8 used in SHALSTAB promotes an important degree of flow concentration, representing an internal flow based on preferential paths of the runoff as the areas more susceptible to saturation processes. The model validation is made through the contingency matrix method (Fawcett, 2006; Raia et al., 2014) and implies the confrontation with the inventory of past landslides. The True Positive Rate shows that SHALSTAB classifies 77% of the landslides on the high susceptibility areas, while SINMAP reaches 90%. The SINMAP has a False Positive Rate (represents the percentage of the slipped area that is classified as unstable but without landslides) of 83% and the SHALSTAB has 67%. The reliability (analyzes the areas that were correctly classified on the total area) of SHALSTAB is better (33% against 18% of SINMAP). Relative to Precision (refers to the ratio of the slipped area correctly classified over the whole area classified as unstable) SHALSTAB has better results (0.00298 against 0.00283 of SINMAP). It was elaborate the index TPR/FPR and better results obtained by SHALSTAB (1.14 against 1.09 of SINMAP). SHALSTAB shows a better performance in the definition of susceptibility most prone areas to instability processes. One of the reasons for the difference of

  3. Laboratory Safety Needs of Kentucky School-Based Agricultural Mechanics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucier, P. Ryan; Vincent, Stacy K.; Anderson, Ryan G.

    2014-01-01

    The frequency and severity of accidents that occur in the agricultural mechanics laboratory can be reduced when these facilities are managed by educators who are competent in the area of laboratory safety and facility management (McKim & Saucier, 2011). To ensure teachers are technically competent and prepared to manage an agricultural…

  4. Multiple Case Study of STEM in School-Based Agricultural Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Eric A.; Myers, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated the integration of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in three Florida high school agriculture programs. Observations, interviews, documents, and artifacts provided qualitative data that indicated the types of STEM knowledge taught. Variables of interest included student and teacher…

  5. Afforest sDSS: a metamodel based spatial decision support system for afforestation of agricultural land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilliams, S.; Orshoven, van J.; Muys, B.; Kros, J.; Heil, G.W.; Deursen, van W.

    2005-01-01

    The concept and structure of the Spatial Decision Support System AFFOREST sDSS dealing with environmental performance (EP) of afforestation on agricultural land in northwestern Europe, is presented. EP is defined in terms of three environmental impact categories: (1) carbon sequestration (2)

  6. Evaluation of agricultural ecosystem services in fallowing land based on farmers' participation and model simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu Yen Lan,; Chang Kang-tsung,; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Verburg, P.H.; Sun Chin Hong,

    2012-01-01

    Fallowing with green fertilizer can benefit agricultural ecosystem services (AES). Farmers in Taiwan do not implement fallow practices and plant green fertilizer because the current subsidy level (46,000 NT$ per ha) is too low to manage fallowing. This paper defines the objective of government

  7. Evaluation of Agricultural ecosystem services in fallowing land based on farmers’ participation and model simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Y.L.; Chang, K.T.; Stoorvogel, J.; Verburg, P.H.; Sun, C.H.

    2012-01-01

    Fallowing with green fertilizer can benefit agricultural ecosystem services (AES). Farmers in Taiwan do not implement fallow practices and plant green fertilizer because the current subsidy level (46,000 NT$ per ha) is too low to manage fallowing. This paper defines the objective of government

  8. Trait-based approaches for guiding the restoration of degraded agricultural landscapes in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohbeck, Madelon; Winowiecki, Leigh; Aynekulu, Ermias; Okia, Clement; Vågen, Tor Gunnar

    2018-01-01

    Functional ecology provides a framework that can link vegetation characteristics of various land uses with ecosystem function. However, this application has been mostly limited to [semi-]natural systems and small spatial scales. Here, we apply functional ecology to five agricultural landscapes in

  9. Cellulosic-based ethanol and the contribution from agriculture and forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Perlack; Bryce J. Stokes; John Ferrell; Mary Bohman; Kenneth E. Skog; Dennis P. Dykstra; Patricia K. Lebow; Patrick D. Miles

    2008-01-01

    The cellulosic feedstocks (see chapter 2) needed to produce 20 billion gallons per year (BGY) of second-generation and other renewable fuels can come from a wide variety of cropland and forestland sources, including imports. The impact of producing these biofuels on U.S. agriculture and forestry will very much depend on the relative proportions of cropland- and...

  10. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilon, Nicola; Cardarelli, Elisa; Bogliani, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI) and Giussago (PV) (Lombardy, Italy). In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amaralittorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  11. Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae of rice field banks and restored habitats in an agricultural area of the Po Plain (Lombardy, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Pilon

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI and Giussago (PV (Lombardy, Italy. In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amara littorea is recorded for the first time in Italy.

  12. Fuel and power resources based on energy-saving technologies and technical means in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tikhomirov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The state and efficiency of the use of the energy supply systems in agriculture were analyzed. It is demonstrated that grids and power equipment deterioration exceeds 30 percent, and fuel volume-efficiency ratio is not more than 35 percent in this sector. A considerable part of the country territory (mainly the northern one does not have centralized power supply. Decentralized cogeneration systems with extensive use of renewable energy sources and local energy recourses are highly efficient for this part. A necessity of development of methodology and recommendations for the selection of efficient systems and technical means of power supply to agricultural enterprises was substantiated with due consideration of their location, load intensity and distance from centralized grids. The most important indication of energy efficiency is energy intensity of products and energy inputs share in the production cost. Reserves for energy saving including the development of energy-efficient technologies and technical means, some of which have already been developed (equipment for lighting, microclimate, primary treatment and storage of products, disinfection or are at the completion stage were presented. Their implementation in agricultural production will make it possible to raise considerably the efficiency of the use of fuel and power resources and to reduce energy consumption. The conditions in which the use of decentralized power supply systems is most efficient were educed. The characteristics of related equipment and the specifics of its use at agricultural enterprises are described. The proposal and priority actions for the development and upgrading of power supply systems for agriculture have been elaborated.

