WorldWideScience

Sample records for agricultural cooperatives

  1. Researches on Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organization Promoting Agricultural Insurance Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The advantages of cooperative economic organization being the effective carrier of agricultural insurance development are analyzed. Firstly, cooperative economic organization promotes scale management and solves the problem of decentralized operation of small households. Secondly, cooperative economic organization can settle the problem of peasants’ low systematization. Thirdly, cooperative economic organization can largely reduce the costs of agricultural insurance operation. Fourthly, cooperative organization decreases moral risks as well as adverse selection to some extent. Lastly, cooperative organization, to a certain degree, reduces the risks of agricultural production and increases the insurability of agricultural risks. Meanwhile, limitations of agricultural cooperative economic organization being the carrier of agricultural insurance operation are pointed out. Firstly, cooperative economic organization has limited coverage and small size of organization, which is harmful to the diversification of agricultural risks. Secondly, cooperative economic organization lacks capital funds and its development is not standard, which is not perfect for the function exertion as a carrier. Lastly, members of professional cooperative organization have low cultural qualities, which restrict the implementation of agricultural insurance. The modes of farmers’ cooperative economic organization promoting agricultural insurance development are proposed, including mode of agricultural insurance cooperative ( mutual corporation), mode of "leading enterprises (companies) + professional cooperative organization (planting majors) + insurance" and mode of professional cooperatives serving as agricultural insurance agent. Last of all, the promoting role of agricultural insurance in agricultural cooperative economic organization is briefly illustrated.

  2. Perspectives of agricultural cooperatives in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mariana Dincu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to concentration or development strategies, in recent years, worldwide, farmers are faced with a fundamental strategic decisions, namely to choose how to act better, in conditions of uncertainty, to make farms viable, profitable, resistance to competition, with markets and efficiency in accessing financial funds. Alternatively, farmers realize different forms of association, from which highlights cooperatives, producer groups and producer associations. In extension of Romanian agricultural cooperative should be considered the experience of countries economically developed, where an expansion was and diversification of agricultural cooperatives forms. In these countries agricultural cooperative was one of the main levers for concentration of agricultural production, of the transition from agrarian structure characterized by small farms and less specialized, to intensive ones, of large economic dimensions.

  3. Agricultural Cooperatives and Contract Price Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Katchova, Ani L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the price competitiveness of marketing and production contracts depending on whether contracts are with cooperatives or investorowned firms. A propensity score matching method is used to compare prices using contract data from a national farm-level survey. The results show that prices of agricultural contracts with cooperatives are not significantly different from those with investor-owned firms, which indicates that cooperatives are adhering to recommended business practi...

  4. Risk and Equity in Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Parliament, Claudia; Lerman, Zvi

    1993-01-01

    This research examines the effect of risk on the proportion of equity held by agricultural cooperatives. The measured components of risk are business risk and the financial risk that is dependent on the proportion of debt in the cooperative's capital structure. The empirical results indicate the proportion of equity is inversely related to financial risk and positively related to business risk. These risk effects are estimated to differ based on the commodity handled by the cooperative. No Si...

  5. Boards in Agricultural Cooperatives: Competence, Authority, and Incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrikse, George

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis article addresses three observations regarding the board of directors in agricultural cooperatives. First, many scholars and practitioners worry about the competency of the member dominated board of directors in agricultural cooperatives. Second, it is sometimes stated that cooperatives seem to behave like ordinary enterprises. Finally, it is argued that cooperatives may have advantages compared to firms with publicly exchanged shares. These observations are analyzed from var...

  6. Agricultural Cooperation and Horticultural Produce Marketing in Southwest Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Trupo, Paul

    1997-01-01

    AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION AND HORTICULTURAL PRODUCE MARKETING IN SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA by Paul S. Trupo George W. Norton and Dixie Watts-Reaves, Co-chair Agricultural and Applied Economics (ABSTRACT) Agricultural production in Southwest Virginia is characterized by numerous small, geographically disperse farms dedicated to traditional practices of producing tobacco and cattle. Community leaders have expressed the desire to diversify the region's agricultural production ba...

  7. Expulsion of Members by Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, John D.

    1986-01-01

    The relationship between farmer members and their cooperatives is unique, a combination of contract, business, and membership interests. Cooperatives may have occasion to terminate the relationship by expelling a member. This article explore legal authority of cooperatives to expel members, conditions under which expulsion is an acceptable action by cooperatives, and legal consequences of improper expulsion are described, and procedures are suggested to protect member and cooperative interest...

  8. PECULIARITIES OF AGRICULTURAL SERVICE COOPERATIVES DEVELOPMENT IN LVIV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Tsymbalista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to study the recent trends and identify the main problems of the agricultural service cooperatives development. The processes of establishing and functioning of cooperatives in Lviv region are investigated. The dynamics of number of established cooperatives shows a gradual growth in recent year, while the share of operating units is rather low. The size structure of the agricultural service cooperatives in Lviv region proves that the rural population is insufficiently active in participating in cooperatives. The most popular sphere of activity of the cooperatives in the region is dairy production, while the most wide spread type of cooperative is a marketing cooperative. The analysis of the sales of agricultural products by the cooperatives of the region by distribution channels shows that on the present stage of their development service cooperatives can hardly cope with their main objective which is to overcome the monopoly power of commercial intermediaries. This is evidenced by the fact that the share of agricultural production sold by cooperatives to the intermediaries is still significant.

  9. What Determines Productivity Growth of Agricultural Cooperatives?

    OpenAIRE

    Ariyaratne, Chatura B.; Featherstone, Allen M; Langemeier, Michael R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines productivity of a sample of grain marketing and farm supply cooperatives from 1990 to 1998. The cooperative industry’s productivity or growth was mainly due to improvement in technology rather than improvement in pure efficiency or scale. The cooperative industry’s productivity was primarily associated with the grain, fertilizer, and agrochemical product lines. Policies that raise fertilizer prices would encourage a cooperative to be technically more productive. In gen...

  10. AGRICULTURE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Seniwati

    2015-01-01

    This research focuses on the agriculture sustainable development for poverty reduction and raising productivity in agriculture. Agriculture is one of way the vast majority of Bone District, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia that makes their living with its high multiplier affect across the wider economy. This sector also is most capable of growing the continent???s economy in the medium term. KKN PPM Dikti gives fund to manage research in all areas including agriculture and re...

  11. RISK MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES: AN EMPIRICAL EVALUATION

    OpenAIRE

    Manfredo, Mark R.; Richards, Timothy J.; McDermott, Scott

    2003-01-01

    While not ignoring risk, agricultural cooperatives tend to accommodate risk through the holding of internal capital reserves rather than engage in active risk management. A lack of information regarding the risk, returns, and the effect on cooperative financial performance of both traditional and innovative risk management strategies is likely a constraint to the adoption of active risk management by cooperatives. In this research, we examine the influence of alternative risk management strat...

  12. Organisational models for agricultural co-operatives

    OpenAIRE

    Gunnarsson Myrelid, Patrik

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to study the effects that different financial solutions may have on the organisational mode of Irish dairy co-operatives. Membership, marketing and management are examined in four different enterprises. These areas are examined using the agency theory and property rights theory. Glanbia Group PLC, Golden Vale PLC and Kerry Group PLC were all former traditional co-operatives transformed into Public Limited Companies (PLCs) in the 1980s. Dairygold remained a traditional...

  13. Virginia Cooperative Extension to host Women in Agriculture Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2006-01-01

    The "Virginia Women in Agriculture" conference, designed to provide educational opportunities for women involved in agriculture and agri-business, will be offered by Virginia Cooperative Extension on Tuesday, March 21, at the Stonewall Jackson Hotel and Conference Center in Staunton, Va., starting at 9 a.m.

  14. Women’s participation in agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia:

    OpenAIRE

    Woldu, Thomas; Tadesse, Fanaye; Waller, Marie-Katherine

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a rich dataset from a survey undertaken by the Ethiopian Economic Association (EEA) and the Interna-tional Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) in 2009 in eight woredas in seven regions of Ethiopia with a sample of 1,117 households and 73 agricultural cooperatives. Using descriptive statistics and econometric analysis under a critical gender lens, the paper identifies which cooperative, household, and individual level characteristics influence women’s participation in agricu...

  15. Identifying the Factors Affecting the Participation of Agricultural Cooperatives' Members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Arayesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: 40-year history of agricultural production cooperatives in the country shows that this type of exploitation system has faced many ups and downs during this period. First, despite the help and support by the government, the cooperative sector has not been able to play a major role in the development of the country and its share has not exceeded 3% of development program. The main aim of this study is identifying the factors affecting the participation of Shirvan-Chardavol township’s agricultural cooperatives’ members. Approach: This casual comparative applied research which uses survey method for data accumulation, is of Quasi-experimental research type because of impossibility of controlling the research variables. A researcher-made questionnair was used as the main tool for gathering data. The face and content validity of the questionnaire were confirmed by a group of university professors and cooperative experts; also the reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed through calculating the Kronbach alfa coefficient (a = 0.80. Results: The statistical society of the research included 751 active members of Shirvan-Chardavol township’s agricultural cooperatives, among which 260 people were selected for the study using classified proportional random sampling method and with the aid of Morgan sample-volume table. Data processing was performed using SPSS estatistial software, as well as descriptive estatistics (central and inferential indexes and analytical estatistics (correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Conclusion: The correlation coefficient results show that there is significant relationship between the variables like age, background history of membership in cooperatives, the members’ agricultural land areas, annual income of the members, socio-cultural features, economical features, educational-extensional features, managerial factors, psychological features, political factors and

  16. The update of the accounting procedures in Agricultural Cooperatives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Enrique Viña Echevarría

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As part of the implementation of Internal Control in Agricultural Cooperatives from the standards established by the General Controller of the Republic, and the harmonization of accounting procedures Cuban Accounting Standards, It is need to update the accounting procedure manuals to guide and regulate the flows, times and registration basis, considering the current legislation, being these the purpose of the discussion in this investigation. The results focused on organizational dynamics of cooperatives, serving the agricultural cooperative sector and its relation to internal control and accounting management guidelines based on economic and social policy of the Party and the Revolution, as well as updating the procedure manuals. It even showed limitations in the application of internal control procedures and accounting according to the current regulations in Cuba, expressing the need to continue its development.

  17. Recovery Act:Rural Cooperative Geothermal development Electric & Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Elzie Lynn [Surprise Valley Electrification Corp., Alturas, CA (United States)

    2016-01-12

    Surprise Valley Electric, a small rural electric cooperative serving northeast California and southern Oregon, developed a 3mw binary geothermal electric generating plant on a cooperative member's ranch. The geothermal resource had been discovered in 1980 when the ranch was developing supplemental irrigation water wells. The 240°F resource was used for irrigation until developed through this project for generation of electricity. A portion of the spent geothermal fluid is now used for irrigation in season and is available for other purposes, such as greenhouse agriculture, aquaculture and direct heating of community buildings. Surprise Valley Electric describes many of the challenges a small rural electric cooperative encountered and managed to develop a geothermal generating plant.

  18. AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION AS A FACTOR OF COMPETITIVENESS IN AGRARIAN SECTOR UNDER GLOBALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural cooperation as a factor of providing of competitiveness in agrarian sector of Ukraine under globalization is studied. Experience of developed countries of development agricultural serve cooperation is analyzed. An importance of development of agricultural cooperatives in Ukraine is confirmed.

  19. Internationalization and Diversification Strategies of Agricultural Cooperatives: a Quantitative Study of the Agricultural Cooperatives in the State of Parana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Monica Ritossa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of internationalization on the results achieved by agricultural cooperatives in the State of Parana, at the same time examining strategies for diversification of markets as well as diversification of products aimed exclusively at international markets. Of the 28 cooperatives to be included in the study, 67.9% returned valid structured questionnaires. The collected data was submitted to non-parametric statistical analysis. Key findings suggest the following: external markets are served by indirect and direct exports; product diversification strategies are motivated by the creation of revenue alternatives to members and by the reduction of risks associated to agricultural business; diversification strategies are conceived to develop new business in accordance with market demand and to expand customized products from the existing portfolio; the formation of strategic alliances prioritizes access to distribution channels abroad; internationalization and diversification strategies produce positive results both from an economic and a social perspective.

  20. Differential Marketing of Agricultural Products Dominated by Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guang-Ming

    2009-01-01

    Differential marketing is a strategy opposed to competitive convergence mainly characterized by seeking development in differences. Therefore, marketing of agricultural products dominated by rural cooperative economic organizations has an important practical role. Taking Manas County in Xinjiang Province as an example, agricultural marketing system dominated by rural cooperative economic organizations develops rapidly, mainly reflected in â‘ constructing agriculture industry association based...

  1. Stress Levels of Agricultural Science Cooperating Teachers and Student Teachers: A Repeated Measures Comparative Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKim, Billy R.; Rayfield, John; Harlin, Julie; Adams, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This study compared job stress levels of Texas agricultural science cooperating teachers and Texas agricultural science student teachers across a semester. The research objectives included describing secondary agricultural science cooperating teachers and student teachers perceptions of stressors, by time of semester (beginning, middle, and end),…

  2. Benchmarking the Fertilizer and Crop Protectant Application Activities of Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Ouedraogo, Frederic; Phillip, Kenkel

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to benchmark agricultural supply cooperatives regarding their fertilizer application services. Cooperative fertilizer application departments are essentially an extension of member farm operations. Because farm supply cooperatives return profits to their user members, the efficiency of the application department directly impacts farm profitability. Therefore, a benchmark analysis is needed to compare performances among competitive cooperatives, identify the best practices, ...

  3. On the Cooperation of Jiangmen City with Guangzhou Experimental Station, CATAS in Agricultural Development

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Yongqing; Li, Zhiyang; Li, Qiongyan; Wei, Shouxing

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the provinces in China with the best modern agricultural industry and the highest production efficiency. While Jiangmen City, one of the agriculture-based cities in Guangdong Province, has made active exploration in building a modern agricultural system. China has established cooperation with the four largest agricultural research institutes in China to offer technical support for the development of modern agriculture. In this paper, the status quo and existing pr...

  4. PROSPECTS FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF CAP REFORM 2014-2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Magdalena TUREK RAHOVEANU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available European and global cooperative sector is a powerful economic and social actors within these societies, with significant results can be summarized as market shares both in their work and contribution to GDP and the number of members and the welfare of citizens offered through job creation. Global cooperative activity operates on cooperative principles cooperative companies regularly reviewed by members of the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA. This cooperative movement worldwide organization founded in 1889, is composed of 226 active cooperatives in all sectors of the economy that brings together more than 800 million members in 89 countries. This work is part of the CAP reform in Europe after 2013, by which Romania will have to undergo a series of transformations including: promoting and encouraging cooperation and association in agriculture; stimulate the development of alternative economic activities such as organic farming, ecotourism, development and promotion of local products labeled specialized human capital development and collaboration and sharing of best practices with experts from other EU Member States. Macroeconomic paper wants to answer a series of questions: Is a viable alternative for Agricultural Cooperative Farm? What is the economic and social impact of cooperatives in the next stage? Through agricultural cooperatives can better penetrate markets closer to the consumer? What is the specific model of cooperation forward Romanian society?

  5. Cause Analysis of "Non-agricultural Trend" of Credit Cooperatives and Reversion Approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingwu; CUI

    2013-01-01

    "Non-agricultural trend" of credit cooperatives is demonstrated as outflow of substantial contribution, application of credit fund in "non-agricultural sectors" and downsizing outlets. As a result, rural financial exclusion and insufficient effective supply of rural finance have been aggravated, and most rural households have been excluded from the service range of credit cooperatives. Major causes for such a trend were summarized as: (a) profit-driven nature of credit cooperatives; (b) conditionality of "agriculture, rural area and peasant" economy; (c) influence of macro-environment. It is proposed that credit cooperatives would only revert their focus to "agriculture, rural area and peasant" economy only if rural financial exclusion and economic restrictions on the development of credit cooperatives were removed, and the macro-environment was optimized.

  6. PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS AND AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES FROM ROMANIA AND U.E. – KEY FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remus Gherman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of producers in associative forms open more opportunities for economic development by attracting local, regional advantages, using collective power in order to increase the prosperity of members and communities from which they belong. Worldwide, in last years, farmers are forced to adopt fundamental decisions, namely: activation in unsafe conditions in order to achieve viable agricultural holdings, resistant to competition. The association, with the purpose of a better representation in front of the authorities, is practiced also in Romanian agriculture starting from the 1990. There are in Romania numerous forms of association, both by activities and by specific branches, at county, regional and national level. Associations and national federations have a relevant representation in the territory, these becoming the dialogue partners of the authorities. Organization in professional associations and cooperatives led to improvement of the incomes of its members, strengthening the economic position and providing a service that is needed leading, ultimately, to the progress of agriculture in general. In U.E. countries, agricultural cooperatives are founded in shapes and types that vary by countries, but witch in essence have the same principles of organization and functioning. Agriculture of U.E. associates in cooperatives, called of first degree, which have as purpose realizing of the investments in upstream and downstream of agriculture for collection or processing of agricultural products. Third degree cooperatives are organized by participating of cooperatives of second degree, forming powerful financial, commercial and industrial groups. Professional associations and agricultural cooperatives from European Union, formed and consolidated over decades, plays a key role in obtaining performant products and high profits for farmers from those countries.

  7. 26 CFR 1.199-6 - Agricultural and horticultural cooperatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... application of this section: Example 1. (i) Cooperative X markets corn grown by its members within the United... receipts of $1,500,000, all derived from the sale of corn grown by its members within the United States. Cooperative X pays $370,000 for its members' corn and its W-2 wages (as defined in § 1.199-2(e)) for...

  8. On the Cooperation of Jiangmen City with Guangzhou Experimental Station,CATAS in Agricultural Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongqing; ZHENG; Zhiyang; LI; Qiongyan; LI; Shouxing; WEI

    2013-01-01

    Guangdong Province is one of the provinces in China with the best modern agricultural industry and the highest production efficiency.While Jiangmen City,one of the agriculture-based cities in Guangdong Province,has made active exploration in building a modern agricultural system.China has established cooperation with the four largest agricultural research institutes in China to offer technical support for the development of modern agriculture.In this paper,the status quo and existing problems of agricultural development in Jiangmen,Guangdong are briefly introduced.Then,the cooperation status and prospect of local government with the research institutes are discussed.Finally some suggestions are given on the agricultural development pattern in Jiangmen City.

  9. Non-professional Agricultural Production Villages Establishing a New Rural Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes problems in the agricultural development of non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City.Firstly,low technical and scientific content of production and low standardization level.Secondly,scattered sales and non-fixed marketing channels.Thirdly,difficulties in group cooperation of farm crops with special benefits.Fourthly,imperfect service of rural committees of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City.A new rural cooperative is to be founded to help villagers in non-professional agricultural production villages of Fenghua City to be engaged in agricultural production and management activities,and to improve their overall incomes.On the one hand,a perfect and scientific cooperative operating system is to be built specifically including three functions.Firstly,fully playing the leading and bridging role of rural primary organizations.Secondly,fully carrying out the pushing role of capable persons in the administrative village.Lastly,fully playing the role of active participation and cooperation of villagers.On the other hand,constructions of normalization,standardization and brand orientation with special emphasis should be achieved under the guidance of local governments.The key of building a cooperative of non-professional agricultural production villages in Fenghua City is discussed.One is that rural cadres should have strong awareness of serving the people.The other is that governments at all levels should energetically support the establishment and management of rural cooperatives.

  10. Library Cooperation at the NOVA University--the Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllys, Heli

    The Nordic University in Agriculture, Forestry and Veterinary Medicine--the NOVA University-was established in 1995 to increase the cooperation between the Nordic agricultural universities. The NOVA libraries of the seven institutions and facilities involved wanted to show that they are a very useful partner in launching new ideas. They have the…

  11. Financial Instruments and Conflicts of Interest: Application to French Agricultural Co-operatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Declerck

    2015-11-01

    Agricultural co-operatives' governance and economic projects are often misunderstood by external financial investors. The risk of conflicts of interest plays a role in these misunderstandings in the way retained earnings, returns to agricultural products brought by co-op member and returns to equity capital. Such risks are identified and answers are proposed.

  12. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products;we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism,bearing education and training functions,forming low-carbon value,building low-carbon identification system,as well as realizing low-carbon value.According to these situations,we systematically analyze operation mechanism of farmers’ professional cooperatives suitable for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.To promote cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products,we put forward following suggestions,including government guidance and encouragement,social acceptance and active cooperation,and integration into global low-carbon development system to share benefit of low-carbon development.

  13. Emergence of cooperation in a model agricultural production

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Gil; Aleix Serrat-Capdevila

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation in a model for an artificial farming society is studied here by the use of an agent-based model. The system is composed of an ensemble of N agents assumed to have equal access to water, whose availability fluctuates randomly in time. Each agent makes two decisions every sowing season regarding: (1) the type of crop mix to plant and (2) whether s/he joins, or not, a cooperative group that allocates water amongst farmers to maximize the production and share revenues...

  14. Emergence of Cooperation in a Model for Agricultural Production

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Gil; Aleix Serrat-Capdevila

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of cooperation in a model for an artificial farming society is studied here by the use of an agent-based model. The system is composed of an ensemble of N agents assumed to have equal access to water, whose availability fluctuates randomly in time. Each agent makes two decisions every sowing season regarding: (1) the type of crop mix to plant and (2) whether s/he joins, or not, a cooperative group that allocates water amongst farmers to maximize the production and share revenues...

  15. Impact of the relationship between managers and the board of directors on economic performance of agricultural cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Zivkovic, Sanja; Hudson, Darren

    2015-01-01

    Cooperatives operate under a business model that creates unique challenges in financial management, governance, strategy, and communication. There have been a number of efforts to identify challenges, critical issues and success factors for agricultural cooperatives. One of the issues agricultural cooperatives are facing is the relationship between managers and the board of directors. Directors in a cooperative occupy a crucial position between members and hired management. Acting as a group,...

  16. Evolution of an agricultural cooperative in land reform settlement in the State of Roraima

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes, Emerson Clayton; Silva, Euripedes Rosa

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the survival of a cooperative in a land reform settlement in Boa Vista, Roraima. And also seeks report the statements of some members, checking the needs of an agricultural cooperative for small farmers of this land reform settlement. The methodology used was the case study, with qualitative and quantitative. As to the objectives was exploratory and descriptive, and procedures was bibliographical, documentary and field. Results revealed that people concerned with t...

  17. Accounting reform of agricultural cooperatives: A boost to improve efficiency of accounting system of financial information

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez López, Ángel; Monroy Antón, Antonio; Sáez Rodríguez, Gema

    2011-01-01

    This paper is based on the fact that the adoption of the current general accounting plan (PGC) 2007 and its entry into force in 2008 has changed the framework for the standardized presentation of accounting information of Spanish agricultural cooperatives. So, the sector accounting adjustment for the cooperative entities contained in the Order of December 16, 2003 has required a deep review under the amendments made by the PGC 2007, since a large part of its content was obsolete or was contra...

  18. ON THE HISTORY OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN POLAND: TRENDS 1990-2000-ies

    OpenAIRE

    Селіванова-Зеркаль, І. О.

    2016-01-01

    Path independence and the establishment of effective forms of agricultural cooperative education Poland demonstrated quick and competitive transformation of the socialist economic system, the political transformation of society and integration into the European economy market. In terms of scientific and theoretical study of foreign cooperative experience will enable the objective to detect patterns and certain features of its development, it is important to understand the historical process a...

  19. Security Guarantee of Agriculture Industry Based on the Improvement of Legal System of Peasant Specialized Cooperative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Current status of several management models of the agriculture industry is introduced,as well as its impacts on industrial security.The management models are mainly the enterprise-like operation model,"enterprise + peasant household" model,small-scale peasants’ operation model,and peasant specialized cooperative model.Functions of peasant specialized cooperative in ensuring the security of agricultural industry are introduced,which are enhancing the industrial security by organization degree,promoting the industrial security by scale economy formed by cooperative organizations,fully utilizing the resources by the factor allocation capability,and ensuring the industrial security by industrial chain improvement.Development predicaments of the peasant specialized cooperative at present are analyzed,such as small scale,poor economic benefits,and non-standard operation.Analysis shows that institutional absence is the main reason causing these predicaments.And suggestions on improving the cooperatives system in the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Peasants Specialized Cooperatives are put forward,in order to better ensure the security of agriculture industry

  20. The Governance Structure and Performance of Agricultural Cooperative Economic Organizations in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey results of 100 agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,this article uses the structural equation modeling as analysis tool to conduct empirical analysis of the governance structure and performance of agricultural cooperative economic organizations. The results show that the ownership structure has the most critical impact on the performance of cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is as high as 0.92; the importance of oversight mechanism is basically equivalent to that of the council structure for cooperative organizations,and the impact coefficient is 0.87 and 0.86,respectively,second only to the ownership structure; the size of members’ quit capacity also has a very important impact on the performance of organizations,with impact coefficient of 0.74. Thus,the problems influencing the performance of organizations,in the current governance structure of agricultural cooperative economic organizations in Three Gorges Reservoir Area,are pointed out. Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  1. Agricultural and Farmer Cooperatives January 1979-March 1989. Quick Bibliography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Patricia La Caille

    This English-language-only bibliography cites 346 items concerning agricultural and farmer cooperatives. Some citations are annotated, and all contain full title, author, publisher, and reference numbers to the AGRICOLA database. Works were entered in the AGRICOLA database between January 1979 and March 1989. Materials are available through…

  2. Low carbo development and poverty alleviation: Options for development cooperation in energy, agriculture and forestry

    OpenAIRE

    Flunder, Mikkel; Fjalland, Jacob; Munk Ravnborg, Helle; Egelyng, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    This report presents the main findings from a desk study on “Climate change mitigation and poverty reduction in developing countries: opportunities for development cooperation.” The study identifies practical options for combining low carbon development with poverty reduction and economic growth in least developed countries, with a focus on energy, agriculture and forestry. The report also focuses on practical recommendations.

  3. Sustainable Agriculture for Environment Protection: Results of Six Years of Cooperation between China and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrado Clini

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The importance of a shift toward agricultural systems, which are more complex in terms of biodiversity in emerging countries such as China, where most of the population (about 60% lives in rural areas, in poor conditions and still relies on agriculture as the main source of income, is discussed. In China the problems caused by shifting to more intensive and polluting agricultural production patterns to address the demand for food of the growing population and by the need of higher incomes of rural communities are serious. The experience gained in the framework of the Sino-Italian Cooperation Program for Environment Protection jointly launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory (IMET and the State Environment Protection Administration of China (SEPA in the year 2000, through the implementation of several cooperation projects in different rural areas of China is critically discussed.

  4. Sustainable Agriculture for Environment Protection: Results of Six Years of Cooperation between China and Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lodovica Gullino

    Full Text Available The importance of a shift toward agricultural systems, which are more complex in terms of biodiversity in emerging countries such as China, where most of the population (about 60% lives in rural areas, in poor conditions and still relies on agriculture as the main source of income, is discussed. In China the problems caused by shifting to more intensive and polluting agricultural production patterns to address the demand for food of the growing population and by the need of higher incomes of rural communities are serious. The experience gained in the framework of the Sino-Italian Cooperation Program for Environment Protection jointly launched by the Italian Ministry for the Environment and Territory (IMET and the State Environment Protection Administration of China (SEPA in the year 2000, through the implementation of several cooperation projects in different rural areas of China is critically discussed.

  5. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy. PMID:27074925

  6. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a particular practice involves decisions about innovation or cooperation. Decision making is also affected by the overall level of knowledge regarding different practices, and we show that knowledge gaps are an increasing function of cost and a decreasing function of benefits. How different practices are related to innovation and cooperation has important implications for the design of sustainability outreach programs. Cooperation, innovation, and knowledge gaps are issues that are likely to be relevant for the resilience and sustainability of many different types of social-ecological systems.

  7. The role of the agricultural credit cooperatives in the fertilizer market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture has a certain degree of importance in the development and developing countries in the world. It is necessary to increase agricultural production and productivity to counter balance increasing food demand. To be able to reach to the goal, inputs one of which is fertilizer used in the agricultural production should be used in the optimum amount in the modern agriculture. Increasing the productivity in the agricultural production depends on the transformation of economic unity of the farms (Karacan, 1991). However, approximately 85 percentage of the farmers in Turkey has made agricultural activity on the farm land which is smaller than that of 100 decar (1 decar = 1000 m2). This case has shown that there is a domination of the type of small family farms in Turkish agriculture. These farms generally have insufficient capital, saving, modern equipment, input usage and credit. This farm structure has increased the importance of the agricultural credit cooperatives (ACC) providing credit either inputs or cash. And also ACC have played an important role to transfer finance from government to farmers (Muelayim, 1995). The first main goal of the study is to determine the role of the ACC having a great importance in the fertilizer market in Turkey. The second goal is to evaluate the relationship between farmers-ACC and farmers-private fertilizer agent in the selected region, central district of Tokat province. Also the problems that the farmers faced and the preference of buying fertilizer from either ACC or private fertilizer agent of the farmers and some suggestions related to the subjects were investigated. Refs. 12 (author)

  8. The Effects of the Student Teaching Experience on Cooperating Teachers in Secondary Agricultural Education Programs: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Stephen Wyatt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the effects of the student teaching experience on secondary agricultural education teachers. Eight of the thirteen participants in this study served as a cooperating teacher during the 2012 spring semester for pre-service teachers in agricultural education from a land-grant institution. Three of the participants had served as a cooperating teacher during either the 2010 or 2011 spring semester but had reported a negative student teachi...

  9. Factors Affecting Farmers’ Decision to Enter Agricultural Cooperatives Using Random Utility Model in the South Eastern Anatolian Region of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Karlı

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Farmers’ decision and perceptions to be a member of agricultural cooperatives in the South Eastern Anatolian Region were investigated. Factors affecting the probability of joining the agricultural cooperatives were determined using binary logit model. The model released that most of variables such as education, high communication, log of gross income, farm size, medium and high technology variables play important roles in determining the probability of entrance. Small farmers are likely expected to join the agricultural cooperatives than the wealthier farmers are. Small farmers may wish to benefit cash at hand, input subsidies, and services provided by the agricultural cooperatives since the risks associated with intensive high-returning crops are high. Some important factors playing pole role in abstention of farmers towards agricultural cooperatives are gross income and some social status variables. In addition, conservative or orthodox farmers are less likely to join agricultural cooperatives than moderate farmers are. We also found that the direct government farm credit programs mainly should be objected to providing farmers to better access to capital markets and creating the opportunity to use with allocation of capital inputs via using modern technology.

  10. Long-term Financing in US and European Agricultural Co-operatives: Emerging Methods for Ameliorating Investment Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Iliopoulos, Constantine

    2003-01-01

    During recent years, dramatic changes in the world food system have led to unprecedented competition between agribusiness firms. To compete in this environment, agricultural cooperatives should invest substantially in long-term activities such as R&D and advertisement. Co-operatives have a difficult problem in acquiring equity capital because the residual claimant (benefactor) is the patron of the firm, not the investor. This organizational design poses to cooperatives three investment constr...

  11. ROLE OF PRIMARYAGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE CREDIT SOCIETIES IN FINANCIAL INCLUSION AND AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joshva Vijayakumar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Financial Inclusion is critical for achieving inclusive growth in the country. The Financial Inclusion initiatives will go a long way in not only financially empowering the rural farmers but also as an avenue of providing excellent business opportunities for the financial market participants. The promotion of an inclusive financial system is considered a policy priority in many countries. Financial inclusion is important for improving the living conditions of poor farmers, rural non- farm enterprises and other vulnerable groups. While the importance of financial inclusion is widely recognized, there is lack of assessment of the extent of financial inclusion based on credit flow to small borrowers in Indian economy. The liberalized, increasingly global, market driven economy of India today, has failed to facilitate inclusive growth. This paper attempts to analyze the role primary agriculture cooperative societies in financial inclusion and agricultural development in India.

  12. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Lei; Cheng, Yu-gui

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products. In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products; we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism, bearing education and training functions, forming low-carbon value, building low-carbon identification system, as well as realizing low-carbon value. According to these situati...

  13. PROSPECTS FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN ROMANIA IN THE CONTEXT OF CAP REFORM 2014-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Turek Rahoveanu, Maria Magdalena; Adrian TUREK RAHOVEANU; Luiza CRISTEA

    2012-01-01

    European and global cooperative sector is a powerful economic and social actors within these societies, with significant results can be summarized as market shares both in their work and contribution to GDP and the number of members and the welfare of citizens offered through job creation. Global cooperative activity operates on cooperative principles cooperative companies regularly reviewed by members of the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA). This cooperative movement worldwide organi...

  14. Satisfaction of the cooperative in relation to the services provided by the Agricultural Cooperative of Fives Polos - Coopercinco

    OpenAIRE

    Arantes, Emerson Clayton; Silva, David Veras

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the satisfaction of cooperative action against the cooperative. Focused on the case of the Cooperativa Agropecuária dos Cincos Polos - COOPERCINCO, which has its headquarters in Agrarian Reform Settlement Project New Amazon city of Boa Vista-RR. It was used during the research case study, qualitative method where the instruments of data collection varied, such as bibliographic and documentary, semi structured questionnaire, ethnographic observation and others. The ...

  15. Farmer cooperatives as intermediaries for agricultural and rural development in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.

    2013-01-01

    The farmer cooperative sector in China has experienced rapid development in the past two decades, in particular after the implementation of the Famer Cooperative Law in 2007. Farmer cooperatives are considered important to mediate between farmers and other actors in the wider social, economic and po

  16. Comparative Analysis and Cultivation of New Agricultural Business Entities Based on Comparison of Family Farms and Professional Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang; YANG; Xingxi; LIU; Yingliang; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Cultivating new bussiness entities is the key to speeding up improving new agricultural production and operating system.This study discussed two representative entities under the agricultural production and operating system based on household contract management,namely,family farms and cooperatives.It introduced current development status of these two entities in Chongqing region,and discussed prominent problems of understanding,management,fund,personnel,technology,information,and system in the development process.In line with common problems such as single production structure and short supply of agricultural insurance,and different problems like organizational degree,it made comparative analysis.Finally,it is concluded that different institutional arrangement and pertinent support policy according to different development characteristics.

  17. Some like to join, others to deliver: an econometric analysis of farmers' relationships with agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pascucci, S.; Gardebroek, C.; Dries, L.K.E.

    2012-01-01

    In many European countries, farmers are a member of a processing or marketing co-operative, and most of these farmers deliver their products to that co-operative. However, an extensive data set of Italian farmers shows that not all members deliver to their co-op, and that there are also non-members

  18. Comparative study on membership legislation in Canadian and Chinese agricultural co-operative laws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Zhihong; GUO Xiangyu

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, groups of people desiring to supply themselves with goods, to market their products, or to obtain services of various kinds on a co-operative basis, have made increasing use of co-operative associations to achieve these purposes. During the period, legislation designed especially for the incorporation and conduct of such associations has been enacted by different counties.Since a co-operative is established and carried on by and for the use of its members, this essay makes a comparison between Canadian and Chinese co-operative laws in terms of membership in the aspects of qualifications, rights and obligations and withdrawal of membership, so as to probe the function of co-operative legislation and find some enlightment from it.

