WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural engineering

  1. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades

  2. Nastran's Application in Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwicklen, G. L.

    1985-01-01

    Finite element analysis has been recognized as a valuable solution method by agricultural engineers. NASTRAN has been obtained by the Agricultural Engineering Department at the University of Georgia. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has been used in the teaching program for an undergraduate course in heat transfer and will be used for a new graduate course in finite element analysis. The NASTRAN Thermal Analyzer has also been applied to several research problems in the Agricultural Engineering Department.

  3. Agricultural Engineering Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboaba, F. O.

    1974-01-01

    Agricultural engineering, an important new branch of engineering in Nigeria, is discussed in relation to available training programs, diploma and certificate courses, and evaluation of training programs. (Author/PG)

  4. Biology: An Important Agricultural Engineering Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Describes the field of bioengineering with particular emphasis on agricultural engineering, and presents the results of a survey of schools that combine biology and engineering in their curricula. (JR)

  5. Competences in Demand within the Spanish Agricultural Engineering Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigones, Alicia; Valera, Diego Luis; Moreda, Guillermo Pedro; García, Jose Luis

    2014-01-01

    The Rural Engineering Department (Technical University of Madrid) ran three competence surveys during the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 academic years and evaluated: (1) the competences gained by agricultural engineer's degree and agricultural technical engineer's degree students (360 respondents); (2) the competences demanded by agricultural employers…

  6. Be a Professional - Be Licensed! - Take the agricultural engineering professional engineering exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Between October 2005 and October 2007, only 78 Agricultural Engineers took the professional engineering (PE) exam in the field of Agricultural Engineering, while the other 406 registered Agricultural Engineering Examinees took tests offer by other engineering disciplines. With the decline in partic...

  7. Condition and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vsevolod Babushkin; Margarita Ignatyeva

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an estimation of condition and level of development of agricultural mechanical engineering is given; also an expert estimation of scales of the Russian market of agricultural machinery is given. The factors negatively influencing formation of the named market are designated. Features and prospects of development of agricultural mechanical engineering of Sverdlovsk region are defined. State regulation mechanisms of domestic agricultural mechanical engineering development are des...

  8. Engineering Education for Agricultural and Rural Development in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewumi, B. A.

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering has transformed agricultural practices from subsistence level to medium and large-scale production via mechanisation in the developed nations. This has reduced the labour force requirements in agriculture; increased production levels and efficiency, product shelf life and product quality; and resulted into…

  9. International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Sambath, Sabo; Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering

    2012-01-01

    This volume comprises the papers from 2011 International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011).  2011 International Conference on Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering (ICITAE 2011) has been held in Sanya, China, December 1-2, 2011. All the papers have been peer reviewed by the selected experts. These papers represent the latest development in the field of materials manufacturing technology, spanning from the fundamentals to new technologies and applications. Specially, these papers cover the topics of Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering. This book provides a greatly valuable reference for researchers in the field of Information Technology and Agricultural Engineering who wish to further understand the underlying mechanisms and create innovative and practical techniques, systems and processes. It should also be particularly useful for engineers in information technology and agriculture who are responsible for the efficient and effective ...

  10. Selective Guide to Literature on Agricultural Engineering. Engineering Literature Guides, Number 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloud, Gayla Staples, Comp.

    Agricultural engineering overlaps many other disciplines. This document is a survey of information sources in agricultural engineering and is intended to identify those core resources which can help engineers and librarians to find information about the discipline. Sections include: (1) "Guides to the Literature"; (2) "Bibliographies"; (3)…

  11. Engineering Programs of Tomorrow: The Role of Agricultural Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Donald M.

    Due to rapid growth of societal and technological endeavors, engineers of the future will require greater technical competence. At the same time, engineering will become more people oriented with greater emphasis placed on people input into decision making. As a result, engineering education must not only provide improved technical education but…

  12. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Senior Design in Agricultural Engineering--Progress and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, R. G.; Rohrbach, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a specific senior design course and its objectives. Explains the basic deficiencies and problems for design education in agricultural engineering. Also stresses the effect the project advisor has on students' attitudes toward design and the applications of the course. (SMB)

  14. The use of moral dilemmas for teaching agricultural engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, J Félix; Palau-Salvador, Guillermo; Gozálvez, Vincent; Boni, Alejandra

    2006-04-01

    Agricultural engineers' jobs are especially related to sustainability and earth life issues. They usually work with plants or animals, and the aim of their work is often linked to producing food to allow people to improve their quality of life. Taking into account this dual function, the moral requirements of their day-to-day professional practice are arguably greater than those of other professions. Agricultural engineers can develop their ability to live up to this professional responsibility by receiving ethical training during their university studies, not only by taking courses specifically devoted to ethics, but also by having to deal with moral questions that are integrated into their technical courses through a program of Ethics Across the Curriculum (EAC). The authors feel that a suitable pedagogical technique for achieving this goal is the use of moral dilemmas, following Kohlberg's theory of levels of morality (1981), with the final objective of attaining a post-conventional level. This paper examines the possibilities and limitations of using moral dilemmas as a pedagogical technique for training agricultural engineers. The cases, discussions, and evaluation used in the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Technical University of Valencia (Spain) are also presented.

  15. Encouraging the Learning of Hydraulic Engineering Subjects in Agricultural Engineering Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinobas, Leonor Rodríguez; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    Several methodological approaches to improve the understanding and motivation of students in Hydraulic Engineering courses have been adopted in the Agricultural Engineering School at Technical University of Madrid. During three years student's progress and satisfaction have been assessed by continuous monitoring and the use of…

  16. Vertical Integration and Reverse Engineering of Agricultural Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang; WU; Yong; DU

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the potential effects of agricultural enterprise’s vertical integration and reverse engineering on downstream firms.Suppliers who invest reverse engineering technology can exploit customer’s information. An integrated supplier can obtain at no cost the information from its subsidiary. Based on repeated game and considered corporate " good" or " bad" type,this paper analysis supplier’s selection and downstream investment in innovation. The results showed that: when the cost is higher than the threshold value no company invest in reverse engineering,when the cost is lower than the threshold value the integration company invest in reverse engineering; in the second period,vertical integration reduce the downstream independent enterprise’s innovation investment and profits,integrated enterprise increase innovation investment and profits; during the first period of the game,the independent downstream firms being " completely foreclosure".

  17. Precision genome engineering and agriculture: opportunities and regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voytas, Daniel F; Gao, Caixia

    2014-06-01

    Plant agriculture is poised at a technological inflection point. Recent advances in genome engineering make it possible to precisely alter DNA sequences in living cells, providing unprecedented control over a plant's genetic material. Potential future crops derived through genome engineering include those that better withstand pests, that have enhanced nutritional value, and that are able to grow on marginal lands. In many instances, crops with such traits will be created by altering only a few nucleotides among the billions that comprise plant genomes. As such, and with the appropriate regulatory structures in place, crops created through genome engineering might prove to be more acceptable to the public than plants that carry foreign DNA in their genomes. Public perception and the performance of the engineered crop varieties will determine the extent to which this powerful technology contributes towards securing the world's food supply.

  18. Chemistry teaching in the new degrees of Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Augusto; Tarquis, Ana Maria; Castellanos, Maria Teresa; Requejo, Maria Isabel; Cartagena, Maria Carmen

    2013-04-01

    The academic year 2011-12 is the second one implementing Bologna process in ETSI at the subjects of Agricultural Chemistry I and Chemistry II in the new four Degrees: Graduate in Engineering and Agricultural Science, Food Engineering Graduate, Graduate Environmental and engineering Graduate in Biotechnology, for it has been necessary to design and implement new interactive methodologies in the teaching-learning process based on the use of the virtual platform of the UPM, implement new evaluation systems that promote continued participation active student and the development of educational materials to support the subjects of chemistry designed new degrees within the EEES. In addition to the above actions, an assessment test prior chemistry knowledge has been made to all students who enter into Agricultural Grades, improving laboratory practices and the comparative study of academic obtained by the students of the new grades in the subjects of chemistry during the year 2011-12 compared to the 2010-11 academic year. More than 15,000 data have showed a good correlation between the student's prior knowledge, the level test performed, test scores, the overall success rate of the course and the abandonment of the different degrees. Academic results show a higher percentage of students enrolled and presented on a greater number of passes on students enrolled in the 2011-12 academic year for students enrolled in the previous academic year. The improved results have influenced the actions taken and the level of knowledge with students entering. Finally, we propose possible solutions to fix these results in future courses, aiming to improve the degree of efficiency, success and significant absenteeism in the first year as it will condition the dropout rate of these new degrees. Acknowledgements: Proyecto de Innovación Educativa N° IE02054-11/12 UPM. 2012.

  19. Study for Agricultural Engineering Development in Brazil. Summary Report of Joint Study Group on Agricultural Engineering in Brazil (July 24-August 12, 1972).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    The joint study group was established to identify the most urgent research and training needs in agricultural engineering in Brazil and to recommend how best to meet those needs. Specific recommendations are given for a long-term program to establish quality programs in education and research in agricultural engineering in Brazil and means to gain…

  20. [Engineering issues of microbial ecology in space agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Ishikawa, Yoji; Oshima, Tairo

    2005-03-01

    how to conduct preventive maintenance for keeping cultivating soil healthy and productive. 3) Does microbial ecology contribute to building sustainable and expandable human habitation by utilizing the on site extraterrestrial resources? We are assessing technical feasibility of converting regolith to farming soil and structural materials for space agriculture. In the case of Mars habitation, carbon dioxide and a trace amount of nitrogen in atmosphere, and potassium and phosphor in minerals are the sources we consider. Excess oxygen can be accumulated by woods cultivation and their use for lumber. 4) Is the operation of space agriculture robust and safe, if it adopts hyper-thermophilic aerobic microbial ecology? Any ecological system is complex and non-linear, and shows latency and memory effects in its response. It is highly important to understand those features to design and operate space agriculture without falling into the fatal failure. Assessment should be made on the microbial safety and preparation of the preventive measures to eliminate negative elements that would either retard agricultural production or harm the healthy environment. It is worth to mention that such space agriculture would be an effective engineering testbed to solve the global problem on energy and environment. Mars and Moon exploration itself is a good advocate of healthy curiosity expressed by the sustainable civilization of our humankind. We propose to work together towards Mars and Moon with microbial ecology to assure pleasant habitation there.

  1. Assay in engine of agricultural tractor with biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Meyer, Wagner [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DEA/CCA/UEM), Cidade Gaucha, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: raplopes@uem.br; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Pinheiro, Andreia Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DAG/CCA/UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Laurindo, Jose Carlos [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (CERBIO/TECPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro de Referencia em Biocombustiveis; Biazzono, Sergio Luis [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (TECPAR), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Inspecao Veicular

    2008-07-01

    The use of biofuel in tractors of diesel engines and agricultural harvester, in the operations of soil preparation and harvest, is a good option of fuel economy for the agriculturist. For a good performance of the machine a good regulation is necessary. The experiment was carried through in the Experimental Farm Iguatemi of the State University of Maringa, Maringa - PR. A tractor Massey Ferguson MF275 was used for the assay connected to be even grating. It carried through if the assays of consumption of diesel (100%) and biofuel (diesel 80% + vegetable oil 20%). To carry through the assay tractor + grating with three openings and without load was used to be even set. The rotation without load and of work was of 1900 rpm and mean speed of 6 km h{sup -1}. The hourly consumption was verified by a test tube and a fluxgate OVAL Flow mate M III - LSF 45L0-M2 connected to data logger CR23X. The hourly consumption was express in L h{sup -1}. The engine of the tractor presented similar behavior of fuel consumption for diesel and biofuel. The mean values of consumption had been inside of the specified one for the manufacturer. Mixture 80% diesel + 20% vegetable oil can be used as biofuel in the engine in study. (author)

  2. Report on the 41st International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 19-22 February 2013, Opatija, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Kosutic; Daniele De Wrachien

    2013-01-01

    The 41st International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering was held on 19th-22nd February 2013 in Grand Hotel Adriatic Opatija, Republic of Croatia. The principal Organiser, Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb was supported by the following frameworks: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University J.J. Strossmayer, Osijek; Department of Bio-systems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Marib...

  3. Extracurricular Activities Targeted towards Increasing the Number of Engineers Working in the Field of Precision Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Leon Bonde; Stark Olsen, Kent; Ahrenkiel, Linda

    SERVICE ROBOTS in precision agriculture have the potential to ensure a more competitive and sustainable production, but the lack of skilled engineers within this area is limiting the industry’s ability to develop new and innovative agricultural technology products. Part of the reason...... is that engineers and scientists have little knowledge about agricultural technology, and they therefore choose to work in other domains. It is hypothesised that introducing engineering students to precision agriculture through practical work with small-scale service robots will increase their interest...... in agriculture and agricultural technology. This article presents the results of an interdisciplinary extracurricular activity for first year engineering students carried out in the Fall 2012 at the University of Southern Denmark. The case was based on practical group-work centered around an agricultural mobile...

  4. Encouraging the learning of hydraulic engineering subjects in agricultural engineering schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Sinobas, Leonor; Sánchez Calvo, Raúl

    2014-09-01

    Several methodological approaches to improve the understanding and motivation of students in Hydraulic Engineering courses have been adopted in the Agricultural Engineering School at Technical University of Madrid. During three years student's progress and satisfaction have been assessed by continuous monitoring and the use of 'online' and web tools in two undergraduate courses. Results from their application to encourage learning and communication skills in Hydraulic Engineering subjects are analysed and compared to the initial situation. Student's academic performance has improved since their application, but surveys made among students showed that not all the methodological proposals were perceived as beneficial. Their participation in the 'online', classroom and reading activities was low although they were well assessed.

  5. A Report on the 40th International Symposium Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, 21-24 February 2012, Opatija, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Silvio Kosutic; Daniele De Wrachien

    2012-01-01

    The 40th International Symposium, Actual Tasks on Agricultural Engineering, was held on 21-24 February 2012 in the “Grand Hotel Adriatic”, Opatija, in the Republic of Croatia. It was organized by the Agricultural Engineering Department of the Faculty of Agriculture of the University of Zagreb, and was supported by the Department of Agricultural Engineering of the Faculty of Agriculture of the J.J. Strossmayer University, Osijek, the Department of Bio-Systems Engineering of the Faculty of Agri...

  6. Abstracts of the 17. world congress of the International Commission of Agriculture and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR) : sustainable biosystems through engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoie, P.; Villeneuve, J.; Morisette, R. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada). Soils and Crops Research and Development Centre] (eds.)

    2010-07-01

    This international conference provided a forum to discuss methods to produce agricultural products more efficiently through improvements in engineering and technology. It was attended by engineers and scientists working from different perspectives on biosystems. Beyond food, farms and forests can provide fibre, bio-products and renewable energy. Seven sections of CIGR were organized in the following technical sessions: (1) land and water engineering, (2) farm buildings, equipment, structures and environment, (3) equipment engineering for plants, (4) energy in agriculture, (5) management, ergonomics and systems engineering, (6) post harvest technology and process engineering, and (7) information systems. The Canadian Society of Bioengineering (CSBE) merged its technical program within the 7 sections of CIGR. Four other groups also held their activities during the conference. The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) organized its 9th international drainage symposium and the American Ecological Engineering Society (AEES) held its 10th annual meeting. The International Network for Information Technology in Agriculture (INFITA), and the 8th world congress on computers in agriculture also joined CIGR 2010.

  7. Education and Research Related to Organic Waste Management at Agricultural Engineering Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliva, Montserrat; Bernat, Carles; Gil, Emilio; Martinez, Xavier; Pujol, Miquel; Sabate, Josep; Valero, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of the Agriculture Engineering School of Barcelona (ESAB), where undergraduate students were involved in field research experiments on organic waste use in agricultural systems. Design/methodology/approach: The paper outlines how the formation of professionals oriented to work for…

  8. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, B.; Riss, A.; Zethner, G.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter deals with fertilization techniques, bioenergy from agriculture, environmental aspects of a common agriculture policy in the European Union, bio-agriculture, fruit farming in Austria and with environmental indicators in agriculture. In particular renewable energy sources (bio-diesel, biogas) from agriculture are studied in comparison to fossil fuels and other energy sources. (a.n.)

  9. The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences – CIIMCA 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remolina-Millán, Aduljay; Hernández-Arroyo, Emil

    2014-01-01

    The organizing committee of The International Congress of Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences – CIIMCA 2013 – are pleased to present CIIMCA-2013: the first international conference focused on subjects of materials science, mechanical engineering and renewable energy organized by Mechanical Engineering Faculty of the ''Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana'' in Bucaramanga, Colombia. This conference aims to be a place to produce discussions on whole topics of the congress, between the scientists of Colombia and the world. We strongly believe that knowledge is fundamental to the development of our countries. For that reason this multidisciplinary conference is looking forward to integrate engineering, agricultural science and nanoscience and nanotechnology to produce a synergy of this area of knowledge and to achieve scientific and technological developments. Agriculture is a very important topic for our conference; in Colombia, agricultural science needs more attention from the scientific community and the government. In the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering we are beginning to work on these issues to produce knowledge and improve the conditions in our country. The CIIMCA conference is a great opportunity to create interpersonal relationships and networks between scientists around the world. The interaction between scientists is very important in the process of the construction of knowledge. The general chairman encourages and invites you to make friends, relationships and participate strongly in the symposia and all program activities. PhD Aduljay Remolina-Millán Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress – CIIMCA Msc Emil Hernández-Arroyo Principal Chairman, International Mechanical Engineering and Agricultural Sciences Congress – CIIMCA Conferencephotograph Conferencephotograph 'Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana seccional Bucaramanga' host of the first

  10. Changing the Teaching/Learning Procedures in Physics for Agricultural Engineering. A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulero, Angel; Parra, M. Isabel; Cachadina, Isidro

    2012-01-01

    The subject "Physical Fundamentals of Engineering" for agricultural engineers in the University of Extremadura has long had high rates of students not attending classes, not presenting for examinations and, finally, failing the subject. During the 2007 and 2008 courses, the teaching/learning procedures were strongly modified. Analysis of the…

  11. Advancing the science of forest hydrology A challenge to agricultural and biological engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra Amatya; Wayne Skaggs; Carl Trettin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, agricultural and biological engineers have provided major advances in science, engineering, and technology to increase food and fiber production to meet the demands of a rapidly growing global population. The land base for these technological advances has originated largely from forested lands, which have experienced dramatic declines over the...

  12. DETERMINATION OF THE EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO, A DIGEST OF A PH.D. DISSERTATION. RESEARCH SERIES IN AGRICULTURAL EDUCATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BENDER, RALPH E.; HALTERMAN, JERRY J.

    THIS STUDY WAS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP CURRICULUMS NEEDED IN TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING TECHNICIANS IN OHIO. A QUESTIONNAIRE TO INVENTORY THE LABOR FORCE WAS ADMINISTERED TO INDIVIDUALS, FIRMS, BUSINESSES, AND AGENCIES EMPLOYING PERSONS IN AREAS REQUIRING AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING AND FARM MECHANICS. ANOTHER TO COLLECT INFORMATION…

  13. Parameters for assay in engines of agricultural tractor for biofuel use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Reny Adilmar Prestes; Meyer, Wagner [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DEA/CCA/UEM), Cidade Gaucha, PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: raplopes@uem.br; Pinheiro Neto, Raimundo; Pinheiro, Andreia Cristina [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (DAG/CCA/UEM), PR (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias. Dept. de Agronomia; Laurindo, Jose Carlos [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (CERBIO/TECPAR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Centro Brasileiro de Referencia em Biocombustiveis; Biazzono, Sergio Luis [Instituto de Tecnologia do Parana (TECPAR), Maringa, PR (Brazil). Inspecao Veicular

    2008-07-01

    The use of biofuel in tractors of diesel engines and agricultural harvester, in the operations of preparation of soil and harvest, is a good option of economy for the agriculturist. For a good performance of the machine, regulation and maintenance is necessary. This paper has the objective to prepare the agricultural tractors engine for the use of biofuel. The experiment was carried through State University of Maringa. One used for the assays three Massey Ferguson tractors engines. The smoke assays and opacity had shown that both the tractors had presented problems of regulations. The assays demonstrate the necessity of periodically to carry through the correct maintenance of the machines, as well as the training of the operators. The regulations allow adjusting the engines of the tractors to operate in situations recommended for the manufacturers. The regulations allow the correct functioning and better accompaniment of the useful life of the engine using biofuel in operations of soil preparation, sowing and harvest. (author)

  14. Real cases study through computer applications for futures Agricultural Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moratiel, R.; Durán, J. M.; Tarquis, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    One of the huge concerns on the higher engineer education is the lag of real cases study that the future professionals need in the work and corporation market. This concern was reflected in Bologna higher education system including recommendations in this respect. The knowhow as why this or other methodology is one of the keys to resolve this problem. In the last courses given in Department of Crop Production, at the Agronomy Engineer School of Madrid (Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros Agrónomos, UPM) we have developed more than one hundred applications in Microsoft Excel®. Our aim was to show different real scenarios which the future Agronomic Engineers can be found in their professional life and with items related to crop production field. In order to achieve our target, each application in Excel presents a file text in which is explained the theoretical concepts and the objectives, as well as some resources used from Excel syntax. In this way, the student can understand and use of such application, even they can modify and customize it for a real case presented in their context and/or master project. This electronic monograph gives an answer to the need to manage data in several real scenarios showed in lectures, calculus resolution, information analysis and manage worksheets in a professional and student level.

  15. Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA Agriculture Resource Directory offers comprehensive, easy-to-understand information about environmental stewardship on farms and ranches; commonsense, flexible approaches that are both environmentally protective and agriculturally sound.

  16. Research on Channel Strategies of Modern Agricultural Engineering Demonstration Sites in Guangzhou

    OpenAIRE

    Wen-guang Liang; Chun Xie; Qian-qian Pang

    2015-01-01

    The research discusses the channel structure of modern agricultural engineering demonstration sites in Guangzhou. It analyzes the strategies of channel competition, personnel combination, transportation combination and terminal network construction. Enterprises adapt different marketing channel strategies on the basis of the type of the market. The research has made certain achievement and has certain guiding significance.

  17. Using the Discipline of Agricultural Engineering to Integrate Math and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foutz, Tim; Navarro, Maria; Hill, Roger B.; Thompson, Sidney A.; Miller, Kathy; Riddleberger, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    An outcome of a 1998 forum sponsored by the National Research Council was a recognition that topics related to food production and agriculture are excellent mechanisms for integrating science topics taught in the K-12 education system and for providing many avenues for inquiry based and project based learning. The engineering design process is…

  18. DIESEL ENGINE SYSTEMS. AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY--SERVICE OCCUPATIONS, MODULE NUMBER 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    ONE OF A SERIES DESIGNED TO HELP TEACHERS PREPARE POSTSECONDARY STUDENTS FOR AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY SERVICE OCCUPATIONS AS PARTS MEN, MECHANICS, MECHANIC'S HELPERS, AND SERVICE SUPERVISORS, THIS GUIDE AIMS TO DEVELOP STUDENT UNDERSTANDING OF THE CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATING PRINCIPLES OF DIESEL ENGINES. IT WAS DEVELOPED BY A NATIONAL TASK FORCE ON…

  19. Exploring Agricultural and Biotechnical Engineering through Hands-On Integrated STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preble, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    The manipulation of the natural world in the form of plant materials to design, control, and grow desirable agricultural commodities was central to the establishment and advancement of civilization. Modern developments in genetically modified organisms (GMOs or biologically engineered foods) can trace their origins to macro practices developed and…

  20. Software engineering techniques applied to agricultural systems an object-oriented and UML approach

    CERN Document Server

    Papajorgji, Petraq J

    2014-01-01

    Software Engineering Techniques Applied to Agricultural Systems presents cutting-edge software engineering techniques for designing and implementing better agricultural software systems based on the object-oriented paradigm and the Unified Modeling Language (UML). The focus is on the presentation of  rigorous step-by-step approaches for modeling flexible agricultural and environmental systems, starting with a conceptual diagram representing elements of the system and their relationships. Furthermore, diagrams such as sequential and collaboration diagrams are used to explain the dynamic and static aspects of the software system.    This second edition includes: a new chapter on Object Constraint Language (OCL), a new section dedicated to the Model-VIEW-Controller (MVC) design pattern, new chapters presenting details of two MDA-based tools – the Virtual Enterprise and Olivia Nova, and a new chapter with exercises on conceptual modeling.  It may be highly useful to undergraduate and graduate students as t...

  1. Genetic engineering applied to agriculture has a long row to hoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Henry I

    2018-01-02

    In spite of the lack of scientific justification for skepticism about crops modified with molecular techniques of genetic engineering, they have been the most scrutinized agricultural products in human history. The assumption that "genetically engineered" or "genetically modified" is a meaningful - and dangerous - classification has led to excessive and dilatory regulation. The modern molecular techniques are an extension, or refinement, of older, less precise, less predictable methods of genetic modification, but as long as today's activists and regulators remain convinced that so called "GMOs" represent a distinct and dangerous category of research and products, genetic engineering will fall short of its potential.

  2. Influence of High School Vocational Agriculture on the Matriculation, Graduation, and Employment of Agricultural Engineering Graduates from the Iowa State University of Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Donald Louis

    To determine the influence of high school vocational agriculture on college achievement and subsequent employment of agricultural engineering majors, data were collected from 419 graduates of Iowa State University representing the period from 1942 to 1964. The 112 graduates who had taken at least 3 or more semesters of high school vocational…

  3. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. The role of agricultural engineering in the management of landscape changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Fumagalli

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Landscape represents the “sensory aspect” of the land and as such it can be appreciated by all the five senses: sight, smelling, hearing, touch and taste. At the same time, landscape evolves over time and its value – ecological, economical and affective – changes as its constitutive elements change. Engineering can help “to drive” this evolution addressing it towards a condition of balance between individual and community requirements, especially referred to the effect of technological development on landscape. This effect can be referred to three dimensions: perceptive, functional and symbolic dimensions. The possible contribution to the management of landscape changes concerns all the three historic souls of Agricultural Engineering; in particular, Agricultural Hydraulics deals with the topic of landscape referring to both irrigation and the possible recreational use of canal systems; Agricultural Engineering determines plot form and size and woodland view; Rural Building deals with both the recovery of existing buildings and the design and making of new ones and their fitting in the landscape; moreover, the sector has developed new methods for the evaluation and the planning of rural land resources, especially about agriculture and forestry productivity, ecological stability and visual quality of rural land itself.

  5. Wind pumps for agriculture: Cost and environmental benefits (comparisons with electric and combustion engine driven pumps)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccoli, F.

    1991-01-01

    After describing initial and running costs of a group of wind-pumps, the author calculates and compares, as far as agricultural and zootechnical purposes are concerned, the costs for each cubic meter of water extracted through wind-powered, electric and internal-combustion engines. The comparisons clearly show, under adequate wind conditions, that wind-pumps are economically more suitable than electric and motor pumps with similar delivery heads

  6. Third cycle university studies in Europe in the field of agricultural engineering and in the emerging discipline of biosystems engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuga, F; Briassoulis, D; Aguado, P; Farkas, I; Griepentrog, H; Lorencowicz, E

    2010-01-01

    The main objectives of European Thematic Network entitled 'Education and Research in Agricultural for Biosystems Engineering in Europe (ERABEE-TN)' is to initiate and contribute to the structural development and the assurance of the quality assessment of the emerging discipline of Biosystems Engineering in Europe. ERABEE is co-financed by the European Community in the framework of the LLP Programme. The partnership consists of 35 participants from 27 Erasmus countries, out of which 33 are Higher Education Area Institutions (EDU) and 2 are Student Associations (ASS). 13 Erasmus participants (e.g. Thematic Networks, Professional Associations, and Institutions from Brazil, Croatia, Russia and Serbia) are also involved in the Thematic Network through synergies. To date, very few Biosystems Engineering programs exist in Europe and those that are initiated are at a very primitive stage of development. The innovative and novel goal of the Thematic Network is to promote this critical transition, which requires major restructuring in Europe, exploiting along this direction the outcomes accomplished by its predecessor; the USAEE-TN (University Studies in Agricultural Engineering in Europe). It also aims at enhancing the compatibility among the new programmes of Biosystems Engineering, aiding their recognition and accreditation at European and International level and facilitating greater mobility of skilled personnel, researchers and students. One of the technical objectives of ERABEE is dealing with mapping and promoting the third cycle studies (including European PhDs) and supporting the integration of research at the 1st and 2nd cycle regarding European Biosystems Engineering university studies. During the winter 2008 - spring 2009 period, members of ERABEE conducted a survey on the contemporary status of doctoral studies in Europe, and on a possible scheme for promotion of cooperation and synergies in the framework of the third cycle of studies and the European Doctorate

  7. Emergy analysis of a farm biogas project in China: A biophysical perspective of agricultural ecological engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. Y.; Zhang, B.; Cai, Z. F.

    2010-05-01

    This paper aims to present a biophysical understanding of the agricultural ecological engineering by emergy analysis for a farm biogas project in China as a representative case. Accounting for the resource inputs into and accumulation within the project, as well as the outputs to the social system, emergy analysis provides an empirical study in the biophysical dimension of the agricultural ecological engineering. Economic benefits and ecological economic benefits of the farm biogas project indicated by market value and emergy monetary value are discussed, respectively. Relative emergy-based indices such as renewability (R%), emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR) and environmental sustainability index (ESI) are calculated to evaluate the environmental load and local sustainability of the concerned biogas project. The results show that the farm biogas project has more reliance on the local renewable resources input, less environmental pressure and higher sustainability compared with other typical agricultural systems. In addition, holistic evaluation and its policy implications for better operation and management of the biogas project are presented.

  8. An Underground Revolution: Biodiversity and Soil Ecological Engineering for Agricultural Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, S Franz; Wagg, Cameron; van der Heijden, Marcel G A

    2016-06-01

    Soil organisms are an integral component of ecosystems, but their activities receive little recognition in agricultural management strategies. Here we synthesize the potential of soil organisms to enhance ecosystem service delivery and demonstrate that soil biodiversity promotes multiple ecosystem functions simultaneously (i.e., ecosystem multifunctionality). We apply the concept of ecological intensification to soils and we develop strategies for targeted exploitation of soil biological traits. We compile promising approaches to enhance agricultural sustainability through the promotion of soil biodiversity and targeted management of soil community composition. We present soil ecological engineering as a concept to generate human land-use systems, which can serve immediate human needs while minimizing environmental impacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of radioisotopes and radiation in the field of agricultural engineering in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, T.

    1974-01-01

    Data have been published about the application of radioisotopes and radiation in Japan agricultural engineering. The radioisotopes have been used : 1 for measuring the humidity of the ground in the development of the irrigation and canalization of the cultivated areas; 2 for measuring i. the circulation rate of the ground water, ii. the porosity and the storing capacity of the water-carrier layers. iii. the drift and sand-transporting speed of the open canals; 3, for the control of the dam leaking in the ground water hydrology. (K.A.)

  10. Comparative Study of the academic performance between different curricula in Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, J. L.; Serrano, A.; Caniego, J.

    2012-04-01

    Due to the introduction of new degrees on the College of Agricultural Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid adapted to the European Space for Higher Education (Bologna), we have made a comparative study of academic achievement obtained by the students during their first year at the Centre according to different curricula. We used data from 2 curricula leading to the degree in Agricultural Engineering, Curriculumn 74 (6 years and annual structure) and Curriculum 96 modified in 2006 (5 years with quarterly structure) and the new curriculum in grades (4 years semi-structured). It has been used as a data source, the qualifications of new students during the last three years prior to the extinction of the curriculum.The study shows that current rates of academic success or failure and dropout during the first year of college are very similar to those happening 12 years ago, when it was assumed that the preparation of students from high school was much higher than today. Keywords: Academic performance, curricula, Bologna.

