WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural drainage water

  1. Denitrification of agricultural drainage line water via immobilized denitrification sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Patrick G; Matheny, Terry A; Ro, Kyoung S; Stone, Kenneth C; Vanotti, Matias B

    2008-07-15

    Nonpoint source nitrogen is recognized as a significant water pollutant worldwide. One of the major contributors is agricultural drainage line water. A potential method of reducing this nitrogen discharge to water bodies is the use of immobilized denitrifying sludge (IDS). Our objectives were to (1) produce an effective IDS, (2) determine the IDS reaction kinetics in laboratory column bioreactors, and (3) test a field bioreactor for nitrogen removal from agricultural drainage line water. We developed a mixed liquor suspended solid (MLSS) denitrifying sludge using inoculant from an overland flow treatment system. It had a specific denitrification rate of 11.4 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) MLSS h(-1). We used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) to immobilize this sludge and form IDS pellets. When placed in a 3.8-L column bioreactor, the IDS had a maximum removal rate (K(MAX)) of 3.64 mg NO(3)-N g(-1) pellet d(-1). In a field test with drainage water containing 7.8 mg NO(3)-N L(-1), 50% nitrogen removal was obtained with a 1 hr hydraulic retention time. Expressed as a 1 m(3) cubically-shaped bioreactor, the nitrogen removal rate would be 94 g NO(3)-N m(-2)d(-1), which is dramatically higher than treatment wetlands or passive carbonaceous bioreactors. IDS bioreactors offer potential for reducing nitrogen discharge from agricultural drainage lines. More research is needed to develop the bioreactors for agricultural use and to devise effective strategies for their implementation with other emerging technologies for improved water quality on both watershed and basin scales. PMID:18569323

  2. Sorbents for phosphate removal from agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsie, Gry

    , of the materials investigated the results from phosphate sorption and desorption studies clearly demonstrate that regarding phosphate sorption affinity, capacity and reactivity, iron oxide based PSM is superior as a filter material compared to the other tested materials.......Subsurface transport of phosphate (P) from fertilized agricultural fields to freshwaters may lead to eutrophication and reduced biodiversity in inland waters. Mitigation of eutrophic waters is difficult and costly. Reduction of P export to surface waters using filters installed in agricultural......-through cells. Further, in order to improve our understanding of phosphate sorption reactions and kinetics for different types of commercial available PSMs, three different types were studied by means of isothermal titration calorimetry, sorption isotherms, sequential extractions and SEM-EDS. In conclusion...

  3. Agricultural Drainage Water Management in the Upper Mississippi River Basin: Potential Impact and Implementation Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The unique soil and climate of the Upper Mississippi River Basin area provide the resources for bountiful agricultural production. Agricultural drainage (both surface and subsurface drainage) is essential for achieving economically viable crop production and management. Drainage practices alter the ...

  4. Removal of selenium from contaminated agricultural drainage water by nanofiltration membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Ambats, G.; Presser, T.S.; Davis, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    Seleniferous agricultural drainage wastewater has become a new major source of pollution in the world. In the USA, large areas of farmland in 17 western states, generate contaminated salinized drainage with Se concentrations much higher than 5 ??g/l, the US Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criterion for the protection of aquatic life; Se values locally reach 4200 ??g/l in western San Joaquin Valley, California. Wetland habitats receiving this drainage have generally shown Se toxicosis in aquatic birds causing high rates of embryonic deformity and mortality, or have indicated potential ecological damage. Results of our laboratory flow experiments indicate that nanofiltration, the latest membrane separation technology, can selectively remove > 95% of Se and other multivalent anions from > 90% of highly contaminated water from the San Joaquin Valley, California. Such membranes yield greater water output and require lower pressures and less pretreatment, and therefore, are more cost effective than traditional reverse osmosis membranes. Nanofiltration membranes offer a potential breakthrough for the management of Se contaminated wastes not only from agricultural drainage, but from other sources also.

  5. Managing selenium-contaminated agricultural drainage water by the integrated on-farm drainage management system: role of selenium volatilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z Q; Cervinka, V; Pickering, I J; Zayed, A; Terry, N

    2002-07-01

    The Integrated on-Farm Drainage Management (IFDM) system was designed to dispose of selenium (Se)-contaminated agricultural irrigation drainage water through the sequential reuse of saline drainage water to grow crops having different salt tolerance. This study quantified the extent of biological volatilization in Se removal from the IFDM system located in the western San Joaquin Valley, California. Selenium volatilization from selected treatment areas, including pickleweed (Salicornia bigelovii Torr.), saltgrass (Distichlis spicata L.), bare soil, and the solar evaporator, was monitored biweekly using an open-flow sampling chamber system during the pickleweed growing season from February to September 1997, and monthly from September 1997 to January 1998. Biological volatilization from the pickleweed section removed 62.0 +/- 3.6 mg Se m(-2) y(-1) to the atmosphere, which was 5.5-fold greater than the Se accumulated in pickleweed tissues (i.e., phytoextraction). The total Se removed by volatilization from the bare soil, saltgrass, and the solar evaporator was 16.7 +/- 1.1, 4.8 +/- 0.3, and 4.3 +/- 0.9mg Se m(-2) y(-1), respectively. Selenium removal by volatilization accounted for 6.5% of the annual total Se input (957.7mg Sem(-2) y(-1)) in the pickleweed field, and about 1% of the total Se input (432.7 mg Se m(-2) y(-1)) in the solar evaporator. We concluded that Se volatilization under naturally occurring field conditions represented a relatively minor, but environmentally important pathway of Se removal from the IFDM system.

  6. Agricultural pesticides in six drainage basins used for public water supply in New Jersey, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Buxton, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A reconnaissance study of six drainage basins in New Jersey was conducted to evaluate the presence of pesticides from agricultural runoff in surface water. In the first phase of the study, surface-water public-supply drainage basins throughout New Jersey that could be affected by pesticide applications were identified by use of a Geographic Information System. Six basins--Lower Mine Hill Reservoir, South Branch of the Raritan River, Main Branch of the Raritan River, Millstone River, Manasquan River, and Matchaponix Brook--were selected as those most likely to be affected by pesticides on the basis of calculated pesticide-application rates and percentage of agricultural land. The second phase of the project was a short-term water-quality reconnaissance of the six drainage basins to determine whether pesticides were present in the surface waters. Twenty-eight surface-water samples (22 water-quality samples, 3 sequentially collected samples, and 3 trip blanks), and 6 samples from water-treatment facilities were collected. Excluding trip blanks, samples from water-treatment facilities, and sequentially collected samples, the pesticides detected in the samples and the percentage of samples in which they were detected, were as follows: atrazine and metolachlor, 86 percent; alachlor, 55 percent; simazine, 45 percent; diazinon, 27 percent; cyanazine and carbaryl, 23 percent; linuron and isophenfos, 9 percent; and chlorpyrifos, 5 percent.Diazinon, detected in one stormflow sample collected from Matchaponix Brook on August 6, 1990, was the only compound to exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's recommended Lifetime Health Advisory Limit. Correlation between ranked metolachlor concentrations and ranked flow rates was high, and 25 percent of the variance in metolachlor concentrations can be attributed to variations in flow rate. Pesticide residues were detected in samples of pretreated and treated water from water-treatment facilities. Concentrations of all

  7. Comparing two surface flow wetlands for removal of nutrients in agricultural drainage water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Levesen, Bo;

    In Denmark there is a growing interest for using constructed wetlands as a mean for removal of nutrients from agricultural run-off, such as drainage ditches and tile drainage systems. We have studied two surface flow constructed wetlands from district Vejle, Jutland, Denmark. The Vicarage Wetland...... was constructed in 2006 and put into operation in December 2006. It is the pond type with an area of 877 m2 and a volume of 200 m3. The inlet, which stems from a drainage system, consists of a small stream with wet riparian areas with an area of 1222 m2 and 103 m2 open water. Mean hydraulic load is 3.7 l s-1...... m2, respectively. In between the two ponds is a small wetland with an area of 745 m2. Inlet water comes from a drainage system and mean hydraulic load is 5.7 l s-1, and the volume of the ponds is 90 and 400 m3, respectively, thus giving a residence time of approximately 24 hours. The two ponds only...

  8. Drainage water management for water quality protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land drainage has been central to the development of North America since colonial times. Increasingly, agricultural drainage is being targeted as a conduit for pollution, particularly nutrient pollution. The export of agricultural drainage water and associated pollutants to surface water can be mana...

  9. Evaluation of water quality management problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering Modoc national wildlife refuge and the Ash Creek wildlife management area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objective of this investigation was to determine water quality problems or potential problems caused by agricultural drainage water entering the Modoc National...

  10. Quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water in irrigated agricultural lands in a Mediterranean coastal region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odemiş, Berkant; Bozkurt, Sefer; Ağca, Necat; Yalçin, Mehmet

    2006-04-01

    Spatial and seasonal differences in water quality of drainage water and unconfined shallow groundwater were related to irrigation in Samandağ, a Mediterranean coastal region. Eighteen wells, seven drainage points and Orontes River were monitored bimonthly for one year for analyses of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), cations (Na, K, Ca + Mg) and anions (CO(3), HCO(3), Cl and SO(4)). Agricultural irrigation using saline groundwater decreased water quality of Orontes River during the irrigation season (May to September) more than during the non-irrigation season (October to April). Seasonal fluctuations in water quality of shallow groundwater were greater during the irrigation season than the non-irrigation season in the study area. Excessive use of groundwater resulted in a decline in the water table levels in the irrigation season. Water table level rose up to the soil surface in areas where there was a lack of drainage or poor drainage, due to the impact of precipitation in the winter. SAR and pH values of drainage water increased in the irrigation season, while the other properties of drainage water decreased. Irrigation water quality of Orontes River was classified as C(3)S(1) in both seasons. Irrigation water quality of shallow groundwater and drainage water varied from C(2)S(1) to C(4)S(2) in one year. Drainage and well waters were found to be different on yearly basis in terms of Na, SAR (p<0.01) and Ca + Mg concentrations (p<0.001). Ca + Mg concentrations for both sources were different for all sampling dates (p<0.001). PMID:16614781

  11. Determination of commonly used polar herbicides in agricultural drainage waters in Australia by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T K; Hyne, Ross V; Doble, Philip

    2007-03-01

    The present study describes the application of different extraction techniques for the preconcentration of ten commonly found acidic and non-acidic polar herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, bensulfuron-methyl, clomazone, dicamba, diuron, MCPA, metolachlor, simazine and triclopyr) in the aqueous environment. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges or SBD-XC Empore disks were compared for extraction efficiency of these herbicides in different matrices, especially water samples from contaminated agricultural drainage water containing high concentrations of particulate matter. Herbicides were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. SPE using SDB-XC Empore disks was applied to determine target herbicides in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (NSW, Australia) during a two-week survey from October 2005 to November 2005. The daily aqueous concentrations of herbicides from 24-h composite samples detected at two sites increased after run-off from a storm event and were in the range of: 0.1-17.8 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.9 microg l(-1) and 0.2-17.8 microg l(-1) at site 1; < 0.1-3.5 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.2 microg l(-1) and < 0.2-3.2 microg l(-1) at site 2 for simazine, atrazine and diuron, respectively.

  12. Determination of commonly used polar herbicides in agricultural drainage waters in Australia by HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Anh T K; Hyne, Ross V; Doble, Philip

    2007-03-01

    The present study describes the application of different extraction techniques for the preconcentration of ten commonly found acidic and non-acidic polar herbicides (2,4-D, atrazine, bensulfuron-methyl, clomazone, dicamba, diuron, MCPA, metolachlor, simazine and triclopyr) in the aqueous environment. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) with dichloromethane, solid-phase extraction (SPE) using Oasis HLB cartridges or SBD-XC Empore disks were compared for extraction efficiency of these herbicides in different matrices, especially water samples from contaminated agricultural drainage water containing high concentrations of particulate matter. Herbicides were separated and quantified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detector. SPE using SDB-XC Empore disks was applied to determine target herbicides in the Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (NSW, Australia) during a two-week survey from October 2005 to November 2005. The daily aqueous concentrations of herbicides from 24-h composite samples detected at two sites increased after run-off from a storm event and were in the range of: 0.1-17.8 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.9 microg l(-1) and 0.2-17.8 microg l(-1) at site 1; < 0.1-3.5 microg l(-1), < 0.1-0.2 microg l(-1) and < 0.2-3.2 microg l(-1) at site 2 for simazine, atrazine and diuron, respectively. PMID:17184816

  13. Performance evaluation of agricultural drainage water using modeling and statistical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Nasr

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed spatial variations in physical and chemical properties of an agricultural drain near Borg El-Arab city, Alexandria, Egypt. Pearson’s correlation coefficient indicated that salinity had strong correlations with total dissolved solids (TDS (r 0.999, p < 0.001 and Cl− (r 0.807, p 0.016, whereas, pH was considerably affected by temperature (r 0.674, p 0.067, oxidation reduction potential (ORP (r 0.866, p 0.006 and NO3− (r 0.731, p 0.039. Those results were further confirmed by applying an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and regression models. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA indicated that PC1 explained 41.1% of the total variance, and had high loadings of TDS (0.46, salinity (0.46 and Cl− (0.48. Additionally, PC2 accounted for 35.2% of the total variance, and had high loadings of pH (0.53, temperature (0.48, ORP (0.40 and NO3− (0.47. The present study revealed that artificial intelligence and PCA could be used to effectively reduce the number of physicochemical parameters that may assist in the description of drainage water quality. It is recommended that the current status of the drain is suitable for reuse in irrigation purposes except at few locations containing high salinity.

  14. Dielectric spectroscopic studies on the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahani, Ragab; Atia, Fatma; Al Neklawy, Mohammed M.; Fahem, Amin

    2016-06-01

    The present paper aims to investigate the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to changes in concentrations of pollutants (heavy metals and metal oxides) uptake by the water hyacinth plant collected from agriculture wastewater drainage. The measurements were carried out on the dried root and shoot plant parts before and after subjecting to different microwave heating powers for different times. Dielectric properties of the untreated root were investigated at temperature range (30-90 °C). X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) results showed that the concentration of metals and metals oxides are higher in plant root than in plant shoot. Accordingly, the obtained dielectric properties were found to depend on the applied electric field frequency, magnitude of heating power as well as concentrations of pollutants. Analysis of experimental data represented by the imaginary part of the dielectric modulus M″ (ω) revealed to the presence of three different relaxation processes. The lower frequency relaxation process was associated to charge carriers conduction whereas those appeared at higher frequencies were associated to different types of interfacial polarization. The plant ability for removing heavy metals and metal oxides from the aquatic environments would be enhanced upon subjecting to microwave heating power with 400 W for 30 min.

  15. Field experiments of Controlled Drainage of agricultural clay soils show positive effects on water quantity (retention, runoff) and water quality (nitrate leaching).

    Science.gov (United States)

    schipper, peter; stuyt, lodewijk; straat, van der, andre; schans, van der, martin

    2014-05-01

    Despite best management practices, agriculture is still facing major challenges to reduce nutrients leaching to the aquatic environment. In deltas, most of total nutrient losses from artificially drained agricultural soils are discharged via drains. Controlled drainage is a promising measure to prevent drainage of valuable nutrients, improve water quality and agricultural yield and adapt to climate change (reduce peak runoff, manage water scarcity and drought). In The Netherlands, this technique has attracted much attention by water managers and farmers alike, yet field studies to determine the expected (positive) effects for Dutch conditions were scarce. Recently, a field experiment was set up on clay soils. Research questions were: how does controlled, subsurface drainage perform on clay soils? Will deeper tile drains function just as well? What are the effects on drain water quality (especially with respect to nitrogen and salt) and crop yield? An agricultural field on clay soils was used to test different tile drainage configurations. Four types of tile drainage systems were installed, all in duplicate: eight plots in total. Each plot has its own outlet to a control box, where equipment was installed to control drain discharge and to measure the flow, concentrations of macro-ions, pH, nitrogen, N-isotopes and heavy metals. In each plot, groundwater observation wells and suction cups are installed in the saturated and vadose zones, at different depths, and crop yield is determined. Four plots discharge into a hydrologic isolated ditch, enabling the determination of water- and nutrient balances. Automatic drain water samplers and innovative nitrate sensors were installed in four plots. These enable identification and unravelling so-called first flush effects (changes in concentrations after a storm event). Water-, chloride- and nitrogen balances have been set up, and the interaction between groundwater and surface water has been quantified. The hydrological

  16. WATER DRAINAGE MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Case

    2000-05-30

    The drainage of water from the emplacement drift is essential for the performance of the EBS. The unsaturated flow properties of the surrounding rock matrix and fractures determine how well the water will be naturally drained. To enhance natural drainage, it may be necessary to introduce engineered drainage features (e.g. drilled holes in the drifts), that will ensure communication of the flow into the fracture system. The purpose of the Water Drainage Model is to quantify and evaluate the capability of the drift to remove water naturally, using the selected conceptual repository design as a basis (CRWMS M&O, 1999d). The analysis will provide input to the Water Distribution and Removal Model of the EBS. The model is intended to be used to provide postclosure analysis of temperatures and drainage from the EBS. It has been determined that drainage from the EBS is a factor important to the postclosure safety case.

  17. Evaluation of management options for disposal of salt and trace element laden agricultural drainage water from the Fallon Indian Reservation, Fallon, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokunaga, Tetsu; Benson, S.

    1991-03-01

    This is the final report describing work performed on the Fallon Indian Reservation by the Earth Sciences Division at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory during FY90. These investigations were initiated at the request of the United States Bureau of Reclamation in response to recent concerns regarding disposal of agriculture drainage water from the Reservation. The Reservation is transected by numerous irrigation and drainage canals, including the TJ Drain. Recent investigations by the US Fish and Wildlife Service have demonstrated that water in the TJ Drain is toxic to several aquatic indicator organisms, including bluegills, fathead minnows and daphnids. This information, coupled with recent die-offs of fish and birds, has lead to concern about continued discharge of TJ Drain water into local surface waters. In late 1990, plans for closing the TJ Drain and providing for alternative drainage were initiated. We aim to provide information for assessing options fro disposal of agricultural drainage water from the Reservation. In particular, our studies focuses on irrigation and drainage of lands currently serviced by the TJ Drain. Options for continued irrigation and drainage of the Reservation fall broadly into two categories: options that provide an alternative to drain water disposal into the SWMA; and options that include continuing the current practice of drain water disposal into the SWMA. Other options include elements of both of these alternatives. Additional discussion of specific options will follow a brief summary of the technical work supporting our assessment of drainage related issues at the Reservation. 67 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  18. Assessment of agricultural drainage water quality for safe reuse in irrigation applications-a case study in Borg El-Arab, Alexandria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmoud Nasr; Hoda Farouk Zahran

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To demonstrate the technical feasibility of the reuse of agricultural drainage water for irrigation. Methods: The agricultural drainage water near Banjar El-Sokar, Borg El-Arab City, Alexandria, Egypt was collected. The measured heavy metals in the drainage water were compared with the permissible levels stated in environmental regulations, Law No. 48 of 1982 concerning the protection of the Nile River and waterways from pollution. Results: Heavy metals and trace elements were detected in this agricultural drainage water as following: Al (1.64 mg/L), Ca (175.00 mg/L), Cd (1.87 mg/L), Co (2.23 mg/L), Cu (1.71 mg/L), Fe (1.64 mg/L), K (20.50 mg/L), and Pb (2.81 mg/L). According to allowable limits, item such as Fe is lower than permissible level of 3.00 mg/L, while Pb and Cu are higher than 0.10 mg/L and 1.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Vegetables irrigated with such drainage water are not safe for human and animal consumption. Accordingly, the study suggests and recommeds remediation of drainage water using physical, chemical and/or biological methods.

  19. Surface Water & Surface Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  20. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, B. J.

    2008-12-01

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricultural drainage waters. Foundry sand bulking agents are attractive primarily as a low cost means to maintain the hydraulic efficiency of a filter. Secondarily, the foundry sands themselves may have some capacity for removal of agricultural nutrients and pesticides from water. Consequently, a laboratory study was initiated to quantify hydraulic efficiency and agricultural contaminant removal abilities of six foundry sands. Of the six foundry sands tested, all were obtained in central Ohio, three from iron casting foundries, two from steel casting foundries, and one from an aluminum casting foundry. Hydraulic efficiencies of the foundry sands were assessed by measuring hydraulic conductivity with twice replicated falling-head permeability tests. Batch tests were employed to evaluate foundry sand potential to treat water containing nitrate and phosphate nutrients, along with the pesticide, atrazine. Five of the six foundry sand samples had measured hydraulic conductivity values from 7.6 x 10-3 cm/s to 3.8 x 10-2 cm/s, which is in the range of hydraulic conductivity values found for clean sand. The one foundry sand that was an exception had much lower measured hydraulic conductivity values of 2.75 x 10-5 cm/s and 5.76 x 10-5 cm/s. For the batch tests conducted, none of the nitrate was removed by any of the six foundry sands; however, conversely, almost all of the phosphate was removed by each foundry sand. Batch test atrazine removal results were much more varied. Compared with baseline batch tests, one foundry sand removed two thirds of the atrazine, one foundry sand removed about one half of the atrazine, three foundry sands removed about a third of the atrazine, and one

  1. Determination of sulfadiazine in phosphate- and DOC-rich agricultural drainage water using solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouyou, P.A. Léon; Weisser, Johan Juhl; Strobel, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    -MS/MS) using positive electrospray ionization. The linear dynamic range for the LC-MS/MS was assessed from 5 μg/L to 25 mg/L with a 15-point calibration curve displaying a coefficient of correlation r 2 = 0.9915. Agricultural drainage water spiked at a concentration of 25 ng/L gave recoveries between 63 and 98......Trace levels of the veterinary antibiotic compound sulfadiazine (SDZ) can be determined in agricultural drainage water samples with this new method. Optimized sample pretreatment and solid-phase extraction was combined with liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE LC...... % (relative standard deviation 15 %), while at 10 ng/L, it showed a lower recovery of 32 % (relative standard deviation 47 %). The final SPE LC-MS/MS method had a limit of detection (LOD)Method and a limit of quantification (LOQ)Method of 7.5 and 23 ng/L agricultural drainage water, respectively...

  2. Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmers and land improvement contractors, especially in the Midwest U.S., need methods to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but also to determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. Previous investigations have already demonstrated the feasibility o...

  3. Effects of water-control structures on hydrologic and water-quality characteristics in selected agricultural drainage canals in eastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treece, M.W., Jr.; Jaynes, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    large increase of specific conductance in the tidal creek. Flashboard risers had no significant effect on concentrations of dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, or phosphorus. Maximum concentrations of ammonia nitrogen were smaller at both test sites after riser installation. In addition, concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen exceeding 1.0 milligram per liter rarely occurred at the flashboard-riser test sites following installation of the risers. Median loadings of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen decreased at one riser test site following flashboard-riser installation. Tide gates and flashboard risers were associated with reductions in concentrations and export of nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen; however, these changes should be interpreted cautiously because reductions were not observed consistently at every site. The hydrology and baseline water-quality characteristics of the two study areas differ, making comparisons of the effectiveness of the two types of water-control structures difficult to interpret. The effects of water-control structures on the hydrology of the drainage canals are more meaningful than the changes in water quality. Tide gates and flashboard risers altered the hydrologic characteristics of the drainage canals and created an environment favorable for nutrient loss or transformation. Both structures retained agricultural drainage upstream, which increased potential storage for infiltration and reduced the potential for surface runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport, and higher peak outflow rates.

  4. Indirect emissions and isotopologue signatures of N2O from agricultural drainage water of a Pleistocene lowland catchment in North-Eastern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weymann, D.; Well, R.; Kahle, P.; Tiemeyer, B.; Flessa, H.

    2011-12-01

    Artificial drainage of low- and wetlands is a common practice in many agricultural regions to facilitate crop production. Agricultural drainage water was shown to be supersaturated with nitrous oxide (N2O), a major greenhouse gas thought to contribute to global warming and to the destruction of stratospheric ozone. Therefore, drainage of agricultural land has potential for indirect N2O emissions which are a highly uncertain component of the global N2O budget. This case study focuses on these emissions and further tries to unravel the source processes of N2O as well as the impact of its hydrological controls by applying an isotopologue approach. The research area was an intensively tile drained agricultural catchment embedded in the Pleistocene lowland of the federal state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (North-Eastern Germany). Water sampling was conducted during the consecutive hydrological winter periods 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 by sampling a collector drain outlet and an adjacent drainage ditch. Besides concentrations of dissolved N2O and NO3- we determined the isotopologue signatures of N2O by measuring δ15Nbulk and δ18O as well as the 15N 'site preference', which characterizes the intramolecular distribution of the N isotopes within the asymmetric N2O molecule and is a promising tool to distinguish between the main source processes of N2O, nitrification and denitrification. The investigated hydrological winter periods varied considerably concerning the weather and hydrological conditions. During the comparatively wet winter period 2007/2008, indirect N2O emissions accounted for 0.17 kg N2O-N ha-1 a-1 and were thus higher than during the colder and comparatively dry 2008/2009 period, where we found 0.12 kg N2O-N ha-1 a-1. The emission factors for both sampling periods were 0.23 % and 0.17 % of the N input, respectively, and therefore in good agreement with the current IPCC default value of 0.25 %. The isotopologue signatures of N2O reflected the different hydrological

  5. Ecology and management of agricultural drainage ditches: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural drainage ditches are headwater streams that have been modified or constructed for agricultural drainage, and are often used in conjunction with tile drains. These modified streams are a common landscape feature in Ohio, and constitute 25% of stream habitat within the state. Management o...

  6. Adaptation Options for Land Drainage Systems Towards Sustainable Agriculture and Environment: A Czech Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulhavý, Zbyněk; Fučík, Petr

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, issues of agricultural drainage systems are introduced and discussed from the views of their former, current and future roles and functioning in the Czech Republic (CR). A methodologically disparate survey was done on thirty-nine model localities in CR with different intensity and state of land drainage systems, aimed at description of commonly occurred problems and possible adaptations of agricultural drainage as perceived by farmers, land owners, landscape managers or by protective water management. The survey was focused on technical state of drainage, fragmentation of land ownership within drained areas as well as on possible conflicts between agricultural and environmental interests in a landscape. Achieved results confirmed that there is obviously an increasing need to reassess some functions of prevailingly single-purpose agricultural drainage systems. Drainage intensity and detected unfavourable technical state of drainage systems as well as the risks connected with the anticipated climate change from the view of possible water scarcity claims for a complex solution. An array of adaptation options for agricultural drainage systems is presented, aiming at enhancement of water retention time and improvement of water quality. It encompasses additional flow-controlling measures on tiles or ditches, or facilities for making selected parts of a drainage system inoperable in order to retain or slow down the drainage runoff, to establish water accumulation zones and to enhance water self-cleaning processes. However, it was revealed that the question of landowner parcels fragmentation on drained land in CR would dramatically complicate design and realization of these measures. Presented solutions and findings are propounded with a respect to contemporary and future state policies and international strategies for sustainable agriculture, water management and environment.

  7. Phosphorus transport in agricultural subsurface drainage: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kevin W; Williams, Mark R; Macrae, Merrin L; Fausey, Norman R; Frankenberger, Jane; Smith, Douglas R; Kleinman, Peter J A; Brown, Larry C

    2015-03-01

    Phosphorus (P) loss from agricultural fields and watersheds has been an important water quality issue for decades because of the critical role P plays in eutrophication. Historically, most research has focused on P losses by surface runoff and erosion because subsurface P losses were often deemed to be negligible. Perceptions of subsurface P transport, however, have evolved, and considerable work has been conducted to better understand the magnitude and importance of subsurface P transport and to identify practices and treatments that decrease subsurface P loads to surface waters. The objectives of this paper were (i) to critically review research on P transport in subsurface drainage, (ii) to determine factors that control P losses, and (iii) to identify gaps in the current scientific understanding of the role of subsurface drainage in P transport. Factors that affect subsurface P transport are discussed within the framework of intensively drained agricultural settings. These factors include soil characteristics (e.g., preferential flow, P sorption capacity, and redox conditions), drainage design (e.g., tile spacing, tile depth, and the installation of surface inlets), prevailing conditions and management (e.g., soil-test P levels, tillage, cropping system, and the source, rate, placement, and timing of P application), and hydrologic and climatic variables (e.g., baseflow, event flow, and seasonal differences). Structural, treatment, and management approaches to mitigate subsurface P transport-such as practices that disconnect flow pathways between surface soils and tile drains, drainage water management, in-stream or end-of-tile treatments, and ditch design and management-are also discussed. The review concludes by identifying gaps in the current understanding of P transport in subsurface drains and suggesting areas where future research is needed. PMID:26023966

  8. Constructed wetlands targeting nitrogen removal in agricultural drainage discharge – a subcatchment scale mitigation strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Bruun, Jacob Druedahl;

    analysis of variable mitigation strategies and cost-efficiency analysis reveals that even at low to moderate yearly N removal efficiencies (20-25% N removal efficiency) CWs targeting drainage water are highly efficient and cost-efficient measures. Thus, although challenges remain regarding site...... of recipients, drainage water nutrient loads have a major impact on water quality, and end-of-pipe drainage filter solution may offer the benefits of a targeted measure. This calls for a paradigm shift towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...... in agricultural drainage water. The Danish “SUPREME-TECH”project (2010-2016) (www.supremetech.dk) and the innovation project “iDRAIN” (www.idrain.dk ) aims at providing the scientific basis for developing and implementing cost-effective drainage filter technologies targeting N-removal in agricultural subsurface...

  9. Effects of ecological factors on the survival and physiology of Ralstonia solanacearum biovar 2 in agricultural drainage water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsas, van J.D.; Kastelein, P.; Vries, de P.M.; Overbeek, van L.S.

    2001-01-01

    The fate of Ralstonia solanacearum bv. 2, the causative agent of brown rot in potato, in aquatic habitats of temperate climate regions is still poorly understood. In this study, the population dynamics and the physiological response of R. solanacearum bv. 2 were tested in sterile pure water and in a

  10. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses in agricultural drainage discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Canga, Eriona;

    filters and constructed wetlands (CWs). Various natural and industrial P filter substrates (granulated Fe-oxides, crushed seashells, Filtralite-PTM, granulated lime, calcined diatomitic earth) have been tested for their affinity and long-term capacity to reduce inlet P concentrations to below...... environmental threshold values (long-term P-loading the sensitivity of flow-rate on P retention increased and further indicated......Losses of phosphorus (P) in drainage waters contribute an estimated 33% to the total agricultural P load in Denmark. Mitigating agricultural P losses is challenging, as critical P losses comprise only a very small fraction of actual soil P contents and are not directly related to fertilizer P input...

  11. Assessment of In-Stream Phosphorus Dynamics in Agricultural Drainage Ditches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The intensive row crop agricultural systems in the Midwestern United States can enrich surface waters with nutrients. This project was conducted to evaluate the in-stream processing of P in agricultural ditches. Phosphorus injection studies were conducted at seven sites along three drainage ditches ...

  12. Drainage Water Management for the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage is an essential water management practice on many highly productive fields in the Midwest. However, nitrate carried in drainage water can lead to local water quality problems and contribute to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico, so strategies are needed to reduce the nitrate load...

  13. Determining potential for microbial atrazine degradation in agricultural drainage ditches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passage of agricultural runoff through vegetated drainage ditches has been shown to reduce the amount of pesticides, such as atrazine, exiting agricultural watersheds. Previous studies found that microbial communities in soil from fields treated with atrazine display enhanced rates of atrazine degr...

  14. Impacts of drainage water management on subsurface drain flow, nitrate concentration, and nitrate loads in Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drainage water management is a conservation practice that has the potential to reduce drainage outflow and nitrate (NO3) loss from agricultural fields while maintaining or improving crop yields. The goal of this study was to quantify the impact of drainage water management on dra...

  15. SIMULATING LONG-TERM PERFORMANCE OF DRAINAGE WATER MANAGEMENT ACROSS THE MIDWESTERN UNITED STATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under conventional drainage (CVD), excess soil water in agricultural fields is allowed to drain freely through artificial subsurface drainage lines. In contrast, drainage water management (DWM) utilizes a control structure at the end of the lines to regulate drain flow by varying the depth of the d...

  16. Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...

  17. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphate released with agricultural subsurface drainage water can cause environmental degradation of downstream water bodies. On-site filter treatment with iron-based filter materials could potentially remove phosphate from drainage waters before these waters are discharged into local streams. Th...

  18. Temporal abiotic variability structures invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H. Whatley; J.A. Vonk; H.G. van der Geest; W. Admiraal

    2015-01-01

    Abiotic variability is known to structure lotic invertebrate communities, yet its influence on lentic invertebrates is not clear. This study tests the hypothesis that variability of nutrients and macro-ions are structuring invertebrate communities in agricultural drainage ditches. This was determine

  19. Internal hydraulics of an agricultural drainage denitrification bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denitrification bioreactors to reduce the amount of nitrate-nitrogen in agricultural drainage are now being deployed across the U.S. Midwest. However, there are still many unknowns regarding internal hydraulic-driven processes in these "black box" engineered treatment systems. To improve this unders...

  20. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  1. Vegetation Changes and Partitioning of Selenium in 4-Year-Old Constructed Wetlands Treating Agricultural Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The knowledge of vegetation management and the partitioning of selenium (Se) in treatment wetlands is essential for long-term effective operation of constructed wetlands treating Se-laden agricultural tile-drainage water in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Vegetation changes in six vegetated wetl...

  2. Mine Drainage and Oil Sand Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xinchao; Wolfe, F Andrew; Li, Yanjun

    2015-10-01

    Mine drainage from the mining of mineral resources (coal, metals, oil sand, or industrial minerals) remains as a persistent environmental problem. This review summarizes the scientific literature published in 2014 on the technical issues related to mine drainage or mine water in active and abandoned coal/hard rock mining sites or waste spoil piles. Also included in this review is the water from oil sand operations. This review is divided into the four sections: 1) mine drainage characterization, 2) prediction and environmental impact, 3) treatment technologies, 4) oil sand water. Many papers presented in this review address more than one aspect and different sections should not be regarded as being mutuallyexclusive or all-inclusive.

  3. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  4. Water and nutrient budgets at field and regional scale. Travel times of drainage water and nutrient loads to surface water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eertwegh, van den G.A.P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Keywords : water and nutrient budget, travel time of drainage water, dual-porosity concept, agricultural nutrient losses, loads to surface water, field-scale experiments, regional-scale approach. Nitrogen and phosphorus loads to surface waters have

  5. Dynamics of nitrate and chloride during storm events in agricultural catchments with different subsurface drainage intensity (Indiana, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Casey D.; Bataille, Clement; Liu, Zhongfang; Ale, Srinivasulu; VanDeVelde, Justin; Roswell, Charles R.; Bowling, Laura C.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2012-10-01

    SummaryDrainage tiles buried beneath many naturally poorly drained agricultural fields in the Midwestern U.S. are believed to "short circuit" pools of NO3--laden soil water and shallow groundwater directly into streams that eventually discharge to the Mississippi River. Although much is known about the mechanisms controlling this regionally pervasive practice of artificial drainage at the field-plot scale, an integrative assessment of the effect of drainage density (i.e., the number of tile drains per unit area) on the transport of nutrients and solutes in streams at the catchment scale is lacking. In this study, we quantified the flux and hydrological pathways of agricultural NO3- and road-salt Cl- from catchments lying within the Wabash River Basin, a major source of NO3- to the Mississippi River. The paired catchments differ primarily in drainage density (70% vs. 31%, by catchment area), with essentially all other agricultural management, land use, and soil drainage characteristics remaining equal. Our study revealed two significant hydrological responses to increased drainage density: (1) more near-surface storm event water (dilute in both NO3- and Cl) was transported early in the storm and (2) higher transport of Cl--laden pre-event soil water relative to shallow groundwater elevated in NO3- occurred later in the storm. These patterns are consistent with a proposed conceptual model in which increased drainage density results in (1) greater transport of soil water to streams and (2) a delayed rise in the water table. With respect to nutrient management implications, these results indicate that increased drainage density impacts subsurface pools of Cl- and NO3- differently, a finding that we propose is linked to soil/ground water dynamics in artificially drained agricultural catchments.

  6. Biotransformation and accumulation of selenium inside organisms in an engineered aquatic ecosystem designed for bioremediation of Se from agriculture drainage water and brine shrimp production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excessive selenium (Se) in soils and waters present in the westside of central California was determined to be responsible for ecotoxicities observed in water fowl frequenting large bodies of water, i.e., evaporation ponds. In order to monitor the fate and potentially design an aquatic Se remediatio...

  7. Simulating the Effects of Drainage and Agriculture on Hydrology and Sediment in the Minnesota River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, C. W.; Pradhan, N. R.; Skahill, B. E.; Banitt, A. M.; Eggers, G.; Pickett, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the Midwest region of the United States, slopes are relatively flat, soils tend to have low permeability, and local water tables are high. In order to make the region suitable for agriculture, farmers have installed extensive networks of ditches to drain off excess surface water and subsurface tiles to lower the water table and remove excess soil water in the root zone that can stress common row crops, such as corn and soybeans. The combination of tiles, ditches, and intensive agricultural land practices radically alters the landscape and hydrology. Within the watershed, tiles have outlets to both the ditch/stream network as well as overland locations, where the tile discharge appears to initiate gullies and exacerbate overland erosion. As part of the Minnesota River Basin Integrated Study we are explicitly simulating the tile and drainage systems in the watershed at multiple scales using the physics-based watershed model GSSHA (Gridded Surface Subsurface Hydrologic Analysis). The tile drainage system is simulated as a network of pipes that collect water from the local water table. Within the watershed, testing of the methods on smaller basins shows the ability of the model to simulate tile flow, however, application at the larger scale is hampered by the computational burden of simulating the flow in the complex tile drain networks that drain the agricultural fields. Modeling indicates the subsurface drains account for approximately 40% of the stream flow in the Seven Mile Creek sub-basin account in the late spring and early summer when the tile is flowing. Preliminary results indicate that agricultural tile drains increase overland erosion in the Seven Mile Creek watershed.

  8. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstsen, V.; Olsen, P.; Rosenbom, A. E.

    2015-08-01

    The application of nitrogen (N) fertilisers to crops grown on tile-drained fields is required to sustain most modern crop production, but it poses a risk to the aquatic environment since tile drains facilitate rapid transport pathways with no significant reduction in nitrate. To maintain the water quality of the aquatic environment and the provision of food from highly efficient agriculture in line with the EU's Water Framework Directive and Nitrates Directive, field-scale knowledge is essential for introducing water management actions on-field or off-field and producing an optimal differentiated N-regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N concentration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3-2.3 ha) representing approximately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net precipitation, high concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 °C; (ii) medium net precipitation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 °C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low concentration of nitrate-N and long-term high intensity drainage at air temperatures above 5 °C. For each type, on-field water management actions, such as the selection of crop types and introduction of catch crops, appeared relevant, whereas off-field actions only seemed relevant for the latter two field types given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields

  9. Biodiversity value of agricultural drainage ditches; a comparative analysis of the aquatic invertebrate fauna of ditches and small lakes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2011-01-01

    1. Drainage ditches are a common aquatic habitat in the lowland agricultural landscape of north-western Europe. The invertebrate fauna of these waters is poorly known compared with that of the semi-natural wetland fragments found in this region. While most wetlands are designated as nature reserves,

  10. Reuse of drainage water model : calculation method of drainage water and watertable depth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, C.W.J.; Rijtema, P.E.; Abdel Khalik, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The main objective of the project is to assist the Ministry of Irrigation in Egypt in the planning of future watermanagement strategies incorporating reuse of drainage water practices. In order to achieve this main objective a comprehensive measurement programme has been initiated and a mathematical

  11. Reducing nitrate loss in tile drainage water with cover crops and water-table management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, C F; Tan, C S; Welacky, T W; Reynolds, W D; Zhang, T Q; Oloya, T O; McLaughlin, N B; Gaynor, J D

    2014-03-01

    Nitrate lost from agricultural soils is an economic cost to producers, an environmental concern when it enters rivers and lakes, and a health risk when it enters wells and aquifers used for drinking water. Planting a winter wheat cover crop (CC) and/or use of controlled tile drainage-subirrigation (CDS) may reduce losses of nitrate (NO) relative to no cover crop (NCC) and/or traditional unrestricted tile drainage (UTD). A 6-yr (1999-2005) corn-soybean study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of CC+CDS, CC+UTD, NCC+CDS, and NCC+UTD treatments for reducing NO loss. Flow volume and NO concentration in surface runoff and tile drainage were measured continuously, and CC reduced the 5-yr flow-weighted mean (FWM) NO concentration in tile drainage water by 21 to 38% and cumulative NO loss by 14 to 16% relative to NCC. Controlled tile drainage-subirrigation reduced FWM NO concentration by 15 to 33% and cumulative NO loss by 38 to 39% relative to UTD. When CC and CDS were combined, 5-yr cumulative FWM NO concentrations and loss in tile drainage were decreased by 47% (from 9.45 to 4.99 mg N L and from 102 to 53.6 kg N ha) relative to NCC+UTD. The reductions in runoff and concomitant increases in tile drainage under CC occurred primarily because of increases in near-surface soil hydraulic conductivity. Cover crops increased corn grain yields by 4 to 7% in 2004 increased 3-yr average soybean yields by 8 to 15%, whereas CDS did not affect corn or soybean yields over the 6 yr. The combined use of a cover crop and water-table management system was highly effective for reducing NO loss from cool, humid agricultural soils.

  12. 盐碱地农田排水对查干湖承泄区的水质影响评价%Impact assessment of saline-sodic agricultural drainage on water quality in vented area of Chagan Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晓静; 王志春; 赵长巍; 徐璐; 董燕

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of saline-sodic agricultural drainage on water quality in vented area, the agricultural drainage of Qianguo irrigation area, Jilin province and Chagan lake was chosen as the studied object. In 2009 and 2010, during rice growing season, samples were collected monthly. K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO42", Cl- CO32-, HCO3-, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand were recorded. Temporal and spatial variations of water quality from irrigation area to the vented area were analyzed. Water qualtity of Chagan lake was evaluated. The results showed that pH value in Chagan lake was larger than 7.8 at present. The maximum value of sodium adsorption ratio was 3.S9 (mmolc/L)1/2, which appeared in May. The total nitrogen concentration was 1.22 mg/L, which was lower than the average value (1.56 mg/L) in the last 12 years. The content of total phosphorus was highest (0.28 mg/L) in June. In addition to chemical oxygen demand, the other indexes of water quality did not exceed the concentration limitations. However, in the flood season, Chagan lake belonged to the IV water quality type. This paper could provide the theoretical basis of ecological and environmental warning for Chagan lake.%为了评价盐碱地农田排水对承泄区的水质影响,该文选取吉林省前郭灌区的农田排水和查干湖承泄区为研究对象,通过2009-2010年水稻生长季每月定期的野外取样、实验分析水样的K+、Na+、Ca2+、Mg2+、SO2-4、Cl-、CO2-3、HCO-3、总氮、总磷和化学需氧量,研究了查干湖灌溉灌排系统至承泄区相关排水水质的时空变化,并对查干湖水质进行了评价.结果表明,查干湖承泄区对灌排系统的各水质指标有一定的累积效应.目前查干湖水体pH值平均在7.87;钠吸附比最大值(3.59 (mmol/L)1/2)出现在5月份泡田洗盐期;总氮含量为1.22 mg/L,低于近12年平均值1.56 mg/L;6月份总磷含量最高,达0.28 mg/L.除化学需氧量超标外,其他水质

  13. Water Depletion Threatens Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauman, K. A.; Richter, B. D.; Postel, S.; Floerke, M.; Malsy, M.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigated agriculture is the human activity that has by far the largest impact on water, constituting 85% of global water consumption and 67% of global water withdrawals. Much of this water use occurs in places where water depletion, the ratio of water consumption to water availability, exceeds 75% for at least one month of the year. Although only 17% of global watershed area experiences depletion at this level or more, nearly 30% of total cropland and 60% of irrigated cropland are found in these depleted watersheds. Staple crops are particularly at risk, with 75% of global irrigated wheat production and 65% of irrigated maize production found in watersheds that are at least seasonally depleted. Of importance to textile production, 75% of cotton production occurs in the same watersheds. For crop production in depleted watersheds, we find that one half to two-thirds of production occurs in watersheds that have not just seasonal but annual water shortages, suggesting that re-distributing water supply over the course of the year cannot be an effective solution to shortage. We explore the degree to which irrigated production in depleted watersheds reflects limitations in supply, a byproduct of the need for irrigation in perennially or seasonally dry landscapes, and identify heavy irrigation consumption that leads to watershed depletion in more humid climates. For watersheds that are not depleted, we evaluate the potential impact of an increase in irrigated production. Finally, we evaluate the benefits of irrigated agriculture in depleted and non-depleted watersheds, quantifying the fraction of irrigated production going to food production, animal feed, and biofuels.

  14. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  15. Pollution of Indus water and the drainage system of Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adequate supply of fresh and clean drinking water is basic need for all human beings on the earth yet it has been observed that millions of people worldwide are deprived of this essential facility. Freshwater resources all over the world are being threatened not only by over-exploitation and poor management but also by ecological degradation. The main sources of freshwater pollution can be attributed to discharge of untreated waste, dumping of industrial effluent, and run-off from agricultural fields. Industrial growth, urbanization and the increasing use of synthetic organic substances have serious and adverse impacts on fresh water bodies. Piles of garbage and fouling of air and water resources are one of the most common sights in Pakistan. These are, in fact, one of the consequences of the process of rapid urbanization, coupled with increased industrialization that country is witness. It goes doubt that environmental deterioration is a natural outcome of rapid population growth, increase in agricultural practices, industrialization, mechanization and mobilization of society. River Indus and drainage system of the Sindh province nowadays are facing severe problem of industrial pollution by the discharge of untreated effluent of different industries. In that context, several field surveys of sugar industries located in interior Sindh and pharmaceutical Company, Jamshoro, were carried out to asses the quality and quantity of pollution. (author)

  16. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorine in drainage water. Nano photo-Fenton like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drainage water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms (EMs removed 100% of the lindane initial concentration. There is no remaining toxicity in lindane contaminated-water after remediation on treated rats relative to control with respect to histopathological changes in liver and kidney. Advanced oxidation processes especially with nanomaterials and bioremediation using effective microorganisms can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies of lindane in water.

  17. The impact of irrigation on the quality of drainage water in a new irrigation district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Villar Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The water quality of two agricultural drainage systems was monitored over two irrigation seasons in order to determine the sustainability of a new area of irrigated land (the Algerri-Balager irrigation district located in the northeast of Spain. The average electrical conductivity of the drainage water was around 4 dS·m-1, and the waters were enriched with boron, phosphorous and nitrate. Drainage represented 17% of total applied irrigation water (measured leached fraction and is considered necessary to minimize the risk of soil salinization in semiarid environments. The most common ions in the drainage waters were magnesium, sulphate, and calcium and others related with dissolved soil minerals present in the area. The presence of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and pesticides was negligible. The information provided by this research was very useful for the irrigation district, and it’s transferable to other irrigation districts, as it could help to improve agricultural practices and be used to control the quality and quantity of irrigation drainage.

  18. Nitrate removal from agricultural drainage ditch sediments with amendments of organic carbon: Potential for an innovative best management practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, Derek R.; Kröger, Robert; Miranda, Leandro E.; Rush, Scott A.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural fertilizer applications have resulted in loading of nutrients to agricultural drainage ditches in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) amendments on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) removal from overlying water, pore water, and sediment of an agricultural drainage ditch. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, control (i.e., no amendment), DOC, and POC treatments were applied in laboratory microcosms for time intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. In experiment 2, control, DOC, and POC treatments were applied in microcosms at C/N ratios of 5:1, 10:1, 15:1, and 20:1. There were statistically significant effects of organic carbon amendments in experiment 1 (F2,71 = 27.1, P control at 14 and 28 days, which were significantly less than in DOC and POC 14- and 28-day treatments. In experiment 2, significantly less NO3−-N was removed in overlying water of the control compared to DOC and POC treatments at all C/N ratios. Amendments of DOC and POC made to drainage ditch sediment: (1) increased NO3−-N removal, especially over longer time intervals (14 to 28 days); (2) increased NO3−-N removal, regardless of C/N ratio; and (3) NO3−-N removal was best at a 5:1 C/N ratio. This study provides support for continued investigation on the use of organic carbon amendments as a best management practice for NO3−-N removal in agricultural drainage ditches.

  19. Runoff and drainage losses of atrazine, metribuzin, and metolachlor in three water management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, J D; Tan, C S; Drury, C F; Welacky, T W; Ng, H Y F; Reynolds, W D

    2002-01-01

    Rainfall can transport herbicides from agricultural land to surface waters, where they become an environmental concern. Tile drainage can benefit crop production by removing excess soil water but tile drainage may also aggravate herbicide and nutrient movement into surface waters. Water management of tile drains after planting may reduce tile drainage and thereby reduce herbicide losses to surface water. To test this hypothesis we calculated the loss of three herbicides from a field with three water management systems: free drainage (D), controlled drainage (CD), and controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation (CDS). The effect of water management systems on the dissipation of atrazine (6-chloro-N2-ethyl-N4-isopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazine-5(4H)-one), and metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1-methylethyl)acetamide] in soil was also monitored. Less herbicide was lost by surface runoff from the D and CD treatments than from CDS. The CDS treatment increased surface runoff, which transported more herbicide than that from D or CD treatments. In one year, the time for metribuzin residue to dissipate to half its initial value was shorter for CDS (33 d) than for D (43 d) and CD (46 d). The half-life of atrazine and metolachlor were not affected by water management. Controlled drainage with subsurface irrigation may increase herbicide loss through increased surface runoff when excessive rain is received soon after herbicide application. However, increasing soil water content in CDS may decrease herbicide persistence, resulting in less residual herbicide available for aqueous transport. PMID:11841063

  20. Monitoring and remediation technologies of organochlorine pesticides in drainage water

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Ahmed; Derbalah Aly; Shaheen Sabry

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to monitor the presence of organochlorine in drainage water in Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt. Furthermore, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (lindane) in drainage water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine pesticides in all sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detect...

  1. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS FOR LIVESTOCK FEED PRODUCTION USING SALINE IRRIGATION DRAINAGE WATER IN TURKMENISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley JOHNSON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation return flows increase the salt concentrations of receiving water bodies and cause water logging which affect agricultural productivity in Turkmenistan. Flooding irrigation drainage water using on natural pastures has also had adverse effects on the long-term productivity of desert ranges. This study examines the economics of halophytes as feed for sheep using saline irrigation water from drainage collector systems on a representative farm. Cost-benefit and rate of return analyses show that the project is economically feasible for reused water with 1400 mg/l mineralization levels or less. At higher mineral concentrations in water, or in more saline soils, bioremediation through halophyte fodder production can be profitably implemented if new market incentives exist. Value chain analysis is applied to evaluate alternative incentive systems for sheep operations based on saline water irrigated halophyte fodder production.

  2. Comparing Three Carbon Substrates with Cow Dung Liquid for the Denitrification of Agricultural Drainage Water%牛粪液作用下的三种碳源反硝化试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江来; 王修贵; 陈秀红

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate in agricultural drainage water has been one of the most contributing sources of nitrate contamination of surface wa‐ter in China .Denitrifying bioreactors belong to a promising technology of reducing the amount of nitrate ,in which an external carbon is necessary to the maintenance of continuous denitrification .Corn cob ,wheat straw and woodchips are chosen as carbon substrates for denitrifying bioreactors in this study ,for they are easily available at farmland .Cow dung liquid can accelerate the degradation of lignocellulose materials and the stimulation of three carbon substrates is evaluated .Without mixing with cow dung liquid ,all the three substrates stimulates NO3 -N removal and the cumulative NO3 -N removed at 30th day from highest to lowest was :wheat straw ,corn cob and woodchips .The addition of cow dung liquid stimulates more NO3 -N removal .An analysis of weights of solid-phase shows that corn cob and wheat straw lead to higher NO3 -N removal rates than woodchips ,but these two substrates degrades more rapidly ,which can not maintain long-term denitrification .The addition of cow dung liquid to woodchips increases significantly NO3 -N removal rates over woodchips alone ,but the rates are still much less than that of corn cob and wheat straw .%农业排水中的硝酸盐为地表水氮素污染的最主要来源之一,反硝化生物脱氮是一种具有应用前景的削减农业排水中硝酸盐浓度的技术手段,它需要外加碳源来维持持续的反硝化反应。本研究选用了易于获取的农业废弃物玉米芯、麦秸、木屑作为碳源。在反硝化体系中加入不同体积的牛粪液,利用牛粪液所含的木质纤维素降解菌群,促进3种碳源释放小分子有机物。结果表明,在不添加牛粪液的情况下,使用麦秸的反应体系具有最高的累积硝酸盐去除量,其余依次为使用玉米芯和木屑,牛粪液的加入能加强使用3种碳源的各反应体系对硝

  3. Influence of alternative and conventional farming practices on subsurface drainage and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oquist, K A; Strock, J S; Mulla, D J

    2007-01-01

    Agricultural runoff contributes nutrients to nonpoint-source pollution of surface waters. This study was conducted to investigate the potential use of alternative farming practices to improve water quality. The study examined the effects of both alternative and conventional farming practices on subsurface drainage and nitrogen and phosphorus loss through subsurface drainage from glacial till soils (i.e., Calciaquolls, Endoaquolls, Eutrudepts, Hapludolls) in southwest Minnesota. Alternative farming practices included organic management practices, species biodiversity, and/or practices that include reduced inputs of synthetic fertilizer and pesticides. Conventional farming practices include corn-soybean (Zea mays L.-Glycine max L., respectively) rotations and their associated recommended fertilizer rates as well as pesticide usage. Precipitation was highly variable during the 3-yr study period including a below-average year (2003), an average year (2002), and an above-average year (2004). Results indicate that alternative farming practices reduced subsurface drainage discharge by 41% compared with conventional practices. Flow-weighted mean nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate N) concentrations during tile flow were 8.2 and 17.2 mg L(-1) under alternative and conventional farming practices, respectively. Alternative farming practices reduced nitrate N losses by between 59 and 62% in 2002 and 2004 compared with conventional practices. Ammonium-nitrogen (ammonium N), orthophosphorus, and total phosphorus losses in subsurface drainage were very low and did not pose a substantial risk of pollution. Results suggest that alternative farming practices have the potential to reduce agricultural impacts on water quality.