  19. Determinants of Commitment to Agricultural Cooperatives: Cashew Nuts Farmers in Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Edouard R.; Karantininis, Kostas; Adegbidi, Anselme; Okello, Julius Juma

    2012-01-01

    Forming and using cooperatives as marketing channel is usually advised to African smallholder farmers for overcoming the constraint of market access. However, limited evidence of cooperative behavior in marketing has been observed. In this paper, we estimate a two-stage model of commitment to cooperatives by cashew nut farmers in Benin, West Africa. In the first stage, we use data on 109 non-members and 168 members and estimate a binary Logit model of farmer’s discrete choice with respect to ...

  20. Cooperativa-escola nas Escolas Técnicas Agrícolas Cooperative-school at the Agricultural Technical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V. Marques

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A dificuldade de gerenciar recursos e proporcionar melhores condições de ensino para os estudantes são algumas das deficiência das Escolas Técnicas Agrícolas (ETAs brasileiras, problemas parcialmente superados por algumas escolas que adotaram a chamada Cooperativa-Escola. Neste trabalho, procura-se discutir alguns aspectos filosóficos referentes às ETAs e como a Cooperativa-Escola pode ajudar a solucionar seus principais problemas educativos e administrativos; um estudo de caso utilizando-se a técnica de auditoria administrativa foi desenvolvido numa ETA cuja Cooperativa-Escola é considerada um modelo de bom funcionamento e alguns procedimentos foram descritos, objetivando-se estender a prática de Cooperativa-Escola para outras escolas técnicas agrícolas brasileiras.Some of the problems with the Brazilian public Agricultural Technical School systems (ETAs are related to resource management and the need to improve teaching and learning conditions. Those deficiencies were partially corrected after setting up Cooperative-Schools that allow the ETAs to raise and to administrate funds. Administrative procedures of the ETAs and how the Cooperative-School could help solving their main educational and adminsitrative problems are discussed in this research. A case study using the management audit technique was developed in one ETA with a well known Cooperative-School. Some observed procedures are described with the intention of extending the practice of Cooperative-Schools to other Brazilian Agricultural Technical Schools.

  1. Organic, fair and social: Cooperation between ethical standards systems in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Spoor, BSc Gijs

    2002-01-01

    In this report a comparison is made between three voluntary standardisation systems in agriculture. The organic agriculture system, the fair trade system and the social accountability system have all been developed by non-governmental organisations to promote production, trade and consumption based on ecological and social principles, and all involve monitoring, certification, labelling and codes of conduct. Context of this research is a two-year collaboration project, started in May 2001, be...

  2. ALTERNATIVE ITALIAN AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVE SYSTEMS IN THE CHANGING EU FOOD SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Carlo; Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Peterson, H. Christopher

    2000-01-01

    The European food system is undergoing significant change driven both by global competitive forces and local conditions. Market globalization and technological innovation are interacting with the reform of EU's agricultural policies (CAP) and a renewed interest by the European society in the social and environmental functions of agriculture. These factors have created a new and challenging economic environment both for farmers and the food industry across Europe (Tarditi, 1997).

  3. New Forms of Economic Cooperation in Family Agriculture: The Case of Condominios in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Moyano-Estrada, Eduardo; Sacco dos Anjos, Flavio

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyze the Condominios as economic associations adapted to the characteristics of family agriculture in the Brazilian state of Santa Catarina. Firstly, they analyze the process of modernization of Brazilian agriculture that took place in the 1960s and 1970s under the military governments, giving special attention to the selective and exclusive effects this process had on small farmers. Within the framework of this process, they then go on to study the development o...

  4. Accommodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.J. Bijman (Jos); G.W.J. Hendrikse (George); A.A.C.J. van Oijen

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the

  5. Management Practices and Financial Performance of Agricultural Cooperatives: A Partial Adjustment Model

    OpenAIRE

    Azzam, Azzeddine M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper uses the Nerlovian partial adjustment model to test the hypothesis that the rate of a cooperative's adjustment to a desired financial position is partially determined by its management practices. The results indicate that management practices that are board responsibilities are not contributing to the speed of adjustment in reaching the desired financial performance, which is the responsibility of the board of directors. But management, when independently pursuing management's resp...

  6. Accommodating Two Worlds in One Organization: Changing Board Models in Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Bijman, Jos; Hendrikse, George; van Oijen, A.A.C.J.

    2012-01-01

    textabstractWhile most economic organisation literature on cooperatives has focused on changes in income rights, we study changes in the allocation of decision rights between board of directors (representing members) and managers. The traditional role of the board is to direct the activities of the managers. However, professional management increasingly makes most strategic decisions, pushing the board into a supervisory role. We present two groups of findings on changing board – management r...

  7. Fertilia: a European International Cooperation (INCO EU) project for monitoring trace elements in agricultural ecosystems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marmiroli, N.; Maestri, E.; Mucchino, C.; Antonioli, G.; Marmiroli, M.; Izquierdo, C. G.; Hernandez, T.; Waclawek, W.; Mocko, A.; Bozym, M.; Nowak, A.; Nowak, J.; Večeřa, Zbyněk; Dočekal, Bohumil

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2001), s. 41-54. ISSN 1120-4826 Grant ostatní: Copernicus(BE) ERB IC-15-CT98-0124 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : monitoring * trace elements * agricultural ecosystems Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2001

  8. Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on agriculture describes how climate change will affect primary agriculture production in Canada with particular focus on potential adaptation options, and vulnerability of agriculture at the farm level. Agriculture is a vital part of the Canadian economy, although only 7 per cent of Canada's land mass is used for agricultural purposes due to the limitations of climate and soils. Most parts of Canada are expected to experience warmer conditions, longer frost-free seasons and increased evapotranspiration. The impacts of these changes on agriculture will vary depending on precipitation changes, soil conditions, and land use. Northern regions may benefit from longer farming seasons, but poor soil conditions will limit the northward expansion of agricultural crops. Some of the negative impacts associated with climate change on agriculture include increased droughts, changes in pest and pathogen outbreaks, and moisture stress. In general, it is expected that the positive and negative impacts of climate change would offset each other. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Thought on the Development of Agricultural Machinery Professional Cooperatives in Liaoning%辽宁省农机专业合作社发展思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓霞

    2011-01-01

    作为农民专业合作社的重要组成部分,农机专业合作社是农业现代化的内在需要和必然选择。简单介绍辽宁省农机专业合作组织的发展现状、特点及制约其发展的主要问题,并提出切实可行的解决策略。%As a major part of professional cooperatives for farmers, the growth of agricultural machinery cooperatives is a necessity for agricultural modernization. This article examines the development professional agricultural machinery cooperatives, its features, as well as the bottlenecks to its growth. Accordingly, the author puts forward measures to deal with these problems.

  10. Essays on Agricultural Co-operatives; Governance Structure in Fruit and Vegetable Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Bijman, Jos

    2002-01-01

    textabstractJos Bijman (1959) is senior researcher at the Agricultural Economics Research Institute (LEI), The Hague, The Netherlands. He studied political science at the University of Amsterdam. After his graduation in 1988 he worked two years as a researcher at the Department of International Relations and International Public Law, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of Amsterdam. Next, he worked for one year as a teacher at the Faculty of Philosophy and Technical Social Sciences, Delft ...

  11. Innovation, Cooperation, and the Perceived Benefits and Costs of Sustainable Agriculture Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Hoffman; Vicken Hillis; Mark Lubell

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of most sustainable agriculture programs is to encourage growers to adopt practices that jointly provide economic, environmental, and social benefits. Using surveys of outreach professionals and wine grape growers, we quantify the perceived costs and benefits of sustainable viticulture practices recommended by sustainability outreach and certification programs. We argue that the mix of environmental benefits, economic benefits, and economic costs determine whether or not a part...

  12. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Heinz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it

  13. China-Africa Agricultural Cooperation:Plight,Status and Solutions%中非农业合作的困境、地位和出路

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高贵现; 朱月季; 周德翼

    2014-01-01

    本文深入分析了中非农业合作的困境的原因并提出了相应的对策。中非农业技术合作成效不佳的根源在于非洲国家的政治和实施的农业政策。非洲国家农民的技术接受能力低,中国对非洲的农业技术合作项目的长期性需要引起足够重视。实现可持续性是农业技术示范中心的必要任务。农产品销售是中国在非洲农业投资企业发展的瓶颈。受制于中非农业技术合作的效果和中国农业投资企业的困境,中非农产品贸易在双方贸易关系中的地位并没有改变。不过中非农业合作对于加强中非传统友谊,带动农业企业和其他领域的企业“走出去”有着重要的作用,并且未来中非农业合作的潜力巨大,中非农业合作还需要不断进行下去。%This article analyses the causes for the plight of China-Africa agricultural cooperation in depth and puts for-ward the corresponding countermeasures.The poor performance of the China-Africa cooperation in agricultural technology roots in the African country's political and agricultural policy.The ability of technical acceptance in African countries is very low.China's African agricultural technical cooperation projects have to be run in a very long -term and this should be paid sufficient attention.To achieve sustainable development is the necessary task of agricultural technology demonstra -tion centers.Sales of agricultural products are the bottleneck in the development of China's agricultural investment enter-prises in Africa.Subject to the plight of the effect of the China-Africa cooperation in agricultural technology and agricul-tural investment enterprises , the status of China-Africa agricultural trade in the bilateral trade relations has not changed.China-Africa agricultural cooperation plays an important role in strengthening China-Africa traditional friend-ship and promoting agricultural enterprises and other enterprises “going out

  14. Nuclear techniques in food and agriculture and international cooperation in their use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    that the medfly attacking citrus, the olive fly, the codling moth attacking apples, the tsetse fly and a number of other insects can be eliminated in this way. Radiation can be used to attenuate parasitic larvae attacking animals. The parasites which have thus lost their virulence are used in the production of animal vaccines. In fact, this is still the only known method of producing such vaccines. Isotopic tracers are used to study the movement and metabolism of nutrients in animal production and are particularly useful in studies of essential micronutrients. This unique ability of isotopic tracers to enable detection of chemicals in minute quantities forms the basis for a new program on studies of harmful pesticide residues on plant and animal foods. The sterilizing and killing effect of radiation has been shown to be uniquely effective in preventing or delaying spoilage in a variety of food commodities. Radiation preservation can, for example, be applied to perishable products which do not tolerate cooking or freezing - even after the products are packed. To foster international activities in the field of nuclear science in food and agriculture, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture carries out a single joint program of work approved by the two parent organizations. To carry out work in all these fields, the Division relies heavily on the concept of coordinated research based on research contracts or research agreements. A large part of the work is carried out under various technical assistance projects including expert advice, equipment and training and through the two UNDP Special Fund Projects executed by the IAEA. The IAEA Laboratory plays an indispensable role in the Division’s programs by providing various coordinating services, research, and specialized training. (author)

  15. Funding priorities in animal reproduction at the United States Department of Agriculture's Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirando, Mark A; Hamernik, Debora L

    2006-03-01

    The National Research Initiative (NRI) Competitive Grants Program is the U.S. Department of Agriculture's major competitive grants program and is administered by the Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service (CSREES). Since its inception in 1991, the NRI has funded competitive grants in the discipline of animal reproduction. Previously, this program provided funding for a broad range of projects encompassing almost every subdiscipline in reproductive biology of farm animals, including aquatic species important to the aquaculture industry. During fiscal year 2004, the NRI Animal Reproduction Program narrowed the focus of funding priorities to the topics of infertility, basic mechanisms regulating fertility, cryopreservation of gametes, reducing the postpartum interval to conception, and sterilization methods or development of monosex populations. In response to a directive to further narrow the focus of funding priorities for fiscal year 2005 and beyond, CSREES conducted a Stakeholder Workshop on Funding Priorities in Animal Reproduction at the 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for the Study of Reproduction in Vancouver, Canada. More than 75 stakeholder scientists from a cross section of federal, public, and private institutions from across the United States participated in the workshop and provided recommendations to CSREES for future NRI-funding priorities in Animal Reproduction. The recommendations provided by stakeholders included continuing efforts to focus funding priorities into fewer high-impact areas relevant to animal agriculture and aquaculture. Recommendations also included movement back toward subdisciplines of animal reproduction that cut across all applicable species. The three funding priorities that consistently emerged as recommendations from the workshop participants were 1) gonadal function and production of gametes, 2) pituitary-hypothalamic function, and 3) embryo and conceptus development, including interaction between the

  16. The Regional Self-Organizing Potential in Sustainable Agriculture: An Analysis of Co-operative Agreements on Nitrate Pollution by means of Rough Set Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, Peter; Oltmer, Katrin

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses the achievements of cooperative agreements in sustainable agriculture policy. After an economic analysis of multi-actor choice situations, it focuses the attention on the self-organizing potential of regional market parties in order to comply with environmental policy objectives. The empirical application concerns voluntary agreements among farmers in Bavaria regarding intensified efforts to reduce nitrate pollution of drinking water. By means of new variants of artificia...

  17. The Impact of Agricultural Marketing Cooperatives on Market Performance in U.S. Food Manufacturing Industries for 1982

    OpenAIRE

    Petraglia, Lisa M.; Rogers, Richard T.

    1991-01-01

    This research examines market performance in the U.S. food manufacturing product classes for 1982 and the effect cooperatives have as market participants. It addresses the public policy concern that cooperatives may obtain market power through favorable public policy and may exercise that market power to the detriment of society through under price-enhancement. Because of this concern the partial antitrust exemption granted cooperatives under the Capper-Volstead Act of 1992 is likely to re-em...

  18. Some like to join, others to deliver. An econometric analysis of farmers’ relationships with agricultural co-operatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardebroek, C.; Pascucci, S.

    2010-01-01

    In many European countries, farmers are a member of a processing or marketing co-operative, and most of these farmers also deliver their products to that co-operative. However, an extensive dataset of Italian farmers shows that not all members deliver to their co-op, and that there are also non-memb

  19. Study on Zhang Wentian's Thoughts about Early Agricultural Cooperative Economy%张闻天早期农业合作经济思想研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张千友

    2013-01-01

      张闻天在建国以前的经济建设中提出了许多真知灼见,农业合作经济思想构成其经济思想中的重要组成部分。本文梳理张闻天建国以前有关农业合作经济问题的相关论述,主要从马克思主义合作经济理论的继承、优先发展供销合作、采取经济利益诱导小农走向合作、坚持灵活的入股方式和分红原则、合作社是一个长期发展过程等五个方面归纳和总结了张闻天早期的农业合作经济思想,最后,以史为鉴得出四点结论。本文力争通过这些研究对促进农业经营体制机制的创新有所启迪。%Before 1949,Zhang Wentian gave many good ideas about the economic development,the most important one of which is the thought of agricultural cooperative economy. By combing the related agricultural cooperative economic problems related paper of Zhang Wentian,in this paper,it studies about inheriting the marxism cooperative economic theory,giving priority to the development of the supply and marketing cooperatives,taking economic benefits to induce peasant to cooperation,adhereing to the agile investing way and sharing out bonus,and the cooperatives of long developmental process and so on. Finally,taking history as a mirror, it draws four conclusions. In this paper,it aims to,through the research,promote the agricultural management system and mechanism innovation.

  20. Metodologia de rating em cooperativas agropecuárias: um estudo de caso Rating methodology in agricultural cooperatives: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Rogério de Moura Costa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A partir do início da década de 90, ocorreram diversas mudanças no ambiente institucional do cooperativismo brasileiro, em função dos problemas macroeconômicos que elevaram a alavancagem e a necessidade de as cooperativas obterem recursos financeiros junto a terceiros. Essa situação se intensificou nos últimos anos para manter a competitividade das organizações cooperativas no mercado. Em função da importância desse novo cenário, procurou-se estudar mecanismos de sinalização, com o objetivo de reduzir a assimetria de informações entre o mercado e os gestores das cooperativas. Assim, este trabalho desenvolve uma metodologia de rating para ser aplicada em cooperativas agropecuárias de forma a reduzir os problemas de seleção adversa e risco moral (moral hazard, que geram ineficiência no relacionamento entre essas organizações e o mercado financeiro; objetiva-se, também, averiguar a sua aplicabilidade, por meio de um estudo de caso. A partir dos resultados alcançados, é possível concluir que a metodologia é aplicável e que o sinalizador gerado, bem como as avaliações e os pesos, deveriam ser discutidos em comitês de rating, a exemplo do que é feito pelas agências especializadas. Como consideração final, é sugerida uma agenda de novas aplicações da metodologia para testá-la junto a outras organizações, de forma a consolidá-la como um sinalizador a ser usado pelo mercado e pelo sistema cooperativo.Owing to macroeconomic problems in Brazil in the late nineties, some modifications occurred in the agricultural cooperatives institutional environment that had influence on debt level and compromised the cooperative enterprises leverage on financial market resources. This situation has improved, in recent years, to maintain cooperatives' organizational competition level in markets. Owing to the significant implications of this important new business environment, this paper tries to discuss the tools to reduce the

  1. 北美新一代合作社对我国农业合作社融资的启示%Inspirations from the New Generation of North American Cooperatives for the Financial Problems Facing China Agricultural Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高凌云; 姜文锋

    2012-01-01

    近年来中国农业合作社发展迅猛,但资金短缺、融资难导致其生产经营能力和抵御风险能力不强,成为制约其进一步发展和壮大的"瓶颈"问题,不仅阻碍农业产业化进程,而且削弱农民生产经营的积极性,不利于农村经济发展。北美新一代合作社高额入股、股金和交货合同可以转让、限制社员进入和退出等做法,在融资方面独具特色,再加上政府对合作社融资的帮助,有效解决了合作社融资难题。学习借鉴北美新一代合作社经验,结合中国农业合作社的融资现状,可以对初创期的农业合作社采取完善内在制度、建立健全管理制度、从合作金融机构获得贷款以及加大政府扶持力度等措施,对成熟期的农业合作社采取减少政府资金帮助、借助资本市场来改善筹资方式等措施,解决融资难问题。%Agricultural cooperatives have been growing rapidly in China in recent years. However, fund shortage and other financial difficulties are weakening their capacity to manage production and resist risks and thus restraining them from further development. The fund shortage and other financial difficulties bring about not only obstacles to our agricultural industrialization, but weaken famers" enthusiasm for production and operation, which is not conducive to rural economic development. The new generation of cooperatives in North America, which is characterized by joining the cooperatives with high share capital, allowing share money and delivery contracts to be transferred, making necessary restrictions for the members" entry and secession and trying to get govermnental financial help, have effectively solved their financial difficulties. Based on the North American experience suggestions are made: The start-up agricultural cooperatives should try to perfect their internal systems, establish and improve their management institutions, obtain loans from the cooperative financial

  2. Labour productivity of agricultural business companies and cooperatives in the Czech Republic: A micro-regional level analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ženka Jan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on empirical evidence from the Czech Republic, differences in agricultural labour productivity at the micro-regional level are examined. The role of geographical factors: natural conditions, landscape fragmentation, localisation and urbanization economies, are discussed. In addition, we also test the effects of farm size structure to capture the results of internal scale economies. The key importance of natural conditions is confirmed: they were significantly more important than farm characteristics such as size structure, ownership status and mode of production. Regional agricultural labour productivity was positively influenced by the nominal price of agricultural land and population density. Surprisingly, micro-regions dominated by large farms performed at lower productivity levels than micro-regions with fragmented farm size structure in the Czech Republic.

  3. On the Motivation Mechanism of Cooperative Agricultural Technology Extension%多元农业技术推广组织合作的动力机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高启杰; 姚云浩; 马力

    2015-01-01

    From the perspective of system dynamics , this paper analyzes the subject elements , auxiliary and environmental elements of cooperative agricultural extension , as well as their functions;we consider interests driven , technology driven , government-push and market-pull are four power sources of organiza-tional cooperation;and the attributes of agricultural extension services , transaction costs and coordinated organization operation are three power principles in the motivation mechanism .Then we use Golden Rice Seeds Co ., LTD.of Guangdong province as an example , make an empirical study on the motivation mechanism of agricultural extension , and finally some optimization measures are put forward .%从系统动力学角度,剖析了合作农业推广的主体要素、辅助要素和环境要素三大动力结构及其功能,认为利益驱动、技术带动、政府推动和市场拉动是合作农业推广的四大动力来源,提出了推广物品属性、交易成本和合作协同三大动力原理,并以广东省金稻种业的合作农业推广为例,对合作农业推广的动力机制进行了实证分析,最后提出了多元农业技术推广组织合作动力机制的优化措施。

  4. EL INCUMPLIMIENTO DE PARTICIPAR EN LA ACTIVIDAD EN COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS / THE FAILURE TO PARTICIPATE IN THE ACTIVITY OF AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS PEDRO GALLEGO SEVILLA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La voluntad de contribuir al logro de un proyecto común, la fidelidad a los objetivos colectivos y el propósito de cumplir los compromisos adquiridos deberían ser las motivaciones básicas del socio de una cooperativa. Sin embargo, en demasiadas ocasiones, algunos cooperativistas no aportan a la empresa colectiva las cuantías comprometidas, perjudicando así los intereses de la entidad y del resto de los socios. A pesar de que estos comportamientos suponen una infracción del deber básico de participar en las actividades de la cooperativa, resulta difícil sancionar a los infractores y, todavía más, reparar los perjuicios económicos que ocasionan. Por ello, planteamos aquí la exploración de una vía complementaria a la vía sancionadora prevista en nuestras leyes para combatir los incumplimientos del deber de participar en la actividad típica de la cooperativa, que se conoce como “actividad cooperativizada”. / The basic motivations of the member of a cooperative should be to contribute to the achievement of a common project, loyalty to the collective objectives and purpose of fulfilling their commitments. However, too often, some members do not contribute to the cooperative the amounts committed, harming the interests of the society and the other members. Although this behaviour is a violation of a social obligation to participate in the activities of the cooperative, it is difficult to punish offenders and, even more, to repair the economic damage they cause. This study raises the possibility of a complementary economic method, compatible with the legal system of penalties, to cope with the failure to participate in the activity of cooperative.

  5. Stakeholder roles for fostering ambidexterity in Sub-Saharan African agricultural netchains for the emergence of multi-stakeholder cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez Perdomo, S.A.; Farrow, A.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sub-Saharan African smallholder agricultural sector faces multiple and usually complex challenges, which can potentially be overcome by collective action. Smallholder farmers and other value chain stakeholders can tackle temporal, structural and contextual challenges by joining multi-level innov

  6. Stakeholder roles for fostering ambidexterity in Sub-Saharan African agricultural netchains for the emergence of multi-stakeholder cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Perdomo, S.A.; Farrow, A.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The Sub-Saharan African smallholder agricultural sector faces multiple and usually complex challenges, which can potentially be overcome by collective action. Smallholder farmers and other value chain stakeholders can tackle temporal, structural and contextual challenges by joining multi-level innovation networks to benefit collectively from shared information, knowledge, improved capacities and economies of scale in a process of innovation. Ambidexterity is a capability of innovation network...

  7. 农业产业化中的农村非正式组织与农民合作研究%Study on the Rural Informal Organizations and Peasants Cooperation in Agricultural Industrialization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄婧

    2011-01-01

    从非正式组织的产生背景出发,借助管理学对农村非正式组织的产生及其与农民合作的关系进行了分析,对如何促进农业产业化中的农民合作进行了讨论.%The formation of rural informal organizations and its relationship with peasants cooperation were analyzed by the principles of management from the formation background of informal organizations, and then the ways to promote peasants cooperation in agricultural industrialization were discussed.

  8. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Deng (Wendong)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic a

  9. 7 CFR 1.76 - Department cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Department cooperation. 1.76 Section 1.76 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture ADMINISTRATIVE REGULATIONS Cooperative Production of Television Films § 1.76 Department cooperation. When the producer agrees to meet the above stipulations to...

  10. 7 CFR 1c.114 - Cooperative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperative research. 1c.114 Section 1c.114 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS § 1c.114 Cooperative research. Cooperative research projects are those projects covered by this policy which involve more than...

  11. The Space and Prospects of China-Africa Agricultural Cooperation in the New Era%新时期中非农业合作的空间与效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈积敏

    2014-01-01

    中非农业合作是推动和提升中非新型战略伙伴关系的内在要求与应有之义。中非双方在开展农业合作方面具有共同的政治意愿并创造了良好的政治环境,中非农业资源与市场容量具有优势互补性,中非农业合作拥有稳定可靠的资金、技术及经验支持,中非农业合作的形式多样,具有互利双赢、持续性强的特点,这些要素为新时期中非农业合作提供了广阔的空间。深化农业合作不仅对于中非双方具有巨大的内在效应,同时为新时期中非新型战略伙伴关系提供了坚定而广泛的合作基础。%China-Africa agricultural cooperation is the inherent requirement and proper means to promote China-Africa strategic partnership.China and Africa have the common political will in carrying out agricultural cooperation and creating a good political environment.There are complementary advantages in the market capacity and agricultural resources between them.The agricultural cooperation has a stable and reliable capital, technology and experience and diverse forms of agricultural cooperation with the features of mutual benefit and strong sustainability.All these elements provide a huge space for China-Africa agricultural cooperation in the new era,which not only has enormous intrinsic effects for China and Africa,but also on the realization of balanced and sustainable development of the global economy.

  12. NEW GENERATION CO-OPERATIVES (NGC) AS A MODEL FOR VALUE-ADDED AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING IN ALBERTA: APPLICATIONS TO FACTORS AFFECTING CHOICE OF PRICING AND PAYMENT PRACTICES BY TRADITIONAL MARKETING AND NEW GENERATION CO-OPERATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Unterschultz, James R.; Gurung, Rajendra Kumar

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the factors affecting choice of pricing and payment practices by traditional marketing and new generation co-operatives for commodities delivered by their members. These factors include the demographic variables related to type of co-operative organization, level of competition in commodity market, and risk-return perceptions of members and co-operatives. Data for the analysis were obtained through a mail survey. Questionnaires were send to one hundred and ninety five (195...

  13. Discussions on How to Apply for More International Cooperation Projects for Agricultural Research Institutes%对农业科研单位提高国际合作项目立项率的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐弼; 游雯; 蒋昌顺; 张雪

    2014-01-01

    Based on practice of application for international cooperation projects in agricultural research institutes, several possible approaches and suggestions on how to apply for more international cooperation projects for agricultural research institutes were proposed in this paper from such aspects as application basis, management of application process and institutional guarantees, etc. This will provide references for agricultural research institutes to get more approval of international cooperation projects.%文章从国际合作项目申报基础、项目申报过程管理、国际合作工作制度保障等方面出发,结合农业科研单位申请国际合作项目的实践,探讨提出农业科研单位提高国际合作项目立项率的可能途径及建议,以期为农业科研单位争取更多的国际合作项目提供参考。

  14. 加强东南亚农业合作开发的战略重点与布局研究%STRENGTHENING AGRICULTURAL COOPERATION IN SOUTHEAST ASIA IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE STRATEGIC FOCUS AND LAYOUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐冲; 陈伟忠; 申玉铭

    2015-01-01

    Strengthen international cooperation in agriculture is an important part of agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics. Southeast Asia is a priority area of international cooperation in agriculture. Southeast Asia has an excellent agricultural resources, mainly agricultural products in the global market occupies an important stra-tegic position. Agricultural cooperation between China and Southeast Asia has a solid foundation, showing a good momentum of development in recent years. In the future, accelerating development of agricultural cooperation be-tween Southeast Asia and China has obvious geographical advantages. In the new era, under " One Belt and One Road" of the global strategic direction, based on the domestic needs of grain and other important agricultural prod-ucts, the article conducted a comprehensive analysis of Southeast Asian countries of agricultural resource endow-ments, industrial base, and willingness to cooperated, using regional comparative advantage analysis, and planned the strategic focus areas of agricultural cooperative development in Southeast Asia, including rice, natural rubber, oil palm, cassava, sugar cane and forestry six industries. Through cooperative development, enhance the control o-ver raw materials;improve the discourse power in agricultural trade. According to the important transportation logis-tics infrastructure layout, regional differences in resource endowments and industrial base in Southeast Asia, pro-posed a " three-line two districts" general layout. " Three-line" refers to the three agricultural logistics chan-nel and " Two areas" includes raw material supplying zones and processing trade zones. The raw material suppl-ying zones scope includes Cambodia, Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam, and the processing trade zones scope includes Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand and Philippines. Among them, in cereal field, Cambodia and Myanmar are as the important grain-planting base, and Thailand and Vietnam are as a

  15. 7 CFR 75.4 - Federal and State cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal and State cooperation. 75.4 Section 75.4 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... State cooperation. Pursuant to the Act, the Administrator is authorized to cooperate with...

  16. Türkiye'de Kamu Açıklarının Oluşumunda Tarım Satış Kooperatifleri Birliklerinin Rolü ve Marmarabirlik Örneği (The Role of Agricultural Sales Cooperatives and Unions in the Formation of Budget Deficits in Turkey and the Marmarabirlik Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Muzaffer EREN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural sales cooperatives and unions that began their work in 1935 with the adoption of Law No 2834 made significant contributions to their producer members and the national economy in general in the first years. However changing circumstances and various economic fluctuations made it necessary to support agricultural sector and the agricultural sales cooperatives and unions were used actively in certain support policies because of the fact that they were organized among the producers. In time the subsidies in question caused the cooperatives and unions to be perceived as public institutions and governments started to play a more active role on them. Later the domination of the public influence continued and increased with certain legal arrangements being made for this purpose. The cooperatives and unions left behind their original purpose of establishment and as a result became a significant contributor to public deficits. The budgetary burden, deficits of support policies, choice of target segment, unfairness in income distribution, indifference to market conditions and obligations arising from the agreements signed brought to the agenda changes in support policies implemented through agricultural sales cooperatives and unions. In this paper the size of the damage cooperatives and unions that left behind their original purpose gave to the national economy is explained and Marmara Olive Agricultural Sales Cooperatives Union (Marmarabirlik is analyzed as an example of the benefits these institutions would bring under correct policies.

  17. Preliminary Study on the Evaluation System for International Cooperation Projects of Tropical Agriculture Sciences and Technologies%热带农业科技国际合作项目评价体系初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐弼; 蒋昌顺; 鄢小宁

    2011-01-01

    从国际科技合作项目的特点出发,探讨提出热带农业科技国际合作项目评价体系的雏形,并对评价体系的项目前评价、项目中评价及项目后评价3个阶段的评价指标加以充实,为热带农业科技国际合作项目的科学、规范管理提供参考依据。%This thesis hereby from the angle of the characteristics of international cooperation projects, explores the embryo of the system for measuring the quality of international cooperation projects, and raises the assessment criteria for the three phrases of the evaluation system, namely, pre-project evaluation (item evaluation), mid-project evaluation (progress evaluation) and post-project evaluation (performance evaluation), for the purpose of offering references for the scientific and standard management of international cooperation projects of tropical agriculture sciences and technologies.

  18. Agricultural Development Bank Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Seibel, Hans Dieter

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural development banks (AgDBs), which are not viable, should either be closed, or transformed into self-reliant, sustainable financial intermediaries. Experience shows that reform is possible. Among the prominent cases are Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and Bank for Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives (BAAC, Thailand) as well as ADB/Nepal, which has been transforming its small farmer credit program into financially self-reliant local financial intermediaries owned and managed by th...

  19. Desenvolvimento organizacional e interpessoal em cooperativas de produção agropecuária: reflexão sobre o método Organizational and interpersonal develoment in agricultural production cooperatives: a reflexion on method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire Aparecida Scopinho

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta alguns elementos para a reflexão sobre um método de elaboração e implementação de programa de desenvolvimento organizacional em cooperativas populares de produção agropecuária. Elaborado com base em estudos e experiências vividas com a organização e gestão de cooperativas localizadas nas regiões Sul e Sudeste e Centro-Oeste do Brasil e na participação em processos de formação dos cooperados, aborda temas referentes à convivência social e relações interpessoais que interferem no desenvolvimento organizacional. Apresenta um balanço sobre o processo organizativo dos assentamentos e das cooperativas, discute o conceito de desenvolvimento organizacional como estratégia de socialização para o trabalho e a necessidade de construir propostas apropriadas para as organizações cooperativas populares. Esboça algumas diretrizes para a implementação de programas de desenvolvimento organizacional pautados tanto pela solução das necessidades econômicas imediatas quanto pela preservação dos valores humanos e dos recursos naturais, sugerindo a utilização de um método que pode ser capaz de resgatar elementos importantes do universo simbólico dos cooperados.The purpose of this paper is to present some elements which reflect a method of elaborating and implementing organizational development programs in popular agricultural production cooperatives. This text was written based on experiences and studies carried out within the organization and management of cooperatives situated in the south, southeast, and center-west of Brazil, and also within processes which instruct cooperative workers by approaching topics related to social living and interpersonal relations which interfere with organizational development. An analysis balance of the organizational situation of settlements and cooperatives which are the object of intervention is presented. The concept of organizational development as socialization strategy

  20. Research on Countermeasures for Land Circulation Using Scientific Methods in Agricultural Cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan Based on SWOT Analysis%基于SWOT分析下闽台农业合作中农地科学流转对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶汉建; 林翊

    2011-01-01

    农地流转是闽台农业合作的重要内容,它关系到闽台农业合作持久性。借助SWOT分析方法对当前合作过程中农地流转的所面临优势、劣势、机遇、威胁加以探讨,并以此为基础提出相应措施以促进闽台农业合作的进一步深化发展。%Rural land circulation is an important content of agricultural cooperation between Fujian and Taiwan, and it concerns cooperation permanence. The method of SWOT analysis is used to study on the land circulation faced strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats in the course of the cooperation, and on this basis, put forward suggestions to promote the agricultural cooperation further development between Fujian and Tai wan

  1. Green Lead Will Become"New Normal"of Modern Agriculture---From the Enlightenment of the Practice of Leading and Setting Up Green Agricultural Cooperatives of Hunan Xin Taihe%绿色引领将成为现代农业“新常态”--湖南“新泰和”领办绿色农业合作社实践的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡中习

    2015-01-01

    Under the enlightenment of the practice of leading and setting up green agricultural cooperatives of Hunan Xin Taihe, green agriculture is the advanced form of the agricultural modernization. In order to speed up the development of modern agriculture and build “New Growth Pole” of Hunan, it must pay attention to the development of green agriculture. Hunan Xin Taihe leads and sets up green agricultural cooperatives that deepen rural reform, innovate the operating mode, promote the agricultural modernization and build a new growth pole of the Yangtze river economic belt of Hunan, which has profound the typical demonstration significance.%湖南“新泰和”公司领办绿色农业合作社的实践启示人们,绿色农业是现代农业建设的高级形态,加快现代农业的发展,打造湖南“新增长极”,必须重视绿色农业的发展。新泰和公司领办的绿色农业合作社对于深化农村改革,创新农业经营方式,推进农业现代化建设,打造湖南长江经济带新增长极具典型示范意义。

  2. Conversion of Indigenous Agricultural Waste Feedstocks to Fuel Ethanol. Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-27

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), a world leader in biomass conversion research and Ecopetrol American Inc., Ecopetrol S.A.'s U.S. subsidiary. The research and development efforts described in the Joint Work Statement (JWS) will take advantage of the strengths of both parties. NREL will use its Integrated Biorefinery Facility and vast experience in the conversion of lignocellulosic feedstocks to fuel ethanol to develop processes for the conversion of Ecopetrol's feedstocks. Ecopetrol will establish the infrastructure in Columbia to commercialize the conversion process.