  13. Agricultural drought prediction using climate indices based on Support Vector Regression in Xiangjiang River basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Xu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Guoqing

    2018-05-01

    Drought can have a substantial impact on the ecosystem and agriculture of the affected region and does harm to local economy. This study aims to analyze the relation between soil moisture and drought and predict agricultural drought in Xiangjiang River basin. The agriculture droughts are presented with the Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The Support Vector Regression (SVR) model incorporating climate indices is developed to predict the agricultural droughts. Analysis of climate forcing including El Niño Southern Oscillation and western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) are carried out to select climate indices. The results show that SPEI of six months time scales (SPEI-6) represents the soil moisture better than that of three and one month time scale on drought duration, severity and peaks. The key factor that influences the agriculture drought is the Ridge Point of WPSH, which mainly controls regional temperature. The SVR model incorporating climate indices, especially ridge point of WPSH, could improve the prediction accuracy compared to that solely using drought index by 4.4% in training and 5.1% in testing measured by Nash Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE) for three month lead time. The improvement is more significant for the prediction with one month lead (15.8% in training and 27.0% in testing) than that with three months lead time. However, it needs to be cautious in selection of the input parameters, since adding redundant information could have a counter effect in attaining a better prediction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Russian Observations of European Experience in Agricultural Development in 1840s (based on the printed output of the Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia I. Kuznetsova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the nineteenth century, agriculture in Russia had reached the new level of development. The Imperial Agricultural Societies paid much attention to establishing relations with the foreign agricultural societies and kept up with their periodicals, issuing translations and abridgements of texts, which could be interesting to the Russian readers. This paper examines the articles on farming industry in Great Britain, France, German countries, Italy, and the USA, released in journals and transactions of Imperial Agricultural Societies of Russia in 1840s. The research draws on both reviews of European congresses or exhibitions, written by members of agricultural societies, and the articles written by foreign authors and published in translation. Such approach made it possible to specify the certain topics appealing to Russian farmers. Moreover, the study of the articles contributed by the Imperial Agricultural Societies helped to build a complete picture representing knowledge on history, theory and practice of foreign and Russian husbandry, shared by the Russian farmers in 1840s. It is also worth to mention that the effective work of agricultural journals in fact integrated Russian farming communities into the broad network of contacts, experience and knowledge exchange, which had been functioning in Europe in the first half of the XIXth century. Nevertheless, the research revealed that the articles in question almost lacked comparisons between Russian and European agriculture. The papers dealing with comparative analysis of the different European farming systems are characterized by noticeably restrained reaction of the editors and authors to the published information. They tended to show the advantages and disadvantages of the foreign farming without furnishing the Russian reader or the Russian authorities with any specific recommendations.

  15. Root system-based limits to agricultural productivity and efficiency: the farming systems context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian; Kirkegaard, John

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been renewed global interest in both genetic and management strategies to improve root system function in order to improve agricultural productivity and minimize environmental damage. Improving root system capture of water and nutrients is an obvious strategy, yet few studies consider the important interactions between the genetic improvements proposed, and crop management at a system scale that will influence likely success. Scope To exemplify these interactions, the contrasting cereal-based farming systems of Denmark and Australia were used, where the improved uptake of water and nitrogen from deeper soil layers has been proposed to improve productivity and environmental outcomes in both systems. The analysis showed that water and nitrogen availability, especially in deeper layers (>1 m), was significantly affected by the preceding crops and management, and likely to interact strongly with deeper rooting as a specific trait of interest. Conclusions In the semi-arid Australian environment, grain yield impacts from storage and uptake of water from depth (>1 m) could be influenced to a stronger degree by preceding crop choice (0·42 t ha–1), pre-crop fallow management (0·65 t ha–1) and sowing date (0·63 t ha–1) than by current genetic differences in rooting depth (0·36 t ha–1). Matching of deep-rooted genotypes to management provided the greatest improvements related to deep water capture. In the wetter environment of Denmark, reduced leaching of N was the focus. Here the amount of N moving below the root zone was also influenced by previous crop choice or cover crop management (effects up to 85 kg N ha–1) and wheat crop sowing date (up to 45 kg ha–1), effects which over-ride the effects of differences in rooting depth among genotypes. These examples highlight the need to understand the farming system context and important G × E × M interactions in studies on proposed genetic improvements to root systems for improved

  16. Impact of soil protection measures based on topographical variations through connectivity indices in two agricultural catchments in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Mesas, F. Javier; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Marín-Moreno, Víctor; Mateos, Luciano

