WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural cooperatives

  1. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  2. Agriculture Cooperative Training--"Learning by Doing."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Lewis E., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A vocational agriculture instructor describes the Agricultural Cooperative Training (ACT) program at Nottoway (Virginia) Senior High School for on-the-job training in agribusiness and agricultural production. Especially important are student and site selection, ACT guidelines, a parent-student-employer-school written agreement, and the student…

  3. Discussion about Shareholding Cooperative Development Road for Agricultural Cooperatives in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai WANG

    2016-01-01

    Using modern economic theories,this paper analyzed drawbacks of Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives in institutional design and expounded inevitable difficulties of development of agricultural cooperatives. Shareholding cooperative development provides a pass for many social forces entering and controlling agricultural cooperatives and making numerous non-agricultural cooperative organizations become formal cooperatives. Deep cause for Shareholding cooperative development of agricultural cooperatives involves how to recognize status and function of family producers of agricultural products in the drive of agricultural modernization and the problem of state policies choosing family producers of agricultural products or other participants in the agricultural industry chain. Shareholding cooperative development is only an expedient measure in certain period,and it should not change development laws of things and essential feature of agricultural cooperatives because of stressing national conditions.

  4. Fujian/Taiwan Agricultural Cooperation Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUJIANHUA

    2005-01-01

    SINCE implementation of the reform and opening policy, Fujian Province has seen rapid economic growth. Located on China's southeast coast across the Taiwan Straits from Taiwan,Fujian is this island province's nearest neighbor and has benefited greatlv from their cooperation, particularly in the agricultural field. In the early 1980s, Fujian's GDP was only 1/40 that of Taiwan. By the early 1990s, this ratio had narrowed to 1/13,

  5. AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Roxana MUNTEANU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The organic market has been increasing in the past couple of years and it is still expected to do so. However, even though the prices are higher on the organic market, farmers do not always manage to benefit from these better prices. Romania is a country with a high potential for organic agriculture as there are 14.8 million hectares of agricultural land out of which arable land represents 8.9 million ha. According to NIS (2012a p. 89, in 2011, 29.2% of the country’s population was employed in agriculture. However, most households in rural areas produce for mere survival due mainly to the highly fragmented land owning. Therefore there is an acute need for new development strategies in order to improve living standards in rural areas. This article describes business models of organic cooperatives in Nepal and Romania. Moreover it proposes a rural development initiative based on the creation of organic cooperatives and suggests thata NGOs could implement such a program.

  6. Innovation, Member Sorting, and Evaluation of Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    X. Peng (Xiao)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis dissertation aims to extend the current understanding of the agricultural cooperatives, and it is done by executing three studies regarding various aspects of the cooperatives. First study investigates the relationship between communication, innovation, and (de)centralization

  7. PROBLEMS OF PRAVOSUB'EKTNOSTI OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novoselov A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the legal capacity and capacity of agricultural cooperatives fixed by the existing civil legislation of the Russian Federation, and also the international acts is considered. The concept and the maintenance of right subjectivity of legal entities in relation to such special look as agricultural production and agricultural consumer cooperatives is analyzed. The main essential differences in legal status and the maintenance of legal capacity of agricultural production and agricultural consumer cooperatives on the basis of the analysis of the agricultural cooperative legislation, law-enforcement practice and the existing points of view of various authors (scientists-lawyers are determined by this perspective in scientific literature. Proceeding from the detailed historical analysis cooperative legislative (both Russian, and international, and also the operating standard establishments, scientific views logical conclusions are drawn on lack of essential differences in legal status of agricultural production and agricultural consumer cooperatives. Besides, the reasoned conclusions are drawn on special legal status of agricultural cooperatives in system of legal entities and on shortcomings of the existing Russian civil legislation defining the bases for classification of legal entities and establishing their legal status. For the purpose of improvement and solution of problems of right subjectivity of agricultural cooperatives a number of measures of legislative character which are able to afford not only to allocate, isolate especially agricultural cooperatives from other organizational and legal forms of legal entities is offered, but also to make them the independent subjects of business activity possessing specific inherent only it right subjectivity that will allow to give them the special status and to increase their appeal and efficiency for the purpose of revival of agricultural branch of economy of Russia

  8. The Economic Role of the Portuguese Agricultural Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rebelo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 Portugal began to be influenced by a financial crisis, public budget troubles and an economic crisis. In line with the new economic paradigm within the EU, is publicly acknowledged that the overcoming of this crisis should be based on the production of transactional goods, where the agricultural sector deserves a special attention. The objective of this paper is to analyze the economic role of the Portuguese agricultural marketing cooperatives, including an overview of the Portuguese agricultural sector, the typology of Portuguese cooperatives and position in the agro food chain, the institutional environment, internal governance and performance of the agricultural cooperatives.

  9. The update of the accounting procedures in Agricultural Cooperatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of Internal Control in Agricultural Cooperatives from the standards established by the General Controller of the Republic, and the harmonization of accounting procedures Cuban Accounting Standards, It is need to update the accounting procedure manuals to guide and regulate the flows, times and registration basis, considering the current legislation, being these the purpose of the discussion in this investigation. The results focused on organizational dynamics of cooperatives, serving the agricultural cooperative sector and its relation to internal control and accounting management guidelines based on economic and social policy of the Party and the Revolution, as well as updating the procedure manuals. It even showed limitations in the application of internal control procedures and accounting according to the current regulations in Cuba, expressing the need to continue its development.

  10. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  11. Internationalization and Diversification Strategies of Agricultural Cooperatives: a Quantitative Study of the Agricultural Cooperatives in the State of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Monica Ritossa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of internationalization on the results achieved by agricultural cooperatives in the State of Parana, at the same time examining strategies for diversification of markets as well as diversification of products aimed exclusively at international markets. Of the 28 cooperatives to be included in the study, 67.9% returned valid structured questionnaires. The collected data was submitted to non-parametric statistical analysis. Key findings suggest the following: external markets are served by indirect and direct exports; product diversification strategies are motivated by the creation of revenue alternatives to members and by the reduction of risks associated to agricultural business; diversification strategies are conceived to develop new business in accordance with market demand and to expand customized products from the existing portfolio; the formation of strategic alliances prioritizes access to distribution channels abroad; internationalization and diversification strategies produce positive results both from an economic and a social perspective.

  12. DEVELOPING CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAMS IN AGRICULTURE, AGRICULTURAL OCCUPATIONS INSTITUTE 1966 WORKSHOP REPORT (JUNE 6-JULY 15, 1966).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater. Research Foundation.

    THIRTY VOCATIONAL AGRICULTURE TEACHERS FROM 11 STATES DEVELOPED THESE CURRICULUM MATERIALS FOR A 2-YEAR HIGH SCHOOL COOPERATIVE EXPERIENCE PROGRAM FOR OCCUPATIONS IN AGRICULTURAL SALES AND SERVICE, AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY, AND HORTICULTURE. A RATIONALE FOR CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT, AN EXPLANATION OF THE CURRICULUM, AND AN EXPLANATION OF THE…

  13. Why Nicaraguan Peasants Stay in Agricultural Production Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruerd Ruben

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the official support for parcellation of  agricultural production cooperatives created under  the Sandinista land reform in Nicaragua, a substantial number of peasants have decided to continue membership. Although theory suggests that  individual farms are more productive and more  efficient, Nicaraguan cooperatives did not fully  split up. We aim to identify the factors that govern  the choice of Nicaraguan peasants between staying in a cooperative and exiting to start a privately  owned farm. We used sample data from 475 landed households in four agroecological macroregions to compare resources, incomes and productivity of peasants continuing in production  cooperatives, former members of cooperatives  who became independent farmers, and peasants who had always been engaged in independent  farming. Low capital endowments of the new  independent farmers adversely affect their standard of living. Better access to non-farm income encourages peasants to remain in the cooperative  where they are less exposed to risk. Uncertainty associated with land ownership and difficulties  with resolution of cooperative debt play a dominant role in keeping Nicaraguan peasants in cooperatives. Cooperative members still maintain a  high degree of coordination of activities in order  to capture the benefits of rural development programmes.   Resumen:  Porqué los campesinos nicaragüenses permanecen en las cooperativas agrícolas  de producción A pesar del apoyo oficial para la parcelación de  las cooperativas agrícolas de producción creadas  durante la reforma agraria Sandinista en Nicaragua, un número significativo de campesinos decidieron continuar con su membresía. Mientras la  teoría sugiere que fincas individuales son más  productivas y más eficientes, las cooperativas nicaragüenses no fueron completamente seccionadas en fincas individuales. Nuestro objetivo es  identificar los factores que rigen la decisión de

  14. Cause Analysis of "Non-agricultural Trend" of Credit Cooperatives and Reversion Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingwu; CUI

    2013-01-01

    "Non-agricultural trend" of credit cooperatives is demonstrated as outflow of substantial contribution, application of credit fund in "non-agricultural sectors" and downsizing outlets. As a result, rural financial exclusion and insufficient effective supply of rural finance have been aggravated, and most rural households have been excluded from the service range of credit cooperatives. Major causes for such a trend were summarized as: (a) profit-driven nature of credit cooperatives; (b) conditionality of "agriculture, rural area and peasant" economy; (c) influence of macro-environment. It is proposed that credit cooperatives would only revert their focus to "agriculture, rural area and peasant" economy only if rural financial exclusion and economic restrictions on the development of credit cooperatives were removed, and the macro-environment was optimized.

  15. Forum on China-Japan Agricultural Exchange And Cooperation Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Lei

    2013-01-01

    <正>The Forum on China- Japan Agricultural Exchange and Cooperation was held in Beijing on September 10.It was jointly sponsored by the Chinese People’s Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries(CPAFFC),the China-Japan Friendship Association(CJFA),Keidanren(Japan Business Federation)and the Keizai Koho Center(KKC)to promote friendly exchanges and practical cooperation in agriculture on the occasion of the 35th anniversary of the signing of the bilateral Treaty of Peace

  16. On the Cooperation of Jiangmen City with Guangzhou Experimental Station,CATAS in Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqing; ZHENG; Zhiyang; LI; Qiongyan; LI; Shouxing; WEI

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the provinces in China with the best modern agricultural industry and the highest production efficiency.While Jiangmen City,one of the agriculture-based cities in Guangdong Province,has made active exploration in building a modern agricultural system.China has established cooperation with the four largest agricultural research institutes in China to offer technical support for the development of modern agriculture.In this paper,the status quo and existing problems of agricultural development in Jiangmen,Guangdong are briefly introduced.Then,the cooperation status and prospect of local government with the research institutes are discussed.Finally some suggestions are given on the agricultural development pattern in Jiangmen City.

  17. Non-professional Agricultural Production Villages Establishing a New Rural Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes problems in the agricultural development of non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City.Firstly,low technical and scientific content of production and low standardization level.Secondly,scattered sales and non-fixed marketing channels.Thirdly,difficulties in group cooperation of farm crops with special benefits.Fourthly,imperfect service of rural committees of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City.A new rural cooperative is to be founded to help villagers in non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City to be engaged in agricultural production and management activities,and to improve their overall incomes.On the one hand,a perfect and scientific cooperative operating system is to be built specifically including three functions.Firstly,fully playing the leading and bridging role of rural primary organizations.Secondly,fully carrying out the pushing role of capable persons in the administrative village.Lastly,fully playing the role of active participation and cooperation of villagers.On the other hand,constructions of normalization,standardization and brand orientation with special emphasis should be achieved under the guidance of local governments.The key of building a cooperative of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City is discussed.One is that rural cadres should have strong awareness of serving the people.The other is that governments at all levels should energetically support the establishment and management of rural cooperatives.

  18. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  19. Docea : Cooperation for better availability of literature on ecological agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duizendstraal, M.B.; Doroszenko, A.

    1997-01-01

    How well documented is information on ecological agriculture in Europe? How easy is it to get this information? How can access to this information be improved? These are the main topics of a Concerted Action financed by the EU, called DOCEA (DOcumentation for Ecological Agriculture), running from 19

  20. North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service Professionals' Attitudes toward Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minarovic, Rosanne E.; Mueller, J. Paul

    2000-01-01

    Responses from 369 of 500 extension professionals reflected a shared vision for sustainable agriculture and recognition of a need for environmentally sound farming practices. There was less unanimity about endorsing the social aspects of sustainable agriculture, though they agreed on the need for more systems research. (SK)

  1. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products;we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism,bearing education and training functions,forming low-carbon value,building low-carbon identification system,as well as realizing low-carbon value.According to these situations,we systematically analyze operation mechanism of farmers’ professional cooperatives suitable for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.To promote cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products,we put forward following suggestions,including government guidance and encouragement,social acceptance and active cooperation,and integration into global low-carbon development system to share benefit of low-carbon development.

  2. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... X's gross receipts from the sale of its patrons' corn qualify as domestic production gross receipts... qualified production activities income and taxable income. For purposes of determining its section 199 deduction, the cooperative's qualified production activities income (QPAI) (as defined in § 1.199-1(c))...

  3. AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE FIRMS: BUDGETARY ADJUSTMENTS AND ANALYSIS OF CREDIT ACCESS APPLYING SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bonazzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cooperatives are one of the most important types of companies in the agricultural sector. Cooperatives allow overcoming the limitations of the fragmentation of agricultural property, increasing the level of production of small-sized farms and selling the product so that it reaches a sufficient critical mass. Moreover, cooperatives are often characterized by undercapitalization and even difficult credit access because banks conduct their analysis applying rating systems that do not take into account the typicality of the cooperative budget. To assess this topic, in this article, an analysis has been conducted on a sample of 100 cooperatives, making adjustments to the annual budget in order to consider the typicality of their annual accounts. The results of the analysis show that suggested adjustments allow a more correct expression of the economic results and capital adequacy of the cooperative and that the results, expressed in terms of scoring, are higher than that achieved by a traditional analysis. This methodology could improve the credit access capacity for agricultural cooperatives and then reduce financial constraints, particularly in developing countries.

  4. Security Guarantee of Agriculture Industry Based on the Improvement of Legal System of Peasant Specialized Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of several management models of the agriculture industry is introduced,as well as its impacts on industrial security.The management models are mainly the enterprise-like operation model,"enterprise + peasant household" model,small-scale peasants’ operation model,and peasant specialized cooperative model.Functions of peasant specialized cooperative in ensuring the security of agricultural industry are introduced,which are enhancing the industrial security by organization degree,promoting the industrial security by scale economy formed by cooperative organizations,fully utilizing the resources by the factor allocation capability,and ensuring the industrial security by industrial chain improvement.Development predicaments of the peasant specialized cooperative at present are analyzed,such as small scale,poor economic benefits,and non-standard operation.Analysis shows that institutional absence is the main reason causing these predicaments.And suggestions on improving the cooperatives system in the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Peasants Specialized Cooperatives are put forward,in order to better ensure the security of agriculture industry

  5. Social partners cooperation for reduction of musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Veerle; O'Neill, David; Motmans, Roeland; Lundqvist, Peter; Roman-Liu, Danuta

    2012-01-01

    The European social partners in agriculture recognize the considerable frequency of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the sector which has negative consequences for workers, employers, social security systems and hence for the whole society. They made an agreement in 2005 to tackle this problem and their main interest was finding good practices 'on the floor', with the involvement of the farmers and farming industries. A partnership with researchers from 4 different organisations across Europe, was created, taking into account both academic partners and/or partners experienced with the agricultural sector. GEOPA-COPA acted as a network partner with all the EU agriculture organisations. The project partners proposed a methodology how to collect the good practices. In total, 103 company visits were organised and 55 additional reports were collected. More than 140 good practices were defined going from easy, low-cost solutions to highly technological, more expensive solutions. All this information is disseminated via the project website (www.agri-ergonomics.eu) and summarised in 6 brochures. This paper focuses on the methodology to set up the ergonomic project with social partners.

  6. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  7. 12 CFR 615.5144 - Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Banks for cooperatives and agricultural credit banks. 615.5144 Section 615.5144 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Investment Management §...

  8. Low carbon development and poverty alleviation. Options for development cooperation in energy, agriculture and forestry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funder, M.; Fjalland, J.; Munk Ravnborg, H.; Egelyng, H.

    2009-07-01

    This report presents the main findings of a desk study on 'Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in developing countries: opportunities for development cooperation'. The main objective of the study is to identify options for combining low carbon development pathways with poverty reduction and economic growth in the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), as part of efforts to target development assistance to address both poverty and global warming problems. The report discusses the pros and cons of climate change mitigation measures that also support poverty alleviation and economic development within the energy, agriculture and forestry sectors. It concludes with a series of recommendations for development cooperation.

  9. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy.

  10. The economical contracting management in Agricultural Cooperatives: tools for evaluating their performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic and management contracts involve strategic actions, legal and operational purposes that make possible to convert the goal of an organization on results that express the fulfillment of the mandates and satisfies customers on the basis of the duties and obligations set out in the negotiating document. This article aims to get inside into the performance evaluation of the management of the recruitment of Agricultural Cooperatives and to reflex about the insufficiencies evidenced in this process. To which we developed a theoretical valuation and economic procurement praxiological showing a group of deficiencies that have impacted in the contracts management The study was able to obtain, process, analyze, interpret and argue the problems associated with economic contracting and justify the need to propose a system of indicators to assess recruitment management Agricultural Cooperatives in the province of Sancti Spiritus, the results revealed the ineffectiveness of the process and the negative impact on the productive base.

  11. Reactions of Spanish Agricultural Co-operatives to Collective Globalization: Ideal Discourse Types

    OpenAIRE

    Entrena Durán, Francisco; Moyano Estrada, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this article is to build up a typology of the ideological discourses which guide and legitimize the different, and often mutually contradictory, reactions of Spanish agricultural co-operatives to the process of ever-increasing socio-economical globalization in which they are immersed. In accordance with this typology, in which we have followed a criterion similar to Max Weber's, we distinguish four ideal ideological discourse types. These go along a continuum from those ...

  12. The Strategic Changes in a Cooperative of Agricultural Electrification: a look from the strategies formation schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Oneide Sausen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is resulted of a research that objective the understanding of the process of change and strategic adaptation of an organization of the cooperative branch, specifically of agricultural electrification, observing the context and the content of the process of change throughout the description of life of this organization. Been born under égide of the entrepreneurship it had in this perspective its main strategy of growth. In terms of used methodology, one is about a case study, with characteristics the historical, longitudinal and contextualist boarding. The study, interpreted to the light of the estimated ones of the schools of formation of strategies, it shows the influences of an enterprising management in the 17 growth of the cooperative, the impacts of the conjunctural and politic factors in the changing process of the organization, as well as the presence of the governmental instances in the decisions and action of the cooperative.

  13. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lubell

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.

  14. The Effects of the Student Teaching Experience on Cooperating Teachers in Secondary Agricultural Education Programs: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the effects of the student teaching experience on secondary agricultural education teachers. Eight of the thirteen participants in this study served as a cooperating teacher during the 2012 spring semester for pre-service teachers in agricultural education from a land-grant institution. Three of the participants had served as a cooperating teacher during either the 2010 or 2011 spring semester but had reported a negative student teachi...

  15. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  16. Influence of Voluntary Coffee Certifications on Cooperatives' Advisory Services and Agricultural Practices of Smallholder Farmers in Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole; Bosselmann, Aske Skovmand; Faure, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperatives interviewing twenty interviewed cooperative…

  17. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products. In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products; we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism, bearing education and training functions, forming low-carbon value, building low-carbon identification system, as well as realizing low-carbon value. According to these situati...

  18. History and legal reality of cooperatives in Cuba. Approaching new non-agricultural cooperatives in Pinar del Río from practical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio José Rivera Gort

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently work is valued the historical development of the artificial regulation of the cooperative in Cuba, making emphasis in the juridicalinstitutional platform in that the current process of expansion of the figure is sustained toward other sectors of the national economy besides the agricultural one. In a beginning their artificial regulation is characterized in each one of the stages by those that it has crossed and next the analysis is centered in the practical experience of the Pinar del Río, with those recently orchestrated ones Urban Cooperatives, during the process for its constitution and later operation.Received: 31.05.2015Accepted: 30.07.2015

  19. Development of novel techiques for cooperative localization and mapping using mobile robots and their application in precise agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Saso KOCESKI; Koceska, Natasa; Sazdovski, Vasko; Stojkovic, Natasa; Stojanova, Aleksandra; Vladimirov, Angel

    2015-01-01

    The application of robotics in agriculture is part of the recent trends of automating the tasks and the activities of people, which are characterized by increased physical effort. Recent robotics trends are also including automation of processes that can be harmful to human health. On the other hand, cooperation and coordination are modern concepts in the development of robotics systems which include information exchange between the robots regarding their condition and their measurements and ...

  20. The Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Pattern in Modern Tobacco Agriculture in Mountainous Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Guo-sheng; GUO Xiang; LIU Chang-hua; YUAN Jian-hua

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces the basic situation of Yanziqian Tobacco Farmers’ Mutual Assistance and Cooperation Association in Jiamachi Town of Xianfeng County.It analyzes the operating mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation association,and conducts a comparative analysis of tobacco farmers’ costs and benefits before and after participating in mutual assistance and cooperation.Studies show that the mode of tobacco farmers’ mutual assistance and cooperation,is conducive to reducing labor in curing link,promoting the quality of tobacco,increasing tobacco farmers’ income,which is worthy of promotion.

  1. Comparative Analysis and Cultivation of New Agricultural Business Entities Based on Comparison of Family Farms and Professional Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang; YANG; Xingxi; LIU; Yingliang; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Cultivating new bussiness entities is the key to speeding up improving new agricultural production and operating system.This study discussed two representative entities under the agricultural production and operating system based on household contract management,namely,family farms and cooperatives.It introduced current development status of these two entities in Chongqing region,and discussed prominent problems of understanding,management,fund,personnel,technology,information,and system in the development process.In line with common problems such as single production structure and short supply of agricultural insurance,and different problems like organizational degree,it made comparative analysis.Finally,it is concluded that different institutional arrangement and pertinent support policy according to different development characteristics.

  2. The life cycle of agricultural cooperatives: Implications for management and governance in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.; Ruben, R.

    2008-01-01

    Commercialization through cooperatives has the potential to reduce transaction costs and improve bargaining power of farmers vis-à-vis the market. The objective of this study is to evaluate the probability for Ethiopian agri-cooperative to engage in collective marketing activities over time, given m

  3. Comparative study on membership legislation in Canadian and Chinese agricultural co-operative laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhihong; GUO Xiangyu

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, groups of people desiring to supply themselves with goods, to market their products, or to obtain services of various kinds on a co-operative basis, have made increasing use of co-operative associations to achieve these purposes. During the period, legislation designed especially for the incorporation and conduct of such associations has been enacted by different counties.Since a co-operative is established and carried on by and for the use of its members, this essay makes a comparison between Canadian and Chinese co-operative laws in terms of membership in the aspects of qualifications, rights and obligations and withdrawal of membership, so as to probe the function of co-operative legislation and find some enlightment from it.

  4. Cooperativa-escola nas Escolas Técnicas Agrícolas Cooperative-school at the Agricultural Technical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Marques

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A dificuldade de gerenciar recursos e proporcionar melhores condições de ensino para os estudantes são algumas das deficiência das Escolas Técnicas Agrícolas (ETAs brasileiras, problemas parcialmente superados por algumas escolas que adotaram a chamada Cooperativa-Escola. Neste trabalho, procura-se discutir alguns aspectos filosóficos referentes às ETAs e como a Cooperativa-Escola pode ajudar a solucionar seus principais problemas educativos e administrativos; um estudo de caso utilizando-se a técnica de auditoria administrativa foi desenvolvido numa ETA cuja Cooperativa-Escola é considerada um modelo de bom funcionamento e alguns procedimentos foram descritos, objetivando-se estender a prática de Cooperativa-Escola para outras escolas técnicas agrícolas brasileiras.Some of the problems with the Brazilian public Agricultural Technical School systems (ETAs are related to resource management and the need to improve teaching and learning conditions. Those deficiencies were partially corrected after setting up Cooperative-Schools that allow the ETAs to raise and to administrate funds. Administrative procedures of the ETAs and how the Cooperative-School could help solving their main educational and adminsitrative problems are discussed in this research. A case study using the management audit technique was developed in one ETA with a well known Cooperative-School. Some observed procedures are described with the intention of extending the practice of Cooperative-Schools to other Brazilian Agricultural Technical Schools.

  5. 农村合作经济组织推动农业保险发展研究%Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀芬; 李茂松

    2011-01-01

    分析了合作经济组织作为农业保险发展有效载体的有利条件:合作经济组织推动了规模化经营,破解了小户分散经营难题;合作经济组织可以解决农民组织化程度低的问题;合作经济组织可以大大缩减农业保险运营成本;合作组织能在一定程度上降低道德风险和逆向选择;合作组织在一定程度上降低了农业生产风险,提高了农业风险的可保性.同时,指出了农业合作经济组织作为农业保险经营载体的局限性:合作经济组织的覆盖范围小,组织规模小,不利于农业风险的分散;合作经济组织资金缺乏,本身发展还不够规范,不利于载体功能的发挥;专业合作组织成员文化素质低,不利于农业保险的推行.提出了推进农业保险发展的农民合作经济组织模式,如农业保险合作社(相互会社)模式、“龙头企业(公司)+专业合作组织(种养大户)+保险”的模式、专业合作社代理农业保险模式.最后,简要说明了农业保险对农业合作经济组织的促进作用.%The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organizations promote quantitative management and solve the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants' low systemization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance management are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative

  6. Accomodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Hendrikse, G.W.J.; Oijen, A.

    2013-01-01

    While most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the managers. Ho

  7. The Romanian Agriculture Cooperative Movement, from the Beginning to the Threshold of the Second World War. Briefly Historic Argument or Argument for History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Popescu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the philosophical meaning, the cooperative is a result of the knowing experimentallydevelopment and includes the interaction between: persons of consequence – through ideas and attitudes,state – through laws and institutes, experiences – through structures and effects.In Romania, in the first half of the XIXth century, and to the threshold of the Second World War, areremarked numerous persons of consequence who promote and support the cooperative movement, suchas P.S. Aurelian, Spiru Haret, Ion Raducanu, Virgil Madgearu, Mitita Constantinescu and NicolaeCornateanu.The state has accepted the cooperative as an instrument of the democratization of the capital andprofit. The cooperative movement had fight continuously towards promotion of the collaboration principlebetween cooperative companies, principle by virtue of which the organizations can manifest independencein confrontation with the state.The experiences had been substantiated mostly on the ideology of modern cooperative systems:Rochdale, Raiffaisen and Schulttze.The Romanian cooperative movement appeared, just like in the majority of European states, on abackground of some restrictions in the agricultural field, generated by a complex of factors among whichthe main position in a constant way had been hold by the contest between the big and small agriculturalfarms.In Romania, during the period before and after-war, cooperatives’ organization worked successfullyas credit cooperatives or economical cooperatives (consumption cooperatives, supply and sale cooperatives,forestry cooperatives, purchase community, leasing community, etc..The various shapes of the cooperative movements shows the potential which those have had in thepurpose of their economical development and social situation improvement of the farmers. The potentialwas narrowed not only by the legislative and institutional instability, but more by the agriculturalmarket size and intensity. The cooperatives activities

  8. Essays on Agricultural Co-operatives; Governance Structure in Fruit and Vegetable Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.J. Bijman (Jos)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractJos Bijman (1959) is senior researcher at the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), The Hague, The Netherlands. He studied political science at the University of Amsterdam. After his graduation in 1988 he worked two years as a researcher at the Department of International Rela

  9. 75 FR 77821 - Agricultural Water Enhancement Program and Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... agreements with the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) through either the Agricultural Water... concerns to be addressed, and specifically what water conservation resource issues and water quality... long-term conservation of surface and ground water or water quality improvement and related...

  10. Agricultural libraries and information centres in China: cooperation, resource-sharing and networking

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    This research is aimed towards the design and planning of an agricultural library and information network in China. Systems approach is applied to the construction of descriptive, mathematical and hybrid (logical) models in the design phase of the system development cycle. Four major conventional network functions are chosen as core functions to be designed in detail. A number of procedures and issues are identified for both overall network and individual function design. The embodiment of th...

  11. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  12. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Heinz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it

  13. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Heinz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it

  14. The Regional Self-organizing Potential in Sustainable Agriculture: An Analysis of Co-operative Agreements on Pollution in Bavaria by Means of Rough Set Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, P.; Oltmer, K.