  11. Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge: Infusing Agricultural Science and Engineering Concepts into 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Joshua E.; Rugg, Bradley; Davis, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Youth involved in 4-H projects have been engaged in science-related endeavors for years. Since 2006, 4-H has invested considerable resources in the advancement of science learning. The new Minnesota 4-H Science of Agriculture Challenge program challenges 4-H youth to work together to identify agriculture-related issues in their communities and to…

  12. Integrating different knowledge sources and disciplines for practical applications in Forest and Agricultural Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, Gema; Castillo, Carlos; Taguas, Encarnación

    2013-04-01

    One of the aims of 'The Bologna Process' is to promote among the students the acquisition of practical, social and creative skills to face real-life situations and to solve the difficulties they might find during their professional life. It involves an important change in the educational system, from a traditional approach focused on teaching, towards a new one that encourages learning. Under this context, University teaching implies the design of activities addressed to the dissemination of "know-how" to solve different problems associated with two technical disciplines: Forest and Agricultural Engineering. This study presents a preliminary experience where a group of information and communication technologies (ICT) such as, audiovisual resources (videos, reports and photo gallery), virtual visits to blogs and interactive activities have been used to provide a comprehensive knowledge of the environmental and sociocultural components of the landscape in order to facilitate the decision-making process in the engineering project context . With these tools, the students must study and characterize all these aspects in order to justify the chosen solutions and the project design. This approach was followed in the analysis of the limiting factors of practical cases in projects about forestation, landscape restoration and hydrological planning. This communication shows how this methodology has been applied in Forest and Agricultural Engineering and the students' experience with these innovative tools. The use of ICTs involved a friendly framework that stimulated students' interest and made subjects more attractive, since it allowed to assess the complex relationships between landscape, history and economy. Furthermore, this type of activities promotes the interdisciplinary training and the acquisition of creative and autonomous skills which are not included in many cases into the main objectives of the subjects.

  13. Influence of biofuels usage in internal combustion engines of agricultural tractors on output parametrs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Šmerda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Application of alternative fuels brings the social benefits in terms of reducing dependence on oil industry and its products as well as decreasing of damage of the environment together with using of na­tu­ral resources, especially in field of renewable energy resources. The use of biofuels is the most important part of energy strategy in European Union, whose member states have agreed the content of biofuels will achieve 5.75% of the total energy sum of fuel for transport purposes in 2010. Operation of internal combustion engine fueled by RME brings environmental benefits as described several authors in analysis of the life cycle. The contribution deals with technical difficulties of the RME usage in internal combustion engine used in agricultural tractors. Different fuel causes different process of combustion which means changes in output power and pollution. The aim of this experiment was to determine these effects. Experimental work was divided into two parts according to various fuel systems. The first tractor was equipped with mechanical injection system, the second one was provided with common-rail fuel system. The test procedures consisted of measurement of power- torque curves where the engine load was created by Eddy current dynamometer. Exhaust gas analyzer sampled the pollution of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons as the most important indicators of combustion process.

  14. Abstracts of the 10th Conference of the Italian Society of Agricultural Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Monarca

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available it is my pleasure to welcome you to the 10th AIIA Conference: “AIIA13 – Horizons in agricultural, forestry and biosystems engineering”, and to welcome you to Viterbo. For the first time the AIIA conference will be held in English. The purpose of this choice is to involve academics and researchers coming from other nations. This conference will then be a unique opportunity for scientists, researchers, experts, students and people representing the business world to show, share and discuss the results of their researches. Another goal of this conference is the promotion of the cooperation and networking in the field of Biosystems Engineering, also trying to include the business world in it. By doing that, we will be able to take on the new challenge of Horizon 2020, the new European Framework Programme. This programme attributes a capital and fundamental role to research and innovation, seen as important means to guarantee an intelligent, sustainable and comprehensive growth to Europe. Horizon 2020 is articulated on 3 strategic objectives 1 Excellent science, intended to secure Europe’s leadership in science worldwide. 2 Industrial Leadership , aimed at supporting research and innovation of European industry, with a strong focus on industrial technologies and investments for SMEs, 3 Societal challenges , aimed at tackling major global challenges in the following areas: health, demographic change and wellbeing, food security, sustainable agriculture, secure, clean and efficient energy, smart, green and integrated transport, climate action, resource efficiency and raw materials, inclusive, innovative and secure societies. In all these fields Agricultural, Forestry and Biosystems Engineering in the coming years will have a major role. I conclude by saying that AIIA13 is also an opportunity to know the Tuscia, a still intact territory, in which culture and respect for the land, innovation and tradition come together in a truly original model of

  15. New frontiers of multidisciplinary research in STEAM-H (science, technology, engineering, agriculture, mathematics, and health)

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This highly multidisciplinary volume contains contributions from leading researchers in STEAM-H disciplines (Science, Technology, Engineering, Agriculture, Mathematics and Health). The volume explores new frontiers in multidisciplinary research, including: the mathematics of cardiac arrhythmia; brain research on working memory; penalized ordinal regression to classify melanoma skin samples; forecasting of time series data; dynamics of niche models; analysis of chemical moieties as anticancer agents; study of gene locus control regions; qualitative mathematical modelling; convex quadrics and group circle systems; remanufacturing planning and control; complexity reduction of functional differential equations; computation of viscous interfacial motion; and differentiation in human pluripotent stem cells. An extension of a seminar series at Virginia State University, the collection is intended to foster student interest and participation in interdisciplinary research, and to stimulate new research. The content wi...

  16. Establishing the need for an engineering standard for agricultural hitch pins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboy, G R; Knapp, W M; Field, W E; Krutz, G W; Corum, C L

    2012-04-01

    Documented incidents have occurred in which failure or unintentional disengagement of agricultural hitch pins has contributed to property damage and personal injury. An examination of current hitch pin use on a convenience sample of farm operations in Indiana revealed a variety of non-standard, worn and damaged, and inappropriately sized hitch pins in use. Informal interviews with the farm operators confirmed that hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement is a relatively widespread problem that remains largely unaddressed. On-site observations also suggested a low use of hitch pin retaining devices or safety chains. A review of prior research revealed that little attention has been given to this problem, and currently no documentation allows for an estimate of the frequency or severity of losses associated with hitch pin misuse, failure, or disengagement. No specific engineering standards were found that directly applied to the design, appropriate selection, or loading capacity of agricultural hitch pins. Major suppliers of replacement hitch pins currently provide little or no information on matching hitch pin size to intended applications, and most replacement hitch pins examined were of foreign origin, with the overwhelming majority imported from China or India. These replacement hitch pins provided no specifications other than diameter, length, and, in some cases, labeling that indicated that the pins had been "heat treated. " Testing of a sample of 11 commercially available replacement hitch pins found variation along the length of the pin shaft and between individual pins in surface hardness, a potential predictor of pin failure. Examination of 17 commercially available replacement pins also revealed a variety of identifiers used to describe pin composition and fabrication methods, e.g., "heat treated." None of the pins examined provided any specifications on loading capacity. It was therefore concluded that there is a need to develop an agricultural hitch

  17. Genome editing and genetic engineering in livestock for advancing agricultural and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telugu, Bhanu P; Park, Ki-Eun; Park, Chi-Hun

    2017-08-01

    Genetic modification of livestock has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on marker-assisted and genomic selection, artificial insemination, and embryo transfer have led to significant improvement in the performance of domestic animals, and are the basis for regular supply of high quality animal derived food. However, the current strategy of breeding animals over multiple generations to introduce novel traits is not realistic in responding to the unprecedented challenges such as changing climate, pandemic diseases, and feeding an anticipated 3 billion increase in global population in the next three decades. Consequently, sophisticated genetic modifications that allow for seamless introgression of novel alleles or traits and introduction of precise modifications without affecting the overall genetic merit of the animal are required for addressing these pressing challenges. The requirement for precise modifications is especially important in the context of modeling human diseases for the development of therapeutic interventions. The animal science community envisions the genome editors as essential tools in addressing these critical priorities in agriculture and biomedicine, and for advancing livestock genetic engineering for agriculture, biomedical as well as "dual purpose" applications.

  18. SOLERAS - Solar Controlled Environment Agriculture Project. Final report, Volume 4. Saudi Engineering Solar Energy Applications System Design Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    Literature summarizing a study on the Saudi Arabian solar controlled environment agriculture system is presented. Specifications and performance requirements for the system components are revealed. Detailed performance and cost analyses are used to determine the optimum design. A preliminary design of an engineering field test is included. Some weather data are provided for Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. (BCS)

  19. Assessment of Knowledge and Competences in Agricultural Engineering Acquired by the Senior Secondary School Students for Farm Mechanisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndem, Joseph; Ogba, Ernest; Egbe, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the agricultural engineering knowledge and competencies acquired by the senior secondary students for farm mechanization in technical colleges in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the…

  20. Antibacterial activity of agricultural waste derived wollastonite doped with copper for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeena, S; Subhapradha, N; Selvamurugan, N; Narayan, S; Srinivasan, N; Murugesan, R; Chung, T W; Moorthi, A

    2017-02-01

    Bioactive ceramic materials with metal ions generation brought great attention in the class of biomaterials development and widely employed as a filler material for bone tissue regeneration. The present study aimed to fabricate calcium silicate based ceramic material doped with copper metal particles by sol-gel method. Rice straw of agricultural waste was utilized as a source material to synthesize wollastonite, then wollastonite was doped with copper to fabricate copper doped wollastonite (Cu-Ws) particles. The synthesized materials were subjected to physio-chemical characterization by TEM, DLS, FTIR, XRD and DSC analysis. It was found that the sizes of the WS particles was around 900nm, while adding copper the size was increased upto 1184nm and the addition of copper to the material sharpening the peak. The release of Cu ions was estimated by ICP analysis. The anti-bacterial potentiality of the particles suggested that better microbial growth inhibition against E. coli (Gram negative) and S. aureus (Gram positive) strains from ATCC, in which the growth inhibition was more significant against S. aureus. The biocompatibility in mouse Mesenchymal Stem cells (mMSC) showed the non-toxic effect up to 0.05mg/ml concentration while the increase in concentration was found to be toxic to the cells. So the particles may have better potential application with the challenging prevention of post implantation infection in the field of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Engineering and agronomy aspects of a long-term precision agriculture field experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much research has been conducted on specific precision agriculture tools and implementation strategies, but little has been reported on long-term evaluation of integrated precision agriculture field experiments. In 2004 our research team developed and initiated a multi-faceted “precision agriculture...

  2. Decentralized power plants. Steam engines in an agriculture cooperative in Paraguay, plant extension in cooperation with the GTZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    About 1 cent are the running costs to generate 1 kWh - less than three years is the time for return of investment: tThat are the facts of steam engines using tungfruit shells as a fuel. The more oil prices are rising the more efficiently will such plants work. The way an agricultural cooperative in Paraquay changed their power supply is a good example for varying decentralized power plants - and how to save oil.

  3. Genetically engineered livestock for agriculture: a generation after the first transgenic animal research conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    At the time of the first Transgenic Animal Research Conference, the lack of knowledge about promoter, enhancer and coding regions of genes of interest greatly hampered our efforts to create transgenes that would express appropriately in livestock. Additionally, we were limited to gene insertion by pronuclear microinjection. As predicted then, widespread genome sequencing efforts and technological advancements have profoundly altered what we can do. There have been many developments in technology to create transgenic animals since we first met at Granlibakken in 1997, including the advent of somatic cell nuclear transfer-based cloning and gene editing. We can now create new transgenes that will express when and where we want and can target precisely in the genome where we want to make a change or insert a transgene. With the large number of sequenced genomes, we have unprecedented access to sequence information including, control regions, coding regions, and known allelic variants. These technological developments have ushered in new and renewed enthusiasm for the production of transgenic animals among scientists and animal agriculturalists around the world, both for the production of more relevant biomedical research models as well as for agricultural applications. However, even though great advancements have been made in our ability to control gene expression and target genetic changes in our animals, there still are no genetically engineered animal products on the market for food. World-wide there has been a failure of the regulatory processes to effectively move forward. Estimates suggest the world will need to increase our current food production 70 % by 2050; that is we will have to produce the total amount of food each year that has been consumed by mankind over the past 500 years. The combination of transgenic animal technology and gene editing will become increasingly more important tools to help feed the world. However, to date the practical benefits of

  4. Genetically Engineered Crops and Certified Organic Agriculture for Improving Nutrition Security in Africa and South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pray, Carl; Ledermann, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    In Africa and South Asia, where nutrition insecurity is severe, two of the most prominent production technologies are genetically modified (GM) crops and certified organic agriculture. We analyze the potential impact pathways from agricultural production to nutrition. Our review of data and the literature reveals increasing farm-level income from cash crop production as the main pathway by which organic agriculture and GM agriculture improve nutrition. Potential secondary pathways include reduced prices of important food crops like maize due to GM maize production and increased food production using organic technology. Potential tertiary pathways are improvements in health due to reduced insecticide use. Challenges to the technologies achieving their impact include the politics of GM agriculture and the certification costs of organic agriculture. Given the importance of agricultural production in addressing nutrition security, accentuated by the post-2015 sustainable development agenda, the chapter concludes by stressing the importance of private and public sector research in improving the productivity and adoption of both GM and organic crops. In addition, the chapter reminds readers that increased farm income and productivity require complementary investments in health, education, food access and women's empowerment to actually improve nutrition security. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Theories and methodologies of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project--a case study of Xuemeiyang land consolidation project in Changtai County, Fujian Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yanmei; Wu, Cifang; Cheng, Chengbiao; Qiu, Lingzhang; Huang, Shengyu; Zheng, Ruihui

    2002-09-01

    The concept and characteristics of engineering designs on sustainable agricultural land consolidation project were discussed in this paper. Principles, basic methods and procedures of engineering designs on agricultural land consolidation project were put forward, which were successfully adopted for designing agricultural land consolidation in Xuemeiyang region of Changtai County, including diversity designs of sustainable land use, engineering designs of soil improvement, roads, ditches, and drains for protecting existent animal environments, and design of ecological shelter-forests in farmland. Moreover, from sustainable economic, ecological and social points, the results of these engineering designs were evaluated based on fouteen important indexes. After carrying out these engineeringdesigns, the eco-environments and agricultural production conditions were significantly improved, and the farm income was increased in planned regions.

  6. Fueling an D.I. agricultural diesel engine with waste oil biodiesel: Effects over injection, combustion and engine characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radu, Rosca; Petru, Carlescu; Edward, Rakosi; Gheorghe, Manolache

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a research concerning the use of a biodiesel type fuel in D.I. Diesel engine; the fuel injection system and the engine were tested. The results indicated that the injection characteristics are affected when a blend containing 50% methyl ester and 50% petrodiesel is used as fuel (injection duration, pressure wave propagation time, average injection rate, peak injection pressure). As a result, the engine characteristics are also affected, the use of the biodiesel blend leading to lower output power and torque; the lower autoignition delay and pressure wave propagation time led to changes of the cylinder pressure and heat release traces and to lower peak combustion pressures.

  7. Palm oil as a fuel for agricultural diesel engines: Comparative testing against diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Apichato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to unstable oil price situation in the world market, many countries have been looking for alternative energy sources to substitute for petroleum. Vegetable oil is one of the alternatives which can be used as fuel in automotive engines either in the form of straight vegetable oil, or in the form of ethyl or methyl ester. This paper presents a comparative performance testing of diesel engine using diesel oil and refined palm oil over 2,000 hours of continuous running time. Short-term performance testing was conducted for each fuel on the dynamometer engine test bed. Specific fuel consumption, exhaust temperature and black smoke density were determined and measured. Long-term performance testing (or endurance test was also done by running the engines coupled with a generator in order to supply load (electricity to a lightbulb board. For each 500 hours of engine run time, the engines were dissembled for engine wear inspection. It was found that the fuel pump and fuel valve weight losses from both engines showed insignificant differences either at the first 500 hours of running time or at the second 500 hours of running time but the inlet valve from the engine fueled by diesel oil had a higher weight loss than the engine fueled by refined palm oil at the first 500 hours and at the second 500 hours of running time. The compression rings from the engine fueled by refined palm oil showed a significant weight loss compared to the engine fueled by diesel oil both after 500 hours and after 1000 hours of running time.

  8. Progressively implementation of the new degrees at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering and extinction of the earlier degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, A.; Caniego, J.; Vazquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Tarquis, A. M.; Cartagena, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Once that the new degrees have been implemented with this structure, and began at E.T.S. of Agriculture Engineering (ETSIA) at Madrid from 2010-2011 course, the main aim of this work is to deeply study the changes in teaching methodology as well as progressively implementation of the educational planning of the three new degrees: Engineering and Agronomic Graduate, Food Industry Engineering Graduate and Agro-environmental Graduate. Each one of them presents 240 ECTS with a common first course and will have access to an official Master in Agronomic Engineering. As part as an educational innovation project awarded by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) to improve educational quality, the second course has been designed with the main objective to continue the educative model implemented last course. This model identifies several teaching activities and represents a proper teaching style at ETSIA-UPM. At the same time, a monitoring and development coordination plans have been established. On the other hand, a procedure to extinguish the earlier plans of Agriculture Engineering was also defined. Other activities related to this Project were the information improvement of the grades, in particular at High Schools centers, improving the processes of reception, counseling and tutoring and mentoring. Likewise, cooperative working workshops and programs to support the teaching of English language were implemented. Satisfaction surveys and opinion polls were done to professors and students involved in first course in order to test several aspects of this project. The students surveys were analyzed taking in account the academic results and their participation in mentoring activities giving a highly

  9. The future in Agricultural Engineering: news degrees in the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartagena, M. Carmen; Tarquis, A. M.; Vázquez, J.; Serrano, A.; Arce, A.

    2010-05-01

    The Bologna process is to improve the quality of education, mobility, diversity and the competitiveness and involves three fundamental changes: transform of the structure of titles, changing in methods of teaching and implementation of the systems of quality assurance. Engineer Agronomist at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM) has been offered as a degree of five years with a total of 400 credits and seven optional orientations: Crop Production, Plant and Breeding Protection, Environment, Agricultural Economics, Animal Production, Rural Engineering and Food Technology. Actually, the Bologna plan creates three new degrees: Engineering and Science Agronomic, Food Engineering and Agro-Environmental Engineering, with 240 ECTS each one of them and with specific professional characteristics. The changes that involve the introduction of these new degrees is perhaps the largest occurred never at the Spanish university system, not only by the drastic transformation in the structure of titles, but also by the new changes that lie ahead in teaching methods. Among others we will comment the following ones: -A year decreased duration of studies and therefore incorporation into the market. - Elimination of the seven current guidelines to create three specific qualifications of degree. -Decrease of optional subjects and increase in credits for the basic subjects. - Inclusion of business practices. - Increase in the number of credits of final project. - Changes in methodologies and a higher involvement of teachers and students in the education.

  10. U.S. Adults with Agricultural Experience Report More Genetic Engineering Familiarity than Those Without

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stofer, Kathryn A.; Schiebel, Tracee M.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers and pollsters still debate the acceptance of genetic engineering technology among U.S. adults, and continue to assess their knowledge as part of this research. While decision-making may not rely entirely on knowledge, querying opinions and perceptions rely on public understanding of genetic engineering terms. Experience with…

  11. Genetic engineering in agriculture and corporate engineering in public debate: risk, public relations, and public debate over genetically modified crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rajeev; Torres, Robert J; Rosset, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Corporations have long influenced environmental and occupational health in agriculture, doing a great deal of damage, making substantial profits, and shaping public debate to make it appear that environmental misfortunes are accidents of an otherwise well-functioning system, rather than systemic. The debate over the genetically modified (GM) crops is an example. The largest producer of commercial GM seeds, Monsanto, exemplifies the industry's strategies: the invocation of poor people as beneficiaries, characterization of opposition as technophobic or anti-progress, and portrayal of their products as environmentally beneficial in the absence of or despite the evidence. This strategy is endemic to contemporary market capitalism, with its incentives to companies to externalize health and environmental costs to increase profits.

  12. Rethinking the Risk Management Process for Genetically Engineered Crop Varieties in Small-scale, Traditionally Based Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Cleveland

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of genetically engineered (GE crops often assume that the risk management used in the industrial world is appropriate for small-scale, traditionally based agriculture in the Third World. Opponents of GE crops often assume that risk management is inappropriate for the Third World, because it is inherently biased in favor of the industrial world. We examine both of these assumptions, by rethinking risk management for GE crops and transgenes, using the example of maize transgene flow from the U.S. to Mexico. Risk management for the Third World is a necessary first step of a broader benefit-cost analysis of GE crops, which would include comparisons with existing varieties and with alternative varieties such as transgenic farmer varieties and organic varieties. Our goal is to use existing information on GE crops and on the social and biological characteristics of Third World agriculture to identify key processes that need to be considered in risk management, and the additional research required to adequately understand them. The four main steps in risk management are hazard identification, risk analysis (exposure x harm, risk evaluation, and risk treatment. We use informal event trees to identify possible exposure to GE crops and transgenes, and resulting biological and social harm; give examples of farmers' ability to evaluate social harm; and discuss the possibilities for risk treatment. We conclude that risk management is relevant for Third World agriculture, but needs to be based on the unique biological and social characteristics of small-scale, traditionally based agriculture, including the knowledge and values of Third World farmers and consumers.

  13. Diesel reformulation using bio-derived propanol to control toxic emissions from a light-duty agricultural diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thillainayagam, Muthukkumar; Venkatesan, Krishnamoorthy; Dipak, Rana; Subramani, Saravanan; Sethuramasamyraja, Balaji; Babu, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-07-01

    In the Indian agricultural sector, millions of diesel-driven pump-sets were used for irrigation purposes. These engines produce carcinogenic diesel particulates, toxic nitrogen oxides (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions which threaten the livelihood of large population of farmers in India. The present study investigates the use of n-propanol, a less-explored high carbon bio-alcohol that can be produced by sustainable pathways from industrial and crop wastes that has an attractive opportunity for powering stationary diesel engines meant for irrigation and rural electrification. This study evaluates the use of n-propanol addition in fossil diesel by up to 30% by vol. and concurrently reports the effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on emissions of an agricultural DI diesel engine. Three blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 were prepared by mixing 10, 20, and 30% by vol. of n-propanol with fossil diesel. Results when compared to baseline diesel case indicated that smoke density reduced with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced smoke density by 13.33, 33.33, and 60%, respectively. NOx emissions increased with increasing n-propanol fraction in the blends. Later, three EGR rates (10, 20, and 30%) were employed. At any particular EGR rate, smoke density remained lower with increasing n-propanol content in the blends under increasing EGR rates. NOx reduced gradually with EGR. At 30% EGR, the blends PR10, PR20, and PR30 reduced NOx emissions by 43.04, 37.98, and 34.86%, respectively when compared to baseline diesel. CO emissions remained low but hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were high for n-propanol/diesel blends under EGR. Study confirmed that n-propanol could be used by up to 30% by vol. with diesel and the blends delivered lower soot density, NOx, and CO emissions under EGR.

  14. Evaluation in STEM Online Graduate Degree Programs in Agricultural Sciences and Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Holly A.

    2014-01-01

    Demands for online graduate degrees have increased pressure on universities to launch web degrees quickly and, at times, without attending to their quality. Scarce research exists identifying what evaluation activities are being done by science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) online graduate degree programs that are accustomed to…

  15. Pre-Columbian agricultural landscapes, ecosystem engineers, and self-organized patchiness in Amazonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKey, Doyle; Rostain, Stéphen; Iriarte, José; Glaser, Bruno; Birk, Jago Jonathan; Holst, Irene; Renard, Delphine

    2010-04-27

    The scale and nature of pre-Columbian human impacts in Amazonia are currently hotly debated. Whereas pre-Columbian people dramatically changed the distribution and abundance of species and habitats in some parts of Amazonia, their impact in other parts is less clear. Pioneer research asked whether their effects reached even further, changing how ecosystems function, but few in-depth studies have examined mechanisms underpinning the resilience of these modifications. Combining archeology, archeobotany, paleoecology, soil science, ecology, and aerial imagery, we show that pre-Columbian farmers of the Guianas coast constructed large raised-field complexes, growing on them crops including maize, manioc, and squash. Farmers created physical and biogeochemical heterogeneity in flat, marshy environments by constructing raised fields. When these fields were later abandoned, the mosaic of well-drained islands in the flooded matrix set in motion self-organizing processes driven by ecosystem engineers (ants, termites, earthworms, and woody plants) that occur preferentially on abandoned raised fields. Today, feedbacks generated by these ecosystem engineers maintain the human-initiated concentration of resources in these structures. Engineer organisms transport materials to abandoned raised fields and modify the structure and composition of their soils, reducing erodibility. The profound alteration of ecosystem functioning in these landscapes coconstructed by humans and nature has important implications for understanding Amazonian history and biodiversity. Furthermore, these landscapes show how sustainability of food-production systems can be enhanced by engineering into them follows that maintain ecosystem services and biodiversity. Like anthropogenic dark earths in forested Amazonia, these self-organizing ecosystems illustrate the ecological complexity of the legacy of pre-Columbian land use.

  16. Assessment for English Language Education on the Programs at the Agricultural Engineering School of Madrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Sinobas, Leonor; San José Martínez, Fernando; Hontoria, Kira; Adán, Angeles; Blanco, María; Calderón, Fernando; Carbonell, Victoria; Chaya, Carolina; Fondevila, Guillermo; González, Trinidad; Marín, Carmen; Mira, Sara; Molina, Antonio; Pereira, David; Quemada, Miguel; Ricote, Luis; Sánchez Monje, Rosa; Sanz, Alberto; Albir, Maria

    2014-05-01

    The convergence process among European academic degrees pursues the exchange of graduate students and the adaptation of university programs to social demand. Within the framework of the European Higher Education, European universities will need to be more competitive not only by increasing or maintaining the student enrolment, but also in their academic performance. Thus, the reinforcing of English language education within the University Programs might play an important role to reach these objectives. In this sense, a complete survey was accomplished at the Agricultural Egineering School of Madrid (ETSIA ) addressing issues such as: identification the needs for bilingual instruction at ETSIA, identification resources needed and interest and background in English language of students and professors (San José et al., 2013). The conclusions and recommendations to promote the bilingual instruction in the ETSIA, taking into account the approaches followed by other Spanish universities, are presented in this work.

  17. Genetic engineering of cytokinin metabolism: prospective way to improve agricultural traits of crop plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalabák, David; Pospíšilová, Hana; Šmehilová, Mária; Mrízová, Katarína; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2013-01-01

    Cytokinins (CKs) are ubiquitous phytohormones that participate in development, morphogenesis and many physiological processes throughout plant kingdom. In higher plants, mutants and transgenic cells and tissues with altered activity of CK metabolic enzymes or perception machinery, have highlighted their crucial involvement in different agriculturally important traits, such as productivity, increased tolerance to various stresses and overall plant morphology. Furthermore, recent precise metabolomic analyses have elucidated the specific occurrence and distinct functions of different CK types in various plant species. Thus, smooth manipulation of active CK levels in a spatial and temporal way could be a very potent tool for plant biotechnology in the future. This review summarises recent advances in cytokinin research ranging from transgenic alteration of CK biosynthetic, degradation and glucosylation activities and CK perception to detailed elucidation of molecular processes, in which CKs work as a trigger in model plants. The first attempts to improve the quality of crop plants, focused on cereals are discussed, together with proposed mechanism of action of the responses involved. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Academic Support Program in the Faculty of Agricultural and Forestry Engineering of the University of Cordoba (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Sergio; Navarro, Rafael M.; Camacho, Emilio; Gallardo, Rosa; García-Ferrer, Alfonso; Pérez-Marín, M. Dolores; Peña, Adolfo; Taguas, Encarnación V.

    2014-05-01

    The incorporation of new students to undergraduate degrees is performed in different stages through a long, sequential enrollment process. The student integration to the new context of higher education including group work and new teaching methodologies lead to notable adaptation difficulties to this new educational environment. In fact, the highest rate of student failure in the Bachelor degree usually happens during the first courses. The Unit of Quality Evaluation/Monitoring of School of Agricultural and Forest Engineering (ETSIAM) has detected that these failure rates at first and second degree course may be reduced through the involvement of students in a support learning process, by increasing their skills and motivation as well as the contact with the University environment in the context of their future professional horizon. In order to establish a program of this type, it has been launched an Academic Support Program (ASP) at the ETSIAM. This program aims to achieve and reinforce the basic academic and personal skills/competences require by the Bologna's process (BC) and specific competences of the engineers on the area of Agriculture and Forestry in the European context. The ASP includes diferent bloks of seminars, lectures, collaborative work and discussion groups among students, professionals, professors and researchers and it has been designed based on these competences and tranversal contents in both degrees. These activities are planned in a common time for both degrees, out of teaching classes. In addition, a virtual space in Moodle has been created for discussion forums and preparation activities. Additional information about schedules, speakers and companies, presentations and other material are also provided. In the preliminary implementation of the ASP, we will present the results corresponding to the first year of this academic support program. We have conducted a survey among the students in order to have a first feedback about the impact of

  19. The Role of Aerospace Technology in Agriculture. The 1977 Summer Faculty Fellowship Program in Engineering Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Possibilities were examined for improving agricultural productivity through the application of aerospace technology. An overview of agriculture and of the problems of feeding a growing world population are presented. The present state of agriculture, of plant and animal culture, and agri-business are reviewed. Also analyzed are the various systems for remote sensing, particularly applications to agriculture. The report recommends additional research and technology in the areas of aerial application of chemicals, of remote sensing systems, of weather and climate investigations, and of air vehicle design. Also considered in detail are the social, legal, economic, and political results of intensification of technical applications to agriculture.

  20. THE PROFESSIONAL MOTIVATION TOWARD THE CAREER AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING / LA MOTIVACIÓN PROFESIONAL HACIA LA CARRERA INGENIERÍA AGRÓNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Batista Rodríguez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article it is carried out an analysis of the professional motivation toward the career Agricultural Engineering, the investigative interest is centered in the process of initial formation, taking as indicative situation the manifestations of inadequacies detected in this career in the University of Las Tunas. They will be kept in mind for this study the curricular dimensions settled down in the educational project. As approach it will be assisting to the study plans put into practice in the agricultural engineer's formation, revising the inclusion or not in them, of activities, indications or managed orientations to impact in the professional motivation of the students, setting the stages from the establishment of the plan A until the effective one (D. This article offers a panoramic of the phenomenon inquiry object, since the same one corresponds to an investigation in course where the general objective is a proposal of activities that allow to promote the professional motivation of the university students in the career Agricultural Engineering, as a psicopedagogical tool that contributes to the decrease of the deficiencies detected in this house of high studies.

  1. Towards efficient bioethanol production from agricultural and forestry residues: Exploration of unique natural microorganisms in combination with advanced strain engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinqing; Xiong, Liang; Zhang, Mingming; Bai, Fengwu

    2016-09-01

    Production of fuel ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks such as agricultural and forestry residues is receiving increasing attention due to the unsustainable supply of fossil fuels. Three key challenges include high cellulase production cost, toxicity of the cellulosic hydrolysate to microbial strains, and poor ability of fermenting microorganisms to utilize certain fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate. In this article, studies on searching of natural microbial strains for production of unique cellulase for biorefinery of agricultural and forestry wastes, as well as development of strains for improved cellulase production were reviewed. In addition, progress in the construction of yeast strains with improved stress tolerance and the capability to fully utilize xylose and glucose in the cellulosic hydrolysate was also summarized. With the superior microbial strains for high titer cellulase production and efficient utilization of all fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate, economic biofuels production from agricultural residues and forestry wastes can be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Rotary balance data for a single-engine agricultural airplane configuration for an angle-of-attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcay, W. J.; Chu, J.