    2017-04-01

    Physiographic attributes of the catchments (spatial organization and internal connectivity) determine sediment production, transport and delivery to river channels downstream. Understanding the hydrological connectivity allows identifying runoff and sediment contribution from overland flow pathways, rills and gullies at the upper parts of the catchments to sink areas (Borselli et al., 2008). Currently, the design of orchards and row crops plantations is driven by traffic and machinery management criteria, meaning significant simplification of the landscape. Topographic alterations may reduce the connectivity and maximize the retention of water and sediments in catchments by increasing travel times and infiltration (Gay et al., 2016). There are connectivity indices based on topography and land use information (Borselli et al., 2008) and travel times (Chow et al., 1988) which may help to identify measures to reduce water and sediment transfer. In this work, connectivity indices derived from digital elevation models (DEM) of two small agricultural catchments where topographic measures to interrupt the connectivity had been implemented were analyzed. The topographical details of the tree row ridges in a young almond orchard catchment and half-moons (individual terraces) in an olive grove catchment were obtained using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) flights. The aim was to evaluate the benefits of ridges and half-moons by comparing spatial patterns of connectivity indices before and after the topographical modifications in the catchments. The catchments were flown in December 2016. The original DEMs were generated based on previous topographical information and a filter based on minimum heights. The statistics and the maps generated will be presented as results of our study and its interpretation will provide an analysis to preliminarily explore effective and economical measures for erosion control and improved water harvesting. REFERENCES Gay, O. Cerdan, V. Mardhel, M

  17. Polarization signatures for abandoned agricultural fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave Desert - Can polarimetric SAR detect desertification?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Terrill W.; Farr, Tom G.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.

    1992-01-01

    Radar backscatter from abandoned circular alfalfa fields in the Manix Basin area of the Mojave desert shows systematic changes with length of abandonment. The obliteration of circular planting rows by surface processes could account for the disappearance of bright spokes, which seem to be reflection patterns from remnants of the planting rows, with increasing length of abandonment. An observed shift in the location of the maximum L-band copolarization return away from VV, as well as an increase in surface roughness, both occurring with increasing age of abandonment, seems to be attributable to the formation of wind ripples on the relatively vegetationless fields.

  18. Development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for an aging oil field : Devon Canada Swan Hills Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brewster, M.; North, C.; Leighton-Boyce, G. [WorleyParsons Komex, Calgary, AB (Canada); Moore, D. [Devon Canada Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    The development of field-wide risk based remediation objectives for the aging Devon Canada Swan Hills oil field was examined along with the key components of the closure strategy. These included source removal to the extent practical, long term monitoring, and achievable risk-based remedial objectives that were appropriate to the remote boreal forest setting of the Swan Hills field. A two stage approach was presented. The first stage involved a field wide background framework which included defining areas of common physical and ecological setting and developing appropriate exposure scenarios. The second stage involved site-specific risk assessments which included adjusting for site-specific conditions and an early demonstration project to prove the concept. A GIS approach was used to identify areas of common physical and ecological setting including: physiography; surface water; land use; vegetation ecozones; surficial and bedrock geology; and water well use. Species lists were compiled for vegetation, terrestrial wildlife (mammals, birds, amphibians), and aquatic species (fish and invertebrates). Major contaminant sources, problem formulation, vegetation bioassays, invertebrate bioassays, black spruce emergence, and guideline development were other topics covered during the presentation. Last, a summary of progress was presented. A field-wide review and development of risk zones and site-specific risk assessment has been completed. A regulatory review is underway. tabs., figs.

  19. Improved nowcasting of precipitation based on convective analysis fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haiden

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The high-resolution analysis and nowcasting system INCA (Integrated Nowcasting through Comprehensive Analysis developed at the Austrian national weather service provides three-dimensional fields of temperature, humidity, and wind on an hourly basis, and two-dimensional fields of precipitation rate in 15 min intervals. The system operates on a horizontal resolution of 1 km and a vertical resolution of 100–200 m. It combines surface station data, remote sensing data (radar, satellite, forecast fields of the numerical weather prediction model ALADIN, and high-resolution topographic data. An important application of the INCA system is nowcasting of convective precipitation. Based on fine-scale temperature, humidity, and wind analyses a number of convective analysis fields are routinely generated. These fields include convective boundary layer (CBL flow convergence and specific humidity, lifted condensation level (LCL, convective available potential energy (CAPE, convective inhibition (CIN, and various convective stability indices. Based on the verification of areal precipitation nowcasts it is shown that the pure translational forecast of convective cells can be improved by using a decision algorithm which is based on a subset of the above fields, combined with satellite products.

  20. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  1. Dipole-magnet field models based on a conformal map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Walstrom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In general, generation of charged-particle transfer maps for conventional iron-pole-piece dipole magnets to third and higher order requires a model for the midplane field profile and its transverse derivatives (soft-edge model to high order and numerical integration of map coefficients. An exact treatment of the problem for a particular magnet requires use of measured magnetic data. However, in initial design of beam transport systems, users of charged-particle optics codes generally rely on magnet models built into the codes. Indeed, if maps to third order are adequate for the problem, an approximate analytic field model together with numerical map coefficient integration can capture the important features of the transfer map. The model described in this paper is based on the fact that, except at very large distances from the magnet, the magnetic field for parallel pole-face magnets with constant pole gap height and wide pole faces is basically two dimensional (2D. The field for all space outside of the pole pieces is given by a single (complex analytic expression and includes a parameter that controls the rate of falloff of the fringe field. Since the field function is analytic in the complex plane outside of the pole pieces, it satisfies two basic requirements of a field model for higher-order map codes: it is infinitely differentiable at the midplane and also a solution of the Laplace equation. It is apparently the only simple model available that combines an exponential approach to the central field with an inverse cubic falloff of field at large distances from the magnet in a single expression. The model is not intended for detailed fitting of magnetic field data, but for use in numerical map-generating codes for studying the effect of extended fringe fields on higher-order transfer maps. It is based on conformally mapping the area between the pole pieces to the upper half plane, and placing current filaments on the pole faces. An