    2005-01-01

    This study addresses the achievements of cooperative agreements in sustainable agriculture policy. After an economic analysis of multi-actor choice situations, it focuses the attention on the self-organizing potential of regional market parties in order to comply with environmental policy objectives

  15. Funding priorities in animal reproduction at the United States Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirando, Mark A; Hamernik, Debora L

    2006-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Previously, this program provided funding for a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry. During fiscal year 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of funding priorities to the topics of infertility, basic mechanisms regulating fertility, cryopreservation of gametes, reducing the postpartum interval to conception, and sterilization methods or development of monosex populations. In response to a directive to further narrow the focus of funding priorities for fiscal year 2005 and beyond, CSREES conducted a Stakeholder Workshop on Funding Priorities in Animal Reproduction at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction in Vancouver, Canada. More than 75 stakeholder scientists from a cross section of federal, public, and private institutions from across the United States participated in the workshop and provided recommendations to CSREES for future NRI-funding priorities in Animal Reproduction. The recommendations provided by stakeholders included continuing efforts to focus funding priorities into fewer high-impact areas relevant to animal agriculture and aquaculture. Recommendations also included movement back toward subdisciplines of animal reproduction that cut across all applicable species. The three funding priorities that consistently emerged as recommendations from the workshop participants were 1) gonadal function and production of gametes, 2) pituitary-hypothalamic function, and 3) embryo and conceptus development, including interaction between the

  16. 发展和壮大农机专业合作社的若干思考%Thoughts on Developing Agricultural Machinery Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铜山

    2013-01-01

    The reality of modern agriculture calls for new farming institutions, particularly agricultural machinery cooperatives. The theo-retical basis includes agricultural mechanization of Mao Zedong Thought, second leap of agriculture of Deng Xiaoping Theories, modern a-griculture development signs and trends, and the policies of the party and state. Developing and expanding agricultural machinery cooper-atives could help implement the spirits of"unwavering"and"two changes"of the party and state, accelerate the transformation of the agri-cultural development pattern, conducive to make full play of"integration"function, stabilize and improve two-tier management system of capitalized management.%现代农业发展面临的新情势要求培育新型农业经营主体,尤其是农机专业合作社。农机专业合作社能够成为最主要新型农业经营主体之一的理论基础包括毛泽东农业机械化思想、邓小平农业第二次飞跃思想、现代农业发展标志和趋势、党和国家的方针政策等。发展和壮大农机专业合作社,正是很好地贯彻落实党和国家“毫不动摇”和“两个转变”精神,并能加快农业发展方式转变,有利于发挥“统”的功能,稳定和完善统分结合的双层经营体制。

  17. 合作农业推广中组织邻近性对合作绩效的影响%Relationship between Organizational Proximity and Cooperative Performances in Cooperative Agricultural Extension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高启杰; 董杲

    2016-01-01

    以6省份72项合作农业推广项目为样本,通过建立回归模型,并引入项目复杂性作为调节变量,实证分析了组织邻近性对农业推广合作绩效的影响机制. 研究结果显示:推广项目复杂性显著负向影响合作绩效,组织邻近性则显著正向影响合作绩效,且项目复杂性在组织邻近性与合作绩效之间起到正向调节作用.%Based on the survey data of 72 cooperative agricultural extension projects in six provinces, this article appraises whether project complexity plays a role in moderating the relationship between organiza-tional proximity and cooperative performances using Factor Analysis Method.The results show that the project complexity has significant negative effects on the cooperative performances, the organizational proximity has significant positive effects on the cooperative performances and the project complexity posi-tively moderates the relationship between organizational proximity and cooperative performances.

  18. Metodologia de rating em cooperativas agropecuárias: um estudo de caso Rating methodology in agricultural cooperatives: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rogério de Moura Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir do início da década de 90, ocorreram diversas mudanças no ambiente institucional do cooperativismo brasileiro, em função dos problemas macroeconômicos que elevaram a alavancagem e a necessidade de as cooperativas obterem recursos financeiros junto a terceiros. Essa situação se intensificou nos últimos anos para manter a competitividade das organizações cooperativas no mercado. Em função da importância desse novo cenário, procurou-se estudar mecanismos de sinalização, com o objetivo de reduzir a assimetria de informações entre o mercado e os gestores das cooperativas. Assim, este trabalho desenvolve uma metodologia de rating para ser aplicada em cooperativas agropecuárias de forma a reduzir os problemas de seleção adversa e risco moral (moral hazard, que geram ineficiência no relacionamento entre essas organizações e o mercado financeiro; objetiva-se, também, averiguar a sua aplicabilidade, por meio de um estudo de caso. A partir dos resultados alcançados, é possível concluir que a metodologia é aplicável e que o sinalizador gerado, bem como as avaliações e os pesos, deveriam ser discutidos em comitês de rating, a exemplo do que é feito pelas agências especializadas. Como consideração final, é sugerida uma agenda de novas aplicações da metodologia para testá-la junto a outras organizações, de forma a consolidá-la como um sinalizador a ser usado pelo mercado e pelo sistema cooperativo.Owing to macroeconomic problems in Brazil in the late nineties, some modifications occurred in the agricultural cooperatives institutional environment that had influence on debt level and compromised the cooperative enterprises leverage on financial market resources. This situation has improved, in recent years, to maintain cooperatives' organizational competition level in markets. Owing to the significant implications of this important new business environment, this paper tries to discuss the tools to reduce the

  19. 农超对接模式中的合作博弈问题研究%A Cooperative Game in the Model of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘磊; 乔忠; 刘畅

    2012-01-01

    本文在需求函数中引入“合作社为提高每单位农产品质量而付出的努力成本”这一变量,利用非合作博弈中的Buyer-Stackelberg模型、Seller-Stackelberg模型和合作博弈模型对比研究了农超对接模式下超市与合作社在竞争、合作时农产品质量安全水平、零售价格和市场需求量的差异,得出了合作博弈模式能够提高农产品质量安全水平,降低农产品零售价格,并扩大农产品市场需求量三个结论.最后,本文的算例结果显示,农超对接的合作博弈不仅能实现以上结论,还能够提高整个供应链的利润.对关键参数进行灵敏度分析发现,当消费者对农产品零售价格越不敏感而越关注农产品质量安全时,合作博弈的解就越优于非合作博弈.%With the constant change in the circulation of agricultural products in China, more and more supermarkets begin to connect with farms directly in order to stay competitive. This mode can reduce the number of circulation stages of fresh agricultural products, and mitigate the difficulty in selling agricultural products. In addition, the mode can provide the market with high-quality agricultural products. Future study may want to investigate how competitive and cooperative behaviors between supermarkets and co-ops will affect the overall profit of the supply chain, retail price, market demand and the quality of agricultural products. This paper assumes that one supermarket and one co-op form in a two-level supply chain. Vegetables are used as an example and profit function is used as the basic model. The variable "effort" is provided by co-op in order to improve the quality of agricultural products. We compare the optimal decisions of both sides using Stackelberg and Cooperative games. In the first part of this paper, we assume that the consumption of vegetables is indefinite and is a multiplication function of retail price and effort provided by co-op in order to improve the

  20. 7 CFR 4285.2 - Cooperative agreement purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... agency to: (a) Conduct marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. (b) Assist other organizations in conducting marketing research related to agricultural cooperatives. ... RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS Federal-State Research...

  1. Labour productivity of agricultural business companies and cooperatives in the Czech Republic: A micro-regional level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ženka Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical evidence from the Czech Republic, differences in agricultural labour productivity at the micro-regional level are examined. The role of geographical factors: natural conditions, landscape fragmentation, localisation and urbanization economies, are discussed. In addition, we also test the effects of farm size structure to capture the results of internal scale economies. The key importance of natural conditions is confirmed: they were significantly more important than farm characteristics such as size structure, ownership status and mode of production. Regional agricultural labour productivity was positively influenced by the nominal price of agricultural land and population density. Surprisingly, micro-regions dominated by large farms performed at lower productivity levels than micro-regions with fragmented farm size structure in the Czech Republic.

  2. EL INCUMPLIMIENTO DE PARTICIPAR EN LA ACTIVIDAD EN COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS / THE FAILURE TO PARTICIPATE IN THE ACTIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS PEDRO GALLEGO SEVILLA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La voluntad de contribuir al logro de un proyecto común, la fidelidad a los objetivos colectivos y el propósito de cumplir los compromisos adquiridos deberían ser las motivaciones básicas del socio de una cooperativa. Sin embargo, en demasiadas ocasiones, algunos cooperativistas no aportan a la empresa colectiva las cuantías comprometidas, perjudicando así los intereses de la entidad y del resto de los socios. A pesar de que estos comportamientos suponen una infracción del deber básico de participar en las actividades de la cooperativa, resulta difícil sancionar a los infractores y, todavía más, reparar los perjuicios económicos que ocasionan. Por ello, planteamos aquí la exploración de una vía complementaria a la vía sancionadora prevista en nuestras leyes para combatir los incumplimientos del deber de participar en la actividad típica de la cooperativa, que se conoce como “actividad cooperativizada”. / The basic motivations of the member of a cooperative should be to contribute to the achievement of a common project, loyalty to the collective objectives and purpose of fulfilling their commitments. However, too often, some members do not contribute to the cooperative the amounts committed, harming the interests of the society and the other members. Although this behaviour is a violation of a social obligation to participate in the activities of the cooperative, it is difficult to punish offenders and, even more, to repair the economic damage they cause. This study raises the possibility of a complementary economic method, compatible with the legal system of penalties, to cope with the failure to participate in the activity of cooperative.

  3. Stakeholder roles for fostering ambidexterity in Sub-Saharan African agricultural netchains for the emergence of multi-stakeholder cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez Perdomo, S.A.; Farrow, A.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sub-Saharan African smallholder agricultural sector faces multiple and usually complex challenges, which can potentially be overcome by collective action. Smallholder farmers and other value chain stakeholders can tackle temporal, structural and contextual challenges by joining multi-level innov

  4. Lenin's Agricultural Cooperative Ideology and Its Significant Value on the Development of Farmer Specialized Cooperative in China%列宁农业合作社思想及其对我国农民专业合作社发展的重要价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马桂萍

    2012-01-01

    列宁农业合作社思想是对马克思恩格斯农业合作社思想的继承与发展,其可贵之处在于:从实践中总结经验,不断调整农业合作的思路,将农业合作的共耕制思路转变为合作制思路,从而使列宁农业合作社思想内容不断完善,并表现为演进的流变性特点,即在新经济政策实施后,列宁对农业合作社的认识有重大变化。可以说,新经济政策实施后,列宁有关农业合作社的论述体现了其思想的原意。列宁农业合作社思想对于我国农民专业合作社的发展具有重要启示,这主要在于:以农民利益为出发点,组织发展农民专业合作社;注重农产品的生产和流通;加强合作文化建设。%Lenin's agricultural cooperative ideology is the inheritance to and development of agricultural co- operative ideology of Marx and Engels, whose values were as follows: summarize the experience from practice, adjust the ideas of agriculture cooperation constantly, and change the idea of common tillage into the cooperative, which constantly improve the content of Lenin's agricultural cooperative ideology and em- body the rheological evolution. After the implementation of the New Economic Policy, Lenin had signifi- cant changes in the understanding of the agricultural cooperative. It can be said that after the implementa- tion of the New Economic Policy, Lenin's agricultural cooperative discourse reflects the thought intention. Lenin's agricultural cooperative ideology has the important revelation for the development of farmer spe- cialized cooperative in our country such as with the farmer's interests as the starting point, organizing and developing farmers ~ professional cooperatives, focusing on the production and circulation of agricultural products and strengthening the construction of culture cooperation.

  5. Evolution of the Patent Cooperation Network of Agricultural Universities in China%我国农业高校专利合作网络演化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阳; 杜艳艳

    2015-01-01

    Based on the patent data of 36 agricultural universities in China from 1985 to 2014,using social network analysis and patent a-nalysis,the general characteristics of network structure evolution and the evolution features of the sub-networks of university-university,u-niversity-research institute,and university-industry are analyzed,and the patent cooperation network evolution path and the core agricultur-al universities functioning actively in the networks are identified. Results show that the network evolution involves certain phases in gener-al; the evolution of each sub-network has its own characteristics,the cooperation among core agricultural universities has different charac-teristics.%以我国36所农业高校为研究对象,以各高校1985-2014年在国家知识产权局申请的发明专利为基础,运用社会网络分析方法和专利分析法,分析各发展阶段合作网络结构演化的总体特征,及高校与高校合作子网、高校与科研机构合作子网、高校与企业合作子网所呈现的演化特征,明确专利合作网络演化路径,观察各高校与高校、科研院所、企业合作关系的变化。识别核心高校,并深度分析其在网络中特征的演化。结果表明网络演化呈现阶段化特征,各子网演化有自己的特点,核心农业高校合作特点也不尽相同。

  6. 芜湖县农机专业合作社持续性发展探讨%Discussion on Sustainable Development of Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperation in Wuhu County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王景春

    2014-01-01

    介绍了芜湖县农机专业合作社持续性发展措施,包括争取支持、对承包土地进行“托管服务”、实现订单作业服务、参与土地流转、与种粮大户开展更深层次的合作等,以期为当地农机专业合作社持续健康发展提供参考。%Sustainable development measures of agricultural machinery professional cooperation in Wuhu County were introduced ,including obtaining support ,′entrusting service′ for the contracted land ,participation in the land transfer ,carrying out deeper cooperation with scaled grain-growers,etc,in order to provide reference for the healthy and sustainable development of local agricultural machinery professional cooperation.

  7. Thoughts on Development of Agricultural Product Logistics:A Supply-and-marketing Cooperative Perspective%供销体系视阈下的农产品物流发展思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    连捷; 黄斌

    2016-01-01

    As an economic cooperative organization mainly targeting at the circulation field, the supply-and-marketing cooperative has experienced certain setback during the transition from the planned economy to the market economy, but it still plays an important role in the agricultural product circulation field. In this paper, with the start, process and market, etc., of the agricultural product logistics as the point of departure, we argued that when building the agricultural product logistics system, we should pay more attention to the strength of the agricultural cooperative in the agricultural product circulation market system concerning quality control, logistics efficiency and quality support, etc., and accordingly proposed several suggestions for the better development of the agricultural cooperative.%供销合作社是以流通服务为主的合作经济组织,在计划经济向市场经济转型的过程中,因多种原因出现业务萎缩,但在农产品流通中仍然发挥着重要地位和作用。从农产品物流起点、过程和市场等角度切入,认为构建农产品物流应该重视供销社在农产品流通市场体系中所具备的农产品品控优势、物流效率优势和品质保障优势等问题,并据此提出若干发展建议。

  8. 农业产业化中的农村非正式组织与农民合作研究%Study on the Rural Informal Organizations and Peasants Cooperation in Agricultural Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧

    2011-01-01

    从非正式组织的产生背景出发,借助管理学对农村非正式组织的产生及其与农民合作的关系进行了分析,对如何促进农业产业化中的农民合作进行了讨论.%The formation of rural informal organizations and its relationship with peasants cooperation were analyzed by the principles of management from the formation background of informal organizations, and then the ways to promote peasants cooperation in agricultural industrialization were discussed.

  9. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a

  10. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  11. 7 CFR 1425.19 - Member cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Member cooperatives. 1425.19 Section 1425.19... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COOPERATIVE MARKETING ASSOCIATIONS § 1425.19 Member cooperatives. A CMA may obtain loans or LDP's on behalf of a member cooperative when the...

  12. “校会”联合的农产品经纪人培训模式的构建%Constrution of the Training Model for Agricultural Products Agents Through the Cooperation between Schools and Associations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸秋南

    2012-01-01

    论述了高等职业教育参与培养农产品经纪人的必要性,分析了现阶段农产品经纪人培养中应注意的问题,提出了“校会”联合的农产品经纪人培训模式的构建方案.%The paper introduced the necessity of high vocational education participating in ihe training of agricultural products brokers, analyzed the issues should be paid attention lo during the training, and finally proposed the training model of agricultural products agents through the cooperation between schools and associations.

  13. 海峡两岸农业合作的政策演变、成效与对策%Policy Evolution, Effects and Countermeasures on Agricultural Cooperation between Two Sides across Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈灵; 赖文山; 董微; 庄佩芬

    2012-01-01

    The paper summarizes the policy evolution and effects of agricultural cooperation between two sides cross Taiwan Strait. The agricultural cooperation experimental zones and Taiwan farmer' s pioneer park are the major platforms between two sides cross Taiwan Strait, but the interaction cooperative mechanism in agricultural economic bodies between two sides cross Taiwan Strait hasn't yet formed. And the countermeasures including promoting the construction of the economic zone on the west side of the Taiwan Strait, strengthening policy guidance, building the Common Market, strengthening policy innovations and cooperation in science and technology, focusing on the exchanges and the introduction of the talented human resources, and optimizing the cooperation mechanism.%总结了海峡两岸农业合作发展的政策演变过程与成效,认为在两岸农业合作中两岸农业合作试验区和台湾农民创业园是主要的连接载体,但两岸农业经济主体的合作机制尚未形成双向互动;同时提出要加快海西经济区建设,强化政策引导,建立两岸“共同市场”;加强政策创新与科技合作,注重优秀资源和人才的交流与引进;优化配置,完善两岸农业合作机制。

  14. 国民政府后期农业合作金融的演变与思考%Thinking on the Evolving of the Agricultural Cooperation Financial in later Period of National Government

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康金莉

    2012-01-01

    南京政府后期,中国农业合作事业完全纳入政府控制之下,成为政府推行经济政策与控制农村的有效工具,因内部缺乏资金积累,农业合作金融事业高度依赖国家银行资金,从而受制于国家银行,农业合作贷款实际成为国家农贷政策的组成部分。在此背景之下,中国农业合作事业形成"政府欲之兴则兴,政府欲之衰则衰"的极端被动发展局面,完全失去了自主发展能力,丧失了合作组织的互助与自助性质。%In later period of Nanjing Government,Chinese Agricultural Cooperation was full controlled in the hand of government,and became the tool of government's economic policy.Because it lacked interal fund very much,the Agricultural Cooperation Financial highly depended on national financial,that made it being controlled under national bank.The agricultural cooperation loan became a part of the national policy.In this background,the Agricultural Cooperation lost its active development capacity,and it also lost its character of mutual and self-service.

  15. 广东与越南农业产业合作研究%A Cooperation Study on Agricultural Industry between Guangdong and Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄霓

    2011-01-01

    经济发展水平以及自然资源禀赋的差异,使广东与越南之间的农业经济结构存在较为明显的互补性,产业合作和投资开发的潜力较大。广东与越南在以往的农林渔业合作方面虽已有一些基础,但比重不大,规模也较小。近年来,越南政府特别鼓励外资进入农林渔项目,制定了许多优惠政策,投资环境也日益优化。广东农业企业可以充分利用这个良好时机前往越南发展,加大投资和开发力度,利用我方资金技术优势和生产经营经验结合越南当地资源和劳动力优势在更大的范围内进行产业合作,尤其向高科技现代农林渔业及其产品加工业等领域扩展以延长产业链。通过加强产业%The agricultural economy structures of Guangdong and Vietnam are obviously complementary because of the discrepancies of economic development as well as natural conditions. This gives a great potential to the industrial cooperation and the investment deve

  16. Analysis on Farmers' Land Rights in Agricultural Cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan%闽台农业合作中农民土地权益问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶亚野; 林翊

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental reasons of the conflict on the farmers' land rights in agricultural cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan was outlined in this article.Combined with the basic situations,the paper elaborates on the concrete performance of the conflict on the farmers' land rights in agricultural cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan.Finally,the authors put forth the relative countermeasures to effectively protect the farmers' legal land rights during the agricultural cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan.%简述了闽台农业合作中农民土地权益问题冲突的根本原因,并结合实际论述了闽台农业合作农民土地权益冲突的具体表现,最后从尊重合作双方的基本权益出发,提出深化闽台农业合作过程中有效保障农民土地合法权益的对策措施。

  17. 加强东南亚农业合作开发的战略重点与布局研究%STRENGTHENING AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE STRATEGIC FOCUS AND LAYOUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐冲; 陈伟忠; 申玉铭

    2015-01-01

    Strengthen international cooperation in agriculture is an important part of agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics. Southeast Asia is a priority area of international cooperation in agriculture. Southeast Asia has an excellent agricultural resources, mainly agricultural products in the global market occupies an important stra-tegic position. Agricultural cooperation between China and Southeast Asia has a solid foundation, showing a good momentum of development in recent years. In the future, accelerating development of agricultural cooperation be-tween Southeast Asia and China has obvious geographical advantages. In the new era, under " One Belt and One Road" of the global strategic direction, based on the domestic needs of grain and other important agricultural prod-ucts, the article conducted a comprehensive analysis of Southeast Asian countries of agricultural resource endow-ments, industrial base, and willingness to cooperated, using regional comparative advantage analysis, and planned the strategic focus areas of agricultural cooperative development in Southeast Asia, including rice, natural rubber, oil palm, cassava, sugar cane and forestry six industries. Through cooperative development, enhance the control o-ver raw materials;improve the discourse power in agricultural trade. According to the important transportation logis-tics infrastructure layout, regional differences in resource endowments and industrial base in Southeast Asia, pro-posed a " three-line two districts" general layout. " Three-line" refers to the three agricultural logistics chan-nel and " Two areas" includes raw material supplying zones and processing trade zones. The raw material suppl-ying zones scope includes Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam, and the processing trade zones scope includes Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines. Among them, in cereal field, Cambodia and Myanmar are as the important grain-planting base, and Thailand and Vietnam are as a

  18. Nicaragua : Women in Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Aguirre, Lucia

    1985-01-01

    L'auteur fait un historique des coopératives créées au Nicaragua depuis la Révolution, et décrit la situation des femmes paysannes au sein de la nouvelle organisation de la production. Il apparaît que ni les transformations des structures socio-économiques, ni la législation instaurant l'égalité entre les sexes, ne suffisent à garantir aux femmes les mêmes droits qu'aux hommes. Elles doivent encore et continuellement lutter contre la discrimination que montrent les hommes à leur égard et pour...

  19. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area%三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构与绩效分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开红

    2012-01-01

    基于对三峡库区100家农业合作经济组织的问卷调查结果,以结构方程模型为分析工具,对农业合作经济组织的治理结构与绩效进行了实证分析.结果表明,股权结构对于合作组织的绩效有着最关键的影响,系数高达0.92;监督机制和理事套结构对于合作组织来说重要程度相当,影响系数分别为0.87和0.86,仅次于股权结构;成员的退出能力大小对于组织的绩效也有相当重要的影响,系数为0.74.由此指出了当前三峡库区农业合作经济组织治理结构中存在的影响其组织绩效的问题,并提出了相应的解决对策.%On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area .this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organisations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations.and the impact coefficient is 0. 87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members' quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations, with impact coefficient of 0. 74. Thus, the problems influencing the performance of organizations, in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Are, are pointed out. Finally, corresponding countermeasures are put forward. Thus pointed out that the current governance structure of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of agricultural cooperative economic organizations affect the organizational performance issues and .

  20. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor organization to the American Soybean Association, which conducts foreign market development activities on behalf... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE...

  1. On Regional Development Strategy of International Cooperation for Tropical Agricultural Science and Technology%热带农业科技国际合作区域发展战略研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雪; 蒋昌顺

    2011-01-01

    China's tropical agriculture developed by introducing foreign advanced technology and through the innovation, which is an important development experience for China's tropical agriculture, and reflects its basic law of development as well. This paper analyzes the development trend of the international tropi- cal agriculture, the development of tropical agriculture in China, and then proposes a regional development strategy of international cooperation for tropical agricultural science and technology among China and oth- er countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America and Tropical South Pacific Islands, for better serving our tropi- cal agricultural science and technology innovation and national diplomatic stTategy.%通过分析国际热带农业发展趋势,结合我国热带农业发展情况,探讨中国在亚非拉及南太岛国地区热带农业科技国际合作的区域发展战略.更好地为我国热带农业科技创新和国家外交服务。

  2. A review of the North China agricultural cooperative commission before the anti-Japanese war%抗战前华北农业合作事业委员会业务活动述略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康金莉

    2014-01-01

    The North China agricultural cooperative commission is the official organization of Hebei and Chahar in 1 930s.From 1 934 to 1 937,the commission is engaged in agricultural cooperative works by holding training,cotton planting and loans.This has greatly helped with the agricultural development in the North China.However,the blind pursuit of haste leads to less speed of effective growth.So the great lesson has to be learned by the current agricultural cooperative organizations.%华北农业合作事业委员会为20世纪30年代中期冀察两省主要官方合作指导机构。自1934年至1937年抗战开始之前,该会在农赈救济基础上,开展合作指导及农贷工作,具体包括指导互助合作组织、举办合作教育、协助植棉、发放农业贷款等,为华北地区合作事业发展,恢复农村经济起到重要推动作用。但由于其过于追求速度,忽视工作规范性,导致贷款质量低下,各项工作难以持续发展。此亦为当前农业合作事业发展必须要汲取的沉痛教训。

  3. Türkiye'de Kamu Açıklarının Oluşumunda Tarım Satış Kooperatifleri Birliklerinin Rolü ve Marmarabirlik Örneği (The Role of Agricultural Sales Cooperatives and Unions in the Formation of Budget Deficits in Turkey and the Marmarabirlik Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Muzaffer EREN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sales cooperatives and unions that began their work in 1935 with the adoption of Law No 2834 made significant contributions to their producer members and the national economy in general in the first years. However changing circumstances and various economic fluctuations made it necessary to support agricultural sector and the agricultural sales cooperatives and unions were used actively in certain support policies because of the fact that they were organized among the producers. In time the subsidies in question caused the cooperatives and unions to be perceived as public institutions and governments started to play a more active role on them. Later the domination of the public influence continued and increased with certain legal arrangements being made for this purpose. The cooperatives and unions left behind their original purpose of establishment and as a result became a significant contributor to public deficits. The budgetary burden, deficits of support policies, choice of target segment, unfairness in income distribution, indifference to market conditions and obligations arising from the agreements signed brought to the agenda changes in support policies implemented through agricultural sales cooperatives and unions. In this paper the size of the damage cooperatives and unions that left behind their original purpose gave to the national economy is explained and Marmara Olive Agricultural Sales Cooperatives Union (Marmarabirlik is analyzed as an example of the benefits these institutions would bring under correct policies.

  4. Security Guarantee of Agriculture Industry Based on the Improvement of Cooperative Legal Institution%基于完善农民专业合作社法律制度的农业产业安全保障

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜文骄; 任大鹏

    2011-01-01

    对我国当前几种农业经营模式对产业安全的影响进行了分析,重点介绍了农民专业合作社在保障农业产业安全中的作用,主要有:组织化程度提高对产业安全的促进作用;通过合作社组织形成规模经济对产业安全的推动作用;合作社要素配置能力可以实现资源的充分利用;通过合作社完善产业链条从而保障产业安全.分析了目前我国农民专业合作社的发展困境:组织规模小、经济效益不高、组织运行不规范,表明制度缺失是造成困境的主要原因,提出了完善中关于联合社制度的建议,以期更好地保障农业产业安全.%Current status of several management models of the agriculture industry is introduced, as well as its impacts on industrial security. The management models are mainly the enterprise - like operation model, "enterprise + peasant household" model, small-scale peasants' operation model, and peasant specialized cooperative model. Functions of peasant specialized cooperative in ensuring the security of agriculture industry are introduced, which are enhancing the industrial security by organization degree, promoting the industrial security by scale economy formed by cooperative organizations, fully utilizing the resources by the factor allocation capability, and ensuring the industrial security by industrial chain improvement. Development predicaments of the peasant specialized cooperative at present are analyzed, such as small scale, poor economic benefits, and non-standard operation. Analysis shows that institutional absence is the main reason causing these predicaments. And suggestions on improving the cooperatives system in the law of the People's Republic of China on Peasants Specialized Cooperatives are put forward, in order to better ensure the security of agriculture industry

  5. Comparison of the Three Cooperative Types of Agricultural Technology Popularization Based on the Industrialization of Tomato Industry in Xinjiang Autonomous Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In the process of industrialization of tomato industry in Xinjiang, the cooperative models of rural households and tomato processing enterprises are order type, mediated type and workshop type. The contents, closeness degree and stability of cooperation of them are different. Under different cooperation models, the closeness degree of pillar industry and rural households differs, as well as the speed and effect of the technology promotion. By comparing the situation of technology promotion under the three cooperative models, the results can be obtained. The workshop type can reduce the risks of adopting new technologies of farmers greatly; strengthen the internal motivation of farmers to adopt new technology, so it can attract more farmers. Therefore, the workshop type represents the developmental direction of industrialization of tomato industry in Xinjiang to a certain extent.

  6. Research on the Income Distribution of Agricultural Product Cold Chain Logistics-non-cooperative Game Alliance Members%非合作博弈农产品冷链物流联盟成员收益分配研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李中全

    2015-01-01

    The article has presented a model of agricultural product cold chain logistics-non-cooperative game alliance, and analyzed the profits of Farmer, Dealer and Retailer, used Shapley theory to analyze the reason of the formation of the alliance.%文章提出非合作博弈农产品冷链物流联盟模式,并通过构建模型来探讨农户、经销商和分销商三者之间的收益,并通过Shapley来阐述联盟成因。

  7. 昭通市农机专业合作组织现状及发展对策%Current Situation and Development Countermeasures of Agricultural Specialized Cooperative Organization in Zhaotong City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾帮文

    2014-01-01

    介绍了昭通市农机专业合作组织发展的现状,分析其中存在的问题,并从组织领导、宣传培训、制度规范、引导扶持、投入机制等方面提出对策,以期为昭通市农业机械健康有序发展提供参考。%The current development situation of agricultural machinery specialized cooperative organization in Zhaotong City were introduced,the existing problems were analyzed. The countermeasures were put forward from the following aspects,such as organization and leadership,advocacy training,system specification,guidance and support,input mechanism,etc,in order to provide reference for the healthy and orderly development of agricultural machinery in Zhaotong City.

  8. Study on the Cooperation Mechanism of Agricultural Land Consolidation Project Based on Public-Private Partnership%基于PPP模式的农地整理项目合作机理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴九兴; 杨钢桥; 汪文雄

    2012-01-01

    采用比较分析法和规范分析法探究了公私合作(PPP)模式农地整理项目合作主体的职能分工、发起方式、资源整合和收益分配.结果表明,PPP模式农地整理项目的职能分工比传统模式更合理,有利于提高项目的效率;项目的发起方式与资源整合对项目的效率产生影响;收益分配结果取决于政府部门和私人部门各自对项目的贡献率.%Employing comparison and normative analysis, the function division of main cooperation bodies, the initiation means of projects, resources integration and benefits distribution in agricultural land consolidation projects based on public -private partnership (PPP) were explored. The results indicated that the functions division of PPP agricultural land consolidation projects was more reasonable than that of traditional mode, and could improve the efficiency of the projects. The launching ways and resources integration efforts in PPP agricultural land consolidation projects could affect the projects' investment efficiency. The outcomes of benefits allocation in PPP agricultural land consolidation projects was depended on the government and private sector's contribution to the project.