    1980-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics obtained in a helical flow environment utilizing a rotary balance located in the Langley spin tunnel are presented in plotted form for a 1/10 scale single engine agricultural airplane model. The configurations tested include the basic airplane, various wing leading edge and wing tip devices, elevator, aileron, and rudder control settings, and other modifications. Data are presented without analysis for an angle of attack range of 8 deg to 90 deg, and clockwise and counter-clockwise rotations covering a spin coefficient range from 0 to .9.

  3. Experimental investigations of combustion and emission characteristics of rapeseed oil–diesel blends in a two cylinder agricultural diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, D.H.; Lee, C.F.; Jia, C.C.; Wang, P.P.; Wu, S.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The main properties of rapeseed oil and diesel fuel were measure and analyzed. • The cylinder pressure of the rapeseed oil–diesel blends was measured and compared. • The heat release rate of the test fuels was calculated and the combustion process was analyzed. • The fuel consumption and emissions characteristics were measured and compared. - Abstract: The main objective of this paper was to study the performance, emissions and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine using rapeseed oil–diesel blends. The main fuel properties of rapeseed oil (RSO) were investigated and compared with that of diesel fuel. The experimental results showed that the viscosity and density of the blends were decreased and approached to that of diesel fuel when RSO volume fraction was less than 20%. At low engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was almost similar to that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were higher. At high engine loads, the start of combustion for the blends was slightly earlier than that for diesel fuel, but the peak cylinder pressure and heat release rate were identical. For the blends, there was slightly higher brake specific fuel consumptions (BSFC) and brake specific energy consumptions (BSEC) at low engine loads. Smoke emission was higher at low engine loads, but lower at high engine loads. Nitrogen oxide (NO x ) emission was observed slightly lower at low engine loads and almost identical at high engine loads. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emission were higher under all range of engine loads for the blends

  4. The scientific production of Italian agricultural engineers: a bibliometric network analysis concerning the scientific sector AGR/10 Rural buildings and agro-forestry territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Montis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to a worldwide well-known attitude, also in Italy, the assessment of scientific production in the last decades has been progressively based on the analysis of the impact through bibliometric variables. Various data sets, such as Scopus by Elsevier and Web of Science by Thomson Reuters, are designed and maintained to index a steadily increasing range of essays: mostly journal articles, book chapters, and conference proceedings. The indexing relays on the capacity to evaluate and update specific impact measures by keeping track of the citations representing the relations between the essays. The related opportunity to interpret bibliographic systems as research and development (R&D networks attracted the interest of scientists operating, beyond the field of bibliometric analysis, in the realm of social networking. Network analysis belongs to mechanical statistics and is able to make sense of interconnected systems including very large sets of nodes and links. In this paper, we present a network approach to the review of the scientific production in the time period January, 2003-June, 2016 of Italian agricultural engineers, namely scientists belonging to the Italian ministerial scientific disciplinary sector AGR/10 - rural buildings and agro-forestry territory. Starting from 238 articles indexed in the Web of Knowledge database and published by 87 AGR/10 scholars, we apply four network analysis approaches to the study of the citations among articles, the most influential journals and topics, the co-authorship, the most favourite keywords with their evolution in time, and the communities’ pattern. We discover that Italian agricultural engineers are interlaced in a sparse network with a still limited tendency toward citing each other and are inclined to team up in established research groups based on a single university. As for the dualism between rural buildings and territory, we document on a relevant expansion of the issues related to

  5. Metagenomic insights into effects of spent engine oil perturbation on the microbial community composition and function in a tropical agricultural soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Lateef B; Obayori, Sunday O; Nwaokorie, Francisca O; Suleiman, Aisha; Mustapha, Raheemat

    2017-03-01

    Analyzing the microbial community structure and functions become imperative for ecological processes. To understand the impact of spent engine oil (SEO) contamination on microbial community structure of an agricultural soil, soil microcosms designated 1S (agricultural soil) and AB1 (agricultural soil polluted with SEO) were set up. Metagenomic DNA extracted from the soil microcosms and sequenced using Miseq Illumina sequencing were analyzed for their taxonomic and functional properties. Taxonomic profiling of the two microcosms by MG-RAST revealed the dominance of Actinobacteria (23.36%) and Proteobacteria (52.46%) phyla in 1S and AB1 with preponderance of Streptomyces (12.83%) and Gemmatimonas (10.20%) in 1S and Geodermatophilus (26.24%), Burkholderia (15.40%), and Pseudomonas (12.72%) in AB1, respectively. Our results showed that soil microbial diversity significantly decreased in AB1. Further assignment of the metagenomic reads to MG-RAST, Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) of proteins, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), GhostKOALA, and NCBI's CDD hits revealed diverse metabolic potentials of the autochthonous microbial community. It also revealed the adaptation of the community to various environmental stressors such as hydrocarbon hydrophobicity, heavy metal toxicity, oxidative stress, nutrient starvation, and C/N/P imbalance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that investigates the effect of SEO perturbation on soil microbial communities through Illumina sequencing. The results indicated that SEO contamination significantly affects soil microbial community structure and functions leading to massive loss of nonhydrocarbon degrading indigenous microbiota and enrichment of hydrocarbonoclastic organisms such as members of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria.

  6. Structural and mechanistic analysis of engineered trichodiene synthase enzymes from Trichoderma harzianum: towards higher catalytic activities empowering sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Indu; Chaudhary, Nitika; Sandhu, Padmani; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Akhter, Yusuf

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well-known bioagents for the plant growth promotion and pathogen suppression. The beneficial activities of the fungus Trichoderma spp. are attributed to their ability to produce and secrete certain secondary metabolites such as trichodermin that belongs to trichothecene family of molecules. The initial steps of trichodermin biosynthetic pathway in Trichoderma are similar to the trichothecenes from Fusarium sporotrichioides. Trichodiene synthase (TS) encoded by tri5 gene in Trichoderma catalyses the conversion of farnesyl pyrophosphate to trichodiene as reported earlier. In this study, we have carried out a comprehensive comparative sequence and structural analysis of the TS, which revealed the conserved residues involved in catalytic activity of the protein. In silico, modelled tertiary structure of TS protein showed stable structural behaviour during simulations. Two single-substitution mutants, i.e. D109E, D248Y and one double-substitution mutant (D109E and D248Y) of TS with potentially higher activities are screened out. The mutant proteins showed more stability than the wild type, an increased number of electrostatic interactions and better binding energies with the ligand, which further elucidates the amino acid residues involved in the reaction mechanism. These results will lead to devise strategies for higher TS activity to ultimately enhance the trichodermin production by Trichoderma spp. for its better exploitation in the sustainable agricultural practices.

  7. Comparing the Influence of Title and URL in Information Retrieval Relevance in Search Engines Results between Human Science and Agriculture Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Allami

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available When the World Wide Web provides suitable methods for producing and publishing information to scientists, the Web has become a mediator to publishing information. This environment has been formed billions of web pages that each of them has a special title, special content, special address and special purpose. Search engines provide a variety of facilities limit search results to raise the possibility of relevance in the retrieval results. One of these facilities is the limitation of the keywords and search terms to the title or URL. It can increase the possibility of results relevance significantly. Search engines claim what are limited to title and URL is most relevant. This research tried to compare the results relevant between results limited in title and URL in agricultural and Humanities areas from their users sights also it notice to Comparison of the presence of keywords in the title and URL between two areas and the relationship between search query numbers and matching keywords in title and their URLs. For this purpose, the number of 30 students in each area whom were in MA process and in doing their thesis was chosen. There was a significant relevant of the results that they limited their information needs to title and URL. There was significantly relevance in URL results in agricultural area, but there was not any significant difference between title and URL results in the humanities. For comparing the number of keywords in title and URL in two areas, 30 keywords in each area were chosen. There was not any significantly difference between the number of keywords in the title and URL of websites in two areas. To show relationship between number of search keyword and the matching of title and URL 45 keywords in each area were chosen. They were divided to three parts (one keyword, two keywords and three keywords. It was determined that if search keyword was less, the amount of matching between title and URL was more and if the matching

  8. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed,deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khamphe Phoungthong; Surajit Tekasakul; Perapong Tekasakul; Gumpon Prateepchaikul; Naret Jindapetch; Masami Furuuchi; Mitsuhiko Hata

    2013-01-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO),the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil,has become of great interest as a renewable energy source.It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits.In the present work,the degummed,deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long term usage.The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler.The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10,2.5 and 1 μm,while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 μm.Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography.The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 μm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings),especially pyrene.The mass median diameter,PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content,but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased.In addition,Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaPeq) for all particle size ranges.As the palm oil was increased,the BaPeq decreased gradually.Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  9. Performance and emission characteristics of an agricultural diesel engine fueled with blends of Sal methyl esters and diesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pali, Harveer S.; Kumar, N.; Alhassan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sal seed oil is unexplored biodiesel feedstock which is abundantly found in India. • Sal seed oil has good oxidation stability. • Performance and emission characteristics of the blends of Sal methyl esters with diesel evaluated. • At higher loads, CO, HC and smoke emissions of SME blends were lower than diesel. - Abstract: The present work deals with an underutilized vegetable oil; Sal seed oil (Shorea robusta) as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The production potential of Sal seed oil is very promising (1.5 million tons in a year) in India. The pressure filtered Sal seed oil was transesterified into Sal Methyl Ester (SME). The kinematic viscosity (5.89 cSt), density (0.8764 g/cc) and calorific value (39.65 MJ/kg) of the SME were well within the ASTM/EN standard limits. Various test fuels were prepared for the engine trials by blending 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of SME in diesel on volumetric basis and designated as SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 respectively. The BTE, in general, was found to be decreased with increased volume fraction of SME in the blends. At full load, BSEC for SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 were 13.6 MJ/kW h, 14.3 MJ/kW h, 14.7 MJ/kW h and 14.8 MJ/kW h respectively as compared to 13.9 MJ/kW h in case of diesel. At higher load conditions, CO, UHC and smoke emissions were found lower for all SME blends in comparison to neat diesel due to oxygenated nature of fuel. SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 showed 51 ppm, 44 ppm, 46 ppm and 48 ppm of UHC emissions respectively as compared to 60 ppm of diesel. The NOx emissions were found to be increased for SME based fuel in comparison to neat diesel operation. At peak load condition, SME10, SME20, SME30 and SME40 had NOx emissions of 612 ppm, 644 ppm, 689 ppm and 816 ppm as compared to 499 ppm for diesel. It may be concluded from the experimental investigations that Sal seed biodiesel is a potential alternative to diesel fuel for reducing dependence on crude petroleum derived fuels and

  10. Agriculture: Agriculture and Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on air emissions from agricultural practices, types of agricultural burning, air programs that may apply to agriculture, reporting requirements, and links to state and other federal air-quality information.

  11. African Journals Online: Agriculture & Food Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uganda Journal of Agricultural Sciences. The Journal publishes peer reviewed papers with the aim of sharing new developments in the agricultural and environmental sciences which include forestry, fisheries, livestock, crops, environment, biotechnology, agricultural economics, agricultural engineering. The readership of ...

  12. African Journals Online: Agriculture & Food Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 53 ... Global Approaches to Extension Practice (GAEP), A publication of the Department of ... resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing. ... Journal of Applied Chemistry and Agricultural Research.

  13. Agriculture: Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  14. Agricultural Overpopulation

    OpenAIRE

    Bičanić, Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    The author discusses three different approaches to agricultural overpopulation: from the consumption side, from the production side and from the aspect of immobility of agricultural population. In the first approach agrarian overpopulation is defined from the consumption point of viewas the number of people living from agriculture that can live from aggregate agricultural income at a certain standard of consumption. In this connection the problem of measuring total agricultu...

  15. Agricultural transportation fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The recommendations on the title subject are focused on the question whether advantages and disadvantages of agricultural fuels compared to fossil fuels justify the Dutch policy promotion of the use of agricultural products as basic materials for agricultural fuels. Attention is paid to energetic, environmental and economical aspects of both fuel types. Four options to apply agricultural transportation fuels are discussed: (1) 10% bio-ethanol in euro-unleaded gasoline for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (2) the substitution of 15% methyl tertiair butyl ether (MTBE) by ethyl tertiair butyl ether (ETBE) as a substituent for lead in unleaded super plus gasoline (Sp 98) for engines of passenger cars, equipped with a three-way catalyst; (3) 50% KME (rapeseed oil ester) in low-sulfur diesel (0.05%S D) for engines of vans without a catalyst; and (4) the substitution of 0.05% S D by bio-ethanol or KME for buses with fuel-adjusted engines, equipped with a catalyst. Also the substitution by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) or E 95 was investigated in option four. Each of the options investigated can contribute to a reduction of the use of fossil energy and the environmental effects of the use of fossil fuels, although some environmental effects from agricultural fuels must be taken into consideration. It is recommended to seriously pay attention to the promotion of agricultural fuels, not only in the Netherlands, but also in an international context. Policy instruments to be used in the stimulation of the use of such fuels are the existing European Community subsidies on fallow lands, exemption of the European Community energy levy, and the use of tax differentiation. Large-scale demonstration projects must be started to quantify hazardous emissions and to solve still existing technical problems. 8 figs., 3 tabs., refs., 4 appendices

  16. American Farm Bureau Foundation for Agriculture - Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Literacy? What We Do Resources Sustainable Agriculture Food and Farm Facts Free Resources & Lesson Agriculture Food and Farm Facts Free Resources & Lesson Plans Bringing Biotech to Life Learn About Beef and their families about agriculture at the USA Science & Engineering Festival in April. Read More

  17. Agriculture Sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Agriculture sectors comprise establishments primarily engaged in growing crops, raising animals, and harvesting fish and other animals. Find information on compliance, enforcement and guidance on EPA laws and regulations on the NAICS 111 & 112 sectors.

  18. Agriculture: About EPA's National Agriculture Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's National Agriculture Center (Ag Center), with the support of the United States Department of Agriculture, serves growers, livestock producers, other agribusinesses, and agricultural information/education providers.

  19. Castor Seed from Melkasa Agricultural Research Centre, East Showa, Ethiopia and it’s biodiesel performance in Four Stroke Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfahun Tegegne Akanawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study focused in investigating the fuel properties of Castor oil Methyl Ester (CME and its blend with diesel fuel in running a diesel engine. Engine tests have been carried out with the aim of obtaining comparative measures of torque, power, and specific fuel consumption. Castor oil was extracted by using a mechanical pressing machine and trans-esterification was made by methyl alcohol and potassium hydroxide as a catalyst.  So that its viscosity and density were reduced and by increasing its volatility.  By following the procedures given in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM book the fuel characteristics were identified whether it fulfil the requirements needed to be used as a fuel in internal combustion engines or not. From the characterization result, it was proved that trans-esterified castor oil was found to be a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (diesel engines. But the viscosity of CME was still higher and the energy content was a little bit less as compared to petro diesel. To solve these problems CME was blended with petro diesel in some proportion (B5, B10, B20, B40, B80. The torque, power and brake specific fuel consumption performances of CME and its blends with petro diesel were tested in a four stroke diesel engine. The analyzed results were compared with that of petro diesel and found to be very nearly similar, making CME a suiTable alternative fuel for petro diesel.

  20. Agriculture applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastidas O, G.; Obando D, R.; Alvarez F, A.

    1989-01-01

    Since its beginnings, the Agricultural Area had a selected research team involved in the development of different agricultural techniques. Currently, there are two main branches engaged in the solution of agricultural problems: Soil fertility and induced mutations. Soil fertility: Within this branch, studies on soil nutrients and availability of water and light resources, have been made by using isotope methods. In the near future studies on nitrogen and potassium content in potato, rice and wheat plantations will be held. Induced mutations: The main objective of this team is to obtain through radioinduced mutations, as well as in vitro growth, improved rice and other cereal seeds to be used under hostile environmental conditions. The further goal will be to develop new genotypes straight from the mutants or by utilization of this material as breeding materials in interchange programs

  1. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainul Hayati Daud; Hazmimi Kasim

    2010-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  2. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  3. Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, J. (ed.) [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido (Japan); Young, B.A. (ed.) [The University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343 (Australia)

    2002-07-01

    Reports from interdisciplinary areas including microbiology, biochemistry, animal nutrition, agricultural engineering and economics are integrated in this proceedings. The major theme of this book is environmental preservation by controlling release of undesirable greenhouse gases to realize the sustainable development of animal agriculture. Technology exists for the effective collection of methane generated from anaerobic fermentation of animal effluent and its use as a biomass energy source. Fossil fuel consumption can be reduced and there can be increased use of locally available energy sources. In addition, promoting environmentally-conscious agriculture which does not rely on the chemical fertilizer can be realized by effective use of animal manure and compost products.

  4. Assessment of CREAMS [Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems] and ERHYM-II [Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model] computer models for simulating soil water movement on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laundre, J.W.

    1990-05-01

    The major goal of radioactive waste management is long-term containment of radioactive waste. Long-term containment is dependent on understanding water movement on, into, and through trench caps. Several computer simulation models are available for predicting water movement. Of the several computer models available, CREAMS (Chemicals, Runoff, and Erosion from Agricultural Management Systems) and ERHYM-II (Ekalaka Rangeland Hydrology and Yield Model) were tested for use on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The models were calibrated, tested for sensitivity, and used to evaluate some basic trench cap designs. Each model was used to postdict soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff of two watersheds for which such data were already available. Sensitivity of the models was tested by adjusting various input parameters from high to low values and then comparing model outputs to those generated from average values. Ten input parameters of the CREAMS model were tested for sensitivity. 17 refs., 23 figs., 20 tabs

  5. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission in organic farming. Approximate quantification of its generation at the organic garden of the School of Agricultural, Food and Biosystems Engineering (ETSIAAB) in the Technical University of Madrid (UPM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jorge; Barbado, Elena; Maldonado, Mariano; Andreu, Gemma; López de Fuentes, Pilar

    2016-04-01

    As it well-known, agricultural soil fertilization increases the rate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission production such as CO2, CH4 and N2O. Participation share of this activity on the climate change is currently under study, as well as the mitigation possibilities. In this context, we considered that it would be interesting to know how this share is in the case of organic farming. In relation to this, a field experiment was carried out at the organic garden of the School of Agricultural, Food and Biosystems Engineering (ETSIAAB) in the Technical University of Madrid (UPM). The orchard included different management growing areas, corresponding to different schools of organic farming. Soil and gas samples were taken from these different sites. Gas samples were collected throughout the growing season from an accumulated atmosphere inside static chambers inserted into the soil. Then, these samples were carried to the laboratory and there analyzed. The results obtained allow knowing approximately how ecological fertilization contributes to air pollution due to greenhouse gases.

  6. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickerton, George E.

    1997-01-01

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  7. Green and sustainable succinic acid production from crude glycerol by engineered Yarrowia lipolytica via agricultural residue based in situ fibrous bed bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chong; Gao, Shi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2018-02-01

    In situ fibrous bed bioreactor (isFBB) for efficient succinic acid (SA) production by Yarrowia lipolytica was firstly developed in our former study. In this study, agricultural residues including wheat straw, corn stalk and sugarcane bagasse were investigated for the improvement of isFBB, and sugarcane bagasse was demonstrated to be the best immobilization material. With crude glycerol as the sole carbon source, optimization for isFBB batch fermentation was carried out. Under the optimal conditions of 20g sugarcane bagasse as immobilization material, 120gL -1 crude glycerol as carbon source and 4Lmin -1 of aeration rate, the resultant SA concentration was 53.6gL -1 with an average productivity of 1.45gL -1 h -1 and a SA yield of 0.45gg -1 . By feeding crude glycerol, SA titer up to 209.7gL -1 was obtained from fed batch fermentation, which was the highest value that ever reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Agricultural Experiences as Correlates of Secondary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    info

    medicine, agricultural engineering, fishery, animal/livestock production, forestry among others. ..... implies poultry management, fishery production and cashew farming were related to ..... Manual for career decision, Self-efficacy and CDSE.

  9. International Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The International Journal of Agricultureand Rural Development (IJARD) is an International Journal designed to provide ... Forestry and Wildlife resources, Soil Science, Agricultural Engineering and Food Processing.

  10. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  11. Education for Agricultural Improvement: Teacher Certification at the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlbaw, Lynn M.; Williams, Lauren; Kelly, Larry J.

    2017-01-01

    Texas A&M University has long been known for its engineering and agricultural programs. Only in the last 50 years has its reputation included the preparation of teachers for general education in the public schools of Texas. However, agricultural education has been an integral part of the institution's mandate since early in the 20th century.…

  12. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  13. Analysis and Design of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Training Management System based on School Enterprise Cooperation (Taking the School of Computer and Information Engineering of Beijing University of Agriculture as an example)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qianyi, Zhang; Xiaoshun, Li; Ping, Hu; Lu, Ning

    2018-03-01

    With the promotion of undergraduate training mode of “3+1” in Beijing University of Agriculture, the mode and direction of applied and compound talents training should be further visualized, at the same time, in order to make up for the shortage of Double Teachers in the school and the lack of teaching cases that cover the advanced technology in the industry, the school actively encourages the cooperation between the two teaching units and enterprises, and closely connects the enterprise resources with the school teaching system, using the “1” in “3+1” to carry out innovative training work for students. This method is beneficial for college students to integrate theory into practice and realize the purpose of applying knowledge in Higher Education. However, in the actual student training management, this kind of cooperation involves three party units and personnel, so it is difficult to form a unified management, on the other hand, it may also result from poor communication, which leads to unsatisfactory training results. At the same time, there is no good training supervision mechanism, causes the student training work specious. To solve the above problem,this paper designs a training management system of student innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on school enterprise cooperation,the system can effectively manage the relevant work of students’ training, and effectively solve the above problems. The subject is based on the training of innovation and entrepreneurship in the school of computer and information engineering of Beijing University of Agriculture. The system software architecture is designed using B/S architecture technology, the system is divided into three layers, the application of logic layer includes student training management related business, and realized the user’s basic operation management for student training, users can not only realize the basic information management of enterprises, colleges and students through the system

  14. Food, soil, and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bommer, D.F.R.; Hrabovszky, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    The growing pressures on the world's land resources will result in problems requiring a major research effort.The first group of problems relates to increased soil degradation. The research to alleviate this will have to incorporate not only physical and biological solutions, but also pay much more attention to the socio-economic context in which the conservation programmes need to succeed.The second major area for research on land resource is to make better use of low-capacity or problem soils.This could be by reducing the existing limitations, such as changing physical or chemical characteristics of the soil, or by developing plants and production techniques which reduce the detrimental effects of constraints. Example of these are acidity, salinity, and aluminium toxicity. Finally the broadest and more important area is that of research to enable more intensive use of better-quality land. Research topics here may relate to optimal plant nutrient management, soil moisture management, and developing cultivation techniques with minimum commercial energy requirements. Making plants more productive will involve research aimed at increasing photosynthetic efficiency, nitrogen fixation, disease and pest resistance, improved weed control, and bio-engineering to adjust plant types to maximize production potentials. Improved rotational systems for the achievement of many of the above goals will become increasingly important, as the potential problems or inappropriate cultivation practices become evident. In conclusion, food supplies of the world could meet the rapidly rising demands that are made on them, if agriculture receives sufficient attention and resources. Even with most modern development, land remains the base for agriculture, and optimal use of the world's land resources is thus crucial for future agricultural production

  15. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  16. Agricultural feedstock and waste treatment and engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiechter, A

    1985-01-01

    The present volume covers the production of ethanol from Jerusalem artichoke, cheese whey and the bioconversion of humicellulose, as well as modelling of bioreactors, optimization and process control. Four chapters are separately treated. (EF). With 65 figs., 53 tabs.

  17. Agricultural SWOT analysis and wisdom agriculture design of chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Xiangyu; Du, Shaoming; Yin, Guowei; Yu, Feng; Liu, Guicai; Gong, Jin; Han, Fujun

    2017-08-01

    According to the status of agricultural information, this paper analyzed the advantages, opportunities and challenges of developing wisdom agriculture in Chengdu. By analyzed the local characteristics of Chengdu agriculture, the construction program of Chengdu wisdom agriculture was designed, which was based on the existing agricultural informatization. The positioning and development theme of Chengdu agriculture is leisure agriculture, urban agriculture and quality agriculture.

  18. Agricultural engineering at UNICAMP: undergraduate student dropout analysis Engenharia agrícola na UNICAMP: análise da evasão no curso de graduação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Testezlaf

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, dropping out in B.Sc. courses practically occurs in all Universities of the contemporary world. Undergraduate student withdraw could means several losses as, to the student, not to graduate, to the teacher, for not accomplishing his goal as educator, to the university, for not attending its mission, to the society, economic and social losses and also to the family for unfulfilling the dreams. The objective of this research is to present a quantitative study on the dropping out rate in the Agricultural Engineering B.Sc. program (BSAGENG at State University of Campinas (UNICAMP, seeking to contribute to the understanding of this issue. It has been determined the dropping out rate from 1995 to 2006 based on the university official data, by employing four different methods of calculation. Three of the methods revealed that dropping out rate is very close to the graduation index, i.e., close to 50%. Regardless of the adopted method for the dropping rate estimation and the statistics demonstrating that the agricultural engineering undergraduate course at UNICAMP figures falls within similar courses normality in Brazil, it should be recognized that a public institution of education should be concerned in presenting such figures. A detailed and deep analysis must be outlined in further studies seeking for specific actions aiming to reduce dropping out process.O problema de evasão de estudantes dos cursos de graduação está presente praticamente em todas as Universidades do mundo contemporâneo. A desistência do aluno por um curso superior significa prejuízo para si próprio ao não se diplomar, para o professor que não atinge sua meta como educador, para a universidade pelo não atendimento de sua missão, para a sociedade pelas perdas sociais e econômicas e, também, para a família, pelo sonho não realizado. O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um estudo quantitativo sobre a evasão do curso de Engenharia Agrícola da UNICAMP

  19. Model Driven Software Development for Agricultural Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten

    The design and development of agricultural robots, consists of both mechan- ical, electrical and software components. All these components must be de- signed and combined such that the overall goal of the robot is fulfilled. The design and development of these systems require collaboration between...... processing, control engineering, etc. This thesis proposes a Model-Driven Software Develop- ment based approach to model, analyse and partially generate the software implementation of a agricultural robot. Furthermore, Guidelines for mod- elling the architecture of an agricultural robots are provided......, assisting with bridging the different engineering disciplines. Timing play an important role in agricultural robotic applications, synchronisation of robot movement and implement actions is important in order to achieve precision spraying, me- chanical weeding, individual feeding, etc. Discovering...

  20. Vocational Agriculture Computer Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentucky State Dept. of Education, Frankfort.

    This document is a catalog of reviews of computer software suitable for use in vocational agriculture programs. The reviews were made by vocational agriculture teachers in Kentucky. The reviews cover software on the following topics: farm management, crop production, livestock production, horticulture, agricultural mechanics, general agriculture,…

  1. Gender in crop agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the role of gender in crop agriculture as an essential component of development and poverty reduction. Gender is an integral aspect of crop agriculture because women's roles in crop production and household subsistence, as well as their knowledge of complex production syst...

  2. Summer Institute in Agricultural Mechanics Education, Southern Region, Proceedings (Blacksburg, Virginia, August 3-7, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg.

    This summer institute emphasizes the establishment of minimum measurable standards of attainment in agricultural engineering phases of teacher education in agriculture. Speeches presented are: (1) "Where We Are in Agricultural Mechanics Education," by Alfred H. Krebs, (2) "Research Offerings for More Effective Teaching in Agricultural Mechanics,"…

  3. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  4. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention...... in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...

  5. Reducing agricultural greenhouse gas emissions: role of biotechnology, organic systems, and consumer behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    All agricultural systems have environmental and societal costs and benefits that should be objectively quantified before recommending specific management practices. Agricultural biotechnology, which takes advantage of genetically engineered organisms (GEOs), along with organic cropping systems, econ...

  6. Agriculture: Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land Use and agriculture. Information about land use restrictions and incentive programs.Agricultural operations sometimes involve activities regulated by laws designed to protect water supplies, threatened or endangered plants and animals, or wetlands.

  7. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that occur while living, working, or visiting agricultural work environments (primarily farms) are considered agricultural injuries, whether or ... of Labor's Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) supports safe and healthful working conditions by setting and enforcing standards and by ...

  8. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban

  9. Agricultural Research Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Menu United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service Research Research Home National Programs Research Projects Scientific Manuscripts International Programs Scientific Software/Models Databases and Datasets Office of Scientific Quality ...

  10. Agricultural science policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Technological advances developed through R&D have supplied the world with not only more food, but better food. This report looks at issues raised by this changing environment for agricultural productivity, agricultural R&D, and natural resource management.

  11. Gender and agricultural markets

    OpenAIRE

    Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD

    2008-01-01

    Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the traditional division of labor within agricultural markets, where women farmers are primarily responsible for subsistence and household crop production while male farmers dominate the commercial sector. Challenging these gendered roles by increasing women farmers' acces...

  12. Division of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Natural Resources logo, color scheme Department of Natural Resources Division of Agriculture Search Search DNR's site DNR State of Alaska Toggle main menu visibility Agriculture Home Programs Asset Disposals Alaska Caps Progam Board of Agriculture & Conservation Farm To School Program Grants

  13. Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; Food and Agriculture Organization; International Fund for Agricultural Development

    2009-01-01

    Three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas, and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In many parts of the world, women are the main farmers or producers, but their roles remain largely unrecognized. The 2008 World development report: agriculture for development highlights the vital role of agriculture in susta...

  14. Nigeria Agricultural Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. NATURE OF PAPERS. Papers should be of agricultural interest and include: full reports of original research not previously elsewhere, research notes which consist of brief or new findings; techniques and equipment of importance to agricultural workers; evaluations of problems and trends in agricultural ...

  15. Biotechnology and Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Martin

    Even at this early date in the application of biotechnology to agriculture, it is clear that agriculture may provide the largest market for new or less expensive biotechnologically manufactured products. The chemical and pharmaceutical industries that hold important positions in agricultural inputs are consolidating their positions by purchasing…

  16. Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology covers research activities and development in the field of Applied Sciences and Technology as it relates to Agricultural Engineering, Biotechnology, Computer Science and Engineering Computations, Civil Engineering, Food Science and Technology, Electrical ...

  17. Sustainable agriculture: Developing a common understanding for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concept of sustainability has become central to all sectors all over the world, from agriculture to environment to business, engineering and industrialization. The principle of sustainability is the same all over these sectors. However, the understanding of the term may vary from sector to sector depending on how it may be ...

  18. Speeding up innovation in agricultural IT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu E.S. Haapala

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available An OECD funded research was conducted where methods and processes for speeding up innovation in agriculture were assessed. A global web-based questionnaire was sent to experts in agricultural engineering, research, marketing, education and users of new technologies. Interviews of selected experts were done to deepen the analysis. The results show that considerable part of the relatively slow innovation comes from the fact that users do not trust in new technologies or that the usability of them is unacceptable. The experts suggest that education of the engineers and designers should include more elements from User-Centered Design (UCD and also User-Driven Innovation methods should be more used. As a conclusion a new ‘Dream Team’ of agricultural innovation was developed where user interaction and marketing professionals were given more roles.

  19. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  20. How to make agricultural extension demand-driven?: The case of India's agricultural extension policy

    OpenAIRE

    Birner, Regina; Anderson, Jock R.

    2007-01-01

    "Many countries have recognized the need to revive agricultural advisory or extension services (the terms are used interchangeably here) as a means of using agriculture as an engine of pro-poor growth; reaching marginalized, poor, and female farmers; and addressing new challenges, such as environmental degradation and climate change. In spite of ample experience with extension reform worldwide, identifying the reform options most likely to make extension more demand-driven remains a major cha...