  2. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cleveland

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit-cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  3. Reduced persistence of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in agricultural soil following several years of exposure in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Edward, E-mail: ed.topp@agr.gc.ca; Renaud, Justin; Sumarah, Mark; Sabourin, Lyne

    2016-08-15

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin are very important in human and animal medicine, and can be entrained onto agricultural ground through application of sewage sludge or manures. In the present study, a series of replicated field plots were left untreated or received up to five annual spring applications of a mixture of three drugs to achieve a nominal concentration for each of 10 or 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} soil; the latter an environmentally relevant concentration. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory, and supplemented with antibiotics to establish the dissipation kinetics of erythromycin and clarithromycin using radioisotope methods, and azithromycin using HPLC-MS/MS. All three drugs were dissipated significantly more rapidly in soils with a history of field exposure to 10 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides, and erythromycin and clarithromycin were also degraded more rapidly in field soil exposed to 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} macrolides. Rapid mineralization of {sup 14}C-labelled erythromycin and clarithromycin are consistent with biodegradation. Analysis of field soils revealed no carryover of parent compound from year to year. Azithromycin transformation products were detected consistent with removal of the desosamine and cladinose moieties. Overall, these results have revealed that following several years of exposure to macrolide antibiotics these are amenable to accelerated degradation. The potential accelerated degradation of these drugs in soils amended with manure and sewage sludge should be investigated as this phenomenon would attenuate environmental exposure and selection pressure for clinically relevant resistance. - Highlights: • The impact of field exposure on persistence of macrolide antibiotics was evaluated. • Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory with macrolides. • Field exposure resulted in more rapid dissipation of all macrolides. • Radiolabelled erythromycin and clarithromycin were rapidly mineralized

  4. Reduced persistence of the macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin in agricultural soil following several years of exposure in the field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topp, Edward; Renaud, Justin; Sumarah, Mark; Sabourin, Lyne

    2016-01-01

    The macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, clarithromycin and azithromycin are very important in human and animal medicine, and can be entrained onto agricultural ground through application of sewage sludge or manures. In the present study, a series of replicated field plots were left untreated or received up to five annual spring applications of a mixture of three drugs to achieve a nominal concentration for each of 10 or 0.1 mg kg"−"1 soil; the latter an environmentally relevant concentration. Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory, and supplemented with antibiotics to establish the dissipation kinetics of erythromycin and clarithromycin using radioisotope methods, and azithromycin using HPLC-MS/MS. All three drugs were dissipated significantly more rapidly in soils with a history of field exposure to 10 mg kg"−"1 macrolides, and erythromycin and clarithromycin were also degraded more rapidly in field soil exposed to 0.1 mg kg"−"1 macrolides. Rapid mineralization of "1"4C-labelled erythromycin and clarithromycin are consistent with biodegradation. Analysis of field soils revealed no carryover of parent compound from year to year. Azithromycin transformation products were detected consistent with removal of the desosamine and cladinose moieties. Overall, these results have revealed that following several years of exposure to macrolide antibiotics these are amenable to accelerated degradation. The potential accelerated degradation of these drugs in soils amended with manure and sewage sludge should be investigated as this phenomenon would attenuate environmental exposure and selection pressure for clinically relevant resistance. - Highlights: • The impact of field exposure on persistence of macrolide antibiotics was evaluated. • Soil samples were incubated in the laboratory with macrolides. • Field exposure resulted in more rapid dissipation of all macrolides. • Radiolabelled erythromycin and clarithromycin were rapidly mineralized. • Macrolides

  5. Bacteriophage-Based Bacterial Wilt Biocontrol for an Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Álvarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, R. pseudosolanacearum, and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Advances in bacterial wilt biocontrol include an increasing interest in bacteriophage-based treatments as a promising re-emerging strategy. Bacteriophages against the bacterial wilt pathogens have been described with either lytic or lysogenic effect but, they were proved to be active against strains belonging to R. pseudosolanacearum and/or R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis, not to the present R. solanacearum species, and only two of them demonstrated successful biocontrol potential in planta. Despite the publication of three patents on the topic, until now no bacteriophage-based product is commercially available. Therefore, there is still much to be done to incorporate valid bacteriophages in an integrated management program to effectively fight bacterial wilt in the field.

  6. Bacteriophage-Based Bacterial Wilt Biocontrol for an Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Belén; Biosca, Elena G

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial wilt diseases caused by Ralstonia solanacearum , R. pseudosolanacearum , and R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis (former R. solanacearum species complex) are among the most important plant diseases worldwide, severely affecting a high number of crops and ornamentals. Difficulties of bacterial wilt control by non-biological methods are related to effectiveness, bacterial resistance and environmental impact. Alternatively, a great many biocontrol strategies have been carried out, with the advantage of being environmentally friendly. Advances in bacterial wilt biocontrol include an increasing interest in bacteriophage-based treatments as a promising re-emerging strategy. Bacteriophages against the bacterial wilt pathogens have been described with either lytic or lysogenic effect but, they were proved to be active against strains belonging to R. pseudosolanacearum and/or R. syzygii subsp. indonesiensis , not to the present R. solanacearum species, and only two of them demonstrated successful biocontrol potential in planta . Despite the publication of three patents on the topic, until now no bacteriophage-based product is commercially available. Therefore, there is still much to be done to incorporate valid bacteriophages in an integrated management program to effectively fight bacterial wilt in the field.