  4. Prairie stream water quality in sub-basins characterized by differing degrees of wetland drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunet, N. N.; Westbrook, C. J.

    2010-12-01

    The prairie pothole region is dotted with millions of pothole wetlands. These wetlands provide important habitat for numerous wildlife species. Potholes are small, shallow marshes that typically lack surface water connections and have been shown to trap nutrients, ions, and bacteria from catchment runoff. Approximately 70% of the potholes located in the Canadian prairies have been drained since 1900 to increase agricultural production; recently there have been renewed efforts to drain potholes. Wetland drainage has been shown to increase stream discharge and is perceived to impact downstream water quality as previously isolated wetlands become connected to streams via drainage ditches. Our objective was to determine the extent to which stream water quality was influenced by wetland drainage. We compared time series of water quality for four sub-basins of Smith Creek watershed, southeastern Saskatchewan. The stream drains into the Assiniboine River and then Lake Winnipeg where excessive N and P loadings are causing eutrophication. Wetland distribution in the sub-basins was historically similar, but recently the sub-basins have been subject to differing degrees of drainage (extreme, high, moderately-high, and low). Stream water sampling and discharge measurement occurred daily during peak flow (spring runoff) and weekly during low flows in 2009 at the outlet of each sub-basin. Export coefficients for nutrients, DOC, salts and bacteria were compared among sub-basins. The sub-basin characterized by extreme drainage (81% wetland reduction) had the largest nutrient and DOC export coefficients while the low drainage sub-basin (23% wetland reduction) had the lowest. Concentrations of TP and ortho-P were greater in the moderately-high and high drainage sub-basins than in the low drainage sub-basin during the snowmelt period. TP concentrations exceeded the Saskatchewan Watershed Authority Lake Stewardship Program objective of 0.1 mg/L. N concentrations were greatest in the

  5. Research of the possibility of drainage and effective agricultural use system rehabilitation, removed of exclution and resettlement zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the conditions of the Republic of Belarus suffered from the Chernobyl NPP there was realized a comprehensive survey of drainage facilities along the perimeter of exclusion zones in four districts of Gomel region. In course of the field and laboratory studies there was analysed the possibility of developed some activities of the reclamation systems which made it possible to provide ecologically safe and economically efficient rehabilitation and introduction of agricultural lands into rotation. Research results showed that there is a possibility of introducing into the agricultural rotation about 3000 ha of reclaimed land. Even after the reconstruction of drainage systems, the drained land is still the risky area for agriculture. Therefore, they required a detailed account of the density and composition of pollutants, soil conditions and water treatment provided by a network of reclamation. For the realized of intensive agriculture at these lands it is necessary to apply heightened doses of phosphorous and potassium fertilizers as well as realize liming. Application of nitrogenous fertilizers should be realized taking into account soil and vegetation diagnostics

  6. Estimate of drainage water behaviour in shallow lakes

    CERN Document Server

    El-Jaick, L J; El-Jaick, Lea J.

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical estimate of the explicit time dependence of a drainage water of shallow lakes is presented as an important contribution for understanding the lake dynamics. This information can be obtained from a sum of functions, largely used in fitting of experimental data. These functions were chosen because their centre and weight yield a good description of the water basin behaviour. The coefficients of these functions are here extracted using results of measured and / or calculated data for the state variables describing the shallow West Lake, Hangzou. This procedure can also be applied to other shallow lakes, generating geological information about their drainage basin, which is one of the most important parameters to describe their micrometeorological behaviour. One concludes this work emphasizing the relevance of the explicit time dependence of the drainage variables and the requirement of measured data to validate this approach.

  7. Mapping the water chemistry of the Clyde Basin drainage network

    OpenAIRE

    Bearcock, Jenny; Smedley, Pauline; Everett, Paul; Ander, Louise; Fordyce, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Mapping the chemistry of stream and river water across the Clyde Basin serves both to characterise the water quality and assess the dominant controls. Surveys of the Clyde drainage network, undertaken between 2003 and 2010, have generated data encompassing rural and urban streams, rivers, and estuarine water. Mapping displays the large spatial variability in chemical composition across the Basin and the varying influences of controls such as rainfall, land cover and geology. They also display...

  8. The feasibility of applying immature yard-waste compost to remove nitrate from agricultural drainage effluents: A preliminary assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L.; Krapac, I.G.; Roy, W.R.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate is a major agricultural pollutant found in drainage waters. Immature yard-waste compost was selected as a filter media to study its feasibility for removing nitrate from drainage water. Different operation parameters were tested to examine the denitrification efficiency, including the amounts of compost packed in columns, the flow rate, and the compost storage periods. The experimental results suggested that hydraulic retention time was the major factor to determine the extent of nitrate removal, although the amount of compost packed could also contribute to the nitrate removal efficiency. The effluent nitrate concentration increased as the flow rate decreased, and the compost column reduced nitrate concentrations from 20 mg/L to less than 5 mg/L within 1.5 h. The solution pH increased at the onset of experiment because of denitrification, but stabilized at a pH of about 7.8, suggesting that the compost had a buffering capacity to maintain a suitable pH for denitrification. Storing compost under air-dried conditions may diminish the extent nitrate removed initially, but the effects were not apparent after longer applications. It appeared that immature yard-waste compost may be a suitable material to remove nitrate from tile drainage water because of its relatively large organic carbon content, high microbial activity, and buffering capacity. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of particulates on phosphorus loading exported from farm drainage during a storm event in the Everglades Agricultural Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadha, J. H.; Lang, T. A.; Daroub, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of particulates on P loading captured during a single storm event. The Everglades Agricultural Area of Florida comprises 280,000 hectares of organic soil farmland artificially drained by ditches, canals and pumps. Phosphorus (P)-enriched suspended particulates in canals are susceptible to transport and can contribute significantly to the overall P loads in drainage water. A settling tank experiment was conducted to capture particulates during tropical storm Isaac in 2012 from three farms approximately 2.4 to 3.6 km2 in size. Farm canal discharge water was collected in a series of two 200 liter settling tanks over a seven-day drainage period, during tropical storm Isaac. Water from the settling tanks was siphoned through Imhoff settling cones, where the particulates were allowed to settle and collected for P-fractionation analyses, and compared to intact sediment cores collected from the bottom of the canals. The discharged particulates contained higher organic matter content (OM), total P, and labile P fractions compared to the canal bottom sediments. Based on the equilibrium P concentrations, surface sediments behave as a source of P to the water column. A seven-day continuous drainage event exported 4.7 to 11.1 metric tons of suspended solids per farm, corresponding to 32 to 63 kg of particulate P being lost to downstream ecosystems. Drainage associated to a single seven-day storm event exported up to 61% of the total annual farm P load. It is evident from this study that short-term, high-intensity storm events can skew annual P loads due to the export of significantly higher particulate matter from farm canals. Exported particulates rich in P can provide a supplemental source of nutrients if captured and replenished back into the farmlands, as a sustainable farming practice.

  10. Nitrate and phosphate removal from agricultural subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guanghui; Salo, Morgan W; Schmit, Christopher G; Hay, Christopher H

    2016-10-01

    Woodchip bioreactors have been increasingly used as an edge-of-field treatment technology to reduce the nitrate loadings to surface waters from agricultural subsurface drainage. Recent studies have shown that subsurface drainage can also contribute substantially to the loss of phosphate from agricultural soils. The objective of this study was to investigate nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage using laboratory woodchip bioreactors and recycled steel byproduct filters. The woodchip bioreactor demonstrated average nitrate removal efficiencies of 53.5-100% and removal rates of 10.1-21.6 g N/m(3)/d for an influent concentration of 20 mg N/L and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 6-24 h. When the influent nitrate concentration increased to 50 mg N/L, the bioreactor nitrate removal efficiency and rate averaged 75% and 18.9 g N/m(3)/d at an HRT of 24 h. Nitrate removal by the woodchips followed zero-order kinetics with rate constants of 1.42-1.80 mg N/L/h when nitrate was non-limiting. The steel byproduct filter effectively removed phosphate in the bioreactor effluent and the total phosphate adsorption capacity was 3.70 mg P/g under continuous flow conditions. Nitrite accumulation occurred in the woodchip bioreactor and the effluent nitrite concentrations increased with decreasing HRTs and increasing influent nitrate concentrations. The steel byproduct filter efficiently reduced the level of nitrite in the bioreactor effluent. Overall, the results of this study suggest that woodchip denitrification followed by steel byproduct filtration is an effective treatment technology for nitrate and phosphate removal in subsurface drainage. PMID:27344249

  11. 南方地区农业节水减排试点研究%Study on Agriculture Water-saving Irrigation and Drainage Reduction Pilot in Southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐致远; 解桂英; 李磊; 顾世祥

    2015-01-01

    支撑国家和区域性的粮食安全战略、地区特色农业种植是现代农业灌溉技术创新的目标。从单纯的节约农业用水过渡到区域生态系统的水文循环、灌溉节水、化肥农药等面源削减、农田温室气体减排等多方面的综合效应。南方地区稻田实行“湿润灌溉、间歇灌溉、排水与烤田结合”高效节水灌溉技术及水旱轮作制度,结合农村河塘综合整治削减农田排水的污染物,合理布局沟渠、水塘、人工湿地等系统的工程措施,通过植物吸收、水流自净、沉积、清淤等方式达到净化处理的效果。最后,以云南省为例介绍了高效农业节水减排工程的实践探索及存在问题。%The innovated target of modern irrigation technology is a sustainable national and regional food-security strategy. It has comprehensive effects like hydrological circulation, water-saving irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide reduction, and greenhouse gas discharge reduction, etc. In southern China, several water-saving irrigation techniques in paddy field were adopted such as thin-exposure irrigation, alternate wetting and drying irrigation, sun-drying field, and crop pattern turn from paddy to drying-farmland, and so on. Then, comprehensive management measures of countryside water environment were put forward, including channel and drainage arrangement, pond and wetland designing, purifying sewage and decreasing contamination discharge through stages of plant assimilate, water flow self-purification, pollutant deposit, and desilting, etc. At last, the engineering practice in Yunnan Province was taken to reveal the reasonable method and problems encountered.

  12. Study on Agriculture Water-saving Irrigation and Drainage Reduction Pilot in Southern China%南方地区农业节水减排试点研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐致远; 解桂英; 李磊; 顾世祥

    2015-01-01

    支撑国家和区域性的粮食安全战略、地区特色农业种植是现代农业灌溉技术创新的目标。从单纯的节约农业用水过渡到区域生态系统的水文循环、灌溉节水、化肥农药等面源削减、农田温室气体减排等多方面的综合效应。南方地区稻田实行“湿润灌溉、间歇灌溉、排水与烤田结合”高效节水灌溉技术及水旱轮作制度,结合农村河塘综合整治削减农田排水的污染物,合理布局沟渠、水塘、人工湿地等系统的工程措施,通过植物吸收、水流自净、沉积、清淤等方式达到净化处理的效果。最后,以云南省为例介绍了高效农业节水减排工程的实践探索及存在问题。%The innovated target of modern irrigation technology is a sustainable national and regional food-security strategy. It has comprehensive effects like hydrological circulation, water-saving irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide reduction, and greenhouse gas discharge reduction, etc. In southern China, several water-saving irrigation techniques in paddy field were adopted such as thin-exposure irrigation, alternate wetting and drying irrigation, sun-drying field, and crop pattern turn from paddy to drying-farmland, and so on. Then, comprehensive management measures of countryside water environment were put forward, including channel and drainage arrangement, pond and wetland designing, purifying sewage and decreasing contamination discharge through stages of plant assimilate, water flow self-purification, pollutant deposit, and desilting, etc. At last, the engineering practice in Yunnan Province was taken to reveal the reasonable method and problems encountered.

  13. Removal of phosphorus from agricultural wastewaters using adsorption media prepared from acid mine drainage sludge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, Philip L.; Montgomery, Gary A.; Ritenour, Kelsey L.; Tucker, Travis W.

    2009-01-01

    Excess phosphorus in wastewaters promotes eutrophication in receiving waterways. A??cost-effective method for the removal of phosphorus from water would significantly reduce the impact of such wastewaters on the environment. Acid mine drainage sludge is a waste product produced by the neutralization of acid mine drainage, and consists mainly of the same metal hydroxides used in traditional wastewater treatment for the removal of phosphorus. In this paper, we describe a method for the drying and pelletization of acid mine drainage sludge that results in a particulate media, which we have termed Ferroxysorb, for the removal of phosphorus from wastewater in an efficient packed bed contactor. Adsorption capacities are high, and kinetics rapid, such that a contact time of less than 5 min is sufficient for removal of 60-90% of the phosphorus, depending on the feed concentration and time in service. In addition, the adsorption capacity of the Ferroxysorb media was increased dramatically by using two columns in an alternating sequence so that each sludge bed receives alternating rest and adsorption cycles. A stripping procedure based on treatment with dilute sodium hydroxide was also developed that allows for recovery of the P from the media, with the possibility of generating a marketable fertilizer product. These results indicate that acid mine drainage sludges - hitherto thought of as undesirable wastes - can be used to remove phosphorus from wastewater, thus offsetting a portion of acid mine drainage treatment costs while at the same time improving water quality in sensitive watersheds.

  14. Selenium volatilization in vegetated agricultural drainage sediment from the San Luis Drain, Central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, G S; Lin, Z-Q; Arroyo, I; Terry, N

    2005-09-01

    The presence of large amounts of Se-laden agricultural drainage sediment in the San Luis Drain, Central California, poses a serious toxic threat to wildlife in the surrounding environment. Effective management of the drainage sediment becomes a practical challenge because the sediment is polluted with high levels of Se, B, and salts. This two-year field study was conducted to identify the best plant species that are salt and B tolerant and that have a superior ability of volatilizing Se from drainage sediment. The drainage sediment was mixed with clean soil, and vegetated with salado alfalfa (Medicago sativa 'salado'), salado grass (Sporobulus airoides 'salado'), saltgrass-turf (Distichlis spp. 'NYPA Turf'), saltgrass-forage (Distichlis spicata (L.) Greene), cordgrass (Spartina patens 'Flageo'), Leucaenia (Leucaena leucocephola), elephant grass (Pennistum purpureum), or wild type-Brassica (Brassica spp.). Results show that elephant grass produced the greatest amount of biomass and accumulated highest concentrations of B. Highest concentrations of Se, S, and Cl were observed in wild-type Brassica. Biogenic volatilization of Se by plants and soil microbes was greater in summer. Among the treatments, the mean daily rates of Se volatilization (microg Se m(-2)d(-1)) were wild-type Brassica (39) > saltgrass-turf (31) > cordgrass (27) > saltgrass forage (24) > elephant grass (22) > salado grass (21) > leucaenia (19) > salado alfalfa (14) > irrigated bare soil (11) > non-irrigated bare soil (6). Overall, rates of Se volatilization in drainage sediment were relatively low due to high levels of sulfate. To manage Se in drainage sediment by phytoremediation, the biological volatilization process needs to be enhanced substantially under field conditions.

  15. Assessment of water resources in some drainage basins, northwestern coast, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Mohamed; Abd, El Sayed El; Baraka, Ahmed

    2013-06-01

    The main objective of this research paper is to monitor the current situation of water resources in some of the drainage basins in the northwestern coast of Egypt and reach to a plan for the development of these resources. The selected basins were chosen for the present study according to their special conditions, where they have a shortage of water for human and agriculture proposes. However, the area of study has a population growth and agricultural activities, which require necessary development of groundwater. The study area has two aquifers: Pleistocene, and Middle Miocene aquifers. The recharge to these aquifers comes either from the direct infiltration of the rainfall, and/or from the surface runoff. The groundwater in the area of study is evaluated for drinking, domestic, livestock and agricultural purposes. The present study reaches out for some recommendations to develop the surface and groundwater in the study area.

  16. Agriculture, irrigation, and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley, California: Unified perspective on hydrogeology, geochemistry and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.; Quinn, N.W.T.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a broad understanding of water-related issues of agriculture and drainage on the west side of the San Joaquin Valley. To this end, an attempt is made to review available literature on land and water resources of the San Joaquin Valley and to generate a process-oriented framework within which the various physical-, chemical-, biological- and economic components of the system and their interactions are placed in mutual perspective.

  17. Agricultural uses of thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglar, K.O.

    1973-01-01

    Hot and cold mineral waters are used in two ways in agriculture: one for irrigation and other as a heat resource. Irrigation is widely applied in Turkey when the chemical composition of water is found suitable for the purpose. However as a heat resource it is almost never used. Studies showed that the hot waters of Turkey have 4665 billion kcal (equivalent of 450 thousand tons) which means green-houses can be established over an area about 4665 decar for growing vegetable and fruits. The approximate income of the green houses is estimated millions of Turkish lira.

  18. Experimental analysis of drainage and water storage of litter layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Guevara-Escobar

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Leaf litter overlying forested floors are important for erosion control and slope stability, but also reduces pasture growth in silvopastoral systems. Little information exists regarding the value of percolation and storage capacity parameters for litter layers. These estimates are needed for modelling better management practices for leaf litter. Therefore, this work measured the effect of four rainfall intensities: 9.8, 30.2, 40.4 and 70.9 mm h−1 on the hydrological response of layers of three materials: recently senesced poplar leaves, fresh grass and woodchips. Maximum storage (Cmax, defined as the detention of water immediately before rainfall cessation, increased with rainfall intensity. The magnitude of the increment was 0.2 mm between the lowest and highest rainfall intensities. Mean values of Cmax were: 1.27, 1.51, 1.67 and 1.65 mm for poplar leaves; 0.63 0.77, 0.73 and 0.76 for fresh grass and; 1.64, 2.23, 2.21 and 2.16 for woodchips. Drainage parameters were: 9.9, 8.8 and 2.2 mm−1 for poplar, grass and woodchips layers. An underlying soil matrix influenced the drainage flow from poplar leaf layers producing pseudo-Hortonian overland flow, but this occurred only when the rainfall intensity was 40.4 and 70.9 mm h−1 and accounted for 0.4 and 0.8‰ of total drainage. On the other hand, the presence of a poplar leaf layer had a damping effect on the drainage rate from the underlying soil matrix, particularly at intermediate rainfall intensities: 30.2 or 40.4 mm h−1.

  19. Geochemical characterisation of seepage and drainage water quality from two sulphide mine tailings impoundments: Acid mine drainage versus neutral mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, P.M.; Raisanen, M.L.; Johnson, R.H.

    2009-01-01

    Seepage water and drainage water geochemistry (pH, EC, O2, redox, alkalinity, dissolved cations and trace metals, major anions, total element concentrations) were studied at two active sulphide mine tailings impoundments in Finland (the Hitura Ni mine and Luikonlahti Cu mine/talc processing plant). The data were used to assess the factors influencing tailings seepage quality and to identify constraints for water treatment. Changes in seepage water quality after equilibration with atmospheric conditions were evaluated based on geochemical modelling. At Luikonlahti, annual and seasonal changes were also studied. Seepage quality was largely influenced by the tailings mineralogy, and the serpentine-rich, low sulphide Hitura tailings produced neutral mine drainage with high Ni. In contrast, drainage from the high sulphide, multi-metal tailings of Luikonlahti represented typical acid mine drainage with elevated contents of Zn, Ni, Cu, and Co. Other factors affecting the seepage quality included weathering of the tailings along the seepage flow path, process water input, local hydrological settings, and structural changes in the tailings impoundment. Geochemical modelling showed that pH increased and some heavy metals were adsorbed to Fe precipitates after net alkaline waters equilibrated with the atmosphere. In the net acidic waters, pH decreased and no adsorption occurred. A combination of aerobic and anaerobic treatments is proposed for Hitura seepages to decrease the sulphate and metal loading. For Luikonlahti, prolonged monitoring of the seepage quality is suggested instead of treatment, since the water quality is still adjusting to recent modifications to the tailings impoundment.

  20. Vegetation changes and partitioning of selenium in 4-year-old constructed wetlands treating agricultural drainage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z Q; Terry, N; Gao, S; Mohamed, S; Ye, Z H

    2010-03-01

    The knowledge of selenium (Se) partitioning in treatment wetlands and wetland vegetation management are essential for long-term effective operation of constructed wetlands treating Se-laden agricultural tile-drainage in central California. In this field study, samples from different compartments of treatment wetlands were collected and the vegetation change in each wetland cell was examined four years after the wetland's inception. The results showed that saltgrass (Distichlis spicata) and rabbitfoot grass (Polypogon monspeliensis) were less competitive than cattail (Typha latifolia) and saltmarsh bulrush (Scirpus robustus). Over 90% of the wetland cell originally vegetated with saltgrass or rabbitfoot grass was occupied by invasive plants--i.e., when invasive species were not controlled in the wetlands. More Se was likely found in sediments from vegetated regions, compared to the unvegetated areas of the wetland cell. Particularly, rhizosphere sediments accumulated about 4-fold more Se than non-rhizosphere sediments. Among the total Se retained in the wetland 90% of the total Se was partitioned in the top 10-cm layer of sediment. The Se accumulation in plant materials accounted for about 2% of the total Se mass retained in each wetland cell. This field study demonstrated that wetland plants play significant roles in the treatment of Se-laden agricultural drainage.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F. G.; Pedersen, S. M.; Kjaergaard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gachango, F G; Pedersen, S M; Kjaergaard, C

    2015-12-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients reduction measures carried out. The analyses show that the cost effectiveness of the SFCW is higher in the drainage catchments with higher nutrient loads. The range of the cost effectiveness ratio on nitrogen reduction differs distinctively with that of catch crop measure. The study concludes that SFCW could be a better optimal nutrients reduction measure in drainage catchments characterized with higher nutrient loads.

  3. Nitrogen surface water retention in the Baltic Sea drainage basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stålnacke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we estimate the surface water retention of nitrogen (N in all the 117 drainage basins to the Baltic Sea with the use of a statistical model (MESAW for source apportionment of riverine loads of pollutants. Our results show that the MESAW model was able to estimate the N load at the river mouth of 88 Baltic Sea rivers, for which we had observed data, with a sufficient degree of precision and accuracy. The estimated retention parameters were also statistically significant. Our results show that around 380 000 t of N are annually retained in surface waters draining to the Baltic Sea. The total annual riverine load from the 117 basins to the Baltic Sea was estimated to 570 000 t of N, giving a total surface water N retention of around 40%. In terms of absolute retention values, three major river basins account for 50% of the total retention in the 117 basins; i.e. around 104 000 t of N is retained in Neva, 55 000 t in Vistula and 32 000 t in Oder. The largest retention was found in river basins with a high percentage of lakes as indicated by a strong relationship between N retention (% and share of lake area in the river drainage areas. For example in Göta älv, we estimated a total N retention of 72%, whereof 67% of the retention occurred in the lakes of that drainage area (Lake Vänern primarily. The obtained results will hopefully enable the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM to refine the nutrient load targets in the Baltic Sea Action Plan (BSAP, as well as to better identify cost-efficient measures to reduce nutrient loadings to the Baltic Sea.

  4. Agricultural Drainage and Gulf Hypoxia: Economic Targeting of Farmland to Reduce Nitrogen Loads in a Minnesota Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Petrolia, Daniel R.; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Mulla, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Agricultural nitrogen losses are the major contributor to nitrogen loads in the Mississippi River, and consequently, to the existence of a hypoxic, or "dead", zone in the Gulf of Mexico. Focusing on two small agricultural watersheds in southwestern Minnesota, simulation results from the Agricultural Drainage And Pesticide Management (ADAPT) model were combined with a linear-optimization model to evaluate the environmental and economic impact of alternative land-use policies for reducing nitro...

  5. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF IRRIGATION, COLLECTOR-AND-DRAINAGE AND GROUND WATERS OF THE LOWER ALAZANI VALLEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAM ELIZBARASHVILI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Kakheti region is one of the important regions for agriculture development in Georgia. Salinized soils (54 thou. hectares are extended in the area of Alazani valley, in Sighnaghi region of Kakheti. Sighnaghi region is poor with water resources and atmospheric precipitations. Air temperature in summer months reaches here 35-40°C that along with extended period without precipitations often becomes the reason of droughts. Chemical composition of irrigation channel, collector-and-drainage and ground waters of the Lower Alazani Valley in Sighnaghi region of Kakheti is considered in the work. It is established that the water of Lower Alazani irrigation channel is suitable for irrigation; collector-and-drainage waters in case of low mineralization may be used as the additional source of irrigation; ground waters belong to the category of ground waters of high salinity and at the same time mineralization have a tendency to change according to seasons, in particular, mineralization increases in summer and autumn.

  6. Integration of Drainage, Water Quality and Flood Management in Rural, Urban and Lowland Areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlotman, W.F.; Wong, T.; Schultz, E.

    2007-01-01

    Managing drainage in rural and peri-urban environments has become an essential part of integrated water management. Drainage has become a science of control, storage and (re)use while meeting triple bottom-line requirements (environment, social and economic assessments). Controlled drainage in rural

  7. Nitrate-nitrogen losses through subsurface drainage under various agricultural land covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhiming; Helmers, Matthew J; Christianson, Reid D; Pederson, Carl H

    2011-01-01

    Nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N) loading to surface water bodies from subsurface drainage is an environmental concern in the midwestern United States. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of various land covers on NO₃-N loss through subsurface drainage. Land-cover treatments included (i) conventional corn ( L.) (C) and soybean [ (L.) Merr.] (S); (ii) winter rye ( L.) cover crop before corn (rC) and before soybean (rS); (iii) kura clover ( M. Bieb.) as a living mulch for corn (kC); and (iv) perennial forage of orchardgrass ( L.) mixed with clovers (PF). In spring, total N uptake by aboveground biomass of rye in rC, rye in rS, kura clover in kC, and grasses in PF were 14.2, 31.8, 87.0, and 46.3 kg N ha, respectively. Effect of land covers on subsurface drainage was not significant. The NO₃-N loss was significantly lower for kC and PF than C and S treatments (p cover crop did not reduce NO₃-N loss, but NO₃-N concentration was significantly reduced in rC during March to June and in rS during July to November (p cover crop on NO-N loss reduction needs further investigation under conditions of different N rates, wider weather patterns, and fall tillage.

  8. Agricultural water reforms versus climate changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim MH (Karim Koshteh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Water reform policy in many countries, which their economy mostly based on agricultural sector, is main preconditions for sustainable agricultural economic development. Since water is an important input in all economic sectors and particularly in agriculture, climate changes and water scarcity are more important to be considered in this millennium. Providing sufficient water for various uses is one of the main problems that most Developing Countries involved. Agricultural Water-reforms are vital while the multi-oriented issue of sustainability is of interest as well. The pros and cons of climate changes due to global warming and water-reform policy are discussed in this project.

  9. DESIGN JUSTIFICATION DRAINAGE PROTECTION AT ELEVATED GROUNDWATER LEVELS GROUNDWATER DUE TO INFILTRATION MINE WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishtchenko A. V.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the design study for construction of a drainage system on the territory of gardening association «Zarya» in the region of Gukovo in Krasnosulinsky district of Rostov region. Construction of a drainage system is a prerequisite for reducing the groundwater level caused by the infiltration of the drainage complex mine called Burgustinskaya. The results of the calculations determined the value of the total infiltration groundwater feeding; inflow rate to each of the 6 drains per unit length, water flow ability of a horizontal pipe drainage, as well as a diameter of drainage pipes

  10. The Role of County Surveyors and County Drainage Boards in Addressing Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Mike; Mullendore, Nathan; de Jalon, Silvestre Garcia; Prokopy, Linda Stalker

    2016-06-01

    Water quality problems stemming from the Midwestern U.S. agricultural landscape have been widely recognized and documented. The Midwestern state of Indiana contains tens of thousands of miles of regulated drains that represent biotic communities that comprise the headwaters of the state's many rivers and creeks. Traditional management, however, reduces these waterways to their most basic function as conveyances, ignoring their role in the ecosystem as hosts for biotic and abiotic processes that actively regulate the fate and transport of nutrients and farm chemicals. Novel techniques and practices such as the two-stage ditch, denitrifying bioreactor, and constructed wetlands represent promising alternatives to traditional management approaches, yet many of these tools remain underutilized. To date, conservation efforts and research have focused on increasing the voluntary adoption of practices among agricultural producers. Comparatively little attention has been paid to the roles of the drainage professionals responsible for the management of waterways and regulated drains. To address this gap, we draw on survey responses from 39 county surveyors and 85 drainage board members operating in Indiana. By examining the backgrounds, attitudes, and actions of these individuals, we consider their role in advocating and implementing novel conservation practices.

  11. Old carbon efflux from tropical peat swamp drainage waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihermaa, Leena; Waldron, Susan; Evers, Stephanie; Garnett, Mark; Newton, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Tropical peatlands constitute ~12% of the global peatland carbon pool, and of this 10% is in Malaysia1. Due to rising demand for food and biofuels, large areas of peat swamp forest ecosystems have been converted to plantation in Southeast Asia and are being subjected to degradation, drainage and fire, changing their carbon fluxes eg.2,3. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) lost from disturbed tropical peat can be derived from deep within the peat column and be aged from centuries to millennia4 contributing to aquatic release and cycling of old carbon. Here we present the results of a field campaign to the Raja Musa Peat Swamp Forest Reserve in N. Selangor Malaysia, which has been selectively logged for 80 years before being granted timber reserve status. We measured CO2 and CH4efflux rates from drainage systems with different treatment history, and radiocarbon dated the evasion CO2 and associated [DOC]. We also collected water chemistry and stable isotope data from the sites. During our sampling in the dry season CO2 efflux rates ranged from 0.8 - 13.6 μmol m-2 s-1. Sediments in the channel bottom contained CH4 that appeared to be primarily lost by ebullition, leading to sporadic CH4 efflux. However, dissolved CH4 was also observed in water samples collected from these systems. The CO2 efflux was aged up to 582±37 years BP (0 BP = AD 1950) with the associated DOC aged 495±35 years BP. Both DOC and evasion CO2 were most 14C-enriched (i.e. younger) at the least disturbed site, and implied a substantial component of recently fixed carbon. In contrast, CO2 and DOC from the other sites had older 14C ages, indicating disturbance as the trigger for the loss of old carbon. 1Page et al., 2010 2Hooijer et al., 2010 3Kimberly et al., 2012 4Moore et al., 2013

  12. Organic matter removal from saline agricultural drainage wastewater using a moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateia, Mohamed; Nasr, Mahmoud; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fujii, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of salinity on the removal of organics and ammonium from agricultural drainage wastewater (ADW) using moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs). Under the typical salinity level of ADW (total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration up to 2.5 g·L(-1)), microorganisms were acclimated for 40 days on plastic carriers and a stable slime layer of attached biofilm was formed. Next, six batch mode MBBRs were set up and run under different salinity conditions (0.2-20 g-TDS·L(-1)). The removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) in 6 hours decreased from 98 and 68% to 64 and 21% with increasing salt concentrations from 2.5 to 20 g-TDS·L(-1), respectively. In addition, at decreasing salt levels of 0.2 g-TDS·L(-1), both COD removal and nitrification were slightly lowered. Kinetic analysis indicated that the first-order reaction rate constant (k1) and specific substrate utilization rate (U) with respect to the COD removal remained relatively constant (10.9-11.0 d(-1) and 13.1-16.1 g-COD-removed.g-biomass(-1)·d(-1), respectively) at the salinity range of 2.5-5.0 g-TDS·L(-1). In this study, the treated wastewater met the standard criteria of organic concentration for reuse in agricultural purposes, and the system performance remained relatively constant at the salinity range of typical ADW.

  13. Risk management in agricultural water use

    OpenAIRE

    Tychon, Bernard; Balaghi, Riad; Jlibene, Mohammed

    2002-01-01

    Water availability for agricultural activities will decrease in the twenty-first century. As a consequence, agricultural water management will have to improve in order to meet two challenges: satisfy the needs of an increasing world population; and alleviate the climate change impacts. One way to improve agricultural water management consists of including the ‘risk’ notion as much as possible at the different decision levels of: farmers, farmer corporations and states or associations of st...

  14. Optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武强; 董东林; 石占华; 武雄; 孙卫东; 叶责钧; 李树文; 刘金韬

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China. Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins, and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water. All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality. This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage, water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply, which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system. Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy, society, ecology, environment, industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account. Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,

  15. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Bastawesy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases, which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+ were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM has been processed to delineate the catchment morphometrical parameters (i.e. drainage networks, catchment divides and surface areas of different basins and to examine the spatial distribution of cultivated fields and their relation to the extracted drainage networks. The soil of these closed drainage basins is mainly shallow and lithic with high calcium carbonate content; therefore, the downward percolation of excess irrigation water is limited by the development of subsurface hardpan, which also saturates the upper layer of soil with water. The subsurface seepage from the newly cultivated areas in the Farafra Oasis has revealed the pattern of buried alluvial channels, which are waterlogged and outlined by the growth of diagnostic saline shrubs. Furthermore, the courses of these waterlogged channels are coinciding with their counterparts of the SRTM DEM, and the recent satellite images show that the surface playas in the downstream of these channels are partially occupied by water ponds. On the other hand, a large water pond has occupied the main playa and submerged the surrounding fields, as a large area has been cultivated within a relatively small closed drainage basin in the Baharia Oasis. The geomorphology of closed drainage basins has to be considered when planning for a new cultivation in dryland catchments to better control waterlogging hazards. The "dry-drainage" concept can be implemented as the drainage and

  16. Sediment-water interaction in a water reservoir affected by acid mine drainage : experimental and modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Sánchez, Ester

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of acid mine drainage into a water reservoir may seriously affect the water quality. In this setting, sediment is commonly thought to act as a sink for pollutants. However, redox oscillations in the bottom water promoted by stratification-turnover events may significantly alter the metal cycling. A new sequential extraction procedure has been developed to study the metal partitioning in the sediment. The new scheme for iron, sulfur and organic carbon rich sediments was evaluated...

  17. Electrocoagulation treatment of peat bog drainage water containing humic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuokkanen, V; Kuokkanen, T; Rämö, J; Lassi, U

    2015-08-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment of 100 mg/L synthetic wastewater (SWW) containing humic acids was optimized (achieving 90% CODMn and 80% DOC removal efficiencies), after which real peat bog drainage waters (PBDWs) from three northern Finnish peat bogs were also treated. High pollutant removal efficiencies were achieved: Ptot, TS, and color could be removed completely, while Ntot, CODMn, and DOC/TOC removal efficiencies were in the range of 33-41%, 75-90%, and 62-75%, respectively. Al and Fe performed similarly as the anode material. Large scale experiments (1 m(3)) using cold (T = 10-11 °C) PBDWs were also conducted successfully, with optimal treatment times of 60-120 min (applying current densities of 60-75 A/m(2)). Residual values of Al and Fe (complete removal) were lower than their initial values in the EC-treated PBDWs. Electricity consumption and operational costs in optimum conditions were found to be low and similar for all the waters studied: 0.94 kWh/m(3) and 0.15 €/m(3) for SWW and 0.35-0.70 kWh/m(3) and 0.06-0.12 €/m(3) for the PBDWs (large-scale). Thus, e.g. solar cells could be considered as a power source for this EC application. In conclusion, EC treatment of PBDW containing humic substances was shown to be feasible.

  18. Acid mine drainage: mining and water pollution issues in British Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The importance of protecting water quality and some of the problems associated with mineral development are described. Negative impacts of mining operations such as sedimentation, water disturbances, and water pollution from waste rock and tailings are considered. Mining wastes, types of water pollution from mining, the legacy of acid mine drainage, predicting acid mine drainage, preventing and mitigating acid mine drainage, examples from the past, and cyanide heap-leaching are discussed. The real costs of mining at the Telkwa open pit coal mine are assessed. British Columbia mines that are known for or are potentially acid generating are shown on a map. 32 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Surface Flow Constructed Wetlands (SFCW) for Nutrient Reduction in Drainage Discharge from Agricultural Fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, S M; Kjærgaard, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost-effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as case studies......, this paper explores the feasibility of implementing surface flow constructed wetlands (SFCW) based on their cost effectiveness. Sensitivity analysis is conducted by varying the cost elements of the wetlands in order to establish the most cost-effective scenario and a comparison with the existing nutrients...

  20. Performance Evaluation of Automated Passive Capillary Sampler for Estimating Water Drainage in the Vadose Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) are widely used to monitor, measure and sample drainage water under saturated and unsaturated soil conditions in the vadose zone. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and accuracy of automated passive capillary sampler for estimating drainage...

  1. Effect of Drainage Ditch Layout on Nitrogen Loss by Runoff from an Agricultural Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhan-Yu; KONG Li-Li; ZHU Lei; R.M.MWIYA

    2013-01-01

    A comparison experiment was performed,by designing one field ditch (D1 treatment),two field ditches (D2 treatment),three field ditches (D3 treatment),and no field ditch (CK treatment),in an upland of a small agricultural watershed in Nanjing-Zhenjiang hilly regions to observe the farmland surface runoff and N loss characteristics under the different layouts of field ditch.As the layout density of field ditch increased,the drainage effect was improved,the timing of the runoff peak was advanced,and also the peak flow was augmented.At the same time,both the concentration and accumulated transfer flux of total nitrogen (TN) were improved,and thereinto the accumulated transfer fluxes of TN under D3,D2 and D1 treatments were increased by 1.46,1.34 and 1.16 times,respectively,than that under CK treatment.However,the accumulated transfer fluxes of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3--N) and ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) under D3,D2 and D1 treatments were reduced by 33.9%,21.4% and 8.6%,and 35.8%,24.7% and 12.2%,respectively,compared with those under CK treatment.Under CK treatment,the NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations were more sensitive to rainfall intensity than the TN concentration.There were significant linear relationships between the transfer fluxes of TN,NO3--N and NH4+-N and the runoff flux,with the correlation coefficients of 0.942,0.899 and 0.912,respectively.In addition,this correlation was also influenced by the layout density of field ditch.Therefore,the environmental effect should be taken into account when designing and constructing field ditches.Especially in the regions of severe fertilizer loss,the approaches of properly increasing the drainage area and decreasing the layout density of field ditch could be adopted under the precondition of avoiding crops from waterlogging.

  2. Conceptual solutions to drainage water and treatment of waste water for the settlement Muljava and its surroundings

    OpenAIRE

    Malovrh, Gašper

    2008-01-01

    In this diploma thesis, conceptual solutions of drainage and treatment of waste water for the settlements Muljava and Potok pri Muljavi are described. The procedures of designing a separate sewer system including all the supporting facilities are represented. Hydraulic calculation of the waste water and rain water sewerage is presented separately. Concerning rain water sewer system, various solutions of rain water drainage with regard to the existing situation are described. A ...

  3. Wetlands as a means to reduce the environmental impact of mine drainage waters

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöblom, Åsa

    2003-01-01

    In many mining regions of the world, pollution of surface water and groundwater by drainage water originating from mines aiming waste poses either a serious threat to the environment, or a severe environmental problem. During the last two and a half decades, treatment of mine drainage water in constructed and natural wetlands has emerged as an alternative to more conventional methods to handle the problem. In this thesis, the major biogeochemical processes behind metal immobilization in wetla...

  4. An analytical model for predicting water table dynamics during drainage and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, F. J.; Rassam, D. W.

    2002-06-01

    Water table dynamics in tile-drained fields have been thoroughly investigated by numerous researchers. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of incorporating the effects of evaporation into the design of such drainage systems. In tropical areas, evaporation plays a particularly crucial role in lowering the water table in finely textured soils. In this paper, water table dynamics are investigated for the case of coupled drainage and evaporation. A simple analytical model that determines the relative contribution of the drainage component to the draw down of the water table is proposed. The model's estimates compare reasonably well to field data, as well as those derived from numerical simulations conducted for various evaporation rates and soil types. When presented in a non-dimensional form, the model's results can provide a quick estimate of the relative contribution of drainage to lowering the water table, which is highly relevant to the hydrology of acid sulphate soils.

  5. America's water: Agricultural water demands and the response of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M.; Parthasarathy, V.; Etienne, E.; Russo, T. A.; Devineni, N.; Lall, U.

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural, industrial, and urban water use in the conterminous United States (CONUS) is highly dependent on groundwater that is largely drawn from nonsurficial wells (>30 m). We use a Demand-Sensitive Drought Index to examine the impacts of agricultural water needs, driven by low precipitation, high agricultural water demand, or a combination of both, on the temporal variability of depth to groundwater across the CONUS. We characterize the relationship between changes in groundwater levels, agricultural water deficits relative to precipitation during the growing season, and winter precipitation. We find that declines in groundwater levels in the High Plains aquifer and around the Mississippi River Valley are driven by groundwater withdrawals used to supplement agricultural water demands. Reductions in agricultural water demands for crops do not, however, lead to immediate recovery of groundwater levels due to the demand for groundwater in other sectors in regions such as Utah, Maryland, and Texas.

  6. Information technology and innovative drainage management practices for selenium load reduction from irrigated agriculture to provide stakeholder assurances and meet contaminant mass loading policy objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, N.W.T.

    2009-10-15

    Many perceive the implementation of environmental regulatory policy, especially concerning non-point source pollution from irrigated agriculture, as being less efficient in the United States than in many other countries. This is partly a result of the stakeholder involvement process but is also a reflection of the inability to make effective use of Environmental Decision Support Systems (EDSS) to facilitate technical information exchange with stakeholders and to provide a forum for innovative ideas for controlling non-point source pollutant loading. This paper describes one of the success stories where a standardized Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) methodology was modified to better suit regulation of a trace element in agricultural subsurface drainage and information technology was developed to help guide stakeholders, provide assurances to the public and encourage innovation while improving compliance with State water quality objectives. The geographic focus of the paper is the western San Joaquin Valley where, in 1985, evapoconcentration of selenium in agricultural subsurface drainage water, diverted into large ponds within a federal wildlife refuge, caused teratogenecity in waterfowl embryos and in other sensitive wildlife species. The fallout from this environmental disaster was a concerted attempt by State and Federal water agencies to regulate non-point source loads of the trace element selenium. The complexity of selenium hydrogeochemistry, the difficulty and expense of selenium concentration monitoring and political discord between agricultural and environmental interests created challenges to the regulation process. Innovative policy and institutional constructs, supported by environmental monitoring and the web-based data management and dissemination systems, provided essential decision support, created opportunities for adaptive management and ultimately contributed to project success. The paper provides a retrospective on the contentious planning

  7. Cost of managing with less: cutting water subsidies and supplies in Egypt's agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Lofgren, Hans

    1996-01-01

    Using a mathematical-programming agricultural-sector model of Egypt, this paper analyzes mechanisms for allocating scarce water and for charging the farmers the Operation and Management (O&M) costs of irrigation and drainage, currently covered by the government. The effects of cost recovery are negative but minor. A crop charge (based on crop water consumption per land unit) and a volumetric charge both discourage consumption. The former is easier to implement but does not stimulate water-sav...

  8. Estimated Irrigated Agricultural Water Use In 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset is a 100-meter cell resolution raster dataset of estimated use of irrigated agricultural water use data for the southwestern U.S. The dataset was...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Evaporation and Drainage in Wettable and Water-Repellent Sands

    OpenAIRE

    Dae Hyun Kim; Heui Jean Yang; Kwang Yeom Kim; Tae Sup Yun

    2015-01-01

    This study presents experimental results on evaporation and drainage in both wettable and water-repellent sands whose surface wettability was artificially modified by silanization. The 2D optical and 3D X-ray computed tomographic imaging was performed during evaporation and the water retention during cyclic drainage and infiltration was measured to assess effects of wettability and initial wetting conditions. The evaporation gradually induces its front at the early stage advance regardless of...

  10. Influence of instream habitat and water chemistry on amphibians within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for draining agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States, Canada, and Europe. Channelized agricultural he...

  11. Agriculture Irrigation and Water Use

    OpenAIRE

    Bajwa, Rajinder S.; Crosswhite, William M.; Hostetler, John E.; Wright, Olivia W.; United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1992-01-01

    The 17 Western States, plus Arkansas, Florida, and Louisiana, account for 91 percent of all U.S. irrigated acreage, with the Western States alone contributing over 85 percent. This report integrates data on the distribution, characteristics, uses, and management of water resources from a wide variety of data sources. The report includes charts and tables on water use in irrigation; farm data comparing selected characteristics of irrigated and nonirrigated farms; and data on water applicatio...

  12. Metals in agricultural produce associated with acid-mine drainage in Mount Morgan (Queensland, Australia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Beckett, Victoria A; McCauley, Gaylene J Taylor; Duivenvoorden, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Acid-mine drainage (AMD) into the Dee River from the historic gold and copper mine in Mount Morgan, Queensland (Australia) has been of concern to farmers in the area since 1925. This study sought to determine the levels of AMD-related metals and sulfur in agricultural produce grown near the mine-impacted Dee River, compare these with similar produce grown in reference fields (which had no known AMD influence), and assess any potential health risk using relevant Australian or US guidelines. Analyses of lucerne (Medicago sativa; also known as alfalfa) from five Dee fields showed the following average concentrations (mg/kg dry basis): Cd Citrus reticulata) from Dee sites (mg/kg wet weight) were Cd 0.011, Cu 0.59, Fe 2.2, Mn 0.56, Pb 0.18, S 91 and Zn 0.96. Cd and Zn were less than or close to, average Fe and Mn levels were at most twice, Cd 1.8 or 6.5 times, and Pb 8.5 or 72 times the maximum levels in raw oranges reported in the US total diet study (TDS) or the Australian TDS, respectively. Average Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn levels in the citrus reference samples were found to exceed the maximum reported in one or both TDS surveys. Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn plant-soil transfer factor (TF) values were citrus fruit samples were 0.14 and 0.73, respectively; lucerne and lucerne hay from both Dee and reference sites gave TF = 10, suggesting some potential risk to cattle, although this conclusion is tentative because Cd levels were close to or less than the detection limit. TF values for S in lucerne, lucerne hay, pasture grass and mandarin oranges from Dee sites were 18, 14, 3 and 3.6, respectively, indicating that S in soil was readily available to plant or fruit. Sulfur in pasture grass and citrus fruit (TF = 11 for both) was apparently more bioavailable at the reference sites than at the Dee sites (TF = 3.0 for pasture grass; TF = 3.6 for citrus fruit). PMID:26979303

  13. Nitrogen removal and greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands receiving tile drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, Tyler A; Gentry, Lowell E; David, Mark B

    2015-05-01

    Loss of nitrate from agricultural lands to surface waters is an important issue, especially in areas that are extensively tile drained. To reduce these losses, a wide range of in-field and edge-of-field practices have been proposed, including constructed wetlands. We re-evaluated constructed wetlands established in 1994 that were previously studied for their effectiveness in removing nitrate from tile drainage water. Along with this re-evaluation, we measured the production and flux of greenhouse gases (GHGs) (CO, NO, and CH). The tile inlets and outlets of two wetlands were monitored for flow and N during the 2012 and 2013 water years. In addition, seepage rates of water and nitrate under the berm and through the riparian buffer strip were measured. Greenhouse gas emissions from the wetlands were measured using floating chambers (inundated fluxes) or static chambers (terrestrial fluxes). During this 2-yr study, the wetlands removed 56% of the total inlet nitrate load, likely through denitrification in the wetland. Some additional removal of nitrate occurred in seepage water by the riparian buffer strip along each berm (6.1% of the total inlet load, for a total nitrate removal of 62%). The dominant GHG emitted from the wetlands was CO, which represented 75 and 96% of the total GHG emissions during the two water years. The flux of NO contributed between 3.7 and 13% of the total cumulative GHG flux. Emissions of NO were 3.2 and 1.3% of the total nitrate removed from wetlands A and B, respectively. These wetlands continue to remove nitrate at rates similar to those measured after construction, with relatively little GHG gas loss. PMID:26024280

  14. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands.

  15. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulikakos, L D; Sedighi Gilani, M; Derome, D; Jerjen, I; Vontobel, P

    2013-07-01

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. PMID:23500651

  16. The Metal And Sulphate Removal From Mine Drainage Waters By Biological-Chemical Ways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenčárová Jana

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mine drainage waters are often characterized by high concentrations of sulphates and metals as a consequence of the mining industry of sulphide minerals. The aims of this work are to prove some biological-chemical processes utilization for the mine drainage water treatment. The studied principles of contamination elimination from these waters include sulphate reduction and metal bioprecipitation by the application of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB. Other studied process was metal sorption by prepared biogenic sorbent. Mine drainage waters from Slovak localities Banská Štiavnica and Smolník were used to the pollution removal examination. In Banská Štiavnica water, sulphates decreased below the legislative limit. The elimination of zinc by sorption experiments achieved 84 % and 65 %, respectively.

  17. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Servais

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC, the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC abundance in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms or

  18. Modelling microbiological water quality in the Seine river drainage network: past, present and future situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Servais

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The Seine river watershed is characterized by a high population density and intense agricultural activities. Data show low microbiological water quality in the main rivers (Seine, Marne, Oise of the watershed. Today, there is an increasing pressure from different social groups to restore microbiological water quality in order to both increase the safety of drinking water production and to restore the possible use of these rivers for bathing and rowing activities, as they were in the past. A model, appended to the hydro-ecological SENEQUE/Riverstrahler model describing the functioning of large river systems, was developed to describe the dynamics of faecal coliforms (FC, the most usual faecal contamination indicator. The model is able to calculate the distribution of FC concentrations in the whole drainage network resulting from land use and wastewater management in the watershed. The model was validated by comparing calculated FC concentrations with available field data for some well-documented situations in different river stretches of the Seine drainage network. Once validated, the model was used to test various predictive scenarios, as, for example, the impact of the modifications in wastewater treatment planned at the 2012 horizon in the Seine watershed in the scope of the implementation of the european water framework directive. The model was also used to investigate past situations. In particular, the variations of the microbiological water quality in the Parisian area due to population increase and modifications in wastewater management were estimated over the last century. It was shown that the present standards for bathing and other aquatic recreational activities are not met in the large tributaries upstream from Paris since the middle of the 1950's, and at least since the middle of the XIXth century in the main branch of the Seine river downstream from Paris. Efforts carried out for improving urban wastewater treatment in terms

  19. Time resolved analysis of water drainage in porous asphalt concrete using neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porous asphalt as a road surface layer controls aquaplaning as rain water can drain through its highly porous structure. The process of water drainage through this permeable layer is studied using neutron radiography. Time-resolved water configuration and distribution within the porous structure are reported. It is shown that radiography depicts the process of liquid water transport within the complex geometry of porous asphalt, capturing water films, filled dead end pores and water islands. - Highlights: ► The water drainage process in porous asphalt was studied using neutron radiography. ► Despite similar mix designs, different processes of water transport were established. ► Water transport within porous asphalt showed filled dead end pores and water islands

  20. Acceleration of Selenium Volatilization in Seleniferous Agricultural Drainage Sediments Amended With Methionine and Casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytoremediation is a potential tool for the management of excessive Se in drainage sediment residing in the San Luis Drain in central California via plant extraction or biological volatilization of Se. This two-year field study in 2004/2005 examined the ability of organic amendments-methionine and ...

  1. Impact assessment of mine drainage water and municipal wastewater on the surface water in the vicinity of Bor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gardić Vojka R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining and copper production in Bor, in the past hundred years, had a huge impact on the environment of town, but also in a wide region. In the area of Bor, in the zone of Mining and Smelting Company (RTB activity, over 29,000 ha of land under forests and fields is degraded. The area of degraded agricultural land in the Bor municipality is over 60% of total agricultural land. Wastewater, generated in the sites of RTB Bor, pollute the Bor River and Krivelj River, which still flow into the Timok River and Danube River. These pollutions are often presented by low pH value, increased content of heavy metal ions, suspended particles and fine particles of flotation tailings, which is deposited in the valleys of these rivers on the area of over 2000 hectares. During the decades of exploitation of ore from the open pit Bor at different locations ("Visoki Planir" - also called “Oštreljski planir”, "Severni planir" dump of ore body "H" (RTH gangue and tailings were delayed. The largest amount of tailings, about 150 million tons, was postponed on location Visoki planir. The effect of the mining waste and the impact of the whole process of processing copper ore to the final products on the environment, was conducted during the 4th study period of the project "Management of mining waste-tailing dump in the Bor region," supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion Science (Eng. Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the Japan international cooperation Agency and the Ministry of environment, Mining and Spatial planning of the Republic of Serbia. Influence of season on the level of pollutants in soil and water, the impact on water quality in the river Timok and the River Danube, was conducted during first three periods of project. This paper presents the results of the third study period. The third period of research, which was conducted over a period of 17. 10. 2012 to 17. 01.2013 year, included a review of pollution sources and define their

  2. Assessment of waterlogging in agricultural megaprojects in the closed drainage basins of the Western Desert of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Bastawesy, M.; R. Ramadan Ali; A. Faid; Osta, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the development of waterlogging in the cultivated and arable areas within typical dryland closed drainage basins (e.g. the Farafra and Baharia Oases), which are located in the Western Desert of Egypt. Multi-temporal remote sensing data of the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) were collected and processed to detect the land cover changes; cultivations, and the extent of water ponds and seepage channels. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission...

  3. Virtual water exported from Californian agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Johansson, E. L.

    2015-12-01

    In an increasingly teleconnected world, international trade drives the exchange of virtual land and water as crops produced in one region are consumed in another. In theory, this can be an optimal use of scarce resources if crops are grown where they can most efficiently be produced. Several recent analyses examine the export of land and water from food production in developing countries where these resources may be more abundant. Here we focus on a developed region and examine the virtual export of land and water from California, the leading agricultural state in the US and the leading global producer of a wide range of fruit, nut, and other specialty crops. As the region faces a serious, ongoing drought, water use is being questioned, and water policy governance re-examined, particularly in the agricultural sector which uses over three-quarters of water appropriations in the state. We look at the blue water embodied in the most widely grown crops in California and use network analysis to examine the trading patterns for flows of virtual land and water. We identify the main crops and export partners representing the majority of water exports. Considered in the context of tradeoffs for land and water resources, we highlight the challenges and opportunities for food production systems to play a sustainable role in meeting human needs while protecting the life-support systems of the planet.