  1. 7. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livernash, R.

    1992-01-01

    Global food production has increased substantially over the past two decades, but factors such as population pressures and environmental degradation are undermining agriculture's current condition and future prospects. This chapter discusses the following: global trends; production trends (livestock and fisheries); per capita production trends (population density and agriculture); environmental trends (soil degradation, inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and freshwater); economic trends (agricultural commodity prices, declining investment in irrigation, World Bank lending); trade liberalization and the Gatt negotiations; conventional agriculture and alternative agriculture; problems with the conventional model (on-farm impacts, off-farm impacts); agricultural policies - creating a new environment; policy impacts - distorted price structures; new policy options (reducing input subsidies, land conservation programs, management agreements, taxes, fees, and tax incentives, strengthening regulations, subsidizing conversion); the economics of alternative agriculture

  2. Focal points 2010. Mobility with future - correct investment today. Environmental protection - investment restraint for agriculture? Engine for the climate policy: emission trading; Schwerpunkte 2010. Mobilitaet mit Zukunft - heute richtig investieren. Umweltschutz - Investitionshemmnis fuer die Landwirtschaft? Motor fuer die Klimapolitik: Der Emissionshandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ittershagen, Martin; Mavromati, Fotini (comps.)

    2010-04-14

    The publication of the German Federal environmental agency on the focal points 2010 covers the following topics: impetus for an ecological-economic policy; mobility with future -best investment for today: more environmentally compatible investments in traffic infrastructure, better technology - more efficiency, missing charging of environmental cost induces wrong stimuli; environmental protection - investment restraints for agriculture? Engine for climate policy: emission trading; the Federal environmental agency: bridge between science and politics, the Federal environmental agency for mankind and environment; data and facts; publications of the employees.

  3. Structural Change Out of Agriculture: Labor Push versus Labor Pull

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Alvarez-Cuadrado; Markus Poschke

    2011-01-01

    The process of economic development is characterized by substantial rural-urban migrations and a decreasing share of agriculture in output and employment. The literature highlights two main engines behind this process of structural change: (i) improvements in agricultural technology combined with the effect of Engel's law of demand push resources out of the agricultural sector (the "labor push" hypothesis), and (ii) improvements in industrial technology attract labor into this sector (the "la...

  4. 46 CFR 111.105-45 - Vessels carrying agricultural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vessels carrying agricultural products. 111.105-45... ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-45 Vessels carrying agricultural products. (a) The following areas are Class II, Division 1, (Zone 10 or Z) locations on vessels...

  5. International Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Systems

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and Food Systems (IJOTAFS) publishes high-quality peer reviewed articles, in English, in all areas of agriculture and food production and processing including tree production, pesticide science, post harvest biology and technology, seed science, irrigation, agricultural engineering, water resources management, marine ...

  6. Agriculture and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, M.M.; Idris, M.; Shah, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Agriculture is a profession which is open both to natural conditions and intense human activity. This has brought it in direct interface with the environment. The activities related to agriculture can have favorable as well as unfavorable influence on environment. Pressure of burgeoning population in demanding increased production from agriculture to feed and clothe the teeming millions. This has resulted in excessive use of soil, fertilizers and pesticides. The paper describes the effect of these productive resources on environment and human health. (author)

  7. Engineering Encounters: Engineering Adaptations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatling, Anne; Vaughn, Meredith Houle

    2015-01-01

    Engineering is not a subject that has historically been taught in elementary schools, but with the emphasis on engineering in the "Next Generation Science Standards," curricula are being developed to explicitly teach engineering content and design. However, many of the scientific investigations already conducted with students have…

  8. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  9. Energy in agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, E J

    1980-02-01

    Agriculture is an important component of Canadian energy policy. There are many opportunities for both the production of energy from agricultural processes and the conservation of energy in agricultural production. These opportunities, as well as current practices and research in progress, are outlined in this report. Energy sources in agriculture include biomass (straw and other residues), methane production from manure, and oil and alcohol from crops. Alternate energy sources such as solar and wind power conserve conventional resources, and additional conservation opportunities exist in the use of greenhouses, waste heat and energy-efficient farming processes. Research programs and possible trends are outlined. 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  11. Agriculture. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The climatic effects of agriculture and nutritional habits of the West German population are investigated. Changes in solar UV-B radiation and methods of measuring them are described. The climatic relevance of ecological and conventional agricultural techniques are compared. The agricultural policy of the European Communities is presented and discussed. The climatic effects of the totality of agricultural production techniques and processing stages of the food industry, as well as of transport and trade, are analyzed. Sociological investigations are made of the nutritional habits of the population, and the consequences for the global climate are compared. (SR) [de

  12. The agricultural policy of Serbia and common agricultural policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The agricultural sector has a relatively high importance in the economic structure of Serbia. The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, Common Agricultural Policy is one of the main policies of the European Union. It is very important to point out the fundamental principles and objectives of the Common Agricultural Policy. Harmonization of the national agricultural policy of Serbia with the Common Agricultural Policy and acceptance of its mechanisms is crucial for the development of the agricultural sector as a whole.

  13. Clustering of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Beranová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural business is a very specific branch which is characterized by very low financial performance while this characteristic is given mainly by external factors as market pricing of agricultural commodities on one side, and production costs of agricultural commodities on the other side. This way, agricultural enterprises recognize negative values of gross margin in the Profit and Loss Statement but positive value of operating profit after even there are items of costs which are deducted. These results are derived from agricultural production subsidies which are recognized as income in the P/L Statement. In connection with this fact, the government subsidies are a substantial component of financial performance of agricultural enterprises.Primary research proceeded on the statistical sample of one hundred agricultural companies, has shown that also other specifics influencing financial performance of these businesses exist here. In order to determine the influences, the cluster analysis has been applied at using more than 10 variables. This approach has led to construction of clusters (groups of agricultural business entities with different characteristics of the group. The objective of this paper is to identify the main determinants of financial performance of agricultural enterprises and to determine their influences under different economic characteristics of these business entities. For this purpose, the regression analysis has been subsequently applied on the groups of companies coming out from the cluster analysis. Besides the operating profit which is the main driving force of financial performance measured with the economic value added (EVA in agricultural enterprises, also capital structure and cost of capital have been observed as very strong influences on financial performance but these factors have different directions of their influence on the economic value added under different financial characteristics of agricultural

  14. Vocational Agriculture Education: Agricultural Livestock Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Greg

    Ten units of instruction are provided in this curriculum guide on agricultural livestock skills. Unit topics are as follow: (1) restraining, (2) vaccination, (3) livestock castration, (4) dehorning, (5) docking, (6) growth stimulants, (7) identification, (8) shearing, (9) hoof trimming, and (10) birth assistance. Each instructional unit generally…

  15. THE CHEMICAL TEACHING MATTER AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAYS OF PERFORMANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER / LA DÍSCIPLINA QUÍMICA Y SU CONTRIBUCIÓN A LOS MODOS DE ACTUACIÓN DEL INGENIERO AGRÓNOMO

    OpenAIRE

    Yamilé Batista Yero; Belisario Tomás Cedeño García; Juana López Toranzo; Luritza Peña Molina

    2013-01-01

    This paper shows an activity system from Chemistry for the development of the research and field experience for first year students of the agronomy career. They are aimed to contribute to the knowledge acquisition about the application of chemistry by the professional of agricultural branch, because they make use of the tools offered by chemistry as basic discipline to solve professional problems encountered at the base of their profession. The results are directed to achieve the systematizat...

  16. An Introduction to Thermal-Fluid Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhaft, Zellman

    1998-01-01

    This text is the first to provide an integrated introduction to basic engineering topics and the social implications of engineering practice. Aimed at beginning engineering students, the book presents the basic ideas of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and combustion through a real-world engineering situation. It relates the engine to the atmosphere in which it moves and exhausts its waste products. The book also discusses the greenhouse effect and atmospheric inversions, and the social implications of engineering in a crowded world with increasing energy demands. Students in mechanical, civil, agricultural, environmental, aerospace, and chemical engineering will welcome this engaging, well-illustrated introduction to thermal-fluid engineering.

  17. Journal of Agricultural Extension

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scope of journal The Journal of Agricultural Extension" is devoted to the advancement of knowledge of agricultural extension services and practice through the publication of original and empirically based research, ... Vol 22, No 1 (2018) ... Symbol recognition and interpretation of HIV/AIDS pictorial messages among rural ...

  18. Sustainable Agriculture: Cover Cropping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Megan

    2018-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture practices are increasingly being used by farmers to maintain soil quality, increase biodiversity, and promote production of food that is environmentally safe. There are several types of sustainable agriculture practices such as organic farming, crop rotation, and aquaculture. This lesson plan focuses on the sustainable…

  19. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its

  20. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  1. AGRICULTURE IN THE CITY

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The target audience of this book, then, is not only researchers and high-level ...... given the current higher availability of food traded in agricultural markets and in ... recyclable materials as containers for the organic matter and agricultural soil ...

  2. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  3. Agriculture. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The study investigates the impact of agriculture on the earth's atmosphere. It describes the natural carbon cycle, the socioeconomic factors that influence it, and the climate effects. The climatic relevance of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds, methane and other hydrocarbons, and ammonia emissions from biological and agricultural process is discussed. (SR) [de

  4. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  5. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2003-01-01

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  6. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Souza, S.F.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  7. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  8. Metabolic Engineering VII Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Korpics

    2012-12-04

    The aims of this Metabolic Engineering conference are to provide a forum for academic and industrial researchers in the field; to bring together the different scientific disciplines that contribute to the design, analysis and optimization of metabolic pathways; and to explore the role of Metabolic Engineering in the areas of health and sustainability. Presentations, both written and oral, panel discussions, and workshops will focus on both applications and techniques used for pathway engineering. Various applications including bioenergy, industrial chemicals and materials, drug targets, health, agriculture, and nutrition will be discussed. Workshops focused on technology development for mathematical and experimental techniques important for metabolic engineering applications will be held for more in depth discussion. This 2008 meeting will celebrate our conference tradition of high quality and relevance to both industrial and academic participants, with topics ranging from the frontiers of fundamental science to the practical aspects of metabolic engineering.

  9. A Description and Source Listing of Curriculum Materials in Agricultural Education. 1972-73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Washington, DC. Agricultural Education Div.

    Listed are 246 curriculum material items in ten categories: field crops, horticulture, forestry, animal science, soils, diseases and pests, agricultural engineering, agricultural economics, agricultural occupations, and professional. Most materials are annotated and all are classified according to the AGPEX filing system. Bibliographic and…

  10. Developments in the Curriculum for the Swedish MSc Programme in Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmfors, Birgitta; Nilsson, Kjell-Arne

    In Sweden, higher education in agriculture is provided exclusively by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences. The 130 students admitted to the Master of Science program in agriculture annually may choose to specialize in one of six specialty areas (plant science, animal science, food science, biotechnology, economics, and engineering),…

  11. China Report, Agriculture 1982 Agricultural Yearbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-09

    Bureau Notice on Launching a Patriotic Enlightenment Campaign in Cherishing Trees, Flowers , and Grass (10 March 1981) 395 Ministry of Forestry and...Agriculture (a) Place (h) Pineapple S (b) Total Frui .t (i) Red Dates (c) Including (j) Persimmon S...agreement systems are manifested in the following major ways: 1. Marked increase in outputs. Whenever they have acted strictly in accor- dance with

  12. THE CHEMICAL TEACHING MATTER AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE WAYS OF PERFORMANCE OF THE AGRICULTURAL ENGINEER / LA DÍSCIPLINA QUÍMICA Y SU CONTRIBUCIÓN A LOS MODOS DE ACTUACIÓN DEL INGENIERO AGRÓNOMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Batista Yero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an activity system from Chemistry for the development of the research and field experience for first year students of the agronomy career. They are aimed to contribute to the knowledge acquisition about the application of chemistry by the professional of agricultural branch, because they make use of the tools offered by chemistry as basic discipline to solve professional problems encountered at the base of their profession. The results are directed to achieve the systematization of academic, field experience and research components from a chemistry perspective for the formation of an integral professional bestowed of knowledge and abilities which contributes the foundation of their professional performance.

  13. [The rise of enzyme engineering in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gaoxiang

    2015-06-01

    Enzyme engineering is an important part of the modern biotechnology. Industrial biocatalysis is considered the third wave of biotechnology following pharmaceutical and agricultural waves. In 25 years, China has made a mighty advances in enzyme engineering research. This review focuses on enzyme genomics, enzyme proteomics, biosynthesis, microbial conversion and biosensors in the Chinese enzyme engineering symposiums and advances in enzyme preparation industry in China.

  14. Agriculture. Sector 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In Lebanon, emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities occur through the following processes: -enteric fermentation and manure management of the domestic livestock emits methane and nitrous oxide. -agricultural burning of crop residues is of minor importance since field burning of crop residue is not a common practice in Lebanon -agricultural soils are a source of nitrous oxide directly from the soils and from animal production, and indirectly from the nitrogen added to the soils. The following results were obtained for the inventory year 1994: 7.60955 Gg of methane, 3.01478 Gg of nitrous oxide, 0.00146 Gg of nitrogen oxides and 0.04306 Gg of carbon monoxide

  15. Harvesting and handling agricultural residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, B.M.; Summer, H.R.

    1986-05-01

    Significant progress in understanding the needs for design of agricultural residue collection and handling systems has been made but additional research is required. Recommendations are made for research to (a) integrate residue collection and handling systems into general agricultural practices through the development of multi-use equipment and total harvest systems; (b) improve methods for routine evaluation of agricultural residue resources, possibly through remote sensing and image processing; (c) analyze biomass properties to obtain detailed data relevant to engineering design and analysis; (d) evaluate long-term environmental, social, and agronomic impacts of residue collection; (e) develop improved equipment with higher capacities to reduce residue collection and handling costs, with emphasis on optimal design of complete systems including collection, transportation, processing, storage, and utilization; and (f) produce standard forms of biomass fuels or products to enhance material handling and expand biomass markets through improved reliability and automatic control of biomass conversion and other utilization systems. 118 references.

  16. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  17. Agricultural Minerals Operations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer includes agricultural minerals operations in the United States. The data represent commodities covered by the Minerals Information Team (MIT) of the...

  18. Agricultural diversification into tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette

    1996-01-01

    Based on the empirical evidence provided by an evaluation study of the EU Objective 5b programme measures* for the expansion of rural tourism, this article discusses the impact of rural tourism on agricultural holdings. It is shown that the financial returns most often do not measure up either...... to the expectations of the politicians or to that of the farmers. In some respects rural tourism contributes positively to the innovation of the tourist product since its small scale, 'green' issues and special facilities differentiate the product from others. But the unleashing of real potential is hampered...... by the fact that farmers tend to give priority to traditional agriculture and by the fact that industrialized agriculture is not easily combined with the commodifying of agricultural traditions for tourism. The community level inter-organizational innovations which are designed to ensure the marketing...

  19. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  20. Agricultural Education and OSHA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ronald A.

    1974-01-01

    Agriculture teachers should be interested in and become familiar with the implications of the Williams-Steiger Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 for their own benefit, for their students, and for their students' future employers. (AG)

  1. Radioactive contamination and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-04-01

    Some guidelines are presented for the Belgian agriculture to realise three vital objectives in case of a nuclear accident : protection of food quality and public health, radiation protection for farmers and keeping the production apparatus intact. (H.E.)

  2. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  3. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    Humans live in constant interaction with nature. That is part and parcel of being a biological creature on this planet. On one hand, humans exploit the available resources to survive, and at the same time, humans are deeply dependent on the continued capacity of nature to sustain their lives......, about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...

  4. Nigeria Agricultural Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Agricultural Journal. ... Influence of differently processed mango seed kernel meal on performance response of west African dwarf goats fed spear grass based ... Borrowing behaviour among oil palm processors in Idemili North Local ...

  5. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  6. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Global Journal of Agricultural Sciences is aimed at promoting research in all areas of Agricultural Sciences including Animal Production, Fisheries, Agronomy, Processing and Agricultural Mechanization. Related ...

  7. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  8. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  9. Radiation and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, Atsushi

    1982-01-01

    Radiation utilization in agriculture, forestry and marine product industry was reviewed. Agricultural examples were breeding with gamma rays and resultant plant breeding, and improvement of productivity and acquisition of resistance to disease were also explained. In relation to disinfestation, male sterilization of the melon fly was described. An example of utilization for the marine product industry was survey of salmon migration by the radioactivate analysis of Europium. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  11. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari; Masoumeh Mohammadzadeh; Stefanos A. Nastis

    2016-01-01

    Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude to...

  12. The cultivated agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, Aa.

    1997-01-01

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)

  13. The cultivated agricultural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Aa [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Radioecology (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG). 56 refs.

  14. Engineer Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dae Sik; Kim, Yeong Pil; Kim, Yeong Jin

    2003-03-01

    This book tells of engineer ethics such as basic understanding of engineer ethics with history of engineering as a occupation, definition of engineering and specialized job and engineering, engineer ethics as professional ethics, general principles of ethics and its limitation, ethical theory and application, technique to solve the ethical problems, responsibility, safety and danger, information engineer ethics, biotechnological ethics like artificial insemination, life reproduction, gene therapy and environmental ethics.

  15. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  16. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  17. Cost Methodology for Biomass Feedstocks: Herbaceous Crops and Agricultural Residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turhollow Jr, Anthony F [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

    2009-12-01

    This report describes a set of procedures and assumptions used to estimate production and logistics costs of bioenergy feedstocks from herbaceous crops and agricultural residues. The engineering-economic analysis discussed here is based on methodologies developed by the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) and the American Agricultural Economics Association (AAEA). An engineering-economic analysis approach was chosen due to lack of historical cost data for bioenergy feedstocks. Instead, costs are calculated using assumptions for equipment performance, input prices, and yield data derived from equipment manufacturers, research literature, and/or standards. Cost estimates account for fixed and variable costs. Several examples of this costing methodology used to estimate feedstock logistics costs are included at the end of this report.

  18. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  19. Agricultural Supply Chain Risk Identification- A Case Finding from Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Nyamah Edmond Yeboah; Yi Feng; Oppong-Sekyere Daniel; Nyamaah Boadi Joseph

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates and identifies the probable supply chain related risks in Ghana agricultural supply chain and further seeks the severity of these risks based on engineering judgments and historical records. In addition, this paper probes into participants¡¯ ability level to manage/control the identified risk. The results indicate that, not all global supply chain related risks transpire in Ghana agricultural supply chain. While some risks such as market related risks are inevitable in...

  20. A System Engineering Approach to Strategic Partnership Development: A pilot study with NASA's Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) and the National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment (NLAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, K.; Chang, G.; Basilio, R. R.; Hatfield, J.; Cox, E. L.

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence and availability of NASA remote sensing data over the last 40+ years have produced many opportunities for the development of science derived data applications. However, extending and systematically integrating the applications into decision support models and tools have been sporadic and incomplete. Despite efforts among the research communities and external partners, implementation challenges exist and still remain to be addressed. In order to effectively address the systemic gap between the research and applications communities, steps must be taken to effectively bridge that gap: specific goals, a clear plan, and a concerted and diligent effort are needed to produce the desired results. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2) mission sponsored a pilot effort on science data applications with the specific intent of building strategic partnerships, so that organizations and individuals could effectively use OCO-2 data products for application development. The successful partnership with the USDA/ARS National Laboratory for Agriculture and the Environment (NLAE) has laid the foundation for: 1) requirements and lessons for establishing a strategic partnership for application development, 2) building opportunities and growing partnerships for new missions such as OCO-3, and 3) the development of a methodology and approach for integrating application development into a mission life cycle. This presentation will provide an overview of the OCO-2 pilot effort, deliverables, the methodology, implementation, and best practices.

  1. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... procurement preference for qualifying biobased 2-cycle engine oils. By that date, Federal agencies that have...

  2. Transgenesis, agriculture and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Sicard, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    Starting from the reference point of view given by the environmental theory, we discuses the green revolution agriculture model in their main cultural and ecosystem aspects and, starting from there, the transgenic pattern is analyzed. This paper emphasizes in the new relationships derived from the farmers' dependence in connection with the transnational companies, in the right of the consumers to choose their foods and in the possible environmental effects of these technologies. Finally this work shows the incompatibility between the ecological agriculture and the transgenic plants, and some routes of culture rupture that are propitiated by these technologies

  3. Agricultural futures as becoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Dan Kristian; Kjeldsen, Chris

    This paper explores how the unfolding of an alternative future for agriculture consists of struggles to assemble a heterogeneous network of natural relations and social relations and technological relations. The site of this exploration is a profiled project, where a zero emission and landless...... agricultural facility is envisioned to consist of a pig production facility with a greenhouse for growing tomatoes on top. The novelty of this projects and its claim for sustainability lies in combining these two productions and utilizing synergies between them as well as employing an innovative technological...

  4. Isotopes in tropical agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1962-04-15

    Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation

  5. Isotopes in tropical agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    Ways in which the use of radioisotopes and radiation can help to improve the agriculture of tropical Africa were discussed by a panel of experts. The panel included scientists from Africa, Europe, and the United States, most of whom had had actual experience dealing with agricultural problems in various parts of tropical Africa. The experts agreed that radioisotopes and radiation might now be employed to particular advantage in tropical Africa to improve crop nutrition and combat insect pests. Other applications discussed were in the fields of hydrology, plant breeding and food preservation

  6. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dourado Neto, Durval; Reichardt, K.; Sparovek, G.

    2004-01-01

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  7. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...... and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory....

  8. Journal of the Ghana Institution of Engineers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of topical issues on all aspects of engineering practice in Ghana and abroad ... Computer Aided Synthesis of a Four-Bar Mechanism For Soil Tilling ... Development Of An Agricultural Land Drainage And Reclamation Design Software.

  9. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  10. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been

  11. Agricultural Development in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Hampwaye, Godfrey; Phiri, Douglas

    Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing...

  12. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  13. Control of agricultural pests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The methods of using isotopes and radiation sources in agricultural entomology were discussed by experts from 11 countries at a scientific symposium held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in Bombay from 5-9 December 1960. The scientists reviewed the techniques which have already been introduced, exchanged information on the results obtained and discussed the possibilities of further research in new directions

  14. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  15. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Lebai Juri

    2005-01-01

    This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research

  16. Phosphorus in agricultural soils:

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ringeval, Bruno; Augusto, Laurent; Monod, Hervé; Apeldoorn, van D.F.; Bouwman, A.F.; Yang, X.; Achat, D.L.; Chini, L.P.; Oost, van K.; Guenet, Bertrand; Wang, R.; Decharme, B.; Nesme, T.; Pellerin, S.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) availability in soils limits crop yields in many regions of the World, while excess of soil P triggers aquatic eutrophication in other regions. Numerous processes drive the global spatial distribution of P in agricultural soils, but their relative roles remain unclear. Here, we

  17. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  18. Dilemmas in sustainable agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korthals, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this article, I argue that agriculture and food production processes are subject to what I refer to as 'dilemmatic situations'. These dilemmatic situations are rather new, and require a new orientation in ethics to account for them. Ethics has to give up long-cherished ideals, such as: (a) the

  19. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak

  20. Agricultural Markets Instability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.

    2016-01-01

    Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of

  1. Agriculture and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafiz, A.

    1999-01-01

    Agriculture came into existence about 15,000 years ago and passed through different stages of food gathering, hunting, hoe culture and sedentary agriculture followed by modem agriculture. It began simultaneously in five world centers concentrating on different crops, most suited to those areas. It was also effected by changes in climate influenced by temperature, drought and magnitude of precipitation, which determined the distribution of populations and occupation of the people. With the increase in population the need for food also progressively increased, necessitating introduction of modern agriculture to enhance production. The indiscriminate and faulty use of advanced technology has added its share in the, destruction of environment. The two approaches that contributed to this were horizontal wand vertical expansion. The former results in deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, land salting and water logging as well as the frequent occurrence of droughts and famines, the latter destroyed soil structure and fertility through decreased microbial populations, fish culture, wildlife and bird sanctuaries, in addition to hazards in human beings and fauna. The real culprit of this global devastation is the high population growth rate, which needs to be contained at safer levels, coupled with sensible use of inputs to produce needed quantities of food and fiber. (author)

  2. Transgenics in Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...

  3. Sustainability through precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    As population and standard of living increase in many parts of the world, so will the need for food and other agriculturally-based products. To be sustainable, these increases in production must occur with minimum impact on the environment and with efficient use of production resources, including la...

  4. Agriculture Oral Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  5. Taming agricultural risks

    OpenAIRE

    Oppedahl, David B.

    2014-01-01

    On November 19, 2013, the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago held a conference to explore the key risks faced by agricultural producers and lenders, as well as the risk-management tools available to them, in today’s volatile environment.

  6. Industrial and agricultural process heat information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar industrial and agricultural process heat (IAPH) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 10 IAPH groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: IPH Researchers; APH Researchers; Representatives of Manufacturers of Concentrating and Nonconcentrating Collectors; Plant, Industrial, and Agricultural Engineers; Educators; Representatives of State Agricultural Offices; and County Extension Agents.

  7. Smart Sensing Technology for Agriculture and Environmental Monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The book focuses on the different aspects of sensing technology, i.e. high reliability, adaptability, recalibration, information processing, data fusion, validation and integration of novel and high performance sensors specifically aims to monitor agricultural and environmental parameters.   This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Agricultural and Environmental Monitoring  offers to variety of users, namely, Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially Agriculture and Environmental engineers. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.

  8. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  9. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  10. Engineering opportunities in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The pattern of education and training of Nuclear Engineers in the UK is outlined under the headings; degree courses for professional engineers, postgraduate courses, education of technician engineers. Universities which offer specific courses are stated and useful addresses listed. (UK)

  11. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agrawal, H.M.

    2001-01-01

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  12. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  13. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  14. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Sedláček

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is ...

  15. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  16. Agriculture and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abelson, P.H.

    1992-01-01

    How will increases in levels of CO 2 and changes in temperature affect food production? A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO 2 but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall? That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO 2 from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO 2 by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops

  17. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malavolta, E.

    1988-01-01

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author) [pt

  18. Entrepreneurship Education in Vocational Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jamie C.; Powell, Ronald

    1988-01-01

    The authors address the need for instruction in entrepreneurship within the vocational agriculture curriculum. They list various competencies and skills needed by agricultural entrepreneurs and discucss available curriculum materials. (CH)

  19. Dynamics of Agricultural Groundwater Extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Zilberman, D.; Ierland, van E.C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is

  20. Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Camerounais des Sciences Agricoles The Cameroon Journal of Agricultural Science publishes new information on all aspects of agricultural science – agronomy, breeding, crop protection, economics, rural sociology, forestry and animal science, health and production ...

  1. Nuclear techniques in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, S.G.

    2012-01-01

    Crops provide us food grains and many other products. Demand for food and other agricultural products is increasing. There is also need for improvement of quality of the agricultural produce. There are several technologies in use for achieving the goal of increasing the quantity and quality of agricultural produce. Nuclear techniques provide us with an option which has certain advantages. The characteristics of crop plants are determined by the genetic make up of the plant. Traditionally the genetic make up was modified using conventional breeding techniques such as cross breeding to improve crops for yield, disease resistance, stress tolerance, resistance to insect pests or to improve quality. New varieties of crops are produced which replace the earlier ones and thus the demands are met. The process of development of new varieties is long and time consuming. Nuclear technique called mutation breeding provides an efficient way of breeding new varieties or improving the older ones. This technique merely enhances the process of occurrence of mutations. In nature mutations occur at a rate of approximately one in a million, while when mutations are induced using radiations such as gamma rays the efficiency of inducing mutations is enhanced. Useful mutations are selected, the mutants are evaluated and developed as a new variety. In the Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division (NA and BTD) this technique has been used to develop mutants of many crop plants. The mutants can be used to develop a variety directly or by using it in further breeding programme. Using these approaches the NA and BTD has developed 40 new varieties of crops such as groundnut, mungbean, urid, pigeon pea, mustard, soybean, sunflower, cowpea, jute. These varieties are developed in collaboration with other agricultural institutions and are popular among the farming community. The method of mutation breeding can be applied to many other crops for improvement. There is increasing interest among

  2. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Projects Past Projects Publications NSEC » Engineering Institute Engineering Institute Multidisciplinary engineering research that integrates advanced modeling and simulations, novel sensing systems and new home of Engineering Institute Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 665-0860 Email UCSD EI

  3. Genetic Engineering and Crop Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen C.; Frost, S.

    1991-01-01

    With a spotlight upon current agricultural difficulties and environmental dilemmas, this paper considers both the extant and potential applications of genetic engineering with respect to crop production. The nonagricultural factors most likely to sway the impact of this emergent technology upon future crop production are illustrated. (JJK)

  4. Desempenho de um motor de trator agrícola em bancada dinamométrica com biodiesel de óleo de frango e misturas binárias com óleo diesel Performance of an agricultural tractor engine in dynamometer with chicken oil biodiesel and binary mixtures with diesel oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Fiorese

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil, terceiro maior produtor de biodiesel do mundo e terceiro maior produtor mundial de frango, pode incrementar, na sua matriz energética, o uso de óleo oriundo de aves como alternativa aos combustíveis fósseis e à redução da dependência do óleo de soja para esse fim. O país dispõe de mais de 350 milhões de litros de óleo de frango por ano. Considerando a aplicação dos combustíveis alternativos para os motores a diesel, em máquinas agrícolas, o trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho do motor de um trator agrícola de 53kW acoplado pela TDP em bancada dinamométrica, operando com biodiesel metílico de óleo de frango e misturas com óleo diesel, sendo: B5 (testemunha, B20, B40, B60, B80 e B100. Avaliaram-se a potência, o torque, a reserva de torque, o consumo de combustível, o consumo de energia e a eficiência térmica do motor. O ensaio foi instalado com delineamento inteiramente casualizado (DIC em esquema fatorial com seis tratamentos. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias ajustadas por equações de regressão. Foram observadas perdas na geração de potência e torque, aumento no consumo de combustível, redução do consumo energético e melhoria na eficiência térmica do motor, de acordo com o aumento da proporção de biodiesel na mistura.Brazil, the world third largest producer of biodiesel, and also the third largest producer of chicken, may increase the energy matrix, using oil derived from chicken, as an alternative to fossil fuels and reduce dependence on soybean oil for this purpose. The country can produce over 350 million liters of chicken oil per year. Considering the application of alternative fuels on diesel engines in agricultural machinery. The study aimed to evaluate the performance of a engine agricultural tractor with 53kW coupled by PTO in dynamometer bench operating with methyl biodiesel oil chicken and mix with diesel oil. Fuels B5 (reference, B20, B

  5. Microcredit Effect on Agricultural Productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Agricultural Sciences Lautech Ogbomoso

    Department of Agricultural Economics & Farm Management University of Agriculture, ... This study examines the effect of access to credit on the productivity of rural farming households in Ogun State,. Nigeria. ... agricultural support to export crops, in ... growth and the alleviation of rural poverty ..... Dissertation, Department of.

  6. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised

  7. Applications of physics in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhonghui; Mao Yanlin; Yan Yanlu; Yan Tailai

    2002-01-01

    The applications of nuclear technology, electro-magnetics, optics, acoustics and ion beam in agriculture and precision agriculture are reviewed. It is shown that the various technologies of physics can reap great economic and ecologic benefits for agriculture, so that agr-technology can maintain continuous development

  8. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE

    1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying

  9. Economics, Policy, and Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Jan Holm

    2009-01-01

    Is organic agriculture so special that special social theories and methods are needed? The article investigates the question in two steps: First, the article address the question whether agriculture is special. Second, whether organic agriculture is special. It is concluded that from an economic...