  7. Stabilization of Cd-, Pb-, Cu- and Zn-contaminated calcareous agricultural soil using red mud: a field experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yangyang; Li, Fangfang; Song, Jian; Xiao, Ruiyang; Luo, Lin; Yang, Zhihui; Chai, Liyuan

    2018-04-12

    Red mud (RM) was used to remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils. Experiments with two different dosages of RM added to soils were carried out in this study. It was found that soil pH increased 0.3 and 0.5 unit with the dosage of 3 and 5% (wt%), respectively. At the dosage of 5%, the highest stabilization efficiencies for Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn reached 67.95, 64.21, 43.73 and 63.73%, respectively. The addition of RM obviously transferred Cd from the exchangeable fraction to the residual fraction. Meanwhile, in comparison with the control (no RM added), it reduced 24.38, 49.20, 19.42 and 8.89% of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in wheat grains at the RM addition dosage of 5%, respectively. At the same time, the yield of wheat grains increased 17.81 and 24.66% at the RM addition dosage of 3 and 5%, respectively. Finally, the addition of RM did not change the soil bacterial community. These results indicate that RM has a great potential in stabilizing heavy metals in calcareous agricultural soils.

  8. Chitin amendment increases soil suppressiveness toward plant pathogens and modulates the actinobacterial and oxalobacteraceal communities in an experimental agricultural field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cretoiu, Mariana Silvia; Korthals, Gerard W.; Visser, Johnny H. M.; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    A long-term experiment on the effect of chitin addition to soil on the suppression of soilborne pathogens was set up and monitored for 8 years in an experimental field, Vredepeel, The Netherlands. Chitinous matter obtained from shrimps was added to soil top layers on two different occasions, and the

  9. The Effectiveness of the Multilateral Coalition to Develop a Green Agricultural Products Market in China Based on a TU Cooperative Game Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingjun Deng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green agriculture can improve biodiversity, increase farmers’ income, reduce agricultural non-point source pollution, solve food safety issues, and will be an important way to promote sustainable development in China. At present, the green transformation of China’s agriculture has encountered a bottleneck in the development of a green agricultural product market. How to develop a green agricultural product market has become an issue worthy of in-depth study in the academia. Previous studies have already given persuasive explanations for the inability to form a green agricultural product market, but few have explored its development path from the angle of cooperation. By employing the method of a Transferable Utilities (TU cooperative game, and based on theoretical analyses and hypothetical data, this thesis aims to prove the effectiveness of the multilateral coalition to develop the green agricultural product market in China. The results show the effectiveness of the developed model of the green agricultural product market in which producers, consumers, food safety inspection departments, and e-commerce platforms cooperate with each other. This model meets the objective needs of the times and that of the market economy. According to the marginal contribution value of participants in different coalition orders, this thesis finds 6 kinds of coalition orders. When producers and consumers of green agricultural products enter the coalition in the last place, the marginal contribution value is maximized, which reflects the importance of the supply side and demand side of green agricultural products. In other words, the development of the green agricultural product market is a dynamic process—determined by consumers and promoted by producers—in which both sides promote and restrict each other. Finally, this article presents two policy recommendations: at the national level, to clearly proposes a strategy to build a green agricultural product e

  10. A Field-Scale Sensor Network Data Set for Monitoring and Modeling the Spatial and Temporal Variation of Soil Water Content in a Dryland Agricultural Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasch, C. K.; Brown, D. J.; Campbell, C. S.; Cobos, D. R.; Brooks, E. S.; Chahal, M.; Poggio, M.

    2017-12-01

    We describe a soil water content monitoring data set and auxiliary data collected at a 37 ha experimental no-till farm in the Northwestern United States. Water content measurements have been compiled hourly since 2007 by ECH2O-TE and 5TE sensors installed at 42 locations and five depths (0.3, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 m, 210 sensors total) across the R.J. Cook Agronomy Farm, a Long-Term Agro-Ecosystem Research Site stationed on complex terrain in a Mediterranean climate. In addition to soil water content readings, the data set includes hourly and daily soil temperature readings, annual crop histories, a digital elevation model, Bt horizon maps, seasonal apparent electrical conductivity, soil texture, and soil bulk density. Meteorological records are also available for this location. We discuss the unique challenges of maintaining the network on an operating farm and demonstrate the nature and complexity of the soil water content data. This data set is accessible online through the National Agriculture Library, has been assigned a DOI, and will be maintained for the long term.

  11. A Feasibility Study on Hydrate-Based Technology for Transporting CO2 from Industrial to Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Matsuo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Climate change caused by global warming has become a serious issue in recent years. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the above system to quantitatively supply CO2 or CO2 hydrate from industrial to agricultural areas. In this analysis, several transportation methods, namely, truck, hydrate tank lorry, and pipeline, were considered. According to this analysis, the total CO2 supply costs including transportation ranged from 15 to 25 yen/kg-CO2 when the transportation distance was 50 km or less. The cost of the hydrate-based method increased with the transport distance in contrast to the liquefied CO2 approach. However, the technology of supplying CO2 hydrate had merit by using a local cooling technique for cooling specific parts of agricultural products.