  9. Agricultural machinery professional cooperatives YingShui bridge town development present situation and the countermeasures%迎水桥镇农机专业合作社发展现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文昌

    2013-01-01

      农机作业服务已成为现代农业生产中不可缺少的重要服务项目,尤其是农机专业服务组织的发展,对农机和资金进行整合,合理配置,大大提高了农机的组织化、产业化、规模化程度,取得了较好的经济和社会效益,实现了合作社与农户的“双赢”,为农村经济的发展作出了积极贡献。%  the agricultural machinery operation service has become an important and indispensable in modern agricul-tural production services, especially the development of agricultural machinery professional services organization, of farm machinery and capital integration, reasonable configuration, greatly improving the agricultural machinery of the organization, industrialization, scale degree, has achieved good economic and social benefits, realize "win-win" of the cooperatives and farmers and made positive contributions to the development of rural economy.

  10. Theme: Marketing Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staller, Bernie L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Consists of six articles on marketing agricultural education. Topics include (1) being consumer conscious, (2) cooperating with agribusiness, (3) preparing students for postsecondary education, (4) allowing concurrent enrollments, (5) saving the failing agricultural program, and (6) refocusing the curriculum toward agrimarketing. (CH)

  11. 7 CFR 1415.17 - Cooperative agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the “right of enforcement” clause to read as set forth in the GRP cooperative agreement. This right is... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative agreements. 1415.17 Section 1415.17... Cooperative agreements. (a) NRCS may enter into cooperative agreements which establish terms and...

  12. Agricultural cooperative organizations or be able to break the problem of “Who grain”%农机合作组织或能突破“谁种粮”难题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Analysis the issues and implications of aging grain farmers, discuss how to resolve the issues of aging grain farmers effects on food security. Proposed to improve incentives and vigorously support the development of cooperatives; strengthen personnel training and enhance self-development;strengthen the organization's guidance and guarantee the stable development of cooperatives. Through the above three as-pects, to support the development and expansion of agricultural cooperatives, build the main grain production, and guarantee the safe devel-opment of food production.%  分析种粮农民老龄化问题及其影响,探讨如何化解种粮农民老龄化影响粮食安全的问题,提出从完善优惠政策,大力扶持合作社发展;加强人才培养,提升自我发展能力;强化组织引导,保障合作社稳定发展三个方面扶持农机合作社发展壮大,打造粮食生产主体,保障粮食生产安全发展。

  13. 农业高职院校校企合作人才培养模式的实践研究%Practical Research on University-enterprise Cooperation Personnel Training Mode of Agricultural Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于永梅; 马兰

    2013-01-01

    University-enterprise cooperation and work-integrated learning mode was an effective way to cultivate high-quality skilled talents ,through long-term and effective cooperation ,the high quality education resources of vocational colleges and material resources of enterprises could be make a full use ,and achieved multiple purpo-ses and mutual benefits .The significance ,targets and implementing methods of university-enterprise coopera-tion and work-integrated learning personnel training mode were discussed for agricultural vocational colleges , and the final results were reviewed briefly .%校企合作工学结合是培养高素质技能型人才的一条有效途径,通过学校和企业长期有效的合作,可以使高职院校的优质教育资源与企业的物质资源得到充分利用,在社会上形成一举多得、互利共赢的局面。该文探讨了农业高职院校校企合作、工学结合人才培养模式的意义、目标及实施办法,并对最终效果进行了简要阐述。

  14. Development of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations: A New Review under New Classical Frameworks%农业合作经济组织发展:新兴古典框架下的重新审视

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉凯; 张柏杨

    2011-01-01

    在新兴古典框架下,刻画农业合作经济组织的专业化分工经济模型,运用超边际分析方法,探讨了农业合作经济组织的内在演化机制.以湖北宜昌柑橘业合作经济组织实际发展为例,运用数据进行了相关检验.数理分析结果表明:农业合作经济组织所在区域的交易条件、生产专业化程度、交易效率与农民收入程度成正相关,着手改善经济环境,才能为合作经济组的继续发展提供动力.%Under new classical frameworks, the text has portrayed the division of economy originating in specialization of cooperative organization, and inframarginal analysis method was used to discuss the internal evolution mechanism of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. Taking the case of the actual development of Yichang citriculture cooperative economic organization, correlation test was carried out by using data. Mathematical analysis results indicated that the trading conditions, the specialization of production and trading efficiency are in positive correlation with farmers' income. Therefore, the improvement of the economic environment can provide powder for the further development of cooperative economic organization.

  15. Desenvolvimento organizacional e interpessoal em cooperativas de produção agropecuária: reflexão sobre o método Organizational and interpersonal develoment in agricultural production cooperatives: a reflexion on method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Aparecida Scopinho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta alguns elementos para a reflexão sobre um método de elaboração e implementação de programa de desenvolvimento organizacional em cooperativas populares de produção agropecuária. Elaborado com base em estudos e experiências vividas com a organização e gestão de cooperativas localizadas nas regiões Sul e Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil e na participação em processos de formação dos cooperados, aborda temas referentes à convivência social e relações interpessoais que interferem no desenvolvimento organizacional. Apresenta um balanço sobre o processo organizativo dos assentamentos e das cooperativas, discute o conceito de desenvolvimento organizacional como estratégia de socialização para o trabalho e a necessidade de construir propostas apropriadas para as organizações cooperativas populares. Esboça algumas diretrizes para a implementação de programas de desenvolvimento organizacional pautados tanto pela solução das necessidades econômicas imediatas quanto pela preservação dos valores humanos e dos recursos naturais, sugerindo a utilização de um método que pode ser capaz de resgatar elementos importantes do universo simbólico dos cooperados.The purpose of this paper is to present some elements which reflect a method of elaborating and implementing organizational development programs in popular agricultural production cooperatives. This text was written based on experiences and studies carried out within the organization and management of cooperatives situated in the south, southeast, and center-west of Brazil, and also within processes which instruct cooperative workers by approaching topics related to social living and interpersonal relations which interfere with organizational development. An analysis balance of the organizational situation of settlements and cooperatives which are the object of intervention is presented. The concept of organizational development as socialization strategy

  16. Conversion of Indigenous Agricultural Waste Feedstocks to Fuel Ethanol. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-27

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a world leader in biomass conversion research and Ecopetrol American Inc., Ecopetrol S.A.'s U.S. subsidiary. The research and development efforts described in the Joint Work Statement (JWS) will take advantage of the strengths of both parties. NREL will use its Integrated Biorefinery Facility and vast experience in the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuel ethanol to develop processes for the conversion of Ecopetrol's feedstocks. Ecopetrol will establish the infrastructure in Columbia to commercialize the conversion process.

  17. LA LIMITACIÓN DE LAS BASES IMPONIBLES DEL IBI RÚSTICO PARA LAS COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS EN EL RÉGIMEN FISCAL DE COOPERATIVAS Y SU NECESARIA REFORMA / LIMITATION OF THE TAX BASE ON THE LAND TAX FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN THE COOPERATIVE TAX SYSTEM, AND IT’S NECESSARY REFORM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO MARÍ VIDAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades cooperativas en España, al igual que en otros países, vienen gozando de unos beneficios tributarios en virtud de la decidida protección que el legislador les ha querido conferir. La normativa actualmente vigente en España es la Ley de Régimen Fiscal de Cooperativas (LRFC, que establece diferentes niveles de beneficios en función del grado de protección que otorga a la cooperativa. En el caso de las cooperativas agrarias se establecen ciertos requisitos para alcanzar el mayor grado de protección, entre los que se encuentra que la base imponible del Impuesto sobre Bienes Inmuebles (IBI correspondiente a los bienes de naturaleza rústica, dentro del ámbito geográfico de actuación de la sociedad, no exceda de 39.065,79 €. En el presente trabajo se analiza si la no actualización de ese límite desde la promulgación de la LRFC en 1990 puede suponer un problema para el cumplimiento del mismo por parte de las cooperativas agrarias para seguir gozando de la especial protección. En este sentido se pondrá de manifiesto cómo los valores catastrales (que determinan la base imponible del IBI de los inmuebles de naturaleza rústica se han venido actualizando anualmente, con el consiguiente incremento de los mismos y por tanto se hace necesaria la reforma del límite fijado en la LRFC. / Cooperatives in Spain, as in other countries, have been enjoying tax benefits under the protection that legislator intended to confer on them. The legislation currently in force in Spain is the Cooperative Tax Systme (CTS, which provides different levels of benefits depending on the degree of protection afforded to the cooperative. In the case of agricultural cooperatives certain requirements are established to achieve the highest degree of protection, which is the Tax Base on the Land Tax. It can’t exceed € 39,065.79. In the present paper we analyze whether the failure to update this limit since the publication of the CTS in 1990 can be a

  18. Cooperative Directors: Perspective and Leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, John L., Jr.; Kiser, Stephen L.

    2000-01-01

    Cooperative directors’ perceptions of their roles, knowledge, and implementation of cooperative principles, business decision making, financial analysis, cooperative law, and division of responsibility with management were analyzed using data from forty-eight agricultural and thirty-one rural electric directors. Directors performed well in these areas with the best performance being related to decision-making scenarios. Self-assessments and performance for capabilities/situational items wer...

  19. The agricultural cooperatives in Argentina today: Three cases from the perspective of social capital El cooperativismo agropecuario argentino en la actualidad: Presentación y análisis de tres casos desde la perspectiva del capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lattuada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a characterization of the agricultural cooperatives in Argentina. In particular, we are interested in the capacity of these organizations to generate social capital. In order to this, we present some specific cases. Thus, the work, that takes part of a larger investigation, is divided in two sections and conclusions. Firstly, we emphasize in the theoretical aspects about social capital and cooperative organizations. Secondly, we show, with this theoretical key, three cases of cooperatives of different types: FeCoVita, AFA and SanCor. Regarding with the methodology, we considerer a literature review related to the topic of social capital and, for the cases, we take institutional material provided for the organizations and specialized studies and interviews.En este trabajo, presentamos una caracterización sobre el cooperativismo agropecuario en la Argentina de los últimos tiempos desde una lente en particular: la capacidad de estas organizaciones para generar capital social, traducida en la presentación de algunos casos concretos. De este modo, el trabajo -que forma parte de una investigación mayor- se divide en dos apartados y conclusiones. En el primero de ellos destacamos los aspectos teóricos en torno al capital social y las organizaciones cooperativas. En el segundo, mostramos, desde la clave teórica anterior, tres casos de cooperativas, de distinto tipo, de larga data en nuestro país: FeCoVita, AFA y SanCor. En cuanto a la metodología utilizada, se consideró una exhaustiva revisión de bibliografía vinculada al tema del capital social y, para la preparación de los casos, se tuvieron en cuenta información institucional provista por cada organización, estudios especializados y entrevistas en profundidad.

  20. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  1. THE FUNCTION DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC COOPERATION OF SILK ROAD ECONOMIC BELT%丝绸之路经济带农业经济协作功能分区规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师晓华

    2015-01-01

    ,it put forward three recommendations for the country's agricultural economic cooperation,namely (1) to enhance the in-dustry'stop design of the cooperation zone,especially on the layout of agricultural production base,and to realize the win-win development of the cooperation zone by the integration of agriculture with city and industrial develop-ment;(2) to actively adjust and optimize the industrial structurebased on the characteristics of agricultural re-sources and the advantages of the agricultural industry development mode in the cooperation zone;(3) to establish and improve the division of labor and cooperation mechanism realizing the economic integration in the countries a-long the silk road economic belt.

  2. 关于建立亚太地区农产品质量安全合作机制的构想%The conception of establishing a cooperative mechanism of agricultural product quality and safety in Asia-Pacific region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章力建; 吴爱忠; 赵志辉; 蔡典雄; 朱立志; 胡育骄

    2011-01-01

    Establishing the cooperative mechanism and joint study platform of agricultural product quality and safety in Asia-Pacific region and enhancing the cooperation between countries in Asia-Pacific region is of great significance for the national agricultural production safety in Asia-Pacific region, very necessary for our country to set up an image of a responsible great country in agricultural products'quality and safety, protect agriculture-related benefit, increase exports and ensure the safety of imported food and the national food security,and also a beneficial exploration of establishing a cooperative mechanism of the global agricultural products'quality and safety. The paper analysed the necessity and research task for establishing the cooperative mechanism of agricultural product quality and safety in Asia-Pacific region. Then the corresponding measures were given.%建立亚太地区农产品质量安全合作机制及联合研究平台,加强亚太地区国家间的合作,不仅对亚太地区国家农业安全生产意义重大,而且对我国在农产品质量安全领域树立负责任的大国形象,保护涉农利益,增加出口,保证进口食品安全以及对我国食品安全保障非常必要,也是建立全球农产品质量安全合作机制的有益探索.本文分析了建立亚太地区农产品质量安全合作机制的必要性和研究任务,并给出了相应的对策措施.

  3. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    , cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...

  4. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  5. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; ZHANG, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  6. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  7. 7 CFR 1124.11 - Cooperative reserve supply unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Cooperative reserve supply unit. 1124.11 Section 1124... MARKETING AREA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 1124.11 Cooperative reserve supply unit. Cooperative reserve supply unit means any cooperative association or its agent that is a handler pursuant to §...

  8. COOPERATION OF SMALL-SCALE HORTICULTURAL PRODUCERS IN UKRAINE

    OpenAIRE

    Ternovsky, Volodymyr; Mirzoeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation of small horticultural producers and the effectiveness of this cooperation is a very important issue for the development of the agricultural sector in Ukraine. Therefore, the goals of this study are analysis of existing models of cooperation, and identification of cooperation models which show promise for effective application among small agricultural producers, within the current legal framework, in Ukraine. Additionally this study aims to identify the factors which act as obstac...

  9. 7 CFR 1484.34 - Must Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct? 1484.34 Section 1484.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Cooperators adhere to specific standards of ethical conduct? (a) A Cooperator shall conduct its business...

  10. 马克思恩格斯农业合作化理论在中国的历史实践及基本经验%The Historical Practice and Basic Experience on the Agricultural Cooperative Theory of Marx and Engels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈红梅; 霍有光

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural cooperative theory of Marx and Engels is an important theoretical basis for guiding the construction of modern agriculture in China.Under the guidance of this theory,the Commu-nist Party of China has made a long and arduous social historical practice to enrich it on the basis of na-tional conditions and demands of the times,and thus developing the new agricultural cooperatives ideas with distinctive Chinese characteristics.In this process,ample experiences have been accumulated in forms of conforming to the fact that the changes of the relations of production must adhere to the re-quirements of the development of productivity,sticking to the leadership of the Party,following the prin-ciple of voluntary and mutually beneficial cooperation in agricultural organization,developing the new ag-ricultural cooperative economic organizations and improving the land transfer mechanism.Practically, great historical contributions have been made to promote the process of agricultural modernization in China.Theoretically,significant reference and inspiration have been assured for the future development of the new types of rural cooperative economic organizations.%马克思恩格斯农业合作化理论是指导我国现代农业发展的重要理论依据。中国共产党在马克思恩格斯农业合作化理论指导下,顺应时代要求,立足国情农情,历经长期艰苦的历史实践,创新发展了马克思主义农业合作化理论,形成独具中国特色的农业合作化思想,并积累了丰富的经验:遵从生产关系变革一定要符合生产力发展的要求;坚持党的领导;遵循农业合作经济组织的自愿原则;发展农村新型合作经营,创新合作经济实现形式;健全土地流转机制。其在实践上为推动我国农业现代化进程作出了巨大历史贡献,在理论上为农村新型合作经济组织的未来发展提供了重要的镜鉴与启示。

  11. Cooperatives, Economic Democratization and Rural Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Muradian, Roldan; Schuurman, Jur

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural cooperatives and producer organisations are institutional innovations, which have the potential to reduce poverty and improve food security. This book presents a raft of international case studies, from developing and transition countries, to analyse the internal and external challenges

  12. Cooperatives as Marketers of Branded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Hardesty, Shermain D.

    2005-01-01

    Few agricultural marketing cooperatives have nationally prominent brand names. Instead, they tend to concentrate in commodity-oriented markets, which can be attributed to the cooperative principles—user-benefit, user-financed and user-control. However, these structural disadvantages can be overcome. Due to the user-benefit principle, cooperatives often have seasonal product availability and/or limited product lines; they also suffer from the horizon problem, lacking the structure to provide ...

  13. Cooperation for competition : linking Ethiopian farmers to markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francesconi, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout history, rural smallholders have formed various forms of associations to confront access-barriers to the market. It is estimated that 250 million farmers participate in agricultural cooperatives in developing countries. Agricultural cooperatives are considered to be a fundamental pillar o

  14. 外部环境对闽台创意农业合作绩效影响的实证研究%An Empirical Study on the Impact of External Environment on the Cooperative Performance of Creative Agriculture between Fujian and Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林炳坤; 吕庆华

    2015-01-01

    文章在文献回顾基础上,构建外部环境对闽台创意农业合作绩效影响的理论模型,设计调研问卷,并以福建省内漳浦、漳平、仙游、清流、福清和惠安6个国家级台湾农民创业园中的创意农业企业为调研对象,收集一手调研数据,实证检验理论模型的合理性和有效性。实证研究结果显示:外部环境的3个因素中,基础设施和政策法规对闽台创意农业合作绩效具有显著正向影响,社会信任对闽台创意农业合作绩效不具有显著正向影响。研究结论为促进闽台创意农业合作绩效的提升提供决策依据,有助于进一步深化闽台创意农业合作,实现两地创意农业实力的共同提升。%Based on the literature review, this study builds a theoretical model of the impact of external environment on the cooperative performance of creative agriculture between Fujian and Taiwan and designs the survey questionnaires accordingly. Then, it takes the creative agriculture enterprises in six national Taiwan Farmers Pioneer Park of Zhangpu, Zhangping, Xianyou, Qingliu, Fuqing and Huian in Fujian province as the survey object, collects the first-hand data, and makes an empirical test on the rationality and effectiveness of the theoretical model. The empirical results show that:Among three exter⁃nal environment factors, infrastructure and policies and regulations have significant positive impacts on the cooperative per⁃formance of creative agriculture between Fujian and Taiwan,whereas the social trust does not have a remarkable positive im⁃pact on it. The research conclusions provide the decision-making basis for promoting the cooperative performance of creative agriculture,facilitate to further deepen the cooperation and promote the common development of creative agriculture between Fujian and Taiwan.

  15. 基于订单农业风险管理的农民专业合作社创新研究%A Study on the Innovation of Farmer Professional Cooperatives Based on the Default Risk Management of Order-Based Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵俊英

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the performance rate of order-based agriculture and promote the management of agriculture industrialization. The condition and causes are analyzed by the use of game theory, it is pointed that the default risk of order-based agriculture can be solved with the pattern of "company + fanner professional cooperatives + peasant household" and financial derivatives trade. Based this, the functions of fanner professional cooperatives is analyzed, which include changing the weak position of peasant household, achieving the standardization of agricultural products, advancing the credibility and integrity level of peasant household, and representing peasant household to trade in future market. Taking the present situation of fanner professional cooperatives into account, farmer professional cooperatives should enlarge service, innovate function, cultivate or import talents people of finance professional ability, formulate relative provision of future operation and format speculation. The government should perfect further the function of service and supervision to improve the performance rate of order-based agriculture.%为了有效提高农民专业合作社订单农业履约率,促进农业产业化经营.利用博弈论分析订单农业中农户和农业企业违约的条件和原因,指出利用“公司+农民专业合作社+农户”模式和金融衍生工具交易2种方式来解决订单农业违约风险问题.进而分析农民专业合作社在这2种方式中的作用,包括改变农户参与市场的弱势地位,有利于实行农产品标准化生产,提高农户的诚信度,代表农户参与期货市场等.基于此,提出农民专业合作社应扩大业务内容,实现职能创新,培养或引进专业人才,制定相关期货操作规定,禁止从事投机交易;政府则应充分发挥其监督与服务职能,由此不断提高订单农业履约率.

  16. Cooperation Between Equals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 MARKS the 55th anniversary of the start of contemporary friendly relations between the People’s Republic of China and African countries. Chinese Vice Premier Hui Liangyu’s recent African trip gave another boost to the burgeoning China-Africa ties,said Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun.Hui visited five African countries - Mauritius, Zambia,the Democratic Republic of the Congo,Cameroon and Senegal -from January 6 to 19.Agriculture and trade were some of the most promising areas of cooperation between China and these countries,said Zhai in a recent interview with ChinAfrica.Excerpts follow:

  17. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  18. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  19. 农业纵向一体化经营与农户横向一体化合作--我国“三农问题”及其出路解析%On Vertical Integrated Agricultural Management and Farmers’ Horizontal Integrated Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊吉陵; 邓伟

    2013-01-01

    The“three dimensional rural problems”are the problems for agriculture, farmers and rural areas. With an analysis of the special features of agriculture, this article suggests that vertical integrated agricultural management and farmers’ horizontal integrated cooperation should be efficient ways to promote agriculture, protect farmers’ interest, maintain stability in rural areas and increase the income of farmers..%  “三农”问题即“农村、农民、农业”问题。从农业的特殊性出发,认为通过实现农业纵向一体化经营、大力发展农户横向一体化合作经济组织是发展农业、保护农民利益、维护农村稳定、真正做到“农业增产、农民增收”的有效途径。

  20. Human Nutrition Research Conducted at State Agricultural Experiment Stations and 1890/Tuskegee Agricultural Research Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A.; Myers, John R.

    1989-01-01

    Cooperative State Research Service-administered and state-appropriated State Agriculture Experiment Station funds for human nutrition research increased about two-fold from FY70-FY86, while the percentage of budget expended for this research decreased. (JOW)

  1. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  2. Problems of Agricultural Technological Innovation in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo; LIU; Ren; LIU; Huazhen; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Major problems of agricultural technological innovation in China were summarized as below: first,poor agricultural science and technology system; second,deficient technological promotion system; third,shortage of agricultural professionals; fourth,serious shortage of science and technology input. In view of these problems,the following suggestions were given to improve the innovation of agricultural technology in China. ( 1) Restructuring agricultural research institutes,establishing cooperative innovation centers,improving agricultural technological innovation system; ( 2) Specifying the direction of research projects,improving scientific research level of technicians,so as to improve the agricultural technological innovation capacity; ( 3) Improving promotion and service stations in towns,organizing technological service teams of agricultural universities and colleges,establishing agricultural technological promotion systems; ( 4) Increasing input in agricultural technological innovation by attracting government input,enterprise investment and other financial support; ( 5) Cultivating more talents of agricultural technology,training leading agricultural technicians,grassroots agricultural service staff and practical talents.

  3. The Evolution of Agricultural Cooperative Finance System in the Modern China:A Perspective of the Relationship between State and Society%近代中国农业合作金融制度的演进--基于国家与社会之间关系视角的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易棉阳

    2016-01-01

    The modern Chinese agricultural cooperative finance system influenced the devel‐opment of rural economy and society at that time ,but did not achieve the expected effect .This paper explores the evolution of agricultural cooperative finance system in the modern China from a perspective of the relationship between state and society ,and tries to show the picture of mod‐ern Chinese agricultural cooperative finance from a perspective of institution evolution .It arrives at the following results :firstly , agricultural cooperative finance in modern China experienced three different system models ,namely society-guided and peasant-self-acted system during the period of the Beiyang government ,state-and-society-guided and society-self-acted system at earlier stage of the Nationalist government in Nanjing ,and state-driven & passive-peasant-based system at later stage of the Nationalist government in Nanjing ;secondly , these three system modes played a role in the alleviation of rural finance depletion ,fighting against traditional usury and the promotion of rural economic development ,but resulting paradox of cooperative finance led to the deviation of modern Chinese cooperation finance system from grassroots finance and failed at last . It provides a certain historical reference for current construction of appropriate new-type rural fi‐nancial system .%近代中国的农业合作金融制度对当时农村的社会经济发展产生过重大影响,但并没有取得预期的效果。文章从国家与社会之间的关系视角来考察近代中国农业合作金融制度的演进历程,试图从制度演进角度来展现近代中国农业合作金融的全貌。研究表明:(1)近代中国的农业合作金融先后经历了三种不同的制度模式,即北洋政府时期的社会引动与农民自动型制度、南京国民政府前期的国家和社会引动以及社会自动型制度、南京国民政府后期的国家代动

  4. 出口农产品企业订单基地模式的弊端及加权考核新模式的应用%Disadvantages of Cooperation Mode between Agricultural Products Export Enterprises and Raw Material Bases and Application of New Weighted Evaluation Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张军

    2013-01-01

      分析了宁波慈溪地区农产品企业与原料订单基地当前合作的模式和存在的弊端,提出并分析了加权考核新模式的应用。加权考核新模式根据科学的数学计算进行考核,有利于平衡合作双方的利益,更能促进合作机制的稳定完善。%  In the paper, we analyzed cooperation mode between agricultural products export enterprises and raw material bases and its disadvantages, and put forward the application example and key points of new weighted evaluation mode. Based on scientific mathematical calculation, the new mode was helpful to balance of the interests of both cooperation sides, and could promote the improvement and stability of cooperation mechanism better.

  5. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  6. 基于农民专业合作社的农产品流通模式研究——以广东省为例%Circulation model of agricultural products based on farmer specialized cooperatives in Guangdong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄修杰

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]Status of farmer specialized cooperatives as well as its model used in agricultural products circulation in Guangdong Province were thoroughly analyzed to offer references for the development of agricultural products circulation in Guangdong Province or even in whole China. [MethodJProblems existing in farmer specialized cooperatives in Guangdong Province were analyzed following comparative analysis, qualitative analysis and empirical analysis through on site investigation, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions were put forward. [Result]The result showed that the main circulation models of agricultural products in Guangdong Province were as follows: members/bases→farmer specialized cooperatives→wholesalers/wholesale markets, members/bases→farmer specialized cooperatives→processing enterprises, members/bases→farmer specialized cooperatives→exports, members/bases→farmer specialized cooperatives→supermarkets or hotels and supermarkets run by farmer specialized cooperatives. Such problems as delayed market information acquisition, weak logistic infrastructure, low additional value of agricultural products and interest conflicts caused by broker participatory circulation existed. [Suggestion ] Building special channel for market information, constructing necessary storage facilities, improving cold-chain transport, enhancing branding, and adopting rational sales settlement method should be carried out to give full play to the role of farmer specialized cooperatives in the circulation of agricultural products in Guangdong Province.%[目的]深入了解广东省农民专业合作社的发展现状及其在农产品流通中采用的模式,为广东省乃至我国农产品流通的发展提供参考.[方法]对广东省各地的农民专业合作社进行实地调查,通过比较分析、定性分析和实证分析等方法剖析流通中存在的问题,并提出相应的对策建议.[结果]主要有社员/基地→农民专业合

  7. The Basic Path of Modern Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics-Industry Nurturing Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Constructing the modern agriculture with Chinese characteristics is the path and direction for solving issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers in China, the key to new village construction, the important measure for promoting overall agricultural production capacity, and the prerequisite and guarantee for coordinating urban-rural development. At present, the level of agricultural mechanization in China is promoted steadily; the science and technology are applied to agriculture extensively; the agricultural regionalization layout gradually takes shape; the agricultural industrialization management develops steadily. Be that as it may, the overall quality of farmers is low; the agricultural infrastructure is weak; the agricultural resources are limited; the inputs of agricultural science and technology are short. These hamper the development of modern agriculture. We should implement "industry nurturing agriculture"; through capital support and policy guidance, reform household registration system; connect the fragmented land into parcel; encourage the leading enterprises to develop in rural areas; establish agricultural cooperative organizations; deepen rural financial system reform; quicken the promotion and application of agricultural technology. These measures can effectively promote the development of agriculture, and realize the agricultural modernization in China.

  8. An information economic rationale for cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We consider how to organise the processing and marketing of an agricultural product when farming costs are known only by the individual farmers. We show that when marginal costs are uncorrelated, the market for final goods is competitive, and the market for processing is non-competitive, the soci......-competitive, the socially optimal production levels are sustained by a cooperative and a cooperative only. We show also that the cooperative form is particularly useful when the cost uncertainty is large and the net average revenue product is small....

  9. Chinese,Algerian Enterprises Seek to Expand Business Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ A Chinese trade delegation and representatives from Algerian companies met in Algiers,capital of Algeria on November 15 seeking further cooperation in areas such as infrastructure construction,machine building,finance,service and agriculture.

  10. Factors affecting success of agricultural producers groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Chlebicka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor organisation of agricultural markets in Poland remains one of the biggest problems for agricultural sector. There are about 510 agricultural producer groups, but only 2% of Polish farmers selling for market are members. Knowledge on cooperation determinants and different aspects of producer groups performance is crucial to build references for policy makers and producer groups’ managers. The aim of the article was to discuss factors affecting success of producers groups understood as a level of members’ satisfaction. Data for 2006 and 2011 from 30 producers groups in fruit and vegetable sector were analysed using logit model. Three determinants occurred to be statistically important: scope of a group functions, informal cooperation with farmers before starting a formal cooperation and homogeneity of farms.