  3. 产学研合作模式研究--以湖南农大“博落回”产学研合作模式为例%Study on Production-Study-Research Cooperation Mode:Taking the"Macleaya Cordata"Production-Study-Research Cooperation Mode in Hunan Agricultural University as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘赛; 王奎武

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the problems of production-study-research cooperation in colleges and universities, this paper deeply studies the "macleaya cordata" production-study-research cooperation mode in Hunan Agricultural University: relying on the superior discipline, constructing the platform of production-study-research cooperation and innovating management and incentive system, strengthening the team construction and so on, to promote the development of veterinary medicine which takes "macleaya cordata" as the main research object, leading to technology innovation and industrialization achievement.%本文在分析目前我国高校产学研合作存在问题的基础上,深入研究湖南农业大学“博落回”产学研合作模式:依托学校优势学科,通过搭建产学研合作平台、创新管理与激励制度、加强团队建设等方式,促进以博落回为主要研究对象的中兽药创制,产生了技术创新和产业化成果。

  4. LA LIMITACIÓN DE LAS BASES IMPONIBLES DEL IBI RÚSTICO PARA LAS COOPERATIVAS AGRARIAS EN EL RÉGIMEN FISCAL DE COOPERATIVAS Y SU NECESARIA REFORMA / LIMITATION OF THE TAX BASE ON THE LAND TAX FOR AGRICULTURAL COOPERATIVES IN THE COOPERATIVE TAX SYSTEM, AND IT’S NECESSARY REFORM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO MARÍ VIDAL

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las sociedades cooperativas en España, al igual que en otros países, vienen gozando de unos beneficios tributarios en virtud de la decidida protección que el legislador les ha querido conferir. La normativa actualmente vigente en España es la Ley de Régimen Fiscal de Cooperativas (LRFC, que establece diferentes niveles de beneficios en función del grado de protección que otorga a la cooperativa. En el caso de las cooperativas agrarias se establecen ciertos requisitos para alcanzar el mayor grado de protección, entre los que se encuentra que la base imponible del Impuesto sobre Bienes Inmuebles (IBI correspondiente a los bienes de naturaleza rústica, dentro del ámbito geográfico de actuación de la sociedad, no exceda de 39.065,79 €. En el presente trabajo se analiza si la no actualización de ese límite desde la promulgación de la LRFC en 1990 puede suponer un problema para el cumplimiento del mismo por parte de las cooperativas agrarias para seguir gozando de la especial protección. En este sentido se pondrá de manifiesto cómo los valores catastrales (que determinan la base imponible del IBI de los inmuebles de naturaleza rústica se han venido actualizando anualmente, con el consiguiente incremento de los mismos y por tanto se hace necesaria la reforma del límite fijado en la LRFC. / Cooperatives in Spain, as in other countries, have been enjoying tax benefits under the protection that legislator intended to confer on them. The legislation currently in force in Spain is the Cooperative Tax Systme (CTS, which provides different levels of benefits depending on the degree of protection afforded to the cooperative. In the case of agricultural cooperatives certain requirements are established to achieve the highest degree of protection, which is the Tax Base on the Land Tax. It can’t exceed € 39,065.79. In the present paper we analyze whether the failure to update this limit since the publication of the CTS in 1990 can be a

  5. Social Capital and Diversification of Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Wendong

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis contributes to two research streams of the literature regarding agricultural cooperatives, namely, social capital and product diversification of cooperatives. First, the thesis examines the nature of a marketing cooperative by considering both its economic and social attributes. Several formal models are formulated to address the interaction between cooperative governance structure and the different dimensions of cooperative social capital. The coopera...

  6. 7 CFR 110.6 - Federal cooperation with States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal cooperation with States. 110.6 Section 110.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... cooperation with States. (a) For the purpose of carrying out this part, the Administrator may enter...

  7. 7 CFR 57.13 - Federal and State cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal and State cooperation 57.13 Section 57.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... cooperation The Secretary shall, whenever determined necessary to effectuate the purposes of the...

  8. The agricultural cooperatives in Argentina today: Three cases from the perspective of social capital El cooperativismo agropecuario argentino en la actualidad: Presentación y análisis de tres casos desde la perspectiva del capital social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Lattuada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a characterization of the agricultural cooperatives in Argentina. In particular, we are interested in the capacity of these organizations to generate social capital. In order to this, we present some specific cases. Thus, the work, that takes part of a larger investigation, is divided in two sections and conclusions. Firstly, we emphasize in the theoretical aspects about social capital and cooperative organizations. Secondly, we show, with this theoretical key, three cases of cooperatives of different types: FeCoVita, AFA and SanCor. Regarding with the methodology, we considerer a literature review related to the topic of social capital and, for the cases, we take institutional material provided for the organizations and specialized studies and interviews.En este trabajo, presentamos una caracterización sobre el cooperativismo agropecuario en la Argentina de los últimos tiempos desde una lente en particular: la capacidad de estas organizaciones para generar capital social, traducida en la presentación de algunos casos concretos. De este modo, el trabajo -que forma parte de una investigación mayor- se divide en dos apartados y conclusiones. En el primero de ellos destacamos los aspectos teóricos en torno al capital social y las organizaciones cooperativas. En el segundo, mostramos, desde la clave teórica anterior, tres casos de cooperativas, de distinto tipo, de larga data en nuestro país: FeCoVita, AFA y SanCor. En cuanto a la metodología utilizada, se consideró una exhaustiva revisión de bibliografía vinculada al tema del capital social y, para la preparación de los casos, se tuvieron en cuenta información institucional provista por cada organización, estudios especializados y entrevistas en profundidad.

  9. 7 CFR 1945.18 - United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Agriculture Council (FAC). 1945.18 Section 1945.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES...

  10. 7 CFR 1220.107 - Cooperator organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperator organization. 1220.107 Section 1220.107... CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1220.107 Cooperator organization. The term Cooperator Organization means the American Soybean Association, or any successor...

  11. Cooperative Learning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑莹莹

    2015-01-01

    This paper is about the cooperative learning as a teaching method in a second language learning class. It mainly talks about the background, foundation, features, definitions, components, goals, advantages and disadvantages of cooperative learning. And as the encounter of the disadvantages in cooperative learning, this paper also proposes some strategies.

  12. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huide; ZHANG, Wanzhen; Liu, Enping; Zhang, Xizhu

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution, member scale, production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province, and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification, this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations, such as joint production of banana cooperatives, ...

  13. 7 CFR 22.303 - Cooperation with Federal Regional Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cooperation with Federal Regional Councils. 22.303 Section 22.303 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL DEVELOPMENT COORDINATION Roles and Responsibilities of State Governments § 22.303 Cooperation with Federal Regional Councils. States are urged...

  14. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally competitive production system in terms of cost and quality. Cooperatives seem to be well positioned to coordinate product differentiation at the farm level and to integrate forward into value added processing activities.. Indian agriculture can be balanced and made efficient through proper and better management practices. The present study brings out past and present scenario of agricultural marketing prevailing in India, its challenges and future recommendations. Moreover the opportunities provide by agricultural marketing should be tapped effectively by the marketers.

  15. 36 CFR 211.3 - Cooperation with State officers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation with State officers. 211.3 Section 211.3 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION Cooperation § 211.3 Cooperation with State officers. All forest officers will cooperate with...

  16. 78 FR 37777 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; Cooperative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Collection; Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA... Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey. DATES: We will consider all comments that we receive on or before August... coming. ] FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on the Cooperative Agricultural Pest...

  17. Conflictual cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axel, Erik

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores cooperation as contradictory and therefore with a constant possibility for conflict. Consequently it is called conflictual cooperation. The notion is presented on the basis of a participatory observation in a control room of a district heating system. In the investigation......, cooperation appeared as the continuous reworking of contradictions in the local arrangement of societal con- ditions. Subjects were distributed and distributed themselves according to social privileges, resources, and dilemmas in cooperation. Here, the subjects’ activities and understandings took form from...... regulating who can use what in what way. Contradictions in the observed activity are discussed. It is argued that for the participants the connec- tions of acts appear in such contradictions in cooperation. This conception is dis- cussed in relationship to the notions of practice, as expounded by Bourdieu...

  18. 7 CFR 1484.12 - What is the Cooperator program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the agricultural commodities and generally address long-term foreign import constraints and export... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the Cooperator program? 1484.12 Section 1484.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT...

  19. LOCAL COOPERATIVES' EVALUATION OF BUSINESS INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Hine, Susan E.; Fulton, Joan R.; Loureiro, Maria L.; Vandeburg, Jennifer M.; McNamara, Kevin T.

    2003-01-01

    Agricultural cooperatives have been restructuring, by way of mergers, acquisitions, joint-ventures, and strategic alliances, to increase efficiencies to remain competitive in a changing business environment. The research evaluating the reorganization of cooperatives has revealed that less than one-half of the restructured businesses are financially successful. There is the potential to significantly influence the future health of the cooperative business sector if, first, insights can be gain...

  20. Cooperatives as Marketers of Branded Products

    OpenAIRE

    Hardesty, Shermain D.

    2005-01-01

    Few agricultural marketing cooperatives have nationally prominent brand names. Instead, they tend to concentrate in commodity-oriented markets, which can be attributed to the cooperative principles—user-benefit, user-financed and user-control. However, these structural disadvantages can be overcome. Due to the user-benefit principle, cooperatives often have seasonal product availability and/or limited product lines; they also suffer from the horizon problem, lacking the structure to provide ...

  1. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced around the world are carried out through civil organizations. Furthermore; some of these initiatives have also launched by farmers, consumers, food processors and retailers. The long-term strategies to increase these initiatives should be determined due to the fact that examples of successful sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives are inadequate and cannot be spread in Turkey. In this context, first of all, the supports provided by the government to improve agricultural marketing systems, such as EU funds for rural development should be compatible with the goals of sustainable marketing. For this purpose, it should be examined whether all proposed projects related to agricultural marketing meet the social, economic, and environmental principles of sustainable marketing. It is important that supporting organizations, especially civil society organisations, should take an active role for faster dissemination and adoption of sustainable agricultural marketing practices in Turkey. These organizations may provide technical assistance in preparing successful project proposals and training to farm groups. In addition, the other organizations, such as local administrations, producers' associations, cooperatives, can contribute to the success of sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives. The use of direct marketing strategies and vertical integration attempts in sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives that will likely be implemented in Turkey is

  2. Farmers' Willingness to Participate in Agricultural Cooperative Organizations in Major Grain Producing Areas --A Case of Jiangxi Province%粮食主产区农户加入农业合作组织意愿的实证分析——以江西省为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    占小军

    2012-01-01

    加入农业合作组织将在一定程度上减少农户生产经营活动的盲目性,提升其生产经营活动的组织性和计划性,进而增强分散农户抗衡市场风险的能力。以江西省289个农户为研究对象,实证分析了粮食主产区农户加入农业合作组织的意愿,结果表明:30.8%的农户愿意加人农业合作组织,显著影响农户加入农业合作组织意愿的因素是户主年龄、户主文化程度、户主对风险的偏好、家庭种植面积、获取交易信息难易程度、交易过程顺畅程度以及是否参加过农业技术培训。%Participating in agricultural cooperative organizations can help farmers to reduce blindness to some extent, to improve the organizing and schematization of their production and business operation activities, then to strengthen their capability to counter the market risk. Based on 289 farmers in Jiangxi Province, this article empirically analyzed farmers' willingness to join agricultural cooperatives in major grain producing areas, with a result showing that 30.8% of farmers willing to join agricultural cooperatives, factors that significantly influence farmers' willingness including the householder' s age, education degree and preference to risks, as well as family planting area, access to transaction information, transaction process and agriculture technology training.

  3. Cooperation Between Equals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    2011 MARKS the 55th anniversary of the start of contemporary friendly relations between the People’s Republic of China and African countries. Chinese Vice Premier Hui Liangyu’s recent African trip gave another boost to the burgeoning China-Africa ties,said Chinese Vice Foreign Minister Zhai Jun.Hui visited five African countries - Mauritius, Zambia,the Democratic Republic of the Congo,Cameroon and Senegal -from January 6 to 19.Agriculture and trade were some of the most promising areas of cooperation between China and these countries,said Zhai in a recent interview with ChinAfrica.Excerpts follow:

  4. Adult Education, Cooperatives and Green Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, K. C.

    1970-01-01

    The basic approach of the Fourth Five Year Plan in India is the creation of conditions necessary for a 5 percent growth in agriculture. The Cooperatives have made a real contribution in the improvement of agriculture and have now launched a member education program. (EB)

  5. Cooperative design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Kjeld

    1998-01-01

    if concurrent engineering is to succeed. On the basis of ethnographic studies of cooperative design, the paper attempts to characterize cooperative work in the domain of design and to outline a set of crucial research problems to be addressed if CSCW is to help engineers and de-signers meet the challenges...... they are facing. On one hand, designers need highly flexible ‘coordination mecha-nisms’ that can support horizontal coordination of large-scale distributed design projects, and on the other hand design organizations require versatile and ubiquitous infrastructures to be able to manage their ‘common informa-tion...

  6. Factors Affecting Farmers of Professional Farmers Cooperatives in Fulfilling Sales Contracts of Agricultural Products:Based on Surveys of Farmers in Jiangxi Province%农民专业合作社农户履约行为影响因素分析——基于江西省农户的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李道和; 陈江华

    2015-01-01

    With survey data collected from 414 farmers of professional farmers cooperatives in Jiangxi Province,an empirical study was conducted to study the factors affecting farmers fulfilling the contracts through the construction of a two-element Logistic model.The results showed that:Education,price fluctuations of agri-cultural products,the distance between the village and the town,government support,changes in agricultural technologies after joining the co-operatives,agricultural cooperatives' investment in agricultural facilities,profit return,penalties clauses and penalties for members of cooperatives who have violated contract terms are posi-tively related to the behaviors in fulfilling the contracts. Household number of laborers,ratio of agricultural in-come to total revenue, agricultural input cost and infrastructure are negatively related while age and gender have not significant influence;Fruit and vegetable farmers are more likely to fulfill the contract;In order to im-prove the rate of farmers fulfilling the contracts,some countermeasures and suggestions were put forward.%基于江西省农民专业合作社414户农户的调研数据,通过构建二元Logistic模型,实证分析合作社农户履约行为的影响因素. 结果表明:文化程度、农产品价格波动程度、村到乡镇的距离、政府扶持、入社后农业生产技术水平、合作社是否投资农业设施、有无盈利返还、合作社对社员违约的处罚力度、合同中有无违约处罚条款与农户履约行为正相关;家庭劳动力个数、入社农产品占家庭收入比重、农产品投入费用、基础设施与农户履约行为负相关,而农户的年龄与性别对其履约行为影响不显著;从事瓜果蔬菜与养殖类农产品生产的农户,其履约可能性更高;为提高合作社社员履约率,提出了针对性的对策与建议.

  7. ENHANCING COOPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China and Japan can cooperate on a wide scope of issues, such as the organization of the Beijing Olympic Games next year and aid to Africa,said Ide Keiji, Minister of Public Relations, Press, Culture, Education and Sports and Spokesperson of the Embassy

  8. 'Japan Inc.' in the Agricultural Sector: Reform or Regression?

    OpenAIRE

    Aurelia George Mulgan

    2001-01-01

    ‘Japan Inc.’ is manifested in the agricultural sector as a classic subgovernment consisting of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, the Liberal Democratic Party, and the agricultural cooperative organisation (Nokyo). This three-way coalition of bureaucratic, party and producer organisations forms an ‘iron triangle’ of vested interest in agricultural support and protection. The agricultural public works component of the agricultural iron triangle is also linked to the larger ir...

  9. Construct validation of supply chain management in cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, Nurjihan; Arshad, Fatimah Mohamed; Radam, Alias; Ali, Noor Azman

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze construct in supply chain and to determine which construct contribute to performance of agricultural cooperatives in Malaysia. The primary data is collected via questionnaire from top level management of agricultural cooperatives using 5-item Likert scale. Factor analysis and structural equations modeling were used to analyze the data. Findings show that cooperatives places importance on quality and technology, logistic, supplier and governance. As a whole, supp...

  10. Study on Banana Cooperatives in Hainan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huide; HUANG; Wanzhen; ZHANG; Enping; LIU; Xizhu; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the distribution,member scale,production and operation of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province,and points out the market risk and natural risk faced by the production of banana cooperatives in Hainan Province. In order to promote the banana cooperatives to form new agricultural management system integrating organization and intensification,this paper puts forth the production and operation recommendations,such as joint production of banana cooperatives,timely planting of banana,brand management,and improvement of production and operation technical level.

  11. Farmers, cooperatives, new food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Villy

    of most countries are consistent with the comparatively long penetration periods and low success rates experienced with many new food products. 2. Furthermore, the evidence suggests that the demand for innovation within the food sector is positively related to the degree of processing. 3. The constitutive...... and their cooperative. The economic justification for cooperatives, explaining their long-stan competitiveness and viability in some economic sectors, is to be found in monopoly problems or transaction costs accounting for the need for interest alignment. 4. Being a federative type of organization, the agricultural...

  12. Cooperative Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhuan, Huang

    2013-01-01

    The current companies increasingly expect to involve more external sources to achieve more open innovation for value-added. However, the cooperation problem between internal organization and external parties still challenges the top management. This paper aims to find out the solution. The fast spring up Chinese IT market impacts the world market, especially mobile Internet. Therefore, this paper employ the fast growing Chinese Mobile Internet company--- Xiao Mi as the study case. By applying...

  13. African agricultural trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Sandrey, Ron

    2015-01-01

    This article starts with a profile of African agricultural trade. Using the pre-release version 9.2 of the GTAP database, we then show that the results for tariff elimination on intra-African trade are promising, but these tariff barriers are not as significant as the various trade-related barriers...... elimination, non-tariff barrier reductions and time in transit cost reductions are likely to be cumulative and would generate very large gains to Africa. The policy implications are clear: while cooperation will enhance the gains, much of the benefits will result from unilateral actions and regional...

  14. Difference Analysis of Performance of Various Types of Farmers ’ Cooperatives---Based on a Survey Evolutionary Game Analysis of Behavioral Agents Under Agricultural Super-docking%农超对接下行为主体的进化博弈分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    储成兵; 李平

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural super-docking ,as a new management model of agricultural supply chain ,is conducive to achieving a win-win situation .The key to its success is to balance the forces of all participants .This paper ,through the establishment of the evolutionary game model of farmer and farmer in the formation of farmer cooperatives ,the evolutionary game model of farmer cooperatives and supermarkets ,draws evolutionary stable strategy of the game . The research shows that the design and arrangement of institution will greatly change the behavior of the main body under agricultural super-docking .In order to achieve the butt ,the government should increase the support to the farmers'professional co-operatives ,and formulate relevant policies to restraint and incentive the main body to actively participate in agricultural super-docking .%农超对接是一种新型农产品供应链管理模式,有利于实现多方共赢,其成功的关键在于参与各方力量的均衡发展。本文通过建立农超对接下农民专业合作社形成中农户和农户的进化博弈模型以及农民专业合作社和超市的进化博弈模型,求解进化博弈的稳定策略解,得出如下研究结论,政府对制度的设计和安排能极大改变农超对接下行为主体的行为,为了实现农超顺利对接,政府在加大对农民专业合作社扶持力度的同时,要制定相关政策来约束和激励行为主体积极参与农超对接。

  15. Empirical Analysis of Agricultural Production Efficiency in Shaanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article analyses the agricultural production efficiency of all cities and areas in Shaanxi Province in the period 2006-2009 using data envelopment analysis method,and compares the agricultural production efficiency between all cities and areas.The results show that the agricultural production efficiency and scale efficiency of agriculture of Shaanxi Province are high on the whole,but the efficiency of agricultural technology is very low,agricultural development still relies on factor inputs,and the driving role of technological progress is not conspicuous.Finally the following countermeasures are put forward to promote agricultural productivity in Shaanxi Province:improve the construction of agricultural infrastructure,and increase agricultural input;accelerate the project of extending agricultural technology into households,and promote the conversion and use rate of agricultural scientific and technological achievements;establish and improve industrial system of agriculture,and speed up the building of various agricultural cooperative economic organizations.

  16. Problems of Agricultural Technological Innovation in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongbo; LIU; Ren; LIU; Huazhen; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Major problems of agricultural technological innovation in China were summarized as below: first,poor agricultural science and technology system; second,deficient technological promotion system; third,shortage of agricultural professionals; fourth,serious shortage of science and technology input. In view of these problems,the following suggestions were given to improve the innovation of agricultural technology in China. ( 1) Restructuring agricultural research institutes,establishing cooperative innovation centers,improving agricultural technological innovation system; ( 2) Specifying the direction of research projects,improving scientific research level of technicians,so as to improve the agricultural technological innovation capacity; ( 3) Improving promotion and service stations in towns,organizing technological service teams of agricultural universities and colleges,establishing agricultural technological promotion systems; ( 4) Increasing input in agricultural technological innovation by attracting government input,enterprise investment and other financial support; ( 5) Cultivating more talents of agricultural technology,training leading agricultural technicians,grassroots agricultural service staff and practical talents.

  17. 借助校企联合模式推动农业院校计算机专业课程建设%Computer Specialty Course Construction of Agricultural College by the Cooperation of the Colleges and Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗海艳; 金莉; 徐静

    2012-01-01

    在校企联合人才培养模式中,重点解决理论教学与实践教学的关系、严格学生管理制度、教师师资队伍的建设等关键问题。实践证明,开展校企联合办学,对于提高学生的动手、实践能力,有着举足轻重的作用。%In the pattern of cooperation between the colleges and the enterprises, theory teaching and practice teaching, management of students and teacher team construction were the key problems. Practice had proved that cooperation between the colleges and the enterprises played an important role in improving students" practice ability.

  18. Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The four geophysical methods predominantly used for agricultural purposes are resistivity, electromagnetic induction, ground penetrating radar (GPR), and time domain reflectometry (TDR). Resistivity and electromagnetic induction methods are typically employed to map lateral variations of apparent so...

  19. An information economic rationale for cooperatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We consider how to organise the processing and marketing of an agricultural product when farming costs are known only by the individual farmers. We show that when marginal costs are uncorrelated, the market for final goods is competitive, and the market for processing is non-competitive, the...... socially optimal production levels are sustained by a cooperative and a cooperative only. We show also that the cooperative form is particularly useful when the cost uncertainty is large and the net average revenue product is small....

  20. CTBT and the international technical cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Having in mind the basic aim of the CTBTO this presentation covers the fields of international co-operation as one of the most important and the cooperation of China and some International research and development institutions concerning the related subjects. One of the most important among international organizations being the IAEA, detailed list of general circumstances in the Chinese cooperation with IAEA is presented. It covers nuclear power plants construction and operation, safety of nuclear facilities, nuclear fuel cycle, radiation protection and waste management, industrial application, agricultural application, human health, fundamental research and information dissemination

  1. Supporting research in Brazilian agriculture and the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope experiments in agriculture have been carried out in Brazil since 1954. Since 1982, the IAEA has supported the agricultural sciences in Brazil through the projects financed under the IAEA's technical assistance and co-operation programme. These projects include: Radioisotopes in Agriculture; Biological Nitrogen Fixation; Animal Science; Medfly Eradication; and Soil Formation and Degradation. 26 refs, 6 figs, 1 tab

  2. Comparative Analysis of Cooperative and Non-cooperative Farmers’ access to Farm Inputs in Abuja, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Ajah

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Access to farm inputs is one of the major challenges facing rural farmers in Nigeria. To alleviate this problem, government at different levels strongly recommended the formation of cooperative societies to farmers. Against this background, a study was conducted to determine if differential access to farm inputs exists between cooperative and non-cooperative farmers in Abuja, Nigeria. A multi-stage technique was used for sample selection while semi-structured questionnaires were used for data collection. A total of 360 farmers were randomly interviewed in four agricultural zones (180 cooperative and 180 non-cooperative farmers. Data were analyzed using two-way factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA and mean separation was done at 5% probability level. Results revealed that there was significant difference (P < 0.01 in cooperative and non-cooperative farmers’ access to farm inputs. Comparatively, the mean perceptions indicated that the cooperative farmers had more access to labour, loan, herbicide, insecticide, rodenticide, fertilizer, tractor services, storage equipment and processing equipment while the non-cooperative farmers had more access to land. The results also indicated that the most accessible farm input to both cooperative and non-cooperative farmers was land while the least accessible farm inputs were loan and tractor services. Based on the findings, the paper concluded that differential access to farm inputs existed between cooperative and non-cooperative farmers in the study area. It was recommended that government and non-governmental agencies should encourage farmers to form and/or join viable cooperative societies.Key words: cooperative societies, least accessible farm inputs, mean perception, most accessible farm input, small-scale farmers, 

  3. 76 FR 31345 - Cooperative Arrangement Between the United States Food and Drug Administration and the Inter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... Drug Administration and the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation in Agriculture AGENCY: Food and... Agriculture. The purpose of the arrangement is to provide a framework between the two Agencies to...

  4. The Basic Path of Modern Agriculture with Chinese Characteristics-Industry Nurturing Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Constructing the modern agriculture with Chinese characteristics is the path and direction for solving issues concerning agriculture, countryside and farmers in China, the key to new village construction, the important measure for promoting overall agricultural production capacity, and the prerequisite and guarantee for coordinating urban-rural development. At present, the level of agricultural mechanization in China is promoted steadily; the science and technology are applied to agriculture extensively; the agricultural regionalization layout gradually takes shape; the agricultural industrialization management develops steadily. Be that as it may, the overall quality of farmers is low; the agricultural infrastructure is weak; the agricultural resources are limited; the inputs of agricultural science and technology are short. These hamper the development of modern agriculture. We should implement "industry nurturing agriculture"; through capital support and policy guidance, reform household registration system; connect the fragmented land into parcel; encourage the leading enterprises to develop in rural areas; establish agricultural cooperative organizations; deepen rural financial system reform; quicken the promotion and application of agricultural technology. These measures can effectively promote the development of agriculture, and realize the agricultural modernization in China.

  5. International cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Europe is certainly the part of the world where the largest number of international arrangements have been established for dealing with international cooperation in cases of major oil spills at sea. Let me list the most important of these multilateral arrangements: Bonn Agreement: covers the North Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC Barcelona Convention: (protocol for emergency situations) covers the Mediterranean Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and the EEC; Helsinki Convention: covers the Baltic Sea Contracting Parties: riparian states and (soon) the EEC; Lisbon Agreement: covers the NE Atlantic Contracting Parties: France, Spain, Portugal, Morocco and the EEC; Community Action Plan: covers the whole community waters; EEC; Members States participate in this plan. It should be underlined that, in addition to these large multilateral agreements a number of bilateral or trilateral arrangements have been set up, such as the Copenhagen Agreement, Denger Plan, Manche Plan, etc. The Commission involvement in these international frameworks is very important: as an example, it is presently chairing the Bonn Agreement Contracting Parties meeting. In addition, being the only contracting party to all these agreements, it is able to play a unique role of coordination and information to avoid duplications and contradictions. Having given this overview, I would now focus on the Community Action Plan

  6. Exploring Alternative Solutions Regarding Conservation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Movahedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Studies show that no effective measures have been taken towards conservative agriculture in Iran. Social, economical and technical agricultural factors and conditions need to be provided to meet conservation agriculture at the farm, regional and national level. Accordingly, this research aimed at exploring some solutions to protect and conserve agriculture. Approach: To achieve this, of all 100 populations, included both 80 faculty members of college of agriculture at Bu-Ali-Sina University and 20 subject matter specialists in Hamedan's State Agricultural Organization, 35 people were selected based on the criterion type of purposeful sampling. Data were gathered through interviews. Content analysis method was used to analyze textual data. Results: Results of this study showed that the building awareness and culture along with factors such as proper conservation agriculture practices, effective planning and management and attention to agro-ecological issues are basic factors to promote conservation agriculture in the surveyed area. Conclusions/Recommendations: Lack of awareness and knowledge of farmers and people towards conservation agriculture, no adoption of conservation agriculture by farmers and lack of education and training services for conservation agriculture were the most important issues that found in this research about conservation agriculture. Therefore, support the creating of cooperatives to provide necessary services for implementing conservation agriculture practices is definitely recommended.

  7. Agricultural sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The applications of nuclear technology in agriculture sector cover the use of the technology at every aspects of agricultural activity, starting from the seed to harvesting as well as the management of plantations itself. In this sector, a total of 55 entities comprising 17 public agencies and 38 private companies were selected for the study. Almost all, 91 % of them are located in Peninsular Malaysia; the rest operates in Sabah and Sarawak. The findings of the study in the public agencies and private companies are presented in the next sections. (author)

  8. Agricultural methanization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having briefly outlined the interest of the development of methanization of agricultural by-products in the context of struggle against climate change, and noticed that France is only now developing this sector as some other countries already did, this publication describes the methanization process also called anaerobic digestion, which produces a digestate and biogas. Advantages for the agriculture sector are outlined, as well as drawbacks and recommendations (required specific technical abilities, an attention to the use of energetic crops, an improved economic balance which still depends on public subsidies, competition in the field of waste processing). Actions undertaken by the ADEME are briefly evoked

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of Farm Supply Cooperatives: A Comparison of Farmer and Manager Viewpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Lawrence A.; Wirth, Myron E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a survey of attitudes of commercial farmers and supply cooperative managers about agricultural supply cooperatives. Cooperative managers and farmers frequently made significantly different responses to questionnaire statements. With a few expectations, farm size and farmer age did not appear to influence perceptions about supply cooperatives. Whether a farmer was a cooperative member was important in some cases. Lower prices in lieu of easy credit and patrona...

  10. THE IMPACT OF TRUST ON COOPERATIVE MEMBERSHIP PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION IN THE HUNGARIAN HORTICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Bakucs, Lajos Zoltan; Ferto, Imre; Szabo, Gabor G.

    2007-01-01

    The paper investigates the impacts of trust on the relationships among members and between members and the management in an agricultural marketing cooperative in the Hungarian horticultural sector. We focus on the effects of trust on cooperative members performance and satisfaction and their commitment to remaining a part of cooperative. We analyse the trust along two dimensions: cognitive and affective. Our results suggest that trust among cooperative members and trust between cooperative an...

  11. 9 CFR 590.13 - Federal and State cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Federal and State cooperation. 590.13 Section 590.13 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) Administration § 590.13 Federal and State cooperation. The Secretary shall, whenever he determines that it...

  12. Farmers' Cooperatives in the EU: Policies, Strategies and Organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Iliopoulos, C.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of cooperatives for European farmers has often been claimed but empirical studies to support this claim are scarce. This special issue presents a number of articles on the recent development and status of agricultural cooperatives in the European Union, based on original data collecte

  13. MANAGING YIELD RISK THROUGH A COOPERATIVE

    OpenAIRE

    Zeuli, Kimberly A.; Skees, Jerry R.

    2001-01-01

    Developing new risk management products for all agricultural commodities has increased in importance given recent legislation. Vegetables have been difficult to insure. This paper investigates the use of index contracts for growers belonging to a Kentucky vegetable cooperative. Index contracts should be significantly more efficient than current crop insurance alternatives.

  14. Research on Supply Chain Operation of Connecting Agriculture with Supermarkets Based on Agricultural Brokers System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of expounding the research results of using relevant knowledge about Game Theory for supply chain of agricultural products at home and abroad,we use principal-agent model in Game Theory to research the new function that the supermarkets entrust supervision and control over quality of agricultural products to agricultural brokers in the circulation model of connecting agriculture with supermarkets;then design the optimal incentive contract and influencing factors between agricultural broker and supermarket,and explain the fundamental role of agricultural brokers in the process of circulation;finally in light of the role of government in promoting development and application of agricultural brokers,put forward corresponding policy suggestions:establish government support policy;set relevant standard of industry;establish cooperative organizations of agricultural brokers.

  15. The Advantage of Cooperatives under Asymmetric Cost Information

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetoft, Peter; Jensen, Peter Max Friis; Olsen, Rene H.

    1999-01-01

    We consider how to organize the processing and marketing of an agricultural product when farming costs are known only by the individual farmers. We show that when marginal costs are un-correlated and the market for final goods is competitive, the socially optimal production levels may be sustained by a cooperative and a cooperative only. We show also that the cooperative form is particularly useful when the uncertainty is large and the net revenue product is small.

  16. PREFACE: Cooperative dynamics Cooperative dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gov, Nir

    2011-09-01

    The dynamics within living cells are dominated by non-equilibrium processes that consume chemical energy (usually in the form of ATP, adenosine triphosphate) and convert it into mechanical forces and motion. The mechanisms that allow this conversion process are mostly driven by the components of the cytoskeleton: (i) directed (polar) polymerization of filaments (either actin or microtubules) and (ii) molecular motors. The forces and motions produced by these two components of the cytoskeleton give rise to the formation of cellular shapes, and drive the intracellular transport and organization. It is clear that these systems present a multi-scale challenge, from the physics of the molecular processes to the organization of many interacting units. Understanding the physical nature of these systems will have a large impact on many fundamental problems in biology and break new grounds in the field of non-equilibrium physics. This field of research has seen a rapid development over the last ten years. Activities in this area range from theoretical and experimental work on the underlying fundamental (bio)physics at the single-molecule level, to investigations (in vivo and in vitro) of the dynamics and patterns of macroscopic pieces of 'living matter'. In this special issue we have gathered contributions that span the whole spectrum of length- and complexity-scales in this field. Some of the works demonstrate how active forces self-organize within the polymerizing cytoskeleton, on the level of cooperative cargo transport via motors or due to active fluxes at the cell membrane. On a larger scale, it is shown that polar filaments coupled to molecular motors give rise to a huge variety of surprising dynamics and patterns: spontaneously looping rings of gliding microtubules, and emergent phases of self-organized filaments and motors in different geometries. All of these articles share the common feature of being out-of-equilibrium, driven by metabolism. As demonstrated here

  17. Competitive development of the agricultural enterprises France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Yushkevych

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The stages which determine the development of agricultural enterprises in France are investigated in the article. In the course of implementation of Ukrainian-French programs of scientific and educational cooperation on the problems of the management of agricultural enterprises in State Educational Institutions training specialists (cities of Chartres and Vic–en Bigorre, France it was found that the major components of development of agricultural enterprises in France are as follows: agricultural policy, education, motivation, information and management. The problem of the diversified development in the context of transition to green economy and sustainable development is considered. It is determined that an example of competitive development of agricultural enterprises in France is the establishment and operation of professional associations, in particular, cooperatives and clusters. The priority directions of economic and ecological development of agricultural enterprises for Ukraine are offered in order to implement potential opportunities of agricultural enterprises and to relocate the resources into new kinds of agricultural and non-agricultural activities

  18. Sorting and sustaining cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikander, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at cooperation in teams where some people are selfish and others are conditional cooperators, and where lay-offs will occur at a fixed future date. I show that the best way to sustain cooperation prior to the lay-offs is often in a sorting equilibrium, where conditional cooperators...