  12. A ferrofluid based artificial tactile sensor with magnetic field control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkova, T.I., E-mail: tatiana.volkova@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Böhm, V., E-mail: valter.boehm@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Naletova, V.A., E-mail: naletova@imec.msu.ru [Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kaufhold, T., E-mail: tobias.kaufhold@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Becker, F., E-mail: felix.becker@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Zeidis, I., E-mail: igor.zeidis@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany); Zimmermann, K., E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de [Technical Mechanics Group, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau D-98684 (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The paper deals with a tactile sensor inspired by biological hairs of mammals. The working principle is based on the effect of the magnetic force exerted on a paramagnetic body submerged into a ferrofluid volume under the influence of a nonuniform magnetic field. The deflection of the sensor's rod caused by external mechanical stimuli may be unambiguously identified by the distortion of the magnetic field, which occurs due to the motion of the attached body in the ferrofluid. The magnetic force acting on the body is evaluated experimentally and theoretically for the nonuniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The controlled oscillations of the rod are realised by applying a nonuniform magnetic field of periodically altering direction. - Highlights: • A design approach of a tactile sensor inspired by special mammalian hairs is presented. • The working principle is based on magnetic properties of a ferrofluid in magnetic fields. • The magnetic force acting on a body submerged into a ferrofluid volume is evaluated. • External mechanical stimuli may be identified by the distortion of the magnetic field. • The controlled whisking-like oscillations of the sensor's rod are realised experimentally.

  13. A ferrofluid based artificial tactile sensor with magnetic field control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkova, T.I.; Böhm, V.; Naletova, V.A.; Kaufhold, T.; Becker, F.; Zeidis, I.; Zimmermann, K.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a tactile sensor inspired by biological hairs of mammals. The working principle is based on the effect of the magnetic force exerted on a paramagnetic body submerged into a ferrofluid volume under the influence of a nonuniform magnetic field. The deflection of the sensor's rod caused by external mechanical stimuli may be unambiguously identified by the distortion of the magnetic field, which occurs due to the motion of the attached body in the ferrofluid. The magnetic force acting on the body is evaluated experimentally and theoretically for the nonuniform magnetic field of a permanent magnet. The controlled oscillations of the rod are realised by applying a nonuniform magnetic field of periodically altering direction. - Highlights: • A design approach of a tactile sensor inspired by special mammalian hairs is presented. • The working principle is based on magnetic properties of a ferrofluid in magnetic fields. • The magnetic force acting on a body submerged into a ferrofluid volume is evaluated. • External mechanical stimuli may be identified by the distortion of the magnetic field. • The controlled whisking-like oscillations of the sensor's rod are realised experimentally.

  14. A cavitation model based on Eulerian stochastic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magagnato, F.; Dumond, J.

    2013-12-01

    Non-linear phenomena can often be described using probability density functions (pdf) and pdf transport models. Traditionally the simulation of pdf transport requires Monte-Carlo codes based on Lagrangian "particles" or prescribed pdf assumptions including binning techniques. Recently, in the field of combustion, a novel formulation called the stochastic-field method solving pdf transport based on Eulerian fields has been proposed which eliminates the necessity to mix Eulerian and Lagrangian techniques or prescribed pdf assumptions. In the present work, for the first time the stochastic-field method is applied to multi-phase flow and in particular to cavitating flow. To validate the proposed stochastic-field cavitation model, two applications are considered. Firstly, sheet cavitation is simulated in a Venturi-type nozzle. The second application is an innovative fluidic diode which exhibits coolant flashing. Agreement with experimental results is obtained for both applications with a fixed set of model constants. The stochastic-field cavitation model captures the wide range of pdf shapes present at different locations.

  15. Stepping-stones to improve upon functioning of participatory agricultural extension programmes : farmer field schools in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isubikalu, P.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis deals with Farmer Field Schools (FFS) inUganda.FFSis a grassroots learning and application device for

  16. Development of a Global Evaporative Stress Index Based on Thermal and Microwave LST towards Improved Monitoring of Agricultural Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.; Otkin, J.; Holmes, T. R.; Gao, F.

    2017-12-01

    This presentation will describe the development of a global agricultural monitoring tool, with a focus on providing early warning of developing vegetation stress for agricultural decision-makers and stakeholders at relatively high spatial resolution (5-km). The tool is based on remotely sensed estimates of evapotranspiration, retrieved via energy balance principals using observations of land surface temperature. The Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) represents anomalies in the ratio of actual-to-potential ET generated with the ALEXI surface energy balance model. The LST inputs to ESI have been shown to provide early warning information about the development of vegetation stress with stress-elevated canopy temperatures observed well before a decrease in greenness is detected in remotely sensed vegetation indices. As a diagnostic indicator of actual ET, the ESI requires no information regarding antecedent precipitation or soil moisture storage capacity - the current available moisture to vegetation is deduced directly from the remotely sensed LST signal. This signal also inherently accounts for both precipitation and non-precipitation related inputs/sinks to the plant-available soil moisture pool (e.g., irrigation) which can modify crop response to rainfall anomalies. Independence from precipitation data is a benefit for global agricultural monitoring applications due to sparseness in existing ground-based precipitation networks, and time delays in public reporting. Several enhancements to the current ESI framework will be addressed as requested from project stakeholders: (a) integration of "all-sky" MW Ka-band LST retrievals to augment "clear-sky" thermal-only ESI in persistently cloudy regions; (b) operational production of ESI Rapid Change Indices which provide important early warning information related to onset of actual vegetation stress; and (c) assessment of ESI as a predictor of global yield anomalies; initial studies have shown the ability of intra