  11. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  12. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  13. Profit Distribution of Agricultural Supply Chain Based on Shapley Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Yang Ren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper builds an agricultural supply chain and profit model between single farmer and single supermarket by following the game theory. On the basis of the economic purchasing quantity, it compares the profit difference between the cooperation and non-cooperation of the two parties. Study results demonstrate the profits for the whole supply chain are much bigger than that under non-cooperative circumstances when the two parties cooperate with the condition of negotiated purchasing quantity. An investment example using Shapley Value method is given to distribute the profit of each party under cooperation and prove the effectiveness of this method.

  14. 7 CFR 2.65 - Administrator, Agricultural Research Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... computer files, indexes and abstracts, bibliographies, reviews and other analytical information tools. (87...). (90) Formulate, write, or prescribe bibliographic and technically related standards for the library..., agriculture, the environment, and other related areas. (93) Review cooperative research and...

  15. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  16. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  17. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  18. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  19. 7 CFR 1484.33 - Must Cooperators follow certain financial management guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Must Cooperators follow certain financial management... follow certain financial management guidelines? (a) A Cooperator shall implement and maintain a financial management system that conforms to generally accepted accounting principles. (b) A Cooperator shall...

  20. 7 CFR 4285.58 - How to apply for cooperative agreement funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... including: (1) Desired research topics. The FY-94 solicitation will encourage studies: (i) To improve the efficiency and effectiveness of marketing of agricultural cooperatives; (ii) To measure the impact of rural...-State Research on Cooperatives Program § 4285.58 How to apply for cooperative agreement funds. (a)...

  1. Facilitating North-South Partnerships for Sustainable Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termeer, C. J. A. M.; Hilhorst, T.; Oorthuizen, J.

    2010-01-01

    The increased number of development cooperation and sustainable agriculture partnerships brings with it new challenges for professionals who are asked to facilitate these partnering processes. In this article we shed more light on the world of development cooperation and we explore questions that facilitators working with North-South partnerships…

  2. Cooperativismo e dinâmicas produtivas em zonas desfavorecidas: o caso das pequenas cooperativas agrícolas do Sul da França Cooperatives and production dynamics in disadvantaged areas: the case of small agricultural cooperatives in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Lins e Silva Pires

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os arranjos produtivos desenvolvidos pelos agricultores familiares no âmbito da unidade familiar e da cooperativa, avaliando seus impactos sobre o território em termos de criação/ampliação do capital social. Procura-se também identificar as estratégias utilizadas pelas cooperativas para lidar com as adversidades locais, garantindo-lhes uma dinâmica particular. As cooperativas têm estimulado a mobilização dos sócios em torno de inovações organizacionais e tecnológicas? Quais os seus impactos em nível de ampliação do capital social e dinamização dos territórios? Essas questões são analisadas a partir de uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa realizada no Sul da França, tendo como referência dois estudos de caso - Société coopérative agricole Fromagerie des Cévennes e Cooperativa Origine Cévennes. Em ambos, privilegiaram-se o savoir-faire e o protagonismo dos atores locais; estes considerados, mais do que "objetos de estudo", "sujeitos de seu próprio desenvolvimento". O estudo revela os limites e poder de alcance de uma cooperativa, mesmo quando vitimada por distâncias consideráveis dos centros de distribuição dos produtos, custos operacionais elevados, terras áridas e dificuldades de infraestrutura. Os casos são particularmente significativos para reforçar a importância do cooperativismo, sobretudo em áreas consideradas desfavorecidas.This work aims to identify the production arrangements developed by family farmers within the family unit and in cooperatives, assessing its impact on the area in terms of creation and expansion of social capital. It also tries to identify the strategies used by cooperatives to deal with the local adversities, which provide them with particular dynamics. Do the cooperatives stimulate the mobilization of their members towards organizational and technological innovations? What is the impact in terms of increase of the social capital and

  3. Gredos San Diego Cooperative. Cooperate to undertake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de la Higuera

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the cooperative experience through Gredos San Diego model, its institutional approaches and its history from the point of view of management, focusing on the variables that enable the success of a collective ownership institution. First, the author makes a brief analysis of the principles that guide the cooperative, its origins and its current situation, including the development of GSD Cooperative Group. It continues exploring the evolution of management, dividing it into four distinct stages, and concludes with a summary with the findings of the previous president of the cooperative.Received: 23.07.2012Accepted: 10.09.2012

  4. Comprometimento, características da cooperativa e desempenho financeiro: uma análise em painel com as cooperativas agrícolas paulistas Compromiso, características de la cooperativa y desempeño financiero: un análisis en panel de las cooperativas agrícolas del estado de São Paulo Commitment, characteristics of the cooperative, and financial performance: a panel analysis with agricultural cooperatives in São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felippe Cauê Serigati

    2013-06-01

    los socios colaboradores, en este trabajo se investiga la relación entre las características de las cooperativas y el nivel de compromiso, lo que resulta en distintas implicaciones de política; en este estudio se usan datos de panel desbalanceado relativos a las cooperativas agrícolas de São Paulo, el PDICOOP, una base de datos todavía poco utilizada y que proporciona una mayor representatividad y menor susceptibilidad a problemas econométricos de sesgo de selección. Los resultados son consistentes con hipótesis de la literatura sobre los costos y beneficios de la acción colectiva y se observa que el compromiso está positivamente relacionado con el tamaño de la cooperativa (beneficios de la acción colectiva y negativamente relacionado con el número de miembros y su grado de heterogeneidad - proxies para los costos de coordinación. La relación entre compromiso y desempeño financiero, sin embargo, no es concluyente a causa de la falta de buenas variables instrumentales para controlar la endogeneidad.Many papers have discussed the importance of a higher degree of commitment between a cooperative and its members, prompting empirical studies on the subject. This paper joins this current by investigating what conditions behavior of higher commitment, and what is its influence on the cooperative's financial performance. The two main contributions of this paper are: while earlier papers focused their analyses on the members' characteristics, we explore what are the most important characteristics a cooperative can possess to improve members' commitment - this approach offers different policy implications. We also use unbalanced panel data about agricultural cooperatives in São Paulo state to test our hypotheses: with this data, it is possible to apply techniques that can reduce selection bias and give results that are representative for a larger group. The results are consistent with some hypotheses suggested by the literature about the costs and benefits of

  5. 高校与科研院所合作教育培养人才的成效及启示--以南京农业大学与中国水产科学研究院联合培养研究生为例%Cooperative Education between Universities and Research Institutes:Taking the Cooperative Postgraduate Program of Nanjing Agricultural University and Chinese Academy of Fishery Science as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋高中; 徐跑; 侯喜林; 张显良

    2016-01-01

    Taking the cooperative postgraduate program of Nanjing Agricultural University and Chinese Acad⁃emy of Fishery Science as an example, the achievement of the program was analyzed in the aspects of talent training, the promotion of scientific research strength and social impact, the innovation ofcooperation mode, the improvement of internationalization and so on.The experience and enlightenment drawn from this successful pro⁃gram were summarized from the perspectives of innovation, resources advantages, and personal moral and ethical education. The research result can provide reference for the establishment of high level innovation talents cultiva⁃tion.%基于南京农业大学与中国水产科学研究院联合培养研究生的典型案例分析,从合作双方人才培养、科研实力和社会影响力的提升、合作模式的创新、国际化进程的推进等方面,对高校与科研院所合作教育所取得的成效进行了全面剖析,并从突出创新、优势、立德树人等三方面阐述了取得合作成效的基本经验及启示。研究结果可为构建高层次创新型人才培养模式提供一定的参考与借鉴。

  6. Cooperative Online Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article also discusses how issues such as web 2.0, transparency, learning partners and individual progression plans relate to cooperative online education.

  7. 基于互联网平台的农产品农宅对接模式探讨——以北菜园产销专业合作社为例%Farm-to-House Mode of Agricultural Product Marketing Based on Network——A Case Study on the Northern Vegetable Garden Co-Operative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王利荣

    2012-01-01

    To implement farm-to-house agricultural product marketing in the form of co-operatives based on Network can solve the recently-arising problem of "selling cheap and buying dear" in the market,and help improve the income of farmers as well.The key to implement the mode is to manage the quality of products and the logistic distribution of the fresh and the chilled.A case study on the Northern Vegetable Garden in terms of its product quality management system and the distribution with intelligent fresh cold tanks provides references for the implementation of farm-to-house mode and is of practical value to the development of E-commerce of agriculture in China.%以合作社方式借助互联网平台实现农宅对接,是解决近年来出现的农产品"卖贱买贵"现象以及增加农民收入的有效途径。这一模式实现的关键是要控制好农产品的质量和冷鲜物流配送问题。北菜园合作社的农产品质量管理体系以及智能冷鲜柜的配送方式为农宅对接提供了经验,对于农业电子商务的发展具有重要的现实意义。

  8. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  9. Research on Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Based on SCP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the SCP mode of industrial organization theory as the starting point,the paper analyzes Chinese agricultural market structure,market conduct and conduct performance and draws lessons from foreign experiences in developing agriculture.In the process of agricultural industrialization,Chinese agricultural development exists the problems of low intensive degree,low degree of differential products,surplus labor forces,low agricultural profit rate and low industrial contribution rate and farmers’ difficultly in adapting to market competition.The paper puts forward suggestions for addressing the problems,which include underpinning the cooperation of operation main bodies and developing rural cooperative organizations;promoting land transfer and clarifying land property;accelerating rural surplus labors transfer and abating trade barriers;increasing technology input and improving the contribution rate of technologies;improving circulation channels and intensifying agricultural competitiveness.

  10. Extensive Dialogues and Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Chinese Taipei On March 23,Chairman Wan Jifei of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) and Board Chairman Wang Zhigang of the Taipei World Trade Center (TWTC) signed a cooperation agreement at the Taipei World Trade Tower,marking the new page of the development of cooperation and relations between the two organizations and the establishment of their cooperation mechanism.

  11. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here...... a specific "CSCW approach is not taken." Instead the focus is cooperation as an important aspect of work that should be integrated into most computer support efforts in order to develop successful computer support, however, other aspects such as power, conflict and control must also be considered....

  12. Agricultural uses of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pile, R.S.; Behrends, L.L.; Burns, E.R.; Maddox, J.J.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    A major concern of the Tennessee Valley Authority is to ensure efficient use of Tennessee Valley resources in achieving optimum economic development without degrading the environment. As part of this effort, TVA is exploring many uses for waste heat. Activities to develop ways to use waste heat in agricultural production are described. Primary objectives are to: (1) identify potential agricultural uses of waste heat, (2) develop and test technologies and management criteria for more productive uses, (3) demonstrate technologies in commercial-scale production facilities, and (4) provide technical assistance for commercial application. Waste heat research and development projects under investigation or being planned by TVA independently or cooperatively include: (1) controlled environment greenhouses, (2) biological ecycling of nutrients from livestock manures, (3) soil heating and irrigation, and (4) environmental control for livestock housing. (MHR)

  13. Dilemmas of partial cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Hans-Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Related to the often applied cooperation models of social dilemmas, we deal with scenarios in which defection dominates cooperation, but an intermediate fraction of cooperators, that is, "partial cooperation," would maximize the overall performance of a group of individuals. Of course, such a solution comes at the expense of cooperators that do not profit from the overall maximum. However, because there are mechanisms accounting for mutual benefits after repeated interactions or through evolutionary mechanisms, such situations can constitute "dilemmas" of partial cooperation. Among the 12 ordinally distinct, symmetrical 2 x 2 games, three (barely considered) variants are correspondents of such dilemmas. Whereas some previous studies investigated particular instances of such games, we here provide the unifying framework and concisely relate it to the broad literature on cooperation in social dilemmas. Complementing our argumentation, we study the evolution of partial cooperation by deriving the respective conditions under which coexistence of cooperators and defectors, that is, partial cooperation, can be a stable outcome of evolutionary dynamics in these scenarios. Finally, we discuss the relevance of such models for research on the large biodiversity and variation in cooperative efforts both in biological and social systems.

  14. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Kangmin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agriculture lasted for 7,000 years to get our food security on primitive crop cultivation and animal raising.

  15. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their li......To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed...... their livestock. But these often sustainable and ancient ways to make use of groundwater are in rapid decline worldwide. A research project started in 1999 to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels called "qanats"in Syria. To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results and outcomes...... of this research project. The main objective of this research is to better understand the proces of collective maintenance of these ancient water tunnels. The study evaluates the social, cultural, political and environmental factors that have driven abandonment and decay of qanats in Syria. It tries to reconcile...

  16. BIODYNAMIC AGRICULTURE - ECO-FRIENDLY AGRICULTURAL PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselka Vlahova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodynamic agriculture is undoubtedly the oldest organized agricultural movement in the world. It is considered as an organic agricultural farming approach and determined as the oldest organized alternative agricultural movement in the world. In 1924 Rudolf Steiner – an Austrian natural scientist and philosopher, carried out a series of eight lectures in Koberwitz, currently Kobierzyce- Poland, where he formulated his visions on changes in agriculture and revealed his spiritual and scientific concepts about the connection between nature and agriculture by determining the important role of agriculture for the future of humanity and thus he became known as “the father of anthroposophy”. The great ecological effect of the application of the biodynamic agriculture is expressed in soil preservation and preservation of the living organisms in the soil, as well as maintenance of the natural balance in the vegetable and animal kingdom.

  17. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products,by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain,this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation.The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows:the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly;the circulation cost hovers at high level;the factor inputs of agricultural products are short;inflation pressure is incessantly mounting;the profit distribution of supply chain is irrational.Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  18. Agricultural Education at Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Donald E.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses educational reform in the context of agricultural education. Covers a recent report on agricultural education reform by the National Academy of Sciences, state legislative initiatives, and several recommendations for the future of agricultural education. (CH)

  19. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  20. Urban Agriculture Guide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.J.; Jansma, J.E.; Dekking, A.J.G.; Klieverik, M.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    The Urban Agriculture Guide describes the experiences, learning moments, tips and tricks of those involved in the initiatives of urban agriculture and an indication is provided of what is required to develop urban agriculture further in the Netherlands

  1. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  2. Futures for energy cooperatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    A listing of Federal agencies and programs with potential funding for community-scale cooperatives using conservation measures and solar technologies is presented in Section 1. Section 2 presents profiles of existing community energy cooperatives describing their location, history, membership, services, sources of finance and technical assistance. A condensed summary from a recent conference on Energy Cooperatives featuring notes on co-op members' experiences, problems, and opportunities is presented in Section 3. Section 4 lists contacts for additional information. A National Consumer Cooperative Bank Load Application is shown in the appendix.

  3. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  4. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    a gravitational pull which goes beyond economic problems. Furthermore, the EU has gradually built up a coherent policy on many fields. The EU has become the “reform anchor” and most important cooperation partner for Egypt. The progress towards increasing Egypt’s “Stake in the Internal Market” places cooperation...... on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it would be wrong...

  5. Priority Directions of Improving the State Regulation of Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Konstantinovna Sanakoeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews primary directions for economical regulation of agriculture, for solving problems of insufficient funds of agricultural enterprises. Goals for development of agricultural economics growth and competitive abilities are determined, economical measures for governmental support are described as functions of system for development of agricultural market. The authors reveal the problems of innovational and optimizational model for development of agriculture, and system of state regulative and supportive measures for implementing the innovational model of development by consolidation of self-development mechanisms within revealing of inner economical reserves and activisation of “growth points” for resource potential. The mutual system dependence for mechanisms of taxes and subsidiaries and their influence on budget and socio-economical externalities are analyzed. It is substantiated that the state regulation of agricultural markets must take into account low incomes of small agricultural business, not allowing to accumulate necessary funds for starting cooperation. Due to that, the article specially reviews issues of loan availableness for small agricultural enterprises, including private farmings, peasant farms and cooperatives created by them, and, for this goal, the issues of marketing effectiveness for production of such small forms of agriculture are further reviewed. As a result of research, the authors discovered the necessity for government support of socially important businesses in agriculture, which are not of high profitability and, due to that, are not attractive for investors, but are necessary for saving the traditional rural lifestyle and maintaining important social functions for sustainable development.

  6. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  7. Cellular cooperation: insights from microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiker, Hasan; Gore, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation between cells is a widespread phenomenon in nature, found across diverse systems ranging from microbial populations to multicellular organisms. For cooperation to evolve and be maintained within a population of cells, costs due to competition have to be outweighed by the benefits gained through cooperative actions. Because cooperation generally confers a cost to the cooperating cells, defector cells that do not cooperate but reap the benefits of cooperation can thrive and eventually drive the cooperating phenotypes to extinction. Here we summarize recent advances made in understanding how cooperation and multicellularity can evolve in microbial populations in the face of such conflicts and discuss parallels with cell populations within multicellular organisms.

  8. Cooperative Wideband OFDM Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, H.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, major attention is paid to cooperative diversity as an alternative way to achieve spatial diversity when the multiple antenna structure is not an option. By adopting the cooperative relay nodes to forward information, we can mitigate the fading effects, increase the capacity, lower t

  9. Cooperation, compensation and transition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ju, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Cooperation and compensation are two important and well-linked issues in economics. The central question in cooperation is how to share the joint gains among participating players. Compensation is a specific aspect of surplus sharing problems providing incentives for agents to sacrifice their own di

  10. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  11. Cooperative Science Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperative Learning, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Offers several elementary level cooperative science lesson plans. The article includes a recipe for cooperative class learning, instructions for making a compost pile, directions for finding evidence of energy, experiments in math and science using oranges to test density, and discussions of buoyancy using eggs. (SM)

  12. Readings in Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jerome I.

    Twenty-three journal articles on cooperative education were selected in a review of the literature by two Temple University graduate classes in the fall of 1975 and the spring of 1976 for those interested in the role of coordinating cooperative education programs. The journal readings consist of articles on theory/planning (6), implementation…

  13. Coordination and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can

  14. International Cooperation Advances Internationalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ge Mingyi

    2004-01-01

    @@ Intemational scientific cooperation continues to successfully promote the development of research and the quality of researchers in China, and also the internationalization of China's research system and research organizations. An outstanding example of this is the 30 years of fruitful cooperation between the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Max Planck Society.

  15. Journal of Integrative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Aims and Scope Journal of Integrative Agriculture (JIA), formerly Agricultural Sciences in China (ASC), founded in 2002, is an official publication of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS). JIA seeks to publish those papers that are influential and will significantly advance scientific understanding in agriculture fields worldwide.

  16. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  17. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  18. Culture and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gächter, Simon; Herrmann, Benedikt; Thöni, Christian

    2010-09-12

    Does the cultural background influence the success with which genetically unrelated individuals cooperate in social dilemma situations? In this paper, we provide an answer by analysing the data of Herrmann et al. (2008a), who studied cooperation and punishment in 16 subject pools from six different world cultures (as classified by Inglehart & Baker (2000)). We use analysis of variance to disentangle the importance of cultural background relative to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences in cooperation. We find that culture has a substantial influence on the extent of cooperation, in addition to individual heterogeneity and group-level differences identified by previous research. The significance of this result is that cultural background has a substantial influence on cooperation in otherwise identical environments. This is particularly true in the presence of punishment opportunities.

  19. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  20. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  1. National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) Laboratory Data, NCSS Lab Data Mart Point Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture — This layer represents the National Cooperative Soil Survey laboratory data of soil properties for soil samples taken at sites or points on the Earth’s globe – mainly...

  2. 77 FR 59166 - South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliffe, Kemper County Integrated Gasification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service South Mississippi Electric Cooperative: Plant Ratcliffe, Kemper County... Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Facility located in Kemper County, Mississippi (the Project)....

  3. 75 FR 9380 - Cooperative Conservation Partners Initiative; Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Cooperative Conservation Partners Initiative; Wetlands... (CCRP), Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP), or Farmable Wetlands Program (FWP) proposed or... to help enhance conservation outcomes on wetlands and adjacent lands. The purpose of WREP as part...

  4. 75 FR 73027 - Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... will be accomplished through a conservation systems approach to address water quality, wetland, and...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Commodity Credit Corporation Cooperative Conservation Partnership Initiative and Wetlands Reserve Enhancement Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Natural...

  5. Development of cooperative system bridges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhe; WAN Qi-bai; SHI Lei

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative system bridges comprise several basic structures that act jointly to improve structural characteristics. We delved into the historical development of cooperative system bridges. Cooperative systems are classified as different-load cooperative systems and same-load cooperative systems by distinguishing the modes of load distribution. For different-load cooperation, individual basic structures are at different positions in the direction along bridge axis and carry the loads separately. While for same-load cooperation, all basic structures overlap in geometrical locations and support the entire loads conjointly. The choosing of span ratios between basic structures, the design of connections of different-load cooperative systems were discussed as well as optimizations of relative rigidity for same-load cooperative systems which greatly influence structural characteristics. The general situation and several structural measurements of several cooperative bridges were demonstrated. This information can assist engineers in developing their concepts in cooperative systems and can lead to more efficient and economical cooperative bridges.

  6. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chun-mei

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows, first, the cost is high; second, the t...

  7. Globalization and human cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  8. Network modularity promotes cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoux, Marianne; Lusseau, David

    2013-05-01

    Cooperation in animals and humans is widely observed even if evolutionary biology theories predict the evolution of selfish individuals. Previous game theory models have shown that cooperation can evolve when the game takes place in a structured population such as a social network because it limits interactions between individuals. Modularity, the natural division of a network into groups, is a key characteristic of all social networks but the influence of this crucial social feature on the evolution of cooperation has never been investigated. Here, we provide novel pieces of evidence that network modularity promotes the evolution of cooperation in 2-person prisoner's dilemma games. By simulating games on social networks of different structures, we show that modularity shapes interactions between individuals favouring the evolution of cooperation. Modularity provides a simple mechanism for the evolution of cooperation without having to invoke complicated mechanisms such as reputation or punishment, or requiring genetic similarity among individuals. Thus, cooperation can evolve over wider social contexts than previously reported.

  9. Evaluation on Agricultural Regional Coordination Degree of Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the characteristics of agricultural system in Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei,population pressure,resource utilization and construction capability are taken as the first grade indices.And there are a total of 14 second grade indices,such as the per capita cultivated land,per capita grain yield,per capita meat product,per capita aquatic product,per capita fruit,per capita water resource,per capita GDP,multiple cropping index,and proportion of agricultural expenditure in financial expenditure.An evaluation theory system for the coordination degree of agricultural system is established;and the empirical study on the agricultural coordination degree of Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei is carried out.Result shows that agricultural cooperative development in Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei is still in its primary stage.It is put forward that ideology is the premise,plan should take the lead,transportation is the foundation,and enhancing the brand is the key.Countermeasures are put forward for the agricultural cooperative development in Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei,such as enhancing the sense of strategic positioning during agricultural cooperative development in Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei,promoting the agricultural cooperative development planning in Beijing,Tianjin and Hebei,establishing a modern and integrated transport network system,strengthening the agricultural science and technology support,and improving the grade of agricultural products.

  10. Strategic ways of economic development of agriculture in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klochko Vіtalіy M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides data with respect to the modern state and tendencies of development of the agrarian sector of Ukraine. The issue of the optimal size of an agricultural enterprise is discussed in the scientific literature. The world practice shows that competitive advantages of farms are achieved through their unification for creation of various partnerships and co-operatives, which operate on the unprofitable basis. Powerful industrial enterprises, financial, trading and service structures took advantage of absence of co-operatives and monopolised production of agricultural products, holding significant areas of agricultural land on lease. Today, ten biggest Ukrainian agro-holdings have more than three million hectares of land or 7.5% of all lands. Big capital, trying to maximise profit, is specialised, as a rule, in mono-production. The article shows main ways of strategic development of agriculture in Ukraine. Depending on the main form of farm management, there are two directions of further development of agro-industrial production: development of big agro-industrial formations (branch organisation of agro-industrial production and vertical integration in the agro-industrial complex (AIC or co-operatives (territorial organisation of agro-industrial production and horizontal integration in AIC. Depending on the way selected by the state, an organisational and economic mechanism is created. The article develops conceptual grounds of state regulation of AIC in the context of development of major agro-industrial formations and agricultural service co-operatives.

  11. Coffee marketing cooperatives and rural poverty alleviation: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are increasing across time in terms of number, type, and membership size due to the supportive policy environment. In addition, there are also encouraging developments in terms of the consolidation of cooperative unions (second-tier level of organization

  12. 75 FR 62755 - Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Mt. Hood National Forest, Oregon; Cooper Spur-Government Camp Land Exchange AGENCY: Forest... land. The acquisition of the wetlands at Cooper Spur and the easement on the wetlands at...

  13. Vertical Coordination Development Mode and Influential Factors of Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tuzhan WANG

    2016-01-01

    In China,the vertical coordination development mode of agricultural products can be divided into traditional market-oriented transaction mode with fluctuation according to market conditions,made-to-order on the basis of farmer organization,company leading cooperative mode,share or shareholding cooperative mode,and vertical integration mode. There are differences in coordination characteristics,advantages and disadvantages,and adaptability between different modes. Traditional vertical coordination mode is transforming and upgrading to close and high-efficient mode. In this process,it is influenced by factors such as cost-benefit balance between farmers and agricultural product processing enterprises,special use of agricultural product processing,structure of agricultural product industry chain,and action of local government.

  14. The role of cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvariani Levani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Georgian wine industry is not fully utilized. High fragmentation of agricultural land leads to limited production that restricts farmers' access to capital resources, finances, and markets, and prevents further development of the Georgian wine industry. Grape collectors and wine makers need help to join their capital and efforts, to gain economies of scale in production and marketing by jointly accessing agricultural inputs. This study aims to identify the importance of farmer cooperatives for grape producers in the Georgian wine industry in order to overcome inefficiency in the sector. Furthermore, this research project investigates the barriers and driving forces of smallholder grape farmers or wine makers to join cooperatives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders of the Georgian wine industry in order to assess different perspectives on the importance and benefits of farmer cooperatives in the local context. The interview results permit economic analysis of transaction costs, agency theory and property rights in the context of the nascent cooperative movement in the Georgian wine industry. The interviews revealed that development of agriculture cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry is strongly dependent on both farmer enthusiasm and governmental support.1

  15. Israel,China to Strengthen Water Technology Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Wenxiu

    2011-01-01

    @@ To turn desert into oasis is the top priority of the water-poor Israel.The country has made miraculous achievements in turning arid land into fertile agricultural farmland.Now Israel hopes to strengthen cooperation with China in water resources and technology and jointly meet the global water challenge.

  16. Fostering Food citizenship through Farm-School Cooperation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    investigated various farm-school cooperation models and the motivation, learning goals and values among farmers and teachers working together to promote children's understanding of food, nature, agriculture and sustainability. The study is based on four case studies and a review of Danish educational materials...

  17. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  18. Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanning Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial Foraging Optimization (BFO is a novel optimization algorithm based on the social foraging behavior of E. coli bacteria. This paper presents a variation on the original BFO algorithm, namely, the Cooperative Bacterial Foraging Optimization (CBFO, which significantly improve the original BFO in solving complex optimization problems. This significant improvement is achieved by applying two cooperative approaches to the original BFO, namely, the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the implicit space decomposition level and the serial heterogeneous cooperation on the hybrid space decomposition level. The experiments compare the performance of two CBFO variants with the original BFO, the standard PSO and a real-coded GA on four widely used benchmark functions. The new method shows a marked improvement in performance over the original BFO and appears to be comparable with the PSO and GA.

  19. Cooperative Purchasing Reduces Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Edwin J.

    1981-01-01

    Several suburban Chicago (Illinois) school districts are members of the South Suburban School Purchasing Cooperative, which serves as a conduit for volume purchases of educational supplies. (Author/MLF)

  20. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  1. Cooperating and Prospering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO MINGWEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Since its establish-ment in 2001, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO)-a re-gional organization grouping China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan-has grown at a notable pace.

  2. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  3. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  4. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  5. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  6. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  7. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the Philippines agree to strengthen economic and trade cooperation while minimizing disputes Philippine President Benigno Aquino III recently completed a five-day visit to China, his first state visit to China since he took office last year.

  8. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  9. Global Reserve Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    St ra te gy R es ea rc h Pr oj ec t GLOBAL RESERVE COOPERATION BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL PAMELA L. MCGAHA United States Army National Guard...DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Reserve Cooperation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...decade, the United States, its allies, and partner nations have greatly increased their reliance on Reserve Component forces. This global

  10. Cooperation Without Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In January, China announced its desire to increase cooperation with African countries by issuing China's African Policy, a paper intended to guide relations with the continent by continuing a non-interventionist and non-ideological strategy. Christopher Mutsvangwa, Zimbabwean Ambassador to China, shared his views of the policy with Beijing Review reporter Ni Yanshuo and answered criticisms of the China-Africa relationship by Western countries that tie cooperation to democracy and human rights.

  11. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  12. Cooperating mobile robots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, John J.; Eskridge, Steven E.; Hurtado, John E.; Byrne, Raymond H.

    2004-02-03

    A miniature mobile robot provides a relatively inexpensive mobile robot. A mobile robot for searching an area provides a way for multiple mobile robots in cooperating teams. A robotic system with a team of mobile robots communicating information among each other provides a way to locate a source in cooperation. A mobile robot with a sensor, a communication system, and a processor, provides a way to execute a strategy for searching an area.

  13. Profits and Costs of the Development of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the economic profits of rural cooperative economic organizations,the following conclusions are obtained.The rural cooperative economic organizations can get the economic profits which are in accordance with the demands of market-oriented economy.The rural cooperative economic organizations can benefit from sharing the knight service provided by the government;from reducing and avoiding various kinds of risks in operation and from applying the agricultural technology and standardization production.Besides,the organizations can share the profits bought along by the standardized production of agricultural production and their members can enjoy the profits bought by socialized service system.In addition,the rural cooperative economic organizations can enjoy the profits produced by the agricultural management integration strategy.What’ more,they can increase profits by reducing the transaction costs;enlarging scale and enjoying the brand advantages.The analyses of the costs of the development of rural cooperative economic organizations mainly include the organizing costs,operation costs,restriction costs and cooperation costs.We think that the slow development of rural cooperative economic organizations is caused by their high operation cost and the impediment of external environment.In the end,the countermeasures on strengthening the research on the theory,promotion,education and training of rural economic cooperative organizations and intensifying the supports on the policies of rural economic cooperative organizations are put forward.