  19. New Cooperative Development Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Hardesty, Shermain D.; Shultz, Madeline; Wells, John

    2011-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the increased interest in new cooperative development, factors for successful cooperative development, and strategies to improve the performance of new and emerging cooperatives. The article highlights issues identified by a panel of cooperative leaders, USDA specialists and academic experts

  20. Supply and Marketing Cooperatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Supply and Marketing Cooperatives Council of CCPIT was established in March 1996. It is an institution under direct leadership of China Supply and Market-ing Cooperatives and at the same time a branch of China Council for Promotion of International Trade, with its major task to promoting and facilitating export-oriented economic trade and technological cooper-ation of the national supply and marketing cooperative system.

  1. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tao

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products, by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain, this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation. The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows: the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly; the circulation cost hovers at high level; the ...

  2. Agricultural radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of radioactive pollution of ecosystems is discussed. The total deposition of 90Sr and 137Cs after the nuclear experiments in 1945-1963 and the contamination rate of main foodstuffs are assessed. Data about radionuclide dynamics in soil, raw materials, forage, milk, milk products and wheat after the Chernobyl accident are presented for various regions of Bulgaria and are compared with the total fallout contamination. The trends in milk and forage contamination for some regions are discussed. Quantitative radiochemical methods for determination of 90Sr and 137Cs are discussed. Migration of 135Cs, 90Sr and 131J is followed in soil, forage, animal organism and human food chains respectively and ways of decontamination are discussed. Radiation effects on biogeocenoses are described. The problem of agriculture management under the conditions of durable soil contamination after nuclear accidents is considered. Recommendations for monitoring and protection of agricultural personnel are presented. 53 refs., 31 tabs., 93 figs

  3. Alternative Agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Will the popularization of bioenergy, a new source for powering China, trigger another agricultural revolution? Skyrocketing energy prices, especially the oil shock in the first half of 2005, are pushing China to seek more substitutes for gasoline. A number of cities are turning to ethanol-blended gas made from com. Starting this month, the sale of regular gasoline will be brought to an end in nine of China's

  4. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  5. Agricultural problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there were not reasons to deplore against major activity release from any of the 110 industrial reactors authorized to operate in US, the nuclear incident that occurred at the Three Mile Island Plant in 1979 urged the public conscience toward the necessity of readiness to cope with events of this type. The personnel of the Emergency Planning Office functioning in the frame of US Department of Agriculture has already participated in around 600 intervention drillings on a federal, local or state scale to plan, test or asses radiological emergency plans or to intervene locally. These exercises allowed acquiring a significant experience in elaborating emergency plans, planning the drillings, working out scenarios and evaluation of the potential impact of accidents from the agricultural point of view. We have also taken part in different international drillings among which the most recent are INEX 1 and RADEX 94. We have found on these occasions that the agricultural problems are essential preoccupations in most of the cases no matter if the context is international, national, local or of state level. The paper poses problems specifically related to milk, fruits and vegetables, soils, meat and meat products. Finally the paper discusses issues like drilling planning, alarm and notification, sampling strategy, access authorizations for farmers, removing of contamination wastes. A number of social, political and economical relating problems are also mentioned

  6. Water and Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Klohn

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The growing scarcity of water resources causes concern, especially with reference to agriculture-related applications. Such scarcity is not due to hydrological reasons, but goes back to the dynamics of human society and the way in which the resource is used. Thisarticle emphasizes the basic facts of this dynamic. For instance, while total quantity of water available yearly on our planet has not changed significantly, the human population has increased greatly –consequently, the quantity of water available per person is inferior.Natural disasters multiply themselves and have a greater resonance, perhaps helped by a climatic change, and their impact on society is dramatic. The human beings affected by disasters are generally not only the poorest, but are constrained to living on steep hills,along river beds that easily flood, and in arid regions of scarce productive potential. Beyond this, the volume of water appropriated in one way or another for human use is already considerable and the rhythm of water appropriation cannot be extended towards the future. Irrigation for agriculture itself amounts to about 70% of all water extraction. Our civilization, capable of exploring the solar system, has the technological solutions to the water problems, but the levels of costs and of the necessary social organization for their application make these solutions available only to the richest societies. The technical, economic and social solutions to overcome the water global crisis exist, but their application requires the existence of a political will, and, in many cases, of international cooperation. At present, such political will appears hesitant, and multilateral international cooperation is undergoing a deep crisis. It is necessary for a public opinion to be formed on these topics so that it can find expression at a political level.

  7. Brazil: The Future of Modern Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Matthey; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Fuller, Frank H.

    2004-01-01

    In an attempt to understand better Brazil's future role in agricultural markets, the authors of this report traveled to Brazil on a fact-finding mission in September 2003. The goal was to get a first-hand impression of Brazil's agricultural sector and especially its future potential. In this report we provide a general description of crop and livestock production, government policies, public and private cooperation, and transportation and biotechnology issues. The most striking observations m...

  8. Changing Climate Is Affecting Agriculture in the U.S.

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and Community Development Rural Opportunities Trade Travel and Recreation USDA for Kids Programs and Services ASSISTING RURAL COMMUNITIES Cooperatives Grants ...

  9. Cooperativismo e dinâmicas produtivas em zonas desfavorecidas: o caso das pequenas cooperativas agrícolas do Sul da França Cooperatives and production dynamics in disadvantaged areas: the case of small agricultural cooperatives in southern France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luiza Lins e Silva Pires

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem como objetivo identificar os arranjos produtivos desenvolvidos pelos agricultores familiares no âmbito da unidade familiar e da cooperativa, avaliando seus impactos sobre o território em termos de criação/ampliação do capital social. Procura-se também identificar as estratégias utilizadas pelas cooperativas para lidar com as adversidades locais, garantindo-lhes uma dinâmica particular. As cooperativas têm estimulado a mobilização dos sócios em torno de inovações organizacionais e tecnológicas? Quais os seus impactos em nível de ampliação do capital social e dinamização dos territórios? Essas questões são analisadas a partir de uma pesquisa de natureza qualitativa realizada no Sul da França, tendo como referência dois estudos de caso - Société coopérative agricole Fromagerie des Cévennes e Cooperativa Origine Cévennes. Em ambos, privilegiaram-se o savoir-faire e o protagonismo dos atores locais; estes considerados, mais do que "objetos de estudo", "sujeitos de seu próprio desenvolvimento". O estudo revela os limites e poder de alcance de uma cooperativa, mesmo quando vitimada por distâncias consideráveis dos centros de distribuição dos produtos, custos operacionais elevados, terras áridas e dificuldades de infraestrutura. Os casos são particularmente significativos para reforçar a importância do cooperativismo, sobretudo em áreas consideradas desfavorecidas.This work aims to identify the production arrangements developed by family farmers within the family unit and in cooperatives, assessing its impact on the area in terms of creation and expansion of social capital. It also tries to identify the strategies used by cooperatives to deal with the local adversities, which provide them with particular dynamics. Do the cooperatives stimulate the mobilization of their members towards organizational and technological innovations? What is the impact in terms of increase of the social capital and

  10. Telemedical work and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H

    2001-01-01

    In telemedicine, cooperation occurs via telecommunication. This represents a new situation for medical cooperation. Whether such cooperation works poorly or well will be important with an increasing volume of telemedicine. When personnel are involved in external cooperation, as in telemedicine, the question of cooperation within one's own organization also arises. To investigate these matters, qualitative interviews were performed with 30 persons working in teledermatology, telepsychiatry, a telepathology frozen-section service and tele-otolaryngology. The results showed that cooperating by telecommunication mainly worked well. The cooperation may be influenced by factors such as personality, knowing each other personally, preparation and experience. Telemedical teamwork may be improved by factors like experience and education. Working with telemedicine did not reduce the personnel's cooperation within their own organizations, but rather improved it, although this effect was slight and most commonly involved improved knowledge of others. In general, the findings concerning cooperation and telemedicine were positive. PMID:11506756

  11. 36 CFR 211.4 - Cooperation for fire prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation for fire prevention and control. 211.4 Section 211.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION Cooperation § 211.4 Cooperation for fire prevention and control. The Forest...

  12. To cooperate or not to cooperate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    To Cooperate or not to Cooperate...? discusses results of a research project to study the rehabilitation of 1500-year old water tunnels, so called "qanats", in Syria. Communities all over the world are using traditional technologies to extract drinkingwater, irrigate their lands and feed their...

  13. Designing for cooperation - cooperating in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyng, Morten

    1991-01-01

    This article will discuss how to design computer applications that enhance the quality of work and products, and will relate the discussion to current themes in the field of Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW). Cooperation is a key element of computer use and work practice, yet here a...

  14. Improving livestock production using indigenous resources and conserving the environment. A publication prepared under the framework of a Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific project with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livestock farming is very important in Asia and the pacific region as a source of livelihood for resource poor farmers' - provision of food and food products and as a source of income. However, livestock productivity in many countries is below their genetic potential because of inadequate and imbalanced feeds and feeding, poor reproductive management and animal diseases exacerbated by lack of effective support services, such as animal husbandry extension, artificial insemination (AI) and/or veterinary services. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for Asia and the Pacific (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled 'Integrated Approach for Improving Livestock Production using Indigenous Resources and Conserving the Environment' (RAS/5/044). The overall objective of the project was to improve livestock productivity through better nutritional and reproduction strategies while conserving the environment. The specific objectives were (i) to improve animal productivity and decrease emission of selected greenhouse gases, (methane and carbon dioxide) and selected nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) into the environment; and (ii) to identify and adopt better breeding strategies that would improve animal productivity. This publication contains research results presented by scientists during the final review meeting incorporating the contributions of the experts associated with RAS/5/044. It is hoped that this publication will help stimulate further discussion, research and development into ways of improving the efficiency and productivity of livestock thus leading to higher income for smallholder farmers in the region

  15. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  16. Network form of the Danish agricultural council

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg; Karantininis, Kostas

    The Danish Agricultural Council (DAC) is a joint committee for the Danish farmers' associations and a number of other political and professional organisations of the agri-food industry. Danish farmers are often members of both the local farmer union and at least one cooperative, and both farmer...

  17. Cooperative Online Education

    OpenAIRE

    Morten Flate Paulsen

    2008-01-01

    Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. The pedagogical and administrative challenges with regard to accommodating both individual freedom and cooperation are explained in the Theory of Cooperative Freedom. This article shows that cooperative learning can be implemented successfully through a set of instruments or means. To illustrate this with current examples, the article p...

  18. Department of Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Forestry Housing Assistance Laws and Regulations Organic Agriculture Outreach Plant Health Research and Science Rural and ... Agricultural Research Agricultural Statistics Economic Research Food and Agriculture Research OPEDA Scholarship Program MARKETING AND TRADE Exporting ...

  19. The Cooperative Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stallen, M.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is essential for the functioning of human societies. To better understand how cooperation both succeeds and fails, recent research in cognitive neuroscience has begun to explore novel paradigms to examine how cooperative mechanisms may be encoded in the brain. By combining functional neu

  20. Farmer Cooperatives in the 21st Century: Young and Old Farmers in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hakelius, Karin

    1999-01-01

    Young and old farmers in Sweden view their cooperative commitment differently. Young farmers generally see their cooperative commitment as a means to obtain economic advantages. Old farmers have the opposite view: They view the cooperative membership as a way of showing solidarity with peers, economic aspects being of secondary importance. The recent development of farmers' views upon cooperatives, combined with the great changes taking place on the European agricultural markets, imply proble...

  1. How watch the dogs? Assessing the portuguese credit co-operative system governance

    OpenAIRE

    Cabo, Paula; Rebelo, João

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the importance of corporate governance has rising new attention as the 2008 financial crisis illustrates. As other enterprises, cooperatives are subject to pressure for greater efficiency and change in corporate governance. “It is important for cooperatives to consider corporate governance within the framework of their cooperative origins … building up an effective system of internal control” (Pallervo, 2000:3). The agricultural credit cooperative system in Portugal is made up...

  2. The New Zealand Dairy Cooperatives’ Adaptation to Changing Market Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Jerker; Ohlsson, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the market conditions, the strategies, and the organizational structures of agricultural cooperatives. Based on the growing literature on cooperative organizational models, it is expected that the new organizational patterns in the New Zealand dairy cooperatives in the early 2000s are a consequence of market changes. Case studies of the three cooperatives are conducted, focusing on the organizational structures in terms of collective versus individualized attributes. The...

  3. Agriculture ideas and modernization of agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Li Kangmin

    2011-01-01

    The development of agriculture has its own history from primitive agriculture, traditional agriculture to modem agriculture. Is it a historical road we must follow?Human being had experienced a long history of living on collection and hunting for about 2,000 to 3,000 millenniums since human being appeared on earth. After we settled down, another 10 millenniums passed. Human being began to cultivate crops and raise animals. Thus, we entered the primitive agriculture stage. The primitive agricu...

  4. Research on Chinese Agricultural Industrialization Based on SCP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Taking the SCP mode of industrial organization theory as the starting point,the paper analyzes Chinese agricultural market structure,market conduct and conduct performance and draws lessons from foreign experiences in developing agriculture.In the process of agricultural industrialization,Chinese agricultural development exists the problems of low intensive degree,low degree of differential products,surplus labor forces,low agricultural profit rate and low industrial contribution rate and farmers’ difficultly in adapting to market competition.The paper puts forward suggestions for addressing the problems,which include underpinning the cooperation of operation main bodies and developing rural cooperative organizations;promoting land transfer and clarifying land property;accelerating rural surplus labors transfer and abating trade barriers;increasing technology input and improving the contribution rate of technologies;improving circulation channels and intensifying agricultural competitiveness.

  5. Agricultural uses of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pile, R.S.; Behrends, L.L.; Burns, E.R.; Maddox, J.J.; Madewell, C.E.; Mays, D.A.; Meriwether, J.

    1977-11-16

    A major concern of the Tennessee Valley Authority is to ensure efficient use of Tennessee Valley resources in achieving optimum economic development without degrading the environment. As part of this effort, TVA is exploring many uses for waste heat. Activities to develop ways to use waste heat in agricultural production are described. Primary objectives are to: (1) identify potential agricultural uses of waste heat, (2) develop and test technologies and management criteria for more productive uses, (3) demonstrate technologies in commercial-scale production facilities, and (4) provide technical assistance for commercial application. Waste heat research and development projects under investigation or being planned by TVA independently or cooperatively include: (1) controlled environment greenhouses, (2) biological ecycling of nutrients from livestock manures, (3) soil heating and irrigation, and (4) environmental control for livestock housing. (MHR)

  6. Sustainable Agriculture: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    Tisdell, Clement A.

    2012-01-01

    Provides some background on concerns about the sustainability of agriculture, outlines and discusses views about what constitutes sustainable agriculture and contrasts the sustainability of modern industrialised agriculture with that of traditional agriculture. Then the question is considered (taking into account the available evidence) whether organic agriculture is more sustainable than non-organic agriculture. Barriers to switching from non-organic to organic agriculture are mentioned. The...

  7. Cooperative Cognitive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Giupponi, Lorenza; Ibars, Christian

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter, we have described how cooperation can benefit the different phases of the so called cognitive radio cycle. In particular we have focused on physical layer cooperation, showing that benefits can be obtained for both the primary and the secondary system in terms of spatial diversity, increased range and increased availability. In addition, we have modeled the critical interference management problem in a cooperative and cognitive system through a game theoretical approach, as w...

  8. Cooperative Machine Learning Method

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan M. Al-Khatib

    2011-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to an approach where one or more team of learners work together towards reaching a better knowledge or understanding of a specified task. The purpose of this paper is to use this approach to describe a proposal for designing and building a cooperative machine learning system (Multi-Learning system) that contains two or more machine learners that cooperate together. The objective of the proposal in this paper is to improve the effectiveness of the machine learning...

  9. Cooperative wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan

    2009-01-01

    Cooperative devices and mechanisms are increasingly important to enhance the performance of wireless communications and networks, with their ability to decrease power consumption and packet loss rate and increase system capacity, computation, and network resilience. Considering the wide range of applications, strategies, and benefits associated with cooperative wireless communications, researchers and product developers need a succinct understanding of relevant theory, fundamentals, and techniques to navigate this challenging field. ""Cooperative Wireless Communications"" provides just that. I

  10. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  11. Synthetic Yeast Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Wenying; Burton, Justin

    2010-03-01

    Cooperation is wide-spread and has been postulated to drive major transitions in evolution. However, Darwinian selection favors ``cheaters'' that consume benefits without paying a fair cost. How did cooperation evolve against the threat of cheaters? To investigate the evolutionary trajectories of cooperation, we created a genetically tractable system that can be observed as it evolves from inception. The system consists of two engineered yeast strains -- a red-fluorescent strain that requires adenine and releases lysine and a yellow-fluorescent strain that requires lysine and releases adenine. Cells that consume but not supply metabolites would be cheaters. From the properties of two cooperating strains, we calculated and experimentally verified the minimal initial cell densities required for the viability of the cooperative system in the absence of exogenously added adenine and lysine. Strikingly, evolved cooperative systems were viable at 100-fold lower initial cell densities than their ancestors. We are investigating the nature and diversity of pro-cooperation changes, the dynamics of cooperator-cheater cocultures, and the effects of spatial environment on cooperation and cheating.

  12. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Union Nations (UN) framework, the Slovak Republic participated in following activities on environment protection co-operation: UN European Economic Commission, UN Industrial Development Organization, UN Development Programme, UN Human Habitat Organization, UN Environment Programme, and UN Commission on Sustainable Development. Relevant activities of the Slovak Republic in these co-operations as well as in European Union and OECD activities are reviewed. International conventions and other forms of multilateral co-operation, bilateral co-operation, and international programmes and projects in which the Slovak Republic took participate are presented

  13. Organization Change and Vinification Cooperatives in France's Midi

    OpenAIRE

    Trevor M. Knox

    1998-01-01

    Standard accounts of French industrialization blame the predominance of the traditional family firm for France s failure to adopt or to pioneer modern production methods. Economic historians could easily interpret the cave cooperative vinicole as evidence that corroborates this explanation for inefficiency in French agriculture and industry. The cave cooperative preserved the idiosyncrasies that attend fragmented land tenure at the expense of governance costs and incentive problems associated...

  14. Game Analysis and Countermeasures on Increasing Prices of Agricultural Products under Triple Supply Chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From the perspective of supply chain of agricultural products,by establishing Stackelberg game model based on triple supply chain,this paper researches the price formation and profit distribution mechanism of agricultural products under circumstance of non-cooperation and cooperation.The results show the main factors responsible for the hiking of prices of agricultural products as follows:the cost of agricultural products climbs incessantly;the circulation cost hovers at high level;the factor inputs of agricultural products are short;inflation pressure is incessantly mounting;the profit distribution of supply chain is irrational.Finally,corresponding countermeasures are put forward.

  15. Agricultural Tariff Tracker

    Data.gov (United States)

    Foreign Agricultural Service, Department of Agriculture — The Agricultural Tariff Tool is a web application that queries tariff schedules and rate information resulting from Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). All...

  16. 36 CFR 211.6 - Cooperation in forest investigations or the protection, management, and improvement of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cooperation in forest... Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ADMINISTRATION Cooperation § 211.6 Cooperation in forest investigations or the protection, management, and improvement of...

  17. The Role of Management Behavior in Agricultural Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Michael L.

    1994-01-01

    Mintzburg’s managerial working role model is used to explore the ways roles and behavior of the general manager of a user-oriented firm differ from those of the manager of an investor-owned firm (IOF). It is argued that, in the roles of conflict resolution, resource allocation, information spokesperson, and leadership, the challenges of a user-oriented manager are not only significantly different but often more difficult. It is concluded that managers comfortable with complexity; technical-...

  18. Social sustainability of Brazilian biodiesel: The role of agricultural cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stattman, S.L.; Mol, A.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels have been criticized in academic and activist circles not only for their environmental consequences but also for their social impacts on food availability and on small-scale family farming. Meanwhile (global) initiatives and policies have been developed to stimulate "sustainable biofuels".

  19. Capital structure and financing decisions of agricultural cooperatives: Spanish evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos-Ronco, Alicia; Lajara-Camilleri, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    The study of the financial structure is a complex and recurrent line of research in the field of corporate finance. Increasing the understanding of the financial structure and its implications on corporate governance is the starting point for improving the access to external financing and reduce transaction costs as to optimize internal funding policies. There is no universal theory of financial structure although partial theories have arisen from empirical studies, attempting to relate struc...

  20. Coordination and Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Maarten

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis comment makes four related points. First, explaining coordination is different from explaining cooperation. Second, solving the coordination problem is more important for the theory of games than solving the cooperation problem. Third, a version of the Principle of Coordination can be rationalized on individualistic grounds. Finally, psychological game theory should consider how players perceive their gaming situation. ---------------------------------------------------------...

  1. Making Cooperative Learning Powerful

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Just about everyone loves the "idea" of cooperative learning, children working productively and excitedly in groups, everyone getting along and enthusiastically helping one another learn. This article presents five strategies that teachers can use to get the greatest benefit possible from cooperative learning and ensure that…

  2. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  3. Non-cooperative Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Damme, E.E.C.

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (g

  4. Cooperation or Silent Rivalry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    on an increasingly institutionalized basis. In terms of military cooperation the US is still the partner for Egypt. But outside the military sphere institutionalized cooperation is comparatively week. In particular the failure of the US to conclude a free-trade agreement has been crucial. But it...

  5. Green technological foresight on environmental friendly agriculture: Executive summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borch, K.; Christensen, S.; Jørgensen, U.; Kristensen, E.S.; Mathiasen, T.; Gissel Nielsen, G.; Pedersen, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Risø and the co-operators have on behalf of the Forest and Nature Agency completed a technological foresight on environmentally friendly agriculture based on green technologies. A technological foresight is a systematic dialogue on how one prepares forfuture challenges, which have not yet...... future’s agriculture to the test of technological possibilities. Amongst the participants were ecological and conventional farmers, representatives from industry,authorities and research institutions as well as from the Agricultural Council of Denmark, the Danish Conservation for the Protection of Nature......, and The Co-operative Retail and Wholesale Society of Denmark. The purpose has been to thoroughly examinethose environmental challenges which agriculture is up against in the future - and point towards technological and structural solutions as to how agriculture will develop from 2004 to 2024 with...

  6. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  7. Industrial use of agricultural products: European prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper first discusses how the GATT internal trade agreement has affected Italian and European agricultural practices, especially in that which regards the production of soybean and other vegetable oils. It then assesses how current Italian agricultural policies impact on proposals now being designed to encourage the production of vegetable oils for use as ecological automotive fuel alternatives. The paper cites the need for a greater say by farming associations, and cooperation among fuel oil producers and government bodies in the drafting up of future policies

  8. Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geophysical methods continue to show great promise for use in agriculture. The term “agricultural geophysics” denotes a subdiscipline of geophysics that is focused only on agricultural applications. The Handbook of Agricultural Geophysics was compiled to include a comprehensive overview of the geoph...

  9. Sustainable agriculture - selected papers

    OpenAIRE

    Krasowicz, Stanisław; Wrzaszcz, Wioletta; Zegar, Jozef St.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of research on socially sustainable agriculture. Features of sustainable agriculture. Sustainability of private farms in the light of selected criteria. Subsistence agricultural holdings and the sustainable development of agriculture. Sustainable farms in the light of the FADN data. Description of organic holdings in Poland.

  10. Transforming Vietnamese Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, Vietnam’s agricultural sector has made enormous progress. Vietnam’s performance in terms of agricultural yields, output, and exports, however, has been more impressive than its gains in efficiency, farmer welfare, and product quality. Vietnamese agriculture now sits at a turning point. The agricultural sector now faces growing domestic competition - from cities, ...

  11. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrucci, GP; Fitzek, FHP; Zhang, Qi;

    2009-01-01

    This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data......-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web...

  12. Agricultural firms; 1 : 1 000 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agricultural firms of the Slovak Republic are concentrated into four groups. The first group covers the co-operatives of varied forms: for instance, the share-holding type or the farming co-operatives. The farming co-operatives represent the prevailing, and evenly distributed type (885) in Slovakia. The second group comprises the private farmers (663) and they are concentrated into the sub-mountain regions of central Slovakia. The third group consists of different types of business companies (449) with regular distribution in the territory. The fourth, smallest group (210) is formed by different governmental firms (the plots belonging to educational centres, breeding stations, forest firms, and the like). Increased concentration of such enterprise is in the regions of Kosice and Banska Bystrica. (authors)

  13. Cooperating to Compete

    OpenAIRE

    Berdegue, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990 the government of Chile has carried out a major effort to support the participation of small scale agriculture in one of the most liberalized and competitive economies of the developing world. In particular, the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), and agency of the Ministry of Agriculture, has spent about 1.5 billion dollars to finance technical assistance and investment programs with the purpose of enhancing the capacities of smallholders and to link them to more dynamic a...

  14. Learning to cooperate for cooperative learning

    OpenAIRE

    Yael Sharan

    2014-01-01

    Learning to learn cooperatively requires several changes for teachers and students: in their perception of learning, in their attitudes towards teaching and learning, and in their social and cognitive behaviors in class. This article presents some of the ways that decades of research and practice have developed to enable teachers and students to acquire and adjust to these changes. In the process of change teachers and students are interconnected and interdependent, and together carry out the...

  15. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows: first, the cost is high; second, the technological content is low; third, the upstream main body lacks competitiveness; fourth, the structure of investment is irrational. Corresponding countermeasures are put forward to develop marketing channels of agricultural products as follows: perfect the service function of wholesale market of agricultural products; propel the construction of integration and expansion of wholesale market; develop the circulation cooperatives of agricultural products; develop the integrated organization of production and sales of agricultural products.

  16. International cooperation and exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNSA continued and enlarged bilateral cooperation with the nuclear energy developing countries and enhanced visiting for high rank leaders of regulatory authorities. Besides, the domestic units for implementing the Convention on Nuclear Safety were settled by coordination

  17. Nuclear cooperation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cooperation agreements are reviewed in tabular form, especially agreements with developing countries. The reporting countries are the USA, the Federal Republic of Germany, Canada, Australia, Japan, and France. A separate EURATOM list is annexed

  18. International cooperation between electricians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the opening of the Montreal Forum 'Electricity: the New Millennium', Francois Ailleret as outgoing president of UNIPEDE (International Union of Producers and Distributors of Electricity) spoke in favour of maintaining and even developing international cooperation between electricians. As the liberalization of electrical systems throughout the world increases, leading to a certain competition between electricians, international cooperation may become difficult. The author recalls the remarkable results of this cooperation in the twentieth century and confirms that it remains an irreplaceable communal resource perfectly compatible with competition between electricity companies. This multifaceted cooperation will lead firstly to a whole variety of spin-off benefiting companies and customers. It will also foster the sustainable development of projects to save the environment and combat poverty in the world, clearly illustrated by the situation of these nearly two billion inhabitants of our planet who still today do not enjoy the irreplaceable services of electricity. (author)

  19. Cooperative processing data bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasta, Juzar

    1991-01-01

    Cooperative processing for the 1990's using client-server technology is addressed. The main theme is concepts of downsizing from mainframes and minicomputers to workstations on a local area network (LAN). This document is presented in view graph form.

  20. Regional National Cooperative Observer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA publication dedicated to issues, news and recognition of observers in the National Weather Service Cooperative Observer program. Issues published regionally...

  1. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached...

  2. Solar cooperatives; Genosse Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Dierk

    2010-06-15

    Not a boom but a trend: Increasingly, solar power plants and other renewables-based systems are financed by cooperatives. This organizational structure requires long-term strategies and some idealism. (orig.)

  3. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs) are public-private partnerships composed of states, tribes, federal agencies, non-governmental organizations,...

  4. Cooperative Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly logs include a daily account of temperature extremes and precipitation, along with snow data at some locations. U.S. Cooperative Observer Program (COOP)...

  5. Non-cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Damme, E.E.C. van

    2000-01-01

    Non-cooperative games are mathematical models of interactive strategic decision situations.In contrast to cooperative models, they build on the assumption that all possibilities for commitment and contract have been incorporated in the rules of the game.This contribution describes the main models (games in normal form, and games in extensive form), as well as the main concepts that have been proposed to solve these games.Solution concepts predict the outcomes that might arise when the game is...

  6. Cooperative quantum Parrondo's games

    OpenAIRE

    Pawela, Łukasz; Sładkowski, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Coordination and cooperation are among the most important issues of game theory. Recently, the attention turned to game theory on graphs and social networks. Encouraged by interesting results obtained in quantum evolutionary game analysis, we study cooperative Parrondo's games in a quantum setup. The game is modeled using multidimensional quantum random walks with biased coins. We use the GHZ and W entangled states as the initial state of the coins. Our analysis shows than an apparent paradox...

  7. Extending Eurasia Security Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    After 14 years of development, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) , has set its sights on goals for the next de-cade at the 15th meeting of the Council of SCO Heads of State that was held in Ufa, the capital of Russia's Bashkortostan Republic, on July 9-10. The SCO, established in Shanghai in 2001, is committed to building fdendly neighbor rela- tions and maintaining security and stability in the Central Asian region through multilateral cooperation.

  8. Improving artificial breeding of cattle and buffalo in Asia. Guidelines and recommendations. A manual prepared under the framework of an IAEA Technical Cooperation Regional RCA Project on 'Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency', with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Asia and the Pacific Region (RCA), with technical support of the Joint FAO/IAEA Programme of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, implemented a Technical Cooperation (TC) project entitled Improving Animal Productivity and Reproductive Efficiency. The dual objectives of this project are (a) strengthening and extending the field applications of Urea Molasses Multinutrient Blocks (UMMB) and other feed supplementation strategies, and (b) monitoring and improving the reproductive management and fertility of smallholder dairy cattle subjected to Artificial Insemination (AI). The radioimmunoassay (RIA) for measurement of progesterone in milk and use of the computer database AIDA (Artificial Insemination Database Application) play important roles in the success of the latter objective. The first meeting to plan project activities was held in January 1999 in Yangon, Myanmar and the second meeting to review progress and develop further work plans was held in February 2000 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The latter meeting concluded that the procedures currently used by different Asian countries for evaluation of breeding bulls should be standardized and unified protocols developed for ensuring quality control of semen during processing, storage and field use. It was recommended that this should be accomplished through a regional workshop of national consultants. A workshop of national consultants from 10 RCA Member States was therefore held in April 2002 in Faisalabad, Pakistan, to consider and discuss the following aspects and arrive at a consensus on the best procedures and practices to be adopted to suit conditions and needs in developing countries of Asia: - Selection, management and health control of AI bulls; - Semen technologies from collection through processing to storage; - Delivery and follow-up of field AI services to farmers The IAEA has also supported a similar project in

  9. The role of cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvariani Levani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The potential of the Georgian wine industry is not fully utilized. High fragmentation of agricultural land leads to limited production that restricts farmers' access to capital resources, finances, and markets, and prevents further development of the Georgian wine industry. Grape collectors and wine makers need help to join their capital and efforts, to gain economies of scale in production and marketing by jointly accessing agricultural inputs. This study aims to identify the importance of farmer cooperatives for grape producers in the Georgian wine industry in order to overcome inefficiency in the sector. Furthermore, this research project investigates the barriers and driving forces of smallholder grape farmers or wine makers to join cooperatives. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stakeholders of the Georgian wine industry in order to assess different perspectives on the importance and benefits of farmer cooperatives in the local context. The interview results permit economic analysis of transaction costs, agency theory and property rights in the context of the nascent cooperative movement in the Georgian wine industry. The interviews revealed that development of agriculture cooperatives in the Georgian wine industry is strongly dependent on both farmer enthusiasm and governmental support.1

  10. Obstacles to Development of Marketing Channels of Agricultural Products in China and Countermeasures

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chun-mei

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the connotation of marketing channels of agricultural products, and gives an overall of current modes of marketing channels of agricultural products in China, including the marketing channel of transportation and sale of agricultural products, the marketing channel of intermediary sales agent, and the marketing channel of mutual cooperation. The problems existing in the marketing channel of agricultural products in China as follows, first, the cost is high; second, the t...

  11. 7 CFR 1484.35 - Must Cooperators follow specific contracting procedures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Program Operations § 1484.35 Must Cooperators...; (5) Perform some form of price or cost analysis, such as a comparison of price quotations to market..., challenges, or other disputes based on contracts entered into by the Cooperator. Neither FAS nor any...

  12. Coffee marketing cooperatives and rural poverty alleviation: Evidence from Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woubie, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Agricultural cooperatives in Ethiopia are increasing across time in terms of number, type, and membership size due to the supportive policy environment. In addition, there are also encouraging developments in terms of the consolidation of cooperative unions (second-tier level of organization

  13. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station project in... interconnection agreement to construct the proposed 300 megawatt (MW) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and...

  14. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station in White...) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota (Project). The proposed facility...

  15. Long-term Financing in European Agribusiness Cooperatives: Emerging Methods for Ameliorating Investment Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Iliopoulos, Constantine

    2002-01-01

    During recent years, dramatic changes in the world food system have led to unprecedented competition between agribusiness firms. To compete in this environment, agricultural cooperatives should invest substantially in long-term activities such as R&D and advertisement. Co-operatives have a difficult problem in acquiring equity capital because the residual claimant (benefactor) is the patron of the firm, not the investor. This organizational design poses to cooperatives three investment constr...

  16. Cooperating to Compete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdegue, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1990 the government of Chile has carried out a major effort to support the participation of small scale agriculture in one of the most liberalized and competitive economies of the developing world. In particular, the Agricultural Development Institute (INDAP), and agency of the Ministry of Agr

  17. Strengthening Dairy Cooperative through National Development of Livestock Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Establishment of dairy cattle development region needs to be conducted in accordance with the national dairy industry development plan. Dairy cattle regions have been designed and equipped with infrastructure supplies, supporting facilities, technologies, finance, processing, marketing, institutional and human resources. Dairy cooperative is one of the marketing channels of milk and milk products which have strategic roles to support the national dairy industry. Collaborations between dairy cooperatives and smallholder farmers within a district region have to be done based on agricultural ecosystems, agribusiness system, integrated farming and participatory approach. This may improve dairy cooperatives as an independent and competitive institution. Strengthening dairy cooperatives in national region dairy cattle was carried out through institutional inventory and dairy cooperatives performance; requirement of capital access, market and networks as well as education and managerial training; certification and accreditation feasibility analysis and information and technology utilization. Establishment of emerging dairy cooperatives towards small and micro enterprises is carried out by directing them to establish cooperatives which have legal certainty and business development opportunities. The impact of strengthening dairy cooperative may support dairy cattle development through increase population and milk production. Sustainable dairy cattle development needs to be supported by regional and national government policies.