  17. Artificial terraced field extraction based on high resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Jiaming; Yang, Xin; Xiong, Liyang; Tang, Guoan

    2017-04-01

    With the increase of human activities, artificial landforms become one of the main terrain features with special geographical and hydrological value. Terraced field, as the most important artificial landscapes of the loess plateau, plays an important role in conserving soil and water. With the development of digital terrain analysis (DTA), there is a current and future need in developing a robust, repeatable and cost-effective research methodology for terraced fields. In this paper, a novel method using bidirectional DEM shaded relief is proposed for terraced field identification based on high resolution DEM, taking Zhifanggou watershed, Shannxi province as the study area. Firstly, 1m DEM is obtained by low altitude aerial photogrammetry using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), and 0.1m DOM is also obtained as the test data. Then, the positive and negative terrain segmentation is done to acquire the area of terraced field. Finally, a bidirectional DEM shaded relief is simulated to extract the ridges of each terraced field stages. The method in this paper can get not only polygon feature of the terraced field areas but also line feature of terraced field ridges. The accuracy is 89.7% compared with the artificial interpretation result from DOM. And additional experiment shows that this method has a strong robustness as well as high accuracy.

  18. Fowler Nordheim theory of carbon nanotube based field emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parveen, Shama; Kumar, Avshish [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi (India); Husain, Samina [Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi (India); Husain, Mushahid, E-mail: mush_reslab@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi (India)

    2017-01-15

    Field emission (FE) phenomena are generally explained in the frame-work of Fowler Nordheim (FN) theory which was given for flat metal surfaces. In this work, an effort has been made to present the field emission mechanism in carbon nanotubes (CNTs) which have tip type geometry at nanoscale. High aspect ratio of CNTs leads to large field enhancement factor and lower operating voltages because the electric field strength in the vicinity of the nanotubes tip can be enhanced by thousand times. The work function of nanostructure by using FN plot has been calculated with reverse engineering. With the help of modified FN equation, an important formula for effective emitting area (active area for emission of electrons) has been derived and employed to calculate the active emitting area for CNT field emitters. Therefore, it is of great interest to present a state of art study on the complete solution of FN equation for CNTs based field emitter displays. This manuscript will also provide a better understanding of calculation of different FE parameters of CNTs field emitters using FN equation.

  19. Enabling full field physics based OPC via dynamic model generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael; Clifford, Chris; Raghunathan, Ananthan; Fenger, Germain; Adam, Kostas

    2017-03-01

    As EUV lithography marches closer to reality for high volume production, its peculiar modeling challenges related to both inter- and intra- field effects has necessitated building OPC infrastructure that operates with field position dependency. Previous state of the art approaches to modeling field dependency used piecewise constant models where static input models are assigned to specific x/y-positions within the field. OPC and simulation could assign the proper static model based on simulation-level placement. However, in the realm of 7nm and 5nm feature sizes, small discontinuities in OPC from piecewise constant model changes can cause unacceptable levels of EPE errors. The introduction of Dynamic Model Generation (DMG) can be shown to effectively avoid these dislocations by providing unique mask and optical models per simulation region, allowing a near continuum of models through field. DMG allows unique models for EMF, apodization, aberrations, etc to vary through the entire field and provides a capability to precisely and accurately model systematic field signatures.

  20. Location Fingerprint Extraction for Magnetic Field Magnitude Based Indoor Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhua Shao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphone based indoor positioning has greatly helped people in finding their positions in complex and unfamiliar buildings. One popular positioning method is by utilizing indoor magnetic field, because this feature is stable and infrastructure-free. In this method, the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone measures indoor magnetic field and queries its position. However, the environments of the magnetometer are rather harsh. This harshness mainly consists of coarse-grained hard/soft-iron calibrations and sensor electronic noise. The two kinds of interferences decrease the position distinguishability of the magnetic field. Therefore, it is important to extract location features from magnetic fields to reduce these interferences. This paper analyzes the main interference sources of the magnetometer embedded on the smartphone. In addition, we present a feature distinguishability measurement technique to evaluate the performance of different feature extraction methods. Experiments revealed that selected fingerprints will improve position distinguishability.

  1. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  2. Base response arising from free-field motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, J.R.; Morgan, J.R.; Hall, W.J.; Newmark, N.M.

    1977-01-01

    A procedure is illustrated in this paper for deriving (estimating) from a free-field record the horizontal base motions of a building, including horizontal rotation and translation. More specifically the goal was to compare results of response calculations based on derived accelerations with the results of calculations based on recorded accelerations. The motions are determined by assuming that an actual recorded ground wave transits a rigid base of a given dimension. Calculations given in the paper were made employing the earthquake acceleration time histories of the Hollywood storage building and the adjacent P.E. lot for the Kern County (1952) and San Fernando (1971) earthquakes. (Auth.)