  10. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  11. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  12. Mechanical engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Darbyshire, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Alan Darbyshire's best-selling text book provides five-star high quality content to a potential audience of 13,000 engineering students. It explains the most popular specialist units of the Mechanical Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering and Operations & Maintenance Engineering pathways of the new 2010 BTEC National Engineering syllabus. This challenging textbook also features contributions from specialist lecturers, ensuring that no stone is left unturned.

  13. The application of GMOs in agriculture and in food production for a better nutrition: two different scientific points of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buiatti, M; Christou, P; Pastore, G

    2013-05-01

    This commentary is a face-to-face debate between two almost opposite positions regarding the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and food production. Seven questions on the potential benefits of the application of genetic engineering in agriculture and on the potentially adverse impacts on the environment and human health were posed to two scientists: one who is sceptical about the use of GMOs in Agriculture, and one who views GMOs as an important tool for quantitatively and qualitatively improving food production.

  14. Focus on agricultural biotechnology: Prospective for bio-watersaving ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    been developed from practices through agronomic water saving to engineering water saving and to the approaches in biological water-saving. ... production, but also in other aspects of agriculture and industries such as husbandry, aquaculture, landscaping, sewage water management, water and soil environmental ...

  15. The Impact of Agriculture and Tourism Potentials on Sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rural areas, which inhabit the greater proportion of the population, mostly in developing nations, are the main sources of primary products (agriculture and minerals) for urban and industrial areas, hence the rural dwellers are regarded as the set of population that provide engine of in the development process of a nation ...

  16. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  17. 7 CFR 1753.18 - Engineer and architect contract closeout certifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineer and architect contract closeout... PROCEDURES Engineering Services § 1753.18 Engineer and architect contract closeout certifications. A... accordance with accepted professional engineering and architectural practice, by the engineer or architect...

  18. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  19. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agricultu......, - environmental impact and nature, - potentials of organic farming, - community, consumer and market, and - policy and financial strategies.......The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  20. The structure of agricultural employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Łabędzki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the study the analysis of agricultural employees structure on the basis of data from 120 agricultural farms in Kąty Wrocławskie has been conducted. The research confirmed, that agricultural people maximum of time spend on work in their own farms. The maximum annual time of work begins at the end of last five years of working age. The men work relatively less, in agricultural farms in the case of small area farms. While the women, if better educated and in mobile working age work more. Then the biggest engagement of work outside agricultural farm concerns persons at age of 25 to 44.

  1. [Overview of organic agriculture development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao Mei; Yu, Hong Jun; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Wei Jie

    2016-04-22

    This paper introduced the concepts of organic agriculture as defined by different international organizations, origin and theoretical development of organic agriculture, as well as its developing trajectory in China (i.e. a late start followed by rapid growth compared to developed countries). The differences between domestic and international organic agriculture were illustrated by scale, crop types, production standards, inputs and planting techniques. Constraints limiting improvements to organic agriculture in aspects of standards, technology, marketing, certification, environmental pollution, enterprise reputation, and national policies were discussed. Future directions and strategies for developing healthy organic agriculture in China were provided.

  2. THE HISTORY OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FAST PYROLYSIS PLANT FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION AT THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING OF UNICAMP / HISTÓRICO DA PESQUISA E DESENVOLVIMENTO DA PLANTA DE PIRÓLISE RÁPIDA PARA PRODUÇAO DE BIO-ÓLEO DA FACULDADE DE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A. B. CORTEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to describe the fast pyrolysis plant of biomass PPR-200 settled at UNICAMP School of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI. This fast pyrolysis plant, the first in Brazil to produce oil with fluidized bed reactor , began operating in 1998 with studies in a reactor for gasification, adapted to obtain bio-oil. Currently, PPR-200 operates with a 200 kg h-1 biomass capacity, and is used to conduct exploratory testing with various vegetable raw materials, such as sugar cane trash and bagasse, elephant grass, sawdust from wood, rice straw, coffee straw, orange bagasse, etc.. Around 15% of biomass is burnt to provide heat to the process. The remainder turns into the following products: bio-oil (20-40%, fine charcoal (20-30%, extract acid (10-15% and pyrolysis gas (15-35%. The pyrolysis gas is composed mainly by CH4, the H2, CO and CO2.Keywords: Biomass, bioenergy, reactor, fluidized bed.

  3. Harmonisation of agricultural accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sedláček

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the accounting of the biological assets. There are described two approaches: Czech and international. The International Accounting Standards are emulative of more authentic presentment of economic processes in agricultural activities than Czech accounting legislation. From the comparison the both approaches accrued some differences, which can influent the financial statements of enterprises. The causation of main difference appears an application of fair value, which is prescribed for biological assets in international accounting standards. In international accounting standards is preferred principle of fair and true view, while in Czech accounting is preferred prudence principle.

  4. Agriculture and Water Quality. Issues in Agricultural Policy. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 548.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, Bradley M.; And Others

    Agriculture generates byproducts that may contribute to the contamination of the United States' water supply. Any effective regulations to ban or restrict agricultural chemical or land use practices in order to improve water quality will affect the farm economy. Some farmers will benefit; some will not. Most agricultural pollutants reach surface…

  5. How Cognitive Style and Problem Complexity Affect Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Abilities to Solve Problems in Agricultural Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, J. Joey; Robinson, J. Shane; Lamm, Alexa J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental study was to determine the effects of cognitive style and problem complexity on Oklahoma State University preservice agriculture teachers' (N = 56) ability to solve problems in small gasoline engines. Time to solution was operationalized as problem solving ability. Kirton's Adaption-Innovation Inventory was…

  6. Nuclear agricultural sciences in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bujin

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear technique is a powerful scientific tool in agricultural research, an area with fruitful achievements in China. Nuclear technique application in agriculture based on the development of related science and technology is of a high technical area, and also a meaningful aspect of non-electrical power application of nuclear technique. Nuclear Agricultural Sciences is an important component of agricultural science and technology, and has been made a lot of significant achievements, which has made remarkable contribution to the development in economy, society and ecology of China. This article reviews the achievements and present situation of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences in China briefly. For promoting its development, the author strongly suggests that Chinese government bodies should put more attention to the study on the application of nuclear technique in agriculture to make further more contributions to Chinese society and agriculture. (authors)

  7. Experimental Investigation of Embedded Controlled Diesel Engine

    OpenAIRE

    R.Govindaraju; M.Bharathiraja; Dr. K.Ramani; Dr.K.R.Govindan

    2012-01-01

    Diesel engines are widely used in Automobiles, Agriculture and Power generation sectors in a large scale. The modern techniques have contributed a lot in the saving of fuel in these diesel engines. However, from 1970 onwards the fuel consumption becomes a serious concern because of a manifold increase of automobiles and fast depletion of non renewable sources of energy. Since the fuel injection system plays a major role in the consumption of fuel in diesel engines, various control measures we...

  8. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE (CSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atănăsoaie George Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farms of CSA types are a viable alternative to trade of agricultural products coming from conventional agriculture. These farms are faced with a number of policy issues related to product, price, distribution and promotion. In order to elucidate the issues listed above, we have investigated the literature of specialty. Farmers must make more flexible the content of basket both quantitatively and in terms of the nature of food products offered. Consumers need information on ways of preparation or preservation of products. The growth of the processing degree in farm, and inclusion in the offer of services in ecotourism represent effective options to satisfy consumers. To offset the negative impact of high prices measures should be taken in reducing costs, more flexibility in rescheduling of payments due from customers and compensate for the lack of financial resources with the provision of farm work or subsidize a portion of the basket value from private or government sources. Delivery of baskets should be both at fixed points and at customers domicile. Farmers must provide customers the possibility so that they could harvest themselves the products they will buy. Negative influence of prices will be reduced by establishing an effective communication policy with the market, by organizing events on the farm or nearby towns, through blogs and social networks, and through participation in fairs and exhibitions. A greater customer involvement in farming activities will lead to the implementation of an effective marketing mix.

  9. Beyond conservation agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E; Andersson, Jens A; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  10. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  11. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  12. Agricultural GMOs—What We Know and Where Scientists Disagree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Zilberman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Population growth, climate change, and increasing human impact on land and aquatic systems all pose significant challenges for current agricultural practices. Genetic engineering is a tool to speed up breeding for new varieties, which can help farmers and agricultural systems adapt to rapidly changing physical growing conditions, technology, and global markets. We review the current scientific literature and present the potential of genetically modified organisms (GMOs from the perspectives of various stakeholders. GMOs increase yields, lower costs, and reduce the land and environmental footprint of agriculture. The benefits of this technology are shared among innovators, farmers, and consumers. Developing countries and poor farmers gain substantially from GMOs. Agricultural biotechnology is diverse, with many applications having different potential impacts. Its regulation needs to balance benefits and risks for each application. Excessive precaution prevents significant benefits. Increasing access to the technology and avoidance of excessive regulation will allow it to reach its potential.

  13. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR FROM MOLDOVA THROUGH AGRICULTURE LOANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliona SARGO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Financial institutions present on the market become more attentive when they have to give loans to the agriculture sector. The lack of necessary guarantees the low profit registered in agricultural district, economy instability and other things had and continue to have a negative impact on the evolution of agricultural sector, this being seen as one with a high level of risk. Commercial banks use less own funds for lending to agriculture and especially when the loans are guaranteed from various funds, programs or foreign donor agencies. Farmers find it difficult to bank loans because of collateral amount required is too high. However, commercial banks in Moldova provide agricultural loans, thus increasing the economic efficiency of agriculture.

  16. Engineering Cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Matters NIH Research Matters March 3, 2014 Engineering Cartilage Artistic rendering of human stem cells on ... situations has been a major goal in tissue engineering. Cartilage contains water, collagen, proteoglycans, and chondrocytes. Collagens ...

  17. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Most people agree that our world face daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel dominant...... perspectives in challenge per-ception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping of engineering education...... and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter strives to elicit the bodies...

  18. Industrial Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally).......Industrial engineering is a discipline that is concerned with increasing the effectiveness of (primarily) manufacturing and (occasionally)....

  19. Governing Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: Most people agree that our world faces daunting problems and, correctly or not, technological solutions are seen as an integral part of an overall solution. But what exactly are the problems and how does the engineering ‘mind set’ frame these problems? This chapter sets out to unravel...... dominant perspectives in challenge perception in engineering in the US and Denmark. Challenge perception and response strategies are closely linked through discursive practices. Challenge perceptions within the engineering community and the surrounding society are thus critical for the shaping...... of engineering education and the engineering profession. Through an analysis of influential reports and position papers on engineering and engineering education the chapter sets out to identify how engineering is problematized and eventually governed. Drawing on insights from governmentality studies the chapter...

  20. Computer Engineers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncarz, Roger

    2000-01-01

    Looks at computer engineers and describes their job, employment outlook, earnings, and training and qualifications. Provides a list of resources related to computer engineering careers and the computer industry. (JOW)

  1. Engineering _ litteraturliste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Daugbjerg, Peer; Nielsen, Keld

    2017-01-01

    Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”......Litteraturliste udarbejdet som grundlag for artiklen ”Engineering – svaret på naturfagenes udfordringer?”...

  2. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  3. Agricultural development and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A long-range program is needed to maximize and sustain world food production without destroying its ecological base. Attempts to make more land available for cultivation and to increase crop yields must incorporate environmental planning as well. The most-pressing agricultural problems are soil loss because of environmental degradation, erosion, runoff, and urbanization. The large-scale use of pesticides, whose inefficient application leaves residues in food and leads to new resistant species, and irrigration projects, which lead to salination and alkalinization of groundwater and the spread of water-borne diseases, as well as other problems are dealt with best by using strategies that work with nature and natural systems. (DCK)

  4. Photovoltaic systems in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corba, Z.; Katic, V.; Milicevic, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the possibility of using one of the renewable energy resources in agriculture. Specifically, the paper shows the possibility of converting solar energy into electricity through photovoltaic panels. The paper includes the analysis of the energy potential of solar radiation in the AP Vojvodina (Serbia). The results of the analysis can be used for the design of photovoltaic energy systems. The amount of solar energy on the territory of the province is compared with the same data from some European countries, in order to obtain a clear picture of the possibilities of utilization of this type of renewable sources. Three examples of possible application of photovoltaic systems are presented. The first relates to the consumer who is away from the electric distribution network - photovoltaic system in island mode. The remaining two examples relate to the application of photovoltaic power sources in manufacturing plants, flowers or vegetables. Applying photovoltaic source of electrical energy to power pumps for irrigation is highlighted

  5. Comparing Pathways to Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from foraging systems to agricultural dependence is a persistent focus of archaeological research, and the focus of a major research project supported by the European Research Council (ERC grant no. 323842, ’ComPAg’. Gordon Childe, director of the Institute of Archaeology 1947–1957, influentially defined the Neolithic revolution as that which instigated a series of changes in human societies towards sedentism (settling in one place, larger populations, food production based on domesticated plants and animals, transformed cosmologies and the dawn of new malleable technologies such as ceramics and textiles (Childe 1936.

  6. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  7. Agricultural drainage water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, A.; Gordon, R.

    2002-01-01

    'Full text:' Agricultural drainage systems have been identified as potential contributors of non-point source pollution. Two of the major concerns have been with nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 - -N) concentrations and bacteria levels exceeding the Maximum Acceptable Concentration in drainage water. Heightened public awareness of environmental issues has led to greater pressure to maintain the environmental quality of water systems. In an ongoing field study, three experiment sites, each with own soil properties and characteristics, are divided into drainage plots and being monitored for NO3 - -N and fecal coliforms contamination. The first site is being used to determine the impact of the rate of manure application on subsurface drainage water quality. The second site is being used to determine the difference between hog manure and inorganic fertilizer in relation to fecal coliforms and NO3-N leaching losses under a carrot rotation system. The third site examines the effect of timing of manure application on water quality, and is the only site equipped with a surface drainage system, as well as a subsurface drainage system. Each of the drains from these fields lead to heated outflow buildings to allow for year-round measurements of flow rates and water samples. Tipping buckets wired to data-loggers record the outflow from each outlet pipe on an hourly basis. Water samples, collected from the flowing drains, are analyzed for NO3 - -N concentrations using the colorimetric method, and fecal coliforms using the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. Based on this information, we will be able better positioned to assess agricultural impacts on water resources which will help towards the development on industry accepted farming practices. (author)

  8. Climate Engine - Monitoring Drought with Google Earth Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegewisch, K.; Daudert, B.; Morton, C.; McEvoy, D.; Huntington, J. L.; Abatzoglou, J. T.

    2016-12-01

    Drought has adverse effects on society through reduced water availability and agricultural production and increased wildfire risk. An abundance of remotely sensed imagery and climate data are being collected in near-real time that can provide place-based monitoring and early warning of drought and related hazards. However, in an era of increasing wealth of earth observations, tools that quickly access, compute, and visualize archives, and provide answers at relevant scales to better inform decision-making are lacking. We have developed ClimateEngine.org, a web application that uses Google's Earth Engine platform to enable users to quickly compute and visualize real-time observations. A suite of drought indices allow us to monitor and track drought from local (30-meters) to regional scales and contextualize current droughts within the historical record. Climate Engine is currently being used by U.S. federal agencies and researchers to develop baseline conditions and impact assessments related to agricultural, ecological, and hydrological drought. Climate Engine is also working with the Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) to expedite monitoring agricultural drought over broad areas at risk of food insecurity globally.

  9. Foundations of Australian Agricultural Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, Laurel

    2007-01-01

    In the early years of the twentieth century, Australia's leading economists were well versed in the nature of Australian agriculture but it was not until the 1930s and 1940s that scientists and economists alike realised there was an obvious need for trained agricultural economists. In this paper it is argued that the foundations of Australian agricultural economics were laid in the period immediately following the economic upheaval of the Great Depression and the Second World War. The formali...

  10. Isotopes and radiations in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Some of the spectacular advances in agriculture in developing nations have stimulated wide interest both in basic as well as adaptive research and in harnessing all the tools that science can offer for progress of agriculture. The nuclear tools are relevant in this respect and also offer particular promise in some areas. Ionising radiations and isotopes have immense applications in agriculture. Both radioisotopes and stable isotopes are being used

  11. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  12. Why Animal Agriculture is Unsustainable

    OpenAIRE

    Heppner, Janae

    2017-01-01

    Animal agriculture causes many unsustainable, destructive problems to individuals, the environment, and the economy. The amount of destruction that animal agriculture does to the planet, to environments and to species is devastating as animal agriculture is the root problem for the worlds increasing temperatures, species extinction, deforestation, and water quality. These issues should come to light when the University of California, Merced talks about its 2020 Project; however, these problem...

  13. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  14. Computational engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The book presents state-of-the-art works in computational engineering. Focus is on mathematical modeling, numerical simulation, experimental validation and visualization in engineering sciences. In particular, the following topics are presented: constitutive models and their implementation into finite element codes, numerical models in nonlinear elasto-dynamics including seismic excitations, multiphase models in structural engineering and multiscale models of materials systems, sensitivity and reliability analysis of engineering structures, the application of scientific computing in urban water management and hydraulic engineering, and the application of genetic algorithms for the registration of laser scanner point clouds.

  15. China Report, Agriculture, No. 276

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    Partial Contents: Rural Survey, Economics, Ecology, Agricultural, Historical, Freshwater Fish, Weather Station, Warning, Forestry Productions, Animal Husbandry, Wheat Procurement, Grains, Wheat, Potato, Harvest, Rice...

  16. The structure of agricultural employees

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk Łabędzki

    2009-01-01

    In the study the analysis of agricultural employees structure on the basis of data from 120 agricultural farms in Kąty Wrocławskie has been conducted. The research confirmed, that agricultural people maximum of time spend on work in their own farms. The maximum annual time of work begins at the end of last five years of working age. The men work relatively less, in agricultural farms in the case of small area farms. While the women, if better educated and in mobile working age work more. Then...

  17. Architectural Engineers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Rikke Premer

    engineering is addresses from two perspectives – as an educational response and an occupational constellation. Architecture and engineering are two of the traditional design professions and they frequently meet in the occupational setting, but at educational institutions they remain largely estranged....... The paper builds on a multi-sited study of an architectural engineering program at the Technical University of Denmark and an architectural engineering team within an international engineering consultancy based on Denmark. They are both responding to new tendencies within the building industry where...... the role of engineers and architects increasingly overlap during the design process, but their approaches reflect different perceptions of the consequences. The paper discusses some of the challenges that design education, not only within engineering, is facing today: young designers must be equipped...

  18. Tissue engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fisher, John P; Bronzino, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly viewed as the future of medicine, the field of tissue engineering is still in its infancy. As evidenced in both the scientific and popular press, there exists considerable excitement surrounding the strategy of regenerative medicine. To achieve its highest potential, a series of technological advances must be made. Putting the numerous breakthroughs made in this field into a broad context, Tissue Engineering disseminates current thinking on the development of engineered tissues. Divided into three sections, the book covers the fundamentals of tissue engineering, enabling technologies, and tissue engineering applications. It examines the properties of stem cells, primary cells, growth factors, and extracellular matrix as well as their impact on the development of tissue engineered devices. Contributions focus on those strategies typically incorporated into tissue engineered devices or utilized in their development, including scaffolds, nanocomposites, bioreactors, drug delivery systems, and gene t...

  19. Engineering analysis of ERTS data for southeast Asian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydt, H. L.; Mcnair, A. J.

    1973-01-01

    The present program focuses on rice because of its importance world-wide as a food. Specifically, the focus is on rice fields in the Philippines. Two primary program objectives are: (1) to establish the feasibility of extracting from ERTS imagery the areas where rice is grown, and (2) to determine those measurements on the imagery which enable the assessment of crop condition. Achieving these objectives with procedures which can be cost-effective can lead the way toward yield prediction, irrigation system management, and similar functions which are known to be important needs in Southeast Asia.

  20. Engineering genomes of domestic pigs for agricultural applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breeding of domestic animals has a longstanding and successful history, starting with domestication several thousand years ago. Modern animal breeding strategies predominantly based on population genetics, artificial insemination (AI) and embryo transfer (ET) technologies have led to significan...

  1. National Agricultural Library | United States Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Home National Agricultural Library United States Department of Agriculture Ag Terms of Service Frequently Asked Questions Policies and Documentation Ag Data Commons Monthly Metrics News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home About Policies and Documentation Ag Data Commons

  2. Teaching international animal agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukefahr, S D

    1999-11-01

    Students who major in animal science at U.S. institutions are generally exposed to a curriculum that emphasizes commercial, large-scale production of the few traditional food animals: cattle, poultry, sheep, and swine. Globally, most farmers live in lesser-developed countries under limited-resource conditions of land, feed supplies, equipment, and capital. The promotion of commercial animal production enterprises may not be appropriate for such farms because it can subject farmers to considerable economic risk. Rather, use of limited numbers of large livestock, locally adapted breeds, or smaller livestock (e.g., ducks, goats, guinea pigs, and rabbits) may be more appropriate under subsistence, integrated farming systems. In this global context, a course in international animal agriculture has been taught for 15 yr to undergraduate and graduate students. The course consists of a review of traditional and potential livestock species well suited for impoverished families on small farms and methods to implement sustainable livestock projects, including feasibility, design, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation stages. To enhance student understanding, global food issues and challenges are illustrated with case studies. A term paper is also assigned for which students choose three suitable livestock species or local breeds that would be complementary on a small crop farm (< 5 ha). Daily dietary requirements of protein and energy per family member are calculated. Itemized enterprise budgets and production tables are prepared. Early in the course, the general consensus of students was that people who are malnourished and live in poverty have low personal ambition and motivation, and that their problems should be amenable to solution by application of American technology and expertise. The course modifies such attitudes and enhances a student's critical thinking and problem-solving abilities and communication skills. Course evaluations indicated that students believed

  3. Genetically Modified Crops: Towards Agricultural Growth, Agricultural Development, or Agricultural Sustainability?

    OpenAIRE

    Azadi, Hossein; Ghanian, Mansour; Ghuchani, Omid M.; Rafiaani, Parisa; Taning, Clauvis N. T.; Hajivand, Roghaye Y.; Dogot, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The present debate on how to increase global food production in a sustainable way has focused on arguments over the pros and cons of genetically modified (GM) crops. Scientists in both public and private sectors clearly regard GM technology as a major new set of tools, whereas industry sees it as an opportunity for increased profits. However, it remains questionable whether GM crops can contribute to agricultural growth, agricultural development, and agricultural sustainability. This review p...

  4. Isotopes in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Part 1: The stable isotope of nitrogen 15N has become widely used as tracer in agriculture, medicine and biology research. The film gives an overview of the sample preparation and analytical procedures followed in the analysis of the nitrogen isotopic composition (14N/15N ratio) by optical emission spectrometry at the Seibersdorf Laboratory. The subsampling of plant material and the several steps of chemical pretreatment such as Kjeldahl digestion, distillation, titration and adjustment of the proper N concentration in the extract are demonstrated. The preparation of the discharge tubes is shown in detail. Final measurement of the 14N/15N ratio is carried out with the NOI-5 and JASCO emission spectrometers. Part 2: This training film deals with the use of 32P-labelled materials in field and greenhouse experimentation in soil-plant relationships studies. All technical aspects, including safe handling and radiation protection procedures to be considered in the layout and harvesting of field experiments are documented in detail. Procedures followed up in the evaluation of P fertilizers such as rock phosphates under greenhouse conditions are described. Several soil injection techniques available for determination of the root activity pattern of trees are shown

  5. Natural resources in the Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovar B, Diana Alejandra; Zorro Z, Ricardo

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is identification the relation between the naturals resources degradation, and the Colombian agriculture productive. It's means a way to quantification the influence of a bad utilization in the water and land resources in the agricultural sector, to guide the sector in to a sustainable development. This objective is to make by an empirical exercise where we built four econometrics models (ordinary minims square) based in the Colombia's history statistic of the variables: land erosion, river sedimentation, plaguicides, Insecticides, Fungicides y Herbicides, agriculture productivity and agriculture yield. The resolute of this exercise is that an increase in the erosion area also the river sedimentation gives a decrease in the agriculture productivity. The same situation happens when it use the consumption of the insecticides and the fungicides which in the long time shows an opposite relation with the yield and productivity. At last we have that the aperture of the ninety's, bring to good changes for the agricultural productivity. So that, it concludes that the rivers and lands degradation affect in the long time the agriculture yield and productivity. The best use in the naturals resources, can help to increase the agricultural development, because it can increase the yield while it maintain for the future the possibility curve of production when it conserve the resources

  6. Natural disasters and agricultural protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; Hoogezand, Barry

    2018-01-01

    We explore the impact of natural disasters on the degree of agricultural protection using data from 76 countries thereby covering more than 70 of the most traded agricultural commodities. Theoretically, the direction of this effect is not a priori directly clear as it balances the trade-off

  7. Agricultural Extension. A Reference Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Addison, H.

    The basic philosophy of agricultural extension was established in the more highly developed countries over the past century. Newly formed nations, the rural population of which formerly maintained a subsistence agriculture with limited industry, found it essential to establish a better-balanced economy. This led to a variety of rural services and…

  8. Phosphorus in Agriculture : 100 % Zero

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schnug, Ewald; De Kok, Luit J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is essential for all living organisms, reserves in geogenic deposits are finite, and phosphorus nutrient mining and oversupply are common phenomenons on agricultural soils. Only if the agricultural phosphorus cycle can be closed and the fertilized nutrient been utilized completely,

  9. Industrial relations in agriculture examined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaapman, M.H.

    2003-01-01

    Agriculture remains an important part of the Dutch economy, accounting for around 10%of GDP . The sector is currently undergoing major changes in terms of production, markets and technology, with important implications for employment. This article examines industrial relations in agriculture,

  10. Entrepreneurship in agriculture and healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Hulsink, Willem; Grin, John

    2016-01-01

    Care farming provides an interesting context of multifunctional agriculture where farmers face the challenge of having to bridge the gap between agriculture and healthcare and acquire new customers, partners and financial resources from the care sector. We compared different entry strategies of

  11. User account | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Home National Agricultural Library United States Department of Agriculture Ag Terms of Service Frequently Asked Questions Policies and Documentation Ag Data Commons Monthly Metrics statements or informal policies purporting to provide you with any expectation of privacy regarding

  12. Pulmonary health effects of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordgren, Tara M; Bailey, Kristina L

    2016-03-01

    Occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are associated with numerous lung diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, lung cancer, and interstitial lung diseases. Efforts are ongoing to ascertain contributing factors to these negative respiratory outcomes and improve monitoring of environmental factors leading to disease. In this review, recently published studies investigating the deleterious effects of occupational exposures in the agricultural industry are discussed. Occupational exposures to numerous agricultural environment aerosols, including pesticides, fungi, and bacteria are associated with impaired respiratory function and disease. Increases in certain farming practices, including mushroom and greenhouse farming, present new occupational exposure concerns. Improved detection methods may provide opportunities to better monitor safe exposure levels to known lung irritants. In the agricultural industry, occupational exposures to organic and inorganic aerosols lead to increased risk for lung disease among workers. Increased awareness of respiratory risks and improved monitoring of agricultural environments are necessary to limit pulmonary health risks to exposed populations.

  13. Engineering mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Dietmar; Schröder, Jörg; Wall, Wolfgang A; Rajapakse, Nimal

    Statics is the first volume of a three-volume textbook on Engineering Mechanics. The authors, using a time-honoured straightforward and flexible approach, present the basic concepts and principles of mechanics in the clearest and simplest form possible to advanced undergraduate engineering students of various disciplines and different educational backgrounds. An important objective of this book is to develop problem solving skills in a systematic manner. Another aim of this volume is to provide engineering students as well as practising engineers with a solid foundation to help them bridge the gap between undergraduate studies on the one hand and advanced courses on mechanics and/or practical engineering problems on the other. The book contains numerous examples, along with their complete solutions. Emphasis is placed upon student participation in problem solving. The contents of the book correspond to the topics normally covered in courses on basic engineering mechanics at universities and colleges. Now in i...

  14. Invisible Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Hideo

    Questionnaire to ask “mention three names of scientists you know” and “three names of engineers you know” was conducted and the answers from 140 adults were analyzed. The results indicated that the image of scientists is represented by Nobel laureates and that of engineers by great inventors like Thomas Edison and industry founders like Soichiro Honda. In order to reveal the image of engineers among young generation, questionnaire was conducted for pupils in middle and high schools. Answers from 1,230 pupils were analyzed and 226 names mentioned as engineers were classified. White votes reached 60%. Engineers who are neither big inventors nor company founders collected less than 1% of named votes. Engineers are astonishingly invisible from young generation. Countermeasures are proposed.

  15. Global engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plass, L.

    2001-01-01

    This article considers the challenges posed by the declining orders in the plant engineering and contracting business in Germany, the need to remain competitive, and essential preconditions for mastering the challenge. The change in engineering approach is illustrated by the building of a methanol plant in Argentina by Lurgi with the basic engineering completed in Frankfurt with involvement of key personnel from Poland, completely engineered subsystems from a Brazilian subsupplier, and detailed engineering work in Frankfurt. The production of methanol from natural gas using the LurgiMega/Methanol process is used as a typical example of the industrial plant construction sector. The prerequisites for successful global engineering are listed, and error costs in plant construction, possible savings, and process intensification are discussed

  16. Human engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seong Hwan; Park, Bum; Gang, Yeong Sik; Gal, Won Mo; Baek, Seung Ryeol; Choe, Jeong Hwa; Kim, Dae Sung

    2006-07-01

    This book mentions human engineering, which deals with introduction of human engineering, Man-Machine system like system design, and analysis and evaluation of Man-Machine system, data processing and data input, display, system control of man, human mistake and reliability, human measurement and design of working place, human working, hand tool and manual material handling, condition of working circumstance, working management, working analysis, motion analysis working measurement, and working improvement and design in human engineering.

  17. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  18. Information engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, D.N.

    1997-02-01

    The Information Engineering thrust area develops information technology to support the programmatic needs of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Engineering Directorate. Progress in five programmatic areas are described in separate reports contained herein. These are entitled Three-dimensional Object Creation, Manipulation, and Transport, Zephyr:A Secure Internet-Based Process to Streamline Engineering Procurements, Subcarrier Multiplexing: Optical Network Demonstrations, Parallel Optical Interconnect Technology Demonstration, and Intelligent Automation Architecture.

  19. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The ninth edition of Software Engineering presents a broad perspective of software engineering, focusing on the processes and techniques fundamental to the creation of reliable, software systems. Increased coverage of agile methods and software reuse, along with coverage of 'traditional' plan-driven software engineering, gives readers the most up-to-date view of the field currently available. Practical case studies, a full set of easy-to-access supplements, and extensive web resources make teaching the course easier than ever.

  20. Agriculture and malnutrition in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Ashok; Ganesh-Kumar, A; Shreedhar, Ganga; Nandakumar, T

    2012-03-01

    Despite the high and relatively stable overall growth of the economy, India's agriculture sector is underperforming and a vast section of the population remains undernourished. To explore the possible interplay between agricultural performance and malnutrition indicators to see whether states that perform better in agriculture record better nutritional outcomes. Correlation analysis and a simple linear regression model were used to study the relationship between agricultural performance and malnutrition among children under 5 years of age and adults from 15 to 49 years of age at 20 major states using data from the National Family Health Survey-3 for the year 2005/06 and the national accounts. Indicators of the level of agricultural performance or income have a strong and significant negative relationship with indices of undernutrition among adults and children, a result suggesting that improvement of agricultural productivity can be a powerful tool to reduce undernutrition across the vast majority of the population. In addition to agriculture, access to sanitation facilities and women's literacy were also found to be strong factors affecting malnutrition. Access to healthcare for women and child-care practices, in particular breastfeeding within 1 hour after birth, are other important determinants of malnutrition among adults and children. Malnutrition is a multidimensional problem that requires multisectoral interventions. The findings show that improving agricultural performance can have a positive impact on nutritional outcomes. However, improvements in agriculture alone cannot be effective in combating malnutrition if several other mediating factors are not in place. Interventions to improve education, health, sanitation and household infrastructure, and care and feeding practices are critical. Innovative strategies that integrate agriculture and nutrition programs stand a better chance of combating the malnutrition problem.