  18. Chapter 11. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter the international co-operation of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD) in 1999 is reviewed. The Director General of the IAEA, Mr. Mohamed ElBaradei by his deputy for nuclear safety, Mr. Zikmund Domaratsky, upon the invitation of Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Slovak Republic Mr. Eduard Kukan, on 29 and 30 April 1999. Since 1999 Slovakia is represented in the Board of Governors of the IAEA. The Chairman of UJD was delegated by the Government of Slovakia to take the function of the governor. Co-operation between Slovakia and the IAEA in the field of technical projects is very successful. In the past year Slovakia was involved in 6 national and 23 regional projects. Significant part of regional projects related to the nuclear safety. Overall UJD organized 6 seminars and training courses with a broad international participation. These focused on radiation protection, fuel cycle, emergency regulations and utilization of radiation methods in oncology. There were 15 active research contracts in the field of agriculture, nuclear energy, safety of nuclear installations, physics, chemistry and RAW in 1999. A medium-term goal of UJD in the field of technical co-operation is a gradual transition to active international assistance in providing assistance to less developed countries. Within the technical projects of the IAEA assistance has been provided mainly to the countries of former of former Soviet Union. Other international activities and co-operation of UJD in 1999 are presented

  19. Considering Cooperation: A Guide For New Cooperative Development

    OpenAIRE

    Henehan, Brian M.; Anderson, Bruce L.

    2001-01-01

    This publication reviews the key elements needed for successful formation and development of new cooperative businesses. The motivation for and process of forming cooperatives are discussed. Six phases of cooperative formation are presented including: 1) identifying the opportunity, 2) building consensus on the potential for a cooperative, 3) developing trust among potential members, 4) securing member commitment, 5) involving other stakeholders, and 6) starting up the cooperative enterprise....

  20. Profits and Costs of the Development of Rural Cooperative Economic Organizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Through analyzing the economic profits of rural cooperative economic organizations,the following conclusions are obtained.The rural cooperative economic organizations can get the economic profits which are in accordance with the demands of market-oriented economy.The rural cooperative economic organizations can benefit from sharing the knight service provided by the government;from reducing and avoiding various kinds of risks in operation and from applying the agricultural technology and standardization production.Besides,the organizations can share the profits bought along by the standardized production of agricultural production and their members can enjoy the profits bought by socialized service system.In addition,the rural cooperative economic organizations can enjoy the profits produced by the agricultural management integration strategy.What’ more,they can increase profits by reducing the transaction costs;enlarging scale and enjoying the brand advantages.The analyses of the costs of the development of rural cooperative economic organizations mainly include the organizing costs,operation costs,restriction costs and cooperation costs.We think that the slow development of rural cooperative economic organizations is caused by their high operation cost and the impediment of external environment.In the end,the countermeasures on strengthening the research on the theory,promotion,education and training of rural economic cooperative organizations and intensifying the supports on the policies of rural economic cooperative organizations are put forward.

  1. Socio-economic determinants of cooperative societies’ access to the services of the Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank Déterminants socioéconomiques de l’accès des sociétés coopératives aux services de la Banque du Nigéria pour les coopératives agricoles et le développement rural Determinantes socioeconómicos para el acceso de las cooperativas a los servicios del Banco de Cooperativas Agrícolas y Desarrollo Rural de Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Festus Agbo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the extent to which cooperative societies had access to the special intervention fund administered by the  Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank (NACRDB Ltd. The study was carried out between March and September, 2005, on six randomly selected states, one from each of the six geopolitical zones into which Nigeria has been divided. States sampled included Enugu (South-East. Rivers (South-South, Ondo (South West, Benue (North Central, Bauchi (North East and Kano (North West. Sixty cooperative societies were also randomly selected for the study from each state covered; thirty of them with access and thirty without access to the intervention fund, on the whole 360 cooperative societies were studied. Statistical tools used for data analysis included percentage, means and range. Levene’s test for equality of means was used to determine if the means of the two categories of cooperatives (those with access and those without were statistically different. Likert scale rating was used to determine cooperative societies’ perception of the effects of agency operational guidelines on access. The Levene’s test for equality of means showed that the difference between the means of the two categories of cooperative societies were statistically significant at 5% probability level. Likert scale rating confirmed that the operational guidelines of NACRDB such as minimum credit requirement, type of crop grown, approved loan size, and insurance cover affected access to the intervention fund. It was recommended that promoters of cooperative societies should pay adequate attention to the socioeconomic characteristics of the cooperative societies so promoted and the credit guidelines of the NACRDB Ltd.Cet article évalue l’étendue de l’accès des sociétés coopératives au fonds spécial d’intervention administré par la NACRDB Ltd (Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative And Rural Development Bank. Une étude a

  2. Decision Making and Cooperation Restrictions.

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  3. Decision making and cooperation restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Slikker, M.

    2000-01-01

    Decision making by various individuals can result in conflicts or cooperation between these individuals. Game theory deals with both the mathematical modeling of these situations of conflict and cooperation and with the analysis of these models using math atical techniques. This thesis focuses on decision making and cooperation restrictions and can roughly be divided into two parts. The first part provides an analysis of cooperative games with exogenously given cooperation structures. Three t...

  4. Export Market Development for Agricultural Commodity Promotion Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Spatz, Karen J.

    1989-01-01

    Export market development activities are an integral part of today's agricultural marketing due to increasing competition worldwide. Marketing activities include promotion, advertising, and research financed by private and government-supported commodity groups. Cooperatives and private industry primarily market brand products but they also support generic promotion through legislated commodity programs. Federal and State agricultural commodity promotion programs are supported by growers and/o...

  5. The Environment for Scholarship in Agricultural Economics Extension

    OpenAIRE

    Doye, Damona G.

    2006-01-01

    Although opportunities and challenges for the Cooperative Extension Service have been addressed in the agricultural economics literature, little attention has been paid to the extension scholar. This article relates Boyer’s scholarship concepts and subsequent scholarship assessment articles to agricultural economics extension and describes some unique features of the extension scholar’s operating environment. Organizational framework, leadership, staffing, funding, accountability, and eva...

  6. The Pretoria Statement on the Future of African Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    IFPRI

    2004-01-01

    "On December 1–3, 2003, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), Capacity Building International, Germany (InWent), the Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) assembled a group of experienced agricultural, trade, and finance specialists from government and the private sector and from across Africa to help review, summarize, and distill conclusions from the case studies of African successes. Toget...

  7. Innovations in urban agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René

    2014-01-01

    This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban a

  8. Agricultural policy schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural support is a very important element in agricultural policy in many countries. Agricultural support is basically an instrument to meet the overall objectives of the agricultural policy – objectives set by society. There are a great number of instruments and ways of intervention in...... agricultural policy and they have different functions and impacts. Market price support and deficiency payments are two very important instruments in agricultural policy; however, they belong to two different support regimes or support systems. Market price support operates in the so-called high price system...... given by means of direct support, while market prices are left undistorted at, or close to, world market level. The two different support systems have very different implications for agricultural production, financing, markets, and other aspects; still, there is an income transfer to agriculture in both...

  9. Agricultural science policy

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Pardey, Philip G.; Taylor, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Technological advances developed through R&D have supplied the world with not only more food, but better food. This report looks at issues raised by this changing environment for agricultural productivity, agricultural R&D, and natural resource management.

  10. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  11. Fundamental Limits of Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Lozano, Angel; Andrews, Jeffrey G

    2012-01-01

    Cooperation is viewed as a key ingredient for interference management in wireless systems. This paper shows that cooperation has fundamental limitations. The main result is that even full cooperation between transmitters cannot in general change an interference-limited network to a noise-limited network. The key idea is that there exists a spectral efficiency upper bound that is independent of the transmit power. First, a spectral efficiency upper bound is established for systems that rely on pilot-assisted channel estimation; in this framework, cooperation is shown to be possible only within clusters of limited size, which are subject to out-of-cluster interference whose power scales with that of the in-cluster signals. Second, an upper bound is also shown to exist when cooperation is through noncoherent communication; thus, the spectral efficiency limitation is not a by-product of the reliance on pilot-assisted channel estimation. Consequently, existing literature that routinely assumes the high-power spect...

  12. Canadian involvement in international nuclear cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1945 Canada has been actively involved in the development of an international consensus on measures to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In parallel with this involvement, Canada has entered into cooperative agreements with several countries under which nuclear materials, equipment and facilities have been supplied in connection with the medical, industrial, agricultural and electrical power applications of nuclear energy. This paper summarizes the actions taken by Canada to encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to avoid the spread of nuclear weapons. (author)

  13. Machine vision in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Gouws, J.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for t...

  14. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Stanisław Samborski; Dariusz Gozdowski

    2007-01-01

    Precision agriculture (PA) is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM). Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS), Global Positioning System (GPS), remote sensing yield monitors. Because...

  15. The Realization Path of Japan’s Agricultural Modernization and Its Precious Experience for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiu-guang; XIE Ping

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, the per capita arable land area is small, the natural resources are short, and agricultural production has the typical characteristics of the peasant economy. Even if there are many unfavorable conditions, the level of agricultural modernization of Japan has exceeded that of many developed countries. We conduct comparative analysis on the development characteristics of China’s agriculture and Japan’s agriculture, and summarize the realization path of Japan’s agricultural modernization. Based on the reality of China, we can draw on the following experience from Japan: establishing and improving the agricultural legislation for agriculture; improving the rural cooperative economic organizations; deepening the reform of the agricultural land property right system; increasing the government’s direct funds input of into agriculture; improving the agricultural technology extension system.

  16. Industralization of Animal Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Oya S. Erdogdu; David Hennessy

    2003-01-01

    The economic concerns and the technological developments increased control over nature and nurture in the animal agriculture. That changed the seasonality pattern of the supply side and lead to structural change in the animal agriculture together with the demand side factors. In this study we focused on the supply side factors and document the ‘industralization’ of the animal agricultural production.

  17. Cambodian Agriculture in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report seeks to understand the successes, challenges and opportunities of Cambodia’s agricultural transformation over the past decade to derive lessons and insights on how to maintain future agricultural growth, and particularly on the government’s role in facilitating it. It is prepared per the request of the Supreme National Economic Council and the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry ...

  18. Synchrony and cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members. PMID:19152536

  19. Evolution, epigenetics and cooperation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Patrick Bateson

    2014-04-01

    Explanations for biological evolution in terms of changes in gene frequencies refer to outcomes rather than process. Integrating epigenetic studies with older evolutionary theories has drawn attention to the ways in which evolution occurs. Adaptation at the level of the gene is givingway to adaptation at the level of the organism and higher-order assemblages of organisms. These ideas impact on the theories of how cooperation might have evolved. Two of the theories, i.e. that cooperating individuals are genetically related or that they cooperate for self-interested reasons, have been accepted for a long time. The idea that adaptation takes place at the level of groups is much more controversial. However, bringing together studies of development with those of evolution is taking away much of the heat in the debate about the evolution of group behaviour.

  20. International co-operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1996, Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR) ensured the Slovak Republic (SR) obligations with relation to the international agreements and with the SR membership in the IAEA.International co-operation has been ensured on the basis of the bilateral international agreements. With the Ministry of Foreign Affairs co-operation, the SR fulfilled its financial obligations to this organization in due time and in the full scope. Representing Central and Eastern Europe interest in the Board of Governors, the SR participation in the highest executive in the highest executive authority was finished in 1996.The Board of Governors Vice-chairman position was executed by NRA SR Chairman. 5 national and 6 regional technical co-operation and assistance projects were realized in 1996. 12 organizations participated in these projects and accordingly 104 experts took part in training programmes, scientific visits or as the mission members abroad. Besides, Slovak experts participated at work of technical advisory and consultation groups with the significant assistance. In the framework of IAEA co-operation, the SR was visited by 11 expert missions formed by 28 experts from 19 countries including IAEA. Slovak organizations, namely institutes of the Academy of Sciences, Slovak research centres and universities participated in IAEA scientific and research activities through NRA SR. 15 scientific contracts in total were approved and realized and these contracts are utilized as supplementary financing of the own scientific and research projects. Other international co-operation and regional co-operation activities of the NRA SR in 1996 are reviewed

  1. Cooperate or Free Ride?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    the establishment of the BIS and free riders in the Austrian crisis, even though there were marked differences in their attitude to international cooperation. These results run counter to the views of those International Political Economy (IPE) theorists who argue that small states should be in favour...... of international cooperation. On the other hand, the evidence seems to confirm Kindleberger's hypothesis that small countries were free riding during the international financial crisis of 1931, and that therefore there is a need for some coordinating mechanism, or a hegemon, in such crises....

  2. Cooperative internal conversion process

    CERN Document Server

    Kálmán, Péter

    2015-01-01

    A new phenomenon, called cooperative internal conversion process, in which the coupling of bound-free electron and neutron transitions due to the dipole term of their Coulomb interaction permits cooperation of two nuclei leading to neutron exchange if it is allowed by energy conservation, is discussed theoretically. General expression of the cross section of the process is reported in one particle nuclear and spherical shell models as well in the case of free atoms (e.g. noble gases). A half-life characteristic of the process is also determined. The case of $Ne$ is investigated numerically. The process may have significance in fields of nuclear waste disposal and nuclear energy production.

  3. Nordic Energy Policy Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Birte Holst

    2016-01-01

    for Nordic projects of common interests. This created the necessary critical knowledge base in new energy technologies, energy systems and energy markets. Nordic energy policy cooperation followed the ordinary Nordic governance structures, rules and mode of operation with Council of Ministers, supported...... by a committee of senior officials and a secretariat. This was characterised by an incremental development of the cooperation based on consensus, mutual understanding and trust facilitated through exchange of experiences, work groups, seminars, educational activities and mobility schemes for energy policy...

  4. Subradiant split Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Cottet, Audrey; Kontos, Takis; Yeyati, Alfredo Levy

    2011-01-01

    We suggest a way to characterize the coherence of the split Cooper pairs emitted by a double-quantum-dot based Cooper pair splitter (CPS), by studying the radiative response of such a CPS inside a microwave cavity. The coherence of the split pairs manifests in a strongly nonmonotonic variation of the emitted radiation as a function of the parameters controlling the coupling of the CPS to the cavity. The idea to probe the coherence of the electronic states using the tools of Cavity Quantum Ele...

  5. Cooperative Prototyping Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grønbæk, Kaj

    1989-01-01

    tried to achieve a fluent work-like evaluation of prototypes where users envisioned future work with a computer tool, at the same time as we made on-line modifications of prototypes in cooperation with the users when breakdown occur in their work-like evaluation. The experiments showed that it was...... possible to make a number of direct manipulation changes of prototypes in cooperation with the users, in interplay with their fluent work-like evaluation of these. However, breakdown occurred in the prototyping process when we reached the limits of the direct manipulation support for modification. From...

  6. Introduction: cooperative learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Manuel Serrano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The principal objective of this revision is the recognition of cooperative learning as a highly effective strategy for the accomplishment of the general goals in learning. The different investigations assessed validate the potential that a cooperative organization of the classroom could entail for academic achievement, self-esteem, interpersonal attraction or social support. The solidity of the existing research contributes to its external and internal validity and, thus, to conclude that the results are consistent and can be extrapolated to different cultures, ethnic groups or countries.

  7. A Consideration of Agriculture and Agricultural Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Gengling

    2006-01-01

    The article explores the importance of agricultulture in line with development of society. It uses examples of high productivity achieved in grain and cotton crops in lnner Mongolia and Xinjiang areas to show that the fundamental objective of agricultural science is to maximize crops through the most effective use of soil, fertilizer and water in gaining the greatest benefit from power of the sun. Agricultural science should take up relevant theories and methodologies from other sciences, such as biological science, earth science and economics. The use of information technology will have great benefits for agricultural science. It hopes the scientific communities of China can make a significant contribution to solving the problems facing our rural areas, farmers and agriculture itself.

  8. AGRICULTURAL POLICIES AND COMPETITION IN WORLD AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raluca Duma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural policies have had a guiding role inagriculture development and implicitly in their marketing. Usually they belongto each state and government and are issued in accordance with their specificclimate, social-economic and cultural background which includes food andgastronomic traditions. Agricultural policies have in view home and foreignmarket demand, as well as the socio-demographic, political and military contextat a certain point in the socio-economic development

  9. Imbalance and Correction of the Rural Credit Cooperatives and Rural Economic Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This article expounds the manifestations of imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations: the rural credit cooperatives fail to effectively promote economic development in rural areas; the rural economy is also incapable of effectively promoting the development of the rural credit cooperatives. It analyses the reasons for imbalance between the rural credit cooperatives and rural economic relations,including the direct reason (loss of function of the rural credit cooperatives) ,the fundamental reason (restricted economic development of agriculture and countryside and relative pauperization of farmers) ,and the deep-seated reason (sluggish rural economic development) . Corresponding countermeasures and proposals are put forward for promoting balanced development of the rural credit cooperatives and rural economy as follows: first, deepen reform of the rural credit cooperatives,strengthen the function of the rural credit cooperatives in serving the needs of agriculture; second, speed up economic development in rural areas,eliminate the economic constraints for the development of the rural credit cooperatives; third,transform the development pattern and the development strategies,foster the macro-institutional environment for balanced development of rural credit cooperatives and rural economy.

  10. Agricultural science and ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Vaarst, Mette

    2014-01-01

    , about 20 % of the world's coral reefs and 35 % of the mangrove areas were lost (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005). In the following, the development of agricultural science will be sketched out and the role of ethics in agricultural science will be discussed. Then different views of nature that have...... shaped agriculture and the role of science in agriculture will be discussed by analyzing some of the presumptions behind the concept of ecosystem services and the way animals are viewed. Finally, the concepts of animal welfare and sustainability will be explored to show how they make vivid the connection...... between agricultural science and ethics....

  11. Shifting Control? The changes of internal governance in agricultural cooperaties in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijman, J.; Hanisch, M.; Sangen, van der G.

    2014-01-01

    Governance describes a firm´s system of decision-making, direction and control. Over the last decades agricultural cooperatives in Europe have been pursuing innovations in internal governance structures. As a response to changing market environments, cooperatives adjust the size and composition of b

  12. Addressing biodiversity loss when international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Esteban May

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence shows that international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic. This article uses a theoretical framework to identify the effects of adopting either unilateral (i.e. non-cooperative or cooperative environmental policies on localbiodiversity when countries compete in this market structure. The results reveal that unilateral environmental policies can negatively affect local biodiversity in foreign countries. This suggests that protection of natural habitats can only be achieved by means of international cooperation.

  13. Negative cooperativity in regulatory enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitzki, A; Koshland, D E

    1969-04-01

    Negative cooperativity has been observed in CTP synthetase, an allosteric enzyme which contains a regulatory site. Thus, the same enzyme exhibits negative cooperativity for GTP (an effector) and glutamine (a substrate) and positive cooperativity for ATP and UTP (both substrates). In the process of the delineation of these phenomena, diagnostic procedures for negative cooperativity were developed. Application of these procedures to other enzymes indicates that negative cooperativity is a characteristic of many of them. These findings add strong support for the sequential model of subunit interactions which postulates that ligand-induced conformational changes are responsible for regulatory and cooperative phenomena in enzymes. PMID:5256410

  14. Predicting Human Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nay, John J.; Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy

    2016-01-01

    The Prisoner’s Dilemma has been a subject of extensive research due to its importance in understanding the ever-present tension between individual self-interest and social benefit. A strictly dominant strategy in a Prisoner’s Dilemma (defection), when played by both players, is mutually harmful. Repetition of the Prisoner’s Dilemma can give rise to cooperation as an equilibrium, but defection is as well, and this ambiguity is difficult to resolve. The numerous behavioral experiments investigating the Prisoner’s Dilemma highlight that players often cooperate, but the level of cooperation varies significantly with the specifics of the experimental predicament. We present the first computational model of human behavior in repeated Prisoner’s Dilemma games that unifies the diversity of experimental observations in a systematic and quantitatively reliable manner. Our model relies on data we integrated from many experiments, comprising 168,386 individual decisions. The model is composed of two pieces: the first predicts the first-period action using solely the structural game parameters, while the second predicts dynamic actions using both game parameters and history of play. Our model is successful not merely at fitting the data, but in predicting behavior at multiple scales in experimental designs not used for calibration, using only information about the game structure. We demonstrate the power of our approach through a simulation analysis revealing how to best promote human cooperation. PMID:27171417

  15. Cooperation Or Conflict?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Iran’s recent actions have created confusion and heightened doubt about the future of the nuclear issue Recent events involving Iran have produced high drama. First, the country said it would cooperate with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the

  16. Indian Ocean Rim Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wippel, Steffen

    Since the mid-1990s, the Indian Ocean has been experiencing increasing economic cooperation among its rim states. Middle Eastern countries, too, participate in the work of the Indian Ocean Rim Association, which received new impetus in the course of the current decade. Notably Oman is a very active...

  17. Cooperative Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G. M.; Kimura, H.

    2013-01-01

    In and out of the classroom, life would be unthinkable without interacting with fellow humans. This book urges more cooperative and group activities in the English language classroom for all the advantages: students use the target language more, help each other with comprehension, receive attention from peers as well as the teacher, are motivated…

  18. Supranational Cooperation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Deugd, Nienke; Stamm, Katharina; Westerman, Wim

    2013-01-01

    The sovereign debt crisis and the euro crisis have prompted heads of state and government in Europe to intensify supranational cooperation. However, some political leaders and policy makers aim for more. They propose the introduction of a common European economic government that would prevent Europe

  19. Cooperative Mobile Sensing Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, R S; Kent, C A; Jones, E D; Cunningham, C T; Armstrong, G W

    2003-02-10

    A cooperative control architecture is presented that allows a fleet of Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs) to collect data in a parallel, coordinated and optimal manner. The architecture is designed to react to a set of unpredictable events thereby allowing data collection to continue in an optimal manner.

  20. Cooperating with the future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Oliver P.; Rand, David G.; Peysakhovich, Alexander; Nowak, Martin A.

    2014-07-01

    Overexploitation of renewable resources today has a high cost on the welfare of future generations. Unlike in other public goods games, however, future generations cannot reciprocate actions made today. What mechanisms can maintain cooperation with the future? To answer this question, we devise a new experimental paradigm, the `Intergenerational Goods Game'. A line-up of successive groups (generations) can each either extract a resource to exhaustion or leave something for the next group. Exhausting the resource maximizes the payoff for the present generation, but leaves all future generations empty-handed. Here we show that the resource is almost always destroyed if extraction decisions are made individually. This failure to cooperate with the future is driven primarily by a minority of individuals who extract far more than what is sustainable. In contrast, when extractions are democratically decided by vote, the resource is consistently sustained. Voting is effective for two reasons. First, it allows a majority of cooperators to restrain defectors. Second, it reassures conditional cooperators that their efforts are not futile. Voting, however, only promotes sustainability if it is binding for all involved. Our results have implications for policy interventions designed to sustain intergenerational public goods.

  1. Challenges for global agricultural research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, R O

    1992-03-01

    The Green Revolution of the 60s can not be expected to continue to feed the world as its population continues to grow. Innovations in plant varieties, chemical inputs, and irrigation did result in more food; however, the cost of this innovation was loss of soil and fertility, poisoning of ground water, waterlogging, and salination of fields. If the world's food production system is to be sustainable and environmentally safe as well as capable of producing 50% more food in the next 20 years, then a lot of research must still be done. Now, instead of 2 international research centers, there are 17. All these centers are operated under the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). Another 12 center are currently being set up or cooperating with CGIAR. The scientists are also being asked to develop cost and labor effective ways to improve the soil and conserve water. This change of priorities has come about partly from external pressure, but mostly from: the realization that agricultural productivity must continue to grow at unprecedented rates for the next 4 decades; chemical inputs are often to expensive, unavailable, or dangerous, there is very little room for expanding irrigation; national /agricultural research and extension centers have become underfunded, overly politicized, and ineffective; developing countries can not rely solely upon their fertile land to feed their people, they must bring marginal land into production. To accomplish all this, the World Bank must take a leadership role. It is the only organization with enough money and political power to effectively bring everyone together. PMID:12284925

  2. EFFECTIVENESS OF COOPERATIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATIVE SKILLS

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. Kulkarni

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative Learning Skills :David Johnson and Roger Johnson (2009a) explain five elements that define true cooperative learning groups : (i) Positive interdependence ; (ii) Promotive interaction ; (iii) Individual accountability ; (iv) Collaborative and social skills ; (v) Group processing.

  3. To Cooperate or Not to Cooperate: Why Behavioural Mechanisms Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Arthur; André, Jean-Baptiste; Bredeche, Nicolas

    2016-05-01

    Mutualistic cooperation often requires multiple individuals to behave in a coordinated fashion. Hence, while the evolutionary stability of mutualistic cooperation poses no particular theoretical difficulty, its evolutionary emergence faces a chicken and egg problem: an individual cannot benefit from cooperating unless other individuals already do so. Here, we use evolutionary robotic simulations to study the consequences of this problem for the evolution of cooperation. In contrast with standard game-theoretic results, we find that the transition from solitary to cooperative strategies is very unlikely, whether interacting individuals are genetically related (cooperation evolves in 20% of all simulations) or unrelated (only 3% of all simulations). We also observe that successful cooperation between individuals requires the evolution of a specific and rather complex behaviour. This behavioural complexity creates a large fitness valley between solitary and cooperative strategies, making the evolutionary transition difficult. These results reveal the need for research on biological mechanisms which may facilitate this transition. PMID:27148874

  4. [Social cooperatives in Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villotti, P; Zaniboni, S; Fraccaroli, F

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the role of social cooperatives in Italy as a type of economic, non-profit organization and their role in contributing to the economic and social growth of the country. The purpose of this paper is to learn more about the experience of the Italian social cooperatives in promoting the work integration process of disadvantaged workers, especially those suffering from mental disorders, from a theoretical and an empirical point of view. Social enterprise is the most popular and consolidated legal and organizational model for social enterprises in Italy, introduced by Law 381/91. Developed during the early 1980s, and formally recognized by law in the early 1990s, social cooperatives aim at pursuing the general interest of the community to promote the human needs and social inclusion of citizens. They are orientated towards aims that go beyond the interest of the business owners, the primary beneficiary of their activities is the community, or groups of disadvantaged people. In Italy, Law 381/91 distinguishes between two categories of social cooperatives, those producing goods of social utility, such as culture, welfare and educational services (A-type), and those providing economic activities for the integration of disadvantaged people into employment (B-type). The main purpose of B-type social cooperatives is to integrate disadvantaged people into the open labour market. This goal is reached after a period of training and working experience inside the firm, during which the staff works to improve both the social and professional abilities of disadvantaged people. During the years, B-type social co-ops acquired a particular relevance in the care of people with mental disorders by offering them with job opportunities. Having a job is central in the recovery process of people suffering from mental diseases, meaning that B-type social co-ops in Italy play an important rehabilitative and integrative role for this vulnerable population of workers. The

  5. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  6. Harvest-Then-Cooperate: Wireless-Powered Cooperative Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, He; Li, Yonghui; Rebelatto, Joao Luiz; Uchoa-Filhoand, Bartolomeu F.; Vucetic, Branka

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a wireless-powered cooperative communication network consisting of one hybrid access-point (AP), one source, and one relay. In contrast to conventional cooperative networks, the source and relay in the considered network have no embedded energy supply. They need to rely on the energy harvested from the signals broadcasted by the AP for their cooperative information transmission. Based on this three-node reference model, we propose a harvest-then-cooperate (HTC) prot...

  7. The network form of the Danish Agricultural Council

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Jesper Tranbjerg; Karantininis, Kostas

    The Danish Agricultural Council (DAC) is a joint committee for the Danish farmers' associa-tions, Federation of Danish cooperatives and a number of other professional organisations of the agri-food industry. Danish farmers are often members of both the local farmer union and at least one...

  8. On the Nature of a Cooperative: A System of Attributes Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Li; Hendrikse, George

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn the 1950s and 1960s there was a debate about the nature of an agricultural cooperative: the cooperative as extension of the farm, the cooperative as vertical integration or the cooperative as a firm. We revisit this debate with various concepts from the theory of the firm that have been formulated since 1990. Two concepts shed light on this debate: the enterprise as a system of attributes and the delineation of a governance structure in terms of ownership rights, control rights...

  9. On the Nature of a Cooperative: A System of Attributes Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s there was a debate about the nature of an agricultural cooperative: the cooperative as extension of the farm, the cooperative as vertical integration or the cooperative as a firm. We revisit this debate with various concepts from the theory of the firm that have been formulated since 1990. Two concepts shed light on this debate: the enterprise as a system of attributes and the delineation of a governance structure in terms of ownership rights, control rights and income ...

  10. Reorganization of Agricultural Extension toward Green Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Allahyari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Considering unsustainable agricultural conditions of Iran and organizational recession and inability of current extension organization to achieve sustainability, it seems that extension systems require a new organizational structure to achieve sustainability objectives. The purpose of the present study was to identify the most appropriate characteristics for extension organization toward green agriculture in Iran context. Approach: To fulfill this objective, a sample of 120 respondents was selected through simple random sampling technique. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research. A mailed questionnaire was used to collect the data. The response rate of questionnaire was 65.83% (N = 79. Appropriate descriptive statistics such as mean scores, standard deviations and variation ratio were used. Results: Extension experts believed that among important organizational characteristics of extension system for supporting green agriculture collaboration among research, extension, education organizations, farmers' associations, NGOs, rural credit agencies, transportation companies, considering local groups and learning organization had very high importance for supporting green agriculture. According to factor analysis, the implications for extension organization were categorized into two groups consisting: (1 Holistic organizations (2 Participatory organizations that those factors explained 67.54% of the total variance of the research variables. Conclusion: Identifying suitable extension mechanisms had important role for developing extension system. Therefore, identifying extension organizational characteristics for supporting green agriculture of Iran is one of the major approaches needs to be carefully thought and accurately implemented for the extension system development.

  11. MODERNIZATION OF AGRICULTURE VS SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz KUSZ

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the correlation between the need to modernise agriculture and sustainable development. Modernisation of agriculture aiming only at increasing the efficiency of production, if implemented in accordance with the principles of sustainable development, enabled reduction in the negative external effects. Modernisation of agriculture is supposed to ensure productivity growth without imposing any threats to the natural environment and the well-being of animals, reduced impoverishment in rural areas as well as to ensure food security, growth in the profitability of farms, improvement to the efficiency of use of natural resources. Therefore, in the near future, the agriculture – environment relation will be subject to change taking into account, on the one hand, concern about the natural environment, and, on the other, pressure on increasing the efficiency of production. The above challenges will be addressed by the need to implement efficient and, at the same time, environmentally-friendly production technologies and relevant legal instruments which oblige agricultural producers to protect the natural environment.

  12. Cooperating for assisting intelligently operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are in the process of an intelligent cooperative system in a nuclear plant application. The system must cooperate with an operator who accomplishes a task of supervision of a real-world process. We point out in the paper that a cooperation between a cooperative system and an operator has two modes: a waking state and a participating state. During the waking state, the system observes the operator's behavior and the consequences on the process. During the participation state, the cooperative system builds jointly with the user a solution to the problem. In our approach, the cooperation depends on the system capabilities to explain, to incrementally acquire knowledge and to make explicit the context of the cooperation. We develop these ideas in the framework of the design of the cooperative system in the nuclear plant. (authors). 22 refs., 1 fig

  13. Merging Cooperatives: Planning, Negotiating, Implementing

    OpenAIRE

    Swanson, Bruce L.

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines for reorganization of cooperatives through merger, acquisition, or consolidation are provided. Planning, negotiating, and implementing phases of reorganization are covered. Items from actual combinations of cooperatives are reported as they relate to phases of the reorganization process.

  14. Prospects of ASEAN Legal Cooperation

    OpenAIRE

    Agus Riyanto

    2016-01-01

    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional organization in the countries of Southeast Asia established in Bangkok, Thailand, on August 8, 1967 (the Bangkok Declaration) by Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. One form of cooperation that could further encourage the establishment of ASEAN's goal was legal cooperation. This was because, this cooperation could further strengthen cooperation in politics, economy, social and culture in Southeast Asia. ...

  15. International cooperation for operating safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international-cooperation organization in nuclear safety domain is discussed. The nuclear energy Direction Committee is helped by the Security Committee for Nuclear Power Plants in the cooperation between security organizations of member countries and in the safety and nuclear activity regulations. The importance of the cooperation between experts in human being and engine problems is underlined. The applied methods, exchange activities and activity analysis, and the cooperation of the Nuclear Energy Agency and international organizations is analysed

  16. Cooperation in regional nuclear training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the nuclear training currently being undertaken in the countries of the co-authors, and considers the degree to which training problems are amenable to common solutions such as cooperative regional training programs. Different types of cooperation are discussed including the development of regional and international training centers, cooperative bilateral and multilateral training, and the proposed US International Nuclear Safety Training Academy. The paper provides suggestions of ways for enhancing regional cooperation

  17. Financial Performance of Dairy Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Thomas H.

    1985-01-01

    Combined balance sheets and operating statements were used to develop benchmark financial ratios for dairy marketing cooperatives. Data from 291 cooperatives were summarized for five types of dairy cooperatives, then by three types and three size combinations. Both type and size of cooperative made differences in most of the 16 financial ratios calculated as well as in the common size balance sheets and operating statements.

  18. CTBTO international cooperation workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Cooperation Workshop took place in Vienna, Austria, on 16 and 17 November 1998, with the participation of 104 policy/decision makers, Research and Development managers and diplomatic representatives from 58 States Signatories to the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Workshop attempted to develop Treaty stipulations to: promote cooperation to facilitate and participate in the fullest possible exchange relating to technologies used in the verification of the Treaty; enable member states to strengthen national implementation of verification measures, and to benefit from the application of such technologies for peaceful purposes. The potential benefits arising from the CTBT monitoring, analysis and data communication systems are multifaceted, and as yet unknown. This Workshop provided the opportunity to examine some of these possibilities. An overview of the CTBT verification regime on the general aspects of the four monitoring technologies (seismic, hydro-acoustic, infrasound and radionuclides), including some of the elements that are the subject of international cooperation, were presented and discussed. Questions were raised on the potential benefits that can be derived by participating in the CTBT regime and broad-based discussions took place. Several concrete proposals on ways and means to facilitate and promote cooperation among States Signatories were suggested. The main points discussed by the participants can be summarized as follows: the purpose of the CTBT Organization is to assist member states to monitor Treaty compliance; the CTBT can be a highly effective technological tool which can generate wide-ranging data, which can be used for peaceful purposes; there are differences in the levels of technology development in the member states that is why peaceful applications should be supported by the Prep Com for the benefit of all member states, whether developed or developing, training being a key element to optimize the CTBT

  19. Machine vision in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gouws

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the use of machine vision in agriculture. Agriculture is practised in a more natural environment than most industrial undertakings, implying that agricultural automation requires robotic systems with well developed sensory abili­ties. For such systems, machine vision is an essential component. In this paper examples are used to show that the use of machine vision is already widespread in agriculture, and that there are many more potential applications for this technology. It is also indicated that machine vision in agriculture does not only hold potential financial advantages, but that it can also contribute to improved quality of life for agricultural workers, and even for farm animals.