  4. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF AMELIORATIVE WORKS ON SOME SOIL QUALITY PARAMETERS FROM BAIA –MOLDOVA EXPERIMENTAL AGRICULTURAL DRAINAGE FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Moca

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil-climatic conditions from Baia Depression – the hydrographical basin from the extra-Carpathian area of the Moldova River - have frequently determined the presence, under different forms, intensities and periods, of temporary water excess from soil. The underground drainage, as a measure of water excess control, with stagnant character, caused mainly by rainfall amounts registered for 1-5 consecutive days, was firstly arranged in pilot-experimental fields during 1972-1978. We followed the behaviour in exploitation of underground drainage technical solutions, as concerns the functional efficiency of the means of water excess removal and of the improved soil favourableness and/or suitability for crop growing.In order to assess the long-term effects of ameliorating works, applied in 1978 in the drainage field of Baia, on an area of 3.50 ha, we have qualitatively classified and estimated the albic stagnic glossic Luvosoil (S.R.T.S. – 2003, improved and unimproved. Based on this study, we have estimated the present favourableness for crops of the improved soil, as compared to unimproved soil, used as natural grassland, after an exploitation cycle of 30 years (1978- 2008.

  5. Modeling Water, Climate, Agriculture, and the Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Winston; Yang, Yi-chen; Savitsky, Andre; Alford, Donald; Brown, Casey; Wescoat, James; Debowicz, Dario; Robinson, Sherman

    2013-01-01

    Describes two models used in the integrated modeling framework designed to study water, climate, agriculture and the economy in Pakistan's Indus Basin: (1) the Indus Basin Model Revised (IBMR-1012), a hydro-economic optimization model that takes a variety of inputs (such as agronomic information, irrigation system data, and water inflows) to generate the optimal crop production across the provinces (subject to a variety of physical and political constraints) for every month of the year; and (...

  6. Water Pollution with Nitrates from Agricultural Sources

    OpenAIRE

    FLESERIU A.; OROIAN I.

    2010-01-01

    One of the biggest water pollution problem is created by nitrates resulted from agriculture. This paper is areview aimin to emphasiz the main water pollution problems produced by nitrates in Romania and EU. The excessnitrates can accumulate in soil in several ways. First, manure effluents containing both ammonia and organic forms ofnitrogen. Organic nitrogen can be converted to ammonia in the soil. The ammonia, together with any ammoniafertilizer applied, is converted to nitrate by soil bacte...

  7. Climate policy implications for agricultural water demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Hejazi, Mohamad I. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Edmonds, James A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Clarke, Leon E. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Kyle, G. Page [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Davies, Evan [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wise, Marshall A. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States); Calvin, Katherine V. [Joint Global Change Research Inst., College Park, MD (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Energy, water and land are scarce resources, critical to humans. Developments in each affect the availability and cost of the others, and consequently human prosperity. Measures to limit greenhouse gas concentrations will inevitably exact dramatic changes on energy and land systems and in turn alter the character, magnitude and geographic distribution of human claims on water resources. We employ the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment model to explore the interactions of energy, land and water systems in the context of alternative policies to limit climate change to three alternative levels: 2.5 Wm-2 (445 ppm CO2-e), 3.5 Wm-2 (535 ppm CO2-e) and 4.5 Wm-2 (645 ppm CO2-e). We explore the effects of two alternative land-use emissions mitigation policy options—one which taxes terrestrial carbon emissions equally with fossil fuel and industrial emissions, and an alternative which only taxes fossil fuel and industrial emissions but places no penalty on land-use change emissions. We find that increasing populations and economic growth could be anticipated to almost triple demand for water for agricultural systems across the century even in the absence of climate policy. In general policies to mitigate climate change increase agricultural demands for water still further, though the largest changes occur in the second half of the century, under both policy regimes. The two policies examined profoundly affected both the sources and magnitudes of the increase in irrigation water demands. The largest increases in agricultural irrigation water demand occurred in scenarios where only fossil fuel emissions were priced (but not land-use change emission) and were primarily driven by rapid expansion in bioenergy production. In these scenarios water demands were large relative to present-day total available water, calling into question whether it would be physically possible to produce the associated biomass energy. We explored the potential of improved

  8. Demonstration of thermal water utilization in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5-yr demonstration project was conducted to determine benefits and identify harmful effects of using waste heat in condenser cooling water (900F-1100F) for agricultural purposes. Initial phases emphasized use and evaluation of warm water for spring frost protection, irrigation, and plant cooling in summer. Row crops, and fruit and nut trees were used in the evaluation. Undersoil heating was demonstrated on a 1.2-acre soil plot. Two and one half inch plastic pipes were buried 26 in deep and 5 ft on center, connecting to 6-in. steel headers. Warm water was circulated through the grid, heating soil on which row crops were grown. Crop production was evaluated in a 22 x 55-ft plastic greenhouse constructed on a portion of the undersoil heat grid. The greatest potential benefit of waste heat use in agriculture is in the area of greenhouse soil heating. Monetary benefits from industrial waste heat appear achievable through proper management

  9. Re-engineering the urban drainage system for resource recovery and protection of drinking water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumbo, B

    2000-01-01

    The Harare metropolis in Zimbabwe, extending upstream from Manyame Dam in the Upper Manyame River Basin, consists of the City of Harare and its satellite towns: Chitungwiza, Norton, Epworth and Ruwa. The existing urban drainage system is typically a single-use-mixing system: water is used and discharged to "waste", excreta are flushed to sewers and eventually, after "treatment", the effluent is discharged to a drinking water supply source. Polluted urban storm water is evacuated as fast as possible. This system not only ignores the substantial value in "waste" materials, but it also exports problems to downstream communities and to vulnerable fresh-water sources. The question is how can the harare metropolis urban drainage system, which is complex and has evolved over time, be rearranged to achieve sustainability (i.e. water conservation, pollution prevention at source, protection of the vulnerable drinking water sources and recovery of valuable materials)? This paper reviews current concepts regarding the future development of the urban drainage system in line with the new vision of "Sustainable Cities of the Future". The Harare Metropolis in Zimbabwe is taken as a case, and philosophical options for re-engineering the drainage system are discussed. PMID:10842788

  10. Economic feasibility of surface flow constructed (SFCW) wetlands for reduction of water pollution from agricultural fields in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gachango, Florence Gathoni; Pedersen, Søren Marcus; Kjaergaard, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Constructed wetlands have been proposed as cost effective and more targeted technologies in the reduction of nitrogen and phosphorous water pollution in drainage losses from agricultural fields in Denmark. Using two pig farms and one dairy farm situated in a pumped lowland catchment as study cases...

  11. Risk analysis on agricultural drainage ditch filling and flood disasters in lower plain area of North China%华北低平原农田排水沟平填及洪涝灾害风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓宇; 张凤荣; 李超

    2016-01-01

    The construction of irrigation and water conservancy was initiated on the North China Plain in the 1950s, which played a significant role in the saline-alkali soil improvement and flood discharge. However, the phenomenon of filling agricultural drainage ditches has become common in the North China Plain since the 1990s. It is necessary to know the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditches and flood disasters related with this phenomenon. Nowadays, there are few researches to analyze the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditches. In order to enrich existing studies, this research took Cangxian County which was battered by flooding and soil salinization in lower plain area as a case study, and explored the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditch and the flood disaster. The changes of drainage ditch area and spatial variation were analyzed based on land use databases of Cangxian County in 1992 and 2010 using the method of GIS (geographic information system). Then, the condition of filling agricultural drainage ditch was investigated by means of the field research in Nan Gutun Village. This village was one of the most densely populated agriculture villages in Cangxian County. Interviewing with the village committee members and the villagers over 70 years old, we learned about the local agricultural production mode, the way of life, the changes of agricultural drainage ditch and its mechanisms from 1960s to now. Finally, we analyzed the risk of flood disasters from the aspects of precipitation trends, percentage of precipitation anomalies, underground water level, drought/flood frequency, relationship between soil water capacity and rainfall, and upland water condition. The results showed that from 1992 to 2010, the area of drainage ditches in Cangxian County reduced by 37.73%. Meanwhile, the proportion of drainage ditches in Cangxian County decreased by 2.03% and the farm ditches was the most serious in being filled. The results of flood

  12. A critical review of integrated urban water modelling – Urban drainage and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Peter M.; Rauch, Wolfgang; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen;

    2014-01-01

    Modelling interactions in urban drainage, water supply and broader integrated urban water systems has been conceptually and logistically challenging as evidenced in a diverse body of literature, found to be confusing and intimidating to new researchers. This review consolidates thirty years...... of research (initially driven by interest in urban drainage modelling) and critically reflects upon integrated modelling in the scope of urban water systems. We propose a typology to classify integrated urban water system models at one of four ‘degrees of integration’ (followed by its exemplification). Key...... considerations (e.g. data issues, model structure, computational and integration-related aspects), common methodology for model development (through a systems approach), calibration/optimisation and uncertainty are discussed, placing importance on pragmatism and parsimony. Integrated urban water models should...

  13. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF SHAFT LINING WHEN THE STRATUM SETTLEMENT RESULTING FROM WATER DRAINAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋斌松

    1997-01-01

    Based on the stratum settlement resulting from water drainage, this paper establishes the calculating method of stresses and displacements of shaft lining and stratum by using Fourier integration, obtains the calculating formulas of tangiential load which shaft lining is subjected to, and provides theoretical basis for design of shaft lining.

  14. Irrigation ponds:Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BROWN; Larry

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and unrecycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China. With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious. Traditional irrigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e. the capacity of irrigation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality improvement. how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irrigation and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning. Pond is an important irrigation facility in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use. Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treatment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system. To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site. The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water. Other issues, e.g. how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  15. Irrigation ponds: Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MAO Zhi; BROWN Larry; CHEN XiuHong; PENG LiYuan; WANG JianZhang

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and un-recycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China.With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious.Traditional ir-rigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e.the capacity of irri-gation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality im-provement, how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irriga-tion and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning.Pond is an important irrigation facil-ity in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use.Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treat-ment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system.To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site.The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water.Other issues, e.g.how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  16. Conservation implications of amphibian habitat relationships within channelized agricultural headwater streams in the midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The widespread use of stream channelization and subsurface tile drainage for removing water from agricultural fields has led to the development of numerous channelized agricultural headwater streams within agricultural watersheds of the Midwestern United States. Channelized agricultural headwater s...

  17. Agriculture in a Water Scarce World

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Allison; Assi, Amjad; Daher, Bassel; Li, Men

    2013-01-01

    According to the McKinsey report (2009), the world is facing a water scarcity challenge where agriculture is its predominant consumer. It accounts for approximately 3100 billion m3, or 71 percent of global water withdrawals today, and is expected to increase to 4500 billion m3 by 2030. This increase is due to a number of factors: growing population and the ever growing necessity to cater for its food needs, economic growth, the variability of precipitation trends and increase in global temper...

  18. Water Pollution with Nitrates from Agricultural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLESERIU A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest water pollution problem is created by nitrates resulted from agriculture. This paper is areview aimin to emphasiz the main water pollution problems produced by nitrates in Romania and EU. The excessnitrates can accumulate in soil in several ways. First, manure effluents containing both ammonia and organic forms ofnitrogen. Organic nitrogen can be converted to ammonia in the soil. The ammonia, together with any ammoniafertilizer applied, is converted to nitrate by soil bacteria in a process called nitrification. Nitrification is importantbecause plants can only use nitrogen as nitrate. It is equally harmful in both, animals and humans.

  19. Use of Industrial Byproducts and Natural Minerals to Filter Nutrients and Pesticides in Golf Green Drainage Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tile drainage is an essential water management feature of managed turfgrass systems. Drainage water carries soluble nutrients and pesticides to streams. Identifying materials and testing the efficacy of those materials as filtering agents is one proposed solution to mitigate offsite transport. We co...

  20. Experimental Investigation of Evaporation and Drainage in Wettable and Water-Repellent Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Hyun Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study presents experimental results on evaporation and drainage in both wettable and water-repellent sands whose surface wettability was artificially modified by silanization. The 2D optical and 3D X-ray computed tomographic imaging was performed during evaporation and the water retention during cyclic drainage and infiltration was measured to assess effects of wettability and initial wetting conditions. The evaporation gradually induces its front at the early stage advance regardless of the wettability and sand types, while its rate becomes higher in water-repellent Ottawa sand than the wettable one. Jumunjin sand which has a smaller particle size and irregular particle shape than Ottawa sand exhibits a similar evaporation rate independent of wettability. Water-repellent sand can facilitate the evaporation when both wettable and water-repellent sands are naturally in contact with each other. The 3D X-ray imaging reveals that the hydraulically connected water films in wettable sands facilitate the propagation of the evaporation front into the soil such that the drying front deeply advances into the soil. For cyclic drainage-infiltration testing, the evolution of water retention is similar in both wettable and water-repellent sands when both are initially wet. However, when conditions are initially dry, water-repellent sands exhibit low residual saturation values. The experimental observations made from this study propose that the surface wettability may not be a sole factor while the degree of water-repellency, type of sands, and initial wetting condition are predominant when assessing evaporation and drainage behaviors.

  1. Analyses of radionuclides in soil, water, and agriculture products near the Urgeirica uranium mine in Portugal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analyses of soils, irrigation waters, agriculture products (lettuce), green pasture, and cheese were performed in samples collected in the area of the old Urgeirica uranium mine and milling facilities, Centre-North of Portugal, in order to assess the transfer of uranium series radionuclides in the environment and to man. Soils close to milling tailings display an enhancement of radioactivity. In the drainage basin of the stream Ribeira da Pantanha, receiving drainage from the tailings piles and discharges from the acid mine water treatment plant, there was enhancement of uranium series radionuclide concentrations in water and suspended matter. Agriculture products from kitchen gardens irrigated with water from the Ribeira da Pantanha show an increase of radioactivity, mainly due to uranium isotopes. Agriculture products from other kitchen gardens in this area, irrigated with groundwater, as well pasture and cheese produced locally from sheep milk did not show enhanced radionuclide concentrations. In the Urgeirica area, some soils display radionuclide concentrations higher than soils in reference areas and, in agriculture products grown there, 226Ra was the radionuclide more concentrated by vegetables. Through ingestion of these products 226Ra may be the main contributor to the increment of radiation dose received by local population. (author)

  2. Wildlife and fishery use made of drainage waters in Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is a survey of the Stillwater WMA and includes information about the physical features of the landscape, the vegetation, waterfowl use of the area, and water...

  3. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Churchill and Pershing Counties, Nevada, 1990-91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, R.L.; Ekechukwu, G.A.; Hallock, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    A reconnaissance investigation was begun in 1990 to determine whether the quality of irrigation drainage in and near the Humboldt Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has the potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife or to impair beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and ground water, bottom sediment, and biota collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Lovelock agricultural area were analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Also analyzed were radioactive substances, major dissolved constitu- ents, and nutrients in water, as well as pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In samples from areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents equaled or exceeded baseline concentrations or recommended standards for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife--in water: arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediment; arsenic and uranium; and in biota; arsenic, boron, and selenium. Selenium appears to be biomagnified in the Humboldt Sink wetlands. Biological effects observed during the reconnaissance included reduced insect diversity in sites receiving irrigation drainage and acute toxicity of drain water and sediment to test organisms. The current drought and upstream consumption of water for irrigation have reduced water deliveries to the wetlands and caused habitat degradation at Humboldt Wildlife Management Area. During this investigation. Humboldt and Toulon Lakes evaporated to dryness because of the reduced water deliveries.

  4. The Connotation and Extension of Agricultural Water Resources Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bu-chun; MEI Xu-rong; LI Yu-zhong; YANG You-lu

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to define agricultural water resources security and its connotation and extension. The definitions of water security, water resources security, and water environment security were summarized, and their relationship was differentiated and analyzed. Based on these, the elements of the conception of agricultural water resources security were hashed and the conception was defined. Agricultural water resources security is the provision of water resource that ensures protection of agriculture against threat, hazards, destruction, and loss. Moreover, the connotation and extension of agricultural water resources security were ascertained. In detail, the connotation of the definition has natural attributes, socioeconomic attributes, and cultural attributes. The extensions of agricultural water resources security include both broad and narrow ones, as well as, food security, agroenvironmental security, agroeconomic security, rural society security, etc. The definition will serve as the frame of reference for developing the researches, limiting the frame of the theory, and founding a appraising system for agricultural water resources security.

  5. Patterns and controls of nitrous oxide emissions from waters draining a subtropical agricultural valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, John; Matson, Pamela

    2003-09-01

    Although nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from agricultural runoff is thought to constitute a globally important source of this greenhouse gas, N2O flux from polluted aquatic systems is poorly understood and scarcely reported, especially in low-latitude (0°-30°) regions where rapid agricultural intensification is occurring. We measured N2O emissions, dissolved N2O concentrations, and factors likely to control rates of N2O production in drainage canals receiving agricultural and mixed agricultural/urban inputs from the intensively farmed Yaqui Valley of Sonora, Mexico. Average per-area N2O flux in both purely agricultural and mixed urban/agricultural drainage systems (16.5 ng N2O-N cm-2 hr-1) was high compared to other fresh water fluxes, and extreme values ranged up to 244.6 ng N2O-N cm-2 hr-1. These extremely high N2O fluxes occurred during green algae blooms, when organic carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen concentrations were high, and only in canals receiving pig-farm and urban inputs, suggesting an important link between land-use and N2O emissions. N2O concentrations and fluxes correlated significantly with water column concentrations of nitrate, particulate organic carbon and nitrogen, ammonium, and chlorophyll a, and a multiple linear regression model including ammonium, dissolved organic carbon, and particulate organic carbon was the best predictor of [N2O] (r2 = 52%). Despite high per-area N2O fluxes, our estimate of regional N2O emission from surface drainage (20,869 kg N2O-N yr-1; 0.046% of N-fertilizer inputs) was low compared to values predicted by algorithms used in global budgets.

  6. Water management, agriculture, and ground-water supplies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nace, Raymond L.

    1960-01-01

    Encyclopedic data on world geography strikingly illustrate the drastic inequity in the distribution of the world's water supply. About 97 percent of the total volume of water is in the world's oceans. The area of continents and islands not under icecaps, glaciers, lakes, and inland seas is about 57.5 million square miles, of which 18 million (36 percent) is arid to semiarid. The total world supply of water is about 326.5 million cubic miles, of which about 317 million is in the oceans and about 9.4 million is in the land areas. Atmospheric moisture is equivalent to only about 3,100 cubic miles of water. The available and accessible supply of ground water in the United States is somewhat more than 53,000 cubic miles (about 180 billion acre ft). The amount of fresh water on the land areas of the world at any one time is roughly 30,300 cubic miles and more than a fourth of this is in large fresh-water lakes on the North American Continent. Annual recharge of ground water in the United States may average somewhat more than 1 billion acre-feet yearly, but the total volume of ground water in storage is equivalent to all the recharge in about the last 160 years. This accumulation of ground water is the nation's only reserve water resource, but already it is being withdrawn or mined on a large scale in a few areas. The principal withdrawals of water in the United States are for agriculture and industry. Only 7.4 percent of agricultural land is irrigated, however; so natural soil moisture is the principal source of agricultural water, and on that basis agriculture is incomparably the largest water user. In view of current forecasts of population and industrial expansion, new commitments of water for agriculture should be scrutinized very closely, and thorough justification should be required. The 17 Western States no longer contain all the large irrigation developments. Nearly 10 percent of the irrigated area is in States east of the western bloc, chiefly in several

  7. Water-saving Agriculture: An Urgent Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The twentieth century has witnessed the great effort of mankind to strive for more food production, which has led to an unprecedented increase in grain production known as the First Green Revolution. As mankind entered the 21st century, the Blue Revolution - the struggle in agriculture for better use of water resources - has just begun. Norman E. Borlaug, 1970 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate,said in 2000, "how can we continue to expand food production for a growing world population within the parameters of likely water availability? The inevitable conclusion is that humankind in the 21stCentury will need to bring about a 'Blue Revolution - more crop for every drop' to complement the ‘Green Revolution' of the 20th Century. Water use productivity must be wedded to land use productivity. Science and technology will be called upon to show the way".

  8. Estimated water use and availability in the South Coastal Drainage Basin, southern Rhode Island, 1995-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Emily C.; Nimiroski, Mark T.

    2005-01-01

    The South Coastal Drainage Basin includes approximately 59.14 square miles in southern Rhode Island. The basin was divided into three subbasins to assess the water use and availability: the Saugatucket, Point Judith Pond, and the Southwestern Coastal Drainage subbasins. Because there is limited information on the ground-water system in this basin, the water use and availability evaluations for these subbasins were derived from delineated surface-water drainage areas. An assessment was completed to estimate water withdrawals, use, and return flow over a 5-year study period from 1995 through 1999 in the basin. During the study period, one major water supplier in the basin withdrew an average of 0.389 million gallons per day from the sand and gravel deposits. Most of the potable water is imported (about 2.152 million gallons per day) from the adjacent Pawcatuck Basin to the northwest. The estimated water withdrawals from the minor water suppliers, which are all in Charlestown, during the study period were 0.064 million gallons per day. The self-supplied domestic, industrial, commercial, and agricultural withdrawals from the basin were 0.574 million gallons per day. Water use in the basin was 2.874 million gallons per day. The average return flow in the basin was 1.190 million gallons per day, which was entirely from self-disposed water users. In this basin, wastewater from service collection areas was exported (about 1.139 million gallons per day) to the Narragansett Bay Drainage Basin for treatment and discharge. During times of little to no recharge, in the form of precipitation, the surface- and ground-water system flows are from storage primarily in the stratified sand and gravel deposits, although there is flow moving through the till deposits at a slower rate. The ground water discharging to the streams, during times of little to no precipitation, is referred to as base flow. The PART program, a computerized hydrograph-separation application, was used at the

  9. Water cycle model and its assessment under cyclic irrigation of drainage water in paddy district%排水循环灌溉驱动的稻区水循环模型与评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于颖多; 焦平金; 许迪; 张雪萍

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic irrigation supplements irrigation and reduces flood, which has the potential to reduce the harm of drought-flood abrupt alternation and agricultural non-point pollution, but there is no effective method to simulate water cycle in paddy field under cyclic irrigation of drainage water. Thus a water balance model was built to describe the inflow of drainage and outflow of irrigation water requirement for a pond under cyclic irrigation of drainage water. Drainage amount was calculated with the improved SCS (soil conservation service) model. Rice irrigation water requirement amount was estimated from crop water requirement, leaching water amount and effective precipitation. Crop water requirement amount was calculated with the Penman-Monteith equation and crop coefficient method, and the effective precipitation was calculated with the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) SCS method. The model application showed that there was plenty of drainage water for reuse in paddy area of Zhanghe irrigation district, and the drainage amount contributed 18.1%, 41.2% and 16.9% of irrigation water requirements for dry year, normal year and wet year, respectively. The actual reuse amount of drainage water was affected by irrigation-drainage area ratio, pond capacity ratio and pond initial storage ratio. Supplement irrigation ratio was defined as the ratio of cyclic irrigation amount of drainage to total irrigation amount, and drainage reuse ratio was defined as the ratio of cyclic irrigation amount of drainage to total drainage amount. Supplement irrigation ratio and drainage reuse ratio increased with the increase in irrigation-drainage area ratio and then stabilized at the maximum for different hydrological years. The maximum supplement irrigation ratio of about 20% and the maximum drainage reuse ratio of about 60% were observed at the irrigation-drainage area ratio of 0.15 and 0.5, respectively, for the dry year and normal year. For the wet year, the maximum

  10. Long term dynamics of nitrate concentrations and leaching losses in tile drainage water from cultivated clayey till at field scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth;

    2014-01-01

    of regulations will require very detailed information concerning e.g. climate, soil, geological settings, and hydrological conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of nitrate (concentrations and losses) from drainage water at three fields (1.3-2.3 ha) located across Denmark.......g. climate, soil type and local hydraulic conditions. By the end of 2013, the Danish Commission of Nature and Agriculture issued a report which recommend that for the future protection of surface nitrogen regulations should be locally adapted, and if possible, at the level of field scale. This kind...... varying in climate, soil type and geology. Each site, is systematically subsurface tile drained in a depth of about 1.1 meters and with a horizontal spacing of 18-20 meters. On each site detailed information are recorded regarding crop development, tillage, N-fertilization (amount, type and time...

  11. Long-term development of phosphorus and nitrogen loads through the subsurface and surface water systems of drainage basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darracq, AméLie; Lindgren, Georg; Destouni, Georgia

    2008-09-01

    We analyze and compare simulations and controlling processes of the past 60 years and possible future short- and long-term development of phosphorus and nitrogen loading from the Swedish Norrström drainage basin to the Baltic Sea under different inland source management scenarios. Results indicate that both point and agricultural source inputs may need to be decreased by at least 40% in order to reach a long-term sustainable 30% reduction of anthropogenic coastal nitrogen loading, as required by national environmental goals. A corresponding 20% anthropogenic phosphorus load reduction goal may be reached in the short term by analogous combined 40% source input reduction, but appears impossible to maintain as a long-term achievement by inland source abatement only. In general, realistic quantification of the slow subsurface nutrient transport and accumulation-release dynamics may be essential for accurately predicting and managing nutrient loading to surface and coastal waters.

  12. Crop and irrigation management strategies for saline-sodic soils and waters aimed at environmentally sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadir, M; Oster, J D

    2004-05-01

    Irrigation has long played a key role in feeding the expanding world population and is expected to play a still greater role in the future. As supplies of good-quality irrigation water are expected to decrease in several regions due to increased municipal-industrial-agricultural competition, available freshwater supplies need to be used more efficiently. In addition, reliance on the use and reuse of saline and/or sodic drainage waters, generated by irrigated agriculture, seems inevitable for irrigation. The same applies to salt-affected soils, which occupy more than 20% of the irrigated lands, and warrant attention for efficient, inexpensive and environmentally acceptable management. Technologically and from a management perspective, a couple of strategies have shown the potential to improve crop production under irrigated agriculture while minimizing the adverse environmental impacts. The first strategy, vegetative bioremediation--a plant-assisted reclamation approach--relies on growing appropriate plant species that can tolerate ambient soil salinity and sodicity levels during reclamation of salt-affected soils. A variety of plant species of agricultural significance have been found to be effective in sustainable reclamation of calcareous and moderately sodic and saline-sodic soils. The second strategy fosters dedicating soils to crop production systems where saline and/or sodic waters predominate and their disposal options are limited. Production systems based on salt-tolerant plant species using drainage waters may be sustainable with the potential of transforming such waters from an environmental burden into an economic asset. Such a strategy would encourage the disposal of drainage waters within the irrigated regions where they are generated rather than exporting these waters to other regions via discharge into main irrigation canals, local streams, or rivers. Being economically and environmentally sustainable, these strategies could be the key to future

  13. P Fractions in Drainage Waters from the Broadbalk Continuous Wheat Experiment at Rothamsted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(ú) Jia-Long; S.FORTUNE; P.BROOKES

    2004-01-01

    Total P (TP),total particulate P (PP),total dissolved P (TDP),molybdate reactive P (MRP) and dissolved organic P (DOP) were determined in waters from pipe-drains (at 65-cm depth) from the Broadbalk Experiment at Rothamsted Research,UK. Average TP and PP exceeded 1 mg L-1 in about half of the 12 plots receiving superphosphate for the 5 measurements taken between December 2000 and April 2001. Ranging between 33.8% and 87.3% of TP,PP was the largest P fraction in drainage waters,with DOP,ranging from 0.5% to 26.2% of TP,being the smallest fraction. Mean proportions of PP,MRP and DOP in TP in drainage waters were 63.4%,32.5% and 4.1%,respectively. These findings support previous findings that P losses from soil to drainage waters were much larger than previously thought,and could therefore make a significant contribution to eutrophication.

  14. Water-quality trends in the Scituate reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, 1983-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    The Scituate Reservoir is the primary source of drinking water for more than 60 percent of the population of Rhode Island. Water-quality and streamflow data collected at 37 surface-water monitoring stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, from October 2001 through September 2012, water years (WYs) 2002-12, were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions and constituent loads in the drainage area. Trends in water quality, including physical properties and concentrations of constituents, were investigated for the same period and for a longer period from October 1982 through September 2012 (WYs 1983-2012). Water samples were collected and analyzed by the Providence Water Supply Board, the agency that manages the Scituate Reservoir. Streamflow data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Median values and other summary statistics for pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli), and orthophosphate were calculated for WYs 2003-12 for all 37 monitoring stations. Instantaneous loads and yields (loads per unit area) of total coliform bacteria and E. coli, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, and orthophosphate were calculated for all sampling dates during WYs 2003-12 for 23 monitoring stations with streamflow data. Values of physical properties and concentrations of constituents were compared with State and Federal water-quality standards and guidelines and were related to streamflow, land-use characteristics, varying classes of timber operations, and impervious surface areas.

  15. Application of polymeric flocculant for enhancing settling of the pond ash particles and water drainage from hydraulically stowed pond ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mishra Devi Prasad; Das Samir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Delayed settling of the ash particles and poor drainage of water from the pond ash are the major problems faced during the hydraulic stowing of pond ash.In this study the effect of polymeric flocculant on settling of the ash particles and drainage of water during pond ash stowing are investigated.In addition,the parameters,viz.drainage and absorption of water during pond ash stowing are quantified by stowing a mine goaf model with pond ash slurries of five different concentrations added with and without flocculant.The study revealed that addition of only 5 × 10-6 of Sodium Carboxymethyl Cellulose (Na-CMC)flocculant with the pond ash slurries during stowing offers best result in terms of quicker settling of the ash particles and enhanced water drainage from the hydraulically stowed pond ash.Besides,it resulted in drainage of more than 85% of the total water used in the initial 45 min of stowing.The improvement in drainage is caused due to coagulation and flocculation of the pond ash particles because of charge neutralization and particle-particle bridging.This study may provide a basis for estimating the drainage and absorption of water during the real pond ash stowing operation in underground mines.

  16. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Zalidis, George C.; Eleftherios Stavrinos; Silleos, George N.; Yann Chemin; Ines Cherif; Thomas K. Alexandridis

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Med...

  17. Water retention and drainage in different brands of microcrystalline cellulose: effect of measuring conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolakakis, Ioannis; Tsarvouli, Konstantina; Malamataris, Stavros

    2006-07-01

    Interaction between water and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) measured as retention and cumulative drainage of water (WR% and CDW%) is investigated for unmilled and micronized standard (Avicel and Emcocel) and silicified (Prosolv) MCC brands. A centrifuge method was applied with increasing duration and different porosity and thickness of cylindrical powder beds (specimens), in order to establish optimal determination conditions and quantify alterations in interaction between water and different MCC brands. Also, changes of specimen thickness due to presence of water (swelling) were followed. It was found that the effect of specimen porosity and thickness on water drainage (CDW%) appears to be opposite to that on water retention (WR%), while two patterns of WR% and CDW% change with specimen porosity and thickness can be distinguished depending on the centrifugation time. Also, WR% and CDW% are affected by the MCC brand and the micronization. Unmilled silicified MCC brand (Prosolv) shows significantly lower retention and higher drainage of water compared to standard unmilled brands (Avicel and Emcocel), while differences between the unmilled standard Avicel and Emcocel brands are not easily distinguished. Micronization, in general, increases greatly the WR% and decreases CDW% for all the tested MCC brands, and enhances their differences even between Avicel and Emcocel. Swelling of specimen due to presence of water was observed, which was significantly reduced with the micronization, the specimen porosity, and centrifugation as well, but showed slight variation between the different MCC brands. Values of specimen porosity between 60% and 70%, thickness/diameter ratio between 0.75 and 1.0, and centrifugation time between 5 and 20 min provide optimal measuring settings for comparison of MCC brands. PMID:16527466

  18. EVALUATION OF A METHOD USING COLLOIDAL GAS APHRONS TO REMEDIATE METALS-CONTAMINATED MINE DRAINAGE WATERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Williams Grimes

    2002-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in which three selected metals-contaminated mine drainage water samples were treated by chemical precipitation followed by flotation using colloidal gas aphrons (CGAs) to concentrate the precipitates. Drainage water samples used in the experiments were collected from an abandoned turn-of-the-century copper mine in south-central Wyoming, an inactive gold mine in Colorado's historic Clear Creek mining district, and a relatively modern gold mine near Rapid City, South Dakota. The copper mine drainage sample was nearly neutral (pH 6.5) while the two gold mine samples were quite acidic (pH {approx}2.5). Metals concentrations ranged from a few mg/L for the copper mine drainage to several thousand mg/L for the sample from South Dakota. CGAs are emulsions of micrometer-sized soap bubbles generated in a surfactant solution. In flotation processes the CGA microbubbles provide a huge interfacial surface area and cause minimal turbulence as they rise through the liquid. CGA flotation can provide an inexpensive alternative to dissolved air flotation (DAF). The CGA bubbles are similar in size to the bubbles typical of DAF. However, CGAs are generated at ambient pressure, eliminating the need for compressors and thus reducing energy, capital, and maintenance costs associated with DAF systems. The experiments involved precipitation of dissolved metals as either hydroxides or sulfides followed by flotation. The CGAs were prepared using a number of different surfactants. Chemical precipitation followed by CGA flotation reduced contaminant metals concentrations by more than 90% for the copper mine drainage and the Colorado gold mine drainage. Contaminant metals were concentrated into a filterable sludge, representing less than 10% of the original volume. CGA flotation of the highly contaminated drainage sample from South Dakota was ineffective. All of the various surfactants used in this study generated a large sludge volume and none provided a

  19. Economical valuing of Water in Irrigation and Drainage Lattice in Khuzestan Province (1979-2013)

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Ostadi; Mandana Khedri; Mohammad Mirlohian

    2014-01-01

    Since early times water has always been considered as the most important factor in development and applying the new, has played the vital part in obtaining the goal of food supply for the world's growing population. The shortage of sweet water in recent years has become a global problem and particularly in Iran due to water shortage the efficient consumption of agricultural water has achieved significant importance. Therefore water pricing policy has been applied in order to improve agricultu...

  20. Climate change mitigation for agriculture: water quality benefits and costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, Robert; Elliott, Sandy; Hudson, Neale; Parkyn, Stephanie; Quinn, John

    2008-01-01

    impair wetland function to intercept and remove nitrate from drainage water, or even add to the overall N loading to waterways. DCD is water soluble and degrades rapidly in warm soil conditions. The recommended application rate of 10 kg DCD/ha corresponds to 6 kg N/ha and may be exceeded in warm climates. Of the N2O produced by agricultural systems, approximately 30% is emitted from indirect sources, which are waterways draining agriculture. It is important therefore to focus strategies for managing N inputs to agricultural systems generally to reduce inputs to wetlands and streams where these might be reduced to N2O. Waste management options include utilizing the CH4 resource produced in farm waste treatment ponds as a source of energy, with conversion to CO2 via combustion achieving a 21-fold reduction in GHG emissions. Both of these have co-benefits for waterways as a result of reduced loadings. A conceptual model derived showing the linkages between key land management practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and key waterway values and ecosystem attributes is derived to aid resource managers making decisions affecting waterways and atmospheric GHG emissions.

  1. Chemical and biological indicators of water quality in three agricultural watersheds of the Po valley, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Pieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture has both direct and indirect effects on quality of surface water and is one of the key activities causing water quality degradation. Its environmental impact can be evaluated by the determination of indicators of the quality of water bodies that collect drainage and runoff waters from agricultural watersheds. For this research, the water quality draining from three watersheds, totally or partially cultivated, all within the Po river valley (Italy, was determined, using chemical indicators (N-NO3 and N-NH4 concentration, N balance, trophic status (chlorophyll-a concentration and benthic population indexes. Together, they should provide an overview of the water status, which is supposed to be strictly related to the land use and the management. Results show that the chemical parameters are well related to land use and farming management: intensive agricultural activity leads to high N-NO3 concentration in water and N surplus and vice versa. The chlorophyll-a concentration follows the same trend, being linked to nitrogen loads and land use. Not always there is accordance between chemical and biological indicators: no direct correspondence is evident between the N-NO3 concentration in waters and benthic community. Its presence and abundance seems to be mostly correlated with the geomorphology, hydrology, riparian strips, etc. of the habitat than to the land use. Only the integration of chemical and biological parameters allows a correct understanding of the state of health of water body and benthic communities.

  2. Water percolation estimated with time domain reflectometry (TDR in drainage lysimeters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisson Jadavi Pereira da Silva

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulty of estimating water percolation in unsaturated soils, the purpose of this study was to estimate water percolation based on time-domain reflectometry (TDR. In two drainage lysimeters with different soil textures TDR probes were installed, forming a water monitoring system consisting of different numbers of probes. The soils were saturated and covered with plastic to prevent evaporation. Tests of internal drainage were carried out using a TDR 100 unit with constant dielectric readings (every 15 min. To test the consistency of TDR-estimated percolation levels in comparison with the observed leachate levels in the drainage lysimeters, the combined null hypothesis was tested at 5 % probability. A higher number of probes in the water monitoring system resulted in an approximation of the percolation levels estimated from TDR - based moisture data to the levels measured by lysimeters. The definition of the number of probes required for water monitoring to estimate water percolation by TDR depends on the soil physical properties. For sandy clay soils, three batteries with four probes installed at depths of 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, and 0.80 m, at a distance of 0.20, 0.40 and 0.6 m from the center of lysimeters were sufficient to estimate percolation levels equivalent to the observed. In the sandy loam soils, the observed and predicted percolation levels were not equivalent even when using four batteries with four probes each, at depths of 0.20, 0.40, 0.60, and 0.80 m.

  3. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  4. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses

  5. Transport Characteristics of Soil Salinity in Saline-alkali Land under Water Storage and Drainage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; LI; Jichang; HAN

    2015-01-01

    To test the variation and transport of soil salinity in saline- alkali land under water storage and drainage treatments,an experimental model was established in Fuping,Shaanxi Province,2009. The variation of soil salinity during 0- 160 cm soil depth under the two treatments was determined and analyzed. Results showed that the average soil water content under water storage treatment was 4. 47% higher than that under drainage treatment,which means that the water storage treatment could help to improve soil moisture to satisfy the crop’s growth needs. The profile distribution of soil soluble solids( TDS),anion( Cl-,HCO3-,SO2-4) and cation( Ca2 +,Na+,K+) content and the variation of soil p H were also measured and analyzed. PCA( Principal Component Analysis) was used to explore the relationship between the soil salinity and its ions,which showed that the water storage treatment could significantly decrease the surface salinity of soil and accelerate the desalination of topsoils,and finally,the soil quality was improved significantly,demonstrating that the water storage treatment has a remarkable effect on soil salinity management.

  6. Simulation of water drainage of a rain forest and forest conversion plots using a soil water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinge, R.; Schmidt, J.; Fölster, H.

    2001-06-01

    The water budgets were estimated for a rain forest plot and two conversion plots (cut and burn) in a rain forest region of eastern Amazonia, Brazil, using a soil water model (SilVlow) to estimate the drainage and soil water storage compartments. A quantification of drainage was required to determine element leaching associated with conversion. The plots were equipped with fast recording tensiometer fields down to 5 m depth. Soil water tension and meteorological data were recorded at 15 min intervals. Monitoring was maintained for 18 months from July 1992 to December 1993. The special feature of the model is that soil parameter functions (matric potential/ volumetric moisture content and matric potential/ hydraulic conductivity) are introduced in tabular form, and can be changed deliberately during a fitting procedure adjusting simulated to measured matric potential. This fitting requires a vegetation-free period, which was provided by the conversion plots after clear-cutting the forest. For this fitting procedure, high-resolution recording was essential. Actual evapotranspiration in the soil water model is derived from potential (Penman) evaporation using a matric potential-dependent transpiration reduction function. The adjustment of these parameter functions was performed on plots under vegetation, also by fitting. The annual rainfall of 2479-2706 mm (depending on time interval chosen), fell short of the long-term average of 3000 mm. The forest intercepted 15% of the rain while total evapotranspiration was about 1350 mm. Drainage decreased from 1484-1733 mm at 110 cm to 1130-1331 mm at 500 cm suggesting a water uptake by roots of 350-400 mm from the depth zone 110-500 cm. On the conversion plots that were planted with eucalypts but regularly weeded, drainage at 500 cm depth amounted to >90% of rainfall.

  7. TRACE ELEMENTS AND HEAVY METALS IN WATER AND BOTTOM SEDIMENTS DRAINAGE NETWORK DAGHESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salikhov S. K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the main collectors in the North-West Caspian we have found the concentration of priority chemical elements: in water - Zn, Cu, Mn, Co, B, Mo, Cr, Ni, Pb; in sediments - Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, Pb. It was found that a common and characteristic feature of drainage water is a low concentration of these elements investigated (except Mn, B, Pb. In the bottom sediments collectors content of gross forms of Zn, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and mobile forms of Zn, Cu was below the MRL and the content of the gross forms of Cr and Mn mobile forms was a little higher

  8. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    OpenAIRE

    Williams K.M.; Turner A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration ...

  9. In-situ treatment of mine drainage water using porous reactive walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blowes, D.W.; Ptacek, C.J.; Waybrant, K.R.; Bain, J.G. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Waterloo Centre for Groundwater Research

    1995-01-01

    The purpose is to describe research on porous reactive walls, which are installed in the path of plumes of ground water from tailings, to determine their suitability for prevention and remediation of acid mine drainage and dissolved metals release. The method involves removal of a portion of the aquifer in the ground water plume path and its replacement by a permeable reactive mixture. Experiments under way and preliminary results are described for laboratory batch and column experiments and for a small scale field experiment using reactive walls containing organic carbon and sulphate-reducing bacteria. The results suggest that the method is effective and economically viable. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Luiz da Silva; Nádia Solange Schmidt Bassi; Weimar Freire da Rocha Junior

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world). The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa), the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultur...

  11. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangchun; YU; Qingqing; LIN; Xuedong; ZHOU; Zhibin; YANG

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province,fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient.Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy.This needs modern irrigation method.Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture,and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developing photovoltaic agriculture.

  12. Nitrate nitrogen in surface waters as influenced by climatic conditions and agricultural practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, G W; Mulla, D J

    2001-01-01

    Subsurface tile drainage from row-crop agricultural production systems has been identified as a major source of nitrate entering surface waters in the Mississippi River basin. Noncontrollable factors such as precipitation and mineralization of soil organic matter have a tremendous effect on drainage losses, nitrate concentrations, and nitrate loadings in subsurface drainage water. Cropping system and nutrient management inputs are controllable factors that have a varying influence on nitrate losses. Row crops leak substantially greater amounts of nitrate compared with perennial crops; however, satisfactory economic return with many perennials is an obstacle at present. Improving N management by applying the correct rate of N at the optimum time and giving proper credits to previous legume crops and animal manure applications will also lead to reduced nitrate losses. Nitrate losses have been shown to be minimally affected by tillage systems compared with N management practices. Scientists and policymakers must understand these factors as they develop educational materials and environmental guidelines for reducing nitrate losses to surface waters. PMID:11285893

  13. Water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin, California and Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsubo, Rick T.; Washabaugh, Donna S.

    1982-01-01

    A water-quality assessment of the Smith River drainage basin was made to provide a summary of the water-quality conditions including known or potential water-quality problems. Results of the study showed that the water quality of the Smith River is excellent and generally meets the water-quality objectives for the beneficial uses identified by the California Regional Water Quality Control Board, North Coast Region. Known and potential problems related to water quality include: Sedimentation resulting from both natural erosional processes and land-use activities such as timber harvest, road construction, and mining that accelerate the erosional processes; bacterial contamination of surface and ground waters from inundated septic tanks and drainfields, and grazing activities; industrial spills which have resulted in fish kills and oil residues; high concetrations of iron in ground water; log and debris jams creating fish migration barriers; and pesticide and trace-element contamination from timber-harvest and mining activities, respectively. Future studies are needed to establish: (1) a sustained long-term monitoring program to provide a broad coverage of water-quality conditions in order to define long-term water-quality trends; and (2) interpretive studies to determine the source of known and potential water-quality problems. (USGS)

  14. Suspended sediment export in five intensive agricultural river catchments with contrasting land use and soil drainage characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherriff, Sophie; Rowan, John; Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Fenton, Owen; hUallacháin, Daire Ó.

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion and sediment loss from land can have a negative impact on the chemical and ecological quality of freshwater resources. In catchments dominated by agriculture, prediction of soil erosion risk is complex due to the interaction of physical characteristics such as topography, soil erodibility, hydrological connectivity and climate. Robust measurement approaches facilitate the assessment of sediment loss magnitudes in relation to a range of agricultural settings. These approaches improve our understanding of critical sediment transfer periods and inform development of evidence-based and cost-effective management strategies. The aim of this study was to i) assess the efficacy of out-of-channel (ex-situ) suspended sediment measurement approaches, ii) to quantify the variability of sediment exported from five river catchments with varying hydrology and agricultural land uses over multiple years and iii) to investigate trends in relation to physical and land use characteristics when sediment data were compared between catchments. Sediment data were collected in five intensive agricultural river catchments in Ireland (3-11 km2) which featured contrasting land uses (predominantly intensive grassland or arable) and soil drainage classes (well, moderate and poor). High-resolution suspended sediment concentration data (SSC - using a calibrated turbidity proxy) were collected ex-situ and combined with in-stream discharge data measured at each catchment outlet to estimate suspended sediment yield (SSY - t km-2 yr-1). In two catchments additional in-stream turbidity monitoring equipment replicated ex-situ measurements including site specific calibration of individual in-stream and ex-situ turbidity probes. Depth-integrated samples were collected to assess the accuracy of both approaches. Method comparison results showed that true SSC values (from depth-integrated sampling) were predominantly within the 95% confidence interval of ex-situ predicted SSC consequently

  15. Evaluation of nitrate removal in buffer zone supply by water from agricultural drained catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesneau, Corinne; Tournebize, Julien; Chaumont, Cedric; Guenne, Angeline

    2010-05-01

    The European Directive 2000/60/CE states objectives of a good ecological and chemical status from water body until 2015. The Cemagref project focuses on the constructed wetlands (CW) which can be used as buffer zones to lower the impact of agricultural practices on hydrosystems and decrease or even stop the transfer of contaminants via the surface waters. The experiments are carried out on a drained area where the runoff is limited and waters from the soil profile are concentrated at the drain pipes outlet. The constructed wetland studied is located at Aulnoy (77) at 70 km north-east of Paris, within the Orgeval catchment (France). Our aim is to assess the efficiency of constructed wetlands on the removal of agricultural nitrates. We are also interested in the hydrological balance of CW and agricultural catchment. The buffer zone is connected to a drained agricultural catchment of 35 hectares. The crops in the agricultural plots mainly consist in cereals (corn, maize), vegetables (horse bean, pea), sugar beet and rape. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied following normal agricultural practices. The site is monitored since 2005 for discharge and nitrate concentration in order to infer water and nitrate budgets. The buffer zone includes a pond (860m2) and a reservoir (3305 m2). The storage volume is estimated to 8000m3 which corresponds to about 10% of drainage runoff. Our study reveals potential nitrate removal because a decrease of nitrate average contents has been documented between inlet and outlet CW over a measurement period of 4 years. Average values of 57 mg/l, 40 mg/l and 27 mg/l are respectively measured at the main drain, in the pond mean and in the reservoir; that is a reduction close to 50% of nitrate fluxes. The semi-potential denitrification experiments confirm the denitrification capacity of buffer zone sediments. This constructed wetland allows the treatment of waters from agricultural drainage and provides results in line with the expectations of "good

  16. Cold air drainage and modeled nocturnal leaf water potential in complex forested terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbart, Jason A; Kavanagh, Kathleen L; Pangle, Robert; Link, Tim; Schotzko, Alisa

    2007-04-01

    Spatial variation in microclimate caused by air temperature inversions plays an important role in determining the timing and rate of many physical and biophysical processes. Such phenomena are of particular interest in mountainous regions where complex physiographic terrain can greatly complicate these processes. Recent work has demonstrated that, in some plants, stomata do not close completely at night, resulting in nocturnal transpiration. The following work was undertaken to develop a better understanding of nocturnal cold air drainage and its subsequent impact on the reliability of predawn leaf water potential (Psi(pd)) as a surrogate for soil water potential (Psi(s)). Eight temperature data loggers were installed on a transect spanning a vertical distance of 155 m along a north facing slope in the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW) in northern Idaho during July and August 2004. Results indicated strong nocturnal temperature inversions occurring from the low- to upper-mid-slope, typically spanning the lower 88 m of the vertical distance. Based on mean temperatures for both months, inversions resulted in lapse rates of 29.0, 27.0 and 25.0 degrees C km(-1) at 0000, 0400 and 2000 h, respectively. At this scale (i.e., cold air drainage, modeled Psi(pd) became consistently more negative (up to -0.3 MPa) at higher elevations during the night based on mean temperatures. Nocturnal inversions on the lower- and mid-slopes resulted in leaf water potentials that were at least 30 and 50% more negative over the lower 88 m of the inversion layer, based on mean and maximum temperatures, respectively. However, on a cloudy night, with low D, the maximum decrease in Psi(pd) was -0.04 MPa. Our results indicate that, given persistent cold air drainage and nighttime stomatal opening, serious errors will result if Psi(s) is estimated from Psi(pd). PMID:17242004

  17. Flow Forecasting in Urban Drainage Systems using Deterministic Updating of Water Levels in Distributed Hydraulic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lisbeth S.; Borup, Morten; Møller, A.;

    2011-01-01

    to eliminate some of the unavoidable discrepancies between model and reality. The latter can partly be achieved by using the commercial tool MOUSE UPDATE, which is capable of inserting measured water levels from the system into the distributed, physically based MOUSE model. This study evaluates and documents......There is a growing need for generating more precise model simulations of urban drainage systems, both in off-line and on-line situations. In order to generate these improved model simulations data assimilation tools are needed that make it possible to include system measurements in the models...

  18. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  19. A site-specific agricultural water requirement and footprint estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0) for irrigation agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Multsch, S.; Al-Rumaikhani, Y. A.; H.-G. Frede; Breuer, L. (Ludwig Maximilian)

    2013-01-01

    The water footprint accounting method addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall), blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater) and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants). Most of current water footprint assessments focus on global to continental scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows to quantify green, blu...

  20. The policy landscape of agricultural water management in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aberman, Noora-Lisa; Wielgosz, Benjamin; Zaidi, Fatima; Ringler, Claudia; Akram, Agha Ali; Bell, Andrew; Issermann, Maikel

    2013-01-01

    Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s agriculture; and managing the country’s canal, ground, and surface water resources in a more efficient, equitable, and sustainable way will be crucial to meeting agricultural production challenges, including increasing agricultural productivity and adapting to climate change. The water component of the International Food Policy Research Institute’s Pakistan Strategy Support Program (PSSP) is working to address these topics through high-quality researc...

  1. Sustainable Agriculture and Water Quality Control – A Structural Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Douguet, Jean-Marc; Schembri, Patrick

    2000-01-01

    There is no disputing the fact that water pollution by nitrates is, in large part, caused by agricultural activities. Concerns about soil and water pollution by modern agricultural practices are becoming too important to be ignored. Point pollution can consist of direct discharges of animal excrement or be caused by the use of pesticides close to streams. Diffuse pollution caused by agricultural practices is more difficult to pin down. It is generally linked to systematic use of fertilisers a...

  2. Efficiency and detrimental side effects of denitrifying bioreactors for nitrate reduction in drainage water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelhofer, Gabriele; Hein, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    A laboratory column experiment was conducted to test the efficiency of denitrifying bioreactors for the nitrate (NO3-N) removal in drainage waters at different flow rates and after desiccation. In addition, we investigated detrimental side effects in terms of the release of nitrite (NO2-N), ammonium (NH4-N), phosphate (PO4-P), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), methane (CH4), and dinitrogen oxide (N2O). The NO3-N removal efficiency decreased with increasing NO3-N concentrations, increasing flow rates, and after desiccation. Bioreactors with purely organic fillings showed higher NO3-N removal rates (42.6-55.7 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)) than those with organic and inorganic fillings (6.5-21.4 g NO3-N m(-3) day(-1)). The release of NO2-N and DOC was considerable and resulted in concentrations of up to 800 μg NO2-N L(-1)and 25 mg DOC L(-1) in the effluent water. N2O concentrations increased by 4.0 to 15.3 μg N2O-N L(-1) between the influent and the effluent, while CH4 production rates were low. Our study confirms the high potential of denitrifying bioreactors to mitigate NO3-N pollution in drainage waters, but highlights also the potential risks for the environment. PMID:25943519

  3. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  4. CHINA'S AGRICULTURAL WATER SCARCITY : EFFECTS ON INTERNATIONAL MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Lohmar, Bryan; Hansen, James M.

    2003-01-01

    Water shortages in important grain-producing regions of China may significantly affect China's agricultural production potential and international markets. This paper provides an overview of how water scarcity could affect China's agricultural production and trade. The paper identifies the areas where available water resources are most overexploited and the crops most vulnerable to reductions in irrigation. We present preliminary results from modeling a decline in irrigated land in water scar...