  14. National Agriculture Imagery Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) acquires aerial imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in the continental U.S. A primary goal of the NAIP...

  15. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  16. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate…

  17. Urban Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbellini, Margaret

    1991-01-01

    John Bourne High School in Queens, New York, offers an agricultural program enrolling more than 400 students. The curriculum includes agricultural career exploration, plant and animal science, summer land laboratories, and a special education component. (SK)

  18. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  19. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  20. The Realization Path of Japan’s Agricultural Modernization and Its Precious Experience for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-guang; XIE Ping

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, the per capita arable land area is small, the natural resources are short, and agricultural production has the typical characteristics of the peasant economy. Even if there are many unfavorable conditions, the level of agricultural modernization of Japan has exceeded that of many developed countries. We conduct comparative analysis on the development characteristics of China’s agriculture and Japan’s agriculture, and summarize the realization path of Japan’s agricultural modernization. Based on the reality of China, we can draw on the following experience from Japan: establishing and improving the agricultural legislation for agriculture; improving the rural cooperative economic organizations; deepening the reform of the agricultural land property right system; increasing the government’s direct funds input of into agriculture; improving the agricultural technology extension system.

  1. Cooperating to Compete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdegue, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990 the government of Chile has carried out a major effort to support the participation of small scale agriculture in one of the most liberalized and competitive economies of the developing world. In particular, the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), and agency of the Ministry of Agr

  2. Socio-economic determinants of cooperative societies’ access to the services of the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank Déterminants socioéconomiques de l’accès des sociétés coopératives aux services de la Banque du Nigéria pour les coopératives agricoles et le développement rural Determinantes socioeconómicos para el acceso de las cooperativas a los servicios del Banco de Cooperativas Agrícolas y Desarrollo Rural de Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus Agbo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the extent to which cooperative societies had access to the special intervention fund administered by the  Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank (NACRDB Ltd. The study was carried out between March and September, 2005, on six randomly selected states, one from each of the six geopolitical zones into which Nigeria has been divided. States sampled included Enugu (South-East. Rivers (South-South, Ondo (South West, Benue (North Central, Bauchi (North East and Kano (North West. Sixty cooperative societies were also randomly selected for the study from each state covered; thirty of them with access and thirty without access to the intervention fund, on the whole 360 cooperative societies were studied. Statistical tools used for data analysis included percentage, means and range. Levene’s test for equality of means was used to determine if the means of the two categories of cooperatives (those with access and those without were statistically different. Likert scale rating was used to determine cooperative societies’ perception of the effects of agency operational guidelines on access. The Levene’s test for equality of means showed that the difference between the means of the two categories of cooperative societies were statistically significant at 5% probability level. Likert scale rating confirmed that the operational guidelines of NACRDB such as minimum credit requirement, type of crop grown, approved loan size, and insurance cover affected access to the intervention fund. It was recommended that promoters of cooperative societies should pay adequate attention to the socioeconomic characteristics of the cooperative societies so promoted and the credit guidelines of the NACRDB Ltd.Cet article évalue l’étendue de l’accès des sociétés coopératives au fonds spécial d’intervention administré par la NACRDB Ltd (Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank. Une étude a

  3. Innovations in urban agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban agriculture, including food security, income generation and environmental management.

  4. Certified organic farming research and demonstration project by Oklahoma State University and USDA's Agricultural Research Service at Lane, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2003, Oklahoma State University and USDA, Agricultural Research Service, South Central Agricultural Research Laboratory received organic certification for 8 acres at the Lane Agricultural Center, Lane, OK. The certified organic land was used to develop a cooperative project with a diversity of a...

  5. ANALYSIS OF INFLUENCE OF FINANCIAL SOCIAL LEARNING OPPORTUNITIES ON LOAN REPAYMENT BEHAVIOUR OF COOPERATOR BORROWERS IN ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Ogbonna EMEROLE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on analysis of influence of financial social learning opportunities on loan repayment behavior of cooperator borrowers was carried out in Abia State, Nigeria. It was the objectives of the study to relate social learning financial opportunities in cooperative societies and member borrowers budgeting and timely repayment of loans; and determine demographic, social learning and financial factors that influenced loan repayment by cooperator borrowers. Two-stage random sampling technique was used in selecting first, two of the three agricultural zones; and second two registered farmers’ multi-purpose agricultural cooperative societies. This was followed by purposive selection from registers of the chosen cooperative societies sixty cooperators who currently were repaying loans borrowed. Descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were used in analyzing the gathered cross sectional data. Results suggest important relationships between financial social learning opportunities in cooperative societies and borrowers’ budgeting and timely loan repayment behaviours. Attendance to meetings, discussions with fellow cooperators and meaningful observation on financial behaviour of members of cooperative societies had significant positive influences on conduct and performance loan beneficiaries. The number of times beneficiaries attended meeting since after loan(s were received; number of times they discussed loan matters with members before loan(s were received; and number of times they discussed loan repayment strategies with other cooperators after loans were received had positive influences on loan repayment behaviour of cooperator borrowers. Cooperator(s should participate in all union activities to truly belong and reap the benefits of being a member

  6. Research on Supply Chain Coordination of Fresh Agricultural Products under Agricultural Insurance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Pei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the fact that the current fresh agricultural products are susceptible to natural risks and the coordination of supply chain is poor, This paper constructs the supply chain profit model under the two models of natural risk and agricultural insurance, Firstly, studying the coordination function of the supply chain system under Two-part Tariff; Then discussing the setting and claiming mechanism of agricultural insurance, compares the influence of agricultural insurance on supply chain profit and supply chain coordination; Finally, giving an example to validate the model results and give decision - making opinions. Research shows that the supply chain of fresh agricultural products can coordinated under Two-part Tariff, but the supply chain cooperation is poor in the natural risk , need to further stabilize and optimize the supply chain; When the risk factor is less than the non-participation insurance coefficient, not to participate in agricultural insurance is conducive to maintaining the coordination of the supply chain system; When the risk coefficient exceeds the non-participation insurance coefficient, the introduction of agricultural insurance can not only effectively manage the natural risks, but also help to improve the coordination of the supply chain system.

  7. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  8. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    in agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both systems. During...... the last decades, the composition of agricultural support has changed significantly. Market price support has decreased, and direct support has increased....

  9. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  10. Imbalance and Correction of the Rural Credit Cooperatives and Rural Economic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the manifestations of imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations: the rural credit cooperatives fail to effectively promote economic development in rural areas; the rural economy is also incapable of effectively promoting the development of the rural credit cooperatives. It analyses the reasons for imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations,including the direct reason (loss of function of the rural credit cooperatives) ,the fundamental reason (restricted economic development of agriculture and countryside and relative pauperization of farmers) ,and the deep-seated reason (sluggish rural economic development) . Corresponding countermeasures and proposals are put forward for promoting balanced development of the rural credit cooperatives and rural economy as follows: first, deepen reform of the rural credit cooperatives,strengthen the function of the rural credit cooperatives in serving the needs of agriculture; second, speed up economic development in rural areas,eliminate the economic constraints for the development of the rural credit cooperatives; third,transform the development pattern and the development strategies,foster the macro-institutional environment for balanced development of rural credit cooperatives and rural economy.

  11. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  12. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed...... these experiences we discuss problems in the process, requirements for design tools, and issues involved in getting going with cooperative prototyping with active user involvement.......This paper describes experiments with a design technique that we denote cooperative prototyping. The experiments consider design of a patient case record system for municipal dental clinics in which we used HyperCard, an off the shelf programming environment for the Macintosh. In the ecperiments we...

  13. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  14. Cooperatives between truth and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Krueger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current declaration of the International Cooperative Alliance on cooperative identity since its 1995 Centennial Conference (which was held in Manchester makes no distinction between cooperation and cooperative. The lack of distinction between cooperation and cooperative has caused the Decennial Cooperative Action Plan to define cooperatives as a form, while their materiality is regarded as managerial: a business (activity under a cooperative form. An identity that is close to us cannot be reduced to form, without this being a problem. Therefore, the value underlying this identity —cooperation— must have a substantial basis, even if it is idealised, if it is to affect us.Received: 27.03.2014Accepted: 12.05.2014

  15. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    the borders long before the politicians supported and pushed for further cooperation. Energy efficiency was addressed by a portfolio of activities ranging from knowledge-sharing, public campaigns, labelling and standardisation of products. The need to address environmental degradation was inspired by the UN...... officials. With the consolidation of Nordic Energy Research in 1999, the cooperation benefitted from having an institution that exclusively could focus on Nordic energy policy issues and deliver research-based decision support to decision makers in the Nordic energy sector....

  16. Excited cooper pairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Arrietea, M. G.; Solis, M. A.; De Llano, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F (Mexico)

    2001-02-01

    Excited cooper pairs formed in a many-fermion system are those with nonzero total center-of mass momentum (CMM). They are normally neglected in the standard Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) theory of superconductivity for being too few compared with zero CMM pairs. However, a Bose-Einstein condensation picture requires both zero and nonzero CMM pairs. Assuming a BCS model interaction between fermions we determine the populations for all CMM values of Cooper pairs by actually calculating the number of nonzero-CMM pairs relative to that of zero-CMM ones in both 2D and 3D. Although this ratio decreases rapidly with CMM, the number of Cooper pairs for any specific CMM less than the maximum (or breakup of the pair) momentum turns out to be typically larger than about 95% of those with zero-CMM at zero temperature T. Even at T {approx}100 K this fraction en 2D is still as large as about 70% for typical quasi-2D cuprate superconductor parameters. [Spanish] Los pares de cooper excitados formados en un sistema de muchos electrones, son aquellos con momentos de centro de masa (CMM) diferente de cero. Normalmente estos no son tomados en cuenta en la teoria estandar de la superconductividad de Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) al suponer que su numero es muy pequeno comparados con los pares de centro de masa igual a cero. Sin embargo, un esquema de condensacion Bose-Einstein requiere de ambos pares, con CMM cero y diferente de cero. Asumiendo una interaccion modelo BCS entre los fermiones, determinamos la poblacion de pares cooper con cada uno de todos los posibles valores del CMM calculando el numero de pares con momentos de centro de masa diferente de cero relativo a los pares de CMM igual a cero, en 2D y 3D. Aunque esta razon decrece rapidamente con el CMM, el numero de pares de cooper para cualquier CMM especifico menor que el momento maximo (o rompimiento de par) es tipicamente mas grande que el 95% de aquellos con CMM cero. Aun a T {approx}100 K esta fraccion en 2D es

  17. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  18. Cooperative strategies in innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratner Svetlana Valerevna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge economy one of the conventional ways to obtain economic agents access to new knowledge and technology is the creation and implementation of specific cooperative strategies, such as the formation of alliances with other economic agents. Combining competencies partners in joint research and development has a positive impact on innovation, but it is a partial convergence of competences partners that in the long term can lead to the unification of competences agents economic system and reduce their innovative activity. In this paper, we propose an effective method of information management in the implementation of a cooperative strategy of innovation.

  19. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  20. Proto-cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbert-Read, James E; Romanczuk, Pawel; Krause, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    beneficial if the cost of attacking is high, and only then when waiting times are short. Our findings provide evidence that cooperative benefits can be realized through the facilitative effects of individuals' hunting actions without spatial coordination of attacks. Such 'proto-cooperation' may be the pre...... in an increase of injured fish in the school with the number of attacks. How quickly prey are captured is positively correlated with the level of injury of the school, suggesting that hunters can benefit from other conspecifics' attacks on the prey. To explore this, we built a mathematical model capturing...

  1. Social penalty promotes cooperation in a cooperative society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-08-04

    Why cooperation is well developed in human society is an unsolved question in biological and human sciences. Vast studies in game theory have revealed that in non-cooperative games selfish behavior generally dominates over cooperation and cooperation can be evolved only under very limited conditions. These studies ask the origin of cooperation; whether cooperation can evolve in a group of selfish individuals. In this paper, instead of asking the origin of cooperation, we consider the enhancement of cooperation in a small already cooperative society. We ask whether cooperative behavior is further promoted in a small cooperative society in which social penalty is devised. We analyze hawk-dove game and prisoner's dilemma introducing social penalty. We then expand it for non-cooperative games in general. The results indicate that cooperation is universally favored if penalty is further imposed. We discuss the current result in terms of the moral, laws, rules and regulations in a society, e.g., criminology and traffic violation.

  2. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  3. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  4. Resource Dependence Relationship between Grass-roots Government and Farmers’ Specialized Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuebin SHEN; Yi CAI

    2016-01-01

    Based on theories of resource dependence and government functions,this paper analyzed benefit interaction between grass-roots government and farmers’ specialized cooperatives in Hubei Province. It was intended to make clear the path dependence relationship between grassroots government and farmers’ specialized cooperatives and find out problems in between. Besides,from the perspective of grass-roots government and farmers’ specialized cooperatives,it came up with corresponding recommendations,to promote constant improvement of farmers’ specialized cooperatives,and help them to become key forces of leading farmers to get rich,pull agricultural economic development,and promote new socialist countryside construction.

  5. 12 CFR 615.5172 - Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers' notes given to cooperatives and dealers. 615.5172 Section 615....5172 Production credit association and agricultural credit association investment in farmers'...

  6. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  7. Organic Agriculture and Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Jahanban, Leila; Davari, Mohammadreza

    2014-01-01

    Organic agriculture is a holistic production management system which promotes and enhances agro-ecosystem health, including biodiversity, biological cycles and soil biological activity. On the other hand, nanotechnology is a rapidly developing domain of research and practice, the terminology is in a state of flux and usage is evolving. Nano-applications are being applied across the entire agriculture and food sectors. In agriculture, for example, nano-pesticides and nano-sensors are changing ...

  8. Ukraine Agricultural Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    The agri-food sector is an important part of the Ukrainian economy. Agriculture could make an even larger contribution to economic growth and the vitality of rural areas in Ukraine than is currently the case. Ukraine has the agro-climatic potential to be a major player on world agricultural markets. Agricultural competitiveness in Ukraine also suffers from inadequate systems to test and do...

  9. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  10. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  11. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    of relationships to these historical contributions. Thus, we propose that Scandinavia offers a particularly promising context from which to draw inspiration regarding effective company-stakeholder cooperation and where ample of examples of what is more recently referred to as “creating shared value” can be found...

  12. Cooperative social capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Acera Manero

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Social capital consists of the contributions of members and associates, both mandatory and voluntary. From an accounting point of view, it is a liability figure that expresses the value of a portion of the equity of the cooperative. Its inclusion in the liability is not the fact that it is a debt but by its nature unenforceable.

  13. Cooperation Across the Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    China and Mexico, two significant developing countries in the world, have been strengthening cooperation in all fields in recent years. And the two countries are confident about improving their ties in the future. Mexican Foreign Minister Luis Ernesto Derbez Bautista shares his views on bilateral relations in a written response to questions from Beijing Review reporter Ding Ying.

  14. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    OpenAIRE

    Lakhno, Victor D.

    2016-01-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fr\\"{o}hlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  15. Communication, Coordination, Cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Nancy Oft; Wiper, Kathie Tippens

    Speech communication teachers at both secondary and postsecondary school levels must cooperate to improve oral communication education. Despite the importance of oral communication skills, speech courses are rarely required in high school. Teachers must tell school boards, higher education boards, and faculties of the importance of speaking and…

  16. Family Sequencing and Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grundel, S.; Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    To analyze the allocation problem of the maximal cost savings of the whole group of jobs, we define and analyze a so-called corresponding cooperative family sequencing game which explicitly takes into account the maximal cost savings for any coalition of jobs. Using nonstandard techniques we prove t

  17. Cooperation Or Conflict?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iran’s recent actions have created confusion and heightened doubt about the future of the nuclear issue Recent events involving Iran have produced high drama. First, the country said it would cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the

  18. Predicting Human Cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Nay

    Full Text Available The Prisoner's Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner's Dilemma (defection, when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner's Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner's Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner's Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation.

  19. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  20. Cooperation Beats Conflict

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Philippine President Benigno Aquino Ⅲ recently completed a five-day visit to China,his first state visit to China since he took office last year.The two countries reached consensus on promoting all-round cooperation,especially in trade and the economy,and downplayed disputes in the South China Sea.

  1. Cooper pairs and bipolarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhno, Victor

    2016-11-01

    It is shown that Cooper pairs are a solution of the bipolaron problem for model Fröhlich Hamiltonian. The total energy of a pair for the initial Fröhlich Hamiltonian is found. Differences between the solutions for the model and initial two-particle problems are discussed.

  2. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  3. Systematic Risk in Agriculture: A Case of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tóth

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper uses the alternative Markowitz portfolio theory approach, by replacing the stock return with return on equity (ROE and estimates the systematic risk of unquoted agricultural farms. The systematic risk is standardly measured by the mean-variance model and standard deviation of stock return. In case of unquoted firms the information regarding the market rate of return is missing. To assess the risk and return, the use of individual financial statements is necessary. The systematic risk in Slovak agriculture over the period 2009-2012 was 3% of equity or capital invested with the average return 0,048%. We calculated the systematic risk separately for two prevailing legal forms in Slovak agriculture: cooperatives and companies (JSC., Ltd.. Cooperatives represent farms with lower individual risk and lower ROE, but higher systematic risk. Companies represent farms established after 1989. These farms generate higher profit for the owner with lower systematic risk.

  4. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  5. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  6. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  7. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  8. An Improved Empirical Model for Evaluating the Influence of Agricultural Supply Chain on Food Processing Enterprise Performance

    OpenAIRE

    XiaoFei Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture supply chain has much economic benefits, it can promote the product circulation, provide cooperation opportunity for both the upstream and downstream enterprises. In order to analyze how the agriculture supply chain effect on the business performance in food processing industry, we make a statistical analysis about the effect of agriculture supply chain on food processing industry by using data from 1990 to 2013. The result shows that: First, Agriculture supply chain development w...

  9. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  10. MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  11. Cooperation Models, Motivation and Objectives behind Farm–School Collaboration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2016-01-01

    and teachers. Findings show distinct differences in motivation. Farmers want to create transparency in their production, ensure support for the agricultural profession or promote food and agricultural literacy. The idealistic motivation of teaching children about food and agriculture weighs higher than...... economic incentives. Teachers display academic motives for engaging in farm visits, but also a broader focus on shaping children’s world views, connectedness to food and nature and fostering life skills. The farm can be an important setting for promoting food, agricultural and ecological literacy. We...... people and their ability to understand the food system. Thus, efforts are made to promote food literacy through strengthening of farm–school links. The case-study research from Denmark investigates existing cooperation arrangements in farm–school collaboration and the underlying motivation of the farmers...

  12. Trade Externalities of Agricultural Subsidies and World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya R. Swain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Almost every country is spending a large proportion of its income on agricultural subsidies; still the agricultural farmers of developing countries are unable to compete globally. There is increase in dependence on food imports, and a decline in food self-reliance. The aim and objectives of this study is to highlight the multiplex nature and enormity of the trade externalities of agricultural subsidies. Approach: To understand the issues and process clearly, reference has been made to GATT Agreements, WTO Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, policies of different countries in this regard, scholarly writings on the subject and the cases related to it. Doctrinaire methodology, which includes analytical, descriptive and comparative method, has been followed in this study. Results: Agricultural subsidies are cardinal facet of agriculture and have a major role to play in international trade. Even after separate Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, the World Trade Organization still failed in minimizing agricultural subsidies. Conclusion: The developing countries should unite and cooperate among themselves, which may help in advancing the cause of their own and scaling down agricultural subsidies, which has become a stumbling block to efforts to dismantle international trade barriers.

  13. The governance of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaiza Juanes Sobradillo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to expose the appropriate legislation for cooperative societies to which Article 129 of the Spanish Constitution refers, deepen the analysis of the organs of management and control based on the Spanish and Basque Laws on Cooperatives and the Statute for the European Cooperative Societies.

  14. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  15. Cooperative Learning: Developments in Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Robyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning is widely recognized as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialization and learning among students from kindergarten through to college level and across different subject areas. Cooperative learning involves students working together to achieve common goals or complete group tasks. Interest in cooperative learning has…

  16. Seeking Cooperation in Green Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan Jifei

    2010-01-01

    @@ On May28,the 2 n d China-South Korea Green Economic Cooperation Forum,sponsored by CCPIT and KCCI,was held in Seoul,South Korea. The subjects tallked about at the forum were "New Recycle Energy Cooperation Plan and Strategy"and Cooperation Plan and Strategy in Green Industries"etc

  17. Cooperation in Networks and Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Velzen, S.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis deals with various models of cooperation in networks and scheduling. The main focus is how the benefits of this cooperation should be divided among the participating individuals. A major part of this analysis is concerned with stability of the cooperation. In addition, allocation rules a

  18. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von;

    2014-01-01

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  19. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  20. Agricultural Technology Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh. Agricultural Technology Education Section.

    Agricultural education programs available through North Carolina's newly created system of industrial education center, technical institutes, and community colleges are described. The information is for use by administrators, and teachers of adult agricultural courses and counselors of high school dropouts and graduates. It describes the need for…

  1. Conservation Agriculture in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á. Kertész

    2014-03-01

    Yield performance and stability, operating costs, environmental policies and programs of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP, and climate change will likely be the major driving forces defining the direction and for the extension of CA in Europe. The role of agriculture in climate change mitigation in the EU is discussed in the paper.

  2. Agricultural lung diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-01-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity an...

  3. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  4. The Urban Agriculture Circle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, J.E.; Chambers, Joe; Sabas, Eva; Veen, E.J.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of inclusion of urban agriculture in city planning directly affects the success of initiatives in this sector, which subsequently could impede fu-ture innovations. The poor representation of urban agriculture in planning can be attributed to a lack of understanding about its multi-functiona

  5. Theme: Urban Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellibee, Margaret; And Others

    1990-01-01

    On the theme of secondary agricultural education in urban areas, this issue includes articles on opportunities, future directions, and implications for the profession; creative supervised experiences for horticulture students; floral marketing, multicultural education; and cultural diversity in urban agricultural education. (JOW)

  6. The Obstacles,Paths and Mechanisms of the Sustainable Development of Farmers’ Cooperatives in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the description of the major role played by famers’ cooperatives in developing rural economy and in increasing the income of farmers,the obstacles of the sustainable development of famers’ cooperatives in Hebei Province are introduced.Firstly,the cooperative mechanism is imperfect;secondly,the development is substandard;thirdly,the coverage of preferential policy is limited;fourthly,the capitals and financing problem are difficult;fifthly,the operation is single;sixthly,the construction of marketing channels is the weak;seventhly,the professional talents are scarce.The sustainable development paths of famers’ cooperatives in Heibei Province are analyzed.Firstly,conducting value-added processing and taking the way of materialized development,industrialized operation and enterprise-style management;secondly,implementing agricultural quality and brand strategy and moving into the high level market;thirdly,constructing modern agricultural marketing and taking the road of supermarket agriculture;fourthly,enforcing the management of information and getting efficiency from information;fifthly,developing recycling agriculture and taking the way of improving resource efficiency.There are five ways for establishing the operational mechanism of sustainable development of farmers’ cooperatives in Heibei Province.The government should innovate the cooperation mechanism;innovating training and education mechanism;innovating production mechanism;innovating financial mechanism;innovating marketing mechanism.

  7. Agriculture biotechnology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This report provides the basis for an overall agriculture biotechnology strategy for Saskatchewan, encompassing all aspects of the biotechnology sector and supporting institutions. It presents results of a survey of over 70 industry and public sector leaders in agriculture biotechnology in order to assist Saskatchewan Agriculture & Food in defining its role and involvement in the agriculture biotechnology industry. Issues examined include: Goals for the agriculture biotechnology industry; research and development; technology transfer and commercialisation; infrastructure and services; human resources; legislation and policy; funding; future core areas of research and development; and the role of government in developing the industry. The report concludes with lists of recommendations. The supplement lists the survey questions and responses.

  8. Cooperative method development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittrich, Yvonne; Rönkkö, Kari; Eriksson, Jeanette;

    2008-01-01

    research is not easily combined with the improvement orientation of an engineering discipline. During the last 6 years, we have applied an approach we call `cooperative method development', which combines qualitative social science fieldwork, with problem-oriented method, technique and process improvement....... The action research based approach focusing on shop floor software development practices allows an understanding of how contextual contingencies influence the deployment and applicability of methods, processes and techniques. This article summarizes the experiences and discusses the further development......The development of methods tools and process improvements is best to be based on the understanding of the development practice to be supported. Qualitative research has been proposed as a method for understanding the social and cooperative aspects of software development. However, qualitative...

  9. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  10. 75 FR 10319 - Cooper Tools-Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ...] Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Divisions, a Subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., Including On-Site... Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 26, 2010, applicable to workers of Cooper Tools--Sumter, Cooper Tools Division, a subsidiary of Cooper Industries, Inc., including on-site leased workers from...

  11. Growth, Cooperation And Prosperity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN WEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese Vice President Xi Jinping called for strengthened cconomic,political and cultural ties with Bangladesh,Laos,New Zealand and Australia during his visits to these countries from June 14-24. In a speech at a trade forum in Canberra,Xi suggested China and Australia deepen cooperation in energy and resources.The two countries' governments and companies should work together to build "'long-term and stable"relations for trade and investment in these fields.

  12. Automated Cooperative Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Curt; Pahle, Joseph; Brown, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    This presentation is an overview of the Automated Cooperative Trajectories project. An introduction to the phenomena of wake vortices is given, along with a summary of past research into the possibility of extracting energy from the wake by flying close parallel trajectories. Challenges and barriers to adoption of civilian automatic wake surfing technology are identified. A hardware-in-the-loop simulation is described that will support future research. Finally, a roadmap for future research and technology transition is proposed.

  13. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  14. Pioneers in Cooperation (selection)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Project-oriented cooperation within the framework of the CAS-MPSagreement began in the early 1980s. Its methods differed according to scientific needs and included workshops and seminars, field research, overland expeditions, exchanges of materials and samples, and the training of young scientists and engineers. The German Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China provided special funding for many of these projects.

  15. Decentralized Cooperative Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    protocols (such as DSR and AODV ) where route request (RREQ) and route reply (RREP) control packets are transmitted via SISO transmissions. Then, specific... routing . To make the routing protocol scalable, M-group Dis-STBC is applied, and an analysis of the cooperative transmission range is provided to guide...higher throughput in comparison to a Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) based routing protocol . On the other hand, because LACR is designed to

  16. Working for Better Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China and the United States seek to iron out differences at the recent Strategic and Economic Dialogue Despite disputes over trade,exchange rates and the investment climate,China and the United States are striving to promote cooperation through dialogue,as the two countries become increasingly dependent on each other and benefit substantially from each other’s development,said Chinese officials and scholars.

  17. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  18. Influence of voluntary coffee certifications on cooperatives’ advisory services and agricultural practices of smallholder farmers in Costa Rica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snider, Anna; Kraus, Eva; Sibelet, Nicole;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores how voluntary certifications influence the way cooperatives provide advisory services to their members and the influence of these services on agricultural practices. Design/Methodology/Approach: Case studies were conducted in four representative Costa Rican cooperat...

  19. Innovative Programs in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Vocational Association, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Developmental programs resulting from the increased emphasis on off-farm agricultural occupations and considered innovative by state wupervisors of agricultural education are described: (1) 17 high school vocational agriculture programs in horticulture, agricultural mechanics, forestry and conservation, agriculture and distribution, cooperative…

  20. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Foundation for their support of this initiative. The project has been developed with guidance from an esteemed steering group of experts and users of mitigation information (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/international-project). Many of the papers in this issue were commissioned. Authors of each of the commissioned papers met with guest editors at FAO in Rome in April 2012 to further develop their ideas, synthesize state of the art knowledge and generate new ideas (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/events-and-presentations). Additional interesting and important research has come forward through the general call for papers and has been incorporated into this issue. References CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security) 2011 Victories for food and farming in Durban climate deals Press Release 13 December 2011 (http://ccafs.cgiar.org/news/press-releases/victories-food-and-farming-durban-climate-deals) FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 2009 Expert consultation on GHG emissions and mitigation potentials in the agricultural, forestry and fisheries sectors (Rome: FAO) FAO 2011 Linking Sustainability and Climate Financing: Implications for Agriculture (Rome: FAO) FAO 2012 FAOSTAT online database (http://faostat.fao.org/) Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 2012 www.globalresearchalliance.org/ Herold M and Skutsch M 2011 Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD+ programmes: two proposals Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014002 Hosonuma N, Herold M, De Sy V, De Fries R S, Brockhaus M, Verchot L, Angelsen A and Romijn E 2012 An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries Environ. Res. Lett. 7 044009 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) IPCC 2003 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Hayama

  1. Agriculture and private sector

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The pa...

  2. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  3. Review of FAO's policy of cooperation with NGOs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Reform of the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) was based on the recognition that the FAO should concentrate on roles and functions it can best perform and broaden links with other groups. This outreach effort was institutionalized by creation of the Unit for Cooperation with the Private Sector and NGOs (nongovernmental organizations). In 1996, this unit was charged with a thorough review of FAO's policy towards NGOs. The resulting report was widely distributed at a 1996 NGO Forum, and input has been sought from field office and technical department reviews of the status of their own cooperation with NGOs. These separate exercises are being combined to formulate a policy statement to be issued in 1998 for discussion with NGOs. The policy statement will propose cooperation in the areas of 1) field programs, 2) policy dialogue, 3) exchange of information and promoting public awareness, and 4) mobilization of resources.