  20. EMPLOYMENT OF AGRICULTURAL LABOURERS IN ANDHRA PRADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ramanaidu

    2015-09-01

    , improvements in agriculture sector; the credit at cheaper rates of interest on easy terms of payments for undertaking subsidiary occupations, proper training for improving the skills of farm labourers and Co-operative farming.

  1. Agricultural Occupations Programs Planning Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A set of program planning guides that include seven areas (1) Agricultural Production, (2) Agricultural Supplies and Services, (3) Agricultural Mechanics, (4) Agricultural Products, (5) Ornamental Horticulture, (6) Agricultural Resources, and (7) Forestry, were developed and introduced to high school applied biological and agricultural occupations…

  2. Urban Agriculture : Sustainability Multiplier

    OpenAIRE

    Årevall, Agnieszka Janicka

    2013-01-01

    For some years now, the phenomena of urban agriculture have been present in the public discourse on cities and sustainability. It is often assumed that urban agriculture has the potential to contribute to an increased sustainability of the cities. However, many practical and theoretical obstacles might have to be overcome in order to realize this potential. One ambition of this thesis is to analyse urban agriculture as a “sustainability multiplier” – that is, as a practice that can positively...

  3. Agriculture and riparian areas

    OpenAIRE

    Krueger, William C.

    1994-01-01

    Agriculture has historically been based in the subirrigated riparian ecosystems. Often the engineering and agricultural practices have altered the systems and many of the associated ecological processes. In the Western United States, the most common agricultural practices affecting riparian systems has been livestock grazing. Effects have been both positive and negative. Lack of management has deteriorated many of these systems. Current research has shown what types of management have been su...

  4. Biosurfactants in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sachdev, Dhara P.; Cameotra, Swaranjit S.

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and ...

  5. Vulnerability in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Znaor, Darko

    2009-01-01

    The impact from climate change on agriculture is expected to be significant because of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate conditions in general. Precipitation, temperature, weather extremes and evaporation rates all impact production. Agriculture is important to the economy of Croatia due to its overall value and its impact on food security, vulnerable populations, and the employment it generates. In 2001, 92% of Croatia was classified as rural and 48% of the Croatian population live...

  6. Risk management in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Bharat Ramaswami; Shamika Ravi; S.D. Chopra

    2003-01-01

    This monograph was written to be part of the series of studies commissioned by the Ministry of Agriculture under the rubric of "State of Indian Farmer - A Millennium Study". On the basis of existing literature, this study documents the status of our knowledge on risks of agriculture and their management. Chapter 2 discusses the evidence on the nature, type and magnitude of agricultural risks. Chapter 3 discusses farmer strategies to combat risk. In addition to the mechanisms at the level of t...

  7. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    that the agricultural price incentive bias generally perceived to exist during the 1980s was largely eliminated during the 1990s. Results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of agricultural bias. Our comprehensive...... protection measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on relative agricultural price incentives....

  8. Sustainable Agricultural Marketing Initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Adanacıoğlu

    2015-01-01

    Sustainable marketing is a holistic approach that puts equal emphasis on environmental, social equity, and economic concerns in the development of marketing strategies. The purpose of the study is to examine and discuss the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced throughout the World and Turkey, and to put forth suggestions to further improve the performance of agricultural marketing initiatives in Turkey. Some of the sustainable agricultural marketing initiatives practiced a...

  9. Urban Agricultural Event

    OpenAIRE

    Camm, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Many authors and researchers agree that our youth will benefit from learning about agriculture. “Agricultural literacy is an essential factor for continuing success of the nation. It is important to reach the population when it is most vulnerable and susceptible to learning; this consists of the children of today’s world” (Schmidbauer, Pastor, & Elliot, 2004; p. 2). Ryan and Lockaby suggest that if the population possesses an understanding of agriculture, they are more likely to benefit socie...

  10. Cooperative Learning in Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Cooperative learning refers to instructional methods in which students work in small groups to help each other learn. Although cooperative learning methods are used for different age groups, they are particularly popular in elementary (primary) schools. This article discusses methods and theoretical perspectives on cooperative learning for the…

  11. COOPERATIVE LEARNING IN LARGE CLASSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoXiangju

    2004-01-01

    Teaching college English in large classes is a new challenge to teachers. To meet this challenge, the strategy of cooperative learning is practicable. This paper introduces cooperative learning and describes the experiment results, which prove the advantages of cooperative learning over competitive learning or individualistic learning.

  12. Enlightening Advantages of Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faryadi, Qais

    2007-01-01

    This appraisal discusses the notion that cooperative learning enhances learners' emotional and social performance. It also observes the perception that cooperative learning dramatically improves students' academic accomplishment. This review also examines the definition of cooperative learning and attempts to define it through the lens of renowned…

  13. Gender and Cooperation in Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardenas, Juan-Camilo; Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    between Colombia and Sweden overall. However, Colombian girls cooperate less than Swedish girls. We also find indications that girls in Colombia are less cooperative than boys. Finally, there is also a tendency for children to be more cooperative with boys than with girls on average....

  14. The role of community supported agriculture in the development of organic agriculture in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Sarjanović

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Community supported agriculture (CSA refers to those agricultural activities that contrast with commercial agriculture. They consist of members who pay for fresh, untreated and locally grown food directly from farmers. In this way the risk is shared and the resellers are eliminated. This paper discusses the basic principles of CSA functioning and the historical circumstances of their development. Besides the economic dimension of the functioning of CSA groups, which is most important (ensuring of purchase, emphasis is also given to the social and cultural dimension of the groups activity. The basis of the work is the presentation of the functioning of CSA groups in Croatia and a comparison of social and economic characteristics of the group members and the farmers that collaborate to the groups with trends in the world. The results were collected by administering an online questionnaire among 46 group members and 5 famers. The survey has confirmed the starting hypothesis – that the group members are younger and highly educated persons who live in large cities or urbanized regions (Zagreb, Kvarner, Istria and are driven by eco-social motives (ecological consciousness, healthy food, cooperation with group members. Farmers who cooperate with CSA groups are practicing ecological agriculture on farms that are smaller than an average Croatian farm. They collaborate with the groups because of easier selling of the products and they find that the groups have a positive effect on their income and involvement in the local community.

  15. AGRICULTURAL DYNAMICS IN PAKISTAN: CURRENT ISSUES AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture is heavily contributing towards the economy of Pakistan. Water deficiency and drought conditions, long duration load shedding issue, poor extension services, absence of land reforms, absence of distribution of certified varieties, high price of fertilizers, deliberate use of adulterated, non-recommended and expired insecticides, non utilization of cultivable waste land, conventional farming practices, indirect access of farmer to main market, absence of ecological based cropping pattern, smuggling of agricultural inputs and outputs, lack of cooperation between agricultural research, education & extension services, absence of crop insurance, depletion of forests, lack of modern post-harvest technologies and disease outbreaks of poultry birds are some of the key issues that are playing a negative role in demotion of agricultural sector in Pakistan. The review article will briefly discuss above mentioned issues and some of the possible remedies under the environment of Pakistanand their adoption to improve the agricultural productivity in the country.

  16. Agriculture - reconciling ancient tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Atkinson

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making in agriculture has tended to be driven by factors other than environmental concerns. This may be changing, and perhaps the emphases of the two creation accounts in Genesis (responsible management or 'dominion', and active care may become more important. The paper examines a number of current developments in agriculture (synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, genetic manipulation, and organic versus industrial methodologies and discusses the issues they raise for agricultural productivity and the human communities dependent on farming. The questions raised are complex; we are faced with establishing a new paradigm for agricultural practice.

  17. Malawi - Conservation Agriculture

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millenium Challenge Corporation — The randomized control trial impact evaluation tests different strategies for communicating information about agricultural technologies to smallholder maize farmers...

  18. Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdo Bašić

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available After becoming self-standing state one of new needs of Croatia important for agricultural profession, farmers, policy makers and public needs was regionalization of agriculture. It is the analyse of state of agroecological conditions in agrosphere and based on results identification and territorial separation of agricultural regions as parts of agrosphere with similar conditions for plant and animal growing and similar farming systems. On this track within a special project we fi nished an inventory of agrosphere, result of which is Regionalisation of Croatian Agriculture presented in this paper. Following wise message of old Chinese proverb cited above, the starting approach is the MFCAL concept (Multifunctional Character of Agriculture and Land, which means that apart from very important and primary economic, agriculture and agricultural land (soil in human life play other roles (functions of similar importance; environmental, social, cultural and spatial, as well as the role of shaping the cultural landscape as a factor of rural development. As well, we respect the point of view prevailing in EU that all natural resources used in agriculture but at the fi rst place soil as a major one, need sustainable use and efficient protection. Using the data on Land resource potential based primarily on data of General Soil Map of Croatia (GSM in a scale of 1:50 000 and results of our research in the period 2000 – 2003, the agrosphere of Croatia is divided in three agricultural regions; Pannonian with four, Mountain with two and Adriatic with three subregions.

  19. Adaptation of the Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Model to Lithuania, An

    OpenAIRE

    Antanas Sigitas Sileika

    1996-01-01

    The Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution (AGNPS) model was developed by the Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in cooperation with the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency and Soil Conservation Service. As part of a project to model the effects of land management alternatives in the polders of the Nemunas River Delta of Lithuania, the AGNPS model input parameters are modified here to reflect Lithuanian conditions.

  20. A New Extension Model: The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Peter; Seevers, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The Memorial Middle School Agricultural Extension and Education Center is a new model for Extension. The center applies the Cooperative Extension Service System philosophy and mission to developing public education-based programs. Programming primarily serves middle school students and teachers through agricultural and natural resource science…

  1. Metal-ligand cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusnutdinova, Julia R; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) has become an important concept in catalysis by transition metal complexes both in synthetic and biological systems. MLC implies that both the metal and the ligand are directly involved in bond activation processes, by contrast to "classical" transition metal catalysis where the ligand (e.g. phosphine) acts as a spectator, while all key transformations occur at the metal center. In this Review, we will discuss examples of MLC in which 1) both the metal and the ligand are chemically modified during bond activation and 2) bond activation results in immediate changes in the 1st coordination sphere involving the cooperating ligand, even if the reactive center at the ligand is not directly bound to the metal (e.g. via tautomerization). The role of MLC in enabling effective catalysis as well as in catalyst deactivation reactions will be discussed. PMID:26436516

  2. Comparative Literature in Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Donat

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Beyond methodological or ideological principles, Comparative Literature depends upon, and flourishes in, cooperation between different systems, fields and disciplines. We introduce two projects developed by Munich’s Comparative Literature Department as examples of the specific challenges and opportunities afforded by this cooperation: in editing Roman Jakobson’s analyses of poetry, experts in 16 different languages and literatures worked together to present translations, interpretations and commentary on this corpus. In ongoing bilateral teaching and research projects with the German Department at Seoul National University, inter-lingual, inter-cultural and inter-disciplinary communication enables and informs studies focusing on Goethe’s concept of active and passive roles in Weltliteratur, as well as censorship and textual control in divided nations.

  3. Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgren, Bjarne

    Nationalt Center for Kompetenceudvikling har evalueret undervisningsmetoden Cooperative Learning i voksenundervisningen og dokumenteret positive effekter på oplevelsen af samarbejde og på lærere og kursisters engagement - men har ikke kunnet påvise systematiske positive effekter af metoden på...... kursisters frafald, fravær og karakterer. Projektet har afprøvet og videreudviklet den pædagogiske metode Cooperative Learning (CL) i en dansk virkelighed og mere specifikt i forhold til VUC'ernes nye kursistgrupper med det overordnede mål at øge gennemførslen markant og målbart ved at anvende og udvikle en...

  4. Cooperation between employers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidance is given on the application of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR 85) and the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWRs) in circumstances where the operations of the employees of one organisation have the potential to expose to ionising radiation the employees of another. One of the Regulations of IRR 85 makes it mandatory for employers to cooperate in such circumstances. OWRs give more detailed requirements for the performance of the duties where one employers' classified employee works in another employer's controlled area. This document explains the separate responsibilities of site operators and contractors in situations where cooperation is required, and gives guidance on how it can be achieved. It also gives guidance to nuclear site licence holders regarding their duties under IRR 85 in such circumstances. (Author)

  5. Strategies of inducing cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of the four experiments described in this paper are very consistent, and they can be summarized as follows: (1) The ''nonpunitive'' strategy was most effective in eliciting cooperative behavior from the subjects and, overall, resulted in the highest joint outcomes as well as the highest outcomes for the accomplice. (2) The effectiveness of the turn-the-other-cheek strategy was very much influenced by the competitiveness of the situation; the more competitive the incentives of the subjects, the more massively they exploited the accomplice who employed this strategy. (3) The punitive deterrent strategy elicited more agressive and self-protective, as well as less cooperative, behavior from the subjects than did the other strategies

  6. International cooperative information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing countries need mechanisms by which the information they generate themselves and development information from the rest of the world can be retrieved. The international cooperative information system is such a mechanism. Delegates to the Seminar on International Cooperative Information Systems were informed about various existing systems (INIS, AGRIS, INFOTERRA, TCDC/INRES, POPIN, DEVSIS, and INPADROC), some specialized information systems and services (CDS/ISIS and the Cassava Information Centre), and computer programs for information processing (INIS/AGRIS, CDS/ISIS, and MINISIS). The participants suggested some changes that should be made on both the national and the international levels to ensure that these systems meet the needs of developing countries more effectively. (LL)

  7. Cooperative Retransmissions Through Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, Jalaluddin; Foh, Chuan Heng

    2011-01-01

    Interference in wireless networks is one of the key capacity-limiting factors. Recently developed interference-embracing techniques show promising performance on turning collisions into useful transmissions. However, the interference-embracing techniques are hard to apply in practical applications due to their strict requirements. In this paper, we consider utilising the interference-embracing techniques in a common scenario of two interfering sender-receiver pairs. By employing opportunistic listening and analog network coding (ANC), we show that compared to traditional ARQ retransmission, a higher retransmission throughput can be achieved by allowing two interfering senders to cooperatively retransmit selected lost packets at the same time. This simultaneous retransmission is facilitated by a simple handshaking procedure without introducing additional overhead. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed cooperative retransmission.

  8. MODERN PROBLEMS AND WAYS OF DEVELOPMENT OF COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mishchenko Tatyana Leonidovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the importance of cooperation on the current economic stage as one of the forms of cooperation in the arena of the market of small, medium and large businesses. The aim of this work is the study of contemporary problems of agricultural co-operation and development of effective ways of functioning of the cooperative sector, which is a sustainable development factor of socio-economic systems, contributes to the protection of the interests of its participants, increasing of competitiveness at the industry and national markets. In compliance of the objectives outlined the following objectives of its decision: - to justify the relevance of research in modern Economics; - to analyze the economic interdependence of market subjects and their effectiveness in key financial indicators; - identify the causes, constraining the effective development of the cooperative forms of management. The scientific novelty of the results of the study consists of the following: - it is proved that the basic idea of the cooperative movement is a transition from small businesses to large-scale activity, which today has a real embodiment in life; - it is proved that co-operation is a key element of sustainable development of rural areas and market institutions and is based on a solid social base of farms, individual farms; - as a result of the carried out estimation of parameters of functioning of the agrarian market subjects, proposed an alternative way of economic interaction of participants of the cooperative company. As a conclusion it should be noted that the development of the cooperative sector in economic realities increases significantly in the conditions of Russia's accession to the WTO, ensuring competitiveness of the domestic products and first of all the country's food security.

  9. Pioneers in Cooperation (selection)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Project-oriented cooperation within the framework of the CAS-MPSagreement began in the early 1980s. Its methods differed according to scientific needs and included workshops and seminars, field research, overland expeditions, exchanges of materials and samples, and the training of young scientists and engineers. The German Research Foundation and the National Natural Science Foundation of China provided special funding for many of these projects.

  10. Le banche popolari cooperative

    OpenAIRE

    Schilirò, Daniele

    2011-01-01

    Co-operative banks are an important reality of the credit system and they are spread in Italy and in Europe. These banks are a category different from other banks, as are characterized by a legal form which has some very specific characteristics. These banks may contribute to the development of human capital and the strengthening of social capital, but also to the development of the knowledge economy that thrives on knowledge and tacit knowledge passed down through the local culture. This ess...

  11. Crisis-Driven Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Not hit as badly as the West, East Asian and Southeast Asian countries grapple with the financial crisis from a long-term perspective Although Thailand postponed at the last minute the annual summits of East Asian and Southeast Asian leaders scheduled on April 11-12, regional cooperation will continue to forge ahead with full vigor, even more so in the context of the global financial crisis, said Chinese international studies experts.

  12. Quantized Cooperative Control

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Meng

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis project, we consider the cooperative control of multi-agent systems under limited communication between the individual agents. In particular, quantized values of the relatives states between neighboring agents are used as the control parameters for each agent. As an introductory part, the theoretical framework for the distributed consensus problem under perfect communication is reviewed with the focus on the system stability and convergence. We start from the common problem set...

  13. Cooperative Mobile Web Browsing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Q

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper advocates a novel approach for mobile web browsing based on cooperation among wireless devices within close proximity operating in a cellular environment. In the actual state of the art, mobile phones can access the web using different cellular technologies. However, the supported data rates are not sufficient to cope with the ever increasing traffic requirements resulting from advanced and rich content services. Extending the state of the art, higher data rates can only be achieved by increasing complexity, cost, and energy consumption of mobile phones. In contrast to the linear extension of current technology, we propose a novel architecture where mobile phones are grouped together in clusters, using a short-range communication such as Bluetooth, sharing, and accumulating their cellular capacity. The accumulated data rate resulting from collaborative interactions over short-range links can then be used for cooperative mobile web browsing. By implementing the cooperative web browsing on commercial mobile phones, it will be shown that better performance is achieved in terms of increased data rate and therefore reduced access times, resulting in a significantly enhanced web browsing user experience on mobile phones.

  14. Cooperatively active sensing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiming at development of a strong and flexible sensing system, a study on a sensing technology prepared with cooperativity, activity, and real time workability has been promoted. In the former period, together with preparation of plural moving robot group with real time processing capacity of a lot of sensor informations composing of platform, a parallel object direction language Eus Lisp effectively capable of describing and executing cooperative processing and action therewith was developed. And, it was also shown that capacity to adaptively act even at dynamic environment could be learnt experientially. And, on processing of individual sensor information, application of a photographing system with multiple resolution property similar to human visual sense property was attempted. In the latter period, together with intending of upgrading on adaptability of sensing function, by using moving robot group in center of a moving robot loaded with active visual sense, a cooperative active sensing prototype system was constructed to show effectiveness of this study through evaluation experiment of patrolling inspection at plant simulating environment. (G.K.)

  15. The Obstacles,Paths and Mechanisms of the Sustainable Development of Farmers’ Cooperatives in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the description of the major role played by famers’ cooperatives in developing rural economy and in increasing the income of farmers,the obstacles of the sustainable development of famers’ cooperatives in Hebei Province are introduced.Firstly,the cooperative mechanism is imperfect;secondly,the development is substandard;thirdly,the coverage of preferential policy is limited;fourthly,the capitals and financing problem are difficult;fifthly,the operation is single;sixthly,the construction of marketing channels is the weak;seventhly,the professional talents are scarce.The sustainable development paths of famers’ cooperatives in Heibei Province are analyzed.Firstly,conducting value-added processing and taking the way of materialized development,industrialized operation and enterprise-style management;secondly,implementing agricultural quality and brand strategy and moving into the high level market;thirdly,constructing modern agricultural marketing and taking the road of supermarket agriculture;fourthly,enforcing the management of information and getting efficiency from information;fifthly,developing recycling agriculture and taking the way of improving resource efficiency.There are five ways for establishing the operational mechanism of sustainable development of farmers’ cooperatives in Heibei Province.The government should innovate the cooperation mechanism;innovating training and education mechanism;innovating production mechanism;innovating financial mechanism;innovating marketing mechanism.

  16. Coalitions in Cooperative Wireless Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Suhas; Mandayam, Narayan B

    2008-01-01

    Cooperation between rational users in wireless networks is studied using coalitional game theory. Using the rate achieved by a user as its utility, it is shown that the stable coalition structure, i.e., set of coalitions from which users have no incentives to defect, depends on the manner in which the rate gains are apportioned among the cooperating users. Specifically, the stability of the grand coalition (GC), i.e., the coalition of all users, is studied. Transmitter and receiver cooperation in an interference channel (IC) are studied as illustrative cooperative models to determine the stable coalitions for both flexible (transferable) and fixed (non-transferable) apportioning schemes. It is shown that the stable sum-rate optimal coalition when only receivers cooperate by jointly decoding (transferable) is the GC. The stability of the GC depends on the detector when receivers cooperate using linear multiuser detectors (non-transferable). Transmitter cooperation is studied assuming that all receivers coopera...

  17. Agricultural Industrialization: It's Inevitable

    OpenAIRE

    Urban, Thomas N.

    1991-01-01

    The industrialization of agriculture is with us. It's driven by consumer and processor needs, supported by new and useful technology, and augmented by the severe agricultural recession of the 1980s, which changed attitudes towards risk. The consequences for farm policy and rural development are significant, and should be favorable.

  18. Agriculture. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study investigates the impact of agriculture on the earth's atmosphere. It describes the natural carbon cycle, the socioeconomic factors that influence it, and the climate effects. The climatic relevance of gaseous sulphur and nitrogen compounds, methane and other hydrocarbons, and ammonia emissions from biological and agricultural process is discussed. (SR)

  19. Managing risk in agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    "This book examines the implications of risk management for policy in agriculture. Opening with a chapter on risk management principles and guidelines for policy design in agriculture, the book goes on to look at quantitative analysis of risk and then at policy in various countries." --> Publisher's description.

  20. Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2016-01-01

    In the agricultural sector, risks are inherent and ubiquitous, posing potentially serious consequences for stakeholders and consumers. Risks disrupt supply chains, causing extensive financial and economic losses. Agricultural risks are also the principal cause of transient food insecurity, creating a poverty trap for millions of households across the developing world that enforces a viciou...

  1. Legislature Abolishes Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

      China's 2,600-year-old agricultural tax will be rescinded as of Jan. 1,2006, after China's top legislature voted on December 27 to adopt a motion on the regulations revoking the agricultural tax.……

  2. Precision agricultural systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precision agriculture is a new farming practice that has been developing since late 1980s. It has been variously referred to as precision farming, prescription farming, site-specific crop management, to name but a few. There are numerous definitions for precision agriculture, but the central concept...

  3. Good Wetland Agricultural Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Zingstra, H.L.

    2009-01-01

    Within the Guiding Agriculture Wetland Interaction (GAWI) project the Driver!Pressure!State! Impact!Response (DPSIR) approach has been adopted to describe and analyse agriculture!wetland interactions. The DPSIR approach provides a consistent framework to analyse the complex causal chain among drivers, pressures, state and impacts, and facilitates the targeted identification of response strategies aimed at improving the sustainability of wetlands.

  4. Agricultural risk management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Mogens; Oksen, Arne; Larsen, Torben U.;

    2005-01-01

    A new model for risk management in agriculture is described in the paper. The risk model is constructed as a context dependent process, which includes four main phases. The model is aimed at agricultural advisors, who wish to facilitate and disseminate risk management to farmers. It is developed...

  5. Agriculture and food processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discuss the application of nuclear technology in agriculture sector. Nuclear Technology has help agriculture and food processing to develop tremendously. Two techniques widely use in both clusters are ionization radiation and radioisotopes. Among techniques for ionizing radiation are plant mutation breeding, SIT and food preservation. Meanwhile radioisotopes use as a tracer for animal research, plant soil relations water sedimentology

  6. Trade Externalities of Agricultural Subsidies and World Trade Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya R. Swain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Almost every country is spending a large proportion of its income on agricultural subsidies; still the agricultural farmers of developing countries are unable to compete globally. There is increase in dependence on food imports, and a decline in food self-reliance. The aim and objectives of this study is to highlight the multiplex nature and enormity of the trade externalities of agricultural subsidies. Approach: To understand the issues and process clearly, reference has been made to GATT Agreements, WTO Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, policies of different countries in this regard, scholarly writings on the subject and the cases related to it. Doctrinaire methodology, which includes analytical, descriptive and comparative method, has been followed in this study. Results: Agricultural subsidies are cardinal facet of agriculture and have a major role to play in international trade. Even after separate Agreements on Agriculture and Subsidies, the World Trade Organization still failed in minimizing agricultural subsidies. Conclusion: The developing countries should unite and cooperate among themselves, which may help in advancing the cause of their own and scaling down agricultural subsidies, which has become a stumbling block to efforts to dismantle international trade barriers.

  7. Aspects of agricultural education in Angola - case study from Bié province

    OpenAIRE

    Saiovo, Liudmila Helena Sambalundo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Angola has been promoting a set of policies and instruments aimed to create an enabling environment conducive for agricultural growth. After the peace ascension in the country, the importance of the secondary agricultural education has increased due to the need of qualified manpower which is essential to support the development of agriculture. In the scope of co-operation with the government of the Czech Republic was established in Angola, specifically in Bié, the secondary agric...

  8. Agricultural retail businesses in South Africa : the higher demand on competition / Rupert Jacobs

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, Rupert

    2007-01-01

    Since the establishment of agricultural co-operatives they have been in a privileged situation of having a captured market in the sense that farmers were shareholders in these stores which ensured some loyalty and commitment. Hardwares trade in the same product ranges as the agricultural retail businesses which imply direct competition. The main concern is seeing the rate in which these non-agricultural stores are growing in the sense of opening new stores and competitiveness compared to the ...

  9. Facilitating Farm-Level Adjustment to the Reform of Trade and Agricultural Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Berkeley; Blandford, David

    2005-01-01

    This document was prepared by David Blandford, Penn State University and Berkeley Hill, London University. It is based on results from a research project funded by the Economic Research Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture entitled "Policy Reform and Agricultural Adjustment" under a Cooperative Agreement with the Pennsylvania State University (No. 43-3AEK-3-80047). Additional funding was provided by the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC). Under the project, ...

  10. Radiation technology in agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Atomic Energy through its research, development and deployment activities in nuclear science and technology, has been contributing towards enhancing the production of agricultural commodities and their preservation. Radiations and radioisotopes are used in agricultural research to induce genetic variability in crop plants to develop improved varieties, to manage insect pests, monitor fate and persistence of pesticides, to study fertilizer use efficiency and plant micronutrient uptake and also to preserve agricultural produce. Use of radiation and radioisotopes in agriculture which is often referred to as nuclear agriculture is one of the important fields of peaceful applications of atomic energy for societal benefit and BARC has contributed significantly in this area. 41 new crop varieties developed at BARC have been released and Gazette notified by the MoA, GOI for commercial cultivation and are popular among the farming community and grown through out the country

  11. 7 CFR 1484.71 - Are Cooperator documents subject to the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the Freedom of Information Act? 1484.71 Section 1484.71 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of... Compliance § 1484.71 Are Cooperator documents subject to the provisions of the Freedom of Information Act? (a) Documents submitted to FAS by Cooperators are subject to the provisions of the Freedom of Information...

  12. 76 FR 37979 - Cooperation in USDA Studies and Evaluations, and Full Use of Federal Funds in Nutrition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Service 7 CFR Parts 210, 215, 220, 225, 226, 235, 246, and 248 RIN 0584-AE20 Cooperation in USDA Studies... of 2010 (HHFK Act). The HHFK Act requires State and local cooperation in Department of Agriculture... reflect this requirement. Notice and Comment In accordance with the Secretary's Statement of Policy (36...

  13. The Hidden Impact of Cooperative Membership on Quality Management: A Case Study from the Dairy Belt of Addis Ababa

    OpenAIRE

    Gian Nicola Francesconi; Ruerd Ruben

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade Ethiopia has been witnessing a return to agricultural cooperatives as means to unleash the national agri-food market. Using primary bio-economic data from Ethiopia, this study evaluates the impact of cooperative membership on milk production, productivity, quality and safety. To do so we compare the performance of cooperative and individual milk farmers sampled from the dairy belt of Addis Ababa. We use both instrumental variable regression and propensity score matching...

  14. Clustering potential of agriculture in Lviv region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Tsymbalista

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes the need to stimulate the development of integration processes in agro-industrial complex of Ukraine. The advantages of the cluster model of integration are shown: along with the growth of competitiveness of agricultural products, it helps to increase the efficiency of inventory management of material flows, as well as to expand opportunities to attract investment and to implement innovation in agricultural production. Clusters also help to reduce transaction costs by establishing an optimal cooperation between the contracting parties. The theoretical essentiality of agro-industrial clusters is studied and a conceptual model of that kind of clusters is shown. The preconditions of clustering of agriculture in Lviv region are analyzed and feasibility of specific methods of statistical analysis to identify localization areas of the potential members of cluster-forming blocks of regional food clusters is verified. Cluster analysis is carried out to identify potential cluster-forming areas in the region in various sectors of agricultural production.

  15. AFRA: Supporting regional cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The African Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (AFRA) provides a framework for African Member States to intensify their collaboration through programmes and projects focused on the specific shared needs of its members. It is a formal intergovernmental agreement which entered into force in 1990. In the context of AFRA, Regional Designated Centres for training and education in radiation protection (RDCs) are established African institutions able to provide services, such as training of highly qualified specialists or instructors needed at the national level and also to facilitate exchange of experience and information through networks of services operating in the field

  16. Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, K.; Kurian, A; Snowdon, C

    2005-01-01

    We investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. A transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. Resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards...

  17. Cooperative problem solving in a cooperatively breeding primate (Saguinus oedipus)

    OpenAIRE

    Cronin, Katherine A.; KURIAN, AIMEE V.; Snowdon, Charles T.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated cooperative problem solving in unrelated pairs of the cooperatively breeding cottontop tamarin, Saguinus oedipus, to assess the cognitive basis of cooperative behaviour in this species and to compare abilities with other apes and monkeys. A transparent apparatus was used that required extension of two handles at opposite ends of the apparatus for access to rewards. Resistance was applied to both handles so that two tamarins had to act simultaneously in order to receive rewards...

  18. BOOK REVIEWS - Precision agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Samborski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture (PA is a term, which has recently become very popular in agronomy. In short this term means crop production based on site-specific crop management (SSCM. Precision agriculture is an integrated agricultural management system incorporating different science disciplines e.g. crop science, agricultural engineering and geostatistics. It also uses numerous tools i.e., geographic information system (GIS, Global Positioning System (GPS, remote sensing yield monitors. Because of the multidisciplinary character of precision agriculture, books published on this subject differ in their content. The first books on this topic appeared in the mid 90’ of the last century. The intention of this paper is to present reviews of three books the titles of which each contains the term “precision agriculture”. The books are as follows:1 Handbook of Precision Agriculture – Principles and Applications (2006 edited by Ancha Srinivasan. 2 Precision Agriculture’05 (2005 edited by John V. Stafford 3 Precision Agriculture (2006 by Terry A. Brasse.

  19. Future trends in agricultural engineering.

    OpenAIRE

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Speelman, L.

    1997-01-01

    Beside traditional mechanical engineering, other engineering branches such as electronics, control engineering and physics play their specific role within the agricultural engineering field. Agricultural engineering has affected and stimulated major changes in agriculture. In the last decades agricultural engineering has also focused on environmental aspects. Nowadays knowledge and expertise generated in several agricultural and environmental engineering fields must be integrated with experti...

  20. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    Foundation for their support of this initiative. The project has been developed with guidance from an esteemed steering group of experts and users of mitigation information (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/international-project). Many of the papers in this issue were commissioned. Authors of each of the commissioned papers met with guest editors at FAO in Rome in April 2012 to further develop their ideas, synthesize state of the art knowledge and generate new ideas (http://nicholasinstitute.duke.edu/ecosystem/t-agg/events-and-presentations). Additional interesting and important research has come forward through the general call for papers and has been incorporated into this issue. References CCAFS (Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security) 2011 Victories for food and farming in Durban climate deals Press Release 13 December 2011 (http://ccafs.cgiar.org/news/press-releases/victories-food-and-farming-durban-climate-deals) FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) 2009 Expert consultation on GHG emissions and mitigation potentials in the agricultural, forestry and fisheries sectors (Rome: FAO) FAO 2011 Linking Sustainability and Climate Financing: Implications for Agriculture (Rome: FAO) FAO 2012 FAOSTAT online database (http://faostat.fao.org/) Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gases 2012 www.globalresearchalliance.org/ Herold M and Skutsch M 2011 Monitoring, reporting and verification for national REDD+ programmes: two proposals Environ. Res. Lett. 6 014002 Hosonuma N, Herold M, De Sy V, De Fries R S, Brockhaus M, Verchot L, Angelsen A and Romijn E 2012 An assessment of deforestation and forest degradation drivers in developing countries Environ. Res. Lett. 7 044009 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Paris: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) IPCC 2003 Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Hayama

  1. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  2. Agriculture. Sector 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Lebanon, emissions of greenhouse gases from agricultural activities occur through the following processes: -enteric fermentation and manure management of the domestic livestock emits methane and nitrous oxide. -agricultural burning of crop residues is of minor importance since field burning of crop residue is not a common practice in Lebanon -agricultural soils are a source of nitrous oxide directly from the soils and from animal production, and indirectly from the nitrogen added to the soils. The following results were obtained for the inventory year 1994: 7.60955 Gg of methane, 3.01478 Gg of nitrous oxide, 0.00146 Gg of nitrogen oxides and 0.04306 Gg of carbon monoxide

  3. Precompetitive cooperative research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that in the current worldwide technology environment, it is essential for the U.S. microelectronics industry, and especially for the integrated circuit portion of that industry, that precompetitive cooperative research alliances be formed and funded at a level that enables them to be effective in rapidly advancing technology. It is important to realize that technology advances with or without our direct participation. If we do not aggressively participate we are quickly left behind. Increasing complexity and miniaturization have been the themes in semiconductor technology. Many are aware that what began in the early 60's with a few masking steps and minimum dimensions measured in mils, has now evolved to a level of sophistication requiring a 100 MIP workstation for IC design and the investment of nearly $400 million dollars in fab cost to produce today's microchips. The leading nations of the world have come to realize that their future well- being is closely tied to their ability to compete in this hi- tech environment. Industry coalitions have been formed to exploit the early ramifications of emerging technologies. Improvements in overseas manufacturing have been made and continue unabated with new products, new processes, and new services being introduced at an increasing rate. Many foreign governments are now actively involved in formulating and conducting industrial and technology policies to aid their hi-tech industry. To meet these challenges, U.S. firms, with U.S. government cooperation, must respond

  4. Teleworking through cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Minervini

    2006-07-01

    scheme is strictly connected to new technologies and cooperation is an important dimension of teleworking. In our study, cooperation is found performed both in social relations between employers and employees and in institutionalized relations between managers and unions. Although the two forms of cooperation, here called “social trustee cooperation” and “institutional cooperation”, are often thought as prerequisites of “best practices” of new working arrangements, our case studies demonstrate that cooperation has not always arisen that make possible to implement practices of teleworking. By focusing on cooperative relations, the results of different case studies in industry and in the service sector are discussed, thus intending to contribute to the development of sociological debate on telework.