  5. Sorption of selected pesticides on soils, sediment and straw from a constructed agricultural drainage ditch or pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallée, Romain; Dousset, Sylvie; Billet, David; Benoit, Marc

    2014-04-01

    Buffer zones such as ponds and ditches are used to reduce field-scale losses of pesticides from subsurface drainage waters to surface waters. The objective of this study was to assess the efficiency of these buffer zones, in particular constructed wetlands, focusing specifically on sorption processes. We modelled the sorption processes of three herbicides [2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-MCPA), isoproturon and napropamide] and three fungicides (boscalid, prochloraz and tebuconazole) on four substrates (two soils, sediment and straw) commonly found in a pond and ditch in Lorraine (France). A wide range of Freundlich coefficient (K fads) values was obtained, from 0.74 to 442.63 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1), and the corresponding K foc values ranged from 56 to 3,725 mg(1 - n) L (n) kg(-1). Based on potential retention, the substrates may be classified as straw > sediments > soils. These results show the importance of organic carbon content and nature in the process of sorption. Similarly, the studied pesticides could be classified according to their adsorption capacity as follows: prochloraz > tebuconazole-boscalid > napropamide > MCPA-isoproturon. This classification is strongly influenced by the physico-chemical properties of pesticides, especially solubility and K oc. Straw exhibited the largest quantity of non-desorbable pesticide residues, from 12.1 to 224.2 mg/L for all pesticides. The presence of plants could increase soil-sediment sorption capacity. Thus, establishment and maintenance of plants and straw filters should be promoted to optimise sorption processes and the efficiency of ponds and ditches in reducing surface water pollution. PMID:23784054

  6. Multi-objective models of waste load allocation toward a sustainable reuse of drainage water in irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Ayman; Tawfik, Ahmed; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Fleifle, Amr

    2016-06-01

    The present study proposes a waste load allocation (WLA) framework for a sustainable quality management of agricultural drainage water (ADW). Two multi-objective models, namely, abatement-performance and abatement-equity-performance, were developed through the integration of a water quality model (QAUL2Kw) and a genetic algorithm, by considering (1) the total waste load abatement, and (2) the inequity among waste dischargers. For successfully accomplishing modeling tasks, we developed a comprehensive overall performance measure (E wla ) reflecting possible violations of Egyptian standards for ADW reuse in irrigation. This methodology was applied to the Gharbia drain in the Nile Delta, Egypt, during both summer and winter seasons of 2012. Abatement-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 100 % corresponded to the abatement ratio of the dischargers ranging from 20.7 to 75.6 % and 29.5 to 78.5 % in summer and in winter, respectively, alongside highly shifting inequity values. Abatement-equity-performance modeling results for a target of E wla = 90 % unraveled the necessity of increasing treatment efforts in three out of five dischargers during summer, and four out of five in winter. The trade-off curves obtained from WLA models proved their reliability in selecting appropriate WLA procedures as a function of budget constraints, principles of social equity, and desired overall performance level. Hence, the proposed framework of methodologies is of great importance to decision makers working toward a sustainable reuse of the ADW in irrigation. PMID:26951225

  7. Application of nanofiltration to the treatment of acid mine drainage waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated the separation of uranium and other elements in high concentrations from acid mine waters at Caldas Uranium Mining, in the southeast of Brazil, using nanofiltration membranes. Nanofiltrarion is widely used in water treatment due to the lower energy requirements and higher yields than reverse osmosis. Separation characteristics are dependent on both the molecular size and charge of the dissolved species in the feed solution as well as membrane properties. In this investigation the potential of nanofiltration to removed dissolved species like uranium from acid mine water drainage was measured. Two composite aromatic polyamide commercially membranes of FilmTec/Dow were tested and it found that uranium rejections of greater than 90% and also showed potential for the separation of aluminum and manganese. (author)

  8. Application of nanofiltration to the treatment of acid mine drainage waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Edna T.R.; Barbosa, Celina C.R.; Oliveira, Elizabeth E.M.; Carvalho, Leonel M. de; Pedro Junior, Antonio [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: ednaruas@ien.gov.br; Queiroz, Vanessa B.C. de [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the separation of uranium and other elements in high concentrations from acid mine waters at Caldas Uranium Mining, in the southeast of Brazil, using nanofiltration membranes. Nanofiltrarion is widely used in water treatment due to the lower energy requirements and higher yields than reverse osmosis. Separation characteristics are dependent on both the molecular size and charge of the dissolved species in the feed solution as well as membrane properties. In this investigation the potential of nanofiltration to removed dissolved species like uranium from acid mine water drainage was measured. Two composite aromatic polyamide commercially membranes of FilmTec/Dow were tested and it found that uranium rejections of greater than 90% and also showed potential for the separation of aluminum and manganese. (author)

  9. Factors Affecting Water Dynamics and Their Assessment in Agricultural Landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intensification and extension of agriculture have contributed significantly to the global food production in the last five decades. However, intensification without due attention to the ecosystem services and sustainability of soil and water resources contributed to land and water quality degradation such as soil erosion, decreased soil fertility and quality, salinization and nutrient discharge to surface and ground waters. Land use change from forests to crop lands altered the vegetation pattern and hydrology of landscapes with increased nutrient discharge from crop lands to riverine environment. Global climate change will increase the amount of water required for agriculture in addition to water needed for further irrigation development causing water scarcity in many dry, arid and semi-arid regions. The water and nutrient use efficiencies of agricultural production systems are still below 40% in many regions across the globe. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilizer use in agriculture have accelerated the cycling of these nutrients in the landscape and contributed to water quality degradation. Such nutrient pollution has a wide array of consequences including eutrophication of inland waters and marine ecosystems. While intensifying drought conditions, increasing water consumption and environmental pollution in many parts of the world threatens agricultural productivity and livelihood, these also provided opportunities for farmers to use improved land and water management technologies and practices to make agriculture resilient to external shocks

  10. Direct versus indirect electrochemical oxidation of pesticide polluted drainage water containing sodium chloride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muff, Jens; Erichsen, Rasmus; Damgaard, Christian;

    2008-01-01

    Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride was the m......Drainage water from a depot of chemical waste, polluted with a mixture of organophosphates and degradation products was treated by a direct as well as an indirect electrochemical method using a Ti/Pt-Ir anode and Stainless Steel 304 cathode. With a concentration of 0.7%, sodium chloride....... The experiments proved that the obtained degradation of pesticide solely was caused by indirect electrochemical oxidation, mainly due to the electrolytic formation of hypochlorite during the treatment, and that direct electron transfer from the pesticide substances at the anode surface didn't significantly...... to electrolytic oxidation of chloride with subsequent indirect oxidation by hypochlorite due to the high impact of the electric field on the chloride ion. In this way, the theoretical calculations supported the experimental results....

  11. Review of operation of urban drainage systems in cold weather: water quality considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsalek, J; Oberts, G; Exall, K; Viklander, M

    2003-01-01

    Cold climate imposes special requirements on urban drainage systems, arising from extended storage of precipitation and pollutants in the catchment snowpack, processes occurring in the snowpack, and changes in catchment surface and transport network by snow and ice. Consequently, the resulting catchment response and runoff quantity differ from those experienced in snow- and ice-free seasons. Sources of pollutants entering urban snowpacks include airborne fallout, pavement and roadside deposits, and applications of de-icing and anti-skid agents. In the snowpack, snow, water and chemicals are subject to various processes, which affect their movement through the pack and eventual release during the melting process. Soluble constituents are flushed from the snowpack early during the melt; hydrophobic substances generally stay in the pack until the very end of melt and coarse solids with adsorbed pollutants stay on the ground after the melt is finished. The impacts of snowmelt on receiving waters have been measured mostly by the snowmelt chemical composition and inferences about its environmental significance. Recently, snowmelt has been tested by standard bioassays and often found toxic. Toxicity was attributed mostly to chloride and trace metals, and contributed to reduced diversity of benthic and plant communities. Thus, snowmelt and winter runoff discharged from urban drainage threaten aquatic ecosystems in many locations and require further studies with respect to advancing their understanding and development of best management practices. PMID:14703135

  12. Application of Solar Photovoltaic Water Pumping System in Hainan Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Xiangchun; Lin, Qingqing; Zhou, Xuedong; Yang, Zhibin

    2013-01-01

    With radical socio-economic development and strengthening of regulation of agricultural industrial structure in Hainan Province, fresh water resource becomes increasingly insufficient. Existing water-saving facilities and measures are unable to promote sustainable and stable development of local economy. This needs modern irrigation method. Solar photovoltaic water pumping system is necessary and feasible in Hainan agriculture, and will have directive significance for Hainan Province developi...

  13. Automated reconstruction of drainage basins and water discharge to the sea through glacial cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickert, Andrew

    2015-04-01

    Over glacial cycles, ice masses and their geophysical impacts on surface topography dramatically changed drainage patterns and river discharges. These changes impacted meltwater discharge to the ocean, geomorphology, and climate. As the river systems'the threads that tied the ice sheets to the sea'were stretched, severed, and rearranged during deglaciation, they also shrank and swelled with the pulse of meltwater inputs and proglacial lake dynamics. Here I present a general method to compute past river flow paths, drainage basin geometries, and river discharges. I automate these calculations within GRASS GIS to take advantage of rapid solution techniques for drainage networks in an open-source and compute-cluster-ready environment. I combine modern topography and bathymetry with ice sheet reconstructions from the last glacial cycle and a global glacial isostatic adjustment model to build digital elevation models of the past Earth surface. I then sum ice sheet mass balance with computed precipitation and evapotranspiration from a paleoclimate general circulation model to produce grids of water input. I combine these topographic and hydrologic inputs to compute past river networks and discharges through time. These paleodrainage reconstructions connect ice sheets, sea level, and climate models to fluvial systems, which in turn generate measurable terrace and sedimentary records as they carry physical, compositional, and isotopic signatures of ice sheet melt and landscape change through their channels and to the sea. Therefore, this work provides a self-consistent paleogeographic framework within which models and geologic records may be quantitatively compared to build new insights into past glacial systems.

  14. Study of the Optimization and Adjustment of the Industrial Structure Subjected to Water Resource in the Drainage Area of the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Haiying; Fan Zhenjun; Hou Xiaoli; Dong Suocheng

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the Yellow River stream has been temporarily interrupted for several years,which affects the development of society, the economy and human life, limits the economic potential of the drainage areas, and especially causes great harm to regions on the lower reaches. Based on the analysis of the relationship between the development of society and economy and water scarcity, the author thinks it is necessary to optimize and adjust the industrial structure that has extravagantly consumed enormous amounts of water, and to develop ecological agriculture, industry and tourism which are balanced with the ecological environment. Finally, the author puts forward several pieces of advice and countermeasures about how to build the economic systems by which water can be used economically.

  15. Corrosion control when using passively treated abandoned mine drainage as alternative makeup water for cooling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Kai; Chien, Shih-Hsiang; Li, Heng; Monnell, Jason D; Dzombak, David A; Vidic, Radisav D

    2011-09-01

    Passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD) is a promising alternative to fresh water as power plant cooling water system makeup water in mining regions where such water is abundant. Passive treatment and reuse of AMD can avoid the contamination of surface water caused by discharge of abandoned mine water, which typically is acidic and contains high concentrations of metals, especially iron. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of reusing passively treated AMD in cooling systems with respect to corrosion control through laboratory experiments and pilot-scale field testing. The results showed that, with the addition of the inhibitor mixture orthophosphate and tolyltriazole, mild steel and copper corrosion rates were reduced to acceptable levels (< 0.127 mm/y and < 0.0076 mm/y, respectively). Aluminum had pitting corrosion problems in every condition tested, while cupronickel showed that, even in the absence of any inhibitor and in the presence of the biocide monochloramine, its corrosion rate was still very low (0.018 mm/y).

  16. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  17. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  18. Reconnaissance investigation of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in and near Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Churchill County, Nevada, 1986-87

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R.J.; Hallock, R.J.; Rowe, T.G.; Lico, M.S.; Burge, H.L.; Thompson, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    A reconnaissance was initiated in 1986 to determine whether the quality of irrigation-drainage water in and near the Stillwater Wildlife Management Area, Nevada, has caused or has potential to cause harmful effects on human health, fish, wildlife, or other beneficial uses of water. Samples of surface and groundwater, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from sites upstream and downstream from the Fallon agricultural area in the Carson Desert, and analyzed for potentially toxic trace elements. Other analysis included radioactive substances, major dissolved constituents, and nutrients in water, and pesticide residues in bottom sediment and biota. In areas affected by irrigation drainage, the following constituents were found to commonly exceed baseline concentrations or recommended criteria for protection of aquatic life or propagation of wildlife: In water, arsenic, boron, dissolved solids, molybdenum, sodium, and un-ionized ammonia; in bottom sediments, arsenic, lithium, mercury, molybdenum, and selenium; and in biota, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc. In some wetlands, selenium and mercury appeared to be biomagnified, and arsenic bioaccumulated. Pesticides contamination in bottom sediments and biota was insignificant. Adverse biological effects observed during this reconnaissance included gradual vegetative changes and species loss, fish die-offs, waterfowl disease epidemics, and persistent and unexplained deaths of migratory birds. (USGS)

  19. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28% of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6% of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  20. Water saving through international trade of agricultural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Chapagain

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nations save domestic water resources by importing water-intensive products and exporting commodities that are less water intensive. National water saving through the import of a product can imply saving water at a global level if the flow is from sites with high to sites with low water productivity. The paper analyses the consequences of international virtual water flows on the global and national water budgets. The assessment shows that the total amount of water that would have been required in the importing countries if all imported agricultural products would have been produced domestically is 1605 Gm3/yr. These products are however being produced with only 1253 Gm3/yr in the exporting countries, saving global water resources by 352 Gm3/yr. This saving is 28 per cent of the international virtual water flows related to the trade of agricultural products and 6 per cent of the global water use in agriculture. National policy makers are however not interested in global water savings but in the status of national water resources. Egypt imports wheat and in doing so saves 3.6 Gm3/yr of its national water resources. Water use for producing export commodities can be beneficial, as for instance in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Brazil, where the use of green water resources (mainly through rain-fed agriculture for the production of stimulant crops for export has a positive economic impact on the national economy. However, export of 28 Gm3/yr of national water from Thailand related to rice export is at the cost of additional pressure on its blue water resources. Importing a product which has a relatively high ratio of green to blue virtual water content saves global blue water resources that generally have a higher opportunity cost than green water.

  1. Improving agricultural production under water scarcity in Fars province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, M.R.; Haile, A.M.; McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water scarcity is one of the major limiting factor for improving agricultural production in the world, which significantly affects agricultural production and livelihood of millions of people who live in arid and semi-arid regions. This case study presents the analysis of the effectiveness

  2. Phosphorus Concentration and Forms in Surface and Subsurface Drainage Water from Wetland Rice Fields in the Shaoxing Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG MINGKUI; JIANG HONG; LIU XINGMEI

    2003-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is the limiting factor for eutrophication in most freshwater ecosystems. In China, Ptransported from intensively cultivated land has been reported as an important source of P in surface waters.In this study, we investigated P concentration and forms in surface and subsurface drainage from wetland ricefields in the Shaoxing plain, Zhejiang Province, China. From selected rice fields, surface drainage sampleswere collected at rice-growing, non-growing and fertilization periods, and subsurface drainage samples atdrought and rewetting (irrigation or precipitation after 5~10 d drought period in the surface soils) and wet(drainage under long-term wet soil condition) periods. Water samples were characterized for their totalreactive P (TRP), dissolved reactive P (DRP) and particulate reactive P (PRP). Concentrations of the TRPand DRP in the surface drainage ranged from 0.08 to 1.50 and 0.06 to 1.27 mg L-1, respectively. The TRPand DRP were dependent on field operation activities, and decreased in the order of fertilization period >rice-growing period > non-growing period. Phosphorus concentration of runoff receiving P fertilizer can bean environmental concern. The PRP concentration in the surface drainage, ranging from 0.01 to 0.57 mgL-1, accounted for 8%~78% of the TRP. Concentration of the TRP in the subsurface drainage was from0.026 to 0.090 mg L-1, consisting of 29%~90 % of the DRP and 10%~71% of the PRP. In the droughtand rewetting period, the PRP accounted for, on average, 63% of the TRP, much higher than in the wetperiod (23%), suggesting that there was transport of P in preferential flow during drainage events after ashort-term drought period in the surface soils. Therefore, P losses in particulate form may be importantin the subsurface drainage from rice fields when surface soils form cracks and favor rapid flow downwardthrough the soil profiles, suggesting the important role of water-dispersible colloid particles in mediating andco

  3. A 1-D modelling of streaming potential dependence on water content during drainage experiment in sand

    CERN Document Server

    Allègre, Vincent; Ackerer, Philippe; Jouniaux, Laurence; Sailhac, Pascal; 10.1111/j.1365-246X.2012.05371.x

    2012-01-01

    The understanding of electrokinetics for unsaturated conditions is crucial for numerous of geophysical data interpretation. Nevertheless, the behaviour of the streaming potential coefficient C as a function of the water saturation Sw is still discussed. We propose here to model both the Richards' equation for hydrodynamics and the Poisson's equation for electrical potential for unsaturated conditions using 1-D finite element method. The equations are first presented and the numerical scheme is then detailed for the Poisson's equation. Then, computed streaming potentials (SPs) are compared to recently published SP measurements carried out during drainage experiment in a sand column. We show that the apparent measurement of DV / DP for the dipoles can provide the SP coefficient in these conditions. Two tests have been performed using existing models for the SP coefficient and a third one using a new relation. The results show that existing models of unsaturated SP coefficients C(Sw) provide poor results in term...

  4. Optimum combination of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection in coal-accumulated basin of North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The conflict among water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection is getting more and more serious due to the irrational drainage and exploitation of ground water resources in coal-accumulated basins of North China.Efficient solutions to the conflict are to maintain long-term dynamic balance between input and output of the ground water basins,and to try to improve resourcification of the mine water.All solutions must guarantee the eco-environment quality.This paper presents a new idea of optimum combination of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection so as to solve the problem of unstable mine water supply,which is caused by the changeable water drainage for the whole combination system.Both the management of hydraulic techniques and constraints in economy,society,ecology,environment,industrial structural adjustments and sustainable developments have been taken into account.Since the traditional and separate management of different departments of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection is broken up,these departments work together to avoid repeated geological survey and specific evaluation calculations so that large amount of national investment can be saved and precise calculation for the whole system can be obtained.In the light of the conflict of water drainage,water supply and eco-environment protection in a typical sector in Jiaozuo coal mine,a case study puts forward an optimum combination scheme,in which a maximum economic benefit objective is constrained by multiple factors.The scheme provides a very important scientific base for finding a sustainable development strategy.

  5. Voluntary Incentives for Reducing Agricultural Nonpoint Source Water Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Feather, Peter; Cooper, Joseph C.

    1995-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals and sediment from cropland may reduce the quality of America's surface and ground water resources. The Clean Water Act stipulates that individual States are responsible for controlling agricultural nonpoint source pollution. Most State plans rely chiefly on education and technical assistance to promote the adoption of less polluting practices. Because profitability drives production decisions, these programs tend to be most successful when they promote inexpensive chang...

  6. Analysis of Water-saving Measures of Building Water Supply and Drainage Design%建筑给排水设计节水措施的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨沁

    2014-01-01

    The water-saving design of drainage system is an important measure to save energy. This paper analyzes the present situation of water consumption of water drainage de- sign, clarifying the necessity of water saving design, and pu- ting forward some measures for water saving in design of water supply and drainage.%建筑给排水系统的节水设计是一项重要的节能措施。本文分析了建筑给排水设计的用水现状,明确了了节水设计的必要性,并提出了一些给排水设计中的节水措施。

  7. Army Industrial, Landscaping, and Agricultural Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Loper, Susan A.; Boyd, Brian K.

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Army’s ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  8. Army industrial, landscaping, and agricultural water use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoughton, Kate McMordie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Boyd, Brian K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-18

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a task for the Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Army to quantify the Army’s ILA water use and to help improve the data quality and installation water reporting in the Army Energy and Water Reporting System.

  9. Acid mine drainage and stream recovery: Effects of restoration on water quality, macroinvertebrates, and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams K.M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a prominent threat to water quality in many of the world’s mining districts as it can severely degrade both the biological community and physical habitat of receiving streams. There are relatively few long-term studies investigating the ability of stream ecosystems to recover from AMD. Here we assess watershed scale recovery of a cold-water stream from pollution by AMD using a 1967 survey of the biological and chemical properties of the stream as a pre-restoration benchmark. We sampled water chemistry, benthic macroinvertebrates, and fish throughout the watershed during the spring and summer of 2011. Water chemistry results indicated that pH and total alkalinity increased post-restoration, while acidity, sulfate, and iron concentrations decreased. Watershed-level taxa richness, local taxa richness, biomass, diversity, and density of macroinvertebrates were significantly higher post-restoration; however, %EPT was not significantly different. Fish species richness, density, and brook trout density were all significantly higher post-restoration. These results provide clear evidence that both abiotic and biotic components of streams can recover from AMD pollution.

  10. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2013 (October 1, 2012, through September 30, 2013) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB) in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2013 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2013.

  11. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  12. Substitutions between Water and other Agricultural Inputs - An Empirical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; You, J.

    2005-12-01

    Increasing concerns about water availability, environmental water requirement and water quality have led to an increased importance of quantitative assessments of the substitution between water and other agricultural inputs at the margin for agricultural and environmental policy analysis. This paper explores the potential substitutions between water and other agricultural inputs in irrigated agriculture through an empirical study. The study include (1) an analysis based on a crop production function for net substitution at the crop field and farm levels; and (2) a numerical study for gross substitution in the context of water allocation in river basins thorough an integrated hydrologic-economic river basin model. Along with the empirical analysis and numerical illustrations, we discuss several theoretical issues relevant to substitutions between water and other inputs, such as (1) selection of indicators of elasticity of substitution, depending on farmers' concerns on yield, production, or profit; (2) appropriateness of net or gross substitution analysis, which is relevant to the spatial scale of the analysis (field, district or region), as well as farmers' concerns; and (3) output impact of substitutions. Water is both a natural resource and an economic input, and the constraints on water include those from both physical and socio-economic aspects. Therefore, the output impact of the substitution between water and other inputs should be extended from a pure economic concept to the context of integrated hydrologic-economic systems.

  13. A GEO Global Agricultural Water Productivity Mapping System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P. S.; Pozzi, W.; Miller, N. L.; Fekete, B.; Sheffield, J.; Dumenil-Gates, L.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture is the main consumer of freshwater, and improved precision and accuracy of the terrestrial water cycle requires a more reliable way of monitoring agricultural water use and agricultural water productivity. Wisser et al 2008 reported that agricultural water consumption over the satellite-determined crop acreage (from AVHRR, SPOT VGT), particularly for India and China (Thenkabail et al 2006) was 30% higher than the commonly used Food and Agricultural Organization country-reported agricultural crop census data. We propose further quantification and clarification of this error through the following methodology: 1) greater accuracy in measuring actual area and precise spatial distribution of irrigated and rainfed cropland areas, along with identification of crop types and cropping intensities; 2) satellite monitoring of actual evapotranspiration (water use) by croplands; 3) reconciling agricultural plot information and evapotranspiration against calculated stores of water and water budgets, as derived from a Global Hydrologic Model Multi-Model Ensemble; and (d) modeling and pin-pointing areas of low and high water productivity (WP) to optimize agricultural water use and thus save large quanta of water. We propose producing global irrigated and rainfed areas at finer scales using Landsat 30 m imagery in fusion with MODIS 250 m imagery using the spectral matching technique (Thenkabail et al 2009). Crop water use (water transpired by the crop) and crop water productivity maps can be prepared for terrestrial areas, by using the surface energy balance model, in which evapotranspiration fraction is provided from Landsat ETM+ and\\or MODIS thermal data, combined with locally derived meteorological data such as wind speed, humidity, incoming radiation, and other surface values to derive turbulent diffusion and finally computing reference evapotranspiration (e.g., Penman-Montieth approach), so that sensible heat flux may be deducted from net radiation to derive

  14. Water in agriculture: The roles of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture accounts for nearly seventy percent of the world's demand for fresh water. Improper management of this resource has contributed extensively to the current water scarcity and pollution problems in many parts of the world, and is a serious challenge to future food security and environmental sustainability. Addressing these issues requires an integrated approach to soilwater- plant-nutrient management at the plant-rooting zone, where water use for food and agriculture and farm management can significantly modify the quantity and quality of both surface and ground water. Nuclear technologies can contribute significantly to alleviate constraints/limitations to agricultural productivity and thus fight hunger and poverty by providing quantitative, precise, specific and dynamic information about the key components of productivity and sustainability (sources, availability, uptake and losses) of major nutrients and water. The Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition (SWMCN) sub-programme is assisting Member States to develop and promote the adoption of nuclear-based technologies for optimising water and nutrient management practices, which support intensification of crop production and the preservation of natural resources. To ensure food security and sustainable water management for agriculture, there is a need to produce more food per drop of water used in the agricultural sector. That is to increase both the Crop Water Productivity (CWP) and Water Use Efficiency (WUE) without any negative impact on downstream water quantity and quality. The IAEA is currently conducting CWP studies in various parts of the world (China, Kenya, Turkey and Uzbekistan) using nuclear and associated techniques to assess soil and water management and water-saving technologies to increase crop productivity and reduce crop failure for the farmers. One of these technologies is fertigation, which is the direct application of water and nutrients to plants through a drip irrigation

  15. Runoff formation from plot, field, to small catchment with shallow groundwater table and dense drainage system in agricultural North Huaihe River Plain, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Han

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Runoff formation processes at the experimental plot (1600 m2, the field (0.06 km2, and the small catchment (1.36 km2 with shallow groundwater table and dense drainage system in North Huaihe River Plain (the northern part of the Huaihe River Basin, China were analyzed based on observed rainfall, runoff and groundwater table depth data of 30 storm events during the flood seasons from 1997 to 2008. At the outlet of the furrow of the experimental plot, only the surface runoff was collected and measured, whereas both the surface and subsurface runoffs were collected at the drainage ditches outlets of the field and the small catchment. The present study showed that the relatively narrow range of rainfall amounts resulted in significantly different runoff amounts at all the three scales. When the ground water is close to surface, the runoff amount is a great percentage of rainfall amount. Significant linear relationships between the difference of rainfall and runoff amounts and the changes in water table or the initial water table depth were found. When the 30 events were divided into three groups with initial water table (as a parameter indicating the antecedent moisture condition shallower than 0.5 m, deeper than 2.3 m or between 0.5 m and 2.3 m, significant rainfall-runoff relationships existed for each group. These imply that saturation-excess surface flow dominated the runoff response, especially when water table is shallow. For almost all the events, the water table rose above the bottom of drainage ditch during the event, and the total runoff amounts were larger at the field and the catchment than that at the plot with only surface flow measured, showing a great contribution of subsurface flow. Groundwater table depth, not only reflecting the antecedent moisture conditions, but also influencing the lateral sub-surface flow to the drainage ditches, would be an important parameter dominating runoff formation

  16. Technologies for rational water use in Brazilian agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Luiz da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has the highest water availability of any country in the world. Nearly 20% of all the world’s rivers flow on Brazilian soil. Brazil’s herds of cattle, pigs and poultry are among the largest in the world, and the country uses irrigated agriculture extensively, which accounts for most water consumption (approximately 70% of the water consumed in the world. The Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa, the largest and most important public institution of Brazilian agricultural research, has attempted to develop environmental technologies in order to minimize the impact caused by the scarcity and pollution of water resources. This paper describes the technologies this institution offers to different regions. For this purpose, a descriptive and exploratory study was conducted in various Embrapa research units. The results showed that research on the rational use of water in agriculture has intensified since the early 2000s. However, the pace of growth in agricultural activities and their impact is much greater than that of the generated technologies, demonstrating the difficulty in striking a balance in this relationship. Furthermore, it is clear that that water scarcity and the increasing pollution of shallow and deep waters are complex issues with no short-term solution.

  17. Isotopic composition of water from a mine drainage site in Creede County in south central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R. L.; Williams, M. W.; Krupicka, A.; Wireman, M.; Graves, J.

    2011-12-01

    Creede County in South Central Colorado was an active area of silver mining beginning in the early 1890s. To relieve flooding in some of the mines, the Nelson Tunnel was built in the late 1890s. This tunnel still exists and acid mine drainage from the tunnel eventually flows into the Willow Creek Watershed which eventually flows into the Upper Rio Grande. The water coming out of the tunnel is high in toxic metals and the area has become part of an EPA Superfund site in an effort to find a suitable method to remediate the metal problems. Among the approaches used in the program is the use of isotopes of water and carbon to identify sources and estimate ages of the water in the drainage. Samples were collected for analysis of isotopic ratios and tritium concentrations at a series of sites within the tunnel complex from 2008-2010. In 2009 samples were also collected for analysis of isotopes in groundwater and surface water. In 2010 sampling was expanded to include four precipitation and one snow sample. Tritium concentrations in precipitation and snowfall in 2010 ranged from 3-6 tritium units with the lowest concentration found in the snow sample. The 18O isotopic ratios in precipitation for this site ranged from an average of -8.9 o/oo in summer to about -19 o/oo in winter. The six groundwater samples collected in 2009 had an average 18O isotopic concentration of -15 o/oo and tritium concentrations ranging from 7.4-9.3 TU. These results suggest that the groundwater sampled is composed largely of a mixture of summer and winter precipitation with the latter source being dominant. The tritium concentrations in groundwater exceed recent precipitation concentrations, suggesting the presence of water from the bomb-tritium transient and an age of a decade or more for the groundwater. Eight sites in the tunnel were sampled I from 2008-2010, although not all sites were sampled every year. The sampling sites included waters seeping into the tunnel as well as the outlet water

  18. Embedding sustainability in the design of water supply and drainage systems for buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack, L.B.; Swaffield, J.A. [School of the Built Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, Scotland EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    In addressing sustainability issues for the built environment, focus is often directed towards minimising energy consumption and material use. Often forgotten however, is the potential for the integration of sustainable solutions when designing water and waste management systems for buildings. The fundamental functions of such systems are clearly recognised, but traditional design principles often constrain opportunities for performance enhancement and for water and pipework economies. To an extent, this is unsurprising, given the basic premise that steady-state analysis of flows underpins many of the codes and guidelines used worldwide. However, advances in simulation methods mean that system performance resulting from the use of new techniques and from the integration of innovative and more sustainable design approaches can now be fully assessed. This paper provides an overview of the water supply and drainage systems for buildings whose performance has been assessed through the development, at Heriot-Watt University, of a suite of numerical simulation models. These models accurately predict, using appropriate forms of the St. Venant equations, the pressure and flow regime within such systems by applying the Method of Characteristics finite difference technique. The paper provides three different examples of application, where the focus of each is on embedding sustainability in design. (author)

  19. DESIGN JUSTIFICATION DRAINAGE PROTECTION AT ELEVATED GROUNDWATER LEVELS GROUNDWATER DUE TO INFILTRATION MINE WATERS

    OpenAIRE

    Ishtchenko A. V.; Kosichenko Y. M.; Baev O. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the design study for construction of a drainage system on the territory of gardening association «Zarya» in the region of Gukovo in Krasnosulinsky district of Rostov region. Construction of a drainage system is a prerequisite for reducing the groundwater level caused by the infiltration of the drainage complex mine called Burgustinskaya. The results of the calculations determined the value of the total infiltration groundwater feeding; inflow rate to each of the 6 drains ...

  20. Antibiotic resistance and community analysis of surface and subsurface drainage waters in the South Fork Iowa River watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Midwest is a center for swine production leading to application of swine manure onto lands that have artificial subsurface drainage. Previous reports have indicated elevated levels of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in surface water and groundwater around confined animal feeding operations w...

  1. Performance evaluation and accuracy of passive capillary samplers (PCAPs) for estimating real-time drainage water fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful monitoring of pollutant transport through the soil profile requires accurate, reliable, and appropriate instrumentation to measure amount of drainage water or flux within the vadose layer. We evaluated the performance and accuracy of automated passive capillary wick samplers (PCAPs) for ...

  2. Agricultural production, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    OpenAIRE

    Taheripour, Farzad; Hertel, Thomas W.; Gopalakrishnan, Badri N.; Sahin, Sebnem; Escurra, Jorge J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses an advanced Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model coupled with biophysical data on future changes in crop yields due to climate change to examine: 1) the consequences of climate change for India’s agricultural and food products; 2) the extent to which water scarcity can affect the irrigation adoption and demand for water; and 3) how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. It shows that when water scarcity is...

  3. Agricultural use and water quality at karstic Cuban western plain.

    OpenAIRE

    Fagundo Castillo Juan Reynerio; Gonzàlez Hernandez Patricia

    1999-01-01

    In the paper some results of studies on the karstic aquifers of the western plain of Cuba are presented and discussed. The intensive exploitation of these aquifers for agriculture use and drinking water supply induces an increase of marine water intrusion, water salinisation and a progressive increase of chemical corrosion with a greater dissolution of carbonates. During the period of study (1983-1998) a trend in the deterioration of water quality was observed by means of a chronological seri...

  4. Evaluation of Tourism Water Capacity in Agricultural Heritage Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Tian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural heritage sites have been gaining popularity as tourism destinations. The arrival of large numbers of tourists, however, has created serious challenges to these vulnerable ecosystems. In particular, water resources are facing tremendous pressure. Thus, an assessment of tourism water footprint is suggested before promoting sustainable tourism. This paper uses the bottom-up approach to construct a framework on the tourism water footprint of agricultural heritage sites. The tourism water footprint consists of four components, namely accommodation water footprint, diet water footprint, transportation water footprint and sewage dilution water footprint. Yuanyang County, a representative of the Honghe Hani rice terraces, was selected as the study area. Field surveys including questionnaires, interviews and participant observation approaches were undertaken to study the tourism water footprint and water capacity of the heritage site. Based on the results, measures to improve the tourism water capacity have been put forward, which should provide references for making policies that aim to maintain a sustainable water system and promote tourism development without hampering the sustainability of the heritage system. The sewage dilution water footprint and the diet water footprint were top contributors to the tourism water footprint of the subject area, taking up 38.33% and 36.15% of the tourism water footprint, respectively, followed by the transportation water footprint (21.47%. The accommodation water footprint had the smallest proportion (4.05%. The tourism water capacity of the heritage site was 14,500 tourists per day. The water pressure index was 97%, indicating that the water footprint was still within the water capacity, but there is a danger that the water footprint may soon exceed the water capacity. As a consequence, we suggest that macro and micro approaches, including appropriate technologies, awareness enhancement and diversified

  5. Too Hot to Handle: Climate Change and Agricultural Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fort

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The world faces enormous challenges in responding to looming crises in food and water. Responding to this challenge will require flexibility; such flexibility may be impeded by legal institutions. This paper looks at the western United States and discusses the role of irrigated agriculture in that region. Because of climate change, a growing population, declining groundwater, the need to protect ecosystems and other conflicts, the author suggests that all water uses, including long-standing agricultural water rights, need to be examined in light of these changes. Legal systems have tended to serve the status quo, but perhaps the law can help facilitate this re-examination.

  6. Integrated Methodology for Estimating Water Use in Mediterranean Agricultural Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Zalidis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural use is by far the largest consumer of fresh water worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean, where it has reached unsustainable levels, thus posing a serious threat to water resources. Having a good estimate of the water used in an agricultural area would help water managers create incentives for water savings at the farmer and basin level, and meet the demands of the European Water Framework Directive. This work presents an integrated methodology for estimating water use in Mediterranean agricultural areas. It is based on well established methods of estimating the actual evapotranspiration through surface energy fluxes, customized for better performance under the Mediterranean conditions: small parcel sizes, detailed crop pattern, and lack of necessary data. The methodology has been tested and validated on the agricultural plain of the river Strimonas (Greece using a time series of Terra MODIS and Landsat 5 TM satellite images, and used to produce a seasonal water use map at a high spatial resolution. Finally, a tool has been designed to implement the methodology with a user-friendly interface, in order to facilitate its operational use.

  7. Laboratory comparison of four iron-based filter materials for drainage water phosphate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Barry J; Racharaks, Ratanachat

    2014-09-01

    A laboratory investigation evaluated phosphate (PO4(3-)) drainage water treatment capabilities of four iron-based filter materials. The iron-based filter materials tested were zero-valent iron (ZVI), porous iron composite (PIC), sulfur modified iron (SMI), and iron oxide/ hydroxide (IOH). Only filter material retained on a 60-mesh sieve (> 0.25 mm) was used for evaluation. The laboratory investigation included saturated falling-head hydraulic conductivity tests, contaminant removal or desorption/dissolution batch tests, and low-to-high flow rate saturated solute transport column tests. Each of the four iron-based filter materials have sufficient water flow capacity as indicated by saturated hydraulic conductivity values that in most cases were greater than 1 x 10(-2) cm/s. For the 1, 10, and 100 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, each of the four iron-based filter materials removed at least 95% of the PO4(3-)-P originally present. However, for the 1000 ppm PO4(3-)-P contaminant removal batch tests, IOH by far exhibited the greatest removal effectiveness (99% PO4(3-)-P removal), followed by SMI (72% PO4(3-)-P removal), then ZVI (62% PO4(3-)-P removal), and finally PIC (15% PO4(3-)-P removal). The desorption/dissolution batch test results, especially with respect to SMI and IOH, indicate that once PO4(3-) is adsorbed/precipitated onto surfaces of iron-based filter material particles, this PO4(3-) becomes fixed and is then not readily desorbed/dissolved back into solution. The results from the column tests showed that regardless of low or high flow rate (contact time ranged from a few hours to a few minutes) and PO4(3-) concentration (1 ppm or 10 ppm PO4(3-)-P), PIC, SMI, and IOH reduced PO4(3-)-P concentrations to below detection limits, while ZVI removed at least 90% of the influent PO4(3-)-P. Consequently, these laboratory results indicate that the ZVI, PIC, SMI, and IOH filter materials all exhibit promise for phosphate drainage water treatment.

  8. A site-specific agricultural water requirement and footprint estimator (SPARE:WATER 1.0 for irrigation agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Multsch

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The water footprint accounting method addresses the quantification of water consumption in agriculture, whereby three types of water to grow crops are considered, namely green water (consumed rainfall, blue water (irrigation from surface or groundwater and grey water (water needed to dilute pollutants. Most of current water footprint assessments focus on global to continental scale. We therefore developed the spatial decision support system SPARE:WATER that allows to quantify green, blue and grey water footprints on regional scale. SPARE:WATER is programmed in VB.NET, with geographic information system functionality implemented by the MapWinGIS library. Water requirement and water footprints are assessed on a grid-basis and can then be aggregated for spatial entities such as political boundaries, catchments or irrigation districts. We assume in-efficient irrigation methods rather than optimal conditions to account for irrigation methods with efficiencies other than 100%. Furthermore, grey water can be defined as the water to leach out salt from the rooting zone in order to maintain soil quality, an important management task in irrigation agriculture. Apart from a thorough representation of the modelling concept we provide a proof of concept where we assess the agricultural water footprint of Saudi Arabia. The entire water footprint is 17.0 km3 yr−1 for 2008 with a blue water dominance of 86%. Using SPARE:WATER we are able to delineate regional hot spots as well as crop types with large water footprints, e.g. sesame or dates. Results differ from previous studies of national-scale resolution, underlining the need for regional water footprint assessments.

  9. Water-oil drainage dynamics in oil-wet random microfluidic porous media analogs

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Wei; Neeves, Keith; Yin, Xiaolong

    2012-01-01

    Displacement experiments carried out in microfluidic porous media analogs show that reduced surface tension leads to a more stable displacement, opposite to the process in Hele-Shaw cells where surface tension stabilizes the displacement of a more viscous fluid by a less viscous fluid. In addition, geometry of porous media is observed to play an important role. Three random microfluidic porous media analogs were made to study water-oil drainage dynamics, featuring a pattern of randomly connected channels with a uniform width, a pattern with Gaussian channel width distribution, and a pattern with large isolated pores. The microfluidic chips fabricated using Polydimenthylsiloxane with glass covers have the internal surface treated by Trichlorosilane to achieve a uniform oil-wet condition. The aqueous phase displaces the oil phase, with a viscosity ratio of about 1:40 and a density ratio of 1:0.85. Videos 1-3 show water flooding processes. It is observed that both channel size distribution (Video 2) and heteroge...

  10. Condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca oil sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (orig.)

  11. Water and Agricultural-Chemical Transport in a Midwestern, Tile-Drained Watershed: Implications for Conservation Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Frey, Jeffrey W.; Wilson, John T.

    2007-01-01

    The study of agricultural chemicals is one of five national priority topics being addressed by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in its second decade of studies, which began in 2001. Seven watersheds across the Nation were selected for the NAWQA agricultural-chemical topical study. The watersheds selected represent a range of agricultural settings - with varying crop types and agricultural practices related to tillage, irrigation, artificial drainage, and chemical use - as well as a range of landscapes with different geology, soils, topography, climate, and hydrology (Capel and others, 2004). Chemicals selected for study include nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and about 50 commonly used pesticides. This study design leads to an improved understanding of many factors that can affect the movement of water and chemicals in different agricultural settings. Information from these studies will help with decision making related to chemical use, conservation, and other farming practices that are used to reduce runoff of agricultural chemicals and sediment from fields (Capel and others, 2004). This Fact Sheet highlights the results of the NAWQA agricultural chemical study in the Leary Weber Ditch Watershed in Hancock County, Indiana. This watershed was selected to represent a tile-drained, corn and soybean, humid area typical in the Midwest.

  12. Integrating agricultural policies and water policies under water supply and climate uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    MejíAs, Patricia; Varela-Ortega, Consuelo; Flichman, Guillermo

    2004-07-01

    Understanding the interactions of water and agricultural policies is crucial for achieving an efficient management of water resources. In the EU, agricultural and environmental policies are seeking to converge progressively toward mutually compatible objectives and, in this context, the recently reformed Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and the EU Water Framework Directive constitute the policy framework in which irrigated agriculture and hence water use will evolve. In fact, one of the measures of the European Water Directive is to establish a water pricing policy for improving water use and attaining a more efficient water allocation. The aim of this research is to investigate the irrigators' responses to these changing policy developments in a self-managed irrigation district in southern Spain. A stochastic programming model has been developed to estimate farmers' response to the application of water pricing policies in different agricultural policy scenarios when water availability is subject to varying climate conditions and water storage capacity in the district's reservoir. Results show that irrigators are price-responsive, but a similar water-pricing policy in different agricultural policy options could have distinct effects on water use, farmers' income, and collected revenue by the water authority. Water availability is a critical factor, and pricing policies are less effective for reducing water consumption in drought years. Thus there is a need to integrate the objectives of water policies within the objectives of the CAP programs to avoid distortion effects and to seek synergy between these two policies.

  13. Volumetric Pricing of Agricultural Water Supplies: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Ronald C.; Perry, Gregory M.

    1985-07-01

    Models of water consumption by rice producers are conceptualized and then estimated using cross-sectional time series data obtained from 16 Texas canal operators for the years 1977-1982. Two alternative econometric models demonstrate that both volumetric and flat rate water charges are strongly and inversely related to agricultural water consumption. Nonprice conservation incentives accompanying flat rates are hypothesized to explain the negative correlation of flat rate charges and water consumption. Application of these results suggests that water supply organizations in the sample population converting to volumetric pricing will generally reduce water consumption.

  14. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15). PMID:26032451

  15. Modeling Agricultural Production Considering Water Quality and Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Apland, Jeffrey; Grainger, Corbett; Strock, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Environmental goals often conflict with the economic goals of agricultural producers. The Cottonwood River in Minnesota is heavily polluted with nitrogen, phosphate and sediment from agricultural sources in the watershed. Goals of profit maximization for producers conflict with those of effluent alleviation. We incorporate water quality goals and risk into a mathematical programming framework to examine economically efficient means of pollution abatement while considering a wide range of alte...

  16. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  17. Agricultural water demand, water quality and crop suitability in Souk-Alkhamis Al-Khums, Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abunnour, Mohamed Ali; Hashim, Noorazuan Bin Md.; Jaafar, Mokhtar Bin

    2016-06-01

    Water scarcity, unequal population distribution and agricultural activities increased in the coastal plains, and the probability of seawater intrusion with ground water. According to this, the quantitative and qualitative deterioration of underground water quality has become a potential for the occurrence, in addition to the decline in agricultural production in the study area. This paper aims to discover the use of ground water for irrigation in agriculture and their suitability and compatibility for agricultural. On the other hand, the quality is determines by the cultivated crops. 16 random samples of regular groundwater are collected and analyzed chemically. Questionnaires are also distributed randomly on regular basis to farmers.

  18. Sustainable Water Management in Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess Russo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable water management (SWM requires allocating between competing water sector demands, and balancing the financial and social resources required to support necessary water systems. The objective of this review is to assess SWM in three sectors: urban, agricultural, and natural systems. This review explores the following questions: (1 How is SWM defined and evaluated? (2 What are the challenges associated with sustainable development in each sector? (3 What are the areas of greatest potential improvement in urban and agricultural water management systems? And (4 What role does country development status have in SWM practices? The methods for evaluating water management practices range from relatively simple indicator methods to integration of multiple models, depending on the complexity of the problem and resources of the investigators. The two key findings and recommendations for meeting SWM objectives are: (1 all forms of water must be considered usable, and reusable, water resources; and (2 increasing agricultural crop water production represents the largest opportunity for reducing total water consumption, and will be required to meet global food security needs. The level of regional development should not dictate sustainability objectives, however local infrastructure conditions and financial capabilities should inform the details of water system design and evaluation.

  19. Chapter 5. Uranium extraction technology from mine and drainage waters of uranium industry wastes. 5.1. Uranium migration in the system 'drainage waters-soil' on the territory of tailings №1-2, Taboshar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to uranium migration in the system 'drainage waters-soil' on the territory of tailings №1-2, Taboshar. Radionuclides' activity change intervals in water (Bq/m3, 104), which are currently used for different needs by Taboshar residents was measured. The annual public exposure doses due to water-use from contaminated water resources in Taboshar was estimated. The uranium content in samples of №1-2 tailing in Taboshar was defined.

  20. Carbon sequestration using sea water agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platt, Joseph B. [Planetary Design Corp., Phoenix, AZ (United States)

    1998-09-01

    An innovative biomass technology is described which is being used in the Activities Implemented Jointly programme which seeks to promote climatic change mitigation and economic development through cooperation between developed and developing countries. Commercially viable halophyte farms are being created by the American Planetary Design Corporation in Mexico and India. Halophytes are salt resistant plants which can be cultivated on desert lands using sea water for irrigation. Virtually all parts of one such plant, salicornia, yields useful by-products which include seed oil rich in polyunsaturates, animal feed, protein rich flour, and particle board from the waste. These by-products contribute to the economics of a biomass crop which contributes to carbon sequestration and makes use of land which cannot support other crops. The economics can be further improved where halophyte farming is integrated with aquaculture. Sea water is first pumped into raceways that grow shrimp, then into ponds for fin fish; finally the nutrient rich waste water, which is a major concern for the aquaculture industry, is applied to the halophyte fields where it enriches the crop. (UK)

  1. Relationship between streaming potential and water saturation during drainage and imbibition in sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Vinogradov, J.; Jackson, M.

    2013-12-01

    The rock pore space in many subsurface settings is saturated with water and one or more immiscible fluid phases; examples include NAPLs in contaminated aquifers, supercritical CO2 during sequestration in deep saline aquifers, the vadose zone and hydrocarbon reservoirs. To interpret spontaneous potential measurements for groundwater flow and hydraulic properties in these settings requires an understanding of the saturation dependence of the streaming potential. Vinogradov and Jackson [2011] reported measurements of the streaming potential during drainage and, for the first time, imbibition in two different sandstone plugs saturated with water and undecane. However, they reported effective values of the streaming potential coupling coefficient (C) at partial saturation (Sw), because Sw in the plugs was not uniform. The aim of this study is to determine the true value of C as a function of Sw in both samples. We use a three-step approach in which hydraulic and electrical parameters are determined using numerical simulation and Nelder-Mead simplex unconstrained optimisation or active-set constrained optimisation. In the first step, we determine the relative permeability and capillary pressure, assuming these are simple exponential functions of Sw (Corey-type) and using an objective function which is a weighted average of the measured (i) pressure drop across the plug, (ii) total fluid flow rate and (iii) water flow rate. In the second, we determine the saturation dependence of the electrical conductivity, assuming Archie's Law and using the measured conductivity of the plug as the objective function. In the final step, we determine the saturation dependence of the streaming potential, using the measured streaming potential across the plug as the objective function. We obtain a good match between simulated and measured values of C, and find that it (i) exhibits hysteresis, (ii) can vary non-monotonically with saturation, (iii) is non-zero when undecane flows at the

  2. Salt and water exchange between drainage ditches and farmland under sub-irrigation condition%反渗条件下排水沟与农田水盐交换关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李山; 罗纨; 贾忠华; 潘延鑫; 武迪; 张登科

    2015-01-01

    Many downstream irrigation areas are constructed with drainage ditches to prevent the potential threat of soil salinization; but the irrigation water supply to these areas can rarely be guaranteed due to their disadvantage of being located far away from the water source. It is critical for local agricultural development and environmental protection to find practical water management practice for crop production in these downstream irrigation areas. In this paper, we present an analytical study on salt and water exchange between drainage ditches and the farmlands in a downstream irrigation area, where the drainage ditches were periodically filled with a large amount of inflow (irrigation return flow and drainage water) from the upstream irrigation area. Due to its low elevation and poor drainage outlet of the study area, the drainage ditches originally built for salinity control now capacitate water storage for crop fields in the growing season; the high water level in the drainage ditches produced sub-irrigation effect on crop fields to meet some crop water requirement. To investigate the effect of reduced drainage intensity on salt and water balance in the crop fields, we employed the field hydrology model – DRAINMOD to predict the field water table fluctuations under subirrigation condition based on observed data from summer 2009 to fall 2010. Salt and water exchange between crop fields and drainage ditches was then calculated based on the predicted water table variations. The results showed that the water table depth in the study area was generally below 2 m, while the water level in the drainage ditches was generally higher; the salinity level in drainage ditches was much lower than the groundwater in the crop fields. The water table depth predicted by the DRAINMOD model agreed with the field measurements reasonably well; the average deviation was 3.29 cm, the mean absolute error was 8.6 cm, and the correlation coefficient was 0.97. With DRAINMOD simulations

  3. Spatialising Agricultural Water Governance Data in Polycentric Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faith Sternlieb

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water governance in the Colorado River Basin (CRB is based on a historical and complex set of policies, legal decisions, and operational guidelines called the Law of the River. Behind the complex institutional structure lies an intricate web of data on water, most of which are hydrogeological in nature. However, we posit that in order to realise sustainable water governance, management efforts must also address data on water governance. Therefore, our central research question is: what is the role of water governance data in water governance, as it pertains to agriculture? First, we lay out the digital landscape and theoretical framework that justify the development of the Colorado River Basin Water Governance Relational Database. Then, we conduct an analysis of water-sharing policies within Law of the River to identify and categorise boundaries. By operationalising a boundary typology in a geographic information system, we found that data on agricultural water governance have little to no current role in water governance due to scale discrepancies, insufficient availability and collection of data, and lack of standardisation. In addition, agricultural water governance in the CRB was found to exhibit polycentric patterns. However, unlike the flexible and adaptive nature of some polycentric systems, polycentric data sets may pose challenges to water governance due to limited information regarding organisational changes, policy developments, and special interests. This study advances the science-policy dialogue in four ways: 1 by emphasising the salience of the data on water governance, 2 by incorporating water governance data in water governance and policy decisions, 3 by demonstrating the value of integrating data types, and 4 by engaging users through geo-visualisation.

  4. Surface Drainage, Field Ditches on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 607

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP607), Surface...

  5. Policy and Ethics In Agricultural and Ecological Water Uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelgren, Bo

    Agricultural water use accounts for about 70 percent of abstracted waters reaching 92 percent of the collective uses of all water resources when rain water is included. Agriculture is the traditional first sector and linked to a wide range of social, economic and cultural issues at local and global level that reach beyond the production of cheap food and industrial fibres. With the dominance in agricultural water uses and linkages with land use and soil conservation the sector is critical to the protection of global and local environmental values especially in sensitive dryland systems. Ethical principles related to development and nature conservation have traditionally been focused on sustainability imperatives building on precaution and preventive action or on indisputable natural systems values, but are by necessity turning more and more towards solidarity-based risk management approaches. Policy and management have in general failed to consider social dimensions with solidarity, consistency and realism for societal acceptance and practical application. As a consequence agriculture and water related land degradation is resulting in accelerated losses in land productivity and biodiversity in dryland and in humid eco- systems. Increasingly faced with the deer social consequences in the form of large man-made hydrological disasters and with pragmatic requirements driven by drastic increases in the related social cost the preferences are moving to short-term risk management approaches with civil protection objectives. Water scarcity assessment combined with crisis diagnoses and overriding statements on demographic growth, poverty and natural resources scarcity and deteriorating food security in developing countries have become common in the last decades. Such studies are increasingly questioned for purpose, ethical integrity and methodology and lack of consideration of interdependencies between society, economy and environment and of society's capacity to adapt to

  6. Water-table-dependent hydrological changes following peatland forestry drainage and restoration: Analysis of restoration success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menberu, Meseret Walle; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Marttila, Hannu; Irannezhad, Masoud; Ronkanen, Anna-Kaisa; Penttinen, Jouni; Kløve, Bjørn

    2016-05-01

    A before-after-control approach was used to analyze the impact of peatland restoration on hydrology, based on high temporal resolution water-table (WT) data from 43 boreal peatlands representative of a south-boreal to north-boreal climate gradient. During the study, 24 forestry drained sites were restored and 19 pristine peatlands used as control sites. Different approaches were developed and used to analyze WT changes (mean WT position, WT fluctuation, WT hydrograph, recession, and storage characteristics). Restoration increased WT in most cases but particularly in spruce mires, followed by pine mires and fens. Before restoration, the WT fluctuation (WTF) was large, indicating peat temporary storage gain (SG). After restoration, the WT hydrograph recession limb slopes and SG coefficients (Rc) declined significantly. Drainage or restoration did not significantly affect mean diurnal WT fluctuations, used here as a proxy for evapotranspiration. Overall, the changes in WT characteristics following restoration indicated creation of favorable hydrological conditions for recovery of functional peatland ecosystems in previously degraded peatland sites. This was supported by calculation of bryophyte species abundance thresholds for WT. These results can be used to optimize restoration efforts in different peatland systems and as a qualitative conceptual basis for future restoration operations.