  4. Adept at adapting. Contributions of sociology to agricultural research for small farmers in developing countries: the case of rice in the Dominican Republic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, F.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses possible contributions of sociology and anthropology to agricultural research. It is based on investigations carried out from 1981 to 1985 in the Dominican Republic in the Adaptive Agricultural Research (AAR) project, a cooperative effort between the Agricultural University of Wa

  5. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  6. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of injury from working with livestock Risk of electrocution to persons operating large equipment that can contact ... which identifies common agricultural hazards and provides safety solutions for employers and young workers to prevent accidents ...

  7. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  8. Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... the Agricultural Health Study (1994–2007). Environmental Health Perspectives 2011; online May 27, doi:10.1289/ehp. ...

  9. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  10. Collaboration in Agricultural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Roland L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Theme articles discuss environment, food, agriculture, and renewal resources as they relate to science education, learning partnerships, collaboration in Kyrghyzstan, leadership development, opportunities for collaboration, networking, and the creation of a shared course between agribusiness and biology. (JOW)

  11. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

      Topics Animal Health Biotechnology Climate Solutions Conservation Disaster and Emergency Preparedness Employee Services Energy Environment and Natural Resources Ethics Farm Bill Food and Nutrition Food Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture ...

  12. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon...... and this looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  13. Organic agriculture in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sukkel, W.; Hommes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dutch organic agriculture has unique characteristics and peculiarities. It is still a relatively small sector compared to conventional agriculture in the Netherlands. However, its market share is growing and organic agriculture leads the way in terms of sustainability and innovations

  14. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  15. Alienation of Rural Cooperative Finance and the Innovation of Financial Organization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the elaboration of the content and status of rural cooperative finance, rural cooperative finance--the alienation of rural credit cooperative is introduced from three aspects of the concept and objective of management, the organizational form and management mode, and the service object and business scope. Causes of alienation are analyzed. Firstly, change in the economic foundation of cooperative finance is the fundamental reasons for the alienation. Secondly, mandatory system change led by the government is an important reason for alienation. Thirdly, property and administration structure of rural credit cooperative are the internal reasons for alienation of agricultural support. To achieve the innovation of rural cooperative financial organization, the following aspects should be done: cultivating the basis for rural cooperative economy, further promoting the reform of rural credit cooperatives (innovating a variety of property rights modes; making clear definition of ownership; implementing the internal governance structure), introducing competition in the field of rural cooperative finance, and homing function of government and rural cooperative finance.

  16. Scoping Agriculture, Wetland Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is identified as the main cause of wetland degradation and loss. Using a drivers, pressures, state changes, impacts and responses (DPSIR) framework to analyze 90 cases drawn from all parts of the world and all wetland types, this report assesses the character of agriculture - wetlands interactions (AWIs) and their impacts in socio-economic and ecosystem services terms. The report is a technical framework that is used to scope out the relevance and nature of AWIs, identify response...

  17. USSR Report, Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    rations for ruminant animals. Its preparation from corn of milky-waxy ripeness, assuming the observance of all of the technological requirements, makes...combines of the agricultural chemicals association or on the kolkhozes and sovkhozes for the preservation of liquid preservatives or special means of...Tatar combine of the agricultural chemicals association, liquid preserv- atives are kept in wide-diameter polytheylene pipes.. A storage unit with

  18. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  19. Pricing Power of Agricultural Products under the Background of Small Peasant Management and Information Asymmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dexuan LI

    2016-01-01

    From the background of small peasant management and information asymmetry,this paper introduced the middle profit sharing model and discussed influence factors and ownership of pricing power of agricultural products. It obtained following results:( i) the transaction scale has positive effect on farmer’s pricing power of agricultural products,while the competitor’s transaction scale has negative effect on it,so does the cost for information search;( ii) under the condition of small peasant management system,farmer is in a relatively weak position in the distribution of pricing power of agricultural products,due to factors such as small transaction scale,information asymmetry and farmer’s weak negotiation ability;( iii) through cooperative game,farmer and buyers can share cooperative surplus at the agreed ratio;( iv) the introduction of self-organizing specialized farmers cooperatives is favorable for solving the problem of pricing power of agricultural products,and possible problems,such as " collective action dilemma" and " fake cooperatives" in the cooperative development process can be solved by internal and external division of labor and specialization of cooperatives.

  20. An Empirical Study on Strategic Network,Relational Capability and Operating Performance of Agricultural Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meihua YIN; Jianhui WU

    2015-01-01

    By establishing the theoretical model of " strategic network cooperation-relational capability-operating performance" and structural equation,we conduct a sampling survey on 208 agricultural enterprises,and use Spss21. 0 and Amos21. 0 for empirical analysis of influence of three factors in strategic network cooperation( market futurity,trusting relationship and business networks) on market relational capability and operating performance of agricultural enterprises. The results show that the establishment of trusting relationship and business networks in strategic networks has a positive impact on the operating performance of agricultural enterprises,and relational capability plays a fully mediating role while relational capability has not mediating effect on market futurity. This study provides a meaningful reference for the follow-up studies on relational capability and operating performance of agricultural enterprises,to further enhance the operating performance of agricultural enterprises and effectively improve farmers’ income.

  1. Cooperativity in beryllium bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkorta, Ibon; Elguero, José; Yáñez, Manuel; Mó, Otilia

    2014-03-07

    A theoretical study of the beryllium bonded clusters of the (iminomethyl)beryllium hydride and (iminomethyl)beryllium fluoride [HC(BeX)=NH, X = H, F] molecules has been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,2p) level of theory. Linear and cyclic clusters have been characterized up to the decamer. The geometric, energetic, electronic and NMR properties of the clusters clearly indicate positive cooperativity. The evolution of the molecular properties, as the size of the cluster increases, is similar to those reported in polymers held together by hydrogen bonds.

  2. 36 CFR 211.6 - Cooperation in forest investigations or the protection, management, and improvement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., 5 CFR part 2635, and applicable Department of Agriculture regulations, in determining if a conflict... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in forest... Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION...

  3. The paradox of cooperation benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, A; Takács, K

    2010-05-21

    It seems obvious that as the benefits of cooperation increase, the share of cooperators in the population should also increase. It is well known that positive assortment between cooperative types, for instance in spatially structured populations, provide better conditions for the evolution of cooperation than complete mixing. This study demonstrates that, assuming positive assortment, under most conditions higher cooperation benefits also increase the share of cooperators. On the other hand, under a specified range of payoff values, when at least two payoff parameters are modified, the reverse is true. The conditions for this paradox are determined for two-person social dilemmas: the Prisoner's Dilemma, the Hawks and Doves game, and the Stag Hunt game, assuming global selection and positive assortment.

  4. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  5. Mir Cooperative Solar Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skor, Mike; Hoffman, Dave J.

    1997-01-01

    The Mir Cooperative Solar Array (MCSA), produced jointly by the United States and Russia, was deployed on the Mir Russian space station on May 25, 1996. The MCSA is a photovoltaic electrical power system that can generate up to 6 kW. The power from the MCSA is needed to extend Mir's lifetime and to support experiments conducted there by visiting U.S. astronauts. The MCSA was brought to Mir via the Space Shuttle Atlantis on the STS-74 mission, launched November 12, 1995. This cooperative venture combined the best technology of both countries: the United States provided high-efficiency, lightweight photovoltaic panel modules, whereas Russia provided the array structure and deployment mechanism. Technology developed in the Space Station Freedom Program, and now being used in the International Space Station, was used to develop MCSA's photovoltaic panel. Performance data obtained from MCSA operation on Mir will help engineers better understand the performance of the photovoltaic panel modules in orbit. This information will be used to more accurately predict the performance of the International Space Station solar arrays. Managed by the NASA Lewis Research Center for NASA's International Space Station Program Office in Houston, Texas, the MCSA Project was completed on time and under budget despite a very aggressive schedule.

  6. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  7. Multifactorial Vector of Regional Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Sergeyevna Shepitko

    2015-12-01

    of increasing the availability of agricultural mass producer in the market realized within a cluster, agricultural holding, cooperative are grounded.

  8. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics.

  9. Cooperation and between-group competition

    OpenAIRE

    Hausken, Kjell

    2000-01-01

    Introducing competition between groups may induce cooperation to emerge in defection games despite considerable cost of cooperation. If the groups can confine themselves to a cooperative sector, either by providing incentives to raise the cooperation level in one group, or by providing disincentives so that the cooperation level in the other group gets lowered to match that of the first, maximum degrees of cooperation can be obtained. The cooperative sector broadens as the degrees of cooperat...

  10. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  11. The economics of agricultural development: what have we learned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roumasset James

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural development thinking has gone through several stages of fad and fancy, often without an understanding of previous fallacies. Its current doldrums are unfortunate given the unrivaled importance of agricultural development for poverty reduction in most development countries. After reviewing several policy and program areas, lessons are synthesized, and a forward-looking research framework suggested, especially regarding role of specialization in the evolution of economic organization. The corresponding role of government is seen to be the facilitation of economic cooperation, rather than social engineering.

  12. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  13. The Distribution of Benefits for Players in Agricultural Industrial Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wanming; LI; Huibo; SUN

    2015-01-01

    Players of the agricultural industrial chain pursue their own profit maximization,which can lead to conflicts of interest and affect the stability of the industrial chain. Therefore,fair and reasonable profit allocation mechanism is the key to guaranteeing the development and strengthening the strategic alliance relationship between participate members. Shapley model is an effective method to solve the profit distribution in cooperative relations. But it does not consider the three factors: risks faced by players during the operation of the agricultural industrial chain,technology innovation ability,and the degree of participating in the cooperation. So,correction factors are introduced to modify the Shapley value model,in order to make the distribution of benefits more equitable and reasonable,and effectively guide practice.

  14. Urban Agriculture Program Planning Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemp, Paul E.; Ethridge, Jim

    Urban agriculture may be defined as those areas of agriculture that are practiced in metropolitan settings, plus knowledge and skills in agricultural subject areas which lead to vocational proficiency and improved quality of life or effective citizenship. Agriculture areas that are especially significant in urban settings include ornamental…

  15. [Musculoskeletal disorders in agriculture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Tourne, Mathias

    2007-06-15

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) are a major area of concern in the occupational world. The agricultural industry is particularly affected: 93 percent of occupational diseases in agriculture are MSD. Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs in one third of the cases. Shoulder is the second most common location. The most affected occupational areas are meat production, viticulture, market gardening, horticulture and small animal farming. This MSD phenomenon, of multifactorial origin, which has been amplifying for two decades, has led to some consensus in terms of definition and prevention strategy. The aim is to identify, limit or even suppress risk factors through worker training as well as through actions related to work organization. Regarding occupational health and safety in agriculture, two fronts of progress have been mentioned: the creation of a statistic observatory of MSD (disease, occupational area and cost) and the assessment of prevention activities. Finally, a new issue is being discussed: sustainable prevention of MSD.

  16. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  17. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  18. Vocational Education in Life Science, Recreation and Agriculture; Course Options and Suggested Courses of Study for New Hampshire High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Hampshire Agricultural Teachers' Association.

    Developed by teacher educators in cooperation with state supervisors of agricultural education, this curriculum guide is for use by teachers, teacher educators, guidance departments, and school administrators. The 4-year curriculum was designed for vocational agriculture students in grades nine through 12 interested in occupations in production…

  19. Junctionless Cooper pair transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, K. Yu.; Lehtinen, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    Quantum phase slip (QPS) is the topological singularity of the complex order parameter of a quasi-one-dimensional superconductor: momentary zeroing of the modulus and simultaneous 'slip' of the phase by ±2π. The QPS event(s) are the dynamic equivalent of tunneling through a conventional Josephson junction containing static in space and time weak link(s). Here we demonstrate the operation of a superconducting single electron transistor (Cooper pair transistor) without any tunnel junctions. Instead a pair of thin superconducting titanium wires in QPS regime was used. The current-voltage characteristics demonstrate the clear Coulomb blockade with magnitude of the Coulomb gap modulated by the gate potential. The Coulomb blockade disappears above the critical temperature, and at low temperatures can be suppressed by strong magnetic field.

  20. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data...... extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short...... rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing trafic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear...

  1. The early evolution of cooperation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czárán, T.; Aanen, Duur K.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of cooperation is difficult to understand, because cheaters — individuals who profit without cooperating themselves — have a benefit in interaction with cooperators. Cooperation among humans is even more difficult to understand, because cooperation occurs in large groups, making cheati

  2. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...... and tested by an action research approach in an attempt to make risk management more applicable on family farms. Our obtained experiences indicate that farmers don’t apply probabilistic thinking and other concepts according to formal decision theory....

  3. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    . For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  4. The financing of cooperative businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ispizua

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Concern for adequate funding, both at birth and consolidation of the cooperative enterprise, has been, is and will be a constant concern in the cooperative world. So, have emerged in the legal field, a number of financial instruments of various kinds: as equity securities or special interests that seek to cover traditional financing gaps.

  5. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. Cooperative Games in Graph Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herings, P.J.J.; van der Laan, G.; Talman, A.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    By a cooperative game in coalitional structure or shortly coalitional game we mean the standard cooperative non-transferable utility game described by a set of payoffs for each coalition that is a nonempty subset of the grand coalition of all players.It is well-known that balancedness is a sufficien

  7. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March.

  8. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  9. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  10. Technology Innovation Mode of Agricultural Leading Enterprise——Based on the Virtual Organization Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of technology innovation of agricultural leading enterprises by domestic and foreign experts and scholars,technology innovation of agricultural enterprises is a process of new market increment,which uses new knowledge,technology,process and production mode,produces new products,offers new services and realizes commercialization. Characteristics of agricultural technology innovation are introduced,such as obvious regionality,relatively high risk,long-term periodicity and public attribute. Predicament for technology innovation of leading enterprises is analyzed,such as technical constraints,financial constraints and personnel constraints. Technological Innovation Mode can be classified into three modes of independent innovation,imitative innovation and cooperative innovation by the method of technology innovation. Among them,since there are some defects in the technology innovation process,independent innovation and imitative innovation are generally not used for the innovation of agricultural enterprises. Cooperative Innovation Mode can rely on foreign aid,can realize complementary advantages and achievement sharing,and can be widely applied in the agricultural innovation enterprise. Virtual organization in cooperation innovation mode is described,which makes up for technology,capital and human resources barriers in the process of agricultural enterprise innovation. Therefore,this mode is popular among the agricultural innovation enterprise.

  11. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  12. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  13. The Dose Makes The Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Cetin, Uzay

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.

  14. The hard problem of cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimmo Eriksson

    Full Text Available Based on individual variation in cooperative inclinations, we define the "hard problem of cooperation" as that of achieving high levels of cooperation in a group of non-cooperative types. Can the hard problem be solved by institutions with monitoring and sanctions? In a laboratory experiment we find that the answer is affirmative if the institution is imposed on the group but negative if development of the institution is left to the group to vote on. In the experiment, participants were divided into groups of either cooperative types or non-cooperative types depending on their behavior in a public goods game. In these homogeneous groups they repeatedly played a public goods game regulated by an institution that incorporated several of the key properties identified by Ostrom: operational rules, monitoring, rewards, punishments, and (in one condition change of rules. When change of rules was not possible and punishments were set to be high, groups of both types generally abided by operational rules demanding high contributions to the common good, and thereby achieved high levels of payoffs. Under less severe rules, both types of groups did worse but non-cooperative types did worst. Thus, non-cooperative groups profited the most from being governed by an institution demanding high contributions and employing high punishments. Nevertheless, in a condition where change of rules through voting was made possible, development of the institution in this direction was more often voted down in groups of non-cooperative types. We discuss the relevance of the hard problem and fit our results into a bigger picture of institutional and individual determinants of cooperative behavior.

  15. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  16. [Vibration on agricultural tractors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretti, Alessandro; Delvecchio, Simone; Bonomini, Francesco; di Bisceglie, Anita Pasqua; Colosio, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    In the article, details related to the diffusion of agricultural tractors in Italy are given and considerations about the effects of vibration on operators, the sources of vibration and suggestions to reduce them are presented. The acceleration values observed in Italy amongst 244 tractors and levels of worker exposure are shown by means of histograms. The relevant data variability is discussed.

  17. USSR Report, Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    evaluation of the phyto- sanitary condition of the fields were not coordinated with the calendar- phenological schedules, some agronomists were unable...During the first year following its introduction, an intensified variation of this agricultural technology enabled the Tambov grain growers to produce

  18. Teacher Education in Agriculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Dale W.

    1977-01-01

    Urging continued high priority support to preservice and inservice professional development, especially in the area of agricultural education, the author responds to a letter from the Joint Committee on Vocational Education for the State of California indicating the committee's consideration of support reduction for teacher education in vocational…

  19. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  20. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  1. Beyond conservation agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Andersson, J.A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and s

  2. Agricultural lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhorn, S R; Garry, V F

    2000-08-01

    Agriculture is considered one of the most hazardous occupations. Organic dusts and toxic gases constitute some of the most common and potentially disabling occupational and environmental hazards. The changing patterns of agriculture have paradoxically contributed to both improved working conditions and increased exposure to respiratory hazards. Animal confinement operations with increasing animal density, particularly swine confinement, have contributed significantly to increased intensity and duration of exposure to indoor air toxins. Ongoing research has implicated bacterial endotoxins, fungal spores, and the inherent toxicity of grain dusts as causes of upper and lower airway inflammation and as immunologic agents in both grain and animal production. Animal confinement gases, particularly ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, have been implicated as additional sources of respiratory irritants. It has become evident that a significant percentage of agricultural workers have clinical symptoms associated with long-term exposure to organic dusts and animal confinement gases. Respiratory diseases and syndromes, including hypersensitivity pneumonitis, organic dust toxic syndrome, chronic bronchitis, mucous membrane inflammation syndrome, and asthmalike syndrome, result from ongoing acute and chronic exposures. In this review we focus upon the emerging respiratory health issues in a changing agricultural economic and technologic environment. Environmental and occupational hazards and exposures will be emphasized rather than clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods of prevention, from both engineering controls and personal respiratory perspectives, are also addressed.

  3. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  4. Governing agricultural sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macnaghten, Philip; Carro-Ripalda, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been challen

  5. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak insti

  6. Heroes of Agricultural Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weele, van der C.; Keulartz, F.W.J.

    2009-01-01

    New technology has a prominent place in the theory and practice of innovation, but the association between high tech and innovation is not inevitable. In this paper, we discuss six metaphorical heroes of agricultural innovation, starting with the dominant hero of frontier science and technology. At

  7. Agriculture. Poultry Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for poultry, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list.…

  8. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  9. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  10. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...

  11. Evaluation of agricultural state support of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Melnyk

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this article is to perform a comparative analysis of methodological approaches to assessment of support of agricultural-food sector by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and the World Trade Organization, to investigate peculiarities of the Ukrainian policy for support of agricultural industry compared to the policy of Russia, EU and the USA, and to substantiate the ways for increasing the efficiency of state support of agricultural sector in Ukraine. Volumes and levels of total support estimation of agricultural industry, levels of support of producers, consumers of agricultural products and general services in agricultural industry are analyzed with the use of information database of OECD.The results of the analysis. In Ukraine, the share of Total Support Estimate in gross national product is higher compared to Russia, the USA and EU, that is explained by greater share of agricultural industry in the economy. We used the indicator of share of Total Support Estimate in the gross value added by agricultural industry for more objective description of level of Total Support Estimate. There are essential differences between the investigated countries as for the Total Support Estimate structure. InRussia, a clear advantage is given to agricultural producers` support. In 2010, their share made almost 85% of Total Support Estimate, the remaining costs were directed to the sphere of services in agricultural industry. A similar structure of support is observed in EU countries. The main part of funds is directed to agricultural producers` support (87,2%, the share of the sphere of services is 11,5%, and the share of consumers makes 1,3%. As for 2010 in the USA, over 50% of funds were used to support the services, approximately30% to support consumers, and less than 20% to support producers of agricultural goods. The structure of support in Ukraine is characterized by lack of uniformity.Over the

  12. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  13. The Mode Reform of Cultivating Marketing Talents in Agricultural Vocational Colleges Based on the Perspective of Agricultural Enterprises——A Case Study of Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We conduct survey on the characteristics of demand of agricultural enterprises for agricultural marketing talents from the following 6 aspects:the professional marketing talents needed urgently by the agricultural enterprises,the amount of demand of agricultural enterprises for the marketing talents,the jobs offered by the agricultural enterprises,the educational background of agricultural marketing talents favored by the agricultural enterprises,the requirements posed by the agricultural enterprises on the work experience of agricultural marketing talents,and the quality requirements posed by the agricultural enterprises on the agricultural marketing talents.We analyse the problems existing in the cultivation mode of marketing talents in agricultural vocational colleges as follows:the feature of major is not outstanding;the contradiction between supply and demand is prominent;it is disconnected with the practical needs of agricultural enterprises;the cultivation form of practical ability is simple.On the basis of this,taking Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology as an example,we advance the new mode of cultivating inter-disciplinary talents integrating "marketing technique+technique marketing",and establish characteristic agricultural course combo system on the basis of vocational position orientation.In the meantime,we propose that we should conduct close college-enterprise cooperation with the local leading agricultural enterprises.This cultivation mode reform of talents is favorable for the agricultural enterprises,especially small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises to foster "marketable" agricultural marketing talents,elevate the comprehensive competitiveness of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,serve the local economy,and promote the development of modern agriculture,and China’s agriculture,farmer,and countryside.

  14. “Co-operative identity†: A theoretical concept for economic analysis of practical co-operation dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, Gabor G.

    2007-01-01

    Farmers’ problems and co-ordination of agricultural activities cannot be solved simply by EU and/or government support, or by private market co-ordination institutions. Emerging producer groups and co-operatives seem vital in achieving bargaining power. Theoretically, and according to Western European (Dutch, Danish etc.) and US practical experience, one of the major important private institutions that can strengthen producers and help co-ordinate (agricultural) chains is the co-operative e...

  15. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-07-22

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission of cooperative norms. These models assume that individuals acquire cooperative strategies via social learning. This assumption remains empirically untested. Here, I test this by investigating whether individuals employ conformist or payoff-biased learning in public goods games conducted in 14 villages of a forager-horticulturist society, the Pahari Korwa of India. Individuals did not show a clear tendency to conform or to be payoff-biased and are highly variable in their use of social learning. This variation is partly explained by both individual and village characteristics. The tendency to conform decreases and to be payoff-biased increases as the value of the modal contribution increases. These findings suggest that the use of social learning in cooperative dilemmas is contingent on individuals' circumstances and environments, and question the existence of stably transmitted cultural norms of cooperation.

  16. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    of Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article......The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects...... then identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  17. Marketing Operations of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    1984-01-01

    The Nation's 435 dairy cooperatives marketed 95.6 billion pounds of milk, or about 77 percent of all milk sold to plants and dealers in 1980. There were 146 cooperatives with no milk handling facilities, 97 with only milk and cream receiving stations, and 192 operating 456 dairy processing and manufacturing plants. Cooperatives sold about 16 percent of the Nation's packaged fluid products, 10 percent of the ice cream, 64 percent of the butter, 87 percent of the dry milk products, 22 percent o...

  18. MINI John Cooper Works Convertible

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    这辆名字巨长的迷你古巴其实和MINI CooperS没什么太大区别,最大的不同点就是MINI John Cooper Works Convertible采用软顶敞篷,而动力部分则是由John Cooper Works精心调校的那台1.6L排量双涡轮增压发动机.这台发动机与MINI Challenge赛车上使用的完全相同,拥有211hp和280Nm的动力输出。

  19. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education...

  20. Environment and cooperation: cooperative values as an assumption of sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo de Miranda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to establishing an understanding of the meaning of environment, the work clarifies that the environmental damage resulting value gives the minimization of the man dedicated to nature. In this regard, bearing in mind the environmental crisis confrontation served humanity, the future is viewed with doubt. It also offers, the alternative cooperative established by the Declaration of Rio and cooperative values is presented as a precondition for sustainability.Received: 06.06.10Accepted: 25.06.10

  1. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.D. McKay; M.O. Anderson; N.S. Flann (Utah State University); R.A. Kinoshita; R.W. Gunderson; W.D. Willis (INEEL)

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University�s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in real-time. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  2. Mobile Robotic Teams Applied to Precision Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Matthew Oley; Kinoshita, Robert Arthur; Mckay, Mark D; Willis, Walter David; Gunderson, R.W.; Flann, N.S.

    1999-04-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and Utah State University’s Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) have developed a team of autonomous robotic vehicles applicable to precision agriculture. A unique technique has been developed to plan, coordinate, and optimize missions in large structured environments for these autonomous vehicles in realtime. Two generic tasks are supported: 1) Driving to a precise location, and 2) Sweeping an area while activating on-board equipment. Sensor data and task achievement data is shared among the vehicles enabling them to cooperatively adapt to changing environmental, vehicle, and task conditions. This paper discusses the development of the autonomous robotic team, details of the mission-planning algorithm, and successful field demonstrations at the INEEL.

  3. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.;

    2005-01-01

    Risø and the co-operators have on behalf of the Forest and Nature Agency completed a technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture based on green technologies. A technological foresight is a systematic dialogue on how one prepares forfuture challenges, which have not yet manifes...... and consideration. Focus in relation to theenvironmental challenges has especially been directed towards the quality of water, air and soil as well as the aesthetical landscape. On the other hand, the protection of nature has, in this case, had less focus....... of the future’s agriculture to the test of technological possibilities. Amongst the participants were ecological and conventional farmers, representatives from industry,authorities and research institutions as well as from the Agricultural Council of Denmark, the Danish Conservation for the Protection of Nature...

  4. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  5. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  6. European Agricultural Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Timothy J.

    1997-01-01

    This bulletin is a supplement to the Europe Team's Situation and Outlook Series and expands upon material traditionally presented as an appendix in the annual Europe Report. This report presents an extensive statistical database on European agriculture. The geographic scope covers most of the countrias of Europe, including the 15 member states of the European Union (Austria. Belgium. Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy. Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, a...

  7. Risk governance in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bachev, Hrabrin

    2008-01-01

    This paper identifies and assesses the efficiency of major modes for risk governance in agriculture on the base of Bulgarian dairy farming. Firstly, the New Institutional and Transaction Costs Economics is incorporated and a framework for analysis of the governance of natural, market, private, and social (institutional) risks presented. Next, the pace and challenges of the dairy farming development during the post-communist transition and EU integration is outlined. Third, major types of risk...

  8. Agricultural and urban pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehmer, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    The degradation produced by the introduction of agricultural and urban wastes into estuarine systems, with emphasis on the Chesapeake Bay area, is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) effects of sediment loading and (2) organic and nutrient loading problems. The impact of high turbidity on the biological life of the bay is analyzed. The sources of nutrients which produce over-enrichment of the waters and the subsequent production of phytoplankton are examined.

  9. Application of marginal calculation in managing a cooperative company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Mierzwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the market economy the basic subject is a private enterprise dealing with the production of goods and services in order to maximize profit. The neoclassical microeconomics focuses on examining only these enterprises on the market, which strive to maximize profit within certain limitations in a rational way. Acc. to the act of September 1982 on the co-operative law (The Journal of Laws 1982, no 30, pos. 2010, a cooperative company belongs to a group of private enterprises. However, it is called a non-profit enterprise. Nevertheless, cooperative companies on the market are seldom confronted with capital companies. In the market economy it is a rare situation for a company not to be threatened by competition. And even if such a situation does happen, it is always connected with limited demand. Thus the following question may be asked: can a co-operative company, if it wants to become rational, utilize the marginalization theory in order to determine its general balance? The author is trying to answer this question in her article, selecting an agricultural supply co-operative for her analysis. Using the graphical method, she determines various types of optimums, at the same time stating what importance it has for the members and what position the co-perative holds on the market. In the conclusion she emphasizes that the difficulties with applying the marginalization theory in the co-operative companies are brought about by the way decisions are taken and these subjects are managed, and may be the reason why many of these enterprises are closed down.

  10. 9 CFR 72.7 - Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate movement of cattle from cooperating States. 72.7 Section 72.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS...

  11. The landscape of farmer cooperatives in China: functions and diversity in a changing environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Leeuwis, C.; Lie, R.; Song, Y.

    2014-01-01

    The agricultural sector and the rural sector in China have experienced fundamental changes from the 1980s onward, and farmer cooperatives have emerged in response to these changes. Beginning in 1990, a series of different policies have been implemented by the Chinese government to promote farmer coo

  12. 75 FR 26191 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... applicant provides a clear, long-term agricultural trade strategy, and a program effectiveness time line... potential. These factors are part of the FAS resource allocation strategy to fund applicants who can... promotional activities. The Cooperator program is intended to supplement, not supplant, the efforts of the...

  13. 76 FR 21327 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... provides a clear, long-term agricultural trade strategy, and a program effectiveness time line against... potential. These factors are part of the FAS resource allocation strategy to fund applicants who can... promotional activities. The Cooperator program is intended to supplement, not supplant, the efforts of the...

  14. 77 FR 24171 - Notice of Funds Availability: Inviting Applications for the Foreign Market Development Cooperator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... provides a clear, long-term agricultural trade strategy, and a program effectiveness time line against... potential. These factors are part of the FAS resource allocation strategy to fund applicants who can... promotional activities. The Cooperator program is intended to supplement, not supplant, the efforts of the...

  15. 7 CFR 1484.22 - How are Cooperator program funds allocated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Application and Fund Allocation § 1484.22 How are Cooperator program... compete for funds on the basis of the following allocation criteria (the number in parentheses represents a percentage weight factor). Data used in the calculations for contribution levels, past...