  1. ORGANIZATIONAL AND ECONOMIC BASES OF ENERGY CONSERVATION IN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lisjutchenko

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Russian agricultural production at current stage is very energy intensive. At the cost of agricultural production overall cost of energy resources is growing: in 2000 was 36.5 billion rubles, 2008 - 92 billion rubles, 2009 - 110.6 billion rubles, and in 2010 rose to 119.8 billion rubles, or increased by 3.3 times. The analysis of consumption of the main energy sources for the period from 1990 to 2010 showed a decrease in general and the specific consumption of diesel fuel, gasoline and electricity by 5-7 times. Reducing energy consumption is explained as a forced saving resources because of lack of funds for the acquisition and implementation of agricultural enterprises of energy and resource saving measures (resource-saving technologies in the production process, motor fuel, biofuels and alternative energy sources. To solve this problem State and business in a matter of priority should be to build an effective system of innovation development for agriculture, promote the participation of agricultural science and education system in this process, modernize the domestic agricultural machinery, engineering and technology infrastructure.

  2. Structural change and agricultural diversification since China’s reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural change is considered the major engine in fostering a country’s growth. In the agricultural sector, diversification is the commonly used development strategy to increase rural sector’s flexibility, and to respond to improving technologies and market conditions. This study examined agricultural development and transformation during China’s socio-economic reforms. In particular, it empirically investigated whether the change of China’s agricultural structure is consistent with structural change theory and observed outcomes from other countries. The degree of agricultural diversification was quantitatively measured at a regional scale using the Herfindahl index. An underdeveloped province in northwest China was studied to provide insights into the interaction among structural change, agricultural diversification, and implemented development policies. Aggregate-level analyses suggest that China’s agricultural transformation pattern is consistent with those of other developing countries. A specific provincial-level analysis shows that environmentally and economically disadvantaged regions are slower to diversify their economy than better endorsed regions.

  3. Mechanical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  4. Biomedical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  5. Materials Science & Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering &

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biomedical Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  6. Electrical Engineering | Classification | College of Engineering & Applied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering Concentration on Ergonomics M.S. Program in Computer Science Interdisciplinary Concentration on Energy Doctoral Programs in Engineering Non-Degree Candidate Departments Biomedical Engineering Biomedical Engineering Industry Advisory Council Civil & Environmental Engineering Civil &

  7. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon; Batchelor, A W; Batchelor, Andrew W

    2005-01-01

    As with the previous edition, the third edition of Engineering Tribology provides a thorough understanding of friction and wear using technologies such as lubrication and special materials. Tribology is a complex topic with its own terminology and specialized concepts, yet is vitally important throughout all engineering disciplines, including mechanical design, aerodynamics, fluid dynamics and biomedical engineering. This edition includes updated material on the hydrodynamic aspects of tribology as well as new advances in the field of biotribology, with a focus throughout on the engineering ap

  8. "Agricultural budget" and the competitiveness of the Polish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lenkiewicz, Stanisław; Rokicki, Bartłomiej

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the publication is to assess the impact of public support on the functioning of the Polish agriculture. In order to achieve this aim the publication includes an analysis of the system of direct payments and rural development policy instruments planned to be implemented in Poland within the CAP 2014-2020. The study also presents an analysis of regional diversity of the Polish agriculture and an assessment of the scale of agricultural investment made in recent years in all the Polish...

  9. Innovative agricultural materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Shibryaeva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of ecodegradable materials and use of them in innovative technology of sowing of seeds of grain crops in a tape isan important and actual problem of polymeric chemistry. Material is affected by programmable destruction under the influence of natural factors taking into account the biochemical processes in a plant. At the present time in literature there are no the data about polymeric materials which can operate plants biochemical processes when contacting to root system of directly in the soil. The authors developed compositions on the basis of synthetic polymer - low density polyethylene (LDPE and biodegradable polymer - a polylactide (PLA. Thermophysical properties of ecofilms change under the influence of ultra-violet radiation. Photooxidation leads to cracking of samples with the raised maintenance of PLA. Temperature of melting of PLA decreases from 165 to 152 degrees Celsius (in some compositions to 137 degrees and crystallinity degrees lower on average by 20 percent. Thus the most considerable decrease in crystallinity (about 30 percent is noted in composition with a ratio of components of 50:50 mass percent. A composition formulation affects on the speed of destructive influence of moisture and an ultraviolet. The speed advantage of these processes is characteristic for the compositions containing from 30 to 60 mass percent of PLA. The soil samples with the maintenance of PLA more than 30 mass percent will be in less time exposed to biodegradation. Composition 50:50 has the greatest loss of weight equaled 18 percent. For other samples relative loss of weight makes 5-10 percent. The test for biodestruction showed considerable change of properties of polymeric samples of PLA- LDPE depending on mix composition. It means that it is possible to select such ratio of components at which material properties would conform to requirements imposed to agricultural appointment films.

  10. Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, H. J.; Lee, S.; Choi, S. H.; Yun, W. S.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural Fragility Estimates Subjected to Volcanic Ash Fall Hazards Hee Jung Ham1, Seung-Hun Choi1, Woo-Seok Yun1, Sungsu Lee2 1Department of Architectural Engineering, Kangwon National University, Korea 2Division of Civil Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Korea ABSTRACT In this study, fragility functions are developed to estimate expected volcanic ash damages of the agricultural sector in Korea. The fragility functions are derived from two approaches: 1) empirical approach based on field observations of impacts to agriculture from the 2006 eruption of Merapi volcano in Indonesia and 2) the FOSM (first-order second-moment) analytical approach based on distribution and thickness of volcanic ash observed from the 1980 eruption of Mt. Saint Helens and agricultural facility specifications in Korea. Fragility function to each agricultural commodity class is presented by a cumulative distribution function of the generalized extreme value distribution. Different functions are developed to estimate production losses from outdoor and greenhouse farming. Seasonal climate influences vulnerability of each agricultural crop and is found to be a crucial component in determining fragility of agricultural commodities to an ash fall. In the study, the seasonality coefficient is established as a multiplier of fragility function to consider the seasonal vulnerability. Yields of the different agricultural commodities are obtained from Korean Statistical Information Service to create a baseline for future agricultural volcanic loss estimation. Numerically simulated examples of scenario ash fall events at Mt. Baekdu volcano are utilized to illustrate the application of the developed fragility functions. Acknowledgements This research was supported by a grant 'Development of Advanced Volcanic Disaster Response System considering Potential Volcanic Risk around Korea' [MPSS-NH-2015-81] from the Natural Hazard Mitigation Research Group, Ministry of Public Safety and Security of

  11. Gender Equality in Agricultural Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jayakumar

    2016-05-01

    “Increased women’s enrollment in agricultural courses” as one among the strategies when addressing gender issues in the education and training components of agricultural development projects. In this context the study was carried out to ascertain the representation of women and their academic achievement in agricultural education. The study revealed that almost equal representation was found for women in agricultural course and they were also provided better quality education in their schooling, in the form of English medium education and education in private schools. Recent trends for the past four years showed a higher percentage of enrollments of women in agricultural course than men. The growth rate was also higher for the female students. Women also showed a significantly higher percentage of academic achievement than men. These positive indicators provide sufficient signals for equality of women in agricultural course and have positive implications for development of the agricultural sector in future.

  12. Environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, Rebecka; Finnveden, Goeran; Wadeskog, Anders

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an environmental assessment of Swedish agriculture, including upstream and downstream effects. The analysis is based on environmentally extended input-output analysis, but it is also supplemented with data from other sources. The analysis shows that direct effects by the Swedish agriculture are the most important, while indirect effects from other sources including mobile and impacts abroad are also considerable. The most important impacts from Swedish agriculture according to the analysis are eutrophication, global warming and resource use. The agricultural sector produces a large share of the Swedish emissions causing both global warming and eutrophication. In addition, current agricultural practice causes problems with loss of biodiversity. The most important actors in the sector are agriculture itself, but also all actors using fossil fuels: primarily the transport sector and the energy sector. In addition, consumers are important since they can influence the composition of agricultural production. The analysis shows the importance of including upstream and downstream effects when analysing the environmental impacts from a sector. (author)

  13. An experimental investigation of exhaust emission from agricultural tractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholami, Rashid; Rabbani, Hekmat; Lorestani, Ali Nejat; Javadikia, Payam; Jaliliantabar, Farzad [Mechanics of Agricultural Machinery Department, Razi University of Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Agricultural machinery is an important source of emission of air pollutant in rural locations. Emissions of a specific tractor engine mainly depend on engine speed. Various driving methods and use of implements with different work capacities can affect the engine load. This study deals with the effects of types of tractors and operation conditions on engine emission. In this study two types of agricultural tractors (MF285 and U650) and some tillage implements such as centrifugal type spreader, boom type sprayer and rotary tiller were employed. Some of the exhausted gases from both tractors in each condition were measured such as, hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), oxygen (O2) and nitrogen oxide (NO). Engine oil temperature was measured at every step for both types of tractors. Difference between steady-state condition and operation conditions was evaluated. The results showed all exhaust gases that measured and engine oil temperature at every operation conditions are higher than steady-state condition. A general conclusion of the work was that, using various implements and employing different types of tractors effect on engine emissions. The results of variance analysis showed all exhausted gases had a significant relationship with types of implements used at 1%. Also, all exhausted gases except CO had a significant relationship with types of tractors. A further conclusion was that NO emission increased as engine oil temperature increased. The final conclusion was about the difference between MF285 and U650; using U650 at operation conditions is better than MF285 in terms of pollution.

  14. 48 CFR 436.605 - Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... for architect-engineer work. 436.605 Section 436.605 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.605 Government cost estimate for architect-engineer work. The contracting...

  15. 48 CFR 436.602 - Selection of firms for architect-engineer contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... architect-engineer contracts. 436.602 Section 436.602 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Architect-Engineer Service 436.602 Selection of firms for architect-engineer contracts. ...

  16. Gentic engineering for practical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingmüller, W

    1979-04-01

    Genetic engineering has ushered in a new era in biology. Although many problems are still to be solved, there are examples that point to a possible later application for the benefit of mankind: Bacteria can be manipulated to degrade crude-oil spillages, to produce human insulin and to bind nitrogen from the air. If all the bacteria that are indigenous to agricultural soils could be made to bind nitrogen, an increase in soil fertility might well result.

  17. Gentic engineering for practical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingmuller, W.

    1979-04-01

    Genetic engineering has ushered in a new era in biology. Although many problems are still to be solved, there are examples that point to a possible later application for the benefit of mankind: Bacteria can be manipulated to degrade crude-oil spillages, to produce human insulin and to bind nitrogen from the air. If all the bacteria that are indigenous to agricultural soils could be made to bind nitrogen, and increase in soil fertility might well result.

  18. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  19. Fluids engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Fluids engineering has played an important role in many applications, from ancient flood control to the design of high-speed compact turbomachinery. New applications of fluids engineering, such as in high-technology materials processing, biotechnology, and advanced combustion systems, have kept up unwaining interest in the subject. More accurate and sophisticated computational and measurement techniques are also constantly being developed and refined. On a more fundamental level, nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of fluid flow are no longer an intellectual curiosity and fluid engineers are increasingly interested in finding practical applications for these emerging sciences. Applications of fluid technology to new areas, as well as the need to improve the design and to enhance the flexibility and reliability of flow-related machines and devices will continue to spur interest in fluids engineering. The objectives of the present seminar were: to exchange current information on arts, science, and technology of fluids engineering; to promote scientific cooperation between the fluids engineering communities of both nations, and to provide an opportunity for the participants and their colleagues to explore possible joint research programs in topics of high priority and mutual interest to both countries. The Seminar provided an excellent forum for reviewing the current state and future needs of fluids engineering for the two nations. With the Seminar ear-marking the first formal scientific exchange between Korea and the United States in the area of fluids engineering, the scope was deliberately left broad and general

  20. Biomedical Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Suh, Sang C; Tanik, Murat M

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical Engineering: Health Care Systems, Technology and Techniques is an edited volume with contributions from world experts. It provides readers with unique contributions related to current research and future healthcare systems. Practitioners and researchers focused on computer science, bioinformatics, engineering and medicine will find this book a valuable reference.

  1. Genetic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, John

    1973-01-01

    Presents a review of genetic engineering, in which the genotypes of plants and animals (including human genotypes) may be manipulated for the benefit of the human species. Discusses associated problems and solutions and provides an extensive bibliography of literature relating to genetic engineering. (JR)

  2. Corrosion Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Charles V.

    A description is provided for a Corrosion and Corrosion Control course offered in the Continuing Engineering Education Program at the General Motors Institute (GMI). GMI is a small cooperative engineering school of approximately 2,000 students who alternate between six-week periods of academic study and six weeks of related work experience in…

  3. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Matthew Oley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.S.

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University’s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in realtime. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  4. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.D. McKay; M.O. Anderson; N.S. Flann (Utah State University); R.A. Kinoshita; R.W. Gunderson; W.D. Willis (INEEL)

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University�s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in real-time. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  5. Adapting agriculture with traditional knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiderska, Krystyna; Reid, Hannah [IIED, London (United Kingdom); Song, Yiching; Li, Jingsong [Centre for Chinese Agriculutral Policy (China); Mutta, Doris [Kenya Forestry Research Institute (Kenya)

    2011-10-15

    Over the coming decades, climate change is likely to pose a major challenge to agriculture; temperatures are rising, rainfall is becoming more variable and extreme weather is becoming a more common event. Researchers and policymakers agree that adapting agriculture to these impacts is a priority for ensuring future food security. Strategies to achieve that in practice tend to focus on modern science. But evidence, both old and new, suggests that the traditional knowledge and crop varieties of indigenous peoples and local communities could prove even more important in adapting agriculture to climate change.

  6. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2001-01-01

    The aim of Engineering Surveying has always been to impart and develop a clear understanding of the basic topics of the subject. The author has fully revised the book to make it the most up-to-date and relevant textbook available on the subject.The book also contains the latest information on trigonometric levelling, total stations and one-person measuring systems. A new chapter on satellites ensures a firm grasp of this vitally important topic.The text covers engineering surveying modules for civil engineering students on degree courses and forms a reference for the engineering surveying module in land surveying courses. It will also prove to be a valuable reference for practitioners.* Simple clear introduction to surveying for engineers* Explains key techniques and methods* Details reading systems and satellite position fixing

  7. Emotional engineering

    CERN Document Server

    In an age of increasing complexity, diversification and change, customers expect services that cater to their needs and to their tastes. Emotional Engineering vol 2. describes how their expectations can be satisfied and managed throughout the product life cycle, if producers focus their attention more on emotion. Emotional engineering provides the means to integrate products to create a new social framework and develops services beyond product realization to create of value across a full lifetime.  14 chapters cover a wide range of topics that can be applied to product, process and industry development, with special attention paid to the increasing importance of sensing in the age of extensive and frequent changes, including: • Multisensory stimulation and user experience  • Physiological measurement • Tactile sensation • Emotional quality management • Mental model • Kansei engineering.   Emotional Engineering vol 2 builds on Dr Fukuda’s previous book, Emotional Engineering, and provides read...

  8. Accidents involving specialized aircraft in agriculture aerial spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Boamorte Ravelli

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The great challenge for the practice of agricultural aviation has been to avoid accidents. Although, there are technological progress and high resources for safety, accidents continue to occur. The objective of this research was to analyze the influence and occurrence of factors in agricultural aviation accidents in Brazil recently. Based on research and technical - scientific papers written by researchers and aviation authorities, recommendations directed towards reducing the risks associated with this aircraft modality are assessed. The main factors responsible for accidents are normally operational errors and maneuvers that cause flight collisions, engine failures and altitude loss. Professional awareness and qualification converge towards the success of the agricultural pilot in the detection of inherent dangers or occasional in the various systems involved.

  9. Fungal biology and agriculture: revisiting the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarden, O.; Ebbole, D.J.; Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Dickman, M. B.

    2003-01-01

    Plant pathology has made significant progress over the years, a process that involved overcoming a variety of conceptual and technological hurdles. Descriptive mycology and the advent of chemical plant-disease management have been followed by biochemical and physiological studies of fungi and their hosts. The later establishment of biochemical genetics along with the introduction of DNA-mediated transformation have set the stage for dissection of gene function and advances in our understanding of fungal cell biology and plant-fungus interactions. Currently, with the advent of high-throughput technologies, we have the capacity to acquire vast data sets that have direct relevance to the numerous subdisciplines within fungal biology and pathology. These data provide unique opportunities for basic research and for engineering solutions to important agricultural problems. However, we also are faced with the challenge of data organization and mining to analyze the relationships between fungal and plant genomes and to elucidate the physiological function of pertinent DNA sequences. We present our perspective of fungal biology and agriculture, including administrative and political challenges to plant protection research.

  10. AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN JAPAN - A MODEL FOR COOPERATIVIZATION OF AGRICULTURE FROM ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Japan's agriculture provides only a part from the population's needs, in caloric terms Japan must impute 60% of foods. Arable land are few, but are worked very performant, rice being the main crop together with cotton, citrus, sugarcane, wheat, potato, soybean, sugar beet, other vegetables. Widely is practiced sericulture and fisheries, Japan being one of the leading producers of silk from the world and having over 600 ports specialized for fishing. Japanese agriculture has remained behind the industry and services, this trend being manifested after the very high economic growth from 1960-1970. The main focus of the movements from the Japanese cooperative system is represented by the creation of large specialized farms through the replacing of the traditional ones. The most important task of agricultural cooperatives from Japan is meeting the consumption needs of its members. Integrated leadership of Japanese cooperatives of farmers act at all levels, primary, at prefecture level and at national level. Contractual relationships play a decisive role in the integration of Japanese farmers. In Japan there are about 840 agricultural cooperatives very well organized with a balanced planning and efficiently conducted, agricultural cooperative MIKABI being the most developed, mainly focused on the production of mandarins. In Japan there are three large distribution centers of agricultural products, 29 distribution markets controlled by the prefecture and 1,000 local markets. Organization of cooperatives is the pyramid system on three levels: local, prefecture and national (National Federation of Agricultural Cooperatives.

  11. AGRICULTURAL INTENSIFICATION: FEEDING OURSELVES AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inequities in the distribution of the green revolution's benefits reflected ... A third and more difficult challenge for future advances in agricultural innovation is that it ... that generates strong synergies between countries and existing institutions.

  12. Laser-based agriculture system

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2016-03-31

    A system and method are provided for indoor agriculture using at least one growth chamber illuminated by laser light. In an example embodiment of the agriculture system, a growth chamber is provided having one or more walls defining an interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system may include a removable tray disposed within the interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system also includes a light source, which may be disposed outside the growth chamber. The one or more walls may include at least one aperture. The light source is configured to illuminate at least a part of the interior portion of the growth chamber. In embodiments in which the light source is disposed outside the growth chamber, the light source is configured to transmit the laser light to the interior portion of the growth chamber via the at least one aperture.

  13. Danish emission inventories for agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth; Albrektsen, Rikke; Gyldenkærne, Steen

    . This report contains a description of the emissions from the agricultural sector from 1985 to 2009. Furthermore, the report includes a detailed description of methods and data used to calculate the emissions, which is based on national methodologies as well as international guidelines. For the Danish...... emissions calculations and data management an Integrated Database model for Agricultural emissions (IDA) is used. The emission from the agricultural sector includes emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), ammonia (NH3), particulate matter (PM), non-methane volatile organic...... compounds (NMVOC) and other pollutants related to the field burning of agricultural residue such as NOx, CO2, CO, SO2, heavy metals, dioxin and PAH. The ammonia emission from 1985 to 2009 has decreased from 119 300 tonnes of NH3 to 73 800 tonnes NH3, corresponding to a 38 % reduction. The emission...

  14. Laser-based agriculture system

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Wong, Aloysius Tze; Ng, Tien Khee

    2016-01-01

    A system and method are provided for indoor agriculture using at least one growth chamber illuminated by laser light. In an example embodiment of the agriculture system, a growth chamber is provided having one or more walls defining an interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system may include a removable tray disposed within the interior portion of the growth chamber. The agriculture system also includes a light source, which may be disposed outside the growth chamber. The one or more walls may include at least one aperture. The light source is configured to illuminate at least a part of the interior portion of the growth chamber. In embodiments in which the light source is disposed outside the growth chamber, the light source is configured to transmit the laser light to the interior portion of the growth chamber via the at least one aperture.

  15. Agricultural transformations | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-13

    Dec 13, 2010 ... Farmers from developing countries are challenged by these ... the improvement of agricultural practices and human health with the ... in Cayambe consumed more water than one urban hectare in Quito, Ecuador's capital.

  16. Radioisotopes in Burmese agricultural research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-07-15

    The Burmese authorities decided to start a laboratory for the use of radioisotope techniques in agricultural r e search. The laboratory was set up at the Agricultural Research Institute at Gyogon, on the outskirts of Rangoon. Under its technical assistance program, IAEA assigned an expert in the agricultural applications of radioisotopes for this project. Discussions were held with regional representatives of the Food and Agriculture Organization on the best lines of research to be adopted at the laboratory in its early stages. As the most important crop in Burma is rice, a series of experiments were planned for a study of the nutrition of rice, particularly its phosphorus uptake, with special reference to comparative responses on a range of typical paddy soils. The experiments began last year and are being continued.

  17. Agricultural intensification : saving space for wildlife?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baudron, F.

    2011-01-01

    Key words: agricultural frontier; smallholder; intensification; semi-arid area; wildlife; conservation agriculture; cotton; Zimbabwe.

    Increasing agricultural production and preventing further losses in biodiversity are both legitimate objectives, but they compete strongly in the

  18. Jibril Attahiru Alhassan FACTORS PROMOTING AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at national level. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is a merger of computing ... agricultural research in Ghana while Private-sector involvement in agricultural .... Recent investment trends Outlook on Agriculture, 33(4) 239-246.

  19. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agricultural Research and Development aims at publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm Management, Agronomy, Forestry, Animal Science, Food Technology, Soil Science, Home Economics, Agricultural Extension, Rural development, ...

  20. The roots of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2012-01-01

    It was concern about the replacement of traditional organic fertilizers by the then new chemical fertilizers that precipitated the early stirrings of disquiet about the prevailing direction of agriculture and which has grown into today’s organic agriculture movement. Unease about the issue of synthetic fertilizers preceded the current era of concerns about manufactured nanomaterials in food and farming, genetically modified organisms (GMOs), antibiotic-fattened farm animals, and synthetic pes...

  1. CAPITALISM, FAMILY AGRICULTURE AND MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clério Plein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to review some approaches to family agriculture and the process of commercialization, as well as seek contemporary theoretical contributions to understand that form of social production with markets. It is a theoretical essay and as main conclusion it is highlighted the important contributions of the New Institutional Economics and New Economic Sociology, which, through the concepts of institutions and rooting, explain the relationship of family agriculture with markets.

  2. Jobs from Agriculture in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Leao, Izabela; Ahmed, Mansur; Kar, Anuja

    2018-01-01

    The agriculture sector can play an important role in poverty reduction and sustained growth in Afghanistan, primarily through job creation, improved productivity, and inclusiveness. Using an 'agricultural jobs lens' and multidimensional approach, this report explores the sector’s direct and indirect roles in explaining the dynamics of rural employment. The report critically examines three dimensions. First, it evaluates the current jobs structure in rural areas and finds that rural jobs are c...

  3. Biodiversity conservation in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Josefsson, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural industrialization alters rural landscapes in Europe, causing large-scale and rapid loss of important biodiversity. The principal instruments to protect farmland biodiversity are various agri-environmental measures (AEMs) in the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). However, growing awareness of shortcomings to CAP biodiversity integration prompts examination of causes and potential solutions. This thesis assesses the importance of structural heterogeneity of crop and non-crop habi...

  4. 100 Years of Cotton Production, Harvesting and Ginning Systems Engineering: 1907 - 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) celebrated its centennial year during 2007. As part of the ASABE centennial, the authors were asked to describe agricultural engineering accomplishments in U.S. cotton production, harvesting and ginning over the past 100 years. ...

  5. Agriculture 2008. The critical agrarian report. Main topic 2008: Agriculture as an energy producer; Landwirtschaft 2008. Der kritische Agrarbericht. Schwerpunkt 2008: Landwirtschaft als Energieerzeuger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, M.; Fink-Kessler, A.; Stodieck, F. (comps.)

    2008-01-15

    The focus of the critical agrarian report in this year is the topic 'agriculture as an energy producer'. In 44 contributions, the agrarian events of the year 2007 are analyzed and the setting the points for the future are discussed. The topics of this report are: Agricultural policy and social situation, world trade and nutrition, ecological agriculture, production and market, regional market, regional development, nature and environment, forest, animal protection and animal husbandry, genetic engineering, agrarian culture, consumer and nourishing culture.

  6. Glycosylation Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Henrik; Wandall, Hans H.; Steentoft, Catharina

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the cellular pathways of glycosylation across phylogeny provides opportunities for designing glycans via genetic engineering in a wide variety of cell types including bacteria, fungi, plant cells, and mammalian cells. The commercial demand for glycosylation engineering is broad......, including production of biological therapeutics with defined glycosylation (Chapter 57). This chapter describes how knowledge of glycan structures and their metabolism (Parts I–III of this book) has led to the current state of glycosylation engineering in different cell types. Perspectives for rapid...

  7. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, John

    2014-01-01

    A practical introduction to the core mathematics required for engineering study and practiceNow in its seventh edition, Engineering Mathematics is an established textbook that has helped thousands of students to succeed in their exams.John Bird's approach is based on worked examples and interactive problems. This makes it ideal for students from a wide range of academic backgrounds as the student can work through the material at their own pace. Mathematical theories are explained in a straightforward manner, being supported by practical engineering examples and applications in order to ensure

  8. Engineering mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Stroud, K A

    2013-01-01

    A groundbreaking and comprehensive reference that's been a bestseller since it first debuted in 1970, the new seventh edition of Engineering Mathematics has been thoroughly revised and expanded. Providing a broad mathematical survey, this innovative volume covers a full range of topics from the very basic to the advanced. Whether you're an engineer looking for a useful on-the-job reference or want to improve your mathematical skills, or you are a student who needs an in-depth self-study guide, Engineering Mathematics is sure to come in handy time and time again.

  9. Recent Advances in Genetic Engineering - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sobiah Rauf; Zubair Anwar; Hussain Mustatab Wahedi; Jabar Zaman Khan Khattak; Talal Jamil

    2012-01-01

    Humans have been doing genetic engineering, a technology which is transforming our world, for thousands of years on a wide range of plants, animals and micro organism and have applications in the field of medicine, research, industry and agriculture. The rapid developments in the field of genetic engineering have given a new impetus to biotechnology. This introduces the possibility of tailoring organisms in order to optimize the production of established or novel metabolites of commercial imp...

  10. Agricultural Land Use in Ahlat District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necmettin ELMASTAŞ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahlat district has suitable topography for growing of agricultural products. Almost half of Ahlat district is suitable for agricultural. Today, 32.7% of the land use in Ahlat is agricultural area. 90% of agricultural area is dry farming area. 10% of agricultural area is irrigated. 60.3%of land use in Ahlat district is pasturage area. The economy of Ahlat is based on agricultural and animal husbandry. Today, agricultural products such as wheat, potato and sugar beet are grown in agricultural areas. Ahlat district has some problems like unplanned production, irrigation and marketing.

  11. Soil Erosion and Agricultural Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, D. R.

    2009-04-01

    Data drawn from a global compilation of studies support the long articulated contention that erosion rates from conventionally plowed agricultural fields greatly exceed rates of soil production, erosion under native vegetation, and long-term geological erosion. Whereas data compiled from around the world show that soil erosion under conventional agriculture exceeds both rates of soil production and geological erosion rates by up to several orders of magnitude, similar global distributions of soil production and geological erosion rates suggest an approximate balance. Net soil erosion rates in conventionally plowed fields on the order of 1 mm/yr can erode typical hillslope soil profiles over centuries to millennia, time-scales comparable to the longevity of major civilizations. Well-documented episodes of soil loss associated with agricultural activities date back to the introduction of erosive agricultural methods in regions around the world, and stratigraphic records of accelerated anthropogenic soil erosion have been recovered from lake, fluvial, and colluvial stratigraphy, as well as truncation of soil stratigraphy (such as truncated A horizons). A broad convergence in the results from studies based on various approaches employed to study ancient soil loss and rates of downstream sedimentation implies that widespread soil loss has accompanied human agricultural intensification in examples drawn from around the world. While a broad range of factors, including climate variability and society-specific social and economic contexts — such as wars or colonial relationships — all naturally influence the longevity of human societies, the ongoing loss of topsoil inferred from studies of soil erosion rates in conventional agricultural systems has obvious long-term implications for agricultural sustainability. Consequently, modern agriculture — and therefore global society — faces a fundamental question over the upcoming centuries. Can an agricultural system

  12. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian

    2016-01-01

    For courses in computer science and software engineering The Fundamental Practice of Software Engineering Software Engineering introduces readers to the overwhelmingly important subject of software programming and development. In the past few years, computer systems have come to dominate not just our technological growth, but the foundations of our world's major industries. This text seeks to lay out the fundamental concepts of this huge and continually growing subject area in a clear and comprehensive manner. The Tenth Edition contains new information that highlights various technological updates of recent years, providing readers with highly relevant and current information. Sommerville's experience in system dependability and systems engineering guides the text through a traditional plan-based approach that incorporates some novel agile methods. The text strives to teach the innovators of tomorrow how to create software that will make our world a better, safer, and more advanced place to live.

  13. Harmonic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-20

    A high efficiency harmonic engine based on a resonantly reciprocating piston expander that extracts work from heat and pressurizes working fluid in a reciprocating piston compressor. The engine preferably includes harmonic oscillator valves capable of oscillating at a resonant frequency for controlling the flow of working fluid into and out of the expander, and also preferably includes a shunt line connecting an expansion chamber of the expander to a buffer chamber of the expander for minimizing pressure variations in the fluidic circuit of the engine. The engine is especially designed to operate with very high temperature input to the expander and very low temperature input to the compressor, to produce very high thermal conversion efficiency.

  14. Engineering personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskievici, W.

    The expansion of nuclear power is taxing human, material, and capital resources in developed and developing countries. This paper explores the human resources as represented by employment, graduation statistics, and educational curricula for nuclear engineers. (E.C.B.)

  15. Green Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green Engineering is the design, commercialization and use of processes and products that are feasible and economical while reducing the generation of pollution at the source and minimizing the risk to human health and the environment.

  16. Coastal Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, E.T.J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Introduction, waves, sediment transport, littoral transport, lonshore sediment transport, onshore-offshore sediment transport, coastal changes, dune erosion and storm surges, sedimentation in channels and trenches, coastal engineering in practice.

  17. Geoenvironmental engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Eun Cheol; Park, Jeong Jun

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with definition of soil and scope of clean-up of soil, trend of geoenvironmental engineering at home and foreign countries, main concern of geoenvironmental engineering in domestic and abroad, design and building of landfills such as summary, trend of landfill policy in Korea, post management of landfill facilities, stabilizing and stability of landfill, research method and soil pollution source, restoration technology of soil pollution like restoration technique of oil pollution with thermal processing.