  7. Uses of warmed water in agriculture. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy in the form of warmed water is available from condenser cooling water from fossil fuel or nuclear-electric power-generating facilities, geothermal power plants, geothermal fluids, or spent steam and cooling water from industrial processes. A re-analysis of the characteristics of possible agricultural uses of warmed water has revealed the need to decouple considerations of warmed water sources from those of warmed water users. Conflicting objectives and managerial requirements seem to preclude an integrated system approach. Rather an interface must be established with separate costs and benefits identified for a reliable warmed water source and for its various potential uses. These costs and benefits can be utilized as a basis for decisions separately by the energy supplier and the prospective energy users. A method of classifying uses of warmed water according to need, volume, objective, temperature, and quality is presented and preliminary classifications are discussed for several potential agricultural uses of warmed water. Specific uses for soil warming, space heating in greenhouses, and irrigation are noted. Specific uses in aquaculture for catfish, lobster, and prawn production are discussed. Warmed water use in animal shelters is mentioned. Low-quality heat is required for methane generation from biomass and warmed water heating could be utilized in this industry. 53 references

  8. Drainage-water travel times as a key factor for surface water contamination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenendijk, P.; Eertwegh, van den G.A.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of the unsaturated zone as an inextricable part of the hydrologic cycle has long been recognized. The root zone and the unsaturated sub-surface domain are chemically and biologically the most active zones. The interrelationships between soil, subsoil and surface waters make it unreali

  9. GlobWat - a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) to assess water use in irrigated agriculture, the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed hig

  10. Assessing the utility of mixed organic materials for removal of metals in mine drainage impacted waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, H.; Neculita, C.; Lee, G.; Jeong, J.; Cho, D.; Chang, S.

    2010-12-01

    The use of natural organic materials in bioreactors is one of the most sustainable technologies for treatment of metals in mine-impacted waters. Several natural organic substrates including mushroom compost, cow manure, sawdust, wood chips, and cut rice straw were characterized and used in combination for treating mine drainage with acidic (pH 3) and moderate pH (pH 6). Bench-scale batch experiments were performed for 35-day period to evaluate the performance of organic substrates in removing dissolved metals. Overall results indicated that mixtures of different substrates showed satisfactory performances in removing metals (Al > Fe > Mn) (up to 100%), generating alkalinity, and reducing sulfate at both pH conditions. The mixture of sawdust and cow manure was found as the most effective whereas the mixture containing 40% cut rice straw gave limited efficiency, suggesting organic carbon released from this substrate is not readily available for biodegradation under anaerobic conditions. The mushroom compost based bioreactors released significant amount of sulfate, which may raise a concern upon the start-up of field-scale bioreactors. Collectively, the substrate mixtures had comparable performances to the mushroom compost, the most commonly used material in field bioreactors, in terms of metal removal, pH neutralization, and sulfate reduction, except for the reactors containing rice straw. Especially, the mixture of sawdust and cow manure was the most efficient substrate for treatment of mine-impacted waters. The correlation between the extent of sulfate reduction and dissolved organic carbon/SO42- ratio was weak and this indicates the type of DOC plays more important role in sulfate reduction than the absolute concentration and that the ratio is not sensitive enough to properly describe the relative effectiveness of substrate mixtures.

  11. Roof drainage with pressurized-water systems. Part 2. Correct dimensioning and design; Dachentwaesserung mit Druckstroemung. Teil 2. Richtig dimensionieren und bemessen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurich, H.

    2006-02-15

    This two-installment article discusses roof drainage with partial vacuum. Correct planning, design, construction and installation of flat roof drainage systems are gone into. The last part of the seris discusses the hydraulic dimensioning of pressurized-water pipes and provides information on the fastening of excess-pressure and partial-vacuum pipelines. (orig.)

  12. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette E.

    2015-01-01

    -regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N con-centration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3–2.3 ha) representing approxi-mately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ...... given the temperature-dependent reduction potential of nitrate off-field. This initial well-documented field-scale knowledge from fields that are representative of large areas in Denmark is a first step towards establishing a differentiated N-regulation for clayey till areas. Additionally, it provides...

  13. Water, sanitation and hygiene: The missing link with agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Tsegai, Daniel; McBain, Florence; Tischbein, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate access to safe water and sanitation services coupled with poor hygiene practices continues to kill, sicken and diminish opportunities of millions of people in developing countries. Various interventions to improve drinking water quality and service levels, sanitation and hygiene (WSH) have been applied, albeit in isolated approaches. Relevant literature focused on assessing the cost and health effectiveness of such approaches. In parallel, irrigation in agriculture, which affects a...

  14. Contact elimination of iron from groundwater in agricultural water supply

    OpenAIRE

    O.Y. Pobereznichenko

    2015-01-01

    The authors constructed an experimental setup for contact elimination of iron from groundwater with a bioreactor and a polystyrene foam filter at an agricultural enterprise to ensure a regulatory content of iron in potable water. A method to calculate structural and technological parameters for filters to ensure minimum capital and operating costs under the regulatory quality indicators for purified water was developed. Based on experimental research, the relationship between the speed o...

  15. The Drainage Consolidation Modeling of Sand Drain in Red Mud Tailing and Analysis on the Change Law of the Pore Water Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    In order to prevent the occurring of dam failure and leakage, sand-well drainages systems were designed and constructed in red mud tailing. It is critical to focus on the change law of the pore water pressure. The calculation model of single well drainage pore water pressure was established. The pore water pressure differential equation was deduced and the analytical solution of differential equation using Bessel function and Laplace transform was given out. The impact of parameters such as d...

  16. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  17. Water Policy Reform in China’s Fragmented Hydraulic State: Focus on Self-Funded/Managed Irrigation and Drainage Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nickum

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the nature of China’s unique decentralised 'authoritarian' regime and its various origins; the continuous dialectic between state-directed and market-directed approaches to the economy (including water; the economic and budgetary drivers of water policy change; whether the concept of integrated water resources management (IWRM is overly 'loaded' with liberal ideas or even if not, whether it provides any insights beyond concepts more widely accepted in China; whether the state-society dichotomy makes sense in China’s guanxi (personal relations culture; and the course of the World Bank-sponsored Self-funded/managed Irrigation and Drainage District (SIDD reforms.

  18. Chemical quality of surface waters, and sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin, North and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hembree, Charles Herbert; Krieger, Robert A.; Jordan, Paul Robert

    1964-01-01

    An investigation of the chemical quality of surface waters and of the sedimentation in the Grand River drainage basin by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1946. The chemical quality of the water was studied to obtain information on the nature and amounts of dissolved solids in the streams and on the suitability of the water for domestic, industrial, and irrigation uses. Sedimentation was studied to determine the quantity of sediment that is transported by the streams, the particle sizes of the sediment, and the probable specific weight of the sediment when deposited in a reservoir.

  19. Determination of trace triazine and chloroacetamide herbicides in tile-fed drainage ditch water using solid-phase microextraction coupled with GC-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) was used to analyze two triazine (atrazine and simazine) and three chloroacetamide herbicides (acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor) in water samples from a midwest US agricultural drainage ditch for two growing seasons. The effects of salt concentration, sample volume, extraction time, and injection time on extraction efficiency using a 100-μm polydimethylsiloxane-coated fiber were investigated. By optimizing these parameters, ditch water detection limits of 0.5 μg L-1 simazine and 0.25 μg L-1 atrazine, acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor were achieved. The optimum salt concentration was found to be 83% NaCl, while sample volume (10 or 20 mL) negligibly affected analyte peak areas. The optimum extraction time was 40 min, and the optimum injection time was 15 min. Results indicated that atrazine levels in the ditch water exceeded the US maximum contaminant level for drinking water 12% of the time, and atrazine was the most frequently detected among studied analytes. - Solid-phase microextraction methods were successfully developed to quantify low levels of herbicides in tile-fed drain water by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

  20. Comparison among monitoring strategies to assess water flow dynamic and soil hydraulic properties in agricultural soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valdes-Abellan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Irrigated agriculture is usually performed in semi-arid regions despite scarcity of water resources. Therefore, optimal irrigation management by monitoring the soil is essential, and assessing soil hydraulic properties and water flow dynamics is presented as a first measure. For this purpose, the control of volumetric water content, θ, and pressure head, h, is required. This study adopted two types of monitoring strategies in the same experimental plot to control θ and h in the vadose zone: i non-automatic and more time-consuming; ii automatic connected to a datalogger. Water flux was modelled with Hydrus-1D using the data collected from both acquisition strategies independently (3820 daily values for the automatic; less than 1000 for the non-automatic. Goodness-of-fit results reported a better adjustment in case of automatic sensors. Both model outputs adequately predicted the general trend of θ and h, but with slight differences in computed annual drainage (711 mm and 774 mm. Soil hydraulic properties were inversely estimated from both data acquisition systems. Major differences were obtained in the saturated volumetric water content, θs, and the n and α van Genuchten model shape parameters. Saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, shown lower variability with a coefficient of variation range from 0.13 to 0.24 for the soil layers defined. Soil hydraulic properties were better assessed through automatic data acquisition as data variability was lower and accuracy was higher.

  1. Water quality, fate of metals and predictive model validation of a constructed wetland treating acid mine drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsch, W.J.; Wise, K.M. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). School of Natural Resources

    1998-06-01

    The paper describes how 0.39 ha constructed wetland designed with 9 cells, including two anaerobic cells that were to stimulate dissimilatory sulfate reduction, was evaluated for its effect on water quality of a low-order acid mine drainage (AMD) stream in southeastern Ohio, USA. Emphasis was on the uptake and fate of selected metals and the accuracy of a simulation model that predicted this specific wetland`s behavior before it was built.

  2. Water Supply & Drainage and Urban Renewal%给水排水与城市更新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖云柱; 刘焱

    2012-01-01

    In the period of rapid growth of urban economic and social development , the cities require ade- quate resources consumed to support and produce large amounts of waste (waste gas, wastewater, waste solids) at the same time;As the cities developed to a certain stage , the modernization of urban infrastructure updates to speed up :such as urban road renovation and new construction of subway,etc.simultaneously, ground drainage selection and the processing of underground pipeline become the new problems to restrict the urban develop- ment; The construction of low-carbon society is inseparable from energy conservation, water science and engi- neering ,as an engineering discipline ,in the new period will be accompanied by urban develonment.%城市经济社会快速发展时期,需要足够的资源消耗来支撑,但同时会产生大量的废物(废气、废水、废弃固体);经济社会发展到一定阶段后,城市基础设施现代化更新加快:如城市道路出新改造以及新建地铁等,与此同时,地上排水选择和地下管线处理成为制约城市发展新的问题;低碳社会的建设离不开节能减排,给水排水作为一门工程学科在新的时期将伴随着城市不断发展。

  3. Reuse of drainage water for rice and wheat growth during reclamation of saline-sodic soils in Pakistan under the national drainage program (NDP)

    OpenAIRE

    GHAFOOR, A.; Boers, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Pakistan is facing scarcity of canal water for irrigated agriculture on 16 mha land. This problem is caused, among others, by the loss of surface storage capacity and by the current prolonged dry spell lasting over the several past years. Siltation of Mangla, Tarbela and Chashma Dams have caused a loss of . 5 km3 which is 25 % of the design capacity. Since this problem is increasing, there may be a gradual decrease of food production for a population of 140 million, which is expected to have ...

  4. Modeling global distribution of agricultural insecticides in surface waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural insecticides constitute a major driver of animal biodiversity loss in freshwater ecosystems. However, the global extent of their effects and the spatial extent of exposure remain largely unknown. We applied a spatially explicit model to estimate the potential for agricultural insecticide runoff into streams. Water bodies within 40% of the global land surface were at risk of insecticide runoff. We separated the influence of natural factors and variables under human control determining insecticide runoff. In the northern hemisphere, insecticide runoff presented a latitudinal gradient mainly driven by insecticide application rate; in the southern hemisphere, a combination of daily rainfall intensity, terrain slope, agricultural intensity and insecticide application rate determined the process. The model predicted the upper limit of observed insecticide exposure measured in water bodies (n = 82) in five different countries reasonably well. The study provides a global map of hotspots for insecticide contamination guiding future freshwater management and conservation efforts. - Highlights: • First global map on insecticide runoff through modelling. • Model predicts upper limit of insecticide exposure when compared to field data. • Water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects. • Insecticide application rate, terrain slope and rainfall main drivers of exposure. - We provide the first global map on insecticide runoff to surface water predicting that water bodies in 40% of global land surface may be at risk of adverse effects

  5. Studies on the agricultural uses of the thermal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiroglu, M.

    1973-01-01

    Some of the 300 natural hot water sources of the Anatolian peninsula were chosen for study as to possible agricultural uses, taking into consideration their capacities and location (nearness to big cities and transportation facilities). According to experiments which were conducted at experimental greenhouses erected in the Sey Valley, vegetables and other plants can be grown economically in cold weather. These greenhouses were heated in three different ways: by running thermal water in pipes, in open canals at ground level, or in pipes underground. The best results were obtained by running the thermal water in pipes inside of the greenhouse. Green parks can also be established economically in colder seasons which is important from the aesthetic standpoint as well as the tourist industry. The heat energy of thermal waters can be utilized for fermentation by food processes and brewers and in the anaerobic fermentation of organic materials for the production of biogas under favorable conditions. The content of thermal waters will be evaluated in agriculture for different purposes. Those having plant nutrients dissolved in the water will be used for plant culture, adding some elements lacking in the thermal water. Oylat thermal water is the typical one for this purpose. Those not suitable for irrigation or plant culture due to higher salt content or toxic materials unfavorable to plant growth, will be used as preventive solution for timber decay.

  6. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1-1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400-900 kHz and 200-400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  7. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Álvarez-Arenas, Tomas; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Ealo Cuello, Joao; Fariñas, Maria Dolores; Sancho-Knapik, Domingo; Collazos Burbano, David Alejandro; Peguero-Pina, Jose Javier

    2016-01-01

    Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70%) corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS) in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively), These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained. PMID:27428968

  8. Ultrasonic Sensing of Plant Water Needs for Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Gómez Álvarez-Arenas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fresh water is a key natural resource for food production, sanitation and industrial uses and has a high environmental value. The largest water use worldwide (~70% corresponds to irrigation in agriculture, where use of water is becoming essential to maintain productivity. Efficient irrigation control largely depends on having access to reliable information about the actual plant water needs. Therefore, fast, portable and non-invasive sensing techniques able to measure water requirements directly on the plant are essential to face the huge challenge posed by the extensive water use in agriculture, the increasing water shortage and the impact of climate change. Non-contact resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy (NC-RUS in the frequency range 0.1–1.2 MHz has revealed as an efficient and powerful non-destructive, non-invasive and in vivo sensing technique for leaves of different plant species. In particular, NC-RUS allows determining surface mass, thickness and elastic modulus of the leaves. Hence, valuable information can be obtained about water content and turgor pressure. This work analyzes and reviews the main requirements for sensors, electronics, signal processing and data analysis in order to develop a fast, portable, robust and non-invasive NC-RUS system to monitor variations in leaves water content or turgor pressure. A sensing prototype is proposed, described and, as application example, used to study two different species: Vitis vinifera and Coffea arabica, whose leaves present thickness resonances in two different frequency bands (400–900 kHz and 200–400 kHz, respectively, These species are representative of two different climates and are related to two high-added value agricultural products where efficient irrigation management can be critical. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to other species and similar results can be obtained.

  9. Water and nutrient balances in a large tile-drained agricultural catchment: a distributed modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and implementation of a distributed model of coupled water nutrient processes, based on the representative elementary watershed (REW approach, to the Upper Sangamon River Basin, a large, tile-drained agricultural basin located in central Illinois, mid-west of USA. Comparison of model predictions with the observed hydrological and biogeochemical data, as well as regional estimates from literature studies, shows that the model is capable of capturing the dynamics of water, sediment and nutrient cycles reasonably well. The model is then used as a tool to gain insights into the physical and chemical processes underlying the inter- and intra-annual variability of water and nutrient balances. Model predictions show that about 80% of annual runoff is contributed by tile drainage, while the remainder comes from surface runoff (mainly saturation excess flow and subsurface runoff. It is also found that, at the annual scale nitrogen storage in the soil is depleted during wet years, and is supplemented during dry years. This carryover of nitrogen storage from dry year to wet year is mainly caused by the lateral loading of nitrate. Phosphorus storage, on the other hand, is not affected much by wet/dry conditions simply because the leaching of it is very minor compared to the other mechanisms taking phosphorous out of the basin, such as crop harvest. The analysis then turned to the movement of nitrate with runoff. Model results suggested that nitrate loading from hillslope into the channel is preferentially carried by tile drainage. Once in the stream it is then subject to in-stream denitrification, the significant spatio-temporal variability of which can be related to the variation of the hydrologic and hydraulic conditions across the river network.

  10. Agricultural Impacts on Water Resources: Recommendations for Successful Applied Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, D.

    2014-12-01

    We, as water resource professionals, are faced with a truly monumental challenge - that is feeding the world's growing population and ensuring it has an adequate supply of clean water. As researchers and educators it is good for us to regularly remember that our research and outreach efforts are critical to people around the world, many of whom are desperate for solutions to water quality and supply problems and their impacts on food supply, land management, and ecosystem protection. In this presentation, recommendations for successful applied research on agricultural impacts on water resources will be provided. The benefits of building multidisciplinary teams will be illustrated with examples related to the development and world-wide application of the ALMANAC, SWAT, and EPIC/APEX models. The value of non-traditional partnerships will be shown by the Soil Health Partnership, a coalition of agricultural producers, chemical and seed companies, and environmental advocacy groups. The results of empowering decision-makers with useful data will be illustrated with examples related to bacteria source and transport data and the MANAGE database, which contains runoff nitrogen and phosphorus data for cultivated, pasture, and forest land uses. The benefits of focusing on sustainable solutions will be shown through examples of soil testing, fertilizers application, on-farm profit analysis, and soil health assessment. And the value of welcoming criticism will be illustrated by the development of a framework to estimate and publish uncertainty in measured discharge and water quality data. The good news for researchers is that the agricultural industry is faced with profitability concerns and the need to wisely utilize soil and water resources, and simultaneously state and federal agencies crave sound-science to improve decision making, policy, and regulation. Thus, the audience for and beneficiaries of agricultural research are ready and hungry for applied research results.

  11. Solar system for soil drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews solar system for drainage of the cultivable agricultural surfaces which can be situated near the rivers in plains. These are usually very fertile surfaces which cannot be cultivated die to constant presence of the water. Using such solar systems should increase the percentage of cultivable surfaces. These systems can also be installed on the cultivable agricultural surfaces, where the water surfaces or so called still waters appear, which make impossible the application of agritechnical measures on these surfaces, significantly decreasing crops and creating conditions for the growth of pond plants and animals. Increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces would increase national agricultural income. At the same time, increasing the percentage of cultivable agricultural surfaces decreases the surfaces of unhealthy bog, swamp and marshland soils, where many insect breed. They are the cause for soil spraying from the air, which causes the pollution of environment. Solar systems do not pollute the environment because they use solar energy as the purest source of energy. Their usage has special significance in the places where there is no electricity distribution network

  12. PV water pumping for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel model for carbon sequestration in dry land agriculture is developed. • We consider the water-food-energy-climate nexus to assess carbon sequestration. • Using water for carbon sequestration should be assessed critically. • Co-benefits of carbon sequestration should be included in the assessment. • Moisture feedback is part of the nexus model. - Abstract: This paper suggests a novel model for analysing carbon sequestration activities in dry land agriculture considering the water-food-energy-climate nexus. The paper is based on our on-going studies on photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) systems for irrigation of grasslands in China. Two carbon sequestration projects are analysed in terms of their water productivity and carbon sequestration potential. It is concluded that the economic water productivity, i.e. how much water that is needed to produce an amount of grass, of grassland restoration is low and that there is a need to include several of the other co-benefits to justify the use of water for climate change mitigation. The co-benefits are illustrated in a nexus model including (1) climate change mitigation, (2) water availability, (3) downstream water impact, (4) energy security, (5) food security and (6) moisture recycling. We argue for a broad approach when analysing water for carbon sequestration. The model includes energy security and food security together with local and global water concerns. This makes analyses of dry land carbon sequestration activities more relevant and accurate. Without the nexus approach, the co-benefits of grassland restoration tend to be diminished

  13. Land use change in the last century in the Veneto floodplain: effects on network drainage density, water storage, and related consequences on flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosdocimi, Massimo; Sofia, Giulia; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo; Tarolli, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    In a high-density populated country such as Italy, the anthropic pressure plays a fundamental role in the alteration and the modification of the landscape. Among the most evident anthropic alterations, the most important are the urbanization processes that have been occurring since the end of the second world war. Agricultural activities, housing and other land uses have shifted due to the progressive spreading of urban areas. These modifications affect the hydrologic regimes, but municipalities often are not aware of the real impact of land cover changes on such processes and, consequently, an increase of the elements at risk of flooding is generally registered. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the impact of land cover changes in the Veneto region (north-east Italy), from 1954 to 2006, on the minor drainage network system and on its capacity to attenuate the direct runoff. The major flood event occurred between October and November 2010. The study is a typical agrarian landscape and it has been chosen considering its involvement inthe major flood of 2010 and considering also the availability of high-resolution topographic data (LiDAR-derived DTMs) and historical aerial photographs. Aerial photographs dated back to 1954 and 1981, in particular, have been used either to classify the land cover in five categories according to the first level of the CORINE land cover classification and to identify the minor drainage network. A semi-automatic approach based on the high-resolution DTM (Cazorzi et al., 2012), was also considered to identify the minor drainage network and estimate its water storage capacity. The results underline how land cover variation over the last 50 years has strongly increased the propension of the soil to produce direct runoff (increase of the Curve Number value) and it has also reduced the extent of the minor network system. As a consequence, the capacity of the agrarian minor network to attenuate and laminate a flood event is

  14. Soil Water Balance and Irrigation Strategies in an Agricultural District of Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Ventrella

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available An efficient management of water resources is considered very important for Mediterranean regions of Italy in order to improve the economical and environmental sustainability of the agricultural activity. The purpose of this study is to analyze the components of soil water balance in an important district included in the regions of Basilicata and Puglia and situated in the Jonical coastal area of Southern Italy and mainly cropped with horticultural crops. The study was performed by using the spatially distributed and physically based model SIMODIS in order to individuate the best irrigation management maximizing the water use efficiency and minimizing water losses by deep percolation and soil evaporation. SIMODIS was applied taking in to account the soil spatial variability and localization of cadastral units for two crops, durum wheat and water melon. For water melon recognition in 2007 a remote sensed image, from SPOT5 satellite, at the spatial resolution of 10 m, has been used. In 2008, a multi-temporal data set was available, from SPOT5 satellite to produce a land cover map for the classes water melon and durum wheat. Water melon cultivation was simulated adopting different water supply managements: rainfed and four irrigation strategies based on (i soil water availability and (ii plant water status adopting a threshold daily stress value. For each management, several water management indicators were calculated and mapped in GIS environment. For seasonal irrigation depth, actual evapotranspiration and irrigation efficiency were also determined. The analysis allowed to individuate the areas particularly sensitive to water losses by deep percolation because of their hydraulic functions characterized by low water retention and large values of saturated hydraulic conductivity. For these areas, the irrigation based on plant water status caused very high water losses by drainage. On the contrary, the irrigation scheduled on soil base allowed to

  15. Micro-scale elemental partition in tissues of the aquatic plant Lemna minor L. exposed to highway drainage water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendes Godinho, R., E-mail: rmgodinho@yahoo.com [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Raimundo, J.; Vale, C.; Anes, B.; Brito, P. [IPMA Instituto Português do Mar e da Atmosfera, Lisboa 1449-006 (Portugal); Alves, L.C.; Pinheiro, T. [IST/ITN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, EN 10, 2686-953 Sacavém (Portugal); CFNUL – Centro de Física Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa (Portugal)

    2013-07-01

    In the scope of a monitoring program to assess the environmental impact of automobile traffic over one main bridge in Lisbon, both water and duckweed (Lemna minor L.) were sampled from the road drainage tanks and analyzed for chemical elements. Plants uptake Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn metals from rain water draining the bridge road. Nuclear microprobe elemental maps of cryosections of L. minor tissues showed that incorporated elements were internalized in fronds of the plant. This approach at micrometer level allows a better knowledge of the elemental tissue partitioning in this biomonitor organism.

  16. Characterization of water pollution in drainage networks using continuous monitoring data in the Citadel area of Hue City, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Y; Teraguchi, T; Lieu, P K; Furumai, H

    2014-01-01

    In the Citadel area of Hue City, drainage systems that include canals and ponds are considerable sources of fecal contaminants to inundated water during the rainy season because canals and ponds receive untreated wastewater. It is important to investigate the characteristics of hydraulics and water pollution in canals and ponds. At the canals and ponds, water sampling was conducted during dry and wet weather periods in order to evaluate fecal contamination and to investigate changes in water pollution caused by runoff inflow. Inundated water was also collected from streets during heavy rainfall. At the canals and ponds, concentrations of Escherichia coli and total coliform exceeded the Vietnamese regulation values for surface water in 23 and 24 out of 27 samples (85 and 89%), respectively. The water samples were categorized based on the characteristics of water pollution using cluster analysis. In the rainy season, continuous monitoring was conducted at the canals and ponds using water depth and electrical conductivity (EC) sensors to investigate the dynamic relationship between water level and water pollution. It is suggested that in the canals, high EC meant water stagnation and low EC signified river water inflow. Therefore, EC might be a good indicator of water flow change in canals. PMID:25116489

  17. Water-conserving Potential for Agriculture in the Tarim Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    To satisfy the water demand for Tarim Basin's economic development in the year 2000, about 33.4×108 m3 water needs to be further tapped. Acco rding t o the analysis of the current status of water utilization, it is pointed out th at, to achieve such economic objectives, the policy of emphasizing both water ex ploitation and water conservation with the preference given to conservation meas ures must be followed. For this end, the potentials of exploring new additional sources and strengthening water conservation have been well analyzed, along with the calculation and tech-economic-assessment of some related parameters like the canal transmission efficiency in water delivery systems and the water irrigation effi ciency in the field. The results indicate the potentials of water resource expan sion and conservation are 34×108 m3 and 57×108 m3, respectively. Bas ed on such rese arch outputs, a water conservation program has been developed for the Tarim Basi n, to provide important references and policy recommendations for the decision- makers in Xinjiang agricultural department to implement water utilization measur es.

  18. Streamflow, water quality and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2016-05-03

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2014 (October 1, 2013, through September 30, 2014) for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Providence Water Supply Board in the cooperative study. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the U.S. Geological Survey following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages are equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the Providence Water Supply Board and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the U.S. Geological Survey during WY 2014 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the Providence Water Supply Board are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2014.The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the U.S. Geological Survey) contributed a mean streamflow of 23 cubic feet per second to the reservoir during WY 2014. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.35 to about 14 cubic feet per second. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms of sodium and 2,100,000 kilograms of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2014; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 7,700 to 45,000 kilograms per year per

  19. Agricultural Adaptation and Water Management in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, E.; Hornberger, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Efficient management of freshwater resources is critical as concerns with water security increase due to changes in climate, population, and land use. Effective water management in agricultural systems is especially important for irrigation and water quality. This research explores the implications of tradeoffs between maximization of crop yield and minimization of nitrogen loss to the environment, primarily to surface water and groundwater, in rice production in Sri Lanka. We run the DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model under Sri Lankan climate and soil conditions. The model serves as a tool to simulate crop management scenarios with different irrigation and fertilizer practices in two climate regions of the country. Our investigation uses DNDC to compare rice yields, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and nitrogen leaching under different cultivation scenarios. The results will inform best practices for farmers and decision makers in Sri Lanka on the management of water resources and crops.

  20. Flow Forecasting using Deterministic Updating of Water Levels in Distributed Hydrodynamic Urban Drainage Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lisbet Sneftrup; Borup, Morten; Moller, Arne;

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing requirement to generate more precise model simulations and forecasts of flows in urban drainage systems in both offline and online situations. Data assimilation tools are hence needed to make it possible to include system measurements in distributed, physically-based urban drai...

  1. Stable isotope fingerprint of open-water evaporation losses and effective drainage area fluctuations in a subarctic shield watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. J.; Reid, R.

    2010-02-01

    SummaryStable isotopes of water, oxygen-18 and deuterium, were measured at biweekly to monthly intervals during the open-water season in a small, headwater lake (Pocket Lake, 4.8 ha) near Yellowknife Northwest Territories, and concurrently in a nearby string-of-lakes watershed (Baker Creek, 137 km 2) situated in the subarctic Precambrian Shield region. As measured in water samples collected over a 12 year period (1997-2008), the levels of evaporative isotopic enrichment in both lake and watershed outflow were differentially offset, and seasonal variations were found in both to be driven by variations in open-water evaporation. Systematic differences measured in the magnitude of the offset between the lake and watershed outflow are interpreted as being caused by changes in the effective drainage area contributing to runoff. Based on the observed and extremely consistent relationship between isotopic compositions of lake water and watershed outflow ( r2 = 0.849, p isotopic signals transferred downstream in a typical shield drainage system within the Mackenzie Basin.

  2. Assessment of water removal from oil sands tailings by evaporation and under-drainage, and the impact on tailings consolidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junqueira, Fernando F.; Sanin, Maria Victoria [Golder Associates Ltd (Canada); Sedgwick, Andrea [Total EandP Canada (Canada); Blum, Jim [JG Blum Consulting Ltd (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Tailings, left-over material produced during the extraction process that separates bitumen from oil sand, are challenging the oil sands industry. These tailings require large surface areas and contain mature fine tailings, made up of fine clay particles suspended in water, which do not settle within a reasonable timeframe. Consequently, maximizing water removal from oil sands tailings is required to accelerate tailings consolidation. The study described in this paper was developed to measure the water loss from oil sands tailings associated with evaporation and under-drainage, using laboratory drying column tests, and to evaluate the impact of water loss on the process of tailings consolidation and the gain in shear strength for different lift thicknesses. Water removal from the tailings through evaporation occurred at a nearly constant rate, while the rate of under-drainage progressively reduced with time. Additionally, it was found that thinner lifts would have better performance in terms of tailings consolidation and gain in shear strength than thick lifts.

  3. Measuring Soil Water Potential for Water Management in Agriculture: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bittelli

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil water potential is a soil property affecting a large variety of bio-physical processes, such as seed germination, plant growth and plant nutrition. Gradients in soil water potential are the driving forces of water movement, affecting water infiltration, redistribution, percolation, evaporation and plants’ transpiration. The total soil water potential is given by the sum of gravity, matric, osmotic and hydrostatic potential. The quantification of the soil water potential is necessary for a variety of applications both in agricultural and horticultural systems such as optimization of irrigation volumes and fertilization. In recent decades, a large number of experimental methods have been developed to measure the soil water potential, and a large body of knowledge is now available on theory and applications. In this review, the main techniques used to measure the soil water potential are discussed. Subsequently, some examples are provided where the measurement of soil water potential is utilized for a sustainable use of water resources in agriculture.

  4. Water and agriculture: a relationship that must change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the ranking of the first ten global risks in terms of impact analyzed by the Global Risks Report 2015 of the World Economic Forum, the 'crisis of water' is in the first place as intensity of impact: this is understandable because of the water depend not only a large part of life on Earth, but also many of economic activities. For this reason it is essential to protect it and use it in a way that is ever more efficient and sustainable. ENEA is promoting, together with other European research institutions, a model of integration between the treated wastewater urban and agricultural world that allows, on the one hand to make them reusable in agriculture for plant growth that will be used for food and non-food production, forage and agricultural uses, on the other hand to place an ecosystem service, i.e. an additional water finishing before it is released into the environment or used for natural groundwater recharge.

  5. 市政给排水设计问题及探讨%Design and Discussion of Municipal Water Supply and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周智勇

    2014-01-01

    市政给排水工程在城市发展过程中有着举足轻重的作用。市政给排水设计的科学性与合理性关系着城市给排水工程功能的发挥。本文深入分析了市政给排水设计中的常见问题,对采取的应对措施提出了建议。%The municipal water supply and drainage enginee-ring plays a decisive role in city development process. The sc-ience and rationality of the design of the municipal drainage is related to the function of city water supply and drainage eng-ineering. This paper deeply analyzed the common problems in the design of water supply and drainage, and put forward sug-gestions on countermeasures.

  6. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island’s largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2005 (October 1, 2004, to September 30, 2005). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2005 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2005. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 30 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2005. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,300,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,000,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2005; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 13,000 to 77,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 19,000 to 130,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 25.3 milligrams per

  7. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2003 (October 1, 2002, to September 30, 2003). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2003 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2003. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 31 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2003. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.44 to 20 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,200,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2003; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 21.3 milligrams per liter

  8. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2006 (October 1, 2005, to September 30, 2006). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2006 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2006. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 42 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2006. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows1 measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.60 to 26 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,600,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2006; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 15,000 to 100,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 22,000 to 180,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.6 milligrams per liter

  9. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Campbell, Jean P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2004 (October 1, 2003, to September 30, 2004). Water-quality samples were also collected at 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2004 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2004. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2004. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.42 to 19 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,700,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2004; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 12,000 to 61,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 17,000 to 100,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 24.8 milligrams per liter

  10. Streamflow, Water Quality, and Constituent Loads and Yields, Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island,Water Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.

    2009-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board, Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamflow-gaging stations; 10 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate instantaneous (15-minute) loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2002 (October 1, 2001 to September 30, 2002). Water-quality samples were also collected at 35 of 37 sampling stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area by the Providence Water Supply Board during WY 2002 as part of a long-term sampling program. Water-quality data are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2002. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed about 12.6 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2002. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.14 to 8.1 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 534,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 851,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2002; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 2,900 to 40,200 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 4,200 to 68,200 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the Providence Water Supply Board, the median of the median chloride concentrations was 16.8 milligrams per

  11. Agricultural practices and irrigation water demand in Uttar Pradesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, J.; Buytaert, W.; Brozovic, N.; Mijic, A.

    2013-12-01

    Changes in farming practices within Uttar Pradesh, particularly advances in irrigation technology, have led to a significant drop in water tables across the region. While the acquisition of monitoring data in India is a challenge, current water use practices point towards water overdraught. This is exacerbated by government and state policies and practices, including the subsidising of electricity, seeds and fertilizer, and an agreement to buy all crops grown, promoting the over use of water resources. Taking India's predicted population growth, increases in industrialisation and climate change into account, both farmland and the water resources it depends upon will be subject to increased pressures in the future. This research is centred around irrigation demands on water resources within Uttar Pradesh, and in particular, quantifying those demands both spatially and temporally. Two aspects of this will be presented; the quantification of irrigation water applied and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices. Calculating the volumes of applied irrigation water in the absence of observed data presents a major challenge and is achieved here through the use of crop models. Regional crop yields provided by statistical yearbooks are replicated by the crop models AquaCrop and InfoCrop, and by doing so the amount of irrigation water needed to produce the published yields is quantified. In addition, proxy information, for example electrical consumption for agricultural use, is used to verify the likely volumes of water abstracted from tubewells. Statistical analyses of borehole distribution and the characterisation of the spatial heterogeneity of water use practices, particularly farmer decision making, collected during a field trip are also presented. The evolution of agricultural practices, technological advancement and water use for irrigation is reconstructed through the use of multiple regression and principle component analysis

  12. Water, agriculture, energy: a growing interweaving. Towards an extended water security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author first notices that the definition of water security according to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) is a rather restrictive one. Thus, the search for a global security takes all forms of insufficiencies and (military or not) instabilities into account, and is then related to strategic stakes of State stability such as agriculture production, water or energy. He discusses the determining factors and vulnerabilities of a renewed water security and its implications. He highlights how internal political and social constraints are sources of local and regional tensions. In this respect, agriculture is at the heart of use conflicts (difficult and necessary reform of the sector, rivalries between rural and urban users), and water stress directly affects daily domestic uses. The author then outlines the necessary integration stakes related to water, food and energy by discussing the use of water in energy production, the use of energy to produce drinkable water, the relationship between agriculture and energy, and, of course between agriculture and water as agriculture is the main water consumer

  13. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Smith, Kirk P.

    2010-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB), Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgage stations; 13 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance and water temperature. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2009 (October 1, 2008, to September 30, 2009). Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 monitoring stations by the USGS during WY 2009 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2009. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 27 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2009. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.50 to 17 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,400,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,200,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2009; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 10,000 to 64,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 15,000 to 110,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median

  14. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2012 (October 1, 2011, through September 30, 2012), for tributaries to the Scituate Reservoir, Rhode Island. Streamflow and water-quality data used in the study were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB). Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these streamgages were equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring water level, specific conductance, and water temperature. Water-quality samples were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 continuous-record streamgages by the USGS during WY 2012 as part of a long-term sampling program; all stations were in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Water-quality data collected by the PWSB were summarized by using values of central tendency and used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2012. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 26 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2012. For the same time period, annual mean1 streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.40 to about 17 ft3/s. Together, tributaries (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,100,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 1,900,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2012; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 8,700 to 51,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 14,000 to 87,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected

  15. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  16. Nutrient export in tile drainage: Comparing manure injection to fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subsurface tile drainage of agricultural land is implicated as a major source of nutrients to the Mississippi River. To protect water quality, land application of manure should maximize crop nutrient use and minimize nutrient loss. Weather constraints and regulations restrict the period during which...

  17. EnviroAtlas - Agricultural Water Demand by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The national agricultural water demand metric provides insight into the amount of water currently used for agricultural irrigation in the contiguous United States....

  18. Influence of teleconnection on water quality in agricultural river catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, Per-Erik; Jordan, Phil; Shore, Mairead; McDonald, Noeleen; Shortle, Ger

    2015-04-01

    Influences such as weather, flow controls and lag time play an important role in the processes influencing the water quality of agricultural catchments. In particular weather signals need to be clearly considered when interpreting the effectiveness of current measures for reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses from agricultural sources to water bodies. In north-western Europe weather patterns and trends are influenced by large-scale systems such as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the position of the Gulf Stream, the latter expressed as the Gulf Stream North Wall index (GSNW index). Here we present five years of monthly data of nitrate-N concentration in stream water and groundwater (aggregated from sub-hourly monitoring in the stream outlet and monthly sampling in multilevel monitoring wells) from four agricultural catchments (ca. 10 km2) together with monitored weather parameters, long-term weather data and the GSNW index. The catchments are situated in Ireland on the Atlantic seaboard and are susceptible to sudden and seasonal shifts in oceanic climate patterns. Rain anomalies and soil moisture deficit dynamics were similar to the dynamics of the GSNW index. There were monitored changes in nitrate-N concentration in both groundwater and surface water with no apparent connection to agricultural management; instead such changes also appeared to follow the GSNW index. For example, in catchments with poorly drained soils and a 'flashy hydrology' there were seasonal dynamics in nitrate-N concentration that correlated with the seasonal dynamics of the GSNW index. In a groundwater driven catchment there was a consistent increase in nitrate-N concentration over the monitored period which may be the result of increasingly more recharge in summer and autumn (as indicated by more flux in the GSNW index). The results highlight that the position of the Gulf Stream may influence the nitrate-N concentration in groundwater and stream water and there is a risk

  19. Streamflow, water quality, and constituent loads and yields, Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, water year 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Breault, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    Streamflow and water-quality data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) or the Providence Water Supply Board (PWSB), Rhode Island's largest drinking-water supplier. Streamflow was measured or estimated by the USGS following standard methods at 23 streamgages; 14 of these stations were also equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance and water temperature. Streamflow and concentrations of sodium and chloride estimated from records of specific conductance were used to calculate loads of sodium and chloride during water year (WY) 2010 (October 1, 2009, to September 30, 2010). Water-quality samples also were collected at 37 sampling stations by the PWSB and at 14 monitoring stations by the USGS during WY 2010 as part of a long sampling program; all stations are in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area. Waterquality data collected by PWSB are summarized by using values of central tendency and are used, in combination with measured (or estimated) streamflows, to calculate loads and yields (loads per unit area) of selected water-quality constituents for WY 2010. The largest tributary to the reservoir (the Ponaganset River, which was monitored by the USGS) contributed a mean streamflow of about 39 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) to the reservoir during WY 2010. For the same time period, annual mean streamflows measured (or estimated) for the other monitoring stations in this study ranged from about 0.7 to 27 ft3/s. Together, tributary streams (equipped with instrumentation capable of continuously monitoring specific conductance) transported about 1,500,000 kilograms (kg) of sodium and 2,500,000 kg of chloride to the Scituate Reservoir during WY 2010; sodium and chloride yields for the tributaries ranged from 11,000 to 66,000 kilograms per square mile (kg/mi2) and from 18,000 to 110,000 kg/mi2, respectively. At the stations where water-quality samples were collected by the PWSB, the median of the median chloride

  20. Constructed wetlands as a component of the agricultural landscape: Mitigation of herbicides in simulated runoff from upland drainage areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands are a recommended practice for buffering pollutant source areas and receiving waters. A wetland consisting of a sediment trap and two treatment cells was constructed in a Mississippi Delta lake watershed. A 3-h simulated runoff event was initiated (2003) to evaluate fate and tr...

  1. Implementation and application of a method for quantifying metals and non-metals in drainage water from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphogypsum is a waste generated in phosphoric acid production by the 'wet process'. The immense amount of phosphogypsum yearly produced (around 150 million tons) is receiving attention from environmental protection agencies all over the word, given its potential of contamination. In Brazil, this material has been used for many decades, especially for agricultural application on cropland. Although the phosphogypsum is mainly composed of dehydrated calcium sulfate, it can have high levels of impurities, such as metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb), non-metals (As and Se) and radioactive elements from natural series of 232Th and 238U. Therefore, its continuous application as an agricultural agent can result not just in soil contamination, but also contamination of the surface and groundwater due to the runoff and infiltration process. The concern associated with the contamination of aquatic environments increases; when water is used for human consumption, requiring progressive adoption of more restrictive limits. However, some of the conventional analytical techniques used to determine the maximum limit of contaminants in water have detection limits above the maximum limits established by the environmental legislation. This work was aimed to evaluate the mobility of metals and non-metals in soils and, consequently, the contamination of drainage water through greenhouse-scale leaching and transport of toxic elements from soils fertilized with phosphogypsum. Hence, methods were studied and implemented for determination of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb) using Furnace Graphite Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF AAS), as well as for non-metals (As and Se) using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (lCP-MS). Effects of different chemical modifiers on the determination of Cd, Cr, Cu and Pb concentration by GF AAS were also investigated. In general, it was observed that the metal and non-metal concentration were below than the actual detection limit of the equipment for all

  2. Water quality-based real time control of integrated urban drainage: a preliminary study from Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vezzaro, Luca; Lund Christensen, Margit; Thirsing, Carsten;

    2013-01-01

    Global Real Time Control (RTC) of urban drainage systems is increasingly seen as cost-effective solution for responding to increasing performance demands. This study investigated the potential for including water-quality based RTC into the global control strategy which is under implementation......, which allows for prioritization of the discharge points in the systems according to their sensitivity. A conceptual hydrological model was used to assess the performance of the integrated control strategy over an entire year. The simulation results showed the benefits of the proposed approaches...... managers to improve the performance of their systems....

  3. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water charge

  4. Calibration and validation of SWAT model for estimating water balance and nitrogen losses in a small agricultural watershed in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smarzyńska Karolina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT ver. 2005 was applied to study water balance and nitrogen load pathways in a small agricultural watershed in the lowlands of central Poland. The natural flow regime of the Zgłowiączka River was strongly modified by human activity (deforestation and installation of a subsurface drainage system to facilitate stable crop production. SWAT was calibrated for daily and monthly discharge and monthly nitrate nitrogen load. Model efficiency was tested using manual techniques (subjective and evaluation statistics (objective. Values of Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient (NSE, coefficient of determination (R2 and percentage of bias for daily/monthly discharge simulations and monthly load indicated good or very good fit of simulated discharge and nitrate nitrogen load to the observed data set. Model precision and accuracy of fit was proved in validation. The calibrated and validated SWAT was used to assess water balance and nitrogen fluxes in the watershed. According to the results, the share of tile drainage in water yield is equal to 78%. The model analysis indicated the most significant pathway of NO3-N to surface waters in the study area, namely the tile drainage combined with lateral flow. Its share in total NO3-N load amounted to 89%. Identification of nitrogen fluxes in the watershed is crucial for decision makers in order to manage water resources and to implement the most effective measures to limit diffuse pollution from arable land to surface waters.

  5. Pricing Policies in Managing Water Resources in Agriculture: An Application of Contract Theory to Unmetered Water

    OpenAIRE

    Davide Viaggi; Francesco Galioto; Meri Raggi

    2013-01-01

    The paper explores how agricultural water pricing could contribute to lowering water demand when uses are unobserved (asymmetric information). The topic of the paper is justified by the fact that most water authorities worldwide do not control water uses at the farm scale. The study draws inspiration from the pricing policies of a Reclamation and Irrigation Board in Northern Italy. It analyses the optimal design of current tariff strategies with respect both to the actual regulator’s goals an...

  6. Water Quality and Supply Issues of Irrigated Agricultural Regions - Lessons from the San Joaquin Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, C. J.; Wang, D.

    2014-12-01

    The San Joaquin Valley of California covers 4 million hectares of farmland and produces $25 billion of agricultural products annually, but its average annual rainfall ranges from only 130 mm in the south to 330 mm in the north and nearly all occur in the winter. On the east side of the valley, irrigation water is mostly derived from the Sierra snow melt. On the west side, water is imported from the northern part of the state through the Sacramento Delta and a network of canals and aqueducts. Ground water is also used for both east and west sides of the valley to supplement surface water sources, especially during droughts. After years of intense irrigation, a number of water supply and water quality issues have emerged. They include groundwater overdraft, land subsidence, water contamination by agricultural drainage laden with selenium, salinity buildup in soil and water, nutrients contamination from fertilizers and livestock production, competition for water with megalopolis and environmental use and restoration. All these problems are intensified by the effect of climate change that has already taken place and other geological hazards, such as earthquakes that can bring the water supply system to a complete halt. In addition to scientific and technical considerations, solutions for these complex issues necessarily involve management planning, public policy and actions. Currently, they include furloughing marginally productive lands, groundwater recharge and banking, water reuse and recycle, salinity and nutrient management, integrated regional water management planning, and public education and outreach. New laws have been enacted to better monitor groundwater elevations, and new bond measures to improve storage, infrastructures, and reliability, have been placed on the public ballot. The presentation will discuss these complex water issues.

  7. Water-Quality Conditions and Constituent Loads, Water Years 1996-2002, and Water-Quality Trends, Water Years 1983-2002, in the Scituate Reservoir Drainage Area, Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimiroski, Mark T.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2008-01-01

    The Scituate Reservoir is the primary source of drinking water for more than 60 percent of the population of Rhode Island. Water-quality data and streamflow data collected at 37 surface-water monitoring stations in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area, Rhode Island, from October 1, 1995 through September 30, 2002, (water years (WY) 1996-2002) were analyzed to determine water-quality conditions and constituent loads in the drainage area. Trends in water quality, including physical properties and concentrations of constituents, were investigated for the same period and for a longer period from October 1, 1982 through September 30, 2002 (WY 1983-2002). Water samples were collected and analyzed by Providence Water Supply Board, the agency that manages the Scituate Reservoir. Streamflow data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey. Median values and other summary statistics were calculated for WY 1996-2002 for all 37 monitoring stations for pH, color, turbidity, alkalinity, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, total coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, orthophosphate, iron, and manganese. Instantaneous loads and yields (loads per unit area) of total coliform and E. coli bacteria (indicator bacteria), chloride, nitrite, nitrate, orthophosphate, iron, and manganese were calculated for all sampling dates during WY 1996-2002 for the 23 stations with streamflow data. Values of physical properties and concentrations of constituents were compared to State and Federal water-quality standards and guidelines, and were related to streamflow, land-use characteristics, and road density. Tributary stream water in the Scituate Reservoir drainage area for WY 1996-2002 was slightly acidic (median pH of all stations equal to 6.1) and contained low concentrations of chloride (median 13 milligrams per liter (mg/L)), nitrate (median 0.04 mg/L as N), and orthophosphate (median 0.04 mg/L as P). Turbidity and alkalinity values also were low with median values of 0

  8. MiniSipper: a new in situ water sampler for high-resolution, long-duration acid mine drainage monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas P; Todd, Andrew S

    2012-11-15

    Abandoned hard-rock mines can be a significant source of acid mine drainage (AMD) and toxic metal pollution to watersheds. In Colorado, USA, abandoned mines are often located in remote, high elevation areas that are snowbound for 7-8 months of the year. The difficulty in accessing these remote sites, especially during winter, creates challenging water sampling problems and major hydrologic and toxic metal loading events are often under sampled. Currently available automated water samplers are not well suited for sampling remote snowbound areas so the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed a new water sampler, the MiniSipper, to provide long-duration, high-resolution water sampling in remote areas. The MiniSipper is a small, portable sampler that uses gas bubbles to separate up to 250 five milliliter acidified samples in a long tubing coil. The MiniSipper operates for over 8 months unattended in water under snow/ice, reduces field work costs, and greatly increases sampling resolution, especially during inaccessible times. MiniSippers were deployed in support of an U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) project evaluating acid mine drainage inputs from the Pennsylvania Mine to the Snake River watershed in Summit County, CO, USA. MiniSipper metal results agree within 10% of EPA-USGS hand collected grab sample results. Our high-resolution results reveal very strong correlations (R(2)>0.9) between potentially toxic metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) and specific conductivity at the Pennsylvania Mine site. The large number of samples collected by the MiniSipper over the entire water year provides a detailed look at the effects of major hydrologic events such as snowmelt runoff and rainstorms on metal loading from the Pennsylvania Mine. MiniSipper results will help guide EPA sampling strategy and remediation efforts in the Snake River watershed. PMID:23103760

  9. Assessing the Impact of Climate Change on Columbia River Basin Agriculture through Integrated Crop Systems, Hydrologic, and Water Management Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K.; Adam, J. C.; Barber, M. E.; Yorgey, G.; Stockle, C.; Nelson, R.; Brady, M.; Dinesh, S.; Malek, K.; Kruger, C.; Yoder, J.; Marsh, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Columbia River Basin (CRB) in the Pacific Northwest covers parts of US and Canada with a total drainage area of about 670,000 square kilometers. The water resources of the CRB are managed to satisfy multiple objectives including agricultural withdrawal, which is the largest consumptive user of Columbia River water with 14,000 square kilometers of irrigated area in the CRB. Agriculture is an important component of the economy in the region, with an annual value over $5 billion in Washington State alone. The availability of surface water for irrigation in the basin is expected to be negatively impacted by climate change. Previous climate change studies in the CRB region suggest a likelihood of increasing temperatures and a shift in precipitation patterns, with precipitation higher in the winter and lower in the summer. Warming further exacerbates summer water availability in many CRB tributaries as they shift from snowmelt-dominant towards rain-dominant hydrologic regimes. The goal of this research is to study the impacts of climate change on CRB water availability and agricultural production in the expectation that curtailment will occur more frequently in an altered climate. Towards this goal it is essential that we understand the interactions between crop-growth dynamics, climate dynamics, the hydrologic cycle, water management, and agricultural economy. To study these interactions at the regional scale, we use the newly developed crop-hydrology model VIC-CropSyst, which integrates a crop growth model CropSyst with the hydrologic model, Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC). Simulation of future climate by VIC-CropSyst captures the socio-economic aspects of this system through economic analysis of the impacts of climate change on crop patterns. This integrated framework (submitted as a separate paper) is linked to a reservoir operations simulations model, Colsim. ColSim is modified to explicitly account for agricultural withdrawals. Washington State water

  10. Water Resources and Agricultural Water Use in the North China Plain: Current Status and Management Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serious water deficits with deteriorating environmental quality are threatening agricultural sustainability in the North China Plain (NCP). This paper addresses spatial and temporal availability of water resources in the NCP, and identifies the effects of soil management, irrigation and crop genetic...

  11. Water Quality Benefits of Constructed Wetlands Integrated Within Agricultural Water Recycling Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constructed wetlands have been integrated within innovative agricultural water recycling systems, and these systems are now being evaluated at three demonstration sites located in the northwest Ohio portion of the Maumee River Basin (Defiance, Fulton, and Van Wert Counties). The water recycling syst...

  12. Study of the pollution impact from the usage of sewage and drainage waters on the groundwater of the quaternary aquifer, west Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of this study is to assess the water quality of surface and groundwater in the western part of Cairo and to estimate the sources of pollution as salinisation, nutrients, trace elements and microbiological activity as a result of re-use of partially treated drainage and sewage waters for irrigation. In the studied area fresh water problems that need for irrigation arise from the limitation of water resources, high degree of use for cultivating in different seasons and the extension of the reclamation lands. Recently new applications were applied by mixing fresh and wastewater to substitute this decline. Two sewerage stations (Zinen and Abu-Rawash) are located in the area of study for collecting and partially treating wastewater from Giza area. The poorly treated effluents that discharge from these stations in open channels or mixed with fresh water in some canals are flowing through the cultivating land for agricultural irrigation. This could lead to direct pollution to the surface and ground waters in this area, which is the point that needs to detect in this work. The studied area is located in the western region of greater Cairo at latitudes 30 deg. 00' and 30 deg. 15' N and longitudes 31 deg. 00' and 31 deg. 15' E. About 97 water samples were collected from canals, drains and groundwater from the Quaternary aquifer in the area of study. The estimated values of total dissolved solid for most surface and ground waters samples don't exceed 1000 mg/l except about 12% have salinity>1000mg/l. This increase in salinity could be attributed to the ion exchange process between Na- Ca as a result of water- rock interaction, or from the recycling of drainage water containing excess of fertilizers that used in cultivating practices. The predominant water types of surface and groundwater samples are NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 representing meteoric and mixed water type. Few groundwater samples have MgCl2 (marine water type), these samples are located in the east and

  13. Biological, habitat, and water quality conditions in the upper Merced River drainage, Yosemite National Park, California, 1993-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Larry R.; Short, Terry M.