  16. Changing Roles of a University Cooperative Extension Service in Response to Social Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Thelma C.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers have acknowledged that cooperative extension organizations should rethink dominant agricultural foci and be more inclusive of nontraditional audiences. An extension organization in the southeastern United States has experienced declining workshop participation, requests for technical assistance, and local office visits. These declines…

  17. 7 CFR 1484.30 - How does FAS formalize its working relationship with approved Cooperators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does FAS formalize its working relationship with... FAS formalize its working relationship with approved Cooperators? FAS will notify each applicant in... sign the program agreement and submit the signed agreement to the Director, Marketing Operations...

  18. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass

  19. Turnbull - Cooperative Palouse Prairie Restoration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A new Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) was formed to tackle invasive plant issues within the region surrounding the refuge. This CWMA provides an opportunity...

  20. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  1. Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan is the product of a joint effort of the Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Division of Parks and...

  2. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-07

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer.

  3. Cooperative Compute-and-Forward

    CERN Document Server

    Nokleby, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    We examine the benefits of user cooperation under compute-and-forward. Much like in network coding, receivers in a compute-and-forward network recover finite-field linear combinations of transmitters' messages. Recovery is enabled by linear codes: transmitters map messages to a linear codebook, and receivers attempt to decode the incoming superposition of signals to an integer combination of codewords. However, the achievable computation rates are low if channel gains do not correspond to a suitable linear combination. In response to this challenge, we propose a cooperative approach to compute-and-forward. We devise a lattice-coding approach to block Markov encoding with which we construct a decode-and-forward style computation strategy. Transmitters broadcast lattice codewords, decode each other's messages, and then cooperatively transmit resolution information to aid receivers in decoding the integer combinations. Using our strategy, we show that cooperation offers a significant improvement both in the achi...

  4. States, Social Capital and Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthony, Denise L.; Campbell, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects on Elinor Ostrom’s classic book, Governing the Commons, and much work in sociology, political science and organization studies that has appeared since its publication. We do so in order to expand our understanding of the conditions under which cooperation occurs resulting...... in the production of collective goods. We explore two issues that were underdeveloped in her book that have subsequently received much attention. First, we discuss how states can facilitate cooperative behavior short of coercively imposing it on actors. Second, we discuss how social capital can facilitate...... or undermine cooperative behavior. In both cases we focus on the important mechanisms by which each one contributes to the development of cooperative behavior and collective goods. We conclude by extending our arguments to a brief analysis of one of the world’s newest and largest collective goods...

  5. The prospects of marketing dairy cooperatives development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Ryzhyk

    2013-09-01

    other dairy products cream, kefir, fermented baked milk, yogurt, sour cream, cottage cheese; implement sound policies and advertising public relations campaign;being a part of the organizational structure of qualified marketing service (or at least the responsible competent employee; constantly working on the development of the local market (for example, the supply of milk to schools in consultation with the cities and districts of the region; flexible pricing policy, including a differentiated system of discounts and payment conditions for different categories of consumers.Conclusions and directions of further researches. In order to develop and improve the effectiveness of current Ukrainian dairy marketing cooperatives a gradual expansion of the range of their services has been offered. In this case, the strategic goal of each of them should be the following: the formation of the most appropriate model in which the dairy cooperative has its own material and technical base, refines, sells dairy products and has expanded its customer base. In this case, the organizational structure of the cooperative must evolve gradually, taking into account its financial capacity. The results of this research can be used in further scientific research to substantiate the development of agricultural service cooperatives and practice of marketing dairy cooperatives.

  6. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include...

  7. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  8. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  9. China, Canada Strengthen Energy Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ China and Canada released a joint statement to work together to promote the bilateral cooperation in the oil and gas sector in lateJanuary when Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin paid a state visit to China. Encouraging respective enterprises to expand commercial partnership, the two nations have agreed to take on the energy sector - oil and gas, nuclear energy,energy efficiency and cleaner energy - as "priority areas of long-term mutual cooperation".

  10. Hormonal mechanisms of cooperative behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Marta C.; Bshary, Redouan; Fusani, Leonida; Goymann, Wolfgang; Hau, Michaela; Hirschenhauser, Katharina; Oliveira, Rui F.

    2010-01-01

    Research on the diversity, evolution and stability of cooperative behaviour has generated a considerable body of work. As concepts simplify the real world, theoretical solutions are typically also simple. Real behaviour, in contrast, is often much more diverse. Such diversity, which is increasingly acknowledged to help in stabilizing cooperative outcomes, warrants detailed research about the proximate mechanisms underlying decision-making. Our aim here is to focus on the potential role of neuroendocrine mechanisms on the regulation of the expression of cooperative behaviour in vertebrates. We first provide a brief introduction into the neuroendocrine basis of social behaviour. We then evaluate how hormones may influence known cognitive modules that are involved in decision-making processes that may lead to cooperative behaviour. Based on this evaluation, we will discuss specific examples of how hormones may contribute to the variability of cooperative behaviour at three different levels: (i) within an individual; (ii) between individuals and (iii) between species. We hope that these ideas spur increased research on the behavioural endocrinology of cooperation. PMID:20679116

  11. How feeling betrayed affects cooperation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Ramazi

    Full Text Available For a population of interacting self-interested agents, we study how the average cooperation level is affected by some individuals' feelings of being betrayed and guilt. We quantify these feelings as adjusted payoffs in asymmetric games, where for different emotions, the payoff matrix takes the structure of that of either a prisoner's dilemma or a snowdrift game. Then we analyze the evolution of cooperation in a well-mixed population of agents, each of whom is associated with such a payoff matrix. At each time-step, an agent is randomly chosen from the population to update her strategy based on the myopic best-response update rule. According to the simulations, decreasing the feeling of being betrayed in a portion of agents does not necessarily increase the level of cooperation in the population. However, this resistance of the population against low-betrayal-level agents is effective only up to some extend that is explicitly determined by the payoff matrices and the number of agents associated with these matrices. Two other models are also considered where the betrayal factor of an agent fluctuates as a function of the number of cooperators and defectors that she encounters. Unstable behaviors are observed for the level of cooperation in these cases; however, we show that one can tune the parameters in the function to make the whole population become cooperative or defective.

  12. Cooperative binding: a multiple personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Johannes W R; Diambra, Luis; Habeck, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Cooperative binding has been described in many publications and has been related to or defined by several different properties of the binding behavior of the ligand to the target molecule. In addition to the commonly used Hill coefficient, other characteristics such as a sigmoidal shape of the overall titration curve in a linear plot, a change of ligand affinity of the other binding sites when a site of the target molecule becomes occupied, or complex roots of the binding polynomial have been used to define or to quantify cooperative binding. In this work, we analyze how the different properties are related in the most general model for binding curves based on the grand canonical partition function and present several examples which highlight differences between the cooperativity characterizing properties which are discussed. Our results mainly show that among the presented definitions there are not two which fully coincide. Moreover, this work poses the question whether it can make sense to distinguish between positive and negative cooperativity based on the macroscopic binding isotherm only. This article shall emphasize that scientists who investigate cooperative effects in biological systems could help avoiding misunderstandings by stating clearly which kind of cooperativity they discuss.

  13. Skill Sheets for Agricultural Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iowa State Univ. of Science and Technology, Ames. Dept. of Agricultural Education.

    This set of 21 skill sheets for agricultural machinery was developed for use in high school and vocational school agricultural mechanics programs. Each sheet covers a single operational procedure for a piece of agricultural machinery, and includes: (1) a diagram, (2) a step-by-step operational procedure, (3) abilities or understandings taught, (4)…

  14. DYNAMICS OF AGRICULTURAL GROUNDWATER EXTRACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Hellegers, Petra J.G.J.; Zilberman, David; van Ierland, Ekko C.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural shallow groundwater extraction can result in desiccation of neighbouring nature reserves and degradation of groundwater quality in the Netherlands, whereas both externalities are often not considered when agricultural groundwater extraction patterns are being determined. A model is developed to study socially optimal agricultural shallow groundwater extraction patterns. It shows the importance of stock size to slow down changes in groundwater quality.

  15. Sustainability in the Agricultural sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Forgács

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study will examine the possible ways of integrating sustainability indicators in assessing the performance of agriculture. We are examining the appropriate ways of calculating the output of the sector including the damages caused by and the benefits of agricultural production. The involvment of environmental pressure into the assessment of agricultural performance does not show significant changes in values.

  16. A Farming Revolution: Sustainable Agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenborg, Verlyn

    1995-01-01

    Growing realization of the economic, social, and environmental costs of conventional agriculture has led many U.S. farmers to embrace and become advocates for agricultural practices that limit the need for pesticides and chemical fertilizers, decrease soil erosion, and improve soil health. Some hope that sustainable agriculture can promote smaller…

  17. Changing closed agricultural policy communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, C.J.A.M.; Werkman, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural policy networks have served as classic examples of closed policy communities facing pressure to open up. However, attempts to change them are slowly moving forward. The dialogues on Common Agricultural Policy reforms in which the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture is engaged with a range of

  18. Agricultural Productivity and Farm Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, F. Vernon

    1975-01-01

    The author, president of the Federal Intermediate Credit Bank of New Orleans, in remarks to the first general session of the Agricultural Education Division of the American Vocational Association, paints a bright picture of agricultural productivity, financial challenge, and agricultural commitment in the mid-South. (Author/EA)

  19. Crop Protection in Medieval Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Mediterranean and West European pre-modern agriculture (agriculture before 1600) was by necessity ‘organic agriculture’. Crop protection is part and parcel of this agriculture, with weed control in the forefront. Crop protection is embedded in the medieval agronomy text books but specialised section

  20. The economics of agricultural subsidies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    PART ONE1. Agricultural subsidies have been defined as a government induced change of relative prices of goods, services and factors of production in the agricultural sector. These agricultural price changes may result from a large number of different government measures varying from direct cash tra

  1. Agricultural experts’ attitude towards precision agriculture: Evidence from Guilan Agricultural Organization, Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Allahyari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Identifying factors that influence the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding precision agriculture plays an important role in developing, promoting and establishing precision agriculture. The aim of this study was to identify factors affecting the attitudes of agricultural experts regarding the implementation of precision agriculture. A descriptive research design was employed as the research method. A research-made questionnaire was used to examine the agricultural experts’ attitude toward precision agriculture. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a coefficient alpha of 0.87, and the content and face validity of the instrument was confirmed by a panel of experts. The results show that technical, economic and accessibility factors accounted for 55% of the changes in attitudes towards precision agriculture. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences between participants in terms of gender, field of study, extension education, age, experience, organizational position and attitudes, while education levels had a significant effect on the respondent’s attitudes.

  2. 32 CFR 219.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights and welfare of... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 219.114 Section 219.114...) MISCELLANEOUS PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 219.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects...

  3. 28 CFR 46.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 46.114 Section 46... Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects, each institution...

  4. 38 CFR 16.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperative research. 16... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 16.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  5. 15 CFR 27.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 27.114 Section... § 27.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative research projects,...

  6. 10 CFR 745.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 745.114 Section 745.114 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 745.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research... of cooperative research projects, each institution is responsible for safeguarding the rights...

  7. 45 CFR 690.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cooperative research. 690.114 Section 690.114... OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 690.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than one institution. In the conduct of cooperative...

  8. Fostering Food Literacy and Food Citizenship through Farm-School Cooperation and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2014-01-01

    understanding and potential interest in how their food is produced, the nature of agriculture and a relationship with the farmer, as an authentic teacher and expert. In my PhD project I investigated various farm-school cooperation arrangements and the motivation, learning goals and values among farmers...... and teachers. The Ph.D. study is based on four case studies and a review of Danish educational materials on food, agriculture and sustainability. Results show that what motivates farmers and teachers to collaborate is the ability to give students a closer connection to nature and agriculture, as well...... as an understanding of and interest in food, agriculture and ecology, ideally qualifying their future consumption choices. Farm visits and other on-farm activities are intended to influence students’ food literacy and ecological and agricultural understanding. Other important learning goals are about developing...

  9. The magnetic susceptibility of European agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, K.; Reimann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The GEMAS (Geochemical mapping of agricultural soils) project, a cooperation project between EuroGeoSurveys and Eurometaux, aims at providing soil quality data for Europe. Samples of arable soil were taken during 2008 at an average density of 1 site/2500 km2 covering the member states of the European Union (except Malta and Romania) and several neighbouring countries (e.g., Norway, Serbia, Ukraine). While the primary aim of the GEMAS project is to produce REACH (Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of CHemicals - EC, 2006) consistent soil geochemistry data at the continental scale, the data set is also optimally apt to provide the first continental scale overview of magnetic properties in European soils. Soil samples from the upper 20 cm were taken as composites from 5 sites spread over a ca. 100 m2 area in a large agricultural field (Ap-sample). The samples were air dried and sieved to pass a 2 mm nylon screen. Weight normalized magnetic susceptibility of these dried samples was measured using a Sapphire Instruments SI2B susceptibility meter with dynamic background removal. The here presented maps of magnetic susceptibility in relation to geochemical composition and geological structures for the first time allow to outline the large scale influence of tectonics and climate on magnetic mineral concentration in European soils. The data set also provides the background variability for regional studies aiming to relate magnetic susceptibility of soils to local contamination sources.

  10. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...... are particularly compelling when combined with marketing system improvements. Moreover, technological change in cassava appears to be a particularly strong lever for increasing female and overall household welfare, especially when risk is considered....

  11. Agricultural Pilot's Audiological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foltz, Lucas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The agricultural airplane pilot are daily exposed to intense noises, being susceptible to the noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL and its auditory and extra auditory effects. Objective: To analyze the audiological profile of this population, verifying the work's influence on its hearing. Method: It was realized a retrospective, individual, observational, and cross-sectional study through the data obtained by means of a questionnaire and audiometric thresholds of 41 agricultural pilots. To the statistical analysis were utilized the chi-square, Spearman, and Wilcoxon tests with significance level of 5%. Results: It was verified that 95,1% of the pilots use PPE ( personal protective equipment during flight and 58,5% have contact with pesticides. More than half of individuals referred to feel auditory and extra auditory symptoms, being the buzz the more frequent (29,1%. It has the occurrence of 29,3% of NIHL suggestive hearing loss and 68,3% of normality, taking this presence of unilateral notch in 24,4% and bilateral notch in 31,7%. It was found correlation statistically significant in the associations between time of service and the average of the acute frequencies in the right ear (p=0038, and in the left ear (p=0,010. It has a statistical tendency in the association between audiometric configuration and contact with pesticides (p=0,088. Conclusion: The hearing loss prevalence in this study was showed high. More than half of the sample has normal audiometric thresholds with notch configuration. Such data lead to the conclusion that the agricultural pilots, even with PPE use, they still suffer with the damages caused by noise, needing best proposals of hearing loss prevention.

  12. Cooperative Public Outreach - It can be Accomplished

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, K. W.; Carpenter, K. D.; Davis, S. L.; Smith, C. F.; Washburne, J. C.; Woodard, G. C.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (Santa Catalina Ranger District of the Coronado National Forest), the U.S. Geological Survey (Water Resources Discipline, Arizona District), and the National Science Foundation sponsored Science and Technology Center (Sustainability of semi-Arid Hydrology and Riparian Areas) have created a series of exhibits on the hydrology of Sabino Creek, an ephemeral stream within the Sonoran Desert (USA) visited by over 1 million people annually. A clear set of educational objectives established at the beginning of the process and interagency cooperation resulted in a cohesive grouping of exhibits while minimizing single agency dominance. The multimedia exhibits are a collection of visual displays along with a touch-screen kiosk that has animations and other links that expand along many avenues to educate people on ephemeral streams, sky islands, siltation, and ground-water recharge within the Sonoran Desert. In addition, the exhibit incorporates real-time climate and streamflow data collected by four science agencies. The real-time data incorporated into the kiosk and linking web page is used to educate visitors about the natural environment within Sabino Canyon and inform them about flash-flooding and fire dangers. Thus, before entering the canyon, a visitor can view the exhibit and readily determine the air and water temperature, stream activity, and several other current and historical environmental variables. In summary, the cooperative efforts between the agencies resulted in a series of exhibits that are far more beneficial to the public than if the efforts had been attempted separately.

  13. Colombian-German entrepreneurial and scientific cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oettel, Eberhard [Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (FEE), Berlin (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    German and Colombian strategic objectives, strengths and needs suit for a long-lasting cooperation ot mutual advantage in the fields of renewable energy resources (RES), energy efficiency biodiversity, biofuels: Colombia as a country rich of fossil primary energy carriers strives to substitute them by its abundant RES for the supply of electricity, heat (cold) and fuels, set them free for exporting to gain financial revenues for a self-determined technological development. Despite of its for a developing country relatively high technological level an indigenous industry of renewable energy hardly does not exist. Favourable interfaces in many regard prevail too in the energy related science, among others in biotechnology and the brand-new branch of urban agriculture. German middle-class enterprises and scientific institutes dispose of exactly suitable necessary technologies, engineering kow-how of their application and are increasingly obliged to look for foreign markets just in this segment. Joint research, development and implementation, including adapting high technologies to Colombian conditions is welcome to develop advanced knowledge and new applications. By growing cooperation of Latin American countries the chances for joint venturing with Colombian partners in the this market increase. FEE Foerdergesellschaft Erneuerbare Energien e.V. (Society for the Promotion of Renewable Energy) as a national network for innovations of enterprises, research institutes and experts has established a strong plexus to market relevant partners in Colombia since 2005, ready for manifold use by German partners in the branches of RES, energy efficiency and biofuels. FEE had been integrated into two Centres of Excellence recognized by the Colombian Research Council COLCIENCIAS. Powerful enterprises and associations signed official Letters of Interest. In first joint projects confidence was created, expertise proved and a reliable basement founded for entrepreneural business

  14. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... outside of tariffs. Impressive results were forecast by simulating both a 50% reduction in what can be considered traditional non-tariff barriers and a modest 20% reduction in the costs associated with transit time delays at customs, terminals and internal land transportation. Gains from tariff...

  15. Biostimulants in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick eBrown

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants, which may be derived from a wide range of natural or synthetic processes, are now widely used in agriculture and yet the mode of action of these materials is not well understood. On the basis of available literature, and based upon the diversity of biostimulant responses highlighted in this focus issue, we hypothesize that biostimulants function by directly interacting with plant signaling cascades or act through stimulation of endophytic and non-endophytic bacteria, yeast and fungi to produce molecules of benefit to the plant. The benefit of the biostimulant is derived from the reduction in assimilates that are diverted to non-productive stress response metabolism.

  16. International nuclear cooperation in Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yong-Kyu

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear power project traditionally involve huge financial investment, highly sophisticated technology, and long lead time. Many countries, particularly developing ones, find it impossible to implement their nuclear power programs without technical cooperation and assistance from advanced countries. In this Asia and Pacific Region, seven countries have commercial nuclear power units in operation and/or under construction. Korea has six nuclear power units in operation, and three under construction. Active nuclear cooperation has been instrumental in implementing her abmitious nuclear power programs successfully. Nuclear cooperation is one of the widely recognized necessities, which is quite often talked about among the countries of the Asia and Pacific Region. But the differences in nuclear maturity and national interests among those in the region seem to be standing against it. Given the constraints, it is not easy to select appropriate areas for cooperation. There is no doubt, however, that they should include the nuclear policy, nuclear safety, radwaste management, radiological protection, and the management of nuclear units. In order to effectively promote nuclear cooperation in the Region, the scope of RCA activities must be expanded to include the nuclear power area. The Regional Nuclear Data Bank, the Regional Training Center and the Nuclear Emergency Response Center, for example, would be the effective tools for cooperation to meet the demands of the countries in the Region. In view of the technological gap between Japan and all others in the region, we cannot speak of a regional nuclear cooperation without heavily counting on Japan, the most advanced nuclear state in the region. For these reasons, Japan is expected to share an increasing portion of her nuclear technology with others.

  17. Expand and extend bilateral and multilateral cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Focusing on her major business subject, at the same time, NSFC strived to promote international fundamental research cooperations, seriously implemented the new-era policies, and achieved great progress in exploring international cooperation channels, organizing international cooperative projects, attracting overseas talent resources,designing the Eleventh Five-Year Plan for international cooperation, establishing constitution and exploring political strategy etc. In 2005, NSFC granted 1593 cooperation projects with a total investment of 89.7716 million RMB.

  18. Evaluating Farmers Access To Productive Resources Through Cooperative Societies And Its Effects On Their Performance In Rural Communities Of Anambra State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The poverty of Nigerian farmers and their inability to increase their output and income above the subsistence level have been identified as one of the factors militating against food production in Nigeria. Yet agricultural cooperative create the ability for the supply of required agricultural inputs so that production of commodities is done timely to enhance productivity. They also provide an assured market for commodities produced by isolated small farmers in the rural areas. This paper was determined to evaluate the effects of cooperative societies on members output. The researchers administered a total of one hundred and twenty-six 126 questionnaires to the respondents with the assistance of the divisional cooperative officers. The hypotheses were analyzed through the use of t-test statistic and regression analysis. Results showed that the various Services rendered by farmers cooperative to their members include agric credit improved seedlings fertilizer and market access. They however disagreed that they received extension services the cooperative farmers agreed that they have access to the following agricultural services after joining cooperatives Access to Agric credit Access to Improved Seedlings and Access to Fertilizer. They disagree that they have Access to emerging markets and Access to Extension services. Hence the need to adopt cooperative as a platform for improving farmers productivity and output in Awka South L.G.A of Anambra state. As such the researchers therefore recommends that the Anambra State government should encourage research development and provision of adequate extension services to cooperative farmers through the Ministry in charge of cooperative in the state. Through the extension education the farmers will have knowledge of emerging markets and cooperative farmers should also be encouraged to join cooperative to enable them have access to agricultural credit among others.

  19. Beyond Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken E Giller

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance, soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals and biotechnology. Over the past ten years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub- tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture.

  20. COMMUNITY SUPPORTED AGRICULTURE (CSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atănăsoaie George Sebastian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Farms of CSA types are a viable alternative to trade of agricultural products coming from conventional agriculture. These farms are faced with a number of policy issues related to product, price, distribution and promotion. In order to elucidate the issues listed above, we have investigated the literature of specialty. Farmers must make more flexible the content of basket both quantitatively and in terms of the nature of food products offered. Consumers need information on ways of preparation or preservation of products. The growth of the processing degree in farm, and inclusion in the offer of services in ecotourism represent effective options to satisfy consumers. To offset the negative impact of high prices measures should be taken in reducing costs, more flexibility in rescheduling of payments due from customers and compensate for the lack of financial resources with the provision of farm work or subsidize a portion of the basket value from private or government sources. Delivery of baskets should be both at fixed points and at customers domicile. Farmers must provide customers the possibility so that they could harvest themselves the products they will buy. Negative influence of prices will be reduced by establishing an effective communication policy with the market, by organizing events on the farm or nearby towns, through blogs and social networks, and through participation in fairs and exhibitions. A greater customer involvement in farming activities will lead to the implementation of an effective marketing mix.

  1. Beyond conservation agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giller, Ken E.; Andersson, Jens A.; Corbeels, Marc; Kirkegaard, John; Mortensen, David; Erenstein, Olaf; Vanlauwe, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Global support for Conservation Agriculture (CA) as a pathway to Sustainable Intensification is strong. CA revolves around three principles: no-till (or minimal soil disturbance), soil cover, and crop rotation. The benefits arising from the ease of crop management, energy/cost/time savings, and soil and water conservation led to widespread adoption of CA, particularly on large farms in the Americas and Australia, where farmers harness the tools of modern science: highly-sophisticated machines, potent agrochemicals, and biotechnology. Over the past 10 years CA has been promoted among smallholder farmers in the (sub-) tropics, often with disappointing results. Growing evidence challenges the claims that CA increases crop yields and builds-up soil carbon although increased stability of crop yields in dry climates is evident. Our analyses suggest pragmatic adoption on larger mechanized farms, and limited uptake of CA by smallholder farmers in developing countries. We propose a rigorous, context-sensitive approach based on Systems Agronomy to analyze and explore sustainable intensification options, including the potential of CA. There is an urgent need to move beyond dogma and prescriptive approaches to provide soil and crop management options for farmers to enable the Sustainable Intensification of agriculture. PMID:26579139

  2. AGRICULTURE DISEASE MITIGATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sion Hannuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Around 52% of the population of India rely on farming for their livelihood which accounts for 17% of India’s GDP. Whilst most farmers are familiar with conventional farming practices, they are often ill positioned to promptly deal with diseases and plant infestations affecting their crops. Current advisory systems tend to be generic and are not tailored to specific plots or farms. This work comprises an agriculture advisory call center similar to a modern call center to provide an agriculture disease mitigation system. The information regarding an individual farm is collected using mobile phones. The image of diseased/infected crop is also captured using mobile phones and is made available to the expert to provide the advisory. To scale the advisory, an attempt is also made to automate the disease recognition process using image processing. Unfortunately, the photos taken will be sensitive to a number of factors including camera type and lighting incident on the scene. Ideally, the images would be processed in such a way as to provide the expert with a visual representation of the affected crops that reflects the true nature of the scene. We describe a framework for standardising the colour of plant images taken using both mobile phones and compact cameras within the context of the advisory system.

  3. The Globalization of Cooperative Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Manuel; Corn, Benjamin W; Dancey, Janet E; Wickerham, D Lawrence; Horvath, L Elise; Perez, Edith A; Urton, Alison; Cronin, Walter M; Field, Erica; Lackey, Evonne; Blanke, Charles D

    2015-10-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI)-supported adult cooperative oncology research groups (now officially Network groups) have a longstanding history of participating in international collaborations throughout the world. Most frequently, the US-based cooperative groups work reciprocally with the Canadian national adult cancer clinical trial group, NCIC CTG (previously the National Cancer Institute of Canada Clinical Trials Group). Thus, Canada is the largest contributor to cooperative groups based in the United States, and vice versa. Although international collaborations have many benefits, they are most frequently utilized to enhance patient accrual to large phase III trials originating in the United States or Canada. Within the cooperative group setting, adequate attention has not been given to the study of cancers that are unique to countries outside the United States and Canada, such as those frequently associated with infections in Latin America, Asia, and Africa. Global collaborations are limited by a number of barriers, some of which are unique to the countries involved, while others are related to financial support and to US policies that restrict drug distribution outside the United States. This article serves to detail the cooperative group experience in international research and describe how international collaboration in cancer clinical trials is a promising and important area that requires greater consideration in the future.

  4. Cooperation for direct fitness benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimar, Olof; Hammerstein, Peter

    2010-09-12

    Studies of the evolution of helping have traditionally used the explanatory frameworks of reciprocity and altruism towards relatives, but recently there has been an increasing interest in other kinds of explanations. We review the success or otherwise of work investigating alternative processes and mechanisms, most of which fall under the heading of cooperation for direct benefits. We evaluate to what extent concepts such as by-product benefits, pseudo-reciprocity, sanctions and partner choice, markets and the build-up of cross-species spatial trait correlations have contributed to the study of the evolution of cooperation. We conclude that these alternative ideas are successful and show potential to further increase our understanding of cooperation. We also bring up the origin and role of common interest in the evolution of cooperation, including the appearance of organisms. We note that there are still unresolved questions about the main processes contributing to the evolution of common interest. Commenting on the broader significance of the recent developments, we argue that they represent a justified balancing of the importance given to different major hypotheses for the evolution of cooperation. This balancing is beneficial because it widens considerably the range of phenomena addressed and, crucially, encourages empirical testing of important theoretical alternatives.

  5. Emerging Agricultural Biotechnologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Food Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena

    2016-01-20

    As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.

  6. Sustainable rural development and cross-border cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Žaklina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable rural development comprises three aspects - social, economical and ecological. They are supposed to act in synergy, but, at the same time, these aspects are supposed to be competitive. Agriculture, as a traditional activity of rural economy, contributes to the sustainable development of rural areas only if there is an adequate resources management. If not, there will be a significant degradation of rural environment. These are the reasons why sustainable agriculture development is emphasized since it maximizes productivity and minimizes negative effects on nature and human resources. In this context, one should observe the connection between agriculture and tourism existing in the EU, where the application of sustainable agricultural development concept produces external effects connected to biodiversity protection and environment in rural areas. These become a good foundation for the development of rural and ecotourism. EU enlargement induced diversification of support programmes that EU gives to the candidate countries, as well as to those who are just entering the process of stabilization and association to the EU. Through cross-border cooperation projects, many goals can be accomplished, among which aspiration for promotion of sustainable economical and social development in border regions is one of the leading. Knowing that these regions are usually passive and underdeveloped, the projects of cross-border cooperation could induce development of those activities in local economy, which could bring better living conditions and economic prosperity on the one hand, and protection of environment on the other. Examples of this kind of projects in Serbia can usually be found in rural and ecotourism development.

  7. Cooperation, framing and political attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgaard, Toke Reinholt; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Wengström, Erik Roland

    This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...... that this difference in the framing effect across political point of views is to some extent explained by differences in beliefs and basic cooperation preferences.......This paper shows that political attitudes are linked to cooperative behavior in an incentivized experiment with a large sample randomly drawn from the Danish population. However, this relationship depends on the way the experiment is framed. In the standard game in which subjects give to a public...