  18. Microwave engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Pozar, David M

    2012-01-01

    The 4th edition of this classic text provides a thorough coverage of RF and microwave engineering concepts, starting from fundamental principles of electrical engineering, with applications to microwave circuits and devices of practical importance.  Coverage includes microwave network analysis, impedance matching, directional couplers and hybrids, microwave filters, ferrite devices, noise, nonlinear effects, and the design of microwave oscillators, amplifiers, and mixers. Material on microwave and RF systems includes wireless communications, radar, radiometry, and radiation hazards. A large

  19. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  20. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  1. The Role Played by Agricultural Policy-based Finance in New Village Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The necessity of the agricultural policy-based finance in terms of supporting the new village construction is analyzed: in the first place, the theoretical roots of agricultural policy-based finance supporting new village construction are "market failure" and "government intervention"; in the second place, the continual decline of agriculture and the "rural financial market failure" in recent years have become the objective evidence and historical mission for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; in the third place, the combination of agricultural policy-based finance and new village construction is conducive to solving the "three agriculture" problems and facilitating the reform of new village construction. The feasibility of the support is analyzed: firstly, agricultural policy-based finance boasts the status and position of the "primary drive" in new village construction; secondly, the nation continuously deepens the reform of rural financial system and policy-based banks and strengthens the functions of Agricultural Development Bank, which provides policies for agricultural policy-based finance to support new village construction; thirdly, the 14 years’ reform and development of Agricultural Development Bank and the eleventh five year plan lay sound practical basis for the support of agricultural policy-based finance to new village construction. Based on the necessity and feasibility, the following six aspects are analyzed to fully display the function of the "first engine" of agricultural policy-related finance to new village construction. Firstly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to grain and cotton and some other agricultural products in the circulation domain; secondly, strengthening the credit and loan aid to agricultural industrialization in processing field; thirdly, intensifying the credit and loan aid to agricultural comprehensive development, rural infrastructure construction, application and promotion of

  2. Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.; Shah, M.; Van Velthuizen, H.

    2002-08-01

    After the introduction Chapter 2 presents details of the ecological-economic analysis based on the FAO/IIASA agro-ecological zones (AEZ) approach for evaluation of biophysical limitations and agricultural production potentials, and IIASA's Basic Linked System (BLS) for analyzing the world's food economy and trade system. The BLS is a global general equilibrium model system for analyzing agricultural policies and food system prospects in an international setting. BLS views national agricultural systems as embedded in national economies, which interact with each other through trade at the international level. The combination of AEZ and BLS provides an integrated ecological-economic framework for the assessment of the impact of climate change. We consider climate scenarios based on experiments with four General Circulation Models (GCM), and we assess the four basic socioeconomic development pathways and emission scenarios as formulated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report. Chapter 3 presents the main AEZ results of the impact of climate change on agriculture. Results comprise environmental constraints to crop agriculture; climate variability and the variability of rain-fed cereal production; changes in potential agricultural land; changes in crop-production patterns; and the impact of climate change on cereal-production potential. Chapter 4 discusses the AEZ-BLS integrated ecological-economic analysis of climate change on the world food system. This includes quantification of scale and location of hunger, international agricultural trade, prices, production, land use, etc. It assesses trends in food production, trade, and consumption, and the impact on poverty and hunger of alternative development pathways and varying levels of climate change. Chapter 5 presents the main conclusions and policy implications of this study

  3. Measuring the Interest of German Students in Agriculture: the Role of Knowledge, Nature Experience, Disgust, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Malte; Strack, Micha; Bögeholz, Susanne

    2015-06-01

    Modern knowledge-based societies, especially their younger members, have largely lost their bonds to farming. However, learning about agriculture and its interrelations with environmental issues may be facilitated by students' individual interests in agriculture. To date, an adequate instrument to investigate agricultural interests has been lacking. Research has infrequently considered students' interest in agricultural content areas as well as influencing factors on students' agricultural interests. In this study, a factorial design of agricultural interests was developed combining five agricultural content areas and four components of individual interest. The instrument was validated with German fifth and sixth graders ( N = 1,085) using a variance decomposition confirmatory factor analysis model. The results demonstrated a second-order factor of general agricultural interest, with animal husbandry, arable farming, vegetable and fruit cropping, primary food processing, and agricultural engineering as discrete content areas of agricultural interest. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that prior knowledge, garden experience, and disgust sensitivity are predictors of general agricultural interest. In addition, gender influenced interest in four of the five agricultural content areas. Implications are directed at researchers, teachers, and environmental educators concerning how to trigger and develop pupils' agricultural interests.

  4. A FIELD STUDY WITH GENETICALLY ENGINEERED ALFALFA INOCULATED WITH RECOMBINANT SINORHIZOBIUM MELILOTI: EFFECTS ON THE SOIL ECOSYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The agricultural use of genetically engineered plants and microorganisms has become increasingly common. Because genetically engineered plants and microorganisms can produce compounds foreign to their environment, there is concern that they may become established outside of thei...

  5. AIDS and African smallholder agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutangadura, G

    1998-09-01

    During the Responding to HIV/AIDS: Technology Development Needs for African Smallholder Agriculture Conference in Harare, about 70 delegates participated from government and nongovernmental organizations, community-based organizations, agricultural research, and regional and international organizations. The aims of the conference were to analyze the impact of HIV/AIDS on smallholder agriculture; identify the necessary technologies, policy, and institutional responses; and propose frameworks for future activities. The conference participants noted that the onset of HIV/AIDS has changed the African rural environment in which existing policy and programs on agriculture have been operating. In view of this, recommendations on technology and development and policy to mitigate the impact of the epidemic were highlighted; namely, promote existing labor and capital saving technologies; review existing agricultural extension; develop appropriate technologies to reduce the time spent on water and fuel collection; develop income-generating activities; strengthen existing community-based initiatives; and redefine the criteria for land tenure and ownership. Moreover, collaboration between development organizations and applied research were also emphasized.

  6. Hire a Milwaukee Engineer | College of Engineering & Applied Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electrical Engineering Instructional Laboratories Student Resources Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Academic Programs Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Major Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Minor Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering

  7. Women in sustainable agriculture and food biotechnology key advances and perspectives on emerging topics

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This volume describes the contributions made by women scientists to the field of agricultural biotechnology, the most quickly adopted agricultural practice ever adopted. It features the perspectives of women educators, researchers and key stakeholders towards the development, implementation and acceptance of this modern technology. It describes the multiplying contemporary challenges in the field, how women are overcoming technological barriers, and their thoughts on what the future may hold. As sustainable agricultural practices increasingly represent a key option in the drive towards building a greener global community, the scientific, technological and implementation issues covered in this book are vital information for anyone working in environmental engineering. Provides a broad analysis of the science of agriculture, focusing on the contributions of women to the field, from basic research to applied technology Offers insights into hot topics in the field across the life cycle, from genetic engineering t...

  8. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda GHEORGHIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture today is a strategic point of a country's economy, providing food based on population, development of internal and external trade and manufacturing industries by supplying raw materials. For Romania, this branch is a strong point both in terms climatic (temperate, balanced relief, soil quality and at the same time is also a way of national development and convergence of rural areas to their full potential untapped. With strong reforms, well implemented, a specific legislative framework which aims to protecting private property, Romania could reduce the low efficiency and can have a sustainable agriculture. The paper aimed to present the advantages of consuming organic products, and, on the other hand, the advantages of a country in terms of organic farming. European agriculture is a competitive, market-oriented, but also protecting the environment model.

  9. Weather extremes could affect agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-05-01

    As Earth's climate warms, agricultural producers will need to adapt. Changes, especially increases in extreme events, are already having an impact on food production, according to speakers at a 1 May session on agriculture and food security at the AGU Science Policy Conference. Christopher Field, director of the Department of Global Ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science of Washington, D. C., pointed out the complex factors that come into play in understanding food security, including spatially varying controls and stresses, incomplete models, and the potential for threshold responses. Factors that are likely to cause problems include increasing population; increasing preference for meat, which needs more land and energy inputs to produce; climate change; and increasing use of agricultural lands for biomass energy.

  10. Methylotrophic bacteria in sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish; Tomar, Rajesh Singh; Lade, Harshad; Paul, Diby

    2016-07-01

    Excessive use of chemical fertilizers to increase production from available land has resulted in deterioration of soil quality. To prevent further soil deterioration, the use of methylotrophic bacteria that have the ability to colonize different habitats, including soil, sediment, water, and both epiphytes and endophytes as host plants, has been suggested for sustainable agriculture. Methylotrophic bacteria are known to play a significant role in the biogeochemical cycle in soil ecosystems, ultimately fortifying plants and sustaining agriculture. Methylotrophs also improve air quality by using volatile organic compounds such as dichloromethane, formaldehyde, methanol, and formic acid. Additionally, methylotrophs are involved in phosphorous, nitrogen, and carbon cycling and can help reduce global warming. In this review, different aspects of the interaction between methylotrophs and host plants are discussed, including the role of methylotrophs in phosphorus acquisition, nitrogen fixation, phytohormone production, iron chelation, and plant growth promotion, and co-inoculation of these bacteria as biofertilizers for viable agriculture practices.

  11. 29 CFR 780.509 - Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 780.509 Section 780.509 Labor Regulations... INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO AGRICULTURE, PROCESSING OF... Section 13(a)(14) Shade-Grown Tobacco § 780.509 Agriculture. The definition of “agriculture,” as contained...

  12. The history and future of agricultural experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, H.

    2011-01-01

    An agricultural experiment is usually associated with a scientific method for testing certain agricultural phenomena. A central point in the work of Paul Richards is that experimentation is at the heart of agricultural practice. The reason why agricultural experiments are something different for

  13. Impact of modern agriculture on environment-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora, S.K.; Behl, R.K.; Tauro, P.; Joshi, U.N.

    1995-11-01

    The present volume titled Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment is the outcome of the Proceedings of the Indo-German Conference on Impact of Modern Agriculture on Environment, a seminar organized by Haryana Agricultural University in 1993 and deals with certain areas of the environmental aspects of agriculture including its radiological impacts. Paper relevant to INIS is indexed separately

  14. Overview of Ecological Agriculture with High Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Guo-qin; Zhao, Qi-guo; Gong, Shao-lin; Shi, Qing-hua

    2012-01-01

    From the presentation, connotation, characteristics, principles, pattern, and technologies of ecological agriculture with high efficiency, we conduct comprehensive and systematic analysis and discussion of the theoretical and practical progress of ecological agriculture with high efficiency. (i) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency was first advanced in China in 1991. (ii) Ecological agriculture with high efficiency highlights "high efficiency", "ecology", and "combination". (iii) Ecol...

  15. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-01-01

    Background Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms ‘sustainable’ and ‘intensification’ is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. Scope and Conclusions This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural–environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and

  16. Urban Agriculture: Search for Agricultural Practice in Urbanized Rural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celile Özçiçek Dölekoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization in developing countries involves unplanned migration, unemployment and poverty. The steady shrinking of rural areas and the use of agricultural land for other purposes are progressively increasing the pressure on natural resources. This development on the one hand increases the risk to food security, and on the other triggers climate change. The rural population who migrate to the cities or who are absorbed into urban areas continue their agricultural activities in the urban in order to provide themselves with an income or to maintain their food security. In the big cities of the developed world, contact with nature is kept by means of hobby gardens, recreational areas and urban and suburban plant and animal farming, and creative ideas such as roof gardens can be found. This development, known as urban agriculture, is practiced by 800 million people in the world. Urban agriculture has many economic, social and environmental benefits, but it may also have risks and adverse effects. In this study, the developments in this area in Turkey and the world are presented, and all aspects of its effects and outcomes are discussed.

  17. Fuel consumption in an air blower for agricultural use under different operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Robson L. da

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Evaluation of fuel consumption in internal combustion engines (ICE) of agricultural machinery and equipment is important in determining the performance under various operating conditions, especially when using biofuels. This study consisted of experimental evaluation of the gasoline (petrol)/ethanol consumption in a two-stroke 1-cylinder ICE, Otto cycle, functioning as an air blower for agriculture and related applications. A methodology for tests of non-automotive ICE, based on ABNT...

  18. Cuban agriculture and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labrada Remon, A.; Perez Talavera, S.

    1997-01-01

    The application of nuclear techniques to agriculture emerged in Cuba at the end of the 60s. At the beginning only few researchers used these techniques for stimulating or mutational purposes. At the end of the 80 s systematic research began for its possible application to existing agricultural problems among which we can highlight radiomutable genesis and the determination of diagnostic damage of seeds by x-rays, plant nutrition and soil fertility, efficient water use, animal nutrition, reproduction and health as well as pest control

  19. Genetic Engineering of Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Khurshid, Muhammad; Sun, Zhan Min; Tang, Yi Xiong; Zhou, Mei Liang; Wu, Yan Min

    2016-01-01

    Alfalfa is excellent perennial legume forage for its extensive ecological adaptability, high nutrition value, palatability and biological nitrogen fixation. It plays a very important role in the agriculture, animal husbandry and ecological construction. It is cultivated in all continents. With the development of modern plant breeding and genetic engineering techniques, a large amount of work has been carried out on alfalfa. Here we summarize the recent research advances in genetic engineering of alfalfa breeding, including transformation, quality improvement, stress resistance and as a bioreactor. The review article can enables us to understand the research method, direction and achievements of genetic engineering technology of Alfalfa.

  20. Engineering physics

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherji, Uma

    2015-01-01

    ENGINEERING PHYSICS is designed as a textbook for first year engineering students of a two semester course in Applied Physics according to new revised syllabus. However the scope of this book is not only limited to undergraduate engineering students and science students, it can also serve as a reference book for practicing scientists.Advanced technological topics like LCD, Squid, Maglev system, Electron microscopes, MRI, Photonics - Photonic fibre, Nano-particles, CNT, Quantum computing etc., are explained with basic underlying principles of Physics.This text explained following topics with numerous solved, unsolved problems and questions from different angles. Part-I contains crystal structure, Liquid crystal, Thermo-electric effect, Thermionic emission, Ultrasonic, Acoustics, semiconductor and magnetic materials. Whereas Part-2 contains Optics, X-rays, Electron optics, Dielectric materials, Quantum Physics and Schrodinger wave equation, Laser, Fibre-optics and Holography, Radio-activity, Super-conductivity,...

  1. Music engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Brice, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Music Engineering is a hands-on guide to the practical aspects of electric and electronic music. It is both a compelling read and an essential reference guide for anyone using, choosing, designing or studying the technology of modern music. The technology and underpinning science are introduced through the real life demands of playing and recording, and illustrated with references to well known classic recordings to show how a particular effect is obtained thanks to the ingenuity of the engineer as well as the musician. In addition, an accompanying companion website containing over 50 specially chosen tracks for download, provides practical demonstrations of the effects and techniques described in the book. Written by a music enthusiast and electronic engineer, this book covers the electronics and physics of the subject as well as the more subjective aspects. The second edition includes an updated Digital section including MPEG3 and fact sheets at the end of each chapter to summarise the key electronics and s...

  2. Engineering surveying

    CERN Document Server

    Schofield, W

    2007-01-01

    Engineering surveying involves determining the position of natural and man-made features on or beneath the Earth's surface and utilizing these features in the planning, design and construction of works. It is a critical part of any engineering project. Without an accurate understanding of the size, shape and nature of the site the project risks expensive and time-consuming errors or even catastrophic failure.Engineering Surveying 6th edition covers all the basic principles and practice of this complex subject and the authors bring expertise and clarity. Previous editions of this classic text have given readers a clear understanding of fundamentals such as vertical control, distance, angles and position right through to the most modern technologies, and this fully updated edition continues that tradition.This sixth edition includes:* An introduction to geodesy to facilitate greater understanding of satellite systems* A fully updated chapter on GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO for satellite positioning in surveying* Al...

  3. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  4. Research Frontiers of Agricultural Economics and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang L.X.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction The focus of research on Agricultural Economics and Management (AEM) has been switching from developed countries to developing countries. In important international journals on AEM such as "American Journal of Agricultural Economics" and "Agricultural Economics", the research objectives mainly focus on AEM problems in developing countries, e.g. the effects of globalization and liberalization on agricultural production in developing countries, and problems in agricultural resources and environmental protections in developing countries.

  5. Empirical Analyses in Agricultural and Resource Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Andrew William

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture has played a profound and unique role in humanity's development. We are dependent on agriculture for the vast majority of our food supply, and have so far been successful at increasing agricultural production to meet rising demand. At the same time, agriculture is the largest and most direct way that humans have altered our planet's landscape and natural environment. Indeed, over half of all land in the United States is used for some agricultural purpose. In this dissertation, I e...

  6. Biochemistry engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Ho Nam

    1993-01-01

    This deals with biochemistry engineering with nine chapters. It explains bionics on development and prospect, basics of life science on classification and structure, enzyme and metabolism, fundamentals of chemical engineering on viscosity, shear rate, PFR, CSTR, mixing, dispersion, measurement and response, Enzyme kinetics, competitive inhibition, pH profile, temperature profile, stoichiometry and fermentation kinetics, bio-reactor on Enzyme-reactor and microorganism-reactor, measurement and processing on data acquisition and data processing, separation and purification, waste water treatment and economics of bionics process.

  7. Micro Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alting, Leo; Kimura, F.; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products. The implica......The paper addresses the questions of how micro products are designed and how they are manufactured. Definitions of micro products and micro engineering are discussed and the presentation is aimed at describing typical issues, possibilities and tools regarding design of micro products...

  8. Engineering tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Stachowiak, Gwidon

    2014-01-01

    Engineering Tribology, 4th Edition is an established introductory reference focusing on the key concepts and engineering implications of tribology. Taking an interdisciplinary view, the book brings together the relevant knowledge from different fields needed to achieve effective analysis and control of friction and wear. Updated to cover recent advances in tribology, this new edition includes new sections on ionic and mesogenic lubricants, surface texturing, and multiscale characterization of 3D surfaces and coatings. Current trends in nanotribology are discussed, such as those relating to

  9. Software engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Thorin, Marc

    1985-01-01

    Software Engineering describes the conceptual bases as well as the main methods and rules on computer programming. This book presents software engineering as a coherent and logically built synthesis and makes it possible to properly carry out an application of small or medium difficulty that can later be developed and adapted to more complex cases. This text is comprised of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the fundamental notions of entities, actions, and programming. The next two chapters elaborate on the concepts of information and consistency domains and show that a proc

  10. Corrosion engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontana, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    This book emphasizes the engineering approach to handling corrosion. It presents corrosion data by corrosives or environments rather than by materials. It discusses the corrosion engineering of noble metals, ''exotic'' metals, non-metallics, coatings, mechanical properties, and corrosion testing, as well as modern concepts. New sections have been added on fracture mechanics, laser alloying, nuclear waste isolation, solar energy, geothermal energy, and the Statue of Liberty. Special isocorrosion charts, developed by the author, are introduced as a quick way to look at candidates for a particular corrosive.

  11. Robotics in agriculture and forestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergerman, M.; Billingsley, J.; Reid, J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Robotics for agriculture and forestry (A&F) represents the ultimate application of one of our society’s latest and most advanced innovations to its most ancient and important industries. Over the course of history, mechanization and automation increased crop output several orders of magnitude,

  12. Internet of Things in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdouw, C.N.; Wolfert, Jacques; Tekinerdogan, B.

    2016-01-01

    This literature review on Internet of Things (IoT) in agriculture and food, provides an overview of existing applications, enabling technologies and main challenges ahead. The results of the review show that this subject received attention by the scientific community from 2010 on and the number of

  13. Agricultural Crown Land in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyle, W.E.

    1998-01-01

    The petroleum industry's interest in provincial crown land in the agricultural area of Saskatchewan has grown over the last two decades. Agricultural land is regulated by the Saskatchewan Department of Agriculture and Food, Lands Branch. Since 1974 surface lease contracts by oil and gas companies have increased from 1,400 to the present 3,700. Resource lands are regulated by Saskatchewan Environment and Resource Management. There are 8.8 million acres of crown agricultural land in Saskatchewan, most of which is held without title. Crown land management is meant to provide a long term management approach to crown lands that balances economic, environmental and social benefits for present and future generations. The oil and gas industry is an important participant in crown land management. Revenues from petroleum and gas surface leasing, and seismic licensing totals more than five million dollars annually. In 1995/96, there were 54 companies establishing new oil and gas leases on crown land in Saskatchewan. This paper provides details of current policies which apply to petroleum and gas leasing and seismic exploration, and environmental guidelines for companies developing well sites, compressor and metering stations, access roads and easements. 3 tabs

  14. Exploring agricultural taxation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der H.B.; Meulen, van der H.A.B.; Bommel, van K.H.M.; Doorneweert, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the tax systems in ten European countries, focusing on agriculture. It not only deals with income tax, it also describes other taxes such as gift and inheritance tax and Value Added Tax. This information leads to an analysis of the impact of taxation on the competitive position

  15. Reconceptualising translation in agricultural innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, Julie; Dwyer, Janet; Gaskell, Peter; Mills, Jane; Wolf, de Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Scientific research continues to play a significant role in meeting the multiple innovation challenges in agriculture. If this role is to be fulfilled, provision needs to be made for effective translation of research outputs, where translation is understood to be the process whereby science becomes

  16. Groundwater recharge and agricultural contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhlke, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Agriculture has had direct and indirect effects on the rates and compositions of groundwater recharge and aquifer biogeochemistry. Direct effects include dissolution and transport of excess quantities of fertilizers and associated materials and hydrologic alterations related to irrigation and drainage. Some indirect effects include changes in water–rock reactions in soils and aquifers caused by increased concentrations of dissolved oxidants, protons, and major ions. Agricultural activities have directly or indirectly affected the concentrations of a large number of inorganic chemicals in groundwater, for example NO3–, N2, Cl, SO42–, H+, P, C, K, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra, and As, as well as a wide variety of pesticides and other organic compounds. For reactive contaminants like NO3–, a combination of chemical, isotopic, and environmental-tracer analytical approaches might be required to resolve changing inputs from subsequent alterations as causes of concentration gradients in groundwater. Groundwater records derived from multi-component hydrostratigraphic data can be used to quantify recharge rates and residence times of water and dissolved contaminants, document past variations in recharging contaminant loads, and identify natural contaminant-remediation processes. These data indicate that many of the world's surficial aquifers contain transient records of changing agricultural contamination from the last half of the 20th century. The transient agricultural groundwater signal has important implications for long-term trends and spatial heterogeneity in discharge.

  17. 75 FR 59666 - Agricultural Swaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ..., sugar, cocoa, and other agricultural products that do not appear in the enumerated commodity list) would...) imposing clearing and trade execution requirements on standardized derivative products; (3) creating robust...), cottonseed meal, cottonseed, peanuts, soybeans, soybean meal, livestock, livestock products, and frozen...

  18. Agricultural protectionism in innovation activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Bernadskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In article the principles and priorities of agrarian protectionism of innovative activity are specified, approaches to target distribution of means of direct and indirect support of agriculture and branches of agrarian and industrial complex are differentiated and alternative sources of mobilization of financial resources of the budgetary protectionism, proceeding from market conditions of agrofood production are revealed.

  19. Agriculture & the Environment. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurry, Linda Maston

    This teacher's guide offers background information that teachers can use to incorporate topics related to agriculture and the environment into the curriculum. Classroom activities to bring these topics alive for students in grades 6-9 are suggested. Chapters include: (1) Pesticides and Integrated Pest Management; (2) Food Safety; (3) Water…

  20. Agriculture, development, and urban bias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bezemer, Dirk; Headey, Derek

    Throughout history, agriculture-led development strategies with state support programs have been essential to achieving rapid economy-wide growth, poverty reduction, and structural transformation. Yet over the last three decades, the domestic and international policy environments have continued to

  1. CLIMATE CHANGE AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    www.globaljournalseries.com; Email: info@globaljournalseries.com. CLIMATE ... and hunger. These issues are likely to become especially important in making decisions not only about how to reduce .... Agriculture is the largest single consumer of fresh water ..... imply increased refrigeration loads at the same time that.

  2. Tanzania Journal of Agricultural Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Policy Analysis Studies in Tanzania: A Historical and Thematic Perspective with Implications on Future Policy Research for Crop Production and Marketing · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A.C. Isinika, G.M. Mibavu, J.J. VanSickle ...

  3. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  4. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  5. Bowen Journal of Agriculture: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The following guidelines should be followed by Authors submitting papers to Bowen Journal of Agriculture. Titles: Should be specific, capitalized, bold, centralized and brief. All other headings e.g ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS and REFERENCES are also to be capitalized ...

  6. Maine Agricultural Foods. Project SEED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Peter; Ossenfort, Pat

    This paper describes an activity-based program that teaches students in grades 4-12 about the importance of Maine agriculture in their lives. Specifically, the goal is to increase student awareness of how the foods they eat are planted, harvested, and processed. The emphasis is on crops grown in Maine such as potatoes, broccoli, peas, blueberries,…

  7. Smallholder Agriculture and Climate Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohn, Avery S.; Newton, Peter; Dias Bernardes Gil, Juliana; Kuhl, Laura; Samberg, Leah; Ricciardi, Vincent; Manly, Jessica R.; Northrop, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of the world's poorest people directly depend on smallholder farming systems. These people now face a changing climate and associated societal responses. We use mapping and a literature review to juxtapose the climate fate of smallholder systems with that of other agricultural

  8. Agriculture & Agronomy: A Dissertation Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978

    This bibliography presents a compilation of Agriculture and Agronomy doctoral research for the years 1973-1976. Each of the 3,386 doctoral dissertations cited herein has been accepted by accredited degree-granting universities in North America and published by University Microfilms International (UMI). Dissertations are arranged alphabetically in…

  9. Waste heat utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, P.

    1983-01-01

    The Proceedings contain 17 papers presented at meetings of the Working Group for Waste Heat Utilization of the Committee of the European Society of Nuclear Methods in Agriculture of which 7 fall under the INIS scope. The working group met in May 1980 in Brno, Czechoslovakia, in October 1981 in Aberdeen, Scotland and in September 1982 in Brno. (Z.M.)

  10. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE...

  11. analysis of the influence of agricultural and non-agricultural sectors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INIAMA

    agricultural GDP led to a 0.243% and 0.743% change in the economy respectively. It means that the economy is inelastic with respect to agricultural and non-agricultural sector performance. The economy is more inelastic with respect to agricultural production than non-agricultural production. In countries where economies ...

  12. Does Agricultural Mechanics Laboratory Size Affect Agricultural Education Teachers' Job Satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Alex Preston; Anderson, Ryan G.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2015-01-01

    Secondary agricultural education teachers were surveyed to examine if a relationship existed between the physical attributes of agricultural mechanics laboratories and agricultural education teachers' enjoyment of teaching agricultural mechanics. Teachers also indicated their competence to teach courses other than agricultural mechanics within the…

  13. Sustainable intensification in agricultural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretty, Jules; Bharucha, Zareen Pervez

    2014-12-01

    Agricultural systems are amended ecosystems with a variety of properties. Modern agroecosystems have tended towards high through-flow systems, with energy supplied by fossil fuels directed out of the system (either deliberately for harvests or accidentally through side effects). In the coming decades, resource constraints over water, soil, biodiversity and land will affect agricultural systems. Sustainable agroecosystems are those tending to have a positive impact on natural, social and human capital, while unsustainable systems feed back to deplete these assets, leaving fewer for the future. Sustainable intensification (SI) is defined as a process or system where agricultural yields are increased without adverse environmental impact and without the conversion of additional non-agricultural land. The concept does not articulate or privilege any particular vision or method of agricultural production. Rather, it emphasizes ends rather than means, and does not pre-determine technologies, species mix or particular design components. The combination of the terms 'sustainable' and 'intensification' is an attempt to indicate that desirable outcomes around both more food and improved environmental goods and services could be achieved by a variety of means. Nonetheless, it remains controversial to some. This review analyses recent evidence of the impacts of SI in both developing and industrialized countries, and demonstrates that both yield and natural capital dividends can occur. The review begins with analysis of the emergence of combined agricultural-environmental systems, the environmental and social outcomes of recent agricultural revolutions, and analyses the challenges for food production this century as populations grow and consumption patterns change. Emergent criticisms are highlighted, and the positive impacts of SI on food outputs and renewable capital assets detailed. It concludes with observations on policies and incentives necessary for the wider adoption of

  14. Agricultural extension and mass media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraton, H

    1983-12-01

    To learn more about the use of the mass media for agricultural extension, the World Bank has considered the efforts of 2 units: INADES-formation in West Africa and the Extension Aids Branch of Malawi. The INADES-formation study focuses on Cameroon but also considers work in Rwanda and the Ivory Coast. Some general conclusions emerge from a comparison of the 2 organizations. Malawi operates an extension service which reaches farmers through extension agents, through farmer training centers, and through mass media. The Extension Aids Branch (EAB) has responsibility for its media work and broadcasts 4 1/2 hours of radio each week. Its 6 regular radio programs include a general program which interviews farmers, a music request program in which the music is interspersed with farming advice, a farming family serial, and a daily broadcast of agricultural news and information. The 17 cinema vans show some agricultural films, made by EAB, some entertainment films, and some government information films from departments other than the ministry of agriculture. EAB also has a well-developed program of research and evaluation of its own work. INADES-formation, the training section of INADES, works towards social and economic development of the population. It teaches peasant farmers and extension agents and does this through running face-to-face seminars, by publishing a magazine, "Agripromo," and through correspondence courses. In 1978-79 INADES-formation enrolled some 4500 farmers and extension agents as students. Both of these organizations work to teach farmers better agriculture techniques, and both were created in response to the fact that agricultural extension agents cannot meet all the farmers in their area. Despite the similarity of objective, there are differences in methods and philosophy. The EAB works in a single country and uses a variety of mass media, with print playing a minor role. INADES-formation is an international and nongovernmental organization and its

  15. Colombian experience in applying rules concerning agricultural biosecurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Silva C.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic engineering has made possible the creation of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs, or transgenic crops. The growth around the world of transgenic crops areas for commercial purposes, such as soybean, maize, canola and cotton is being amazing: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 52.6 million in 2001. Historically, not many technologies have reached, in such a short period of time, such a higher adoption. The use of these technologies, nevertheless their well-known benefits, has brought some worries related with biosafety. In Colombia the Colombian Institute for Agriculture and Cattle (ICA, its Spanish acronym in order to introduce GMOs to the country and prevent or minimize the potential risk for agriculture generated by this kind of organisms, has established two instruments: the Agreement 013/98, creating the National Technical Biosafety Committee (CTN, its Spanish acronym, intersectorial adviser organism; and the Resolution 3492/98, establishing procedures for introduction, production, reléase and marketing of GMOs for agricultural purposes. Under this regulations, ICA has approved five different requests involving eight events with GMOs: carnation for commercial multiplicación purposes; cotton and rice for evaluation genotype in field at a small scale; cassava, brachiaria, stylozantes, coffee and sugar cane for research in genetic improvement throughout genetic engineering techniques in confined handling. Based on the accomplished experience, the future will make improve the legal and institutional instruments, as well as technical and scientific capacity of the country in biosafety.

  16. Engineering Obsolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    Editor's Note: In this contribution to the series on Hackers, Makers, and Engineers, she tells us about her research on relationships to technological change in a long-lived NASA-ESA software infrastructure project. Her research considers how people live alongside technological change, inhabit...

  17. Combustion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Ragland, Kenneth W

    2011-01-01

    Introduction to Combustion Engineering The Nature of Combustion Combustion Emissions Global Climate Change Sustainability World Energy Production Structure of the Book   Section I: Basic Concepts Fuels Gaseous Fuels Liquid Fuels Solid Fuels Problems Thermodynamics of Combustion Review of First Law Concepts Properties of Mixtures Combustion StoichiometryChemical EnergyChemical EquilibriumAdiabatic Flame TemperatureChemical Kinetics of CombustionElementary ReactionsChain ReactionsGlobal ReactionsNitric Oxide KineticsReactions at a Solid SurfaceProblemsReferences  Section II: Combustion of Gaseous and Vaporized FuelsFlamesLaminar Premixed FlamesLaminar Flame TheoryTurbulent Premixed FlamesExplosion LimitsDiffusion FlamesGas-Fired Furnaces and BoilersEnergy Balance and EfficiencyFuel SubstitutionResidential Gas BurnersIndustrial Gas BurnersUtility Gas BurnersLow Swirl Gas BurnersPremixed-Charge Engine CombustionIntroduction to the Spark Ignition EngineEngine EfficiencyOne-Zone Model of Combustion in a Piston-...