    1999-01-01

    Four studies were done in the upper Merced River drainage in Yosemite National Park and nearby areas from 1993 to 1996. First, monitoring studies of benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, fish, and habitat were undertaken at sites near Happy Isles and Pohono bridges from 1993 to 1995 as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Second, an ecological survey of benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, fish, and habitat was done in the upper Merced River drainage in 1994. Third, a special study of benthic algae, habitat, and water quality was done in the reach of the Merced River within Yosemite Valley to deter-mine whether human activities were having measurable effects on the ecosystem. Fourth, baseline data on benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, and habitat were collected in 1996 at four sites, two of which were undergoing extensive streambank restoration activities. Comparisons of the baseline data with future collections could be used to assess the effects of streambank restoration on aquatic biota.

  14. Laws and Regulations Concerning to Pollution Originating Agricultural Activities in Drinking Water Basin Areas in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ataseven; E. Olhan

    2009-01-01

    Water basins which are used drinking and utility water resource especially for big cities have been polluted as a result of over structuring, industry and agricultural activities. Therefore, it is important to take measures protection measures in water basins for both surface and ground water. It has to been evaluated measures which will be taken regarding pollution originating from agricultural activities.The first pollution originating agricultural activities in drinking water basins is nit...

  15. Investigation of the Agricultural Water Management Mechanisms in Zarindasht County, Fars Province, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Asadi; Yaser Mohammadi; Hossein S. Fami

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Both sequential droughts and lack of water optimal consumption in Zarindasht county, have created scarcity problem that caused agricultural yield's loss in this county. So according to lack of optimal consumption of agricultural water in this county, the main purpose of this study was to investigate agricultural water management mechanisms in three fields of irrigation sources, water transfer and in farm water consumption level. Approach: ...

  16. 滨河国际大厦给排水工程设计%Design of water supply and drainage engineering of International Waterfront Mansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志刚

    2012-01-01

    对滨河国际大厦给排水工程设计进行了详细介绍,分别阐述了该项目的给水系统、排水系统及消防给水系统的具体设置及管材选用情况,对今后同类公共建筑给排水设计具有一定指导意义。%The paper introduces the design of water supply and drainage engineering of International Waterfront Mansion in detail,and respectively describes the specific setting of water supply system,drainage system and fire protection water supply system and pipe material selection,which has certain guiding meaning for similar publish building water supply and drainage design in future.

  17. BONE MEAL AS ALTERNATIVE TREATMENT FOR ACIDIC AND METAL CONTAMINATED ACID MINE DRAINAGE WATER EFFLUENT: LAB SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Payus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The typical methods of treatment for acidic and metal contaminated water effluent such as the Acid Mine Drainage (AMD will always focus on either civil engineering methods, such as disposal, excavation, drainage and encapsulation or process based technologies such as effluent washing and treatment. These techniques are not environmental friendly, costly and unsustainable, thus environmental damaging. Nowadays, there is a growing need for an alternative remediation treatment that is innovative and more natural in order to prevent pollution in the environment. Therefore, in this study, a new alternative treatment, that is more organic, biodegradable and cost effective, using bone meal was presented. In this research, bone meal comprising of chicken bones were used as an alternative passive treatment to determine its potential in neutralizing and removing heavy metals from the abandoned cooper mine, Mamut Acid Mine Drainage (AMD waste water effluent. A pretreatment process for bone meal was performed by incineration process where it was heated up in the furnace at 500°C for 24 h after it was cleaned, crushed, boiled and dried. Batch experiment test has been carried out to test whether the selected bone meal sizes 45, 75 and 150 µm was able to neutralize the AMD Mamut water samples. Inductive Plasma Couple-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES test was carried out to test the concentration of the heavy metals before and after the treatment. The surface morphology of bone meal was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Enlargement of pores after the neutralization treatment was seen on the surface morphology of the bone meal by SEM analyses. A significant rising of pH from 2.98 to 5.69 within 6 h 30 min was observed during neutralization process and 99% removal of Fe, Zn, Al, Cu and 36% removal of Mg concentration was achieved after the treatment through the neutralization treatment of the AMD waste water effluent. The results from this

  18. Improvements in agricultural water decision support using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, M. T.

    2012-12-01

    Population driven water scarcity, aggravated by climate-driven evaporative demand in dry regions of the world, has the potential of transforming ecological and social systems to the point of armed conflict. Water shortages will be most severe in agricultural areas, as the priority shifts to urban and industrial use. In order to design, evaluate, and monitor appropriate mitigation strategies, predictive models must be developed that quantify exposure to water shortage. Remote sensing data has been used for more than three decades now to parametrize these models, because field measurements are costly and difficult in remote regions of the world. In the past decade, decision-makers for the first time can make accurate and near real-time evaluations of field conditions with the advent of hyper- spatial and spectral and coarse resolution continuous remote sensing data. Here, we summarize two projects representing diverse applications of remote sensing to improve agricultural water decision support. The first project employs MODIS (coarse resolution continuous data) to drive an evapotranspiration index, which is combined with the Standardized Precipitation Index driven by meteorological satellite data to improve famine early warning in Africa. The combined index is evaluated using district-level crop yield data from Kenya and Malawi and national-level crop yield data from the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. The second project utilizes hyper- spatial (GeoEye 1, Quickbird, IKONOS, and RapidEye) and spectral (Hyperion/ALI), as well as multi-spectral (Landsat ETM+, SPOT, and MODIS) data to develop biomass estimates for key crops (alfalfa, corn, cotton, and rice) in the Central Valley of California. Crop biomass is an important indicator of crop water productivity. The remote sensing data is combined using various data fusion techniques and evaluated with field data collected in the summer of 2012. We conclude with a brief discussion on implementation of

  19. Multi-objective calibration of a surface water-groundwater flow model in an irrigated agricultural region: Yaqui Valley, Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schoups

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-objective optimization was used to calibrate a regional surface water-groundwater model of the Yaqui Valley, a 6800 km2 irrigated agricultural region located along the Sea of Cortez in Sonora, Mexico. The model simulates three-dimensional groundwater flow coupled to one-dimensional surface water flow in the irrigation canals. It accounts for the spatial distribution of annual recharge from irrigation, subsurface drainage, agricultural pumping, and irrigation canal seepage. The main advantage of the calibration method is that it accounts for both parameter and model structural uncertainty. In this case, results show that the effect of including the process of bare soil evaporation is significantly greater than the effects of parameter uncertainty. Furthermore, by treating the different objectives independently, a better identification of the model parameters is achieved compared to a single-objective approach, since the various objectives are sensitive to different parameters. The simulated water balance shows that 15–20% of the water that enters the irrigation canals is lost by seepage to groundwater. The main discharge mechanisms in the Valley are crop evapotranspiration (53%, non-agricultural evapotranspiration and bare soil evaporation (19%, surface drainage to the Sea of Cortez (15%, and groundwater pumping (9%. In comparison, groundwater discharge to the estuary was relatively insignificant (less than 1%. The model was further refined by identifying zonal Kv and Kh values based on a spatial analysis of the model residuals.

  20. Assessment of preferential flow processes in a forest-reclaimed lignitic mine soil by multicell sampling of drainage water and three tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangen, E.; Gerke, H. H.; Schaaf, W.; Hüttl, R. F.

    2005-03-01

    Predictions of the long-term development of newly established forest-reclaimed ecosystems are required for land use planning of post-mining landscapes. The geological and mineralogical composition, the small-distance heterogeneity and inclined structures of the mine spoil's overburden sediment mixtures, as well as the physical and chemical properties of acidic and lignitic mine soil components, have raised questions about the water flow and solute transport processes in these soils. The objective of this study was to quantify preferential flow processes and spatially resolved solute transport in order to better distinguish between dominating processes for such soils. The experimental study was carried out by determining spatially resolved rates of throughfall, drainage and tracer leaching from underneath a 110 cm deep mine soil block. Drainage water was collected using 45 contiguous suction cells of 27 cm edge length. A tracer cocktail consisting of bromide, terbuthylazine, and deuterium was applied at the soil surface and subjected to natural infiltration. Tracer concentrations in drainage waters were analysed for a period of about 10 months. Then, the mine soil block was sampled completely in the form of 225 cubes of about 27 cm edge length to determine the residual bromide content. Tracer-labelled drainage in 110 cm depth occurred in spring 2001 over about 71% and in autumn 2001 over 35% of the total cross-sectional drainage area, respectively. Local drainage maxima shifted from spring to autumn, but also within drainage periods by 1-2 cell lengths. Bromide concentrations of drainage effluents varied by a factor of 4 between individual cells. Bypass-type preferential flow seems not to be a dominating transport mechanism since terbuthylazine in drainage waters occurred only singularly in spring with concentrations just above the detection limit. Perhaps the dilution in relatively large cells was too effective to detect modest contributions of tracer through

  1. Impacts of climate change on water resources and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The changes in climate projected to result from increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases will lead to impacts on important resources, including agriculture, fresh water, natural ecosystems, and coastal developments. A growing body of climate impact research already suggests that important effects will be felt in all countries, sometimes in severe and dramatic ways. This chapter focuses on the potential impacts of changes in climate on water resources and agriculture in the US and the Soviet Union, although many other impacts will also occur. These other effects include a rising sea level that will threaten coastal regions and natural ecosystems; altered productivity of ocean and freshwater fisheries as a result of changes in temperatures, ocean currents, and nutrient flows; worsened urban air quality if rising temperatures increase the formation of low-level ozone; forest migration and diebacks, increased pest outbreaks, and greater frequency of fires; and more frequent and more intense storms. Better understanding of potential impacts, and the consequences of the relatively rapid rate at which they may occur, requires intensified efforts

  2. Factor Affecting the Sustainable Management of Agricultural Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Samian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the study was to investigate the factors affecting the sustainable management of agricultural water in Hamedan. The study population included all wheat farmers possessing irrigated farms in Hamedan city (N=1800. Of these farmers a sample of 317 people has been selected by using randomized multi-stage sampling method. The data were collected through a questionnaire's tool with help of the interview technique. Accuracy of the questions in the questionnaire was face validated by a panel of specialists. To test the reliability of the questionnaires, the questionnaires were first given to 30 farmers and Cronbach's Alpha was calculated (Alpha=0.92 then the questionnaire was finalized. Data analyzing methods such as Multiple Regression and the coefficient of variation (CV= standard deviation /mean were used in this study. To determine the level of sustainability of the farms Bossel method proposed for classification and grading the fields was used. The results showed that variables agronomic factors, policy factors and institutional factors were able to explain 34 percent of the dependent variable's changes (sustainable management of agricultural water. According to the results, 95.3 percent of the farmers were categorized into unsustainable group, 4.1 percent into semi-sustainable and only 0.6 percent in sustainable group.

  3. Research of Methods, Technologies and Materials for Drainage Water Treatment at the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill in Salaryevo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gogina Elena

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with innovative methods, technologies and materials intended to reduce the adverse ecological impact of human waste and various industrial waste situated in municipal solid waste landfills (MSW, on water bodies, soil, and atmosphere. The existence of these factors makes the region less attractive for urban development. A comparison has been made of the methods intended to reduce the damage caused to the environment, in order to provide for sustainable development of cities, using the example of an actual landfill situated in the territory of Moscow. A scheme of reconstruction is recommended for the drainage water treatment plant at this landfill, which will lead to improvement of the environmental situation and contribute to the development of territories in the adjacent districts, and to reduction of pollution load on the river and atmosphere.

  4. Agricultural viability in a water-deficit basin : can participatory modelling and design activities trigger collaboration between water management and agriculture stakeholders?

    OpenAIRE

    Murgue, Clément; Therond, Olivier; Burger-Leenhardt, Delphine

    2014-01-01

    Some hydro-systems are in structural water deficit: human water uses are too high to allow a good ecological status of aquatic ecosystems. The Adour-Garonne watershed (116.000 km2, South-West France) is emblematic of such situations, with recurring occurrence of quantitative water management crises due to high agricultural withdrawals during the low flow period. Since opportunities to store more water is limited, authorities require the agricultural sector to reduce its demand, which results ...

  5. Ionic composition and nitrate in drainage water from fields fertilized with different nitrogen sources, middle swamp watershed, North Carolina, August 2000-August 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Spruill, Timothy B.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted from August 2000 to August 2001 to characterize the influence of fertilizer use from different nitrogen sources on the quality of drainage water from 11 subsurface tile drains and 7 surface field ditches in a North Carolina Coastal Plain watershed. Agricultural fields receiving commercial fertilizer (conventional sites), swine lagoon effluent (spray sites), and wastewater-treatment plant sludge (sludge site) in the Middle Swamp watershed were investigated. The ionic composition of drainage water in tile drains and ditches varied depending on fertilizer source type. The dominant ions identified in water samples from tile drains and ditches include calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, and sulfate, with tile drains generally having lower pH, low or no bicarbonates, and higher nitrate and chloride concentrations. Based on fertilizer source type, median nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were significantly higher at spray sites (32.0 milligrams per liter for tiles and 8.2 milligrams per liter for ditches) relative to conventional sites (6.8 milligrams per liter for tiles and 2.7 milligrams per liter for ditches). The median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yields also were significantly higher at spray sites (420 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 15.6 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches) relative to conventional sites (25 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for tile drains and 8.1 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day for ditches). The tile drain site where sludge is applied had a median nitrate-nitrogen concentration of 10.5 milligrams per liter and a median instantaneous nitrate-nitrogen yield of 93 grams of nitrogen per hectare per day, which were intermediate to those of the conventional and spray tile drain sites. Results from this study indicate that nitrogen loadings and subsequent edge-of-field nitrate-nitrogen yields through tile drains and ditches were significantly higher at sites receiving

  6. PATTERNS UTILIZED IN THE SIMULATION OF UNDERGROUND WATER FLOW AND THE TRANSPORTATION OF POLLUTANTS IN THE BAHLUI DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Minea

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. – Patterns utilized in the simulation of underground water flow and the transportation of pollutants in the Bahlui drainage basin. In the actual context of accelerate economic development, the excessive exploatation of water resources from the underground and the contamination of these with different water pollutants has become a major problem which has enetered the attention of many researchers. For the evaluation of an underground water flow and pollutants transport sistem we have chosen the package of programs MODFLOW which includes a whole series of applications,such as MOC3D, MT3D, MT3DMS, PEST, UCODE, PMPATH, which allow simulations and multiple recalibrations of the capacity of recharging of the aquifers, the flowing of the water towards wells and drillings the transport of a pollutant agent in the underground or the evaluation of the exchange of water between the hidrographic network and aquifers. The sistem targets both the evaluation of the modelation of the underground flowing and the simulation of a punctual polluation of the canvas of groundwater scenery, in the meadow of the river Bahlui, west from Letcani village.

  7. 建筑给排水设计中的节能减排%Energy-saving and emission-reducing in architectural water supply and drainage design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    支山

    2015-01-01

    以节约能源和保护环境为核心,阐述了建筑工程给排水设计中节能减排的意义,并针对建筑工程给排水节能减排的问题,从给水设计、排水设计等几个方面进行了讨论,以大力推广节能减排措施。%To save energy and protect the environment as the core,the thesis discusses energy-saving and emission-reducing meaning in architec-tural engineering water supply and drainage design. In light of energy-saving and emission-reducing problems of architectural engineering water supply and drainage,it discusses water supply and drainage design,with a view to promote energy-saving and emission-reducing measures.

  8. Requirements and problems of hospital water drainage and supply design%医院给排水设计的要求及问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑钦炜

    2011-01-01

    In light of hospital characteristics of complicated functions and various facilities, it analyzes and describes the hospital water drainage and supply design data including spraying, water supply, drainage system design and medical wastewater treatment methods etc, and summarizes their technological points. As a result, it has provided guidance for similar engineering water drainage and supply design.%针对现代化医院功能复杂、设备繁多的特点,就医院中给排水专业设计涉及的喷淋、给水、排水系统设计以及医疗污废水处理方法等方面进行了分析阐述,总结了各自的技术要点,从而为类似工程给排水设计提供指导。

  9. Crop Insurance Increases Water Withdrawals for Irrigation in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, M.; Deryugina, T.; Lin, X.

    2015-12-01

    Agricultural production remains particularly vulnerable to weather fluctuations and extreme events, such as droughts, floods, and heat waves. Crop insurance is a risk management tool that has been developed to mitigate some of this weather risk and protect farmer income in times of poor production. However, it is not clear what the implications of crop insurance are for crop irrigation. By providing a guaranteed level of income in case of crop failure, crop insurance can reduce the farmer's incentive to irrigate. Thus, crop insurance can decrease water use in times of drought and promote water sustainability. However, to minimize this "moral hazard", the insurer may require farmers to irrigate crops more than necessary. Further, by shifting crop production, crop insurance may increase demand for water. Thus, it is unclear whether crop insurance increases or decreases crop water use. Here, we determine the empirical relationship between crop insurance and irrigation withdrawals in the United States. To establish causality, we exploit variation in crop insurance policies over time, using an instrumental variables approach. We find that a 1% increase in insured crop acreage leads to a 0.223% increase in irrigation withdrawals, primarily from groundwater aquifers.

  10. Water Analysis for Agriculture in Hanoi : A comparison with national standards

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Water quality is a significant issue especially in developing countries like Vietnam but it has not received adequate consideration. The main objective of this thesis is to study the water quality of four inner Hanoi’s rivers and suggest a wastewater treatment method suitable to treat water for reusing in agriculture. Theories on water quality, particularly water constituents that affect the water capability to be reused in agriculture and aquaculture, were reviewed. A Water Quality Index ...

  11. Drainage filter technologies to mitigate site-specific phosphorus losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Heckrath, Goswin Johann; Iversen, Bo Vangsø;

    2014-01-01

    high risks areas of P loss and applying site-specific measures therefore seems a more cost-efficient approach. The Danish Commission for Nature and Agriculture has now called for a shift of paradigm towards targeted mitigation and development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site......-specific nutrient losses in drainage. The “SUPREME-TECH” project (2010-2015), funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective drainage filter technologies to retain P in agricultural drainage waters. The project studies different approaches......-scale surface-flow constructed wetland. In the former, various natural and industrial P filter substrates have been tested for their ability to reduce inlet P concentrations to below environmental threshold values (

  12. 关于建筑给排水节水对策分析%Analysis of the Water Saving Countermeasures of Building Water Supply and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付涛

    2013-01-01

    Reasonable use and protect the water resources in the earth has a close relationship with the human development. In this article, the author analyzes the water saving measures of building water supply and drainage, and carries on the discuss-ion from the fol owing six aspects, analyzes and elaborates so-me new technologies about energy conservation and emissions reduction in construction industry, and hope to be helpful to th-e personnel engaged in building water supply and drainage wa-ter saving work.%合理利用并保护地球水资源直接关系着人类的发展。本文针对建筑给排水节水对策进行分析,并从以下六个方面进行探讨,分析、阐述建筑行业关于节能减排方面的一些新技术,希望对从事建筑给排水节水工作人员有所帮助。

  13. Water demand and supply co-adaptation to mitigate climate change impacts in agricultural water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Mainardi, Matteo; Castelletti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Agriculture is the main land use in the world and represents also the sector characterised by the highest water demand. To meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades. Moreover, water availability is nowadays a limiting factor for agricultural production, and is expected to decrease over the next century due to climate change impacts. To effectively face a changing climate, agricultural systems have therefore to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crops, shifting sowing and harvesting dates, adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques). Yet, farmer adaptation is only one part of the equation because changes in water supply management strategies, as a response to climate change, might impact on farmers' decisions as well. Despite the strong connections between water demand and supply, being the former dependent on agricultural practices, which are affected by the water available that depends on the water supply strategies designed according to a forecasted demand, an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Most of the recent studies has indeed considered the two problems separately, either analysing the impact of climate change on farmers' decisions for a given water supply scenario or optimising water supply for different water demand scenarios. In this work, we explicitly connect the two systems (demand and supply) by activating an information loop between farmers and water managers, to integrate the two problems and study the co-evolution and co-adaptation of water demand and water supply systems under climate change. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). In particular, given an expectation of water availability, the farmers are able to solve a yearly planning problem to decide the most profitable crop to plant. Knowing the farmers

  14. Overview of advances in water management in agricultural production:Sensor based irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technological advances in irrigated agriculture are crucial to meeting the challenge of increasing demand for agricultural products given limited quality and quantity of water resources for irrigation, impacts of climate variability, and the need to reduce environmental impacts. Multidisciplinary ap...

  15. Estimates of sustainable agricultural water use in northern China based on the equilibrium of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yali, Y.; Yu, C.

    2015-12-01

    The northern plain is the important food production region in China. However, due to the lack of surface water resources, it needs overmuch exploitation of groundwater to maintain water use in agriculture, which leads to serious environmental problems. Based on the assumption that the reserves of groundwater matches the statistics and keeps on stable, the author explores the reasonable agricultural water and its spatial distribution based on the principle of sustainable utilization of water resources. According to the priorities of water resources allocation (domestic water and ecological water>industrial water>agricultural water), it is proposed to reduce agricultural water use to balance the groundwater reserves on condition that the total water supply is constant. Method: Firstly, we calculate annual average of northern groundwater reserves changes from 2004 to 2010, which is regarded as the reduction of agricultural water; Then, we estimate the food production changes using variables of typical crop water requirements and unit yields assuming that the efficiency of water use keeps the same during the entire study period; Finally, we evaluate the usage of sustainable agricultural water. The results reveal that there is a significant reduction of groundwater reserves in Haihe river basin and Xinjiang oasis regions; And the annual loss of the corn and wheat production is about 1.86 billion kg and 700 million kg respectively due to the reduction of agricultural water; What's more, in order to ensure China's food security and sustainable agricultural water use, in addition to great efforts to develop water-saving agriculture, an important adjustment in the distribution of food production is in need. This study provided a basis to the availability of agricultural water and a new perspective was put forth for an estimation of agricultural water.

  16. Development of a Component-Based Modeling Framework for Agricultural Water-Resource Management

    OpenAIRE

    Moon-Seong Kang; Puneet Srivastava; Jung-Hun Song; Jihoon Park; Younggu Her; Sang Min Kim; Inhong Song

    2016-01-01

    Because hydrologic responses of an agricultural watershed are influenced by many natural and man-made factors including pond/reservoir, management practices, and/or irrigation/drainage, strategies of hydrological modeling for the watershed must be case-dependent and thus carefully designed to effectively reflect their roles as critical hydrologic components in simulation processes. In this study, we propose a component-based modeling framework that accommodates a flexible modeling approach to...

  17. GlobWat – a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hoogeveen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are consistent at global level and calibrated against values for Internal Renewable Water Resources, as published in AQUASTAT, FAO's global information system on water and agriculture. Validation of the model is done against mean annual river basin outflows. The water balance is calculated in two steps: first a "vertical" water balance is calculated that includes evaporation from in situ rainfall ("green" water and incremental evaporation from irrigated crops. In a second stage, a "horizontal" water balance is calculated to determine discharges from river (sub-basins, taking into account incremental evaporation from irrigation, open water and wetlands ("blue" water. The paper describes methodology, input and output data, calibration and validation of the model. The model results are finally compared with other global water balance models.

  18. A Simple Conceptual Model for Deep Drainage Under Surface Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethune, M. G.; Selle, B.

    2006-12-01

    Excess deep drainage causes rising water tables and soil salinity under irrigated agriculture. Understanding the soil and management factors influencing deep drainage is crucial for controlling salinity risk in irrigated areas. A lysimeter experiment in SE-Australia was conducted to quantify the deep drainage response to different soil types, watertable levels and ponding times during surface irrigation. We propose a simple conceptual model calculating deep drainage between two irrigation events as the product of the final infiltration rate of the soil and the period of ponding during irrigation: The final infiltration rate is the key soil parameter influencing deep drainage and the time of ponding captures the impact of management on deep drainage. The simple conceptual model is as powerful as a complex Artificial Neural Network with inputs typically required by a physically based model. This shows that the simple conceptual model extracts the relevant deep drainage patterns from the data. We demonstrate that the simple conceptual model is applicable at field scales and no model calibration is required.

  19. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  20. utilization of some agricultural wastes in treating water pollutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice husks, a locally available agricultural by-product, were investigated with aim of producing good adsorbing materials suitable for remediating water pollution . Raw lignocellulose was treated through various procedures: simple carbonization to high temperature, pyrolysis under flowing steam at moderate temperatures and chemical activation with H3PO4 followed by pyrolysis at moderate temperature . A partially deashed precursor was obtained by boiling in alkali solution, thereafter botanical residue was steam activated at a single temperature, and leachate acidified whereby silica was precipitated, many types of adsorbents were thus derived: chars, activated carbon and silica. the obtained various categories of sorbents were characterized by different techniques to asses their physico-chemical and adsorptive properties . this involved: ash content, thermogravimetry, FTIR, electron microscopy, N2 gas adsorption at 77 k and adsorption capacity from solution using probe molecules

  1. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  2. Foam drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraynik, A.M.

    1983-11-01

    Transient drainage from a column of persistent foam has been analyzed theoretically. Gravity-driven flow was assumed to occur through an interconnected network of Plateau borders that define the edges of foam cells taken to be regular pentagonal dodecahedrons. A small liquid volume fraction and monodisperse cell size distribution were assumed. In the basic model, it is assumed that all liquid is contained in Plateau borders that are bounded by rigid gas-liquid interfaces. The predicted half life, the time required for one half of the liquid to drain from the foam, is inversely proportional to the square of the cell diameter, illustrating the importance of foam structure in drainage. Liquid hold up in the films separating adjacent cells, nonuniform initial liquid volume fraction distribution and interfacial mobility are explored. Border suction due to reduced pressure in the Plateau borders provides a mechanism for film drainage. Simultaneous film drainage and flow through the Plateau borders are analyzed. Sufficient conditions for neglecting film drainage kinetics are obtained. The results indicate that improved foam stability is related to small cells, liquid hold up in the films and slow film drainage kinetics.

  3. Surface-water quality in agricultural watersheds of the North Carolina Coastal Plain associated with concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) on water quality were investigated at 54 agricultural stream sites throughout the North Carolina Coastal Plain during 2012 and 2013. Three general watershed land-use types were examined during the study, including 18 background watersheds with no active CAFOs (BK sites), 18 watersheds with one or more active swine CAFOs but no poultry CAFOs (SW sites), and 18 watersheds with at least one active swine CAFO and one active dry-litter poultry CAFO (SP sites). The watershed drainage areas for these 54 stream sites ranged from 1.2 to 17.5 square miles. Conventional fertilizers used for crop production are the primary source of nutrients at the BK sites. Animal-waste manures represent an additional source of nutrients at the SW and SP study sites.

  4. Mercury cycling in agricultural and managed wetlands, Yolo Bypass, California: Spatial and seasonal variations in water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Fleck, Jacob A.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Stricker, Craig A.; Stephenson, Mark; Taylor, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    The seasonal and spatial variability of water quality, including mercury species, was evaluated in agricultural and managed, non-agricultural wetlands in the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area, an area managed for multiple beneficial uses including bird habitat and rice farming. The study was conducted during an 11-month period (June 2007 to April 2008) that included a summer growing season and flooded conditions during winter. Methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in surface water varied over a wide range (0.1 to 37 ng L−1 unfiltered; 0.04 to 7.3 ng L−1 filtered). Maximum MeHg values are among the highest ever recorded in wetlands. Highest MeHg concentrations in unfiltered surface water were observed in drainage from wild rice fields during harvest (September 2007), and in white rice fields with decomposing rice straw during regional flooding (February 2008). The ratio of MeHg to total mercury (MeHg/THg) increased about 20-fold in both unfiltered and filtered water during the growing season (June to August 2007) in the white and wild rice fields, and about 5-fold in fallow fields (July to August 2007), while there was little to no change in MeHg/THg in the permanent wetland. Sulfate-bearing fertilizer had no effect on Hg(II) methylation, as sulfate-reducing bacteria were not sulfate limited in these agricultural wetlands. Concentrations of MeHg in filtered and unfiltered water correlated with filtered Fe, filtered Mn, DOC, and two indicators of sulfate reduction: the SO4 2 −/Cl− ratio, and δ34S in aqueous sulfate. These relationships suggest that microbial reduction of SO4 2−, Fe(III), and possibly Mn(IV) may contribute to net Hg(II)-methylation in this setting.

  5. An integrated stochastic approach to the assessment of agricultural water demand and adaptation to water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing water demands from growing populations coupled with changing water availability, for example due to climate change, are likely to increase water scarcity. Agriculture will be exposed to risk due to the importance of reliable water supplies as an input to crop production. To assess the efficiency of agricultural adaptation options requires a sound understanding of the relationship between crop growth and water application. However, most water resource planning models quantify agricultural water demand using highly simplified, temporally lumped estimated crop-water production functions (CWPFs). Such CWPFs fail to capture the biophysical complexities in crop-water relations and mischaracterise farmers ability to respond to water scarcity. Application of these models in policy analyses will be ineffective and may lead to unsustainable water policies. Crop simulation models provide an alternative means of defining the complex nature of the CWPF. Here we develop a daily water-limited crop model for this purpose. The model is based on the approach used in the FAO's AquaCrop model, balancing biophysical and computational complexities. We further develop the model by incorporating improved simulation routines to calculate the distribution of water through the soil profile. Consequently we obtain a more realistic representation of the soil water balance with concurrent improvements in the prediction of water-limited yield. We introduce a methodology to utilise this model for the generation of stochastic crop-water production functions (SCWPFs). This is achieved by running the model iteratively with both time series of climatic data and variable quantities of irrigation water, employing a realistic rule-based approach to farm irrigation scheduling. This methodology improves the representation of potential crop yields, capturing both the variable effects of water deficits on crop yield and the stochastic nature of the CWPF due to climatic variability. Application to

  6. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid urbaniza

  7. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management. PMID:27241204

  8. Food, water, and fault lines: Remote sensing opportunities for earthquake-response management of agricultural water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jenna; Ustin, Susan; Sandoval-Solis, Samuel; O'Geen, Anthony Toby

    2016-09-15

    Earthquakes often cause destructive and unpredictable changes that can affect local hydrology (e.g. groundwater elevation or reduction) and thus disrupt land uses and human activities. Prolific agricultural regions overlie seismically active areas, emphasizing the importance to improve our understanding and monitoring of hydrologic and agricultural systems following a seismic event. A thorough data collection is necessary for adequate post-earthquake crop management response; however, the large spatial extent of earthquake's impact makes challenging the collection of robust data sets for identifying locations and magnitude of these impacts. Observing hydrologic responses to earthquakes is not a novel concept, yet there is a lack of methods and tools for assessing earthquake's impacts upon the regional hydrology and agricultural systems. The objective of this paper is to describe how remote sensing imagery, methods and tools allow detecting crop responses and damage incurred after earthquakes because a change in the regional hydrology. Many remote sensing datasets are long archived with extensive coverage and with well-documented methods to assess plant-water relations. We thus connect remote sensing of plant water relations to its utility in agriculture using a post-earthquake agrohydrologic remote sensing (PEARS) framework; specifically in agro-hydrologic relationships associated with recent earthquake events that will lead to improved water management.

  9. Evaluation of the surface-water sampling design in the Western Lake Michigan Drainages in relation to environmental factors affecting water quality at base flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Dale M.

    1998-01-01

    Eight stream sites (Fixed Sites) were chosen to describe the variability in the water quality of the Western Lake Michigan Drainages (WMIC) Study Unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment program. These sites were chosen in areas (Relatively Homogeneous Units) dominated by unique combinations of the environmental factors thought to be most important in influencing water quality; namely, land use, surficial deposits, and bedrock type. A study was designed to determine (1) the applicability of streamflow, nutrient, and suspended sediment data regularly collected at these eight sites describing the variability in these characteristics throughout the Study Unit during base-flow conditions and (2) the applicability of the interpretive results made from data collected at these few sites to streams throughout the Study Unit. This was done by sampling the Fixed Sites and an additional 83 sites in Relatively Homogeneous Units throughout the Study Unit during summer base-flow conditions.

  10. A review of monitoring approaches and outcomes of surface water quality mitigation measures in meso-scale agricultural catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melland, Alice; Jordan, Phil; Murphy, Paul; Mellander, Per-Erik; Shortle, Ger

    2013-04-01

    Critical for an informative feedback loop from scientific monitoring of biophysical change, to making and implementing suitable policy to effect the desired change, are both accurate measurement of biophysical change, and measurement or modelling of the causes of change. For example the European Environment Agency uses the DPSIR framework to assess change in the state (S) of natural resources due to changes in specific drivers (D) and pressures (P) that can have an impact (I) and are the focus of policy responses (R). This paper provides a review of meso-catchment scale studies worldwide that have measured the impacts of agricultural land management practice on surface water quality. Approaches for measuring water quality impacts of agricultural mitigation practices in meso-catchments (1-100 km2) ranged from measuring water quality over a time series, such as before and after a land management change, or over a spatial series such as in paired catchments with and without agricultural practice change (or over a gradient of practices or catchment types), and by cause and effect studies that measure sources, pathways and impacts of practices. Agricultural mitigation measures had no measurable effect, or positive, or negative effects on water quality over periods of 3 to 20 years. In most catchments where beneficial effects of mitigation measures were successfully measured, combinations of measures that address nutrient or pollutant sources, pathways, delivery and impact have been implemented. Successful farm measures included substantial reductions in the intensity of the farming systems, improved engineering and crop management to reduce runoff and drainage transport of nutrients and sediment, as well as high rates of implementation of measures across the catchments. In many cases, the potential to measure improvement in one or more water quality indicators was limited by the impact of a few management or weather events. Reasons that water quality did not improve in

  11. Oxygen-18 dynamics in precipitation and streamflow in a semi-arid agricultural watershed, Eastern Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding flow pathways and mechanisms that generate streamflow is important to understanding agrochemical contamination in surface waters in agricultural watersheds. Two environmental tracers, oxygen-18 and electrical conductivity (EC), were monitored in tile drainage (draining 12 ha) and stre...

  12. The Analysis on the Influence of Water Conservancy Investment on Agricultural Economic Growth: An Empirical Study Based on the Boom Period of Shandong Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping; CAO; Zhe; FENG; Jilian; HU

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses econometric methods to carry out a Granger causality test on the construction of water conservancy infrastructure construction and agricultural economic growth in the boom period(1981- 2002) of Shandong agriculture. Empirical results indicate that there exists two-way Granger causality between Shandong water conservancy infrastructure construction and Shandong agricultural economic growth.Therefore,water conservancy infrastructure construction has a significant influence on agricultural economic growth in Shandong.

  13. CALCULATION AND ANALYSIS ON CHANGE OF AGRICULTURAL WATER CONSUMPTION IN THE CHANGJIANG DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The potential evapotranspiration of specific crops in the Changjiang Delta is calculated by using Penman-Monteith method, and an agricultural water consunption model in the area is developed on the basis of agricultural production situation. This model has higher precision compared with actual data and can reflect the actual status of agriculture water need. Considering the meteorological, hydrological, economical development situation of the Changjiang Delta, this paper calculates and analyzes the volumes of agricultural water consumption in 2000, 2010, 2030 and 2050 under different climate change conditions and different development speeds of urbanization in future. The result shows agriculture water demand increases with temperature rising and decreases obviously with cultivated area reducing. For the Changjiang Delta, the volume of agricultural water consumption in the future will less than that of present.

  14. Heterotrophic microflora of highly alkaline (pH > 13) brown mud disposal site drainage water near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramova, Zuzana; Remenar, Matej; Javorsky, Peter; Pristas, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Brown mud is a waste by-product of alumina production by Bayer process. Due to extensive sodium hydroxide use in the process, brown mud disposal site near Ziar nad Hronom (Banska Bystrica region, Slovakia) and drainage water are ones of the greatest environmental burdens in Slovakia. Drainage water from this landfills has pH value higher than 13, and it contains many heavy metals and elevated salt content. In our experiments, relatively numerous bacterial population was detected in the drainage water with frequency of about 80 cfu/ml using cultivation approach. The alkalitolerant heterotrophic isolates were identified by combination of MALDI-TOF and 16S rDNA analysis. Drainage water population was dominated by Actinobacteria (Microbacterium spp. and Micrococcus spp.) followed by low G + C-content gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus spp.). Two isolates belonged to gram-negative bacteria only, identified as Brevundimonas spp. Phylogenetic and biochemical analyses indicate that nearly half of the bacteria isolated are probably representatives of a new species. Brown mud disposal site is proposed as a source of new bacterial taxa possibly used in bioremediation processes.

  15. Differences in Aquatic Communities Between Wetlands Created by an Agricultural Water Recycling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Establishment of an agricultural water recycling system known as the wetland reservoir subirrigation system (WRSIS) results in the creation of wetlands adjacent to agricultural fields. Each WRSIS consists of one wetland designed to process agricultural chemicals (WRSIS wetlands) and one wetland to s...

  16. Influence of artificially placed substrates on agro-drainage ditch water quality%人工布设基质对农田排水沟水质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴攀; 张志山; 黄磊; 胡宜刚; 陈永乐

    2012-01-01

    本研究选择宁夏灵武农场的典型排水支沟进行人工布设基质,在沟中布设土壤、炉渣、秸秆、锯末4种基质处理及铲草处理和对照(不做任何处理),研究分析了基质对农田排水沟水质的影响.对基质的组分分析表明,锯末显著地吸附盐分和全氮,吸附量分别达0.4 g·kg-1和0.3 g·kg-1,土壤、炉渣、秸秆均明显地释放盐分,释放量为5.3~50.8 g.kg-1;秸秆显著地释放有机碳,释放量达54.0 g·kg-1;4种基质对全磷吸附效果不明显.水质分析表明,除秸秆处理和对照外,盐分(TDS)在其他处理下显著减少,而化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)、NO3--N和NH4+-N浓度在锯末和土壤处理下均有不同程度的减小.对于整条试验沟道,农田退水中TDS、TN、TP的浓度随着在沟道迁移距离的增加呈明显减小的趋势,至出水断面时浓度分别为0.60~0.80g.L-1、0.24~0.33 mg·L-1和0.04~0.09 mg·L-1.田间沟道试验说明,农田排水沟能有效地截留农田退水污染物,选择适合的基质进行人工布设实际可行,有助于发挥农田排水沟的生态功能.%Agricultural drainage ditch is a critical hydrological system in agro-ecosystems for transporting surface runoff to downstream water systems and for removing drainage water pollutants. While pollutant removal is critical for the protection of water environments, agro-drainage pollution continues to draw attention in several regions in China. In recent years, agro-drainage pollution in the Ningxia Yellow River Irrigation Region (NYRIR) heavily influences the quality of both local water systems and the Yellow River. The performance of such ditches regarding drainage water pollutant retention can be improved using suitable substrates. In this study, an experiment involving five treatments and a control was conducted in a NYRIR classical drainage ditch on Lingwu Farm of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Soil, cinder, straw and sawdust were placed in

  17. Water quality monitoring of an agricultural watershed lake: the effectiveness of agricultural best management practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley Lake is an oxbow lake located in the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Plain (the Delta), a region of intensive agricultural activity. Due to intensive row-crop agricultural practices, the 915 ha watershed was sediment impaired when monitoring began in 1995 and was a candidate to assess the effect...

  18. Effects of Resources Exploitation on Water Quality: case studies in Salt Water Intrusion and Acid Mine Drainage

    OpenAIRE

    Kralj, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Throughout the world, pressures on water resources are increasing, mainly as a result of human activity. Because of their accessibility, groundwater and surface water are the most used reservoirs. The evaluation of the water quality requires the identification of the interconnections among the water reservoirs, natural landscape features, human activities and aquatic health. This study focuses on the estimation of the water pollution linked to two different environmental issues: salt water...

  19. National Water-Quality Assessment Program - Western Lake Michigan Drainage Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setmire, J.O.

    1991-01-01

    In 1991 , the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began to implement a full -scale National Water-Quality Assessment (NA WQA) program. The long-term goal of the NA WQA program are to desc ribe the tatus and trends in the quality of a large, representative part of the Nation's urface- and ground-water resources and to provide a sound , scientific understanding of the primary natural and human factor affecting the quality of these resources. In meeting these goal , the program will produce a wealth of water-quality information that will be useful to policy makers and managers at the nationa l, State , and local levels. A major design feature of the NA WQA program will enable water-quality information at di ffe rent areal scales to be integrated .

  20. Definition of the drainage filter problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaslavsky, D.

    1977-01-01

    It is common to consider the following: I. Retention of soil particles that may enter the drainage pipe and cause its clogging. For some sensitive structures it is important to prevent settlements due to soil transportation by drainage water.

  1. On problems in municipal water-supply and drainage design and reasonable suggestions%市政给排水设计存在的问题与合理性建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭娟

    2014-01-01

    简述了市政给排水设计的内容与任务,对目前市政给排水设计中存在的给排水规划与污水管埋深问题进行了分析,并给出了一些市政给排水设计的合理化建议,以提高市政给排水系统的设计水平。%The paper indicates the contents and tasks for the municipal water-supply and drainage design,analyzes some problems in the water-supply and drainage planning and sewage tube buried deep in the municipal water-supply and drainage design,and provides some reasonable suggestions for municipal water-supply and drainage design,so as to enhance the design of municipal water-supply and drainage system.

  2. 建筑给排水技术应用现状及发展趋向%The technology status and development trend of buildings water supply and drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田维章

    2015-01-01

    Through the analysis on the status current building water supply and drainage system,from the water supply,drainage,technology and hot water supply perspective elaborated the development direction and trend of buildings drainage technology,so as to positive innovation of water supply and drainage system,continuously improved and prefect the traditional process,promoted the benign development of water supply and drainage system.%通过分析当前建筑给排水系统的状况,从给水、排水、技术及热水供应角度阐述了建筑给排水技术的发展方向和趋势,以积极创新给排水系统,不断改进与完善传统工艺,促进给排水系统的良性发展。

  3. The Drainage Consolidation Modeling of Sand Drain in Red Mud Tailing and Analysis on the Change Law of the Pore Water Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-sheng Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to prevent the occurring of dam failure and leakage, sand-well drainages systems were designed and constructed in red mud tailing. It is critical to focus on the change law of the pore water pressure. The calculation model of single well drainage pore water pressure was established. The pore water pressure differential equation was deduced and the analytical solution of differential equation using Bessel function and Laplace transform was given out. The impact of parameters such as diameter d, separation distance l, loading rate q, and coefficient of consolidation Cv in the function on the pore water pressure is analyzed by control variable method. This research is significant and has great reference for preventing red mud tailings leakage and the follow-up studies on the tailings stability.

  4. Efficient utilization of rain water in hill agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill areas generally receive rainfall of around or more than 1150 mm. More than 2500 mm rainfall is received in about 30.2 million ha hilly area of the country. Besides many other factors high rainfall and heavy runoff are mainly responsible for low productivity. Because of sloppy characters and shallow soil depth, major fraction of rainwater is lost as runoff. Invariably evaporation exceeds the moisture stored and thereby depletes soils of their moisture reserve when crops are to be sown. Too much water at one time and too little in another during the same year causes wide instability in the production and productivity (Gupta et al., 2000). In high rainfall/hilly areas small and scattered land holdings exclusively rain dependent subsistence type of agriculture, low irrigated area of eastern Himalaya (northeastern region of India) further aggravate the problem. Harvesting of runoff at micro level for storage and recycling, control of erosion and moisture conservation are necessary and possible measures for better crop production. (author)

  5. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996–2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London–Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max −32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max −46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed. (letters)

  6. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  7. Increasing Efficiency of Water Use in Agriculture through Management of Soil Water Repellency to Optimize Soil and Water Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Demie; Kostka, Stan; McMillan, Mica; Gadd, Nick

    2010-05-01

    Water's ability to infiltrate and disperse in soils, and soil's ability to receive, transport, retain, filter and release water are important factors in the efficient use of water in agriculture. Deteriorating soil conditions, including development of soil water repellency, negatively impact hydrological processes and, consequently, the efficiency of rainfall and irrigation. Soil water repellency is increasingly being identified in diverse soils and cropping systems. Recently research has been conducted on the use of novel soil surfactants (co-formulations of alkyl polyglycoside and block copolymer surfactants) to avoid or overcome soil water repellency and enhance water distribution in soils. Results indicate that this is an effective and affordable approach to maintaining or restoring soil and water productivity in irrigated cropping systems. Results from studies conducted in Australia and the United States to determine how this technology modifies soil hydrological behavior and crop yields will be presented. A range of soils and various crops, including potatoes, corn, apples and grapes, were included. Several rates were compared to controls for effect on soil moisture levels, soil water distribution, and crop yield. An economic analysis was also conducted in some trials. Treatments improved rootzone water status, significantly increased crop yield and quality, and in some cases allowed significant reductions in water requirements. Where assessed, a positive economic return was generated. This technology holds promise as a strategy for increasing efficiency of water use in agriculture.

  8. Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, part III: Dynamic breakthrough and intermittent drainage characteristics from GDLs with and without MPLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Zijie; Daino, Michael M.; Rath, Cody; Kandlikar, Satish G. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Rochester Institute of Technology, 76 Lomb Memorial Dr., Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    The transport of liquid water and gaseous reactants through a gas diffusion layer (GDL) is one of the most important water management issues in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). In this work, the liquid water breakthrough dynamics, characterized by the capillary pressure and water saturation, across GDLs with and without a microporous layer (MPL) are studied in an ex-situ setup which closely simulates a real fuel cell configuration and operating conditions. The results reveal that recurrent breakthroughs are observed for all of the GDL samples tested, indicating the presence of an intermittent water drainage mechanism in the GDL. This is accounted for by the breakdown and redevelopment of the continuous water paths during water drainage as demonstrated by Haines jumps. For GDL samples without MPL, a dynamic change of breakthrough locations is observed, which originates from the rearrangement of the water configuration in the GDL following the drainage. For GDL samples with MPL, no dynamic change of breakthrough location can be found and the water saturation is significantly lower than the samples without MPL. These results suggest that the MPL not only limits the number of water entry locations into the GDL (such that the water saturation is drastically reduced), but also stabilizes the water paths (or morphology). The effect of MPL on the two-phase flow dynamics in gas channels is also studied with multi-channel flow experiments. The most important result is that GDL without MPL promotes film flow and shifts the slug-to-film flow transition to lower air flow rates, compared with the case of GDL with MPL. This is closely related to the larger number of water breakthrough locations through GDL without MPL, which promotes the formation of water film. (author)

  9. Break up of connected non-wetting phase during CO2-brine and N2-water drainage core floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Krevor, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We present evidence of a transition from connected to unconnected non-wetting phase flow during drainage in CO2-brine and N2-water core floods. Connected non-wetting phase flow is controlled by heterogeneity in the pore space, with non-wetting phase pathways developing in regions of lower capillary entry pressure. During unconnected non-wetting phase flow, pore space heterogeneity has no impact on fluid flow paths and relative permeability is controlled by fluid properties such as interfacial tension. The transition is observed through a shift in relative permeability curves, maps of steady state saturation and fluid arrangement during relative permeability measurements, and pore scale observations. The transition can be achieved either by modifying the pressure, temperature and salinity conditions of a core flood to increase the wetting phase viscosity, or by increasing the wetting or non-wetting phase flow rate. We suggest the viscous pressure in the wetting phase has a strong impact on the flow behaviour and fluid arrangement during multiphase flow, even at conditions where the flow is traditionally considered to be capillary dominated. Figure 1. Wetting and non-wetting phase capillary number [1] plotted for 7 CO2-brine and one N2-water core floods at temperatures and pressures of 38-91°C and 10.3-20.7 MPa and brine molalities of 0-5 mol kg-1. Saturation maps at a steady state saturation of Sw = 56 % are shown for connected and disconnected non-wetting phase flow. Non-wetting phase relative permeability changes from low endpoint at high irreducible water saturation during connected flow to a high end point relative permeability and low irreducible water saturation during disconnected non-wetting phase flow. [1] Datta, S. S., J.-B. Dupin, and D. A. Weitz. "Fluid breakup during simultaneous two-phase flow through a three-dimensional porous medium." Physics of Fluids (1994-present) 26.6 (2014).

  10. Controlling agricultural nonpoint water pollution: costs of implementing the Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998*

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Maryland Water Quality Improvement Act of 1998 (WQIA) seeks to create environmental and other benefits to the Chesapeake Bay through reductions in nonpoint source nutrient pollution. This paper analyzes the economic impacts of the WQIA on agricultural users of nutrients (commercial fertilizers or animal manures) and on poultry growers in the state of Maryland. The net economic impacts to each of these groups are estimated along with some discussion of the distribution of the impacts. Reco...

  11. Tracing the spatial propagation of river inlet water into an agricultural polder area using anthropogenic gadolinium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Siderius, C.; Verheul, M.; Pomarius, H.

    2012-01-01

    Diverting river water into agricultural areas or nature reserves is a frequently applied management strategy to prevent fresh water shortage. However, the river water might have negative consequences for chemical and ecological water quality in the receiving water bodies. This study aimed to obtain

  12. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... concerns to be addressed, and specifically what water conservation resource issues and water quality... long-term conservation of surface and ground water or water quality improvement and related...

  13. Cost Recovery and Water Pricing for Irrigation and Drainage : What Works?

    OpenAIRE

    Easter, K. William; Liu, Yang

    2005-01-01

    No silver bullet exists to improve cost recovery or water use efficiency of irrigation systems. However, many countries provide examples of successful reforms that policymakers and system managers can draw upon for inspiration and ideas. A successful system will have the appropriate mix of technology, management, policy, and institutional arrangements that facilitate transparent and effici...

  14. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Mississippi Delta, agricultural activity is a major source of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Sediment, nutrients and pesticides have been considered as priority NPS pollutants and greatly affect the water quality in this area. The impacts of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbo...

  15. Zinc isotope investigation of surface and pore waters in a mountain watershed impacted by acid rock drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pollution of natural waters with metals derived from the oxidation of sulfide minerals like pyrite is a global environmental problem. However, the metal loading pathways and transport mechanisms associated with acid rock drainage reactions are often difficult to characterize using bulk chemical data alone. In this study, we evaluated the use of zinc (Zn) isotopes to complement traditional geochemical tools in the investigation of contaminated waters at the former Waldorf mining site in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, U.S.A. Geochemical signatures and statistical analysis helped in identifying two primary metal loading pathways at the Waldorf site. The first was characterized by a circumneutral pH, high alkalinity, and high Zn/Cd ratios. The second was characterized by acidic pHs and low Zn/Cd ratios. Zinc isotope signatures in surface water samples collected across the site were remarkably similar (the δ66Zn, relative to JMC 3-0749-L, for most samples ranged from 0.20 to 0.30‰ ± 0.09‰ 2σ). This probably suggests that the ultimate source of Zn is consistent across the Waldorf site, regardless of the metal loading pathway. The δ66Zn of pore water samples collected within a nearby metal-impacted wetland area, however, were more variable, ranging from 0.20 to 0.80‰ ± 0.09‰ 2σ. Here the Zn isotopes seemed to reflect differences in groundwater flow pathways. However, a host of secondary processes might also have impacted Zn isotopes, including adsorption of Zn onto soil components, complexation of Zn with dissolved organic matter, uptake of Zn into plants, and the precipitation of Zn during the formation of reduced sulfur species. Zinc isotope analysis proved useful in this study; however, the utility of this isotopic tool would improve considerably with the addition of a comprehensive experimental foundation for interpreting the complex isotopic relationships found in soil pore waters. - Highlights: ► Zinc isotopes of water were measured in samples

  16. Managing water for sustainable Agriculture: The case of Ralegan Siddhi in India.

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, Rupali

    2016-01-01

    Water is essential element for human survival but unstainable development practices and short term economic benefits are responsible for water scarcity in many areas around the world. Climate change is aggravating the risk with distribution and water availability. Agriculture is a sector highly dependent on water. The livelihood of a vast population in the world depends on not only agriculture, but also forestry, wetlands and fisheries and land use which, in turn, are strongly influenced by w...

  17. The Use of Solar Cell in Ground Water Irrigation to Support Agricultural Cultivation in Rainfed Field

    OpenAIRE

    Delvi Yanti

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at developing the use of solar cell to water the ground water irrigation in order to support agricultural cultivation in rain-fed field. The location of this research was agricultural land (ricefield) in Singkarak village, X Koto Singkarak sub-district, Solok district. This research was conducted with the design and technical test of ground water irrigation with solar cell, the analysis of irrigation water demand with crop-wat and the analysis of financial feasibility. The ...

  18. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW)

    OpenAIRE

    Faissal AZIZ; Farissi, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. ...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Naoko OKA; Junji KOIDE; Mostafa, Harby; Satoshi SAKATA; Wakeyo, Mekonnen B.; Naoya FUJIMOTO

    2013-01-01

    The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM) policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems an...

  20. Drainage filters and constructed wetlands to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Hoffmann, Carl Christian; Iversen, Bo Vangsø;

    nutrient loads from farmland in Denmark. Tile drains and ditches connect fields to receiving waters and act as subsurface highways for both soluble and particulate P and nitrogen. Hence, for a large number of recipients, drainage water nutrient loads has a major impact on water quality, however, mitigation...... options targeting subsurface drainage are lacking. An end-of-pipe drainage filter solution offers the benefits of a targeted measure typically applied to point sources. This calls for a shift of paradigm towards the development of new, cost-efficient technologies to mitigate site-specific nutrient losses...... in drainage. A newly launched Danish research project “SUPREME-TECH” (2010-2015) (www.supreme-tech.dk) funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council, aims at providing the scientific basis for developing cost-effective filter technologies targeting P-retention and N-removal in agricultural subsurface...

  1. Latin American Agricultural Trade: The Role of the WTO in Sustainable Virtual Water Flows, European Association of Agricultural Economists

    OpenAIRE

    Niemeyer, Insa; Garrido Colmenero, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    International agricultural trade has been growing significantly during the last decade. Many countries rely on imports to ensure adequate food supplies to the people. A few are becoming food baskets of the world. This process raises issues about the food security in depending countries and potentially unsustainable land and water use in exporting countries. In this paper, we analyse the impacts of amplified farm trade on natural resources, especially water. Farm exports and imports of fi...