  5. Alienation of Rural Cooperative Finance and the Innovation of Financial Organization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Based on the elaboration of the content and status of rural cooperative finance, rural cooperative finance--the alienation of rural credit cooperative is introduced from three aspects of the concept and objective of management, the organizational form and management mode, and the service object and business scope. Causes of alienation are analyzed. Firstly, change in the economic foundation of cooperative finance is the fundamental reasons for the alienation. Secondly, mandatory system change led by the government is an important reason for alienation. Thirdly, property and administration structure of rural credit cooperative are the internal reasons for alienation of agricultural support. To achieve the innovation of rural cooperative financial organization, the following aspects should be done: cultivating the basis for rural cooperative economy, further promoting the reform of rural credit cooperatives (innovating a variety of property rights modes; making clear definition of ownership; implementing the internal governance structure), introducing competition in the field of rural cooperative finance, and homing function of government and rural cooperative finance.

  6. The Professionalization of Intelligence Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Adam David Morgan

    "Providing an in-depth insight into the subject of intelligence cooperation (officially known as liason), this book explores the complexities of this process. Towards facilitating a general understanding of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation, Svendsen's analysis includes risk...... management and encourages the realisation of greater resilience. Svendsen discusses the controversial, mixed and uneven characterisations of the process of the professionalization of intelligence cooperation and argues for a degree of 'fashioning method out of mayhem' through greater operational...

  7. Social learning in cooperative dilemmas

    OpenAIRE

    Lamba, Shakti

    2014-01-01

    Helping is a cornerstone of social organization and commonplace in human societies. A major challenge for the evolutionary sciences is to explain how cooperation is maintained in large populations with high levels of migration, conditions under which cooperators can be exploited by selfish individuals. Cultural group selection models posit that such large-scale cooperation evolves via selection acting on populations among which behavioural variation is maintained by the cultural transmission ...

  8. Cooperation bibliogram of bird flu

    OpenAIRE

    Stegmann, Johannes; Grohmann, Guenter

    2006-01-01

    The published literature on Bird Flu, now a pandemic animal disease with a possible potential of evolving into a devastating human disease, was analysed primarily with respect of national and international cooperations and networks of authors and countries. The output of research-relevant papers is now around 150 per year and was less than 100 papers per year before 2003. The field is highly cooperative; nearly 90% of the articles have two or more authors. National extramural cooperation is ...

  9. ITDB Cooperation With International Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IAEA illicit trafficking database cooperates with many international organizations. Among these organizations are Interpol, Universal Postal Union,and World Customs Organization. Other organizations are Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, UN Economic Commission for Europe, UN-Department of Disarmament Affairs and UN office for Drug and Crime. The cooperation with Interpol involves consultations on issues of training and technical assistance and other matters of common interest.

  10. Agricultural Health and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... health and safety program. Contact your state or territorial health department or use this directory of local ... producers, small business owners, youth, consumers, and rural communities nationwide. NIOSH Agricultural Safety and Health Centers conduct ...

  11. Agriculture and private sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahin, Sila; Prowse, Martin Philip; Weigh, Nadia

    looks set to remain for the next two decades at least. The agriculture and growth evidence paper series has been developed to cover a range of issues that are of most relevance to DFID staff. The paper is not intended to be a comprehensive overview of all issues relating to agriculture and the private......Agriculture is and will continue to be critical to the futures of many developing countries. This may or may not be because agriculture can contribute directly and/or indirectly to economic growth. But it will certainly be critical because poverty is still predominantly a rural phenomenon and this...... sector. It concentrates on those areas that are of particular focus for DFID policy and strategy....

  12. Agricultural Drainage Well Intakes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Locations of surface intakes for registered agriculture drainage wells according to the database maintained by IDALS. Surface intakes were located from their...

  13. Agricultural Producer Certificates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — A Certified Agricultural Producer, or representative thereof, is an individual who wishes to sell regionally-grown products in the public right-of-way. A Certified...

  14. Radioactive contamination and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some guidelines are presented for the Belgian agriculture to realise three vital objectives in case of a nuclear accident : protection of food quality and public health, radiation protection for farmers and keeping the production apparatus intact. (H.E.)

  15. GREENHOUSE GASES AND AGRICULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically nhanced greenhouse effect. Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are anked first and second, respectively.) pecifically, greenhouse gas sources and inks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by...

  16. The Agriculture Grants Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogmann, David W.; Key, Joe

    1981-01-01

    Reviews historical background surrounding the origins of the Competitive Research Grants Office, established in 1978 to support basic research related to agriculture. Describes current controversy within the legislature which threatens its existence. (CS)

  17. New Research in Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1996-01-01

    The book is the proceedings from the bi-annual international scientific conference on organic agriculture. The chapters are: - plant and soil interactions, - animal production systems, - traditional knowledge in sustainable agriculture, - research, education and extension in sustainable agriculture...

  18. Successful Industry/Academia Cooperation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    The control literature is rich on impressive applications of advanced control, and within almost any industrial sector there are numerous examples of successful advanced control applications. Nevertheless, there is a widespread belief that there is still a wide potential for increased cooperation...... between academia and industry within this area. In this position paper, it is advocated that one of the enablers for successful cooperation between industry and academia within the control area is a proper framework for cooperation projects between companies and universities. Some suggestions...... by less complex but industrially feasible solutions. The proposed approach is illustrated by three case studies of successful industrial/academic cooperation....

  19. Mechanisms for similarity based cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traulsen, A.

    2008-06-01

    Cooperation based on similarity has been discussed since Richard Dawkins introduced the term “green beard” effect. In these models, individuals cooperate based on an aribtrary signal (or tag) such as the famous green beard. Here, two different models for such tag based cooperation are analysed. As neutral drift is important in both models, a finite population framework is applied. The first model, which we term “cooperative tags” considers a situation in which groups of cooperators are formed by some joint signal. Defectors adopting the signal and exploiting the group can lead to a breakdown of cooperation. In this case, conditions are derived under which the average abundance of the more cooperative strategy exceeds 50%. The second model considers a situation in which individuals start defecting towards others that are not similar to them. This situation is termed “defective tags”. It is shown that in this case, individuals using tags to cooperate exclusively with their own kind dominate over unconditional cooperators.

  20. Overview of organic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, P.; Merfield, C.

    2006-01-01

    The acquisition of food, textiles and other resources from plants and animals has been a major concern for human societies, from the earliest days as hunter-gathers, through pastoral and swidden phases, to agrarian societies, with an associated trend away from nomadic to sedentary lifestyles. Yet as agricultural production intensified and expanded, the negative effects on the underlying resource base have also increased. The history of environmental damage caused by agriculture is well docume...

  1. Agricultural Clusters in China

    OpenAIRE

    Kiminami, Lily; Kiminami, Akira

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the potential of clustering in the development of agriculture and rural communities in China. We shall examine in detail the food industry, which is the link in the food chain that propels the industrialization of agriculture, and identify instances of industrial agglomeration and business collaboration. Next, we shall analyze the externalities (i.e. spillovers) of clusters, demand conditions in cluster formation, and the effectiveness of business collab...

  2. HOMOEOPATHY IN AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Singhania, Pawan Kumar; SINGHANIA, ARCHANA

    2014-01-01

    Homoeopathy medicines have been found to be effective in human organisms. Research and application of Homoeopathy drugs in agriculture is slowly finding place. The mode of action of Homoeopathy remedies and simillinum of drug pictures for use in agriculture; basic principles of Homoeopathy and drug administration are discussed. Significant results have been observed using Homoeopathy medicines to fight stress conditions during wet conditions; during hot and dry conditions; in improving germin...

  3. Agriculture Sector Risk Management

    OpenAIRE

    Viktorija Stasytytė; Viktorija Dužinskytė

    2016-01-01

    Agriculture sector is characterized by a particular specificity that is not considered in other fields and because of that agriculture sector is defined as highly risky sector. Response to risk is still very im-portant and responsible activity in this field. According to this, the process and applied strategies of risk management make and ensure that the sector activity and operations are more stable and effective. The aim of the article reflects the need to distinguish the most appropriate a...

  4. TRANSITION AND AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Rozelle, Scott D.; Swinnen, Johan F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The overall objectives of our proposed paper is to: (a) systematically document the post-reform trends in agricultural performance in Asia, Europe, and the Former Soviet Union; (b) identify the main reform strategies and institutional innovations that have contributed to the successes and failures of the sector; (c) analyze the mechanisms by which reform policies and initial conditions have affected the transition process in agriculture; and (d) draw lessons and policy implications from the e...

  5. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  6. Brazil Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Quiroga, Jose; Brooks, Jonathan; Melyukhina, Olga

    2005-01-01

    In June 2005, OECD members met with senior government officials from Brazil to discuss Brazilian agricultural policies and future directions, as a part of a comprehensive agricultural policy review. Ongoing dialogue with Brazil on policy issues is important to fostering a better understanding of global challenges and opportunities that lie ahead. Results of the review will be published by the OECD in 2005. This policy note provides a preview of key findings.

  7. Ghana Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Vikas; D'Alessandro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Improved agricultural risk management is one of the core enabling actions of the Group of Eight’s (G-8’s) New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition. The Agricultural Risk Management Team (ARMT) of the Agriculture and Environment Services Department of the World Bank conducted an agricultural sector risk assessment to better understand the dynamics of agricultural risks and identify appropriate responses, incorporate agricultural risk perspective into decision-making, and bui...

  8. FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Bruce A.; Beghin, John C.; Mohanty, Samarendu; Frank H. Fuller; Jacinto F. Fabiosa; Kaus, Phillip J.; Fang, Cheng; Hart, Chad E.; Kovarik, Karen; Womack, Abner W.; Young, Robert E., II; Suhler, Gregg; Patrick C. Westhoff; Trujillo, Joe; Brown, D. Scott

    2000-01-01

    The Food and Agricultural Policy Research Institute (FAPRI) prepares a preliminary agricultural outlook on world agricultural production, consumption, and trade every fall. This is followed by an outside review, re-evaluation of projections, and completion of the final baseline in January. The FAPRI 2000 World Agricultural Outlook presents these final projections for world agricultural markets. A companion volume, the FAPRI 2000 U.S. Agricultural Outlook, presents the U.S. component of the ba...

  9. Indian Agricultural Marketing- A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shakeel-Ul-Rehman; M. SELVARAJ; M. Syed Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Agriculture in India has directly or indirectly continued to be the source of livelihood to majority of the population. Indian agriculture has seen a lot of changes in its structure. India, predominantly an agricultural economy, has healthy signs of transformation in agriculture and allied activities. India has seen agriculture as a precious tool of economic development as other sectors of production depend on it. Efficient backward and forward integration with agriculture has led to globally...

  10. Adept at adapting. Contributions of sociology to agricultural research for small farmers in developing countries: the case of rice in the Dominican Republic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorman, F.

    1991-01-01

    This book discusses possible contributions of sociology and anthropology to agricultural research. It is based on investigations carried out from 1981 to 1985 in the Dominican Republic in the Adaptive Agricultural Research (AAR) project, a cooperative effort between the Agricultural University of Wa

  11. Membership Segmentation: Issues and Strategies for Cooperatives and Group Marketing Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Harvey G.; McCann-Hiltz, Diane

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the strategies that have been used by cooperatives and group marketing institutions dealing with differentiation of producers into distinct market segments. Based on a comprehensive study of significant agricultural cooperatives and group marketing institutions in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota, the authors attempt to explain the rationale behind these strategies and to demonstrate the extent to which these strategies are used by coopera...

  12. ANTICIPATORY HEDGING WITH TREASURY BILLS: THE CASE OF A BANK FOR COOPERATIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Alan K. Severn

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural cooperatives find it difficult to forecast their interest costs and net income. If input and output prices are fixed, anticipatory hedging of future interest costs is appropriate. Banks for Cooperatives obtain funds in maturities longer than the three months of Treasury bills. Hence, anticipatory hedging of interest rates may require selling a "strip" of more than one Treasury bill futures contract. Adapting Peck's model of hedges against forecast error, hedge ratios generally ex...

  13. 29 CFR 780.133 - Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Farmers' cooperative as a âfarmer.â 780.133 Section 780.133... General Scope of Agriculture Practices Performed âby A Farmerâ § 780.133 Farmers' cooperative as a “farmer.” (a) The phrase “by a farmer” covers practices performed either by the farmer himself or by the...

  14. Impacts of Dairy Cooperative on Rural Income Generation in Bangladesh 【Article】

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Ashoke Kumar; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to highlight how small dairy farmers in Bangladesh are collectively oper-ating their dairy farming and generating employment for better earnings through a cooperative system.Adopting new technology in agriculture and providing an efficient marketing system is a complexprocess in developing countries where the majority of farmers are in subsistence level of farming.However, with democratic organization, a cooperative can play a vital role for the poor rural farmers...

  15. International cooperation and exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For improve the nuclear safety regulatory level of China, it is an important way to absorb international experience widely and use them. In 1998, the NNSA dispatched abroad 34 delegations/90 person-time, and invited to China 9 delegations/73 person-time. The contents of dispatched delegations mainly included the international meetings and personnel training on nuclear safety, and the foreign review consultation and the components' manufacturing inspections related to Chinese nuclear power construction. The contents of invited delegations mainly included the lectures on surveillance technology, and the review consultation about the QSNPP's component purchase from several countries, JLNPP and CEFR. After reformed, the NNSA continues to bear the function on the international cooperation about nuclear safety

  16. 依托"河南省农村改革发展综合试验区"建设探索农业高职高专产学研结合新途径%Relying on the construction of comprehensive experimental zone of rural reform and development of Henan province and exploring the new ways of agricultural higher vocational colleges to cooperate with enterprise and scientific research units

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斌; 张凯

    2012-01-01

    通过分析“河南省农村改革发展综合试验区”建设对农业高职高专人才培养、“双师型”队伍建设、专业建设、实训基地建设、校村(企)联动、科技推广体制等方面的需求和推动作用,找出了农业高职高专产学研结合中的重点和难点,建立和健全了促进产学研结合的政策保障体系和社会服务体系,推进了教学改革,促进了办学质量和效益的提高。%Through analyzing the demand and promoting role of the construction of comprehensive experimental zone of rural reform and development of Henan province to talents training of agricuhural higher vocational colleges, the construc- tion of double teacher team, specialty and practice base, the linkage system of school, village or enterprises, the promo- tion system of science and technology, and other aspects, this paper finds out the emphasis and difficulty of agricultural higher vocational colleges to cooperate with enterprise and scientific research units, points out that the policy guarantee system and social service system should be established and improved to promote the teaching reform and the quality and efficiency of school running.

  17. RESEARCH ON THE LABOUR FORCE FROM ROMANIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta MATEOC-SÎRB

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Through this research is analyzed labor force from Romanian agriculture. The agriculture in Romania has a very large share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Compared to other countries, the share of romanian agriculture in the GDP is 1.6 times higher compared to Hungary, almost three times compared to Poland and more than nine times to European Union. This does not explain the performance of romanian agriculture, but rather show the underperforming of the other sectors (industry and services sector from Romania compared to those sectors of the developed countries. Also, Romania is currently one of the European countries, with the most farmers about 30% of the total active population. This share is almost 40% of the number of farmers, existing in the European Union, where the share of the active population in agriculture of all activities, is less than 5%. In Romania, the share of active population employed in agriculture, was relatively stable until 1990, about 3 million people were employed in this area. Structural economic reforms and dismantling of Agricultural Production Cooperatives of the early 1990s led to a drastic increase of the labor force employed in agriculture area. Rural labor force is engaged mainly in the agricultural sector, which is one of the major constraints of economic development of the country. Regarding of the quantitative and qualitative structural evolution of the labor resources in romanian agriculture, on long-term, the employment in agriculture fall into the general tend of all countries wich are in the course of modernization, respectively of the absolute and relative reduction.

  18. Biosurfactants in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdev, Dhara P; Cameotra, Swaranjit S

    2013-02-01

    Agricultural productivity to meet growing demands of human population is a matter of great concern for all countries. Use of green compounds to achieve the sustainable agriculture is the present necessity. This review highlights the enormous use of harsh surfactants in agricultural soil and agrochemical industries. Biosurfactants which are reported to be produced by bacteria, yeasts, and fungi can serve as green surfactants. Biosurfactants are considered to be less toxic and eco-friendly and thus several types of biosurfactants have the potential to be commercially produced for extensive applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and food industries. The biosurfactants synthesized by environmental isolates also has promising role in the agricultural industry. Many rhizosphere and plant associated microbes produce biosurfactant; these biomolecules play vital role in motility, signaling, and biofilm formation, indicating that biosurfactant governs plant-microbe interaction. In agriculture, biosurfactants can be used for plant pathogen elimination and for increasing the bioavailability of nutrient for beneficial plant associated microbes. Biosurfactants can widely be applied for improving the agricultural soil quality by soil remediation. These biomolecules can replace the harsh surfactant presently being used in million dollar pesticide industries. Thus, exploring biosurfactants from environmental isolates for investigating their potential role in plant growth promotion and other related agricultural applications warrants details research. Conventional methods are followed for screening the microbial population for production of biosurfactant. However, molecular methods are fewer in reaching biosurfactants from diverse microbial population and there is need to explore novel biosurfactant from uncultured microbes in soil biosphere by using advanced methodologies like functional metagenomics. PMID:23280539

  19. Multifactorial Vector of Regional Agriculture Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raisa Sergeyevna Shepitko

    2015-12-01

    of increasing the availability of agricultural mass producer in the market realized within a cluster, agricultural holding, cooperative are grounded.

  20. M&A Cooperative Games

    OpenAIRE

    Maria A. Nastych

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative game theory instruments application to the corporate finance M&A research issues provide an ability to extend the field considered and conclusions obtained. The paper presents the M&A cooperative games modeling and its empiri-cal implementation to analyze the airline strategic alliance as M&A deal.

  1. Cooperative processes in image segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, L. S.

    1982-01-01

    Research into the role of cooperative, or relaxation, processes in image segmentation is surveyed. Cooperative processes can be employed at several levels of the segmentation process as a preprocessing enhancement step, during supervised or unsupervised pixel classification and, finally, for the interpretation of image segments based on segment properties and relations.

  2. Property Rights for Fishing Cooperatives

    OpenAIRE

    Aburto-Oropeza, Octavio; Leslie, Heather M.; Mack-Crane, Austen; Nagavarapu, Sriniketh; Reddy, Sheila M. W.; Sievanen, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Devolving property rights to local institutions has emerged as a compelling management strategy for natural resource management in developing countries. The use of property rights among fishing cooperatives operating in Mexico's Gulf of California provides a compelling setting for theoretical and empirical analysis. A dynamic theoretical model demonstrates how fishing cooperatives' managem...

  3. Cooperative answers in database systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaasterland, Terry; Godfrey, Parke; Minker, Jack; Novik, Lev

    1993-01-01

    A major concern of researchers who seek to improve human-computer communication involves how to move beyond literal interpretations of queries to a level of responsiveness that takes the user's misconceptions, expectations, desires, and interests into consideration. At Maryland, we are investigating how to better meet a user's needs within the framework of the cooperative answering system of Gal and Minker. We have been exploring how to use semantic information about the database to formulate coherent and informative answers. The work has two main thrusts: (1) the construction of a logic formula which embodies the content of a cooperative answer; and (2) the presentation of the logic formula to the user in a natural language form. The information that is available in a deductive database system for building cooperative answers includes integrity constraints, user constraints, the search tree for answers to the query, and false presuppositions that are present in the query. The basic cooperative answering theory of Gal and Minker forms the foundation of a cooperative answering system that integrates the new construction and presentation methods. This paper provides an overview of the cooperative answering strategies used in the CARMIN cooperative answering system, an ongoing research effort at Maryland. Section 2 gives some useful background definitions. Section 3 describes techniques for collecting cooperative logical formulae. Section 4 discusses which natural language generation techniques are useful for presenting the logic formula in natural language text. Section 5 presents a diagram of the system.

  4. Generation Z, Meet Cooperative Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igel, Charles; Urquhart, Vicki

    2012-01-01

    Today's Generation Z teens need to develop teamwork and social learning skills to be successful in the 21st century workplace. Teachers can help students develop these skills and enhance academic achievement by implementing cooperative learning strategies. Three key principles for successful cooperative learning are discussed. (Contains 1 figure.)

  5. Cooperative Education in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Andy; Flemming, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cooperative education is a structured experiential education strategy integrating classroom studies with work place learning. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate how a cooperative education model can be included within an outdoor education undergraduate degree to develop reflective practitioners and to enhance graduate capabilities. Document…

  6. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  7. Subsidizing R&D cooperatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Hinloopen

    2001-01-01

    A framework is developed with which the implementation of two commonly used R&D-stimulating policies can be evaluated: providing R&D subsidies and sustaining the formation of R&D cooperatives. Subsidized R&D cooperatives can also be analyzed. The analysis shows that providing R&D subsidies is more e

  8. Cooperation between CERN and ITER

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Audiovisual Service

    2008-01-01

    CERN and the International Fusion Organisation ITER have just signed a first cooperation agreeement. The Director-General of the International Fusion Energy Organization, Mr Kaname Ikeda, and CERN Director-General, Robert Aymar, signed a cooperation agreement at a meeting on the Meyrin site on Thursday 6 March.

  9. Teaching Cooperative Skills through Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glakas, Barbara A.

    1991-01-01

    Through cooperative games and play, children learn to share, empathize with others' feelings, and get along better. The article makes suggestions to physical educators on how to design games to teach students cooperative behaviors and how to incorporate them into class, noting four important game-design principles. (SM)

  10. Progress of international evaluation cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    The international evaluation cooperation started to remove the differences among major nuclear data libraries such as JENDL, ENDF, and JEF. The results obtained from the cooperation have been used to improve the quality of the libraries. This paper describes the status of the ongoing projects and several remarkable results so far obtained from the projects already finished. (author)

  11. Cooperative Learning for Better Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Natale, John J.; Russell, Gordon

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that linking music ensemble programs and cooperative learning strategies often has been overlooked. Describes the benefits of cooperative learning techniques for music performance preparation. Concludes that the small-group approach can enhance traditional music programs by offering students the chance to make their own decisions. (CFR)

  12. Information about the CENA: Agriculture Nuclear Energy Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of the CENA-Brazil is described in this paper such as to develop and absorb techniques and nuclear methods of research interest and agricultural applications; to spread the methods and techniques through the courses, scientific exchange and publications; to develop in permanent character, researches, studies and works of nuclear energy application in agricultural problems and transfer the technology to the public; cooperation programs with the others units and USP-Sao Paulo University in graduation and post-graduation courses. (L.M.J.)

  13. Transparency in Cooperative Online Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian; Paulsen, Morten Flate

    2009-01-01

    feature of social networking services. Transparency gives students insight into each other’s actions. Cooperative learning seeks to develop virtual learning environments that allow students to have optimal individual freedom within online learning communities. This article demonstrates how cooperative...... learning can be supported by transparency. To illustrate this with current examples, the article presents NKI Distance Education’s surveys and experiences with cooperative learning. The article discusses by which means social networking and transparency may be utilized within cooperative online education......The purpose of this article is to discuss the following question: What is the potential of social networking within cooperative online education? Social networking does not necessarily involve communication, dialogue, or collaboration. Instead, the authors argue that transparency is a unique...

  14. Non-cooperative game theory

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara-Greve, Takako

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook for university juniors, seniors, and graduate students majoring in economics, applied mathematics, and related fields. Each chapter is structured so that a core concept of that chapter is presented with motivations, useful applications are given, and related advanced topics are discussed for future study. Many helpful exercises at various levels are provided at the end of each chapter. Therefore, this book is most suitable for readers who intend to study non-cooperative game theory rigorously for both theoretical studies and applications. Game theory consists of non-cooperative games and cooperative games. This book covers only non-cooperative games, which are major tools used in current economics and related areas. Non-cooperative game theory aims to provide a mathematical prediction of strategic choices by decision makers (players) in situations of conflicting interest. Through the logical analyses of strategic choices, we obtain a better understanding of social (economic, business) probl...

  15. The Dose Makes The Cooperation

    CERN Document Server

    Cetin, Uzay

    2016-01-01

    Explaining cooperation is one of the greatest challenges for basic scientific research. We proposed an agent-based model to study co-evolution of memory and cooperation. In our model, reciprocal agents with limited memory size play Prisoner's Dilemma Game iteratively. The characteristic of the environment, whether it is threatening or not, is embedded in the payoff matrix. Our findings are as follows. (i) Memory plays a critical role in the protection of cooperation. (ii) In the absence of threat, subsequent generations loose their memory and are consequently invaded by defectors. (iii) In contrast, the presence of an appropriate level of threat triggers the emergence of a self-protection mechanism for cooperation within subsequent generations. On the evolutionary level, memory size acts like an immune response of the population against aggressive defection. (iv) Even more extreme threat results again in defection. Our findings boil down to the following: The dose of the threat makes the cooperation.

  16. The cultivated agricultural environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Local agricultural practices in the Nordic countries have resulted in a great diversity in agriculture in the Nordic countries. The diversities mean that in the event of contamination of agricultural land by radioactive fallout the consequences may differ greatly from region to region. For crops and soils contaminated directly by radioactive fallout there are five primary causes for concern, namely: 1. short-term internal contamination of man and animals through ingestion of surface-contaminated mature crops; 2. internal contamination of crops through foliar intake; 3. contamination of mature crops from resuspended soil; 4. direct irradiation of agricultural workers; 5. internal irradiation from inhalation of resuspended soil particulates. In the short-term, most of the radionuclides likely to be released to the atmosphere in the event of an accident have a potential to cause problems in agriculture and many have the potential for causing long-term problems. Generally, the magnitude of the problems created will depend on the: deposition mechanism (wet or dry); radionuclide composition of the fallout; type of farming system (i.e. arable or dairy); type of soil (for instance organic soils are more sensitive than mineral soils with respect to radiocaesium); state of development of the crop which in turn is determined by the season of the year. (EG)

  17. THE ECOLOGICAL AGRICULTURE – A MODEL OF DURABLE AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    TABITA CORNELIA ADAMOV; T. IANCU; ANDREA NAGY; COSMINA-SIMONA TOADER

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the community agriculture politics orientation toward a natural agriculture, where the concept of ecological agriculture has a very well defined place, it is necessary to intensify the efforts to promote the ecological agriculture practices and to inform the farmers about the importance and the role of the ecological technologies and, last but not least, the economical advantages and also the advantages to improve the environment. The ecological agriculture (similar term for...

  18. Agricultural land evaluation in the process of agricultural land consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Fištravec, Polonca

    2008-01-01

    Agricultural land is limited and therefore needs to be protected, preserved and adequately managed. One of the most important instruments of rural planning as well as agricultural land planning represent agricultural operations, first of all the process of land consolidation. Diploma thesis deals with the process of agricultural land consolidation as a whole, emphasizing the agricultural land evaluation during the process. This is cruicial for just and efficient dealings of the...

  19. Data mining in agriculture

    CERN Document Server

    Mucherino, Antonio; Pardalos, Panos M

    2009-01-01

    Data Mining in Agriculture represents a comprehensive effort to provide graduate students and researchers with an analytical text on data mining techniques applied to agriculture and environmental related fields. This book presents both theoretical and practical insights with a focus on presenting the context of each data mining technique rather intuitively with ample concrete examples represented graphically and with algorithms written in MATLAB®. Examples and exercises with solutions are provided at the end of each chapter to facilitate the comprehension of the material. For each data mining technique described in the book variants and improvements of the basic algorithm are also given. Also by P.J. Papajorgji and P.M. Pardalos: Advances in Modeling Agricultural Systems, 'Springer Optimization and its Applications' vol. 25, ©2009.

  20. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust...

  1. AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS, INTERDEPENDENCE AND UNCERTAINTY

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Jock R.

    1982-01-01

    Interdependence has always been central to economics but assumes pressing importance for agricultural economists as they deal with industrialising agricultures. Continued unresolvable uncertainties, when properly recognised, also add to the challenge of relevant work in agricultural economics. The related roles of interdependence and uncertainty are illustrated through examples from the progress of agricultural technology and enhancement of food security.

  2. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    research described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future

  3. HUMAN MACHINE COOPERATIVE TELEROBOTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Hamel; Spivey Douglass; Sewoong Kim; Pamela Murray; Yang Shou; Sriram Sridharan; Ge Zhang; Scott Thayer; Rajiv V. Dubey

    2003-06-30

    described as Human Machine Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR). The HMCTR combines the telerobot with robotic control techniques to improve the system efficiency and reliability in teleoperation mode. In this topical report, the control strategy, configuration and experimental results of Human Machines Cooperative Telerobotics (HMCTR), which modifies and limits the commands of human operator to follow the predefined constraints in the teleoperation mode, is described. The current implementation is a laboratory-scale system that will be incorporated into an engineering-scale system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the future.

  4. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R.; Sheppard, Andy W.; Cook, David C.; De Barro, Paul J.; Worner, Susan P.; Thomas, Matthew B.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  5. Global threat to agriculture from invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Dean R; Sheppard, Andy W; Cook, David C; De Barro, Paul J; Worner, Susan P; Thomas, Matthew B

    2016-07-01

    Invasive species present significant threats to global agriculture, although how the magnitude and distribution of the threats vary between countries and regions remains unclear. Here, we present an analysis of almost 1,300 known invasive insect pests and pathogens, calculating the total potential cost of these species invading each of 124 countries of the world, as well as determining which countries present the greatest threat to the rest of the world given their trading partners and incumbent pool of invasive species. We find that countries vary in terms of potential threat from invasive species and also their role as potential sources, with apparently similar countries sometimes varying markedly depending on specifics of agricultural commodities and trade patterns. Overall, the biggest agricultural producers (China and the United States) could experience the greatest absolute cost from further species invasions. However, developing countries, in particular, Sub-Saharan African countries, appear most vulnerable in relative terms. Furthermore, China and the United States represent the greatest potential sources of invasive species for the rest of the world. The analysis reveals considerable scope for ongoing redistribution of known invasive pests and highlights the need for international cooperation to slow their spread. PMID:27325781

  6. Soil physics and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The approach that integrates knowledge is very important in Agriculture, including farmers, extensionists, researchers and professors. The specialists, including the soil physicists, must have a global view of the crop production system. Therefore, their expertise can be useful for the society. The Essence of scientific knowledge is its practical application. The soil physics is a sub area of Agronomy. There are many examples of this specific subject related to Agriculture. This paper will focus, in general, the following cases: (i) erosion, environmental pollution and human health, (ii) plant population and distribution, soil fertility, evapo-transpiration and soil water flux density, and (iii) productivity, effective root depth, water deficit and yield

  7. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattar, M.A. [Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Mymensingh, (Bangladesh)

    1997-10-01

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN{sub 3}). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA and {sup 125}I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come 32 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Research achievements in Bangladesh agriculture using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Application of isotope and radiation techniques in Bangladesh agriculture has been initiated in 1961 with the establishment of Atomic Energy Agricultural Research Centre, Dhaka under the then Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission. The activity of the centre was strengthened and upgraded to the level of an institute as a constituent organization of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission in 1972. It was further reorganized, made an autonomous research organization under the Ministry of Agriculture in 1982 and renamed as Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture. The other organizations involved in nuclear agricultural research are Institute of Food and Radiation Biology and Bangladesh Agricultural University. A number of technologies have been developed using nuclear techniques that imparted on agricultural development. Sixteen new crops were developed using physical (200-700 Gy gamma rays) and chemical mutagen (NaN3). Soil fertility and plant nutrition technologies were developed using both stable and radio isotopes. The improved feeding strategies and utilization of locally available low quality feed material (rice straw) were determined using 51Cr-EDTA and 125I in order to have better livestock growth and reproduction ability. Several constraints related to nuclear research were identified. Increased government commitment and international cooperation are of the utmost importance for effective utilization of the benefits of nuclear technology and to face the increasing demand for food for the ever increasing population in years to come

  9. Technical Compendium: Descriptive Agricultural Statistics and Analysis for Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Tembo, Solomon; Sitko, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This technical compendium was developed to serve as a reference document for development organizations, researchers, government officials, and cooperating partners working in Zambia. It uses nationally representative survey data to provide descriptive trends and analysis relevant to the agricultural sector. It is also specifically targeted for organizations tasked with implementing programs associated with USAID’s Feed the Future (FtF) initiative. As such, a special section is dedicated to Ea...

  10. 29 CFR 1607.8 - Cooperative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... EMPLOYEE SELECTION PROCEDURES (1978) General Principles § 1607.8 Cooperative studies. A. Encouragement of cooperative studies. The agencies issuing these guidelines encourage employers, labor organizations, and employment agencies to cooperate in research, development, search for lawful alternatives, and...

  11. 77 FR 32993 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Rio Grande National Forest, in cooperation with the...

  12. Changing Structure of Turkish Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Charles K.

    1983-01-01

    Professor Resat Aktan, whose memory is honoured by this paper, occupied a unique place in the history of Turkish agriculture--teacher, scholar, Minister of Agriculture, and long-time Turkish delegate to the IAAE. Among his many accomplishments, he led two landmark agricultural surveys which serve to chronicle the development of modern Turkish agriculture. While Ataturk had set Turkey on the road to modernization of agriculture, the end of World War II still found Turkish wheat farming little ...

  13. Strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Fogelfors, Håkan; Wivstad, Maria; Eckersten, Henrik; Holstein, Fredrik; Johansson, Susanne; Verwijst, Theo

    2009-01-01

    This strategic analysis of Swedish agriculture – production systems and agricultural landscapes in a time of change – focuses on climate change, future availability of natural resources and economic regulation in a global food market. The background to the project was that the Faculty of Natural Resources and Agriculture of the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences identified an urgent need to explore the implications and opportunities of coming changes for agricultural production syste...

  14. Agricultural Technology, Risk, and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Tarp, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Interactions between agricultural technology improvements, risk-reducing behavior, and gender roles in agricultural production in Mozambique are examined. The analysis employs a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model that explicitly incorporates key features of the economy. These include......: detailed accounting of marketing margins, home consumption, risk, and gender roles in agricultural production. Our results show that agricultural technology improvements benefit both male and female occupants of rural households. Due to economic interactions, agricultural technology improvements...

  15. The Social Maintenance of Cooperation through Hypocrisy

    OpenAIRE

    Bodnar, Todd; Salathé, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Cooperation is widespread in human societies, but its maintenance at the group level remains puzzling if individuals benefit from not cooperating. Explanations of the maintenance of cooperation generally assume that cooperative and non-cooperative behavior in others can be assessed and copied accurately. However, humans have a well known capacity to deceive and thus to manipulate how others assess their behavior. Here, we show that hypocrisy - claiming to be acting cooperatively while acting ...

  16. Are Cooperatives Efficient When Membership is Voluntary?

    OpenAIRE

    Leathers, Howard D.