  18. Engineering education in Bangladesh - an indicator of economic development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Harun; Alam, Firoz

    2012-05-01

    Developing nations including Bangladesh are significantly lagging behind the millennium development target due to the lack of science, technology and engineering education. Bangladesh as a least developing country has only 44 engineers per million people. Its technological education and gross domestic product growth are not collinear. Although limited progress was made in humanities, basic sciences, agriculture and medical sciences, a vast gap is left in technical and engineering education. This paper describes the present condition of engineering education in the country and explores ways to improve engineering education in order to meet the national as well as global skills demand.

  19. Study on biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duc, Phan Minh; Wattanavichien, Kanit

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a small IDI biogas premixed charge diesel dual fuelled CI engine used in agricultural applications. Engine performance, diesel fuel substitution, energy consumption and long term use have been concerned. The attained results show that biogas-diesel dual fuelling of this engine revealed almost no deterioration in engine performance but lower energy conversion efficiency which was offset by the reduced fuel cost of biogas over diesel. The long term use of this engine with biogas-diesel dual fuelling is feasible with some considerations

  20. Biocommodity Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynd; Wyman; Gerngross

    1999-10-01

    The application of biotechnology to the production of commodity products (fuels, chemicals, and materials) offering benefits in terms of sustainable resource supply and environmental quality is an emergent area of intellectual endeavor and industrial practice with great promise. Such "biocommodity engineering" is distinct from biotechnology motivated by health care at multiple levels, including economic driving forces, the importance of feedstocks and cost-motivated process engineering, and the scale of application. Plant biomass represents both the dominant foreseeable source of feedstocks for biotechnological processes as well as the only foreseeable sustainable source of organic fuels, chemicals, and materials. A variety of forms of biomass, notably many cellulosic feedstocks, are potentially available at a large scale and are cost-competitive with low-cost petroleum whether considered on a mass or energy basis, and in terms of price defined on a purchase or net basis for both current and projected mature technology, and on a transfer basis for mature technology. Thus the central, and we believe surmountable, impediment to more widespread application of biocommodity engineering is the general absence of low-cost processing technology. Technological and research challenges associated with converting plant biomass into commodity products are considered relative to overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass (converting cellulosic biomass into reactive intermediates) and product diversification (converting reactive intermediates into useful products). Advances are needed in pretreatment technology to make cellulosic materials accessible to enzymatic hydrolysis, with increased attention to the fundamental chemistry operative in pretreatment processes likely to accelerate progress. Important biotechnological challenges related to the utilization of cellulosic biomass include developing cellulase enzymes and microorganisms to produce them, fermentation of

  1. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  2. "Othering" agricultural biotechnology: Slovenian media representation of agricultural biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajc, Jožica; Erjavec, Karmen

    2014-08-01

    While studies on media representations of agricultural biotechnology mostly analyse media texts, this work is intended to fill a research gap with an analysis of journalistic interpretations of media representations. The purpose of this project was to determine how news media represent agricultural biotechnology and how journalists interpret their own representations. A content and critical discourse analysis of news texts published in the Slovenian media over two years and in-depth interviews with their authors were conducted. News texts results suggest that most of the news posts were "othering" biotechnology and biotechnologists: biotechnology as a science and individual scientists are represented as "they," who are socially irresponsible, ignorant, arrogant, and "our" enemies who produce unnatural processes and work for biotechnology companies, whose greed is destroying people, animals, and the environment. Most journalists consider these representations to be objective because they have published the biotechnologists' opinions, despite their own negative attitudes towards biotechnology.

  3. 77 FR 31302 - Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Renewal of the Charter for the Advisory Committee on Agriculture Statistics. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of...

  4. Geomorphological characterization of conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Cecchin, Marco; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Masin, Roberta

    2017-04-01

    Soil water erosion is one of the major threats to soil resources throughout the world. Conventional agriculture has worsened the situation. Therefore, agriculture is facing multiple challenges: it has to produce more food to feed a growing population, and, on the other hand, safeguard natural resources adopting more sustainable production practices. In this perspective, more conservation-minded soil management practices should be taken to achieve an environmental sustainability of crop production. Indeed, conservation agriculture is considered to produce relevant environmental positive outcomes (e.g. reducing runoff and soil erosion, improving soil organic matter content and soil structure, and promoting biological activity). However, as mechanical weed control is limited or absent, in conservation agriculture, dependence on herbicides increases especially in the first years of transition from the conventional system. Consequently, also the risk of herbicide losses via runoff or adsorbed to eroded soil particles could be increased. To better analyse the complexity of soil water erosion and runoff processes in landscapes characterised by conservation agriculture, first, it is necessary to demonstrate if such different practices can significantly affect the surface morphology. Indeed, surface processes such erosion and runoff strongly depend on the shape of the surface. The questions are: are the lands treated with conservation and conventional agriculture different from each other regarding surface morphology? If so, can these differences provide a better understanding of hydrogeomorphic processes as the basis for a better and sustainable land management? To give an answer to these questions, we considered six study areas (three cultivated with no-tillage techniques, three with tillage techniques) in an experimental farm. High-resolution topography, derived from low-cost and fast photogrammetric techniques Structure-from-Motion (SfM), served as the basis to

  5. Quiet engine program flight engine design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, J. F.; Neitzel, R. E.; Seeley, C. T.

    1974-01-01

    The results are presented of a preliminary flight engine design study based on the Quiet Engine Program high-bypass, low-noise turbofan engines. Engine configurations, weight, noise characteristics, and performance over a range of flight conditions typical of a subsonic transport aircraft were considered. High and low tip speed engines in various acoustically treated nacelle configurations were included.

  6. Agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, C

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports on results from a series of tests with four different types of agricultural residues as fuel for producer gas generation. The fuels are coconut shells, coconut husks, pelletized wheat-straw and pressed sugar cane. The tests were made with a 73 Hp (50 kW) agricultural tractor diesel engine equipped with a standard gasifier developed for wood chips in Sweden, and run on a testbed at the Swedish National Machinery Testing Institute. The engine was operated on approximately 10% diesel oil and 90% producer gas. The gas composition, its calorific value and temperature, the pressure drop and the engine power were monitored. Detailed elementary analysis of the fuel and gas were carried out. Observations were also made regarding the important aspects of bridging and slagging in the gasifier. The tests confirmed that coconut shells make an excellent fuel for producer gas generation. After 8 hours of running no problems with slags and bridging were experienced. Coconut husks showed no bridging but some slag formation. The gasifier operated satisfactorily for this fuel. Pelletized wheat straw and pressed sugar cane appeared unsuitable as fuel in the unmodified test gasifier (Type F 300) due to slag formation. It is important to note, however, that the present test results are not optimal for any of the fuels used, the gasifier being designed for wood-chips and not for the test-fuels used. Tests using approximately modified gasifiers are planned for the future.

  7. Engineering Review Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grems, III, Edward G. (Inventor); Henze, James E. (Inventor); Bixby, Jonathan A. (Inventor); Roberts, Mark (Inventor); Mann, Thomas (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A disciplinal engineering review computer information system and method by defining a database of disciplinal engineering review process entities for an enterprise engineering program, opening a computer supported engineering item based upon the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, managing a review of the opened engineering item according to the defined disciplinal engineering review process entities, and closing the opened engineering item according to the opened engineering item review.

  8. FINANCING MECHANISMS OF AGRICULTURE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight the importance of the agriculture financing ways, existing an interdependence relationship between the stage of agriculture development and its funding mechanisms. This article presents in a complex way, the general theoretical framework of the agriculture financing, and the practical methods of agriculture finance from bank loans to European programs and projects, the impact of EU funds on agriculture. The research leads to two important categories of tangible results; on one hand it highlights the most important and used ways to finance the Romanian agriculture, and on the other hand, there is analised the impact of EU funds on rural development, their absorption.

  9. Profitability Analysis for Agricultural Investment Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana VIRLANUTA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture production is based on a process both economically as well as the biological one, the work results are influenced, more than any branch of economic, natural and climatic conditions are subject to higher risk and permanently. Due to the features of production in agriculture, we believe that it is necessary such as performance agricultural units to be assessed under a system of specific indicators. The correct assessment units are closely related agricultural economic-financial investment in agriculture. In the following we present and analyze a complex system of specific performance indicators of the extremely for assessing agricultural units.

  10. Estimation of CN Parameter for Small Agricultural Watersheds Using Asymptotic Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Kowalik; Andrzej Walega

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a possibility of using asymptotic functions to determine the value of curve number (CN) parameter as a function of rainfall in small agricultural watersheds. It also compares the actually calculated CN with its values provided in the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) National Engineering Handbook Section 4: Hydrology (NEH-4) and Technical Release 20 (TR-20). The analysis showed that empirical CN values presented in the National Engineering Handbook tables differed from t...

  11. Restructuring Graduate Engineering Education: The M.Eng. Program at Cornell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, K. Bingham; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the restructuring of the graduate program to accommodate emerging fields in engineering. Notes half of the graduate degrees Cornell grants each year are M.Eng. degrees. Offers 12 specialties: aerospace, agriculture, chemical, civil, electrical, mechanical and nuclear engineering; computer science, engineering physics; geological…

  12. 48 CFR 436.209 - Construction contracts with architect-engineer firms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... with architect-engineer firms. 436.209 Section 436.209 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Special Aspects of Contracting for Construction 436.209 Construction contracts with architect-engineer...

  13. 7 CFR 1780.55 - Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental..., Designing, Bidding, Contracting, Constructing and Inspections § 1780.55 Preliminary engineering reports and Environmental Reports. Preliminary engineering reports (PERs) must conform to customary professional standards...

  14. Robot engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  15. Robot engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Seul

    2006-02-15

    This book deals with robot engineering, giving descriptions of robot's history, current tendency of robot field, work and characteristic of industrial robot, essential merit and vector, application of matrix, analysis of basic vector, expression of Denavit-Hartenberg, robot kinematics such as forward kinematics, inverse kinematics, cases of MATLAB program, and motion kinematics, robot kinetics like moment of inertia, centrifugal force and coriolis power, and Euler-Lagrangian equation course plan, SIMULINK position control of robots.

  16. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.; Anderson, D.B.; Hungate, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing resrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  17. Irradiation of Northwest agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakin, D.E.; Tingey, G.L.

    1985-02-01

    Irradiation of food for disinfestation and preservation is increasing in importance because of increasing restrictions on various chemical treatments. Irradiation treatment is of particular interest in the Northwest because of a growing supply of agricultural products and the need to develop new export markets. Several products have, or could potentially have, significant export markets if stringent insect control procedures are developed and followed. Due to the recognized potential benefits of irradiation, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is conducting this program to evaluate the benefits of using irradiation on Northwest agricultural products under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Defense Byproducts Production and Utilization Program. Commodities currently included in the program are cherries, apples, asparagus, spices, hay, and hides

  18. Savings and Debts in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The savings and debts problematic bring us in front the Keynesian principles of supporting the global demand, so spectacular immortalized inside his “General Theory of Money. The architects of the European Union consider that production in agriculture and other economic branches is “ab initio” grounded on the credit mechanism administrated by banks: the present day approach of the agricultural process configured it as costly, owing a relatively medium to long term duration, and risky, making important the banking institution for mitigating such constrains. Romania fights for the ambitious goal of entering in the euro zone, and this target became even more challenging after the new EU Regulation No 1176/2011 on the prevention and correction of macroeconomic imbalances, which stipulates a safer surveillance for the member states. In fact, our country has to meet the exigencies of nominal and real convergence criteria, measured by the European scoreboard and relevant index.

  19. Cogeneration in Italian agricultural industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfitto, E.; Jacoboni, S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper examines the technical, environmental and economical feasibility of an industrial cogeneration system which incorporates combined gas-steam cycles and a biomass/agricultural waste sludge fired fluidized bed combustion system. It cites the suitability of the use of fluidized bed combustion for the combustion of biomass and agricultural waste sludges - high combustion efficiency, uniform and relatively low combustion temperatures (850 C) within the combustion chamber to reduce scaling, reduced nitrogen oxide and micro-pollutant emissions, the possibility to control exhaust gas acidity through the injection of calcium carbonates, the possibility of the contemporaneous feeding of different fuels. Reference is made to test results obtained with an ENEL (Italian National Electricity Board) pilot plant fired by vineyard wastes. Attention is given to an analysis of the fuel's physical-chemical characteristics and the resulting flue gas chemical composition and ash characteristics. Comparisons are made with legal release limits

  20. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    1991-01-01

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  1. Planetary engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, James B.; Sagan, Carl

    Assuming commercial fusion power, heavy lift vehicles and major advances in genetic engineering, the authors survey possible late-21st century methods of working major transformations in planetary environments. Much more Earthlike climates may be produced on Mars by generating low freezing point greenhouse gases from indigenous materials; on Venus by biological conversion of CO2 to graphite, by canceling the greenhouse effect with high-altitude absorbing fine particles, or by a sunshield at the first Lagrangian point; and on Titan by greenhouses and/or fusion warming. However, in our present state of ignorance we cannot guarantee a stable endstate or exclude unanticipated climatic feedbacks or other unintended consequences. Moreover, as the authors illustrate by several examples, many conceivable modes of planetary engineering are so wasteful of scarce solar system resources and so destructive of important scientific information as to raise profound ethical issues, even if they were economically feasible, which they are not. Global warming on Earth may lead to calls for mitigation by planetary engineering, e.g., emplacement and replenishment of anti-greenhouse layers at high altitudes, or sunshields in space. But here especially we must be concerned about precision, stability, and inadvertent side-effects. The safest and most cost-effective means of countering global warming - beyond, e.g., improved energy efficiency, CFC bans and alternative energy sources - is the continuing reforestation of approximately 2 times 107 sq km of the Earth's surface. This can be accomplished with present technology and probably at the least cost.

  2. Web Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Bebo

    2003-06-23

    Web Engineering is the application of systematic, disciplined and quantifiable approaches to development, operation, and maintenance of Web-based applications. It is both a pro-active approach and a growing collection of theoretical and empirical research in Web application development. This paper gives an overview of Web Engineering by addressing the questions: (a) why is it needed? (b) what is its domain of operation? (c) how does it help and what should it do to improve Web application development? and (d) how should it be incorporated in education and training? The paper discusses the significant differences that exist between Web applications and conventional software, the taxonomy of Web applications, the progress made so far and the research issues and experience of creating a specialization at the master's level. The paper reaches a conclusion that Web Engineering at this stage is a moving target since Web technologies are constantly evolving, making new types of applications possible, which in turn may require innovations in how they are built, deployed and maintained.

  3. USSR Report, Agriculture, No. 1392

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-26

    vineyards and spraying plants with special pre- parations. The necessary measures are being taken to supply foodstuffs to the population. Fodder is...introduced for large-horned cattle, hogs, sheep , milk, grain and other agricultural products and bonuses were also introduced for adding on to the...products is being produced. The procurement prices for large-horned cattle have been raised an average of 15 percent, for sheep and goats -- 22

  4. Working group report on agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, B.

    1991-01-01

    A summary is provided of the results from a working group investigating the implications of climatic change on agriculture in the Great Plains. The group investigated the current state of knowledge concerning basic understanding of climatic impacts, scales of analysis, impact model validation, lack of integrated modelling, and incomplete and incompatible data sets. Basic understanding of current spatial and temporal climatic variability and its impacts and implications for agricultural production, land resource sustainability, and farm management decisions is imprecise. There is little understanding of the magnitude of potential longer-term changes, timing, likely regional changes, or probability of change. Most models are unvalidated, and knowledge of potential carbon dioxide enrichment effects on crops is very uncertain and the effects are poorly understood. Research should be expanded to develop a better understanding of the critical thresholds and sensitivity of Great Plains agricultural production and economic systems. Holistic methodology should be implemented to integrate weather and climatic information with crop and environmental processes, farm level decision making, and local and regional economic conditions

  5. Trichoderma for climate resilient agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Prem Lal; Rai, Pallavi; Srivastava, Alok Kumar; Kumar, Sudheer

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is one of the biggest challenges of the twenty-first century for sustainable agricultural production. Several reports highlighted the need for better agricultural practices and use of eco-friendly methods for sustainable crop production under such situations. In this context, Trichoderma species could be a model fungus to sustain crop productivity. Currently, these are widely used as inoculants for biocontrol, biofertilization, and phytostimulation. They are reported to improve photosynthetic efficiency, enhance nutrient uptake and increase nitrogen use efficiency in crops. Moreover, they can be used to produce bio-energy, facilitate plants for adaptation and mitigate adverse effect of climate change. The technological advancement in high throughput DNA sequencing and biotechnology provided deep insight into the complex and diverse biotic interactions established in nature by Trichoderma spp. and efforts are being made to translate this knowledge to enhance crop growth, resistance to disease and tolerance to abiotic stresses under field conditions. The discovery of several traits and genes that are involved in the beneficial effects of Trichoderma spp. has resulted in better understanding of the performance of bioinoculants in the field, and will lead to more efficient use of these strains and possibly to their improvement by genetic modification. The present mini-review is an effort to elucidate the molecular basis of plant growth promotion and defence activation by Trichoderma spp. to garner broad perspectives regarding their functioning and applicability for climate resilient agriculture.

  6. Genetic technology and agricultural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, W J; Blase, M G

    1971-07-09

    The genetic technologies being adopted in South Asia are significant factors in the agricultural development of the area. But, labeling them " miracle seeds," solely responsible for recent agricultural growth, is misleading. Certainly the introduction of new genetic technology has catalyzed South Asian agriculture and has instilled a new dynamism essential to economic development. Somewhat similar phenomena have, however, been observed in other parts of the world in other periods of history. The nature of these genetic technologies, how they are being applied, and their limits and potential have been explored above. Also, the effects of these varieties on the generation of employment, and the distribution of benefits accruing from them have been examined in preliminary fashion. Stemming from the preceding discussion, two areas of priority appear obvious. First, the close association of genetic technologies with irrigation suggests that irrigation should receive more attention than it has in the past. Large-scale public irrigation schemes are expensive and have tended to yield low rates of return. However, there appears to be room for marginal increases in, or improvements of, existing irrigation facilities. Second, even with a rapid spread of the practices associated with highyeild varieties, it may be too much to expect the farm sector to absorb the expected increases in the rural labor force. The generation of employment is a major problem in India as well as in most other developing countries. Hence, possibilities for expanding rural, nonfarm employment and controlling population growth should be sought vigorously.

  7. Agriculture in an industrial framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Thomas

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available The present shape of agriculture in every country is the result of a complex of past economic, social and political factors. These factors are continuously under pressure from new forces. Today, for better or for worse, the pursuit of economic growth has become the dominant force the world over. In order to achieve and sustain a more rapid rate of growth two things are necessary. The first is to improve productivity within each activity by the greater application of capital, by better technology, by better management and by better organisation. The second is to aim at the optimum allocation of resources between activities by moving resources from less to more productive uses. Pursuing these two paths towards faster growth is releasing two sets of forces which are exerting a radical impact on both the size and the pattern of agriculture. This paper deals with this impact on agriculture in contemporary Britain a highly industrial and a preponderantly urban nation committed to the experiment of running a hybrid economy based on the two pillars of private enterprise and public control.

  8. Childhood agricultural injuries: an update for clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Suzanne; Marlenga, Barbara; Lee, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    Every three days a child dies in an agriculture-related incident, and every day 45 children are injured in the United States. These tragedies should not be regarded as "accidents," as they often follow predictable and preventable patterns. Prevention is not only possible, but vital, since many of these injuries are almost immediately fatal. Major sources of fatal injuries are machinery, motor vehicles, and drowning. Tractor injuries alone account for one-third of all deaths. The leading sources of nonfatal injuries are structures and surfaces, animals (primarily horses), and vehicles (primarily all-terrain vehicles [ATVs]). Children living on farms are at a higher risk than hired workers, and are unprotected by child labor laws. Preschool children and older male youth are at the highest risk for fatal injury, while nonfatal injury was most common among boys aged 10-15 years. Multiple prevention strategies have been developed, yet economic and cultural barriers often impede their implementation. Educational campaigns alone are often ineffective, and must be coupled with re-engineering of machines and safety devices to reduce fatalities. Legislation has the potential to improve child safety, yet political and economic pressures often prohibit changes in child labor laws and mandated safety requirements. Clinicians play a pivotal role in injury prevention, and should actively address common rural risk-taking behaviors as part of the routine office visit in order to help prevent these tragedies. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Students' Perception of West African Agricultural Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    E M IGBOKWE

    recommended that West African Agricultural Productivity Programme officials ... The agricultural sector in the 1960s provided the main source of employment, .... their fathers and mothers' occupation were majorly trading (43.3%) and trading.

  10. Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biotechnology in plant nutrient management for agricultural production in the tropics: ... and yields, marker assisted selection breeding, to develop new uses for agricultural products, to facilitate early maturation and to improve food and feed ...

  11. Comparative Performance Evaluation of the Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) ... Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike Umuahia. Abia State. Nigeria ... part of Nigeria, with specific interest in extension services delivery within the period 2006-2008. Purpose of the ...

  12. Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Documenting and disseminating agricultural indigenous knowledge for sustainable food security in Uganda. ... University of Dar es Salaam Library Journal ... Moreover, small-scale farmers should be involved in agricultural extension services ...

  13. Australian agricultural quarantine - imports and exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turpin, J.W.; Read, B.J.; Pinson, R.S.; Higgs, G.M.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural quarantine is administered by Government to protect all facets of agriculture and the environment from unwanted pests and diseases of animals and plants. Ionising energy would appear to have an excellent future as a quarantine treatment

  14. Ecology and agriculture. Ekologiya i zemledelie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishustin, E N [ed.

    1980-01-01

    Separate abstracts are given 38 articles concerned with an examination of socioeconomic, legal, and methodological problems of agricultural ecology and raising the effectiveness of agricultural production. Several articles deal with environmental protection and human health.

  15. Clean Water Act Section 404 and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and EPA have longstanding programs to promote water quality and broader environmental goals identified in both the Agriculture Act of 2014 and the Clean Water Act.

  16. Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nanotechnology in sustainable agriculture: Present concerns and future aspects. ... of those living in developing countries face daily food shortages as a result of ... applications in agricultural, food, and water safety that could have significant ...

  17. IMPACT OF ROAD TRANSPORT ON AGRICULTURAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    2012-03-09

    Mar 9, 2012 ... transport has both positive and negative impact on agricultural development in the study area. However ... Keywords: Rural Development, Marketing, Transportation, Agricultural .... motorcycle and public transport (lorries, pick-.

  18. Ask a Question | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Technology Rural Development Visual Arts and Agricultural History Publications Alternative Farming Weeds Research and Technology Bioenergy and Biofuels Biotechnology Production Technology and Resources Sustainable Rural Communities What is Rural? Visual Arts and Agricultural History Abraham Lincoln

  19. Journal of Agricultural Research and Development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Agricultural Research and Development aims at publishing research reports, short communications, Critical Reviews in Agricultural Economics and Farm ... Response of Sesamum radiatum Schum vegetable and seed yield to ...

  20. Organic Fertilizer: The Underestimated Component in Agricultural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... been on chemical fertilizer while the impact of the bio-organic input has been neglected. ... Key words: Organic input, environmental remediation, food security, small-holder rural farmers, sustainable agriculture, agricultural transformation ...

  1. Agricultural waste concept, generation, utilization and management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural wastes are non-product outputs of production and processing of ... less than the cost of collection, transportation, and processing for beneficial use. ... Agricultural waste management system (AWMS) was discussed and a typical ...

  2. Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management - A Sourcebook Volume 3 : Doing Participatory Research and Development. Couverture du livre Participatory Research and Development for Sustainable Agriculture and Natural Resource Management : A.

  3. Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Developing Society in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives in Developing Society in Relation to Poverty Alleviation and ... This paper illuminates the nature and inception of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives and their ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  4. The imperative for regenerative agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Christopher J

    2017-03-01

    A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded. Regenerative agriculture has at its core the intention to improve the health of soil or to restore highly degraded soil, which symbiotically enhances the quality of water, vegetation and land-productivity. By using methods of regenerative agriculture, it is possible not only to increase the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) in existing soils, but to build new soil. This has the effect of drawing down carbon from the atmosphere, while simultaneously improving soil structure and soil health, soil fertility and crop yields, water retention and aquifer recharge - thus ameliorating both flooding and drought, and also the erosion of further soil, since runoff is reduced. Since food production on a more local scale is found to preserve the soil and its quality, urban food production should be seen as a significant potential contributor to regenerative agriculture in the future, so long as the methods employed are themselves 'regenerative'. If localisation is to become a dominant strategy for dealing with a vastly reduced use of fossil fuels, and preserving soil quality - with increased food production in towns and cities - it will be necessary to incorporate integrated ('systems') design approaches such as permaculture and the circular economy (which minimise and repurpose 'waste') within the existing urban infrastructure. In

  5. Engineering Paradise:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Kolivras, Korine; Galloway, William

    2011-01-01

    Mass tourism development projects transform rural landscapes in profound ways. They alter how local populations historically use the land and sea, typically by shifting them away from subsistence agriculture and fishing, to low-end wages in tourist resorts and ancillary services. Development...... or even to foreigners. For low-skilled tourist workers, it is debatable whether or not living conditions and quality of life are actually improved by this form of economic development. A series of social problems appear, leaving governments to address how they will handle an inequitable distribution...... of wealth. This paper analyzes the most ambitious mass tourism complex undertaken in the Caribbean in the new millennium. Cap Cana, a joint venture between Dominican and international backers including the Wall Street tycoon Donald Trump, repre- sents a new blend of hybrid branding and life...

  6. Relationship between biodiversity and agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Brunetti, Ilaria; Tidball, Mabel; Couvet, Denis

    2018-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the main causes of biodiversity loss. In this work we model the interdependent relationship between biodiversity and agriculture on a farmed land, supposing that, while agriculture has a negative impact on biodiversity, the latter can increase agricultural production. Farmers act as myopic agents, who maximize their instantaneous profit without considering the negative effects of their practice on the evolution of biodiversity. We find that a tax on inputs can have a pos...

  7. Materials Science and Engineering |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engineering? What Is Materials Science and Engineering? MSE combines engineering, physics and chemistry to solve problems in nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing, and more ,' which could replace steel. Materials Science and Mechanical Engineering Professors work together to

  8. Development and outlook for agriculture in international climate negotiations. Climate Report no. 48

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tronquet, Clothilde; Foucherot, Claudine

    2015-02-01

    international negotiations, although they remain on the margins of the UN's action. The obstacles to establishing mitigation and adaptation mechanisms in the agricultural sector, from engineering to funding, are abundant and difficult to overcome. Therefore the perceived 'slowness' of international negotiations on the subject of agriculture only reflects the scale of the challenges to be tackled, i.e. the importance of agriculture in trade, its political sensitivity and the complexity of the scientific and technical challenge presented by the reduction and monitoring of agricultural emissions. Furthermore, it is a matter of rethinking agricultural development trajectories, modifying the organisation of agricultural sub-sectors, from input production to consumption habits, and considering the effective impacts on stakeholders, including in terms of development. (authors)

  9. Engineering justice transforming engineering education and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Leydens, Jon A

    2018-01-01

    Using social justice as a catalyst for curricular transformation, Engineering Justice presents an examination of how politics, culture, and other social issues are inherent in the practice of engineering. It aims to align engineering curricula with socially just outcomes, increase enrollment among underrepresented groups, and lessen lingering gender, class, and ethnicity gaps by showing how the power of engineering knowledge can be explicitly harnessed to serve the underserved and address social inequalities. This book is meant to transform the way educators think about engineering curricula through creating or transforming existing courses to attract, retain, and motivate engineering students to become professionals who enact engineering for social justice. Engineering Justice offers thought-provoking chapters on: why social justice is inherent yet often invisible in engineering education and practice; engineering design for social justice; social justice in the engineering sciences; social justice in human...

  10. 29 CFR 570.123 - Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agriculture. 570.123 Section 570.123 Labor Regulations... Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Exemptions § 570.123 Agriculture. (a) Section... agriculture outside of school hours for the school district where such employee is living while he is so...

  11. Preservice Agricultural Education Teachers' Mathematics Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripling, Christopher T.; Roberts, T. Grady

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mathematics ability of the nation's preservice agricultural education teachers. Based on the results of this study, preservice teachers were not proficient in solving agricultural mathematics problems, and agricultural teacher education programs require basic and intermediate mathematics as their…

  12. Agricultural mechanization in Ethiopian: Experience, status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agricultural Mechanization deals with the use of any mechanical aid in agricultural production. ... The productivity of each level depends on the power source. ... During Imperial Ethiopia, there were big farms operating as share companies, ... based agricultural mechanization system, where precision and efficiency are the ...

  13. Readership Study of an Agricultural Magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Ted

    Since the fall of 1957, the Louisiana Agricultural Experiment Station has published a semi-scientific quarterly magazine, "Louisiana Agriculture," to present information on the station's research to Louisiana citizens, particularly public officials, members of the agribusiness sector, science-oriented farmers, agriculture and science…

  14. Trade-offs of European agricultural abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zanden, Emma H.; Verburg, Peter H.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Verkerk, Pieter Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural land abandonment is a policy challenge, especially for areas with unfavorable conditions for agriculture and remote and mountainous areas. Agricultural abandonment is an important land use process in many world regions and one of the dominant land use change processes in Europe.

  15. The sociology of the Australian agricultural environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanclay, F.

    1994-01-01

    Australian agriculture is in crisis, the terms of trade for agriculture are falling, many farmers have negative incomes, and there is massive structural adjustment with government policy assisting the exit of marginal farmers out of agriculture. Australian governments are gripped with the

  16. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR), a biannual journal, is an official publication of Agricultural Volunteers of Nigeria (AgVON). The journal considers articles from the following areas: Agriculture, Home Economics/Food science, forestry, wildlife and fisheries, environment and waste management, economics, ...

  17. Agricultural utilization of industrial thermal effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, P.; Delmas, J.; Grauby, A.

    1976-01-01

    An assessment is made of the utilization of thermal effluent for agricultural purpose (viz. early vegetables, cereals, trees). Heated waters are being used in field experiments on soil heating, improvement of agricultural procedures and crop yields. Thermal pollution cannot be removed yet it is reduced to acceptable limits. New prospects are open to traditional agriculture, leading towards a more competitive industrial model [fr

  18. Spanish for Agricultural Purposes: The Basic Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Bruce H.; And Others

    This manual, part of a one-semester course for North American agriculture specialists preparing to work in Latin America, is built around specimens of agricultural writing in Spanish. The manual contains 12 lessons on general agriculture, sugar production, grain production, geography, forestry, animal husbandry, soy bean production, agricultural…

  19. Water and agriculture in the Maghreb

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, C.; Klooster, van 't C.E.

    2012-01-01

    This report assesses the current situation of water and agriculture in the Maghreb region and identifies the challenges ahead. Agriculture plays an important role in the development of the countries of the Maghreb. Agricultural reforms are high on the agendas. All Maghreb countries have developed

  20. Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... Determinants of Aggregate Agricultural Productivity among High External Input Technology Farms in a ... of aggregate agricultural productivity in an environment where policy on ... to increase the farm sizes through re-examination of the existing land laws.