  2. Changes in water budgets and sediment yields from a hypothetical agricultural field as a function of landscape and management characteristics--A unit field modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Jason L.; Capel, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Crop agriculture occupies 13 percent of the conterminous United States. Agricultural management practices, such as crop and tillage types, affect the hydrologic flow paths through the landscape. Some agricultural practices, such as drainage and irrigation, create entirely new hydrologic flow paths upon the landscapes where they are implemented. These hydrologic changes can affect the magnitude and partitioning of water budgets and sediment erosion. Given the wide degree of variability amongst agricultural settings, changes in the magnitudes of hydrologic flow paths and sediment erosion induced by agricultural management practices commonly are difficult to characterize, quantify, and compare using only field observations. The Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model was used to simulate two landscape characteristics (slope and soil texture) and three agricultural management practices (land cover/crop type, tillage type, and selected agricultural land management practices) to evaluate their effects on the water budgets of and sediment yield from agricultural lands. An array of sixty-eight 60-year simulations were run, each representing a distinct natural or agricultural scenario with various slopes, soil textures, crop or land cover types, tillage types, and select agricultural management practices on an isolated 16.2-hectare field. Simulations were made to represent two common agricultural climate regimes: arid with sprinkler irrigation and humid. These climate regimes were constructed with actual climate and irrigation data. The results of these simulations demonstrate the magnitudes of potential changes in water budgets and sediment yields from lands as a result of landscape characteristics and agricultural practices adopted on them. These simulations showed that variations in landscape characteristics, such as slope and soil type, had appreciable effects on water budgets and sediment yields. As slopes increased, sediment yields increased in both the arid and

  3. Hydraulic flow characteristics of agricultural residues for denitrifying bioreactor media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denitrifying bioreactors are a promising technology to mitigate agricultural subsurface drainage nitrate-nitrogen losses, a critical water quality goal for the Upper Mississippi River Basin. This study was conducted to evaluate the hydraulic properties of agricultural residues that are potential bio...

  4. Deficit irrigation and sustainable water-resource strategies in agriculture for China's food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Taisheng; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Jianhua; Davies, William J

    2015-04-01

    More than 70% of fresh water is used in agriculture in many parts of the world, but competition for domestic and industrial water use is intense. For future global food security, water use in agriculture must become sustainable. Agricultural water-use efficiency and water productivity can be improved at different points from the stomatal to the regional scale. A promising approach is the use of deficit irrigation, which can both save water and induce plant physiological regulations such as stomatal opening and reproductive and vegetative growth. At the scales of the irrigation district, the catchment, and the region, there can be many other components to a sustainable water-resources strategy. There is much interest in whether crop water use can be regulated as a function of understanding of physiological responses. If this is the case, then agricultural water resources can be reallocated to the benefit of the broader community. We summarize the extent of use and impact of deficit irrigation within China. A sustainable strategy for allocation of agricultural water resources for food security is proposed. Our intention is to build an integrative system to control crop water use during different cropping stages and actively regulate the plant's growth, productivity, and development based on physiological responses. This is done with a view to improving the allocation of limited agricultural water resources.

  5. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  6. Mathematical optimisation of drainage and economic land use for target water and salt yields

    OpenAIRE

    Nordblom, Thomas L.; Hume, Iain H.; Bathgate, Andrew D.; Reynolds, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Land managers in upper catchments are being asked to make expensive changes in land use, such as by planting trees, to attain environmental service targets, including reduced salt loads in rivers, to meet needs of downstream towns, farms and natural habitats. End-of-valley targets for salt loads have sometimes been set without a quantitative model of cause and effect regarding impacts on water yields, economic efficiency or distribution of costs and benefits among stakeholders. This paper pre...

  7. Relation of drainage problems to high ground-water levels, Coconut Grove area, Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, L.A.; Huxel, C.J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Purpose and Scope In 1969, hydrologic data-collection sites were established in and around the Coconut Grove area for the purpose of measuring directly the relationship between rainfall, runoff, ground-water levels, the level of water in Kawainui Swamp and the canals, and tidal fluctuations. The primary objective was to identify the causes of the occurrence and persistence of flooding and to gain data on which to base recommendations for remedial action. The scope of the study included establishing and operating flow and stage-recording gages on the Swamp, Kawainui Canal, and the inner canal; periodic and repeated measurements of ground-water level in test borings throughout the residential area; collection and analysis of soil and construction borings made for engineering purposes; the assembly and analysis of all available data relating surface and subsurface flow conditions, and the development of conclusions as to the causes and means to alleviate the flooding. This report summarizes the information collected from October 1969 to June 1971, includes analysis of the data, and discusses the probable causes of flooding.

  8. Long-term evolution of highly alkaline steel slag drainage waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alex L; Mayes, William M

    2015-07-01

    The disposal of slag generated by the steel industry can have negative consequences upon the surrounding aquatic environment by the generation of high pH waters, leaching of potentially problematic trace metals, and rapid rates of calcite precipitation which smother benthic habitats. A 36-year dataset was collated from the long-term ambient monitoring of physicochemical parameters and elemental concentrations of samples from two steel slag leachate-affected watercourses in northern England. Waters were typified by elevated pH (>10), high alkalinity, and were rich in dissolved metals (e.g. calcium (Ca), aluminium (Al), and zinc (Zn)). Long-term trend analysis was performed upon pH, alkalinity, and Ca concentration which, in addition to Ca flux calculations, were used to highlight the longevity of pollution arising as a result of the dumping and subsequent leaching of steel slags. Declines in calcium and alkalinity have been modest over the monitoring period and not accompanied by significant declines in water pH. If the monotonic trends of decline in alkalinity and calcium continue in the largest of the receiving streams, it will be in the region of 50-80 years before calcite precipitation would be expected to be close to baseline levels, where ecological impacts would be negligible. PMID:26108748

  9. Water-Quality Characteristics for Sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River Drainage Basins, Wyoming and Montana, Water Years 2001-05, with Temporal Patterns of Selected Long-Term Water-Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Mason, Jon P.

    2007-01-01

    Water-quality sampling was conducted regularly at stream sites within or near the Powder River structural basin in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana during water years 2001-05 (October 1, 2000, to September 30, 2005) to characterize water quality in an area of coalbed natural gas development. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, characterized the water quality at 22 sampling sites in the Tongue, Powder, Cheyenne, and Belle Fourche River drainage basins. Data for general hydrology, field measurements, major-ion chemistry, and selected trace elements were summarized, and specific conductance and sodium-adsorption ratios were evaluated for relations with streamflow and seasonal variability. Trend analysis for water years 1991-2005 was conducted for selected sites and constituents to assess change through time. Average annual runoff was highly variable among the stream sites. Generally, streams that have headwaters in the Bighorn Mountains had more runoff as a result of higher average annual precipitation than streams that have headwaters in the plains. The Powder River at Moorhead, Mont., had the largest average annual runoff (319,000 acre-feet) of all the sites; however, streams in the Tongue River drainage basin had the highest runoff per unit area of the four major drainage basins. Annual runoff in all major drainage basins was less than average during 2001-05 because of drought conditions. Consequently, water-quality samples collected during the study period may not represent long-term water-quality con-ditions for all sites. Water-quality characteristics were highly variable generally because of streamflow variability, geologic controls, and potential land-use effects. The range of median specific-conductance values among sites was smallest in the Tongue River drainage basin. Median values in that basin ranged from 643 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius (?S/cm at 25?C) on the

  10. Agricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of EthiopiaAgricultural water productivity optimization for irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water scarce semi-arid region of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yihun, Y.M.

    2015-01-01

    Title of the PhD Thesis: ‘Agricultural Water Productivity Optimization for Irrigated Teff (Eragrostic Tef) in water Scarce Semi-Arid region of Ethiopia’ Yenesew Mengiste Yihun In water stressed regions such as the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia, increasing Crop Water Productivity (CWP)

  11. Determinants of agricultural water saving technology adoption: an empirical study of 10 provinces of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In recent years,China has been faced by an increasingly severe water shortage due to the continua growth of demand on water resources.Although the Chinese government has been actively promoting the agricultural water-saving technology adoption,it is ill-informed of the adoption degree of the current agricultural water saving technologies as well as the function of the governmental policies.Therefore,this paper analyzes the aforesaid problems based on investigative data of 10 provinces in China.The results demonstrate that although there is a rapid increase of adopted agricultural water-saving technologies,the actual adoption area is rather limited.Moreover,the governmental policies and scarcity of water resources are the determinants of agricultural water-saving technology adoption.Ultimately,the paper proposes some policy suggestions.

  12. Pricing Policies in Managing Water Resources in Agriculture: An Application of Contract Theory to Unmetered Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Viaggi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores how agricultural water pricing could contribute to lowering water demand when uses are unobserved (asymmetric information. The topic of the paper is justified by the fact that most water authorities worldwide do not control water uses at the farm scale. The study draws inspiration from the pricing policies of a Reclamation and Irrigation Board in Northern Italy. It analyses the optimal design of current tariff strategies with respect both to the actual regulator’s goals and the cost recovery objective of an ideal regulator driven by European Water Framework Directive principles and having full information. The analysis is based on the logic of a Principal-Agent model implemented as a mathematical non-linear programming model. Given the current pricing structure and assuming zero transaction costs, the results show a relevant increase in net benefits for the ideal scenario with respect to the actual one as water use costs increase. Benefits differences between the two scenarios mark a limit in value below which mechanisms able to solve the existing asymmetries between the principal and the agents are economically desirable. The study concludes by showing that the current regulator’s discriminatory strategy (pricing structure would be better justified with higher levels of cost for water use. However, the existence of non-zero transaction costs related to the control of water uses points to the need for further research in order to analyze incentive mechanisms in the absence of water metering.

  13. WTAQ version 2-A computer program for analysis of aquifer tests in confined and water-table aquifers with alternative representations of drainage from the unsaturated zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Paul M.; Moench, Allen F.

    2011-01-01

    The computer program WTAQ simulates axial-symmetric flow to a well pumping from a confined or unconfined (water-table) aquifer. WTAQ calculates dimensionless or dimensional drawdowns that can be used with measured drawdown data from aquifer tests to estimate aquifer hydraulic properties. Version 2 of the program, which is described in this report, provides an alternative analytical representation of drainage to water-table aquifers from the unsaturated zone than that which was available in the initial versions of the code. The revised drainage model explicitly accounts for hydraulic characteristics of the unsaturated zone, specifically, the moisture retention and relative hydraulic conductivity of the soil. The revised program also retains the original conceptualizations of drainage from the unsaturated zone that were available with version 1 of the program to provide alternative approaches to simulate the drainage process. Version 2 of the program includes all other simulation capabilities of the first versions, including partial penetration of the pumped well and of observation wells and piezometers, well-bore storage and skin effects at the pumped well, and delayed drawdown response of observation wells and piezometers.

  14. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  15. And now for something completely different: condensation induced water hammer and steam assisted gravity drainage in the Athabasca Oil Sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most people will have been exposed to some aspect of the debate about the Athabasca Oil Sands in North-Eastern Alberta and the significant role that the oil sands are expected to play in supplying conventional fossil fuels. Part of the bitumen is recovered from mines and part is recovered from in situ projects utilizing the Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage Process (SAGD). SAGD utilizes a considerable amount of steam, that is injected into geological formations. Hot water, bitumen and some vapour are recovered from the production wells. With significant steam generation, transmission and injection, there is the very real possibility of condensation induced water hammers. There have been a number of catastrophic failures to date. Two major failures will be highlighted: MEG Energy had a steam distribution line fail at the Christina Lake project. Large parts of the pipe, weighing some 2500 kg, were thrown some 800 meters into the bush during the failure; and, Total had a steam release (blowout) at their Joslyn property due to a loss of caprock containment. A number of causes have been postulated. While it is agreed that there was sufficient downhole pressure to hydraulically fracture the formation, questions have been raised about the contribution that condensation induced water hammer made. The situations that have occurred will be outlined, along with some preliminary thermal hydraulic work. The intent of the paper is to provide interesting background information on the in situ oil sands industry. More importantly, to show some interesting and broader applications of thermalhydraulics developed in the nuclear industry. The expertise developed may have potential markets, with some adaptation, to the oil sands industry. Finally, there has been some discussion about using nuclear power for steam generation in the oil sands. (author)

  16. Controlled Drainage As Measure to Reduce Nitrate Leaching in a Wheat Cropping System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børgesen, Christen Duus; Hvid, Søren Kolind; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag;

    2013-01-01

    Subsurface drainage of soil to avoid water logging is a prerequisite for crop cultivation for a large proportion of the agricultural land, and approximately 50% of the Danish agricultural area is artificially drained. Multifunctional drain systems can be effective measures to reduce losses...... of nutrients, such as Controlled Drainage (CD). With CD the water table of drained fields is raised or lowered by adjusting the drain pipe outlet elevation. By restricting drain flow at times when drainage is not needed, the overall volume of water flow is reduced, more soil moisture is available......, preserving ammonium for crop uptake in the following cropping season. Installed equipment, soil survey results and measurement results from the first winter season will be presented....

  17. CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM IN WATERS OF THE BIGGEST LAKES OF THE TYWA RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Kubiak; Sylwia Machula

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents the results of research of uranium concentrations in its different kinds – suspended and dissolved – in waters of the largest lakes located in the catchment area of the River Tywa – Strzeszowskie Lake, Dłużyna Lake, Długie Lake and Dłuzec Lake. Small (or the order of several 0,01 µg/l) variations in concentration of uranium in different lakes were noted. The study has also shown a seasonal variation – in a similar range – in concentrations of the above species of uranium, a...

  18. Driving force analysis of the agricultural water footprint in China based on the LMDI method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chunfu; Chen, Bin

    2014-11-01

    China's water scarcity problems have become more severe because of the unprecedented economic development and population explosion. Considering agriculture's large share of water consumption, obtaining a clear understanding of Chinese agricultural consumptive water use plays a key role in addressing China's water resource stress and providing appropriate water mitigation policies. We account for the Chinese agricultural water footprint from 1990 to 2009 based on bottom up approach. Then, the underlying driving forces are decomposed into diet structure effect, efficiency effect, economic activity effect, and population effect, and analyzed by applying a log-mean Divisia index (LMDI) model. The results reveal that the Chinese agricultural water footprint has risen from the 94.1 Gm3 in 1990 to 141 Gm3 in 2009. The economic activity effect is the largest positive contributor to promoting the water footprint growth, followed by the population effect and diet structure effect. Although water efficiency improvement as a significant negative effect has reduced overall water footprint, the water footprint decline from water efficiency improvement cannot compensate for the huge increase from the three positive driving factors. The combination of water efficiency improvement and dietary structure adjustment is the most effective approach for controlling the Chinese agricultural water footprint's further growth. PMID:25289879

  19. CONCENTRATION OF URANIUM IN WATERS OF THE BIGGEST LAKES OF THE TYWA RIVER DRAINAGE BASIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Kubiak

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research of uranium concentrations in its different kinds – suspended and dissolved – in waters of the largest lakes located in the catchment area of the River Tywa – Strzeszowskie Lake, Dłużyna Lake, Długie Lake and Dłuzec Lake. Small (or the order of several 0,01 µg/l variations in concentration of uranium in different lakes were noted. The study has also shown a seasonal variation – in a similar range – in concentrations of the above species of uranium, as well as total uranium. The content of dissolved uranium was highest in the autumn and winter, lower in the spring and summer. Overall, total uranium was found in greatest concentrations during the fall, in other seasons concentrations were lower and similar to each other. Suspended uranium was found in largest concentrations in autumn and summer, in lower ones in spring and winter. Concentrations of the different species of uranium during the study period showed a small variation – variation coefficient below 10% for total uranium and dissolved uranium, and about 25% for suspended uranium. The observed concentrations of uranium were typical of uncontaminated unpolluted water.

  20. Quantitative Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance genes, and veterinary antibiotics in surface and ground water following manure application: Influence of tile drainage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Khan, Izhar U H; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Lapen, David R

    2015-11-01

    This work investigated chlortetracycline, tylosin, and tetracycline (plus transformation products), and DNA-based quantitative Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tetracycline antibiotic resistant genes (tet(O)) in tile drainage, groundwater, and soil before and following a liquid swine manure (LSM) application on clay loam plots under controlled (CD) and free (FD) tile drainage. Chlortetracycline/tetracycline was strongly bound to manure solids while tylosin dominated in the liquid portion of manure. The chlortetracycline transformation product isochlortetracycline was the most persistent analyte in water. Rhodamine WT (RWT) tracer was mixed with manure and monitored in tile and groundwater. RWT and veterinary antibiotic (VA) concentrations were strongly correlated in water which supported the use of RWT as a surrogate tracer. While CD reduced tile discharge and eliminated application-induced VA movement (via tile) to surface water, total VA mass loading to surface water was not affected by CD. At both CD and FD test plots, the biggest 'flush' of VA mass and highest VA concentrations occurred in response to precipitation received 2d after application, which strongly influenced the flow abatement capacity of CD on account of highly elevated water levels in field initiating overflow drainage for CD systems (when water level <0.3m below surface). VA concentrations in tile and groundwater became very low within 10d following application. Both Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) genes were present in groundwater and soil prior to application, and increased thereafter. Unlike the VA compounds, Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) gene loadings in tile drainage were reduced by CD, in relation to FD.

  1. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 5. Well installation, water-level data, and surface- and ground-water geochemistry in the Straight Creek drainage basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naus, Cheryl A.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Donohoe, Lisa C.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Paillet, Frederick L.; Morin, Roger H.; Verplanck, Philip L.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, northern New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site, proximal analog. The Straight Creek drainage basin, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesitic and rhyolitic volcanic rock of Tertiary age as the mine site. The weathered and rugged volcanic bedrock surface is overlain by heterogeneous debris-flow deposits that interfinger with alluvial deposits near the confluence of Straight Creek and the Red River. Pyritized rock in the upper part of the drainage basin is the source of acid rock drainage (pH 2.8-3.3) that infiltrates debris-flow deposits containing acidic ground water (pH 3.0-4.0) and bedrock containing water of circumneutral pH values (5.6-7.7). Eleven observation wells were installed in the Straight Creek drainage basin. The wells were completed in debris-flow deposits, bedrock, and interfingering debris-flow and Red River alluvial deposits. Chemical analyses of ground water from these wells, combined with chemical analyses of surface water, water-level data, and lithologic and geophysical logs, provided information used to develop an understanding of the processes contributing to the chemistry of ground water in the Straight Creek drainage basin. Surface- and ground-water samples were routinely collected for determination of total major cations and selected trace metals; dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, and rare-earth elements; anions and alkalinity; and dissolved-iron species. Rare-earth elements were determined on selected samples only. Samples were collected for determination of dissolved organic carbon, mercury, sulfur isotopic composition (34S and 18O of sulfate), and water isotopic composition (2H and 18O) during

  2. Water management controls net carbon exchange in drained and flooded agricultural peatlands in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, J.; Detto, M.; Sonnentag, O.; Verfaillie, J. G.; Baldocchi, D. D.

    2011-12-01

    Draining peatlands for agricultural cultivation creates an ecosystem shift with some of the fastest rates and largest magnitudes of carbon loss attributable to land-use change, yet peatland drainage is practiced around the world due to the high economic benefit of fertile soil. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was drained at the end of the 19th century for agriculture and human settlement, and as a result, has lost 5-8m of peat soil due to oxidation. To reverse subsidence and capture carbon, there is increasing interest in converting drained agricultural land-uses back to flooded conditions to inhibit further peat oxidation. However, this method remains relatively untested at the landscape-scale. This study analyzed the short-term effects of drained to flooded land-use conversion on the balance of carbon, water, and energy over two years at two landscapes in the Delta. We used the eddy covariance method to compare CO2, CH4, H2O, and energy fluxes under the same meteorological conditions in two different land-use types: a drained pasture grazed by cattle, and a flooded newly-converted rice paddy. By analyzing differences in the fluxes from these two land-use types we determined that water management and differences in the plant canopy both play a fundamental role in governing the seasonal pattern and the annual budgets of CO2 and CH4 fluxes at these two sites. While the pasture was a source of carbon to the atmosphere in both years, the rice paddy captured carbon through NEE, even after considering losses from CH4. Especially during the fallow winter months, flooding the soil at the rice paddy inhibited loss of CO2 through ecosystem respiration when compared with the carbon exchange from the drained pasture.

  3. Low temperature water for use in horticulture, agriculture, and pisciculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper the use of waste heat from power plants, which until now has been discharged into rivers, seas, or into the atmosphere, for agriculture, gardening, and fish farming is considered. First experiences from Belgium are reported. (RW)

  4. Modelling the water-agricultural sector in Rosetta, Egypt: exploring the interaction between water and food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia; Savic, Dragan; Kapelan, Zoran

    2014-05-01

    An integrated System Dynamics Model for the Rosetta region, Egypt, assessing local water balance and agricultural yield to 2050, is presented. Fifty-seven simulations are analysed to better understand potential impacts on water and food security resulting from climate and social change and local/regional policy decisions related to the agricultural sector. Water limitation is a national issue: Egypt relies on the Nile for >95% of supply, and the flow of which is regulated by the Aswan High Dam. Egypt's share water of Aswan water is limited to 55 x 19 m3 yr-1. Any reduction in supply to the reservoir or increase in demand (e.g. from an expanding agricultural sector), has the potential to lead to a serious food and water supply situation. Results show current water resource over-exploitation. The remaining suite of 56 simulations, divided into seven scenarios, also mostly show resource overexploitation. Only under significant increases to Nile flow volumes was the trend reversed. Despite this, by threading together multiple local policies to reduce demand and improve/maintain supply, water resource exploitation can be mitigated while allowing for agricultural development. By changing cropping patterns, it is possible to improve yield and revenue, while using up to 21% less water in 2050 when compared with today. The results are useful in highlighting pathways to improving future water resource availability. Many policies should be considered in parallel, introducing redundancy into the policy framework. We do not suggest actual policy measures; this was beyond the scope of the work. This work highlights the utility of systems modelling of complex systems such as the water-food nexus, with the potential to extend the methodology to other studies and scales. In particular, the benefit of being able to easily modify and extend existing models in light of results from initial modelling efforts is cited. Analysis of initial results led to the hypothesis that by producing

  5. Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    Investigation on Reservoir Operation of Agricultural Water Resources Management for Drought Mitigation Chung-Lien Cheng, Wen-Ping Tsai, Fi-John Chang* Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Da-An District, Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC.Corresponding author: Fi-John Chang (changfj@ntu.edu.tw) AbstractIn Taiwan, the population growth and economic development has led to considerable and increasing demands for natural water resources in the last decades. Under such condition, water shortage problems have frequently occurred in northern Taiwan in recent years such that water is usually transferred from irrigation sectors to public sectors during drought periods. Facing the uneven spatial and temporal distribution of water resources and the problems of increasing water shortages, it is a primary and critical issue to simultaneously satisfy multiple water uses through adequate reservoir operations for sustainable water resources management. Therefore, we intend to build an intelligent reservoir operation system for the assessment of agricultural water resources management strategy in response to food security during drought periods. This study first uses the grey system to forecast the agricultural water demand during February and April for assessing future agricultural water demands. In the second part, we build an intelligent water resources system by using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II), an optimization tool, for searching the water allocation series based on different water demand scenarios created from the first part to optimize the water supply operation for different water sectors. The results can be a reference guide for adequate agricultural water resources management during drought periods. Keywords: Non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II (NSGA-II); Grey System; Optimization; Agricultural Water Resources Management.

  6. Estimation of Tile Drainage Contribution to Streamflow and Nutrient Export Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K. E.; Arenas Amado, A.; Jones, C. S.; Weber, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    Subsurface drainage is a very common practice in the agricultural U.S. Midwest. It is typically installed in poorly drained soils in order to enhance crop yields. The presence of tile drains creates a route for agrichemicals to travel and therefore negatively impacts stream water quality. This study estimated through end-member analyses the contributions of tile drainage, groundwater, and surface runoff to streamflow at the watershed scale based on continuously monitored data. Especial attention was devoted to quantifying tile drainage impact on watershed streamflow and nutrient export loads. Data analyzed includes streamflow, rainfall, soil moisture, shallow groundwater levels, in-stream nitrate+nitrite concentrations and specific conductance. Data were collected at a HUC12 watershed located in Northeast Iowa, USA. Approximately 60% of the total watershed area is devoted to agricultural activities and forest and grassland are the other two predominant land uses. Results show that approximately 20% of total annual streamflow comes from tile drainage and during rainfall events tile drainage contribution can go up to 30%. Furthermore, for most of the analyzed rainfall events groundwater responded faster and in a more dramatic fashion than tile drainage. The State of Iowa is currently carrying out a plan to reduce nutrients in Iowa waters and the Gulf of Mexico (Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy). The outcome of this investigation has the potential to assist in Best Management Practice (BMP) scenario selection and therefore help the state achieve water quality goals.

  7. High-frequency monitoring reveals nutrient sources and transport processes in an agriculture-dominated lowland water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. van der Grift

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many agriculture-dominated lowland water systems worldwide suffer from eutrophication caused by high nutrient loads. Insight in the hydrochemical functioning of embanked polder catchments is highly relevant for improving the water quality in such areas. This paper introduces new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in a low elevated polder in the Netherlands using high-frequency monitoring technology at the outlet, where the water is pumped into a higher situated lake, combined with a low-frequency water quality monitoring program at six locations within the drainage area. Seasonal trends and short scale temporal dynamics in concentrations indicated that the NO3 concentration at the pumping station originated from N-loss from agricultural lands. The NO3 loads appear as losses with drain water discharge after intensive rainfall events during the winter months due to preferential flow through the cracked clay soil. Transfer function-noise modelling of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be related to rainfall. The total phosphorus (TP concentration almost doubled during operation of the pumping station which points to resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by changes in water flow due to pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not results in TP concentration peaks. The by rainfall induced and NO3 enriched quick interflow, may also be enriched in TP but this is then buffered in the water system due to sedimentation of particulate P. Increased TP concentrations associated with run-off events is only observed during a rainfall event at the end of a freeze–thaw cycle. All these observations suggest that the P retention potential of polder water systems is highly due to the artificial pumping regime that buffers high flows. As the TP concentration is affected by operation of the pumping station

  8. Partitioning of Iron and Scandium in Soils Having Water Drainage Limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Aide

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil chemistry of Fe includes weathering reactions, adsorption, hydrolysis, complexation, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Soil chemistry for scandium (Sc is similar, but Sc does not include oxidation-reduction reactions. To determine if geochemical analysis may be used to identify Sc partitioning with respect to Fe among the particle size fractions, two Alfisol and two Ultisol soils were assessed using an aqua-regia digestion to estimate Sc and Fe concentrations for whole soil and particle size separates. Aqua-regia digestion data showed Sc depletion relative to Fe in sand separate. Sand separate is largely composed on quartz sand and Fe-Mn-bearing nodules, which are redoximorphic features produced by alternating oxic and suboxic/anoxic conditions associated with seasonally fluctuating water tables. Relative partitioning of Fe and Sc in these soils warrants further study to assess if selective extractions could quantify the extent of modern or ancestral oxidation-reduction processes responsible in some soil features involved in soil genesis.

  9. Partitioning of Iron and Scandium in Soils Having Water Drainage Limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil chemistry of Fe includes weathering reactions, adsorption, hydrolysis, complexation, and oxidation-reduction reactions. Soil chemistry for scandium (Sc) is similar, but Sc does not include oxidation-reduction reactions. To determine if geochemical analysis may be used to identify Sc partitioning with respect to Fe among the particle size fractions, two Alfisol and two Ultisol soils were assessed using an aqua-regia digestion to estimate Sc and Fe concentrations for whole soil and particle size separates. Aqua-regia digestion data showed Sc depletion relative to Fe in sand separate. Sand separate is largely composed on quartz sand and Fe-Mn-bearing nodules, which are redoximorphic features produced by alternating oxic and suboxic/anoxic conditions associated with seasonally fluctuating water tables. Relative partitioning of Fe and Sc in these soils warrants further study to assess if selective extractions could quantify the extent of modern or ancestral oxidation-reduction processes responsible in some soil features involved in soil genesis.

  10. Adapting agricultural water governance to climate change: Experiences from Germany, Spain and California

    OpenAIRE

    Theesfeld, Insa; Schmidt, Oscar; Scheumann, Waltina; Herrfahrdt-Pähle, Elke; Ifejika Speranza, Chinwe

    2011-01-01

    This study describes and discusses initiatives taken by public (water) agencies in the state of Brandenburg in Germany, the state of California in the USA and the Ebro River Basin in Spain in response to the challenges which climate change poses for the agricultural water sector. The drivers and actors and the process of changing agricultural water governance are its particular focus. The assumptions discussed are: (i) the degree of planned and anticipatory top-down implementation processes d...

  11. Agricultural Producer Responses to Weather and Surface Water Variability: Implications for Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Dale T; Goemans, Chris; Maas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to bring increased temperatures and changes in water availability across the United States. Understanding the responsiveness of irrigated agriculture to changes in available water, both supplemental, and natural, is critical to evaluating the potential impacts of climage change as well as measuring the benefit of new water supply development. Despite representing only half the value of total agricultural sales in the US, previous literature has mostly focused on dr...

  12. THE EONOMIC IMPACT OF MORE SUSTAINABLE WATER USE IN AGRICULTURE: A COMPUTABLE GENERAL EQUILIBRIUM ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Alvaro Calzadilla; Katrin Rehdanz; Richard S.J. Tol

    2008-01-01

    Water problems are typically studied at the farm-level, the river–catchment-level or the country-level. About 70% of irrigation water is used for agriculture, and agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) wat...

  13. High-frequency monitoring reveals nutrient sources and transport processes in an agriculture-dominated lowland water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Grift, Bas; Broers, Hans Peter; Berendrecht, Wilbert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Osté, Leonard; Griffioen, Jasper

    2016-05-01

    Many agriculture-dominated lowland water systems worldwide suffer from eutrophication caused by high nutrient loads. Insight in the hydrochemical functioning of embanked polder catchments is highly relevant for improving the water quality in such areas or for reducing export loads to downstream water bodies. This paper introduces new insights in nutrient sources and transport processes in a polder in the Netherlands situated below sea level using high-frequency monitoring technology at the outlet, where the water is pumped into a higher situated lake, combined with a low-frequency water quality monitoring programme at six locations within the drainage area. Seasonal trends and short-scale temporal dynamics in concentrations indicated that the NO3 concentration at the pumping station originated from N loss from agricultural lands. The NO3 loads appear as losses via tube drains after intensive rainfall events during the winter months due to preferential flow through the cracked clay soil. Transfer function-noise modelling of hourly NO3 concentrations reveals that a large part of the dynamics in NO3 concentrations during the winter months can be related to rainfall. The total phosphorus (TP) concentration and turbidity almost doubled during operation of the pumping station, which points to resuspension of particulate P from channel bed sediments induced by changes in water flow due to pumping. Rainfall events that caused peaks in NO3 concentrations did not results in TP concentration peaks. The rainfall induced and NO3 enriched quick interflow, may also be enriched in TP but retention of TP due to sedimentation of particulate P then results in the absence of rainfall induced TP concentration peaks. Increased TP concentrations associated with run-off events is only observed during a rainfall event at the end of a freeze-thaw cycle. All these observations suggest that the P retention potential of polder water systems is primarily due to the artificial pumping regime

  14. Valuation of Water and its Sensitive Analysis in Agricultural Sector A Hedonic Pricing Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud D. Kakhki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: In the recent decades water scarcity and its impacts on agricultural sectors and food security are growing concerns worldwide. Water scarcity is one the major problem facing agricultural production in Iran. In this context valuation of irrigation water can be suggest as an appropriate solution. Approach: This research based on utilizing hedonic pricing method for estimating effective variables on the value of agricultural lands and used a way, for obtaining the value of irrigation water in Mashhad. Sensitive analysis is also used for observation of varieties in the value of water. Results: Results showed that, irrigation water is the most effective and significant variable in the controversial area. Results of the sensitive analysis indicated that, by increasing discount rate, the value of water increased. Whereas by decreasing period of investment and annual consumption of water, the value of it, decreased. Conclusion: In the case of agricultural lands are allocated to cultivation of valuable crops, discount rate of investment would increase; and also if agricultural lands invested in quick return activities, period of investment decrease. And therefore, the value of irrigation water in m-3 increases. Results indicated that by decrease of aridity and so increase in water consumption, in a long run period of investment, value of irrigation water decreases.

  15. Evaluating the Impacts of an Agricultural Water Market in the Guadalupe River Basin, Texas: An Agent-based Modeling Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, E.; Cai, X.; Minsker, B. S.

    2014-12-01

    Agriculture comprises about 80 percent of the total water consumption in the US. Under conditions of water shortage and fully committed water rights, market-based water allocations could be promising instruments for agricultural water redistribution from marginally profitable areas to more profitable ones. Previous studies on water market have mainly focused on theoretical or statistical analysis. However, how water users' heterogeneous physical attributes and decision rules about water use and water right trading will affect water market efficiency has been less addressed. In this study, we developed an agent-based model to evaluate the benefits of an agricultural water market in the Guadalupe River Basin during drought events. Agricultural agents with different attributes (i.e., soil type for crops, annual water diversion permit and precipitation) are defined to simulate the dynamic feedback between water availability, irrigation demand and water trading activity. Diversified crop irrigation rules and water bidding rules are tested in terms of crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. The model was coupled with a real-time hydrologic model and run under different water scarcity scenarios. Preliminary results indicate that an agricultural water market is capable of increasing crop yield, agricultural profit, and water-use efficiency. This capability is more significant under moderate drought scenarios than in mild and severe drought scenarios. The water market mechanism also increases agricultural resilience to climate uncertainty by reducing crop yield variance in drought events. The challenges of implementing an agricultural water market under climate uncertainty are also discussed.

  16. REUSE OF TREATED WASTEWATER IN AGRICULTURE: SOLVING WATER DEFICIT PROBLEMS IN ARID AREAS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faissal AZIZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the arid and semiarid areas, the availability and the management of irrigation water have become priorities of great importance. The successive years of drought, induced by climate change and population growth, increasingly reduced the amount of water reserved for agriculture. Consequently, many countries have included wastewater reuse as an important dimension of water resources planning. In the more arid areas wastewater is used in agriculture, releasing high resource of water supplies. In this context, the present work is a review focusing the reuse of treated wastewater in agriculture as an important strategy for solving water deficit problems in arid areas. Much information concerning the wastewater reuse in different regions of the world and in Morocco, the different wastewater treatment technologies existing in Morocco were discussed. The review focused also the fertilizing potential of wastewater in agriculture, the role of nutrients and their concentrations in wastewater and their advantages effects on plant growth and yield.

  17. A Review of Researches on Efficient Agricultural Water Usc in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yuanlai; HUANG Jiesheng

    2012-01-01

    China is a large agricultural country. According to statistics in 2009, the amount of agricultural irrigation water use accounted tbr about 62% of the total water consumption of the national economy. With increasing population and fast growing food demand in the future, irrigated areas will be further expanded, yet the total agricultural water use will not increase or will continue to fall. It is estimated that the national irrigation efficiency in 2009 was about 49.3%, which is very lower than the irrigation efficiency of developed countries. As a result,

  18. Investigation of the Agricultural Water Management Mechanisms in Zarindasht County, Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Both sequential droughts and lack of water optimal consumption in Zarindasht county, have created scarcity problem that caused agricultural yield's loss in this county. So according to lack of optimal consumption of agricultural water in this county, the main purpose of this study was to investigate agricultural water management mechanisms in three fields of irrigation sources, water transfer and in farm water consumption level. Approach: This study was a sort of survey studies. Questionnaire was used to collect data and its reliability was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha of 0.83, 0.72 and 0.85 in three fields of irrigation resources, water transfer and in farm water consumption level respectively. Questionnaire’s validity was also confirmed by professors of agriculture training department of Tehran University and experts were related to water management. Statistical population of this study consisted of 4648 individuals of Zarindasht farmers. Using Cochran’s formula, sample size was estimated about 150 individuals. To select the samples, the multi-step sampling method was used. Results: The results of priority setting of the agricultural water management mechanisms revealed that most of important mechanisms of agricultural water management such as “feeding underground water”, “farmers’ participation in providing the expenses of electronically wells”, “setting systems of determining the permissible Debby” in field of irrigation resources and “ participation in different fields” as an important mechanism in the field of water transfer channels and also “using agricultural swages”, “land consolidation and consolidation” in water consumption level are the last priorities of farmers point of view. Furthermore, the result of agricultural water management mechanisms’ factor analysis indicated the existence of six factors in irrigation resources field that most

  19. Vertical drainage capacity of new electrical drainage board on improvement of super soft clayey ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈扬; 励彦德; 黄文君; 徐海东; 胡品飞

    2015-01-01

    As an advanced polymer composites electro-kinetic geosynthetics, the electro-osmotic vertical drainage (EVD) board could drain water quickly and accelerate consolidation process. However, the drainage rate was mainly impacted by the vertical drainage capability. Therefore, vertical drainage capability at the top of EVD board was theoretically analyzed. Basic requirements for drainage at the top of the board were summed up, as well as the formula of anode pore pressure when losing the vertical drainage capability. Meanwhile, a contrast test on the top and bottom drainage capacities was conducted. In use of the advanced EVD board, the voltage potential and pore pressure of anode were measured. Moreover, the derived formulas were verified. The result shows that the decrease of electric force gradient had an observable impact on the drainage capability. There was nearly no difference between the energy consumption for the two drainage methods. Although a little less water was discharged, the top drainage method had more advantages, such as high initial drainage velocity, few soil cracks, low anode water content and high soil strength. All of these show that the super soft soil ground could be consolidated quickly in use of the advanced EVD board through the top drainage. The top drainage method could efficiently improve the drainage effect, decrease the energy consumption and speed up the project proceeding.

  20. 关于民用建筑消防给排水的相关建议%Suggestions about the Civil Building Fire Protection Water Supply and Drainage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志辉; 杨瑄

    2014-01-01

    Civil construction relates to residents' life and property security, which need to strengthen the fire fighting capacity. Therefore, the fire protection water supply and drai-nage as the fire protection infrastructure project to which need to pay more atention. In this article, the author starts from the type of fire protection water supply and drainage, and put for-ward the design suggestions of fire protection water supply and drainage in the civil construction.%民用建筑关乎居民生命财产的安全,其消防能力更是需要大力加强。因此,消防给排水作为消防基础项目,亟需得到重视。本文从消防给水的类型入手,提出了民用建筑中,消防给排水的设计建议。

  1. Discuss the Design of Fire Protection Water Supply and Drainage in Civil Building%民用建筑消防给排水的设计探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建立

    2014-01-01

    本文对目前的民用建筑消防给排水设计进行了全面的分析,并树立了科学发展观和求实创新发展的理念。笔者通过研究民用建筑消防给排水系统的运行原理,进而研究了民用建筑消防的给排水的设计原理。%In this article, the author carries on the comprehen-sive analysis of current fire protection water supply and drai-nage design in civil building, and set up the ideas of scientific outlook on development and strives for realism the innovation development. The author bases on the study of the operation principle of civil building fire protection water supply and dra-inage system, and then explore the design principle of fire pr-otection water supply and drainage in civil building.

  2. Contrasting nitrogen fate in watersheds using agricultural and water quality information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I.; Baker, Nancy T.; McCarthy, Kathleen A.

    2016-01-01

    Surplus nitrogen (N) estimates, principal component analysis (PCA), and end-member mixing analysis (EMMA) were used in a multisite comparison contrasting the fate of N in diverse agricultural watersheds. We applied PCA-EMMA in 10 watersheds located in Indiana, Iowa, Maryland, Nebraska, Mississippi, and Washington ranging in size from 5 to 1254 km2 with four nested watersheds. Watershed Surplus N was determined by subtracting estimates of crop uptake and volatilization from estimates of N input from atmospheric deposition, plant fixation, fertilizer, and manure for the period from 1987 to 2004. Watershed average Surplus N ranged from 11 to 52 kg N ha−1 and from 9 to 32% of N input. Solute concentrations in streams, overland runoff, tile drainage, groundwater (GW), streambeds, and the unsaturated zone were used in the PCA-EMMA procedure to identify independent components contributing to observed stream concentration variability and the end-members contributing to streamflow and NO3 load. End-members included dilute runoff, agricultural runoff, benthic-processing, tile drainage, and oxic and anoxic GW. Surplus N was larger in watersheds with more permeable soils (Washington, Nebraska, and Maryland) that allowed greater infiltration, and oxic GW was the primary source of NO3 load. Subsurface transport of NO3 in these watersheds resulted in some removal of Surplus N by denitrification. In less permeable watersheds (Iowa, Indiana, and Mississippi), NO3 was rapidly transported to the stream by tile drainage and runoff with little removal. Evidence of streambed removal of NO3 by benthic diatoms was observed in the larger watersheds.

  3. The impact of stormwater treatment areas and agricultural best management practices on water quality in the Everglades Protection Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entry, James A; Gottlieb, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    Half of the original Everglades system has been lost to drainage and development. What remains is included within the boundaries of the Everglades Protection Area (EPA), comprised of three Water Conservation Areas (WCAs) and Everglades National Park (Park). Inflows to the EPA contain elevated nutrient concentrations. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented and six large wetlands called stormwater treatment areas (STAs) were constructed to improve water quality. We analyzed water quality in the WCAs and Park and performed an economic analysis of the STAs to remove nutrients from EPA inflows. In general, nutrient concentrations in all WCAs were higher during the pre-STA period than after the STAs became operational. In WCA2 and the Park, total phosphorus (TP) trends showed more negative slopes prior, as compared to after, the STAs became operational. These results suggest that BMPs lead to large initial decreases in nutrient export resulting in improved downstream water quality. A preliminary economic analysis shows that operation and management of the STAs are complicated and cost intensive. Comparing the cost of phosphorus (P) removal from water entering the EPA using BMPs and STAs may not currently be viable. BMPs prevent P from being applied to, or leaving from agricultural fields while STAs remove P from stormwater. We expect nutrient concentrations in water flowing into and out of the STAs to decline as both BMPs and STAs become more effective. We suggest an economic analysis of BMPs, STAs, and other potential approaches to determine the most cost-effective methods to reduce nutrient concentrations and related stressors affecting the Everglades. PMID:24081816

  4. Isotope techniques in the study of groundwater in the eastern Nile Delta and the transport of pollution from drainage water into Lake Manzala, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-two water samples were collected from eastern Nile Delta groundwater, Lake Manzala, surface water and main drainage stations during 1993-1995. The water samples were analysed for major, minor and tracer elements and for oxygen-18 and deuterium. The hydrochemical studies indicate that the groundwater of the eastern Delta can be classified into three groups of low, medium and high salinity. The fresh water is mostly encountered near the Nile and near irrigation canals in the south. The brackish and saline water occurs near the Bitter Lakes, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. The salinity is attributed to the leaching of terrestrial salts and to seawater intrusion. Nitrate concentration was found to be relatively high because of extensive fertilizer use. In general, the stable isotope contents of groundwater differ widely depending upon the contribution of each recharging source (present Nile, old Nile, precipitation, seawater intrusion and possibly palaeowater contribution in some localized areas). Investigation of Lake Manzala revealed that the water salinity is rather inhomogeneous, and high concentrations of trace elements were detected, which could be attributed to drainage water discharging into the lake. A stable isotope balance was developed to estimate seepage and evaporation from the lake. (author)

  5. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  6. Fresh water production from municipal waste water with membrane technology and its application for agriculture in an arid area

    OpenAIRE

    横山, 文郎

    2014-01-01

    One of the biggest problems of the 21st century is a global water shortage. Therefore it is difficult to increase quantity of conventional water resources such as surface and well water for agricultural application in an arid area. Technical advancement in water treatment membrane technology including RO membrane have been remarkable especially in recent years. As the pore size of RO membrane is less than one nanometer, it is possible to produce the fresh water, which satisfies the drinking w...

  7. ASSESSMENT OF EARLY SEASON AGRICULTURAL DROUGHT THROUGH LAND SURFACE WATER INDEX (LSWI) AND SOIL WATER BALANCE MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    K. Chandrasekar; Sesha Sai, M. V. R.; G. Behera

    2012-01-01

    An attempt was made to address the early season agriculture drought, by monitoring the surface soil wetness during 2010 cropping seasons in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) based Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) and Soil Water Balance (SWB) model using inputs from remote sensing and ancillary data were used to monitor early season agriculture drought. During the crop season, investigation was made on LSWI characteristics and its response to the rainfall. ...

  8. Modelling the marginal revenue of water in selected agricultural commodities: A panel data approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moolman, C.E.; Blignaut, J.N.; van Eyden, R.

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a water-stressed country where water availability is an important constraint to economic and social development, and will become even more so in the future if this scarce resource is not managed effectively. In order to manage this scarce supply of water, we need to value it. This study focuses on the value of water in the agricultural sector, in particular the marginal revenue of water for six irrigation commodities namely avocados, bananas, grapefruit, mangoes, oranges and s...

  9. Modeling the Marginal Revenue of Water in Selected Agricultural Commodities: A Panel Date Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Moolman, C.E.; Blignaut, J.N.; van Eyden, R.

    2006-01-01

    South Africa is a water-stressed country where water availability is an important constraint to economic and social development, and will become even more so in the future if this scarce resource is not managed effectively. In order to manage this scarce supply of water, we need to value it. This study focuses on the value of water in the agricultural sector, in particular the marginal revenue of water for six irrigation commodities namely avocados, bananas, grapefruit, mangoes, oranges and s...

  10. Surface Drainage-Main or Lateral on Agricultural Land in the Conterminous United States, 1992: National Resource Inventory Conservation Practice 608

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set represents the estimated percentage of the 1-km grid cell that is covered by or subject to the agricultural conservation practice (CP608), Surface...

  11. THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN THE DESALINATION SEA WATER IN AGRICULTURAL GREENHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    T. Tahri; A. Bettahar; M. Douani; S. Al Sulaiman Abdul-Wahab; H. Al-Hinai; Y. Al Mulla

    2015-01-01

    The limited resources of fresh water in arid areas like the Middle East and North Africa MENA have led to the use of poor quality water in irrigation agriculture. These can reduce crop yield and environmental damage. Agriculture accounts for 70% of overall consumption in freshwater. Given the evaporation phenomena that occur in arid regions, this figure rises to 90%. This study focuses on the concept of combining the greenhouse with the desalination of seawater This concept is intended for sm...

  12. Runoff and drainage water quality from geotextile and gravel pads used in livestock feeding and loafing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anshu; Bicudo, José R; Workman, Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Geotextile and gravel pads offer a low-cost alternative to concrete for providing all-weather surfaces for cattle and vehicle traffic, and are used in many livestock facilities to minimize mud, runoff and erosion of heavy traffic areas. The objective of this study was to compare different combinations of geotextile and gravel used in heavy livestock traffic areas that minimize the potential for water pollution. Three different pad combinations were constructed in 2.4 x 6-m plots as follows: (i) woven geotextile+100mm of gravel+50mm Dense Grade Aggregate (DGA); (ii) woven geotextile + geoweb+100 mm DGA; and (iii) non-woven geotextile+152 mm of gravel+50mm DGA; (iv) mud lots as control. The third combination was equivalent to one of the base treatments specified by the Kentucky Natural Resource and Conservation Service (NRCS). All treatment combinations were duplicated. Lysimeter pans were installed in four out of eight plots for the collection of leachate or drainage water. Runoff was collected at the lower end of the plots. About 14 kg of beef cattle manure were added evenly to the plots. Rainfall at 50mm/h was applied using rainfall simulators. In the first five of ten experiments, manure was removed from the surface of the pads after each experiment. In the remaining five experiments manure accumulated on the surface of the pads. The effect of pad treatment was significant on the electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values in surface runoff at the 5% level. Manure removal did not have any significant effect on the nutrient content of runoff or leachate samples except for ammonia (NH4-N) values. Although a mass balance indicated relatively small amounts of organic matter and nutrients were lost by runoff and leaching, the actual contamination level of both runoff and leachate samples were high; TP levels as high as 12 mg/l (5.4 mg/m2) in runoff and nitrate (NO3

  13. Runoff and drainage water quality from geotextile and gravel pads used in livestock feeding and loafing areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anshu; Bicudo, José R; Workman, Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Geotextile and gravel pads offer a low-cost alternative to concrete for providing all-weather surfaces for cattle and vehicle traffic, and are used in many livestock facilities to minimize mud, runoff and erosion of heavy traffic areas. The objective of this study was to compare different combinations of geotextile and gravel used in heavy livestock traffic areas that minimize the potential for water pollution. Three different pad combinations were constructed in 2.4 x 6-m plots as follows: (i) woven geotextile+100mm of gravel+50mm Dense Grade Aggregate (DGA); (ii) woven geotextile + geoweb+100 mm DGA; and (iii) non-woven geotextile+152 mm of gravel+50mm DGA; (iv) mud lots as control. The third combination was equivalent to one of the base treatments specified by the Kentucky Natural Resource and Conservation Service (NRCS). All treatment combinations were duplicated. Lysimeter pans were installed in four out of eight plots for the collection of leachate or drainage water. Runoff was collected at the lower end of the plots. About 14 kg of beef cattle manure were added evenly to the plots. Rainfall at 50mm/h was applied using rainfall simulators. In the first five of ten experiments, manure was removed from the surface of the pads after each experiment. In the remaining five experiments manure accumulated on the surface of the pads. The effect of pad treatment was significant on the electrical conductivity (EC), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrite (NO2-N), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) values in surface runoff at the 5% level. Manure removal did not have any significant effect on the nutrient content of runoff or leachate samples except for ammonia (NH4-N) values. Although a mass balance indicated relatively small amounts of organic matter and nutrients were lost by runoff and leaching, the actual contamination level of both runoff and leachate samples were high; TP levels as high as 12 mg/l (5.4 mg/m2) in runoff and nitrate (NO3

  14. Spatialising Agricultural Water Governance Data in Polycentric Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Faith Sternlieb; Melinda Laituri

    2015-01-01

    Water governance in the Colorado River Basin (CRB) is based on a historical and complex set of policies, legal decisions, and operational guidelines called the Law of the River. Behind the complex institutional structure lies an intricate web of data on water, most of which are hydrogeological in nature. However, we posit that in order to realise sustainable water governance, management efforts must also address data on water governance. Therefore, our central research question is: what is th...

  15. Complex water management in modern agriculture: Trends in the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smidt, Samuel J; Haacker, Erin M K; Kendall, Anthony D; Deines, Jillian M; Pei, Lisi; Cotterman, Kayla A; Li, Haoyang; Liu, Xiao; Basso, Bruno; Hyndman, David W

    2016-10-01

    In modern agriculture, the interplay between complex physical, agricultural, and socioeconomic water use drivers must be fully understood to successfully manage water supplies on extended timescales. This is particularly evident across large portions of the High Plains Aquifer where groundwater levels have declined at unsustainable rates despite improvements in both the efficiency of water use and water productivity in agricultural practices. Improved technology and land use practices have not mitigated groundwater level declines, thus water management strategies must adapt accordingly or risk further resource loss. In this study, we analyze the water-energy-food nexus over the High Plains Aquifer as a framework to isolate the major drivers that have shaped the history, and will direct the future, of water use in modern agriculture. Based on this analysis, we conclude that future water management strategies can benefit from: (1) prioritizing farmer profit to encourage decision-making that aligns with strategic objectives, (2) management of water as both an input into the water-energy-food nexus and a key incentive for farmers, (3) adaptive frameworks that allow for short-term objectives within long-term goals, (4) innovative strategies that fit within restrictive political frameworks, (5) reduced production risks to aid farmer decision-making, and (6) increasing the political desire to conserve valuable water resources. This research sets the foundation to address water management as a function of complex decision-making trends linked to the water-energy-food nexus. Water management strategy recommendations are made based on the objective of balancing farmer profit and conserving water resources to ensure future agricultural production. PMID:27344509

  16. 油田给排水管网的优化设计%Optimization Design of Water Supply and Drainage Pipes in Oilfield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周阳

    2015-01-01

    In order to satisfy the need of the growing oil field production and promote the development and enhancement of our social economy, need to optimize the oil field water supply and drainage pipe network design. In the oilfield to drainage pipe network optimization design, to grasp the design principle, hydraulic calculation and material selection, to further improve oilfield, water supply and drainage pipe network, better service for oilfield development and construction.%为了满足日益增长的油田生产需要,促进我国社会经济的发展和提高,需要对油田给排水管网进行优化设计。在对油田给排水管网的优化设计中,要把握设计原则、水力计算及管材的选择,以期进一步完善油田给排水管网,更好地为油田的发展建设服务。

  17. Management Of Irrigation Water and its Impact on Agriculture Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Raza Abidi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available On the inflow side canal water in the canal command area of Mirwah is mismanaged by irrigation officials and head-end and influential farmers. Farmers in Sindh generally and Khairpur particularly irrigate their land without scientific techniques and there is no economic pricing of water that might encourage conservation. This, together with the lack of any adequate substitute in the form of administrative control of water and cropping patterns, has been responsible for the excessive water-coefficient of output, and the unequal distribution of water, which have been at the heart of the problem of mismanagement water on the inflow side. The need for restructuring the irrigation system in Sindh is urgent not only because of both allocation and distribution, because, over the years, the province has suffered from unequal distribution of water between big and small farmers, and between head-end and tail-end farmers.