  3. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  4. Good for sewage treatment and good for agriculture: Algal based compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky; Roberts, David A

    2017-09-15

    In this study we test a novel approach to closing the anthropogenic nutrient cycle, by using the freshwater macroalga, Oedogonium intermedium, to recover dissolved nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) from municipal wastewater. We then convert this cultivated algae into two types of soil ameliorant; compost and biochar. To produce compost, algae was combined with sugarcane bagasse and left to mature for 10 weeks, and to produce biochar, algae was processed through slow pyrolysis at 450 °C. The mature compost had a total N and P content of 2.5% and 0.6%, which was 2- to 4-times lower than the algal biochar, which had a total N and P content of 5.5% and 2.5% respectively. Composting stabilized the N and P recovered from wastewater, with 80% of the initial N and >99% of the initial P retained in the mature compost. In contrast, only 29% of the initial N and 62% of the initial P was retained in the biochar. When the mature compost was added to a low fertility soil it significantly increased the production of sweet corn (Zea mays). Treatments receiving 50 and 100% compost produced 4-9 times more corn biomass than when synthetic fertilizer alone was added to the low fertility soil. When biochar was applied in conjunction with compost there was an additional 15% increase in corn productivity, most likely due to the ability of the biochar to bind labile N and P and prevent its loss from the soil. This study demonstrates a unique model for recovering N and P from municipal wastewater and recycling these nutrients into the agricultural industry. This could be an ideal model for regional areas where agriculture and water treatment facilities are co-located and could ultimately reduce the reliance of agriculture on finite mineral sources of P. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Strong lethality and teratogenicity of strobilurins on Xenopus tropicalis embryos: Basing on ten agricultural fungicides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Liu, Mengyun; Yang, Yongsheng; Shi, Huahong; Zhou, Junliang; He, Defu

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural chemical inputs have been considered as a risk factor for the global declines in amphibian populations, yet the application of agricultural fungicides has increased dramatically in recent years. Currently little is known about the potential toxicity of fungicides on the embryos of amphibians. We studied the effects of ten commonly used fungicides (four strobilurins, two SDHIs, two triazoles, fludioxonil and folpet) on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. Lethal and teratogenic effects were respectively examined after 48 h exposure. The median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and the median teratogenic concentrations (TC50s) were determined in line with actual exposure concentrations. These fungicides except two triazoles showed obvious lethal effects on embryos; however LC50s of four strobilurins were the lowest and in the range of 6.81–196.59 μg/L. Strobilurins, SDHIs and fludioxonil induced severe malformations in embryos. Among the ten fungicides, the lowest TC50s were observed for four strobilurins in the range of 0.61–84.13 μg/L. The teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and consistent phenotypes mainly including microcephaly, hypopigmentation, somite segmentation and narrow fins. The findings indicate that the developmental toxicity of currently-used fungicides involved with ecologic risks on amphibians. Especially strobilurins are highly toxic to amphibian embryos at μg/L level, which is close to environmentally relevant concentrations. - Highlights: • Effects of ten agricultural fungicides were tested on Xenopus tropicalis embryos. • Strobilurin fungicides showed strong lethal and teratogenic effects on embryos. • Lowest LC50 and TC50 were observed for strobilurins in ten fungicides. • μg/L level of toxic concentrations for strobilurins was environmentally relevant. • Teratogenicity shared similar dose–effect relationship and main phenotypes. - Strobilurins induced strong lethality and teratogenicity on Xenopus

  6. Fuzzy logic based ELF magnetic field estimation in substations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosalay, I.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines estimation of the extremely low frequency magnetic fields (MF) in the power substation. First, the results of the previous relevant research studies and the MF measurements in a sample power substation are presented. Then, a fuzzy logic model based on the geometric definitions in order to estimate the MF distribution is explained. Visual software, which has a three-dimensional screening unit, based on the fuzzy logic technique, has been developed. (authors)

  7. Design of multi-language trading system of ethnic characteristic agricultural products based on android

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanqin, Wu; Yasheng, Jin; Yugang, Dai

    2017-06-01

    Under the current situation where Internet technology develops rapidly, mobile E-commerce technology has brought great convenience to our life. Now, the graphical user interface (GUI) of most E-commerce platforms only supports Chinese. Thus, the development of Android client of E-commerce that supports ethnic languages owns a great prospect. The principle that combines front end design and database technology is adopted in this paper to construct the Android client system of E-commerce platforms that supports ethnic languages, which realizes the displaying, browsing, querying, searching, trading and other functions of ethnic characteristic agricultural products on android platforms.

  8. Agricultural residues based composites part II: Hydration characteristics of cement- cellulosic fibers composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekal, E.E.; Kishar, E.A.; Abd-El-Khader, A.H.; Ibrahim, A.A.; Mobarak, F.M.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study is the utilization of the local agricultural wastes, such as ice straw bagasse, cotton stalks and linen fibers, which cause a big environmental problem. Different cement-fiber composites were prepared using 1.5, 3, 4.5 and 6% fibers by weight of cement. The lengths of the fibers used were 0.5, 0.8, and 1.25 mm. Hydration of the different, composites was carried out at room temperature for various lime intervals namely, 1.3,7 .28 and 90 days. Combined water contents, compressive strength and phase composition of the different prepared composites were examined