    2006-01-01

    If profit-maximizing farmers are free to join or not to join a cooperative, it may appear reasonable to assume that a cooperative will exist only when it has cost advantaged over non-cooperative marketing. This paper presents a model in which that result fails. Every individual farmer chooses either to join or not join a cooperative depending on whether transactions costs are lower from cooperative membership or nonmembership. As cooperative membership increases, transactions costs for member...

  17. THE MARKETING OF COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES

    OpenAIRE

    Razvan-Nicolae, DECUSEARA; Sorin-Daniel, MANOLE

    2013-01-01

    Cooperatives have proven to be a business model that has endured over time, even during the economic crisis. Even if they don’t have the scale of large companies, they manage, through their ability to adapt, to overcome challenges offered by the market they are acting. The fact that their members are working in these cooperatives makes them to engage more actively in cooperative work and also to be more responsible, in the end, working for them. Even if they don’t have marketing budgets, coop...

  18. Value solutions in cooperative games

    CERN Document Server

    McCain, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces new concepts for cooperative game theory, and particularly solutions that determine the distribution of a coalitional surplus among the members of the coalition. It also addresses several generalizations of cooperative game theory. Drawing on methods of welfare economics, new value solutions are derived for Non-Transferable Utility games with and without differences of bargaining power among the members of the coalition. Cooperation in intertemporal games is examined, and conditions that permit the reduction of these games to games in coalition function form are outlined.

  19. PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF SMALL AND MEDIUM-SIZED ENTERPRISES IN UKRAINIAN AGRICULTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Pimenova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Main directions of development of small and medium-sized enterprises in Ukrainian agriculture are examined. It is determined that entrepreneurship in agrarian sector is a driving force behind the development of agriculture, as these activities contributes to the production of quality agricultural products that satisfies the needs of society, food security, independence and improves the living standards of rural population. Potential customers of small parties of harvest in Ukrainian grain market are analyzed. The ways of mutually beneficial cooperation between Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs are proved. The study of foreign experience has proven that strengthening the competitiveness of Ukrainian agricultural products in the context of globalization is possible on the basis of mutually beneficial cooperation of Ukrainian farmers and entrepreneurs, where recent purchase of output at market prices for the purpose of resale or creation of agricultural cooperatives, such form of economy in agrarian relations that combines a balanced economic, social and environmental components. In particular in paper is shown that sustainable economic management provide only forms of economy that take into account the socioeconomic and geophysical specifics of agriculture, particularities of agricultural labor and methods of management. The most common among these forms are farmers.

  20. Technology Innovation Mode of Agricultural Leading Enterprise——Based on the Virtual Organization Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of technology innovation of agricultural leading enterprises by domestic and foreign experts and scholars,technology innovation of agricultural enterprises is a process of new market increment,which uses new knowledge,technology,process and production mode,produces new products,offers new services and realizes commercialization. Characteristics of agricultural technology innovation are introduced,such as obvious regionality,relatively high risk,long-term periodicity and public attribute. Predicament for technology innovation of leading enterprises is analyzed,such as technical constraints,financial constraints and personnel constraints. Technological Innovation Mode can be classified into three modes of independent innovation,imitative innovation and cooperative innovation by the method of technology innovation. Among them,since there are some defects in the technology innovation process,independent innovation and imitative innovation are generally not used for the innovation of agricultural enterprises. Cooperative Innovation Mode can rely on foreign aid,can realize complementary advantages and achievement sharing,and can be widely applied in the agricultural innovation enterprise. Virtual organization in cooperation innovation mode is described,which makes up for technology,capital and human resources barriers in the process of agricultural enterprise innovation. Therefore,this mode is popular among the agricultural innovation enterprise.

  1. Cohabitation: Humans & Agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodington, W.

    2012-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0531 Smart & Bioclimatic Design. Cohabitation of humans and agriculture can be used to improve building climate, human health and the state of the world. It affects building design and requires new building components. This manual explains w

  2. Knowing Agricultural Biodiversity

    OpenAIRE

    Mulvany, P.

    2001-01-01

    The term "agricultural biodiversity" is relatively recent, perhaps post-CBD. Although, the specific nature of the biodiversity used by people was recognised for a long time, the overwhelming emphasis in the CBD was on general biodiversity, mainly 'wild' flora and fauna that inhabit this fragile biosphere in which people also live.

  3. Agriculture. Sheep Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for sheep, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task list. Each…

  4. Scrapping Agricultural Tax

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On March 5,in his government report to the annual session of the country's top legislature,the National People's Congress,Premier Wen Jiabao set the goal to reduce the agricultural tax rate by more than one percentage point each year,

  5. Agriculture and environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agriculture came into existence about 15,000 years ago and passed through different stages of food gathering, hunting, hoe culture and sedentary agriculture followed by modem agriculture. It began simultaneously in five world centers concentrating on different crops, most suited to those areas. It was also effected by changes in climate influenced by temperature, drought and magnitude of precipitation, which determined the distribution of populations and occupation of the people. With the increase in population the need for food also progressively increased, necessitating introduction of modern agriculture to enhance production. The indiscriminate and faulty use of advanced technology has added its share in the, destruction of environment. The two approaches that contributed to this were horizontal wand vertical expansion. The former results in deforestation, desertification, soil erosion, land salting and water logging as well as the frequent occurrence of droughts and famines, the latter destroyed soil structure and fertility through decreased microbial populations, fish culture, wildlife and bird sanctuaries, in addition to hazards in human beings and fauna. The real culprit of this global devastation is the high population growth rate, which needs to be contained at safer levels, coupled with sensible use of inputs to produce needed quantities of food and fiber. (author)

  6. Agriculture Oral Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains 23 papers related to the use of nuclear techniques in plant breeding in Turkey, effect of gamma irradiations on growing various plants, mutations and soil chemistry, etc., presented at 4. International Congress of Nuclear Agriculture and Animal Science in Bursa, Turkey, 25-27 Sep 1996. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  7. Community Supported Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Givens, Emily

    2009-01-01

    A report on the definition, history, production, membership and local benefits of community supported agriculture. Editor's note: the following article was written as a class assignment for Dr. Greg Welbaum's Vegetable Production course at Virginia Tech. Emily provides some good history and information on the CSA marketing option for specialty crop growers." "Originally printed in Virginia Vegetable, Small Fruit and Specialty Crops, June 2002

  8. Nanotechnology in Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview is given of the application of nanotechnology to agriculture. This is an active field of R&D, where a large number of findings and innovations have been reported. For example, in soil management, applications reported include nanofertilizers, soil binders, water retention aids, and nut...

  9. Goryachkin's agricultural mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinenova, Vera

    2016-03-01

    The paper contributes to the development of applied mechanics by establishing a new discipline, namely, agricultural mechanics by academician Vasilii Prohorovich Goryachkin (1868-1935) who was an apprentice of Nikolay Yegorovich Zhukovsky and a graduate of the Moscow University (current known as Moscow State University) and the Imperial Higher Technical School.

  10. Agricultural Development in Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Hampwaye, Godfrey; Phiri, Douglas

    Food processing is important to the Zambian economy and entails a set of options for local firms to grow and create employment given the growth potential the country possesses in agriculture. This policy brief summarizes the findings of a study of 38 Zambian owned firms in the food processing...

  11. Mexico Agriculture Policy Review

    OpenAIRE

    Cahill, Carmel; Jotanovic, Aleksandar; Abraham, Cally

    2008-01-01

    As a NAFTA partner and Canada's third largest export market for agri-food products, developments in Mexico are of direct interest to Canada. Rural poverty, low productivity, poor infrastructure and unclear property rights for both land and water still inhibit the efforts of Mexico's government to improve competitiveness of its agricultural sector.

  12. Agriculture, forestry, range resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    The necessary elements to perform global inventories of agriculture, forestry, and range resources are being brought together through the use of satellites, sensors, computers, mathematics, and phenomenology. Results of ERTS-1 applications in these areas, as well as soil mapping, are described.

  13. Agricultural nitrate pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anker, Helle Tegner

    2015-01-01

    Despite the passing of almost 25 years since the adoption of the EU Nitrates Directive, agricultural nitrate pollution remains a major concern in most EU Member States. This is also the case in Denmark, although a fairly strict regulatory regime has resulted in almost a 50 per cent reduction...

  14. Food and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter discussed the basic principles and techniques of nuclear science and technology applied in food and agricultural study. The following subjects covered: 1) Utilization of radiation in plant breeding, pest control, food irradiation, moisture content, food contamination study; 2) Utilization of radioisotopes in soil and plant studies, animal research

  15. Cooperative path planning and cooperative perception for UAVs swarm

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Shah

    2012-01-01

    In this research Pythagorean Hodograph based path planning and camera based cooperative perception are investigated separately and then these two entirely separate areas (Path Planning and Perception) are integrated for the application in online pop-up obstacle locating & avoidance and moving target tracking & surveillance in dynamic environments. The path planning is integrated with the cooperative perception to deal with the challenges posed by the dynamic environment. The aim of this integ...

  16. Addressing biodiversity loss when international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Esteban May

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence shows that international markets of agricultural commodities are oligopolistic. This article uses a theoretical framework to identify the effects of adopting either unilateral (i.e. non-cooperative) or cooperative environmental policies on local biodiversity when countries compete in this market structure. The results reveal that unilateral environmental policies can negatively affect local biodiversity in foreign countries. This suggests that protection of natural habitats ca...

  17. [Aware and cooperative reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, V; Ghilardi, G

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to address the question of reduction in the scientific method, to evaluate its legitimacy as well as its pro and contra from an epistemological point of view. In the first paragraph we classify some kinds of reductionism, analysing their presuppositions and epistemological status and showing some examples of scientific reduction. The presentation includes a classificatory table that shows some of the different forms of biological reductionism. In the second paragraph we study the epistemology of science starting from its modern beginning: the Vienna Circle, focusing on the meaning of methodological reductionism. What did it mean for science to define itself mainly as method, which effects did this new concept of science have on methodology and what kind of problems did this movement bring about. In the third paragraph we examine the reactions triggered by methodological reductionism, we analyze the theoretical consistency of these answers, trying to offer a balanced view. We show how complexity can be seen as a paradigm of the anti-reductionism effort, and we study its epistemological basis. In the fourth paragraph we outline our operative proposal: the reduction that is both aware and cooperative. We point out the main reasons why science cannot avoid being reductive in some way, and therefore how we need to deal with this feature in order to prevent it to degenerate into reductionism. We show some examples of this new proposal taken from the practical realm and from literature, where it is possible to discern the spirit of this alternative methodology. PMID:22964706

  18. Cooperative robotic sentry vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddema, John T.; Lewis, Christopher L.; Klarer, Paul; Eisler, G. R.; Caprihan, Rahul

    1999-08-01

    As part of a project for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Sandia National Laboratories' Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center is developing and testing the feasibility of a cooperative team of robotic sentry vehicles to guard a perimeter and to perform a surround task. This paper describes on-going activities in the development of these robotic sentry vehicles. To date, we have developed a robotic perimeter detection system which consists of eight 'Roving All Terrain Lunar Explorer Rovers' (RATLER), a laptop-based base-station, and several Miniature Intrusion Detection Sensors (MIDS). A radio frequency receiver on each of the RATLER vehicles alerts the sentry vehicles of alarms from the hidden MIDS. When an alarm is received, each vehicle decides whether it should investigate the alarm based on the proximity of itself and the other vehicles to the alarm. As one vehicle attends an alarm, the other vehicles adjust their position around the perimeter to better prepare for another alarm. For the surround task, both potential field and A* search path planners have been added to the base-station and vehicles. At the base-station, the operator specifies goal and exclusion regions on a GIS map. The path planner generates vehicles paths that are previewed by the operator. Once the operator has validated the path, the appropriate information is downloaded t the vehicles. For the potential field path planner, the polygons and line segments that represent the obstacles and goals are downloaded to the vehicles, instead of the simulated paths. On board the vehicles, the same potential field path planner generates the path except that it uses the true location of itself and the nearest neighboring vehicle. For the A* path planner, the actual path is downloaded to the vehicles because of limited on-board computational power.

  19. Turnbull - Cooperative Palouse Prairie Restoration

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A new Cooperative Weed Management Area (CWMA) was formed to tackle invasive plant issues within the region surrounding the refuge. This CWMA provides an opportunity...

  20. Plainview Milk Cooperative Ingredient Recall

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since June 2009 related to products manufactured by Plainview Milk Products Cooperative.

  1. Planning and Implementing Cooperative Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sylvia J.

    1978-01-01

    Implementing cooperative education requires careful planning, institutional support, and competent staffing. Suggestions for planning, setting objectives, recruiting students, job development, student counseling and placement, liaison with other colleges offices, and institutionalization are described. (Author/LBH)

  2. Cooperative quasi-Cherenkov radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, S V

    2014-01-01

    We study the features of cooperative parametric (quasi-Cherenkov) radiation arising when initially unmodulated electron (positron) bunches pass through a crystal (natural or artificial) under the conditions of dynamical diffraction of electromagnetic waves in the presence of shot noise. A detailed numerical analysis is given for cooperative THz radiation in artificial crystals. The radiation intensity above 200~MW$/$cm$^2$ is obtained in simulations. In two- and three-wave diffraction cases, the peak intensity of cooperative radiation emitted at small and large angles to particle velocity is investigated as a function of the particle number in an electron bunch. The peak radiation intensity appeared to increase monotonically until saturation is achieved. At saturation, the shot noise causes strong fluctuations in the intensity of cooperative parametric radiation. It is shown that the duration of radiation pulses can be much longer than the particle flight time through the crystal. This enables a thorough expe...

  3. CHINA Continuing cooperation with CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a visit to China in July, CERN Director General Carlo Rubbia signed an agreement with the Chinese Academy of Sciences which provides a reciprocal framework for CERN and China to continue and develop their scientific and technical cooperation

  4. Cooperative Learning: An Inside Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Kathleen M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes students' reactions to a university physics class for engineering majors that was built around cooperative learning activities. Finds that student feedback supports research claims made about the learning benefits of this teaching method. (WRM)

  5. Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Upper Kenai River Cooperative Plan is the product of a joint effort of the Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Division of Parks and...

  6. Cooperative strings and glassy interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salez, Thomas; Salez, Justin; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari; Raphaël, Elie; Forrest, James A

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a minimal theory of glass formation based on the ideas of molecular crowding and resultant string-like cooperative rearrangement, and address the effects of free interfaces. In the bulk case, we obtain a scaling expression for the number of particles taking part in cooperative strings, and we recover the Adam-Gibbs description of glassy dynamics. Then, by including thermal dilatation, the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann relation is derived. Moreover, the random and string-like characters of the cooperative rearrangement allow us to predict a temperature-dependent expression for the cooperative length ξ of bulk relaxation. Finally, we explore the influence of sample boundaries when the system size becomes comparable to ξ. The theory is in agreement with measurements of the glass-transition temperature of thin polymer films, and allows quantification of the temperature-dependent thickness hm of the interfacial mobile layer. PMID:26100908

  7. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  8. Nanoampere pumping of Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Juha J.; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka P.; Kemppinen, Antti

    2007-01-01

    The authors have employed a tunable Cooper-pair transistor, the sluice, with radio frequency control to pump current over a resistive circuit. They find that the charge transferred per pumping cycle can be controlled with the resolution of a single Cooper pair up to hundreds of pairs. The achieved nanoampere current features more than an order of magnitude improvement over the previously reported results and it is close to the theoretical maximum value for the measured sample.

  9. Nanoampere pumping of Cooper pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Vartiainen, Juha J.; Mottonen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka; Kemppinen, Antti

    2006-01-01

    We have employed a tunable Cooper-pair transistor, the sluice, with radio frequency control to pump current over a resistive circuit. We find that the charge transferred per pumping cycle can be controlled with the resolution of a single Cooper-pair up to hundreds of pairs. The achieved nanoampere current features more than an order of magnitude improvement over the previously reported results and it is close to the theoretical maximum value for the measured sample.

  10. COOPERATION BETWEEN TEACHER AND PATIENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Egidija NOVLJAN

    1998-01-01

    The cooperation between the teacher and parents is very sensitive and significant field in context of promotion the development of the disabled children.With that in this article are elaborate many questions connected with successful communication between the teacher and parents. In the some time we have been engrossed in factors which made obstruct in communication, the tasks and the large register of the forms of cooperation in which are build in the huge experience come by former practice.

  11. Cooperative Question Answering Semantic Web

    OpenAIRE

    Melo, Dora; Rodrigues, Irene Pimenta; Nogueira, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a Cooperative Question Answering System that takes as input queries expressed in natural language and is able to return a cooperative answer obtained from resources in the Semantic Web, more specifically DBpedia represented in OWL/RDF as knowledge base and WordNet to build similar questions. Our system resorts to ontologies not only for reasoning but also to find answers and is independent of prior knowledge of the semantic resources by the user. The natural language ...

  12. How cooperation became the norm

    OpenAIRE

    Birch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Most of the contributions to Cooperation and Its Evolution grapple with the distinctive challenges presented by the project of explaining human sociality. Many of these puzzles have a ‘chicken and egg’ character: our virtually unparalleled capacity for large-scale cooperation is the product of psychological, behavioural, and demographic changes in our recent evolutionary history, and these changes are linked by complex patterns of reciprocal dependence. There is much we do not yet understand ...

  13. INFORMATION SECURITY IN LOGISTICS COOPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Małkus

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cooperation of suppliers of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, wholesalers, retailers in the form of the supply chain, as well as outsourcing of specialized logistics service require ensuring adequate support of information. It concerns the use of appropriate computer tools. The security of information in such conditions of collaboration becomes the important problem for parties of contract. The objective of the paper is to characterize main issues relating to security of information in logistics cooperation.

  14. Expertness Measuring in Cooperative Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadabadi, N.M.; Asadpour, M.; Khodaabakhsh, S.H.; Nakano, E.

    2000-01-01

    Cooperative Learning in a multi-agent system can improve the learning quality and learning speed. The improvement can be gained if each agent detects the expert agents and use their knowledge properly. In this paper, a new cooperative learning method, called Weighted Strategy Sharing (WSS) is introduced. Also some criteria are introduced to measure the expertness of agents. In WSS, based on the amount of its teammate expertness, each agent assigns a weight to their knowledge. These weights ar...

  15. The Mode Reform of Cultivating Marketing Talents in Agricultural Vocational Colleges Based on the Perspective of Agricultural Enterprises——A Case Study of Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    We conduct survey on the characteristics of demand of agricultural enterprises for agricultural marketing talents from the following 6 aspects:the professional marketing talents needed urgently by the agricultural enterprises,the amount of demand of agricultural enterprises for the marketing talents,the jobs offered by the agricultural enterprises,the educational background of agricultural marketing talents favored by the agricultural enterprises,the requirements posed by the agricultural enterprises on the work experience of agricultural marketing talents,and the quality requirements posed by the agricultural enterprises on the agricultural marketing talents.We analyse the problems existing in the cultivation mode of marketing talents in agricultural vocational colleges as follows:the feature of major is not outstanding;the contradiction between supply and demand is prominent;it is disconnected with the practical needs of agricultural enterprises;the cultivation form of practical ability is simple.On the basis of this,taking Wenzhou Vocational College of Science and Technology as an example,we advance the new mode of cultivating inter-disciplinary talents integrating "marketing technique+technique marketing",and establish characteristic agricultural course combo system on the basis of vocational position orientation.In the meantime,we propose that we should conduct close college-enterprise cooperation with the local leading agricultural enterprises.This cultivation mode reform of talents is favorable for the agricultural enterprises,especially small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises to foster "marketable" agricultural marketing talents,elevate the comprehensive competitiveness of small and medium-sized agricultural enterprises,serve the local economy,and promote the development of modern agriculture,and China’s agriculture,farmer,and countryside.

  16. Application of marginal calculation in managing a cooperative company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuta Mierzwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the market economy the basic subject is a private enterprise dealing with the production of goods and services in order to maximize profit. The neoclassical microeconomics focuses on examining only these enterprises on the market, which strive to maximize profit within certain limitations in a rational way. Acc. to the act of September 1982 on the co-operative law (The Journal of Laws 1982, no 30, pos. 2010, a cooperative company belongs to a group of private enterprises. However, it is called a non-profit enterprise. Nevertheless, cooperative companies on the market are seldom confronted with capital companies. In the market economy it is a rare situation for a company not to be threatened by competition. And even if such a situation does happen, it is always connected with limited demand. Thus the following question may be asked: can a co-operative company, if it wants to become rational, utilize the marginalization theory in order to determine its general balance? The author is trying to answer this question in her article, selecting an agricultural supply co-operative for her analysis. Using the graphical method, she determines various types of optimums, at the same time stating what importance it has for the members and what position the co-perative holds on the market. In the conclusion she emphasizes that the difficulties with applying the marginalization theory in the co-operative companies are brought about by the way decisions are taken and these subjects are managed, and may be the reason why many of these enterprises are closed down.

  17. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  18. The rise of Brazilian agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Grinsted; Vink, Nick; Sandrey, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore some of the possible lessons for South African agriculture from the Brazilian experience. To this end, the article discusses the performance of Brazilian agriculture in terms of land and labour use, production, and exports. This is followed by aspects of...... Brazilian agricultural policies, namely farmer support, the research and technology transfer system and land issues. The implications for South African agriculture can be summarized as the recognition that history, geography, the development path and agricultural policies all matter. The article then...... identifies five important lessons for agricultural development in South Africa....

  19. The Features of the New-type Co-operatives and its Legal Regulation in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoletta Fáró

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In agriculture, a changing in the structure of ownership also appeared in parallel with the changing of the political system. As a result, this process led to the liquidation and reorganisation of the socialist type co-operatives. However, in many cases the cooperatives managed in the traditional way, could not keep up with the changing of the economic regulators, the reorganisation of the market relations and with the more and more oppressive agricultural gap. At the same time, individual farmers - mainly because of their poor material conditions - could not meet the market requirements either in the quantity or the quality of their products. As a consequence of all these factors, a different kind of co-operation was needed. The Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development passed a decree on the support of new-type co-operatives, too, in 1999. The statement of costs supported the establishment of companies dealing with product purchasing, processing, marketing and service. In the following years the support of these co-operatives was sometimes terminated, sometimes preferred.

  20. Fostering Food Literacy and Food Citizenship through Farm-School Cooperation and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyg, Pernille Malberg

    2014-01-01

    and consumption choices on the environment, health and farm economy. This has an impact on eating habits and choices, affecting health, the environment, agriculture and other ethical dilemmas such as animal welfare and fair trade. Cooperation between farmers and teachers can enable children to get a direct...... as an understanding of and interest in food, agriculture and ecology, ideally qualifying their future consumption choices. Farm visits and other on-farm activities are intended to influence students’ food literacy and ecological and agricultural understanding. Other important learning goals are about developing...

  1. The prospects of marketing dairy cooperatives development in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.O. Ryzhyk

    2013-09-01

    other dairy products cream, kefir, fermented baked milk, yogurt, sour cream, cottage cheese; implement sound policies and advertising public relations campaign;being a part of the organizational structure of qualified marketing service (or at least the responsible competent employee; constantly working on the development of the local market (for example, the supply of milk to schools in consultation with the cities and districts of the region; flexible pricing policy, including a differentiated system of discounts and payment conditions for different categories of consumers.Conclusions and directions of further researches. In order to develop and improve the effectiveness of current Ukrainian dairy marketing cooperatives a gradual expansion of the range of their services has been offered. In this case, the strategic goal of each of them should be the following: the formation of the most appropriate model in which the dairy cooperative has its own material and technical base, refines, sells dairy products and has expanded its customer base. In this case, the organizational structure of the cooperative must evolve gradually, taking into account its financial capacity. The results of this research can be used in further scientific research to substantiate the development of agricultural service cooperatives and practice of marketing dairy cooperatives.

  2. 7 CFR 1484.20 - How can my organization apply to the Cooperator program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that it is accepting applications for participation in the Cooperator program for a specified marketing... performance of competing suppliers, expected changes in demand, etc.; (ii) The long-term strategy that will be... HELP DEVELOP FOREIGN MARKETS FOR AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES Application and Fund Allocation § 1484.20...

  3. 7 CFR 1484.30 - How does FAS formalize its working relationship with approved Cooperators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How does FAS formalize its working relationship with... FAS formalize its working relationship with approved Cooperators? FAS will notify each applicant in... sign the program agreement and submit the signed agreement to the Director, Marketing Operations...

  4. 7 CFR 2.48 - Administrator, Rural Business-Cooperative Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Loan program (7 U.S.C. 6616). (11) Administer programs authorized by the Cooperative Marketing Act of... Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946 (7 U.S.C. 1621-1627). (13) Work with institutions and international... Executive Order 12088, 3 CFR, 1978 Comp., p. 243, to enter into an inter-agency agreement with the...

  5. Exploring Relationships between Teaching Efficacy and Student Teacher-Cooperating Teacher Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Don W.; Roberts, T. Grady; Murphy, Tim H.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching efficacy beliefs of agricultural science student teachers, and their relationship with their cooperating teachers during field experiences, are variables that may affect the number of student teachers entering the profession. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects implementing structured communication between student…

  6. IAEA Technical co-operation. A partner in development. Nuclear science serving people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This issue contains descriptions of IAEA technical cooperation programs in a variety of disciplines and locations. It includes articles on the eradication of Tsetse flies in Africa, biofertilizers for agriculture, new strains of rice, water resource management, pollution control for a sustainable environment, nuclear medicine, and ensuring nuclear reactor safety

  7. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  8. Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Caporali

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the 16th National Meeting of the Italian Ecological Society (“Global Change, Ecological Diversity and Sustainability”, University of Tuscia, Viterbo, 19-22 September 2006, a symposium was devoted to “Agroecology and Sustainable Development”. A major goal of this symposium was to contribute to keeping the dialogue among the experts of the various disciplines alive. Sustainability of agriculture is a challenge for society world wide. Universities and society as a whole have a responsibility in re-examining current perception of nature, of the world and of human society in the light of natural resources depletion, increasing pollution and social inequalities. The urgency to address sustainability issues is increasingly being reflected in the manner in which institutions of higher education around the world are giving priority to the teaching, research and practice of sustainability. The University of Tuscia is involved in international initiatives concerning teaching and research in Agroecology and Sustainable Agriculture.

  9. Poll Tax in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Under the crisis constrains, the Romanian government tries to balance the budget, to stop the inflation and decrease unemployment, but its financial possibilities to do so prove to be much smaller than necessary. As far as agriculture is concerned, because of the strong connection of this branch to the European rural mechanism, the state intervention plays the key role in the protection and promoting the national production, in competition with other global producers. The taxation system still owes unexpected effects, influences the prices for the animal and vegetal production, the sales and the profits of this branch, in the context of included fluctuating profit particularities. Is poll tax a possibility or a necessity for agriculture?

  10. Agricultural application of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiations and isotopic tracers laboratory (R.I.T.L.) is duly approved B-class laboratory for handling radioactivity and functions as a central research facility of our university which has played a very significant role in ushering green revolution in the country. Radiolabelled fertilizers, insecticides and isotopes mostly supplied by Board of Radiation and Isotope Technology, (BRIT) Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) are being used in our university for the last three decades to study the uptake of fertilizers, micro nutrients, photosynthesis and photorespiration studies in different crop plants, soil-water-plant relations and roots activity, pesticides and herbicides mode of action, plants physiology and microbiology. Main emphasis of research so far has been concentrated on the agricultural productivity. The present talk is an attempt to highlight the enormous potential of radioisotopes to evolve better management of crop system for eco-friendly and sustainable agriculture in the next century. (author)

  11. Advanced Agriculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrinivas R. Zanwar

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the advanced system which improves agriculture processes like cultivation on ploughed land, based on robotic platform. We have developed a robotic vehicle having four wheels and steered by DC motor. The advanced autonomous system architecture gives us the opportunity to develop a complete new range of agricultural equipment based on small smart machines. The machine will cultivate the farm by considering particular rows and specific column at fixed distance depending on crop. The obstacle detection problem will also be considered, sensed by infrared sensor. The whole algorithm, calculation, processing, monitoring are designed with motors & sensor interfaced with microcontroller. The result obtained through example activation unit is also presented. The dc motor simulation with feedforward and feedback technique shows precise output. With the help of two examples, a DC motor and a magnetic levitation system, the use of MATLAB and Simulink for modeling, analysis and control is designed.

  12. The effect of trust on the performance and satisfaction of co-operative members at the 'Zöld-termék’ producer organization

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Gyula; Ferto, Imre

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, RECOMMENDATIONS The paper investigates the effect of trust between members and between members and the management in an agricultural marketing co-operative in the Hungarian horticultural sector. More specifically, we looked at how trust affected the performance and satisfaction of members of the co-operative, as well as their intention to remain part of the co-operative. We analyzed the role of trust from two aspects: cognitive and affective. In line with our pr...

  13. Water pollution by agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Agriculture disrupts all freshwater systems hugely from their pristine states. The former reductionist concept of pollution was of examining individual effects of particular substances on individual taxa or sub-communities in freshwater systems, an essentially ecotoxicological concept. It is now less useful than a more holistic approach that treats the impacts on the system as a whole and includes physical impacts such as drainage and physical modification of river channels and modification o...

  14. Agriculture and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How will increases in levels of CO2 and changes in temperature affect food production? A recently issued report analyzes prospects for US agriculture 1990 to 2030. The report, prepared by a distinguished Task Force, first projects the evolution of agriculture assuming increased levels of CO2 but no climate change. Then it deals with effects of climate change, followed by a discussion of how greenhouse emissions might be diminished by agriculture. Economic and policy matters are also covered. How the climate would respond to more greenhouse gases is uncertain. If temperatures were higher, there would be more evaporation and more precipitation. Where would the rain fall? That is a good question. Weather in a particular locality is not determined by global averages. The Dust Bowl of the 1930s could be repeated at its former site or located in another region such as the present Corn Belt. But depending on the realities at a given place, farmers have demonstrated great flexibility in choosing what they may grow. Their flexibility has been increased by the numerous varieties of seeds of major crops that are now available, each having different characteristics such as drought resistance and temperature tolerance. In past, agriculture has contributed about 5% of US greenhouse gases. Two large components have involved emissions of CO2 from farm machinery and from oxidation of organic matter in soil due to tillage. Use of diesel fuel and more efficient machinery has reduced emissions from that source by 40%. In some areas changed tillage practices are now responsible for returning carbon to the soil. The report identifies an important potential for diminishing net US emissions of CO2 by growth and utilization of biomass. Large areas are already available that could be devoted to energy crops

  15. Isotopes and agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agriculture is defined as the art of desturbing the ecosystems in economical terms with the minimum of irreversible damage. Man survival in the biosphere will depend on its ability of using four technologies - mechanization, fertilizers, irrigation and pest disease control. The isotopes are usefull to establish means of producing more food and to preserve it; and clains of unbearable damages to the ecosystems caused by fertilizers and pesticides are not true, are presented. (author)

  16. Poll Tax in Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Luminita Sarbovan

    2011-01-01

    Under the crisis constrains, the Romanian government tries to balance the budget, to stop the inflation and decrease unemployment, but its financial possibilities to do so prove to be much smaller than necessary. As far as agriculture is concerned, because of the strong connection of this branch to the European rural mechanism, the state intervention plays the key role in the protection and promoting the national production, in competition with other global producers. The taxation system stil...

  17. Research on agricultural research

    OpenAIRE

    Renborg, Ulf

    2010-01-01

    A Cobb-Douglas type production function is estimated for the Swedish agricultural sector over the period 1944/45 - 1986/87. Total production of the sector is the dependent variable. Public research and advisory services are introduced as independent variables together with labour, land, variable capital and inputs bought from other sectors and a yield variable. Research is introduced with lags from 6 to 24 years from research inputs to effects on the total sector production. Research lags of ...

  18. Coffee in world agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Sochůrková, Iva

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor thesis The coffee in world agricultur in the theoretical part deals with the important historical events associated with coffee. In connection with the coffee and basic concepts associated with the cultivation of coffee trees, the collection and processing of coffee beans. On the basis of data on coffee production were selected countries that are major producers of coffee in the world. For each country were given basic information and data on the areas producing coffee in the country...

  19. Effective monitoring of agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenmayer, David B; Likens, Gene E

    2011-06-01

    An opinion piece published in Nature proposed a global network for agricultural monitoring [J. Sachs, R. Remans, S. Smukler, L. Winowiecki, S. J. Andelman, K. G. Cassman, D. Castle, R. DeFries, G. Denning, J. Fanzo, L. E. Jackson, R. Leemans, J. Leemans, J. C. Milder, S. Naeem, G. Nziguheba, C. A. Palm, J. P. Reganold, D. D. Richter, S. J. Scherr, J. Sircely, C. Sullivan, T. P. Tomich and P. A. Sanchez, Nature, 2010, 466, 558-560.]. Whilst we agree with Sachs et al. that monitoring of agricultural systems is a critically important activity of global significance, especially given increasing problems with global food security and the potential impacts of agriculture on the environment [J. Cribb, The Coming Famine. The Global Food Crisis and What We Can Do to Avoid It, CSIRO Publishing and University of California Press, Melbourne and Oakland, 2010.], we argue in this paper that their generic, mandated monitoring framework has a high probability of failure or at best will be highly inefficient. We base this conclusion on our recently published examination of the factors influencing the success or failure of monitoring programs worldwide [D. B. Lindenmayer and G. E. Likens, Effective Ecological Monitoring, CSIRO Publishing and Earthscan, Melbourne and London, 2010.]. We briefly outline what we believe are three serious flaws in the monitoring framework proposed by Sachs et al. We then suggest an alternative approach that we argue would be more effective, more efficient, and have a greater chance of successfully addressing key issues in sustainable agriculture. PMID:21479312

  20. Entomophagy and space agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, N.; Ishikawa, Y.; Takaoki, M.; Yamashita, M.; Nakayama, S.; Kiguchi, K.; Kok, R.; Wada, H.; Mitsuhashi, J.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Supplying food for human occupants remains one of the primary issues in engineering space habitation Evidently for long-term occupation on a distant planet it is necessary to start agriculture on site Historically humans have consumed a variety of animals and it is required to fill our nutritional need when they live in space Among many candidate group and species of animal to breed in space agriculture insects are of great interest since they have a number of advantages over mammals and other vertebrates or invertebrates About 70-75 of animal species is insects and they play an important role in materials recycle loop of terrestrial biosphere at their various niche For space agriculture we propose several insect species such as the silkworm Bombyx mori the drugstore beetle Stegobium paniceum and the termite Macrotermes subhyalinus Among many advantages these insects do not compete with human in terms of food resources but convert inedible biomass or waste into an edible food source for human The silkworm has been domesticated since 5 000 years ago in China Silk moth has lost capability of flying after its domestication history This feature is advantageous in control of their breeding Silkworm larvae eat specifically mulberry leaves and metamorphose in their cocoon Silk fiber obtained from cocoon can be used to manufacture textile Farming system of the drugstore beetle has been well established Both the drugstore beetle and the termite are capable to convert cellulose or other inedible biomass