  18. 住宅工程中给排水工程技术问题的分析%Analysis on Technical Problems on Residential of Water Supply and Drainage Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞林

    2012-01-01

    It focuses on the residential project in the construction of water supply and drainage engineering of technical problems,a concrete analysis of water supply and drainage system design.%重点讨论了住宅工程建设过程中给排水工程的技术问题,具体分析了给水工程与排水系统的设计。

  19. Quantifying the Human Appropriation of Fresh Water by African Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Alcamo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Human appropriation of renewable freshwater (HARF is a measure for the influence of human activities on the global water cycle. It describes the fraction of accessible water that is directly used by human-dominated systems. We present a comprehensive model-based analysis of HARF for crop production on the African continent. Our analysis includes the components evapotranspiration from cropland (“green” water fluxes and water used for cropland irrigation (crop-related fraction of “blue” water fluxes. Model experiments were conducted for two scenarios with a time horizon of 2050, taking into account the combined effects of land-use change, climate change, and technological change. For the year 2000, evapotranspiration from Africa's rainfed cropland (green water flux is estimated to be 1085 km3/yr, whereas the abstraction of water for irrigation purposes from the renewable water resources (blue water flux is estimated to be approximately 180 km3/yr. According to the model experiments, between 2000–2050, an area between 1.25 million km2 and 1.56 million km2 of natural biomes will be converted to cropland. Consequently, for 2050, evapotranspiration from rainfed cropland is substantially greater than in 2000, ranging from 1870–2040 km3/yr, depending on the scenario, and irrigation abstraction increases up to 194–330 km3/yr. These findings point out the significant role of water appropriated for rainfed crop production in the continental water cycle, in contrast to the sum of water appropriated for irrigation. Furthermore, they suggest that it would be worthwhile to look for opportunities to reduce the amount of water evaporated and transpired from cropland to increase the “water productivity” of cropland. Finally, they indicate that under the given scenarios, this additional production is very likely to come at the cost of the extent of natural biomes and their associated ecosystem services.

  20. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AGRICULTURAL LAND SYSTEMS AND WATER USE DURING THE APPLICATION OF PARTICIPATORY IRRIGATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko OKA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The identification of water rights is essential to the application of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM policies. Water and agricultural land have traditionally had strong relationships. We must clarify land tenure conditions and their relationships with water rights. This paper presents the results of studies focused on the relationships between agricultural land systems and water use in several African and Asian countries. It describes different situations related to land systems and water use, as well as the relationships between them. In study areas, in addition to historical backgrounds, land tenure may be associated with the extent to which state, customary, and individual involvements affect farmers’ de facto water rights. In general, water rights are clearly established in developed countries because formal administration of land and water resources has been functional and well-established. In developing countries, further institutional arrangements may be required to enable farmers to maintain water rights and increase efficient water use and management. However, no single solution is available. This paper describes how local contexts may vary with respect to land and water tenure. When PIM is introduced into irrigation schemes, it must be carefully integrated into agricultural land systems and the regulation of water rights in target areas. First, a land management system must be developed that secures farmers’ rights to ensure rational/optimal use of irrigation water. This offers important implications for rice irrigation and other crops that requires relatively intense and long-term investments in land development and advanced water management.

  1. When it Rains, It Pours: Drought, Excess Water, and Agricultural Risk Management in the U.S. Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, J. M.; Anderson, M. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Kustas, W.; Schultz, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    Ever since its inception agriculture has been a risky proposition, with yields subject to losses from insects, diseases, weeds, and weather anomalies. The transition from subsistence farming to production agriculture motivated research that eventually provided tools to combat some of the traditional sources of risk, particularly pests. However, weather-related risk remains resistant to mitigation, except in cases where there has been a fundamental alteration of lands otherwise unsuited for agriculture, e.g. - irrigation of arid lands and drainage of swamps. We have undertaken a multi-faceted analysis of potential avenues to reduce weather-related risk in the central U.S. corn belt, focusing on MN, IA, IL, IN, and OH. Mean annual precipitation has increased across the region over the past 60 years, and mean stream flows have increased as much or more, indicating relatively stable ET. The precipitation increase is consistent with changes predicted by GCMs for the region, while the stable (and even decreasing) regional ET primarily reflects changes in farming, particularly an increase in soybean acreage at the expense of permanent pasture. Unfortunately, the observed increases in precipitation are primarily associated with an increase in spatially and temporally isolated high intensity storms, so transient drought remains a problem. Indeed, analysis of crop insurance indemnities in recent years for the region reveals nearly equal yield losses due to drought and excess water, each totaling roughly $3 billion USD between 2000 and 2011, and jointly accounting for more than two thirds of all payments. County level mapping shows that losses from both causes occur throughout the corn belt, often in the same county in the same year. The ALEXI model, which provides continental-scale estimates of ET on a 10 km grid, was used to map ET anomalies across the region for the same time period. Correspondence between ALEXI output and insurance loss data was reasonably good in drought

  2. Field screening of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Saeid; King, K.A.; Andrews, Brenda; Roberts, William

    1997-01-01

    Because of concerns expressed by the U.S. Congress and the environmental community, the Department of the Interior began a program in late 1985 to identify the nature and extent of water-quality problems induced by irrigation that might exist in the western States. Surface water, bottom sediment, and biota were collected from March through September 1995 along the lower Colorado River and in agricultural drains at nine sites in the Yuma Valley, Arizona, and analyzed for selected inorganic and organic constituents. Analyses of water, bottom sediment, and biota were completed to determine if irrigation return flow has caused, or has the potential to cause, harmful effects on human health, fish, and wildlife in the study area. Concentrations of dissolved solids in surface-water samples collected in March generally did not vary substantially from surface-water samples collected in June. Concentrations of dissolved solids ranged from 712 to 3,000 milligrams per liter and exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 500 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Concentrations of chloride in 9 of 18 water samples and concentrations of sulfate in 16 of 18 water samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level of 250 milligrams per liter for drinking water. Calcium and sodium were the dominant cations, and chloride and sulfate were the dominant anions. The maximum selenium concentration of 8 micrograms per liter exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic-life chronic criterion of 5 micrograms per liter. Concentrations of lead in 7 of 18 water samples and concentrations of mercury in 4 of 18 water samples exceeded the aquatic-life cronic criteria of 3.2 and 0.012 micrograms per liter, respectively. Concentrations of antimony, beryllium, cadmium, and silver in the water samples were below analytical reporting limits. Arsenic was detected in 3 of 9 bottom-sediment samples

  3. Decision support for on-farm water management and long-term agricultural sustainability in a semi-arid region of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay

    2010-09-01

    SummaryThe long-term success of irrigated agriculture for sustainable crop production in India depends largely on the careful management of land and water resources. Currently, some serious environmental problems of waterlogging and soil salinization are burgeoning in parts of Haryana State of India; half a million hectare area of the State is already waterlogged. Poor irrigation and drainage management and inadequate exploitation of saline ground water are the main factors responsible for this phenomenon. In order to prevent further degradation and to maintain the food production for the growing population, judicious use of natural resources is a must. A wide range of solutions could be considered to address the problems. But the effectiveness of all the solutions and their combinations cannot be verified with on-farm experiments. Simulation models by way of their predictive capability are often the only viable means of providing input to management decisions. These models can help to forecast the likely impacts of a particular alternative management strategy. In the present study a physical based one-dimensional simulation model SWASALT was employed to evaluate on-farm irrigation water management options. After successful calibration and validation with field experimentation data, several scenario building exercises have been conducted under different crop, soil and rainfall conditions. The water and salt balance component obtained for each simulation run were used to derive water management response indicators. The simulation study revealed that in most conditions, saline water of up to 7.5 dS/m can be used safely on long term basis for crop production. The simulation study further revealed that alternative use of canal and saline water had an edge over mix use. Several alternatives have been suggested for sustainable agricultural production in the region. The strategies suggested, if followed, would lend sustainability to the agricultural production besides

  4. Use of industrial byproducts to filter nutrients and pesticides in a golf green’s drainage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golf courses are particularly vulnerable to phosphate (PO43-) and pesticide loss by infiltration because of the sandy, porous grass rooting media used and presence of subsurface tile drainage. In this study, an effort was made to filter PO43-, chlorothalonil, mefenoxam, and propiconazole in putting ...

  5. Estimating Bacterial Loadings to Surface Waters from Agricultural Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Panhorst, Kimberly A.

    2002-01-01

    Fecal bacteria and pathogens are a major source of surface water impairment. In Virginia alone, approximately 73% of impaired waters are impaired due to fecal coliforms (FC). Because bacteria are a significant cause of water body impairment and existing bacterial models are predominantly based upon laboratory-derived information, bacterial models are needed that describe bacterial die-off and transport processes under field conditions. Before these bacterial models can be developed, more f...

  6. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system. PMID:26994788

  7. Virtual water flows in the international trade of agricultural products of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jinhe; Tang, Guorong; Chen, Min; Wang, Lachun

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid development of the economy and population, water scarcity and poor water quality caused by water pollution have become increasingly severe in China. Virtual water trade is a useful tool to alleviate water shortage. This paper focuses on a comprehensive study of China's international virtual water flows from agricultural products trade and completes a diachronic analysis from 2001 to 2013. The results show that China was in trade surplus in relation to the virtual water trade of agricultural products. The exported virtual water amounted to 29.94billionm(3)/yr. while 155.55billionm(3)/yr. was embedded in imported products. The trend that China exported virtual water per year was on the decline while the imported was on a rising trend. Virtual water trade of China was highly concentrated. Not all of the exported products had comparative advantages in virtual water content. Imported products were excessively concentrated on water intensive agricultural products such as soya beans, cotton, and palm oil. The exported virtual water mainly flowed to the Republic of Korea, Hong Kong of China and Japan, while the imported mainly flowed from the United States of America, Brazil and Argentina. From the ethical point of view, the trade partners were classified into four types in terms of "net import" and "water abundance": mutual benefit countries, such as Australia and Canada; unilateral benefit countries, such as Mongolia and Norway; supported countries, such as Egypt and Singapore; and double pressure countries, such as India and Pakistan. Virtual water strategy refers to water resources, agricultural products and human beings. The findings are beneficial for innovating water resources management system, adjusting trade structure, ensuring food security in China, and promoting the construction of national ecological security system.

  8. Towards a satellite based system for monitoring agricultural water use: A case study for Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2015-11-12

    Over the last few decades, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) has witnessed a dramatic expansion of its agricultural sector. In common with many other developing countries, this has been driven by a combination of population increases and the related effects on consumption as well as a demand for increased food security. Inevitably, the sector growth has come at the expense of a parallel increase in water consumption. Indeed, it is estimated that more than 80% of all of the water used in the Kingdom relates to agricultural production. More concerning is that the vast majority of this water is derived from non-renewable fossil groundwater extraction. To exacerbate the problem, groundwater extraction is largely unmonitored, meaning that there is very little accounting of water use on a routine basis. In the absence of techniques to directly quantify abstractions related to agriculture at large spatial scales, a mechanism for inferring crop water use as an indirect surrogate is required.

  9. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  10. Foreign Agricultural Land Acquisition and the Visibility of Water Resource Impacts in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Woodhouse

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The many headlines focusing on 'land grabbing' have distracted attention from the role that access to water plays in underpinning the projected productivity of foreign direct investment in acquisition of agricultural land in developing countries. This paper identifies questions that arise about the explicit and implicit water requirements for irrigation in agricultural projects on land that is subject to such foreign investment deals. It focuses particularly on land acquisition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, where, for savanna ecosystems that cover some two thirds of the region, rainfall uncertainty is the principal constraint to increased agricultural productivity. The paper argues that, even where land acquisition deals do not specify irrigation, choice of location and/or crop type indicates this is invariably an implicit requirement of projects. It is arguable that private investment in water infrastructure (e.g. for water storage could provide wider benefits to neighbouring small-scale producers, thus reducing the risk inherent in much of African agriculture. However, it is also possible that foreign investment may compete with existing water use, and some land deals have included provisions for priority access to water in cases of scarcity. Empirical studies are used to identify the mechanisms through which large-scale land investments influence water availability for smaller-scale land users. The paper concludes that, although effects on water resources may constitute one of the main impacts of land deals, this is likely to be obscured by the lack of transparency over water requirements of agricultural projects and the invisibility of much existing local agricultural water management to government planning agencies.

  11. Assessment of alternative water management options for irrigated agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhorar, R.K.; Smit, A.A.M.F.R.; Roest, C.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation study on alternative water management strategies was carried out for Sirsa Irrigation Circle in Haryana, covering an area of about 4800 km(2). Results showed that crop evapotranspiration and soil salinity development under reduction in canal water supply and increase in groundwater use,

  12. Rising energy prices and the economics of water in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilberman, D.; Sproul, T.; Rajagopal, D.; Sexton, S.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Rising energy prices will alter water allocation and distribution. Water extraction and conveyance will become more costly and demand for hydroelectric power will grow. The higher cost of energy will substantially increase the cost of groundwater, whereas increasing demand for hydroelectric power ma

  13. How satellite images can improve agricultural land and water management

    OpenAIRE

    Conrad, Christopher; Schorscht, Gunter; Fritsch, Sebastian; Zeidler, Julian

    2010-01-01

    Continuous land use mapping is essential for improving irrigation water distribution, identifying deficiencies in irrigation water supply, and estimating yields. Findings from the ZEF-UNESCO research project in Khorezm, Uzbekistan, demonstrate how remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) can contribute to monitoring and improving land use in irrigation systems.

  14. Agricultural water and energy use in the Senegal River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiyandima, M. C.; Sow, A.

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of the productivity of irrigation water is important measuring the performance of irrigation schemes especially in water scarce areas. Equally important for performance is the energy cost of providing water for irrigation. Sahel irrigation schemes are dependent on pumping water from rivers into a network of gravity operated channels. In the Senegal River valley in Senegal the cost of pumping water and for irrigation has been estimated to be 20-25% of total rice production costs. Irrigation schemes in the valley are characterized by low water productivity. We analysed rice production, irrigation water use and energy use for supplying irrigation water at Pont Gendarme, Ndiawar and Ngallenka MCA irrigation schemes in the Senegal River valley. For the 2013 rainfall season the mean yield ranged between 6 and 8t ha-1. Dry season yield ranged between 1.7 and 6.8t ha-1. Energy use for irrigation in the Ndiawar irrigation scheme was 8kg MJ-1 and 6.4kg MJ-1 in the 2013 and 2014 rainfall seasons respectively. In 2014 (rainfall season) energy productivity of irrigation water was 8.5, 8.0 and 16.4 kg MJ-1 at Ngallenka MCA, Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme respectively. Dry season (2014) energy productivity at Ndiawar and Pont Gendarme was 3.4 and 11.2kg MJ-1 respectively. Productivity of irrigation water was similar for all schemes (0.37kg m-3 at Pont Gendarme, 0.42kg m-3 at Ngallenka MCA, and 0.41kg m-3 Ndiawar). Energy use for the supply of irrigation water in the rainfall season ranged from 403 to 1,002MJ ha-1. Dry season irrigation energy use was 589MJ ha-1 Pont Gendarme and 331MJ ha-1 at Ndiawar. Reducing water use in these schemes through better water management will result in lower production costs and increased margins for the farmers. The observations from 2013 - 2014 highlight the importance of using both water and energy productivity to assess performance of irrigation schemes.

  15. Co-Adapting Water Demand and Supply to Changing Climate in Agricultural Water Systems, A Case Study in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Li, Y.; Mainardi, M.; Arias Munoz, C.; Castelletti, A.; Gandolfi, C.

    2013-12-01

    Exponentially growing water demands and increasing uncertainties in the hydrologic cycle due to changes in climate and land use will challenge water resources planning and management in the next decade. Improving agricultural productivity is particularly critical, being this sector the one characterized by the highest water demand. Moreover, to meet projected growth in human population and per-capita food demand, agricultural production will have to significantly increase in the next decades, even though water availability is expected to decrease due to climate change impacts. Agricultural systems are called to adapt their strategies (e.g., changing crop patterns and the corresponding water demand, or maximizing the efficiency in the water supply modifying irrigation scheduling and adopting high efficiency irrigation techniques) in order to re-optimize the use of limited water resources. Although many studies have assessed climate change impacts on agricultural practices and water management, most of them assume few scenarios of water demand or water supply separately, while an analysis of their reciprocal feedbacks is still missing. Moreover, current practices are generally established according to historical agreements and normative constraints and, in the absence of dramatic failures, the shift toward more efficient water management is not easily achievable. In this work, we propose to activate an information loop between farmers and water managers to improve the effectiveness of agricultural water management practices by matching the needs of the farmers with the design of water supply strategies. The proposed approach is tested on a real-world case study, namely the Lake Como serving the Muzza-Bassa Lodigiana irrigation district (Italy). A distributed-parameter, dynamic model of the system allows to simulate crop growth and the final yield over a range of hydro-climatic conditions, irrigation strategies and water-related stresses. The spatial component of the

  16. Investigation of stream water quality in an agricultural and a forested watershed in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Winsnes, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Nepal has long faced difficulties regarding population growth and food production, and intensified agriculture with expansion to the steep hills has led to erosion, soil degradation and water pollution; compromising both soil and water quality. Two watersheds with different land use pattern in the Middle hills of Nepal are investigated to assess the impact of land use differences. The study is based on stream water quality in Mahadev Khola (MK), a water resource for Bhaktapur m...

  17. An integrated social and ecological modeling framework—impacts of agricultural conservation practices on water quality

    OpenAIRE

    Irem Daloğlu; Joan Iverson. Nassauer; Rick Riolo; Donald Scavia

    2014-01-01

    We present a modeling framework that synthesizes social, economic, and ecological aspects of landscape change to evaluate how different agricultural policy and land tenure scenarios and land management preferences affect landscape pattern and downstream water quality. We linked a stylized agent-based model (ABM) of farmers’ conservation practice adoption decisions with a water quality model, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), to simulate the water quality effects of changing land tenu...

  18. PRESSURE OF WATER SHORTAGE ON AGRICULTURE IN ARID REGION OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xin

    2003-01-01

    The arid areas in China are mainly located in North China and Northwest China. The North China is themain region for food production. There is 31.19% of the total farmland and 26. 01% of the total population, but only6. 14% of the available water resources of China. Groundwater is over pumped (6. 53 × 109m3 every year) in the regionsof Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei Province, so water supply could not meet the water demand there. The distribution of wa-ter in Northwest China is uneven, some inland rivers and lakes are dried up, and desertification has expanded since riverwater in the upper and middle reaches is diverted for irrigation. Up to 2050, population will be up to 1.6 × 109 in Chi-na, and industry will be developed fast, therefore 50% of the water supply will be used by industry and resident, andwater for agriculture will be decreased year by year. In the coming 50 years, water demand for agriculture will be in-creased by 5.6 × 109m3 in the Huanghe (Yellow) River valley, and by 1.7 × 109m3 in the Northwest China. It will beimpossible for the Huanghe River to meet the water demand, because it always dried up in the cold half year since 1984.To avoid water shortage of agriculture in the arid regions, it is necessary to divert water from the Changjiang (Yangtze)River in the south of China, and to use water efficiently. It is the best way to use drip irrigation in agriculture, recyclewater in industry and resident use, and control water pollution. Otherwise water shortage in the arid regions will restrictthe development of agriculture in China.

  19. Problem area 1 effective water management in agriculture-Product area accomplishments-FY 11 - FY14

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service National Program 211 is composed of four components or problem areas. Problem Area 1, Effective Water Management in Agriculture, focuses on six areas of research that are crucial to safe and effective use of all water resources for agricultural production: 1) I...

  20. The economic impact of more sustainable water use in agriculture: A computable general equilibrium analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzadilla, Alvaro; Rehdanz, Katrin; Tol, Richard S. J.

    2010-04-01

    SummaryAgriculture is the largest consumer of freshwater resources - around 70 percent of all freshwater withdrawals are used for food production. These agricultural products are traded internationally. A full understanding of water use is, therefore, impossible without understanding the international market for food and related products, such as textiles. Based on the global general equilibrium model GTAP-W, we offer a method for investigating the role of green (rain) and blue (irrigation) water resources in agriculture and within the context of international trade. We use future projections of allowable water withdrawals for surface water and groundwater to define two alternative water management scenarios. The first scenario explores a deterioration of current trends and policies in the water sector (water crisis scenario). The second scenario assumes an improvement in policies and trends in the water sector and eliminates groundwater overdraft world-wide, increasing water allocation for the environment (sustainable water use scenario). In both scenarios, welfare gains or losses are not only associated with changes in agricultural water consumption. Under the water crisis scenario, welfare not only rises for regions where water consumption increases (China, South East Asia and the USA). Welfare gains are considerable for Japan and South Korea, Southeast Asia and Western Europe as well. These regions benefit from higher levels of irrigated production and lower food prices. Alternatively, under the sustainable water use scenario, welfare losses not only affect regions where overdrafting is occurring. Welfare decreases in other regions as well. These results indicate that, for water use, there is a clear trade-off between economic welfare and environmental sustainability.

  1. GlobWat – a global water balance model to assess water use in irrigated agriculture (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, J.; Faures, J.M.; Peiser, L.; Burke, J.; Van de Giesen, N.C.

    2015-01-01

    GlobWat is a freely distributed, global soil water balance model that is used by FAO to assess water use in irrigated agriculture; the main factor behind scarcity of freshwater in an increasing number of regions. The model is based on spatially distributed high resolution datasets that are consisten

  2. [Transformation of Non-point Source Soluble Nitrogen in Simulated Drainage Ditch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang-kun; Song, Chang-ji; Hu, Ya-wei; Peng, Cong; Ma, Qiang; Jiang, Zheng-xi; Ju, Yi-rheng

    2016-02-15

    The drainage ditch has a compound ecosystem structure consisting of water, sediment and plants. Migration and transformation of the non-point source solute is important to study interception, control and management of agricultural non-point source pollution in the drainage ditch. Based on the experiment on static simulation of drainage ditches, the article used typical non-point source soluble nitrogen as an example to analyze the changing process of nitrogen content in water, sediment and reeds, and to study the effects of the sediment adsorption and desorption, reeds growth and death in different periods on nitrogen concentration in water. The article discussed nitrogen migration in water-sediment-reeds compound ecosystem and its influence on nitrogen concentration in water. The results showed that both adsorption and desorption in sediment and absorption and assimilation of reeds growth had effect on nitrogen concentration in water. The effect before October was reducing the nitrogen concentration in water, which was the process of nitrogen purification in water. After October, the nitrogen concentration in water increased and made it easy to form secondary nitrogen pollution. Meanwhile, the migration in the water-sediment-seeds ecosystem in simulated drainage ditch had close ties, any migration and transformation of nitrogen in a single medium or between different mediums would cause adjustment of nitrogen concentration in water. PMID:27363139

  3. Land use policy and agricultural water management of the previous half of century in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-12-01

    This paper examines land use policy and agricultural water management in Africa from 1962 to 2011. For this purpose, data were gathered from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Bank Group. Using the FAO database, ten indices were selected: permanent crops to cultivated area (%), rural population to total population (%), total economically active population in agriculture to total economically active population (%), human development index, national rainfall index (mm/year), value added to gross domestic product by agriculture (%), irrigation water requirement (mm/year), percentage of total cultivated area drained (%), difference between national rainfall index and irrigation water requirement (mm/year), area equipped for irrigation to cultivated area or land use policy index (%). These indices were analyzed for all 53 countries in the study area and the land use policy index was estimated by two different formulas. The results show that value of relative error is systems was studied using other eight indices with more limited information. These indices are surface irrigation (%), sprinkler irrigation (%), localized irrigation (%), spate irrigation (%), agricultural water withdrawal (10 km3/year), conservation agriculture area as percentage of cultivated area (%), percentage of area equipped for irrigation salinized (%), and area waterlogged by irrigation (%). Finally, tendency of farmers to use irrigation systems for cultivated crops has been presented. The results show that Africa needs governments' policy to encourage farmers to use irrigation systems and raise cropping intensity for irrigated area.

  4. Water and Agriculture: a relation that needs to change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the top ten of the global risks in terms of impact analysed, from the 2015 World Economic Forum's Global Risks Report, the ' water crisis' is in first place as intensity of impact: that's understandable because from water depends not only the life on the Earth but also many of the economic activities. For this reason it is essential protect water and to use it in a way more and more efficient and sustainable. The Technical Unit models, methods and technologies for environmental assessments of ENEA works since several years in the field of water resource management. It is in this context that ENEA has patented a biological system for removing phosphorus from wastewater, which is presented here schematically.

  5. Benchmarking water productivity in agriculture and the scope for improvement - remote sensing modelling from field to global scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Agriculture is the largest consumer and water. In the context of an increasing population and less water available for the agricultural sector, the water productivity needs to be sustained or increased to secure food security. This study provides benchmark values for water productivity for the major

  6. Optimal management of water resources demand and supply in irrigated agriculture from plot to regional scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Niels; Wagner, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Growing water scarcity in agriculture is an increasing problem in future in many regions of the world. For assessing irrigation as a measure to increase agricultural water security a generalized stochastic optimization framework for a spatial distributed estimation of future irrigation water demand is proposed, which ensures safe yields and a high water productivity at the same time. Different open loop and closed loop control strategies are evaluated within this stochastic optimization framework in order to generate reliable stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF). The resulting database of SCWPF can serve as a central decision support tool for both, (i) a cost benefit analysis of farm irrigation modernization on a local scale and (ii) a regional water demand management using a multi-scale approach for modeling and implementation. The new approach is applied using the example of a case study in Saxony, which is dealing with the sustainable management of future irrigation water demands and its implementation.

  7. The 2005 catastrophic acid crater lake drainage, lahar, and acidic aerosol formation at Mount Chiginagak volcano, Alaska, USA: Field observations and preliminary water and vegetation chemistry results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, J.R.; Scott, W.E.; Evans, William C.; Jorgenson, J.; McGimsey, R.G.; Wang, B.

    2008-01-01

    A mass of snow and ice 400-m-wide and 105-m-thick began melting in the summit crater of Mount Chiginagak volcano sometime between November 2004 and early May 2005, presumably owing to increased heat flux from the hydrothermal system, or possibly from magma intrusion and degassing. In early May 2005, an estimated 3.8??106 m3 of sulfurous, clay-rich debris and acidic water, with an accompanying acidic aerosol component, exited the crater through a tunnel at the base of a glacier that breaches the south crater rim. Over 27 km downstream, the acidic waters of the flood inundated an important salmon spawning drainage, acidifying Mother Goose Lake from surface to depth (approximately 0.5 km3 in volume at a pH of 2.9 to 3.1), killing all aquatic life, and preventing the annual salmon run. Over 2 months later, crater lake water sampled 8 km downstream of the outlet after considerable dilution from glacial meltwater was a weak sulfuric acid solution (pH = 3.2, SO4 = 504 mg/L, Cl = 53.6 mg/L, and F = 7.92 mg/L). The acid flood waters caused severe vegetation damage, including plant death and leaf kill along the flood path. The crater lake drainage was accompanied by an ambioructic flow of acidic aerosols that followed the flood path, contributing to defoliation and necrotic leaf damage to vegetation in a 29 km2 area along and above affected streams, in areas to heights of over 150 m above stream level. Moss species killed in the event contained high levels of sulfur, indicating extremely elevated atmospheric sulfurcontent. The most abundant airborne phytotoxic constituent was likely sulfuric acid aerosols that were generated during the catastrophic partial crater lake drainage event. Two mechanisms of acidic aerosol formation are proposed: (1) generation of aerosol mist through turbulent flow of acidic water and (2) catastrophic gas exsolution. This previously undocumented phenomenon of simultaneous vegetationdamaging acidic aerosols accompanying drainage of an acidic crater

  8. Agriculture and Energy: Implications for Food Security, Water, and Land Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.

    2011-12-01

    Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more

  9. Pérdidas de Glifosato por Drenaje y Escurrimiento en Mol¡soles bajo Siembra Directa Glyphosate losses by drainage and runoff from Mollisois under no-till agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María C Sasal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se ha cuantificado las pérdidas de glifosato por drenaje y escurrimiento y su translocación hacia el grano en soja transgénica sembrada en Molisoles representativos de la Pampa Ondulada argentina bajo siembra directa. Se utilizaron 3 lisímetros (Argiudol típico y 3 parcelas de escorrentía (Argiudol ácuico ubicados en las Estaciones Experimentales del Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria de Pergamino y Paraná, respectivamente. El glifosato aplicado antes de la siembra se detectó en el agua de drenaje mientras que la aplicación de post-emergencia fue detectada en el grano. Se registraron máximos de elevadas concentraciones de glifosato en el agua de drenaje y escurrimiento (-10 ug L"¹. Sin embargo, la cantidad de glifosato que salió del sistema representó menos del 0,03 y 0,6% de las cantidades aplicadas, respectivamente. Se observó elevada variabilidad de las concentraciones de glifosato en todos los compartimentos analizados.Glyphosate losses by drainage and runoff from no-till-soybean-cultivated Molisolls representative of the Argentinean Rolling Pampas and its translocation in transgenic soybean biomass have been determined. Three lisymeters (Typic Argiudoll and 3 runoff plots (Aquic Argiudoll located in the Experimental Stations of the National Institute of Farming Technology of Pergamino y Paraná, respectively, were used. Glyphosate applied before sowing was detected in drainage water and the post-emergence application was detected in grains with small and variable concentrations. Peaks of glyphosate concentrations in drainage and runoff water were registered after important rain events (-10 ug L"¹. However, the amount of glyphosate lost throughout the study period was lower than 0.03 and 0.6% of the amounts applied, respectively. High variability of Glyphosate concentrations was found in all compartments analyzed.

  10. Water for Agriculture in a Vulnerable Delta: A Case Study of Indian Sundarban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Bhadra, T.; Hazra, S.

    2015-12-01

    Indian Sundarban lies in the south-western part of the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta and supports a 4.43 million strong population. The agrarian economy of Sundarban is dominated by rainfed subsistence rice farming. Unavailability of upstream fresh water, high salinity of river water of up to 32ppt, soil salinity ranging between 2dSm-1 to 19dSm-1, small land holdings of per capita 840 sq. metre and inadequate irrigation facilities are serious constraints for agricultural production in Sundarban. This paper assesses Cropping Intensity, Irrigation Intensity and Man-Cropland Ratio from Agriculture Census (2010-11) data and estimates the seasonal water demand for agriculture in different blocks of Sundarban. The research exposes the ever increasing population pressure on agriculture with an average Man Cropland Ratio of 1745 person/sq.km. In 2010-2011, the average cropping intensity was 129.97% and the irrigation intensity was 20.40%. The highest cropping and irrigation intensity have been observed in the inland blocks where shallow ground water is available for agriculture on the contrary, the lowest values have been observed in the southern blocks, due to existence of saline shallow ground water. The annual water demand for agriculture in Sundarban has been estimated as 2784 mcm. Available water from 70000 freshwater tanks and around 8000 numbers of shallow tube wells are not sufficient to meet the agricultural water demand. Existing irrigation sources and rainfall of 343 mcm fall far short of the water demand of 382 mcm during peak dry Season. Unavailability of fresh water restricts the food production, which endangers the food security of 87.5% of the people in Sundarban. To ensure the food security in changing climatic condition, expansion of irrigation network and harnessing of new water sources are essential. Large scale rainwater harvesting, rejuvenation and re-connection of disconnected river channels, artificial recharge within shallow aquifer to bring down its

  11. The effects of industrial and agricultural activity on the water quality of the Sitnica River (Kosovo)

    OpenAIRE

    Albona Shala; Fatbardh Sallaku; Agron Shala; Shkëlzim Ukaj

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in Kosovo is water pollution. The use of polluted water has a direct impact on human health and cause long-term consequences. The longest and most polluted river in Kosovo is the Sitnica, a 90 km long river with its source located near the village of Sazli. The river flows into the Ibar River in Northern Kosovo. Agriculture is prevailing activity in the basin of Sitnica which is why agricultural as well as industrial waste are the biggest water pollutants. The purpose of th...

  12. Simultaneous concentration of bovine viruses and agricultural zoonotic bacteria from water using sodocalcic glass wool filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infiltration and runoff from manured agricultural fields can result in livestock pathogens reaching groundwater and surface waters. Here, we measured the effectiveness of glass wool filters to simultaneously concentrate enteric viruses and bacteria of bovine origin from water. The recovery efficienc...

  13. Marginal value of natural water in agriculture: a study in the suburbs of Mekelle City, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gezahegn, T.W.; Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin

    2015-01-01

    In areas where markets for natural water are lacking, information on its marginal value can be an important tool for proper pricing to achieve efficient allocation of the resource. This article investigates the marginal value of natural water (rainwater used as a proxy) in agricultural crop producti

  14. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing Municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diepen, van C.A.; Wijk, van M.S.; Xu Cheng,; Roetter, R.P.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Yanxia Hu,; Changhe Lu,; Keulen, van H.; Wolf, J.

    2003-01-01

    For Beijing Municipality the quantity of available water resources and the quality of the available water have become matters of concern. This is caused by the rapid urbanization and the strong intensification of the agricultural sector. In this literature review for Beijing Municipality the followi

  15. Analysis of economic impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    This contribution presents an analysis of impacts of climate change on agricultural water management in Europe. The analysis of climate change impacts on agriculture is composed of two main categories: rainfed agriculture and irrigated agriculture. Impacts on rainfed agriculture are mostly conditioned by climatic factors and were evaluated through the estimation of changes in agricultural productivity induced by climatic changes using the SARA model. At each site, process-based crop responses to climate and management are simulated by using the DSSAT crop models for cereals (wheat and rice), coarse grains (maize) and leguminous (soybeans). Changes in the rest of the crops are derived from analogies to these main crops. For each of the sites we conducted a sensitivity analysis to environmental variables (temperature, precipitation and CO2 levels) and management variables (planting date, nitrogen and irrigation applications) to obtain a database of crop responses. The resulting site output was used to define statistical models of yield response for each site which were used to obtain estimates of changes in agricultural productivity of representative production systems in European agro-climatic regions. Impacts on irrigated agriculture are mostly conditioned by water availability and were evaluated through the estimation of changes in water availability using the WAAPA model, which simulates the operation of a water resources system to maximize water availability. Basic components of WAAPA are inflows, reservoirs and demands. These components are linked to nodes of the river network. WAAPA allows the simulation of reservoir operation and the computation of supply to demands from a system of reservoirs accounting for ecological flows and evaporation losses. WAAPA model was used to estimate maximum potential water availability in the European river network applying gross volume reliability as performance criterion. Impacts on agricultural production are also dependent

  16. An assessment of actual evapotranspiration and soil water deficit in agricultural regions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurnik, Blaž; Kajfež-Bogataj, Lučka; Horion, Stéphanie Marie Anne F

    2015-01-01

    ) analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficients (RPearson), we showed that large-scale agricultural droughts are influenced by the recurrence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and by the atmospheric blocking. Atmospheric blocking in different months throughout the year and extreme NAO index (mainly...... blocking influences agricultural droughts in southeastern Europe. Notwithstanding, the first three EOFs contribute to less than 40% of the total spatial variability of SWD. This shows that agricultural droughts are complex phenomena that can be only partly explained by extreme NAO or by intensive......Changes in agricultural droughts were investigated using simulations of soil water deficit (SWD) and actual evapotranspiration (ETA) from a distributed semi-empirical soil water balance model – swbEWA. At European scale, both SWD and ETA did not change significantly between 1951 and 2011. However...

  17. Models Robustness for Simulating Drainage and NO3-N Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabro, Jay; Jabro, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Computer models simulate and forecast appropriate agricultural practices to reduce environmental impact. The objectives of this study were to assess and compare robustness and performance of three models -- LEACHM, NCSWAP, and SOIL-SOILN--for simulating drainage and NO3-N leaching fluxes in an intense pasture system without recalibration. A 3-yr study was conducted on a Hagerstown silt loam to measure drainage and NO3-N fluxes below 1 m depth from N-fertilized orchardgrass using intact core lysimeters. Five N-fertilizer treatments were replicated five times in a randomized complete block experimental design. The models were validated under orchardgrass using soil, water and N transformation rate parameters and C pools fractionation derived from a previous study conducted on similar soils under corn. The model efficiency (MEF) of drainage and NO3-N fluxes were 0.53, 0.69 for LEACHM; 0.75, 0.39 for NCSWAP; and 0.94, 0.91for SOIL-SOILN. The models failed to produce reasonable simulations of drainage and NO3-N fluxes in January, February and March due to limited water movement associated with frozen soil and snow accumulation and melt. The differences between simulated and measured NO3-N leaching and among models' performances may also be related to soil N and C transformation processes embedded in the models These results are a monumental progression in the validation of computer models which will lead to continued diffusion across diverse stakeholders.

  18. Laboratory Testing of Foundry Sands as Bulking Agents for Porous Media Filters Used to Treat Agricultural Drainage Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundry sands are industrial byproducts that may have potential application as bulking agents that when mixed with small amounts of more chemically reactive materials (i.e. sulfur modified iron, fly ash, etc.) can be used to produce porous media filters capable of removing contaminants from agricult...

  19. Price elasticity reconsidered: Panel estimation of an agricultural water demand function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoengold, Karina; Sunding, David L.; Moreno, Georgina

    2006-09-01

    Using panel data from a period of water rate reform, this paper estimates the price elasticity of irrigation water demand. Price elasticity is decomposed into the direct effect of water management and the indirect effect of water price on choice of output and irrigation technology. The model is estimated using an instrumental variables strategy to account for the endogeneity of technology and output choices in the water demand equation. Estimation results indicate that the price elasticity of agricultural water demand is -0.79, which is greater than that found in previous studies.

  20. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy.

  1. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy. PMID:27074925

  2. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production%流域水市场建设对我国农业生产的现实意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭新育; 吴旭贤

    2011-01-01

    在介绍水市场相关概念并对国内外关于水市场的研究进展进行简述的基础上,分析了水市场的制度设计特点:农业水权的优先分配;市场结构的紧密构筑;取水权和排污权的合理定价;取水总量与排污总量的科学制定.揭示了流域水市场建设对我国农业生产的现实意义:保障农业用水安全;有效缓解农业旱情;节约农业生产用水;提高农产品质量.%On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research both domestic market and foreign market, the system design features of water market is analyzed. The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right, the close construction of market structure, reasonable price making of the water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage. The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural produc tion are revealed, which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water; effectively alleviating agricultural drought; saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  3. Projections of Virtual Water Trade Under Agricultural Policy Scenarios in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalin, C.; Hanasaki, N.; Qiu, H.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.

    2014-12-01

    China's economic growth is expected to continue into the next decades, accompanied by a sustained urbanization and industrialization. The associated increase in demand for land, water resources and rich foods will deepen the challenge to sustainably feed the population and balance environmental and agricultural policies. In previous work, Inner Mongolia was identified as a target province for trade or agricultural policies aimed at water-use efficiency improvements, due to its large production relying on particularly significant irrigation water use. In addition, water scarcity issues may arises in the greater Beijing area, which represents the largest urban area of arid Northern China. Increasing residential and industrial water demand in this region may lead to fewer available water for irrigation. For these reasons, it is important to estimate the impacts of specific policies aiming at reducing excessive water use for crop production in Inner Mongolia, as well as exploring ways to mitigate pressure on water resources in dry urban areas. In this study, we use socio-economic projections to assess the future state of China's virtual water trade (VWT) network. We then quantify the effects of agricultural policies on the national VWT system and on the efficiency of food trade in terms of water resources. This study addresses the following questions: (1) How future socio-economic changes will affect China's food trade and associated water transfers? (2) To which extent localized reductions of irrigated area can decrease agricultural water use while maintaining national food security? (3) How would these policies affect China's domestic and international VWT network and induced water resources savings (losses)?

  4. Water and Energy Consumption by Agriculture in the Minqin Oasis Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng; WANG Yue; QIU Guo-yu

    2013-01-01

    Water used in agriculture consumes much energy, mainly due to pumping water for irrigation, but the water-energy nexus is always neglected in arid and semi-arid areas. Based on hydrological observation data, irrigation data and socio-economic data over the past 50 yr, this study has derived a detailed estimate of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural water use in the Minqin Oasis. Results show that the decreasing water supply and increasing demand for agriculture has caused severe water deficits over the past 50 yr in this region. The groundwater energy use rate rose by 76%between 1961 and 2009 because of the serious decline in groundwater levels. An increase in pump lift by an average 1 m would cause GHG emission rates to rise by around 2%. Over the past 10 yr, the GHG emissions from groundwater accounted for 65-88%of the total emissions from agricultural water. GHG emissions for diverted water varied from 0.047 to 0.074 Mt CO2e as the water input increased. Long distance conveyance and high pump lifts need more electricity input than groundwater abstraction does. Government policies have had a favorable effect on total emissions by reducing water abstraction. But groundwater depletion, exacerbated by a growing population and an expansion in arable land, remains the principal energy-water nexus challenge in the region. In response to the increasing water-energy crisis, energy-saving irrigation technology, matching to cost efficiencies, and better coordination between different infrastructural agencies could be feasible ways of rendering the water and energy sectors more sustainable over the long term.

  5. Can rainfed agriculture adapt to uncertainty in availability of water in Indus Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Sen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding impacts of hydrological and climatological functions under changing climate on regional floods, droughts as well as agricultural commodities remain a serious challenge in tropical agricultural basins. These "tropical agricultural basins" are regions where: (i) the understanding on hydrologic functions (such as precipitation, soil moisture, evapotranspiration, surface runoff, vegetation) are not well established; (ii) increasing population is at the convergence of rural and urban boundaries; (iii) resilience and sustainability of the water resources under different climatic conditions is unknown; and, (iv) agriculture is the primary occupation for majority of the population. More than 95% of the farmed lands in tropical regions are rainfed and 60% of total agricultural production in South Asia relying on seasonal rainfall. Tropical regions frequently suffer from unexpected droughts and sudden flash floods, resulting in massive losses in human lives and affecting regional economy. Prediction of frequency, intensity and magnitude of floods in tropical regions is still a subject of debate and research. A clear example is from the massive floods in the Eastern Indus River in July 2010 that submerged 17 million acre of fertile cropland. Yet, seasonal droughts, such as 2014 rain deficits in Indus Basin, had no effects on annual crop yields - thus creating a paradox. Large amounts of groundwater is being used to supplement water needs for crops during drought conditions, leading to oversubscription of natural aquifers. Key reason that rainfed agriculture is relying heavily on groundwater is because of the uncertainty in timing and distribution of precipitation in the tropical regions, where such data are not routinely collected as well as the basins are transnational, thus limiting sharing of data. Assessment of availability of water for agricultural purposes a serious challenge in tropical regions. This study will provide a framework for using multi

  6. Impact of AMD on water quality in critical watershed in the Hudson River drainage basin: Phillips Mine, Hudson Highlands, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, S.; Gates, A.; Szabo, Z.; Lamothe, P.J.

    2009-01-01

    A sulfur and trace element enriched U-Th-laced tailings pile at the abandoned Phillips Mine in Garrison, New York, releases acid mine drainage (AMD, generally pH iron hydroxides which act as sinks for metals, indicating progressive sequestration that correlates with dilution and sharp rise in pH when mine water mixes with tributaries. Seasonal variations in metal concentrations were partly attributable to dissolution of the efflorescent salts with their sorbed metals and additional metals from surging acidic seepage induced by precipitation.

  7. The Baltic Sea Experiment (BALTEX): A European contribution to the investigation of the energy and water cycle over a large drainage basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raschke, E.; Meywerk, J.; Warrach, K.;

    2001-01-01

    drainage basin of the Baltic Sea in northern Europe. BALTEX aims to provide a better understanding of the processes of the climate system and to improve and to validate the water cycle in regional numerical models for weather forecasting and climate studies. A major effort is undertaken to couple...... 2002 to validate numerical models and satellite products. Major achievements have been obtained in an improved understanding of related exchange processes. For the first time an interactive atmosphere-ocean-land surface model for the Baltic Sea was tested. This paper reports on major activities...

  8. Sediment P in Agricultural Streams: Response to Land Use and Influence on TP Export

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamond, Madeline; Mohamed, Mohamed; Taylor, William

    2015-04-01

    Phosphorus export from agricultural streams can be a significant source to downstream water bodies, contributing to eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Sediment in agricultural streams can have very high P concentrations and has been proposed as a significant source of P to the water column though bioavailability can be low. Recent work suggests that sediments can sorb P from point sources such as WWTPs, and release this P during disturbances such as high flow events. However, it is unclear if sediment P responds to increased P application to the landscape, or if it is a significant source of P to annual TP export from agricultural streams. We examined 15 streams in southern Ontario, Canada, in highly agricultural catchments, comparing stream sediment P concentration to sediment geochemistry, P application, runoff, tile drainage, water column TP concentration and TP export. Stream sediment P was well correlated to sediment Fe and C and to tile drainage, and weakly correlated to manure P. This could suggest that sediment P responds to P addition, and may temporarily store P incoming from agricultural sources. Annual TP export was not correlated to stream sediment P concentration but was well correlated with runoff and tile drainage. This suggests P stored in sediment is a minor contributor to annual TP export. Effective agricultural P management strategies include implementing drainage water management, buffer zones etc. in catchments with high runoff and tile drainage.

  9. 建筑给排水工程节能技术的研究%Explore the Energy-saving Technologies in Building Water Supply and Drainage Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶曦

    2013-01-01

      随着建筑技术的快速发展,建筑节能技术已经成为建筑工程设计的重要内容。建筑给排水工程中的节能技术已然成为广大建筑人士探讨的热点话题,科学合理的节水节能方案,是一项利国利民的大事。基于此,本文将探讨建筑给排水工程的节能技术。%With the rapid development of construction techno-logy, the building energy-saving technology has become an important part of the construction engineering. The energy-sa-ving technology in building water supply and drainage engine-ering has become a hot topic for the majority of the building people, the scientific and rational water and energy conservati-on programs are the major events to benefits the country and people. In this article, the author analysis the energy-saving te-chnology of the building water supply and drainage works.

  10. Assessment, water-quality trends, and options for remediation of acidic drainage from abandoned coal mines near Huntsville, Missouri, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Eric D.

    2005-01-01

    Water from abandoned underground coal mines acidifies receiving streams in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin near Huntsville, Missouri. A 4.35-kilometer (2.7-mile) reach of Sugar Creek has been classified as impaired based on Missouri's Water Quality Standards because of small pH values [water quality in Sugar Creek. Metal and sulfate loads increased and pH decreased immediately downstream from Sugar Creek's confluence with the Calfee Slope and Huntsville Gob drainages that discharge AMD into Sugar Creek. Similar effects were observed in the Mitchell Mine drainage that receives AMD from a large mine spring. Comparisons of water-quality samples from this study and two previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1987-1988 and the Missouri Department of Natural Resources in 2000-2002 indicate that AMD generation in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin is declining, but the data are insufficient to quantify any trends or time frame. AMD samples from the largest mine spring in the Calfee Slope subbasin indicated a modest but significant increase in median pH from 4.8 to 5.2 using the Wilcoxan rank-sum test (p water or sewage effluent can further increase pH as indicated by geochemical modeling, but will not totally achieve water-quality goals because of limited discharges. A combination of treatments including settling ponds, oxic or anoxic limestone drains, and possibly successive alkalinity producing systems to remediate AMD will likely be required in the Sugar Creek Basin and Mitchell Mine Basin to consistently meet Missouri's Water Quality Standards.

  11. 基于数值模拟的太湖流域地区节水条件下水田灌排水量研究%Research on the Irrigation and Drainage Water Quantity under the Condition of Water-saving Measures in the Area of Taihu Basin Based on Numerical Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林刚毅; 沈爱春; 王跃奎; 高怡

    2012-01-01

    太湖流域内农业用水粗放,水利用效率低下,农业面源污染严重,推广水稻节水灌溉势在必行。为了研究水稻节水灌溉对太湖流域用水总量控制的影响效应以及对太湖流域水资源量和水环境的影响效应,需要弄清在不同保证率下节水灌溉和淹水灌溉单位面积的灌溉水量和排水量。改进了逐日水量平衡法中蒸散发项和渗漏项的计算方法,并对该方法中各个参数的确定做了说明。最后以杭嘉湖区为例,选用1956--2000年系列资料模拟灌溉排水过程,同时采用P-Ⅲ型曲线计算不同保证率下节水灌溉和淹水灌溉的灌溉水量,并比较了两者的效益。%Agricultural irrigation water quantity in TaiHu Basin is so extensive that a high utilization efficiency of water is impossible, plus, the agriculture non-point poIlution is very serious, therefore it is important to develop water-saving irrigation. In order to re- search the impact of water-saving irrigation on the total water requirement controls of the Taihu Basin and the water resources and water environment of the Taihu Basin, it is needed to make sure about irrigation and displacement water quantity per unit area of wa- ter-saving irrigation and inundative irrigation in the different probability of irrigation conditions. This paper improved calculation method of the evapotranspiration and leakage items of the daily water balance method, and illustrated how to estimate calculation pa- rameters. Finally, taking Hangjiahu area as an example, the author selected a series of data from 1956 to 2000 to simulate the irriga- tion and drainage process, while used P-Ⅲ curve to calculate the irrigation and drainage water quantity of water-saving irrigation and inundative irrigation with the different probability of irrigation, and compared the benefits of both.

  12. Estimating Hydrologic Fluxes, Crop Water Use, and Agricultural Land Area in China using Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tiziana; McLaughlin, Dennis B.; Hoisungwan, Piyatida

    2016-04-01

    Crop production has significantly altered the terrestrial environment by changing land use and by altering the water cycle through both co-opted rainfall and surface water withdrawals. As the world's population continues to grow and individual diets become more resource-intensive, the demand for food - and the land and water necessary to produce it - will continue to increase. High-resolution quantitative data about water availability, water use, and agricultural land use are needed to develop sustainable water and agricultural planning and policies. However, existing data covering large areas with high resolution are susceptible to errors and can be physically inconsistent. China is an example of a large area where food demand is expected to increase and a lack of data clouds the resource management dialogue. Some assert that China will have insufficient land and water resources to feed itself, posing a threat to global food security if they seek to increase food imports. Others believe resources are plentiful. Without quantitative data, it is difficult to discern if these concerns are realistic or overly dramatized. This research presents a quantitative approach using data assimilation techniques to characterize hydrologic fluxes, crop water use (defined as crop evapotranspiration), and agricultural land use at 0.5 by 0.5 degree resolution and applies the methodology in China using data from around the year 2000. The approach uses the principles of water balance and of crop water requirements to assimilate existing data with a least-squares estimation technique, producing new estimates of water and land use variables that are physically consistent while minimizing differences from measured data. We argue that this technique for estimating water fluxes and agricultural land use can provide a useful basis for resource management modeling and policy, both in China and around the world.

  13. Applications of Magnetic Water Technology in Farming and Agriculture Development: A Review of Recent Advances

    OpenAIRE

    Yadollahpour Ali; Rashidi Samaneh; Fatemeh Kavakebian

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic water treatment (MWT) techniques have shown promising potentials in different areas specially agriculture. Safety, compatibility and simplicity, environmentally friendliness, low operating cost and not proven harmful effects are the main advantages of electromagnetic field (EMF) over conventional methods for water treatment. Magnetized or magnetic water (MW) possesses unique physical and chemical characteristics making it a multi-purpose compound with potential benefits in medical tr...

  14. Integrated aquaculture-agriculture in Egypt : towards more efficient use of water resources : workshop report

    OpenAIRE

    Heijden, van der, C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Results of recent studies, research and practical experiences from Egypt and abroad with forms of aquaculture that use water en nutrients more efficiently than common pond culture were discussed at a workshop held in Cairo (April 21, 2011). The presentations include the results of a study undertaken on four Egyptian integrated aquaculture – agriculture farms where water use, effluent water quality, fish harvest and revenue from crop and fish sales in 2010 were monitored.

  15. Analyzing the Potential Water Conservation Strategies: An Application to Irrigated Agriculture in the Texas Panhandle

    OpenAIRE

    Rachna TEWARI; Almas, Lal K.; Lust, David G.; Amosson, Stephen H.; Bretz, Fran E.

    2010-01-01

    Witnessing a rapid surge in irrigation requirements as well as the pressure on natural resources to augment production for satisfying grain demand for the growing human and livestock population, ground water supply in the Texas Panhandle reflects itself as a limiting yet indispensable factor. This study evaluates the effectiveness of eight potential water management strategies in terms of water savings, implementation costs as well as the regional impact of each policy on the agricultural eco...

  16. Estimating the Agricultural Water Productivity of the Yellow River Basin Based on Remote Sensing Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Guoqiang; Xue, Baolin; Yu, Jingshan; Otsuki, Kyoichi

    2011-01-01

    Water shortage for agricultural water use is a major problem in the Yellow River basin. This research use NDVI value, meteorological data, supervised classification in remote sensing image and actual statistical data to estimate and verify the wheat and maize distribution and the relevant crop water productivity values in the Yellow River basin. The validation of the method is performed by comparing the results with the distribution of CIESIN statistic data for 1990. To obtain the accurate cr...

  17. Risk-Cost-Benefit Analysis of Atrazine in Drinking Water from Agricultural Activities and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfamichael, Aklilu; Caplan, Arthur J.; Kaluarachchi, Jagath

    2005-01-01

    This study provides an improved methodology for investigating the trade-offs between the health risks and economic benefits of using atrazine in the agricultural sector. Regression models are developed to predict finished water atrazine concentration in high-risk community water supplies in the US. The predicted finished water atrazine concentrations are then incorporated in a health risk assessment. The computed health risks are compared with total economic surplus in the US corn market for ...

  18. Agricultural water-saving potential and feasibility of developing semi-dryland farming in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Xiuqiao; Wang Jinglei

    2013-01-01

    Based on the collected data in the current status of developing and utilizing water resources and imple-menting water-saving agriculture in Henan Province,and taking into account the influence of engineering,agro-nomic and management measures,the water-saving potential in past years and the feasibility of implementing semi-dryland farming were analyzed in Henan Province. Finally,specific technical measures of developing semi-dryland farming in different areas of Henan Province were proposed.

  19. DRAINAGE AND FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIDDHARTHA ROKADE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Providing adequate drainage to a pavement system has been considered as an important design consideration to prevent premature failures due to water related problems such as pumping action, loss of support, and rutting, among others. Most water in pavements is due to rainfall infiltration into unsaturated pavement layers, throughjoints, cracks, shoulder edges, and various other defects, especially in older deteriorated pavements. Water also seep upward from a high groundwater table due to capillary suction or vapour movements, or it may flow laterally from the pavement edges and side ditches. Providing adequate drainage to a pavement system has been considered as an important design consideration to en