  8. INTELLIGENT RESOLUTION OF COOPERATIVE CONFLICT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    First, the concept of cooperative conflict is presented, and the characteristic of cooperative air combat is researched. Then, four methods of conflict resolution are designed by way of the first order predicate logic, I.e., link-up, coordination, accommodation and integration, and corresponding examples are given. A 2 vs 2 air combat simulation was carried out; after conflict resolution, the loss ratio is dropped to 0.54 from the original 1.32, so the enhancement of effectiveness is notable. The present research findings are that the wide conflicts discover the essence of multi-fighter cooperation, I.e., to as fully as possible enhance the effectiveness of each fighter to attain global optimization, and that the possibility of conflict resolution shows the application prospect. The proposed method in this paper is a helpful try to the application of the Fifth Generation Computer in the new generation of C3I system.

  9. Guiding Attention by Cooperative Cues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KangWoo Lee

    2008-01-01

    A common assumption in visual attention is based on the rationale of "limited capacity of information pro-ceasing". From this view point there is little consideration of how different information channels or modules are cooperating because cells in processing stages are forced to compete for the limited resource. To examine the mechanism behind the cooperative behavior of information channels, a computational model of selective attention is implemented based on two hypotheses. Unlike the traditional view of visual attention, the cooperative behavior is assumed to be a dynamic integration process between the bottom-up and top-down information. Furthermore, top-down information is assumed to provide a contextual cue during selection process and to guide the attentional allocation among many bottom-up candidates. The result from a series of simulation with still and video images showed some interesting properties that could not be explained by the competitive aspect of selective attention alone.

  10. Cooperation in wireless networks principles and applications : real egoistic behavior is to cooperate!

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzek, Frank HP

    2006-01-01

    Covers the underlying principles of cooperative techniques as well as several applications demonstrating the use of such techniques in practical systems. This book also summarizes the strength of cooperation for wireless communication systems, motivating the use of cooperative techniques.

  11. Northeast Asia acid rain problem and environmental cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, E.S. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    Total emission amounts of sulfur dioxide in the twenty-three (23) territories of Northeast Asia was 14.7 million tons in 1990. The Northeastern area of China accounted for 81%, Korea 12%, Japan 5%, and North Korea 2%. In the basic scenario, the emission amount of sulfur dioxide in Northeast Asia is estimated to reach 40.5 million tons by the year 2020. Long distance, cross-border air pollutants originating in China, move to the Korean Peninsula and Japan, and esp. acid rain is greatly influenced by the emission of sulfur dioxide in China. Acid rain severely damages not only the natural ecosystem and agricultural products, but also human health, too. Therefore, in order to reduce the future damage from acid rain, emission of sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide material should be lessened both domestically and in nearby countries. It would be difficult for those countries in Northeast Asia to sign the multilateral agreement for environmental cooperation within a short period of time because they are in different stages of economic development and set different priorities in their discussion of environmental cooperation. Therefore, it is desirable to make them observe improved environmental standards through existing regional cooperative organizations such as ESCAP, APEC or multilateral external financial institutions such as IBRD, ADB, ODA, and to carry out cooperative businesses for regional environmental improvements. At the same time, environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia related to acid rain should start step by step from obtaining objective and reliable information through scientific studies and should be carried out multi-dimensionally and comprehensively by not only the central government but the local government and NGO in various fields, such as Politics, Economics, Science, Diplomacy, etc. 30 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  12. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhigang; Gao, Haoyu; Qu, Xinglong; Yang, Mingmin; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks). This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination) simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels) meet, they play the (anti-) coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic). We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  13. Fashion, cooperation, and social interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Cao

    Full Text Available Fashion plays such a crucial rule in the evolution of culture and society that it is regarded as a second nature to the human being. Also, its impact on economy is quite nontrivial. On what is fashionable, interestingly, there are two viewpoints that are both extremely widespread but almost opposite: conformists think that what is popular is fashionable, while rebels believe that being different is the essence. Fashion color is fashionable in the first sense, and Lady Gaga in the second. We investigate a model where the population consists of the afore-mentioned two groups of people that are located on social networks (a spatial cellular automata network and small-world networks. This model captures two fundamental kinds of social interactions (coordination and anti-coordination simultaneously, and also has its own interest to game theory: it is a hybrid model of pure competition and pure cooperation. This is true because when a conformist meets a rebel, they play the zero sum matching pennies game, which is pure competition. When two conformists (rebels meet, they play the (anti- coordination game, which is pure cooperation. Simulation shows that simple social interactions greatly promote cooperation: in most cases people can reach an extraordinarily high level of cooperation, through a selfish, myopic, naive, and local interacting dynamic (the best response dynamic. We find that degree of synchronization also plays a critical role, but mostly on the negative side. Four indices, namely cooperation degree, average satisfaction degree, equilibrium ratio and complete ratio, are defined and applied to measure people's cooperation levels from various angles. Phase transition, as well as emergence of many interesting geographic patterns in the cellular automata network, is also observed.

  14. Cooperation percolation in spatial prisoner's dilemma game

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Han-Xin; Wang, Wen-Xu

    2015-01-01

    The paradox of cooperation among selfish individuals still puzzles scientific communities. Although a large amount of evidence has demonstrated that cooperator clusters in spatial games are effective to protect cooperators against the invasion of defectors, we continue to lack the condition for the formation of a giant cooperator cluster that assures the prevalence of cooperation in a system. Here, we study the dynamical organization of cooperator clusters in spatial prisoner's dilemma game to offer the condition for the dominance of cooperation, finding that a phase transition characterized by the emergence of a large spanning cooperator cluster occurs when the initial fraction of cooperators exceeds a certain threshold. Interestingly, the phase transition belongs to different universality classes of percolation determined by the temptation to defect $b$. Specifically, on square lattices, $1

  15. Cooperative and cognitive satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chatzinotas, Symeon; De Gaudenzi, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative and Cognitive Satellite Systems provides a solid overview of the current research in the field of cooperative and cognitive satellite systems, helping users understand how to incorporate state-of-the-art communication techniques in innovative satellite network architectures to enable the next generation of satellite systems. The book is edited and written by top researchers and practitioners in the field, providing a comprehensive explanation of current research that allows users to discover future technologies and their applications, integrate satellite and terrestrial systems

  16. Purchasing cooperatives for small employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallozzi, J

    1997-12-01

    Despite a booming economy, the number of uninsured Americans is rising. It hit nearly 42 million in 1996. Many of the uninsured work at businesses with fewer than 50 employees. Because small firms have traditionally found it difficult to provide health benefits, purchasing cooperatives have grown in scope and size across the country in recent years. By bringing small businesses together to buy insurance as a group, these organizations can help employers provide greater choice to their workers at a lower cost. However, to operate well in the insurance market, purchasing cooperatives must be well-designed and provided with adequate legal protections.

  17. SME Cooperation on Innovation & Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brink, Tove; Neville, Mette

    2016-01-01

    The research in this paper reveals how cooperation of SMEs can enable innovation and growth. The research is conducted in a four-year period with 24 SMEs participating from different industry branches. The research is now in the late part of the 3rd. year starting in 2013 and finished January 2017....... Preliminary findings are revealed here and discussed with the SMEs. Shorter-term cooperation and especially longer-term collaboration is important for SMEs to enable innovation and growth. The content of collaboration is based on the cross-disciplinary trinity of organisational- and managerial development...... for the benefit of all....

  18. Comparing Pathways to Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Q Fuller

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The transition from foraging systems to agricultural dependence is a persistent focus of archaeological research, and the focus of a major research project supported by the European Research Council (ERC grant no. 323842, ’ComPAg’. Gordon Childe, director of the Institute of Archaeology 1947–1957, influentially defined the Neolithic revolution as that which instigated a series of changes in human societies towards sedentism (settling in one place, larger populations, food production based on domesticated plants and animals, transformed cosmologies and the dawn of new malleable technologies such as ceramics and textiles (Childe 1936.

  19. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...... in nitrogen leaching since the mid-80s. Nevertheless, further effort is needed, particularly in ecologically sensitive areas. This article discusses different regulatory approaches – and in particular the need for a differentiated nitrate regulation tailored to meet site-specific ecological demands – from...... of the mandatory specification standards of the Nitrates Directive combined with additional instruments to address the need for severe restrictions on fertiliser use or cultivation practices in the most ecologically vulnerable areas....

  20. Urban agriculture in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloysius Clemence Mosha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Botswana, a middle-income country, is experiencing a sluggish economic growth and a rapid urbanisation which has brought in its wake high unemployment, poverty and food insecurity. This has led some people to engage in subsistence and commercial urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA to address these problems. However, in spite of its known advantages, uptake of UPA has been low for a number of reasons including: high GDP before the economic meltdown of recent years; a harsh climate; lack of water; poor access to land; and over-reliance on generous government handouts. Nevertheless, the extent of its practice and its contribution to food security – albeit modest – shows that it is a sector that needs to be encouraged and supported. Both central and local government can play a big role by providing land and infrastructure, and also by implementing an enabling policy and regulatory environment which promotes small- and medium-scale urban food production.

  1. Linking nutrition-health-agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural production is intimately linked with health and nutrition as a form of income, a source of food, and a cause of disease. Citing a variety of previous studies, this presentation demonstrates the complexity of the relationships among agriculture and food consumption, food safety, infection, and stunting. The authors demonstrate that increasing agricultural production does not necessarily result in improved nutrition: Although more food may be available, this greater yield may suppl...

  2. Green Agriculture - features and agricultural policy measures for the transition to a sustainable agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Nistor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most important economic activities in each country or area, as it is in close correlation with all other the other economic activities, in a whole which must be structured so as to achieve a more efficient planning and organization of the territory. The practice of a traditional agriculture, based on industrialization, affects the natural environment through emissions of pollutants, waste and deforestation which together affects biodiversity. Green Agriculture suppose to empower managers to widespread the use of fertilizers, to improve the crop rotation, to realize a more efficient water consumption, to improve the storage methods and the supply chain of products. Agricultural policies are closely interrelated with environmental policies as agricultural activities have a considerable influence on the environment. The efficiency of agricultural policies is reflected in monetary transfers between agriculture and other economic sectors, in the costs due to the reallocation of the resources between different agricultural and non-agricultural activities and in the realized gains. Currently there is a constant concern of the governments for the transition to a green agriculture, and most countries recognize the importance of achieving sustainable economic development.

  3. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin A.

    2006-12-01

    Cooperation is needed for evolution to construct new levels of organization. Genomes, cells, multicellular organisms, social insects, and human society are all based on cooperation. Cooperation means that selfish replicators forgo some of their reproductive potential to help one another. But natural selection implies competition and therefore opposes cooperation unless a specific mechanism is at work. Here I discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: kin selection, direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, network reciprocity, and group selection. For each mechanism, a simple rule is derived that specifies whether natural selection can lead to cooperation.

  4. Precision agriculture and food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbers, Robin; Adamchuk, Viacheslav I

    2010-02-12

    Precision agriculture comprises a set of technologies that combines sensors, information systems, enhanced machinery, and informed management to optimize production by accounting for variability and uncertainties within agricultural systems. Adapting production inputs site-specifically within a field and individually for each animal allows better use of resources to maintain the quality of the environment while improving the sustainability of the food supply. Precision agriculture provides a means to monitor the food production chain and manage both the quantity and quality of agricultural produce.

  5. The financing of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eduardo Souza de Miranda

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The cooperative enterprise has an important role as voluntary association instrument aimed at socio-economic equilibrium of a world crisis. Its stability is linked to the economic mechanisms that ensure their birth, development and maintenance as a solvent and active competitor.

  6. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1986 annual reports from 48 states, Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource sharing activities supported by the Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds. In response to the 1984 amendment to Title III (which required each state to include in…

  7. Cooperative Games and Multiagent Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Airiau

    2013-01-01

    Forming coalitions is a generic means for cooperation: people, robots, web services, resources, firms; they can all improve their performance by joining forces. The use of coalitions has been successful in domains such as task allocations, sensor networks, and electronic marketplaces. Forming effici

  8. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  9. Marketing Cooperative Education. A Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosser, John W.; Rea, Peter J.

    This document is a guide for a workshop on marketing college cooperative education programs. The guide takes the reader/workshop participant through the marketing process, from defining needs and resources to planning a marketing campaign, implementing it, and evaluating its success. Samples and sources also are provided. Topics covered in the…

  10. Forskningsoversigt - Effekterne af Cooperative Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Lund

    Kan Cooperative Learning - en undervisningsform hvor lærerens tid ved tavlen mindskes og hvor de lærende samarbejder om stoffet - maksimere de lærendes indlæring og medvirke til en forbedring af deres interpersonelle og kommunikative kompetencer, samt øge deres motivation for læring? Den megen...

  11. Heterogeneous Multi-Robot Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    the objects the robots manipulate are hazardous waste. I have not actually applied the robots to reA toxic waste spills, since they are simply small...1993] Bruce Randall Donald, James Jennings, and Daniela Rus. To- wards a theory of information invariants for cooperating autonomous mobile robots

  12. The transformation of cooperative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sacristán Bergia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the Cooperative´s transformation process. The Author study the positions of creditors and members, and the general assembly decisions. This paper systematizes the transformation into private limited company.Received: 12.06.10Accepted: 28.06.10

  13. Cooperative gating between ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kee-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative gating between ion channels, i.e. the gating of one channel directly coupled to the gating of neighboring channels, has been observed in diverse channel types at the single-channel level. Positively coupled gating could enhance channel-mediated signaling while negative coupling may effectively reduce channel gating noise. Indeed, the physiological significance of cooperative channel gating in signal transduction has been recognized in several in vivo studies. Moreover, coupled gating of ion channels was reported to be associated with some human disease states. In this review, physiological roles for channel cooperativity and channel clustering observed in vitro and in vivo are introduced, and stimulation-induced channel clustering and direct channel cross linking are suggested as the physical mechanisms of channel assembly. Along with physical clustering, several molecular mechanisms proposed as the molecular basis for functional coupling of neighboring channels are covered: permeant ions as a channel coupling mediator, concerted channel activation through the membrane, and allosteric mechanisms. Also, single-channel analysis methods for cooperative gating such as the binomial analysis, the variance analysis, the conditional dwell time density analysis, and the maximum likelihood fitting analysis are reviewed and discussed.

  14. Interlibrary Cooperation and Resource Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Dorothy

    Based on fiscal year 1985 annual reports from 48 states, this report describes interlibrary cooperation and resource-sharing activities supported by Library Services and Construction Act (LSCA), Title III, funds during 1985. A summary of types of activities reported includes the establishment, maintenance, and expansion of communication networks…

  15. CHINA SEEKS REGIONAL ENERGY COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    China is seeking to diversify channels for energy cooperation as it faces mounting challenges from surging energy demand, geopolitical risks and price volatility. The endowment and distribution of China's resources does not match the current situation of China's economic development. Those are the opinions aired by officials and experts at an international expo recently held in West China's Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

  16. International Business : cooperation within networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delft, Anne van

    2011-01-01

    Internationalisation is the expansion of a firms operations to foreign markets and includes not only import and export but also foreign direct investments and international cooperation. Today’s globalising economy has resulted in a growing number of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) undertaking in

  17. Studying Japan: The Cooperative Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilke, Eileen

    1990-01-01

    Designs an elementary level social studies unit with the focus on Japan. Provides sample units of cooperative learning group projects. Suggests integrating mathematics, language arts, economics, fine arts, and science. Lists resources for obtaining more information and materials about Japan. (NL)

  18. Fostering Cooperation in Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thursday, June 25, 2015 Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) was signed between US National Cancer Institute and three agencies of the Indian government - the Department of Biotechnology, the Indian Council of Medical Research, and the Indian National Cancer Institute, a part of the All India Institute of Medical Sciences to foster cooperation in cancer research.

  19. Cross-border innovation cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjaltadóttir, Rannveig Edda; Makkonen, Teemu; Sørensen, Nils Karl

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable partner is paramount for the success of innovation cooperation. Thus, this paper sets out to analyse the determinants of cross-border innovation cooperation in Denmark focusing on partner selection. The aim of the article is to investigate determinants of partner selection taki...... of choosing a foreign partner while the decision between foreign partners from different locations is not. The results do however not provide support for the theory of knowledge bases influencing the location of innovation partners....... the location of the partners into account. In particular, the discussion is tied to the notion of varying knowledge bases firms utilize in their innovation creation processes. Firm level data from the 2010 Community Innovation Survey in Denmark was used to analyse cross-border innovation cooperation patterns...... of cross-border innovation cooperation. Accordingly, geographical proximity to international borders is found to have a significant, positive effect on choosing partners within EU. The multivariate probit model shows that the decision of choosing a domestic innovation partner is independent of the choice...

  20. Communicating Cooperative Robots with Bluetooth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Son, L.T.; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2001-01-01

    A generic architecture for system of cooperating communicating mobile robots is presented. An overall structure is defined from a modularity viewpoint, where a number of generic modules are identified; low level communication interface, network layer services such as initial and adaptive network...

  1. Sustainable tourism development of globally important agricultural heritage sites: a case study of "traditional rice-fish agriculture system"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yongle; Sun Yehong; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui

    2008-01-01

    Traditional rice-fish agricultural heritage site in Qingtian County, China, one of the pilot sites of Glob-ally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS), is of great value in tourism development. This paper aims to explore how to realize sustainable tourism development in agricultural heritage site through identifying current problems in GIAHS site, and making constructive recommendations for coupled development of heritage preserva-tion and economic development. Field survey was carried out and data was collected through field questionnaire surveys of tourists and residents' in Longxian Village of Qingtian County, as well as interviews of residents with semi-structured questionnaires for their perceptions and attitudes to tourism development. The following results are got.(1) the tourism industry is still at its early state of Nongjiale tourism (enjoy and experience authentic country life-style), under very limited administrative management; (2) what attracts visitors most are delicious fish and beautiful natural environment, but not agricultural heritage itself; (3) most tourists come from adjacent areas and stay only half a day, many of whom pay their visits twice or more; (4) a few local residents take part in the activities of tourism industry, but in very limited manners even if they do.Current patterns of tourism development are casting negative impacts on agricultural heritage. Conservation agricultural heritage should be put in the first place for sustainable tourism development. Agricultural heritage, as a key attraction, should be taken as the focus for tourism development. The important thing is to change the present Nongjiale tourism into real heritage tourism, to establish a cooperative mechanism among different stakeholders,and to increase local residents' income through engaging in tourism industry.

  2. MANAGEMENT OF DEVELOPMENT OF AGRARIAN PRODUCTION ON THE BASIS OF VERTICAL COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papahchyan I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the economic mechanism of operation of the vertical cooperation of small agricultural farms and their quantitative characteristics. There is great attention paid to the work of Revising Union; and there are shown: its objectives, its stabilizing role in lending to small businesses, and the volume of regional lending. The proposed project is meant to improve the current economy mechanism of vertical cooperation, to increase efficiency of regulation of the development process of consumer cooperatives of small farming with future possibility of public offering of constituent entities of the production infrastructure created with participation of the state. The authors recommend creating joint infrastructural facilities for small business with active engaging of the government, which will increase currently low motivation of participants of small-scale agricultural farming (SAF in building a new cooperation. It is recommended to actively enhance the process of creating of infrastructure of economic activity, the state features in the construction of production, supply, logistics, processing, marketing and other necessary for practical objects in the form of storage facilities, slaughterhouses, depots mine-mineral fertilizers etc. It is proposed to enhance preparation and retraining of personnel for working with small farms and especially in their consumer cooperatives. To increase efficiency of the informative-consultative instrument of development of small business by adding more state funding, more actively implement a scheme of public-private partnerships with cooperatives of small agricultural farming. The crucial condition for successful development of SAF is lobbying interests of participants of small agrarian business by giving opportunities from regional Chambers of commerce and industry, by establishing associations of small forms of management to protect interests of participants in use of land, resources provision

  3. The evolution of cooperation in asymmetric systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Explaining the "Tragedy of the Commons" of the evolution of cooperation remains one of the greatest problems for both biology and social science.Asymmetrical interaction,which is one of the most important characteristics of cooperative systems,has not been sufficiently considered in the existing models of the evolution of cooperation.Considering the inequality in the number and payoff between the cooperative actors and recipients in cooperation systems,discriminative density-dependent interference competition will occur in limited dispersal systems.Our model and simulation show that the local but not the global stability of a cooperative interaction can be maintained if the utilization of common resource remains unsaturated,which can be achieved by density-dependent restraint or competition among the cooperative actors.More intense density dependent interference competition among the cooperative actors and the ready availability of the common resource,with a higher intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,will increase the probability of cooperation.The cooperation between the recipient and the cooperative actors can be transformed into conflict and,it oscillates chaotically with variations of the affecting factors under different environmental or ecological conditions.The higher initial relatedness(i.e.similar to kin or reciprocity relatedness),which is equivalent to intrinsic contribution ratio of a cooperative actor to the recipient,can be selected for by penalizing less cooperative or cheating actors but rewarding cooperative individuals in asymmetric systems.The initial relatedness is a pivot but not the aim of evolution of cooperation.This explains well the direct conflict observed in almost all cooperative systems.

  4. Research on Competitiveness of the Developmental Pattern of "Enterprise+Cooperative"——A case of Lamb Fattening Cooperatives in Hainan Sub-prefecture of Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The empirical analyses on agricultural industrialization pattern and local animal husbandry in northwestern areas show that the industrialization development of husbandry in northwestern areas faces international and national competitive pressures. The survival ability and competitive ability are the key points of husbandry industrialization. The paper, having a lamb fattening professional cooperatives in Hainan sub-prefecture of Qinghai Province as the example, introduces the general conditions of the establishment and development of cooperatives and points out the advantages and disadvantages of husbandry in Qinghai Province. The paper analyzes the competitive advantages of Hongyuan Lamb Fattening Cooperatives through five forces mode of Michael Port, putting forward countermeasures and upgrading the competitiveness of Hongyuan Lamb Fattening Competitive.

  5. The Potential for Joint Farming Ventures in Irish Agriculture: A Sociological Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cush Peter

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Joint farming ventures (JFVs are promoted within Irish and EU policy discourses as strategies that can enhance the economic and social sustainability of family farming. Research has shown that JFVs, including arrangements such as farm partnerships, contract rearing and share farming, can potentially enable farmers to work cooperatively to improve farm productivity, reduce working hours, facilitate succession, develop skills and improve relationships within the farm household. In the context of increasing policy promotion of JFVs, there is a need to make some attempt at understanding the macro socio-cultural disposition of family farming to cooperation. Reviewing sociological studies of agricultural cooperation and taking a specific focus on the Irish contextual backdrop, this paper draws the reader’s attention to the importance of historical legacy, pragmatic economic and social concerns, communicative norms, inter-personal relationships, individualism and, policy and extension stimuli, all of which shape farmers’ dispositions to cooperation and to JFVs specifically.

  6. Dividend and Profit Allocation Practices of Performing Cooperatives in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafedah Juhan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the dividend payout and profit allocation practices of performing cooperatives in Malaysia, specifically how net profits were distributed as between dividends and various funds established for the benefit of members, after the necessary statutory deduction has been made. This paper is an exploratory study that is confined to performing co-operatives throughout Malaysia of different sizes and activities. Figures were derived from the 2008, 2007 and 2006 audited annual financial statements provided by the co-operatives themselves. Overall the study revealed that micro co-operatives are found to have paid the highest average dividend payouts, followed by the large co-operatives. Credit co-operatives which have a sizeable amount of shares and subscriptions are observed to have the lowest average dividend payout ratio. The highest dividend payout is given out by the construction and consumer co-operatives. Besides dividends, co-operatives normally allocate part of their annual net profit for the benefit of members in the form of specific funds for members’ social and related purposes. It was observed that in 2007, all co-operatives have increased their allocation towards members’ benefits except for co-operatives in the services sector. In conclusion, the credit, agriculture and industrial co-operatives are the top three functions with the highest level of contribution to members' benefit fund. Este artículo analiza el pago de dividendos y prácticas de reparto de beneficios que siguen las cooperativas de Malasia, específicamente el sistema en los que los beneficios netos, después de realizar las deducciones legales pertinentes, se distribuyen entre dividendos y los fondos creados para el beneficio de los miembros. Se ha realizado un estudio exploratorio que analiza las cooperativas de diferente tamaño y actividad limitadas a Malasia. Los datos se derivan de las auditorías de los años 2008, 2007 y 2006, que presentan las

  7. 7 CFR 989.12a - Cooperative bargaining association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 989.12a Cooperative bargaining association. Cooperative bargaining association means a nonprofit cooperative association...

  8. The international environmental law of cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoll, P.T. [Max-Planck-Institute for Comparative Public Law and International Law, Heidelberg (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The author puts the question of whether the international environmental law can be called an international law of cooperation and examines its particular features and the available instruments for transboundary cooperation on various levels. (Orig./CB)

  9. The capital of cooperatives (the Uruguayan case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegbert Rippe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The main problems facing cooperatives in financing its activities and operations are considered, including both those on self-financing and its external financing and the solutions provided in Uruguayan cooperative legislation.

  10. Cooperative Planning in Action: The Washington Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gell, Marilyn

    1976-01-01

    Library cooperation in the Metropolitan Washington area is described, along with its problems and successes, and the significant role special libraries can play in an ambitious intertype library cooperative. (Author/PF)

  11. The incorporation of a cooperative society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar Garteiz-Aurrecoa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The new Spanish General Law regulates cooperatives and qualifies them as economic entities for conducting business, so its commercial nature is recognized aside positions that defend the absence of profit in cooperatives.

  12. Inactive sites and the evolution of cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Júnior, E. J.; Wardil, L. L.; da Silva, J. K. L.

    2016-10-01

    Cooperation is often conditioned on environmental factors. Behaviors may be inactive due to external factors, and yet the trait itself may not change. We study the evolution of cooperation with active and inactive sites. In inactive sites cooperators behave as defectors, receiving but not providing benefits. This unintentional mimicry provides local advantage to cooperation, but also prevents the mutual reinforcement provided by clusters of active cooperators. In general, we found that cooperation is enhanced by inactivity. In particular, if most sites are inactive, cooperation survives even if the temptation to defect is very large. Interestingly, in the square lattice with pairwise comparison rule we found that cooperation is enforced by inactive sites only up to a certain limit.

  13. UAV FOR GEODATA ACQUISITION IN AGRICULTUREAL AND FORESTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Reidelstürz

    2012-09-01

    The airframe´s wingspan is about 3,45m weighting 4.2 kg, ready to fly. The hand launchable UAV can start from any place in agricultural regions. The wing is configured with flaps, allowing steep approaches and short landings using a „butterfly“ brake configuration. In spite of the lightweight configuration the UAV yet proves its worth under windy baltic wether situations by collecting regular sharp images of fields under wind speed up to 15m/s (Beaufort 6 –7. In further projects the development of further payload modules and a user friendly flight planning tool is scheduled considering different payload – and airframe requirements for different precision farming purposes and forest applications. Data processing and workflow will be optimized. Cooperation with further partners to establish UAV systems in agricultural, forest and geodata aquisition is desired.

  14. Capital loss in China's agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Peng

    2004-01-01

    China's agriculture has contributed a lot to industrialization but it has suffered a long-run and severe capital loss.This paper provides an estimation model of capital loss in agriculture and gives some explanation in marginal approach.With an eye to a balanced and sustainable economy development, it is high time for government to do something for it.

  15. Entrepreneurship in agriculture and healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassink, Jan; Hulsink, Willem; Grin, John

    2016-01-01

    Care farming provides an interesting context of multifunctional agriculture where farmers face the challenge of having to bridge the gap between agriculture and healthcare and acquire new customers, partners and financial resources from the care sector. We compared different entry strategies of d

  16. Organic agriculture in North Carolina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wossink, G.A.A.; Kuminoff, N.

    2002-01-01

    This issue of the NC State Economist provides an overview of organic agriculture with an emphasis on North Carolina. Research results are reported and some of the new policies and programs that may affect organic agriculture in the near future are described

  17. Bohai Prominent for Cooperation with Foreign Firms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Qingbing; Wang Zhan; Du Genqi

    1997-01-01

    @@ Bohai Oilfields started to cooperate with foreign firms earlier than other oil fields. From 1980 up to now, Bohai Oilfields has signed 14 petroleum cooperation contracts with 18 foreign oil firms from Japan, France, the United States and Britain. The total investment for cooperative exploration and development is nearly $1.5 billion. In addition, Bohai Oilfields,taking various forms for cooperation, has formed a number of specialized joint ventures for offshore operation in partnership with foreign technical companies.

  18. On the relative advantage of cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian

    1998-01-01

    We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm......We show that the fact that farmers in a cooperative individually decide how much to supply to the cooperative may serve as a commitment device for credibly (and profitably) gaining market share in competition with a profit maximizing firm...

  19. The virtual cooperation platform in enterprise and supplier cooperation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Che-Wei; Wu, Cheng-Ru; Liao, Chia-Chun

    2010-08-01

    Abstract This study examines the use of the virtual enterprise network supplier supply-chain model of business behavior in creating synergies of cooperation. To explore virtual network behavior, it evaluates 60 samples, taken from of a few supply chains, and 17 items meeting certain behavioral criteria. Such an analysis may help to reduce costs and processing time effectively, as well as promote effective communication. Furthermore, the study of behavior in this electronic setting is a reliable and useful assessment method.

  20. More Cooperation, Much Stronger%More Cooperation, Much Stronger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi

    2011-01-01

    To further boost the cooperation between China and Germany on sustainable industrial textiles, China-Germany for Sustainable Solutions with Technical Textiles Performance show was held on Sep.15th by China Nonwovens & Industrial Textiles Association associated with the Sub-Council of Textile Industry, CCPIT and Confederation of the German Textile and Fashion Industry, vice president of CNTAC Xu Kunyuan, vice president of CNTAC Wang Tiankai, Peter Schwartze,